Mesaba DEIS Contents

Mesaba DEIS Contents
U.S. Department of Energy
in cooperation with
Minnesota Department of Commerce
MESABA ENERGY PROJECT
DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT
VOLUME 1
DOE/EIS-0382D
MN PUC DOCKET # E6472/GS-06-668
NOVEMBER 2007
Office of Fossil Energy
National Energy Technology Laboratory
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................................................S-1
PROPOSED ACTION ........................................................................................................................S-2
DOE Proposed Action and Alternatives ....................................................................................S-2
Alternatives Available to the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission .....................................S-5
Excelsior’s Proposed Project and Alternatives..........................................................................S-5
EIS SCOPING...................................................................................................................................S-21
DOE Scoping Process..............................................................................................................S-21
MDOC Scoping Process ..........................................................................................................S-21
Scoping Issues .........................................................................................................................S-22
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ......................................................................................................S-24
1. PURPOSE AND NEED.....................................................................................................................1-1
1.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................1-1
1.2 CLEAN COAL POWER INITIATIVE (CCPI) ........................................................................1-3
1.3 PROPOSED ACTION...............................................................................................................1-5
1.3.1 Project Proponent Proposed Action ..............................................................................1-5
1.3.2 DOE Proposed Action...................................................................................................1-6
1.3.3 State Proposed Action...................................................................................................1-6
1.4 PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION....................................................................................1-6
1.4.1 Purpose of the Agency Action and Proposed Project ...................................................1-6
1.4.2 Need for the Agency Action and Proposed Project ......................................................1-8
1.5 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK .............................................................................................1-9
1.5.1 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) ................................................................1-9
1.5.2 State Requirements .....................................................................................................1-11
1.6 SCOPE OF THIS EIS ..............................................................................................................1-16
1.6.1 Federal NEPA Scoping Process..................................................................................1-16
1.6.2 Minnesota EIS Scoping Process .................................................................................1-21
1.6.3 Special CCPI Program Considerations under NEPA..................................................1-23
1.6.4 Connected Actions ......................................................................................................1-24
2. PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES ............................................................................2-1
2.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.1 Proposed Agency Action and Alternatives Considered by DOE..................................2-1
2.1.2 Proposed Project and Alternatives Considered by Excelsior........................................2-5
2.1.3 Alternatives Available to the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission ......................2-10
2.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT .................................................................2-11
2.2.1 Technology Selection and Process Description .......................................................... 2-11
2.2.2 Resource Requirements (and Inputs) ..........................................................................2-27
2.2.3 Discharges, Wastes, and Products (Outputs) ..............................................................2-33
2.2.4 Construction Plans ......................................................................................................2-44
2.2.5 Operational Plans ........................................................................................................2-46
2.3 DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVE SITES AND CORRIDORS........................................2-50
2.3.1 West Range Site and Corridors...................................................................................2-50
2.3.2 East Range Site and Corridors ....................................................................................2-66
2.4 SUMMARY COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES AND IMPACTS.................................2-78
3. AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT........................................................................................................3-1
3.1 CHAPTER OVERVIEW ...........................................................................................................3-1
3.2 AESTHETICS ........................................................................................................................3.2-1
3.2.1 Background and Definitions ......................................................................................3.2-1
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3.2.2 Viewsheds..................................................................................................................3.2-2
3.2.3 Scenic Resources .......................................................................................................3.2-8
3.3 AIR QUALITY AND CLIMATE ..........................................................................................3.3-1
3.3.1 Sensitive Air Quality Receptors.................................................................................3.3-1
3.3.2 Local and Regional Climate.......................................................................................3.3-1
3.3.3 Local and Regional Air Quality.................................................................................3.3-3
3.3.4 Pertinent Air Quality Regulations..............................................................................3.3-7
3.4 GEOLOGY AND SOILS .......................................................................................................3.4-1
3.4.1 Geology......................................................................................................................3.4-1
3.4.2 Mineral Resources and Mining..................................................................................3.4-7
3.4.3 Seismic Activity.......................................................................................................3.4-10
3.4.4 Paleontological Resources .......................................................................................3.4-14
3.4.5 Soils .........................................................................................................................3.4-14
3.4.6 Prime Farmland........................................................................................................3.4-17
3.4.7 Suitable Formations for Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide ......................3.4-20
3.5 WATER RESOURCES ..........................................................................................................3.5-1
3.5.1 West Range Site and Corridors..................................................................................3.5-1
3.5.2 East Range Site and Corridors .................................................................................3.5-14
3.6 FLOODPLAINS .....................................................................................................................3.6-1
3.6.1 Local Hydrology Features..........................................................................................3.6-1
3.6.2 Flood Hazard Areas ...................................................................................................3.6-1
3.7 WETLANDS ..........................................................................................................................3.7-1
3.7.1 Introduction................................................................................................................3.7-1
3.7.2 Regulatory Framework ..............................................................................................3.7-1
3.7.3 Wetland Classification Systems.................................................................................3.7-2
3.7.4 Wetland Identification and Mapping Methodology...................................................3.7-3
3.7.5 Wetlands within the West Range Site Buffer Land and Utility and Transportation
Corridors ....................................................................................................................3.7-7
3.7.6 Wetlands within the East Range Site Buffer Land and Utility and Transportation
Corridors ..................................................................................................................3.7-12
3.8 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES................................................................................................3.8-1
3.8.1 Terrestrial Communities ............................................................................................3.8-1
3.8.2 Aquatic Communities ..............................................................................................3.8-12
3.8.3 Protected Species and Habitats ................................................................................3.8-14
3.9 CULTURAL RESOURCES ...................................................................................................3.9-1
3.9.1 Regional Setting.........................................................................................................3.9-1
3.9.2 Archaeological Resources..........................................................................................3.9-2
3.9.3 Historic Resources .....................................................................................................3.9-4
3.9.4 Native American Resources.......................................................................................3.9-8
3.10 LAND USE...........................................................................................................................3.10-1
3.10.1 Existing Land Use....................................................................................................3.10-1
3.10.2 Zoning Ordinances...................................................................................................3.10-8
3.10.3 Land Use Planning...................................................................................................3.10-9
3.11 SOCIOECONOMICS...........................................................................................................3.11-1
3.11.1 Demographics ..........................................................................................................3.11-1
3.11.2 Housing....................................................................................................................3.11-4
3.11.3 Employment and Income .........................................................................................3.11-6
3.11.4 Business and Economy ............................................................................................3.11-8
3.12 ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ...........................................................................................3.12-1
3.12.1 Background and Definitions ....................................................................................3.12-1
3.12.2 Minority Populations ...............................................................................................3.12-1
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3.12.3 Low Income Populations .........................................................................................3.12-3
3.13 COMMUNITY SERVICES .................................................................................................3.13-1
3.13.1 Law Enforcement.....................................................................................................3.13-1
3.13.2 Emergency Response ...............................................................................................3.13-1
3.13.3 Parks and Recreation................................................................................................3.13-2
3.13.4 School Systems ........................................................................................................3.13-3
3.14 UTILITY SYSTEMS............................................................................................................3.14-1
3.14.1 Potable Water Supply ..............................................................................................3.14-1
3.14.2 Sanitary Wastewater ................................................................................................3.14-1
3.14.3 Electricity.................................................................................................................3.14-2
3.14.4 Natural Gas ..............................................................................................................3.14-3
3.15 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION................................................................................3.15-1
3.15.1 Regional Transportation System..............................................................................3.15-1
3.15.2 Roadway System and Local Traffic.........................................................................3.15-2
3.15.3 Rail System ..............................................................................................................3.15-6
3.16 MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT .................................................................3.16-1
3.16.1 Regional and Local Conditions................................................................................3.16-1
3.16.2 West Range Site and Corridors Site Assessment.....................................................3.16-3
3.16.3 East Range Site and Corridors Site Assessment ......................................................3.16-4
3.17 SAFETY AND HEALTH.....................................................................................................3.17-1
3.17.1 Occupational Safety and Health...............................................................................3.17-1
3.17.2 Transportation Safety...............................................................................................3.17-1
3.17.3 Community Health Issues ........................................................................................3.17-4
3.17.4 Sensitive Receptors and Chemicals of Potential Concern .......................................3.17-6
3.17.5 Electromagnetic Fields.............................................................................................3.17-7
3.18 NOISE...................................................................................................................................3.18-1
3.18.1 Background..............................................................................................................3.18-1
3.18.2 Existing Noise Levels ..............................................................................................3.18-5
4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES.......................................................................................4-1
4.1 CHAPTER OVERVIEW ...........................................................................................................4-1
4.2 AESTHETICS ........................................................................................................................4.2-1
4.2.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.2-1
4.2.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.2-2
4.2.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.2-3
4.2.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.2-10
4.2.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.2-15
4.2.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.2-15
4.3 AIR QUALITY AND CLIMATE (INCLUDING GREENHOUSE GASES) .......................4.3-1
4.3.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.3-1
4.3.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.3-3
4.3.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.3-9
4.3.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.3-17
4.3.5 Additional Impact Analysis .....................................................................................4.3-20
4.3.6 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.3-27
4.3.7 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.3-28
4.3.8 Air Permitting and Mitigation Issues .......................................................................4.3-32
4.4 GEOLOGY AND SOILS .......................................................................................................4.4-1
4.4.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.4-1
4.4.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.4-2
4.4.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.4-4
4.4.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors.................................................................4.4-9
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4.4.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.4-12
4.4.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.4-13
4.5 WATER RESOURCES ..........................................................................................................4.5-1
4.5.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.5-1
4.5.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.5-1
4.5.3 Impacts on the West Range Site and Corridors .........................................................4.5-7
4.5.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.5-31
4.5.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.5-41
4.5.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.5-41
4.6 FLOODPLAINS .....................................................................................................................4.6-1
4.6.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.6-1
4.6.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.6-1
4.6.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.6-1
4.6.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors.................................................................4.6-2
4.6.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ........................................................................4.6-3
4.6.6 Summary of Impacts ..................................................................................................4.6-3
4.6.7 Floodplain Mitigation Issues......................................................................................4.6-4
4.7 WETLANDS ..........................................................................................................................4.7-1
4.7.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.7-1
4.7.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.7-2
4.7.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.7-4
4.7.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.7-18
4.7.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.7-29
4.7.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.7-29
4.7.7 Wetland Permitting and Mitigation Issues...............................................................4.7-32
4.8 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES................................................................................................4.8-1
4.8.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.8-1
4.8.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.8-1
4.8.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.8-5
4.8.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.8-24
4.8.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.8-39
4.8.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.8-40
4.8.7 Biological Resources Regulatory Implications and Mitigation ...............................4.8-43
4.9 CULTURAL RESOURCES ...................................................................................................4.9-1
4.9.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis ...................................................................................4.9-1
4.9.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ................................................................. 4.9-2
4.9.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...............................................................4.9-3
4.9.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors.................................................................4.9-5
4.9.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ........................................................................4.9-8
4.9.6 Summary of Impacts ..................................................................................................4.9-9
4.10 LAND USE...........................................................................................................................4.10-1
4.10.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.10-1
4.10.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.10-1
4.10.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors .............................................................4.10-2
4.10.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.10-4
4.10.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.10-5
4.10.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.10-6
4.11 SOCIOECONOMICS...........................................................................................................4.11-1
4.11.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.11-1
4.11.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.11-2
4.11.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors .............................................................4.11-6
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4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
MESABA ENERGY PROJECT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.11.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.11-8
4.11.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ....................................................................4.11-10
4.11.6 Summary of Impacts ..............................................................................................4.11-10
ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ...........................................................................................4.12-1
4.12.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.12-1
4.12.2 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors .............................................................4.12-2
4.12.3 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.12-2
4.12.4 Health Risk-related Environment Justice Impacts ...................................................4.12-3
4.12.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.12-4
4.12.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.12-4
COMMUNITY SERVICES .................................................................................................4.13-1
4.13.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.13-1
4.13.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.13-1
4.13.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors .............................................................4.13-3
4.13.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.13-5
4.13.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ......................................................................4.13-6
4.13.6 Summary of Impacts ................................................................................................4.13-7
UTILITY SYSTEMS............................................................................................................4.14-1
4.14.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.14-1
4.14.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.14-1
4.14.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors .............................................................4.14-3
4.14.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.14-9
4.14.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ....................................................................4.14-10
4.14.6 Summary of Impacts ..............................................................................................4.14-11
TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION................................................................................4.15-1
4.15.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.15-1
4.15.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.15-2
4.15.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors .............................................................4.15-4
4.15.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors...............................................................4.15-8
4.15.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ....................................................................4.15-11
4.15.6 Summary of Impacts ..............................................................................................4.15-12
MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT .................................................................4.16-1
4.16.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.16-1
4.16.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.16-1
4.16.3 Impacts on West Range Site and Corridors ...........................................................4.16-13
4.16.4 Impacts on East Range Site and Corridors.............................................................4.16-13
4.16.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ....................................................................4.16-14
4.16.6 Summary of Impacts ..............................................................................................4.16-14
SAFETY AND HEALTH.....................................................................................................4.17-1
4.17.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.17-1
4.17.2 Common Impacts of the Proposed Action ...............................................................4.17-5
4.17.3 Corridor-Specific Impacts........................................................................................4.17-9
4.17.4 Intentional Destructive Acts ..................................................................................4.17-13
4.17.5 Impacts of the No Action Alternative ....................................................................4.17-14
4.17.6 Summary of Impacts ..............................................................................................4.17-14
NOISE...................................................................................................................................4.18-1
4.18.1 Approach to Impacts Analysis .................................................................................4.18-1
4.18.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action...............................................................................4.18-7
4.18.3 Impacts of No Action Alternative..........................................................................4.18-17
4.18.4 Summary of Impacts ..............................................................................................4.18-18
4.18.5 Plant Noise and Mitigation Issues..........................................................................4.18-19
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5. SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES.......................................................5.1-1
5.1 COMPARATIVE IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVES ............................................................5.1-1
5.1.1 Summary Comparison of Alternatives and Impacts ..................................................5.1-1
5.1.2 Impacts of Commercial Operation.............................................................................5.1-1
5.2 POTENTIAL CUMULATIVE IMPACTS.............................................................................5.2-1
5.2.1 Approach and Analytical Perspective ........................................................................5.2-1
5.2.2 Air Quality .................................................................................................................5.2-1
5.2.3 Air Inhalation Health Risk .........................................................................................5.2-9
5.2.4 Water Resources ......................................................................................................5.2-13
5.2.5 Wetlands ..................................................................................................................5.2-16
5.2.6 Wildlife Habitat .......................................................................................................5.2-20
5.2.7 Rail Traffic...............................................................................................................5.2-30
5.3 MITIGATION OF IMPACTS ................................................................................................5.3-1
5.3.1 Mitigation Measures ..................................................................................................5.3-1
5.3.2 Additional Mitigation Options...................................................................................5.3-6
5.4 IRREVERSIBLE AND IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENTS ...........................................5.4-1
5.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHORT-TERM USES OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE
MAINTENANCE AND ENHANCEMENT OF LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY .............5.5-1
6. REGULATORY AND PERMIT REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................6-1
7. AGENCIES AND TRIBES CONTACTED ....................................................................................7-1
8. DISTRIBUTION LIST .....................................................................................................................8-1
9. REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................9-1
10. LIST OF PREPARERS ..................................................................................................................10-1
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX A CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION
A1 EXCELSIOR’S PLAN FOR CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION
A2 DOE ANALYSIS OF FEASIBILITY OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION
FOR THE MESABA ENERGY PROJECT
APPENDIX B AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS DATA
APPENDIX C AIR EMISSION RISK ANALYSIS DATA
APPENDIX D CUMULATIVE IMPACT ANALYSES
D1 AIR
D2 HEALTH RISK
D3 WATER RESOURCES
D4 WETLANDS
D5 WILDLIFE HABITAT
D6 RAIL TRAFFIC
APPENDIX E CONSULTATION
APPENDIX F WETLANDS DOCUMENTS
F1 DOCUMENTATION FOR USACE
F2 FLOODPLAIN AND WETLANDS ASSESSMENT
APPENDIX G MDOC SCOPING DECISION
APPENDIX H PROCESS WATER DISCHARGE ALTERNATIVES (WEST RANGE SITE)
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LIST OF TABLES
Table S-1. Key Technology Aspects of the Mesaba Energy Project ........................................................S-6
Table S-2. Expected Operating Characteristics – Mesaba Energy Project (Total for Phases I and II, except
where noted).......................................................................................................................S-9
Table S-3. Key Pollution Prevention, Recycling and Reuse Features ....................................................S-10
Table S-4. West Range Site Features......................................................................................................S-12
Table S-5. East Range Site Features .......................................................................................................S-17
Table S-6. Summary Comparison of Impacts (Phases I & II) ................................................................S-25
Table 1.6-1. Issues Identified in the NOI for Consideration in the EIS..................................................1-17
Table 2.1-1. Expected Operating Characteristics – Mesaba Energy Project (Total for Phases I and II,
except where noted) ...........................................................................................................2-6
Table 2.2-1. Principal Buildings Associated with Phase I of the Mesaba Generating Station ...............2-12
Table 2.2-2. Major Process Equipment...................................................................................................2-13
Table 2.2-3. Process Water Requirements ..............................................................................................2-29
Table 2.2-4. Feedstock and Byproduct Storage Requirements for Each Phase ......................................2-33
Table 2.2-5. Onsite Toxic and Hazardous Materials (Totals for Phase I and II) ....................................2-40
Table 2.2-6. Key Pollution Prevention, Recycling and Reuse Features .................................................2-42
Table 2.2-7. Estimated Operating Staff Required for the Mesaba Generating Station...........................2-48
Table 2.2-8. Key Performance Indicators Used to Assess Worst Case Environmental Impacts or
Emissions of Mesaba Energy Project (Phase I, PSQ Mode)............................................2-49
Table 2.3-1. Rail Access Alternatives – West Range Site ......................................................................2-54
Table 2.3-2. Estimated Wastewater Discharge Rates to Receiving Waters – West Range Site .............2-57
Table 2.3-3. Natural Gas Pipeline Alternative Routes – West Range Site .............................................2-61
Table 2.3-4. Rail Access Alternatives – East Range Site .......................................................................2-68
Table 2.3-5. Process Water Sources – East Range Site ..........................................................................2-71
Table 2.4-1. Summary Comparison of Impacts (Phases I & II)..............................................................2-79
Table 3.2-1. Public Lands in the Vicinity of the West Range..............................................................3.2-12
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Table 3.2-2. Public Lands in the Vicinity of the East Range ...............................................................3.2-13
Table 3.3-1. National and Minnesota Ambient Air Quality Standards..................................................3.3-3
Table 3.3-2. Monitored Background Concentrations.............................................................................3.3-5
Table 3.3-3. Allowable PSD Increments ...............................................................................................3.3-6
Table 3.3-4. Distances to Class I Areas .................................................................................................3.3-6
Table 3.3-5. Pertinent Air Quality Regulations .....................................................................................3.3-8
Table 3.4-1. Bedrock Geology at the West and East Range Sites .........................................................3.4-2
Table 3.4-2. Quaternary Geology at the West and East Range Sites .....................................................3.4-5
Table 3.4-3. Minnesota Earthquakes within the Last 100 Years .........................................................3.4-13
Table 3.4-4. Soil Types along the West Range Site and Corridors......................................................3.4-16
Table 3.5-1. Surface Water Bodies ........................................................................................................3.5-2
Table 3.5-2. Capacity of West Range Mine Pits (November 2005) ......................................................3.5-5
Table 3.5-3. Existing Water Appropriation Permits for Surface Waters Near The West Range Site....3.5-5
Table 3.5-4. Current Water Quality for West Range Water Bodies ......................................................3.5-9
Table 3.5-5. Pumping Groundwater Elevations City Municipal Wells ...............................................3.5-11
Table 3.5-6. East Range Surface Water Bodies ...................................................................................3.5-17
Table 3.5-7. Abandoned Mine Pit Water Sources................................................................................3.5-18
Table 3.5-8. Water Quality Data for East Range Water Sources.........................................................3.5-19
Table 3.6-1. Communities with Potentially Affected Floodplains near the East Range Site..................3.6-2
Table 3.7-1. Wetland Types and Definitions in Minnesota ...................................................................3.7-2
Table 3.7-2. Summary of Delineated Wetlands within the West Range Site ........................................3.7-8
Table 3.7-3. Summary of Delineated Wetlands within Utility and Transportation Corridors (West Range
Site) .................................................................................................................................3.7-9
Table 3.7-4. Utility and Corridor Crossings of Surface Waters (West Range Site) ............................3.7-12
Table 3.7-5. Wetland Types (East Range Site and Associated Corridors) ..........................................3.7-12
Table 3.7-6. Utility and Transportation Corridor Crossings of Surface Waters (East Range Site) ....3.7-15
Table 3.8-1. Terrestrial Land Cover Types from LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover ..................... 3.8-4
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 3.8-2. Terrestrial Land Cover Types within Utility and Transportation Corridor ROWs (West
Range Site) ......................................................................................................................3.8-5
Table 3.8-3. Avifauna Potentially Utilizing Wetland Habitat (West Range Site) .................................3.8-7
Table 3.8-4. Terrestrial Land Cover Types Encountered within the Utility and Transportation Corridor
ROWs (East Range Site)...............................................................................................3.8-10
Table 3.8-5. MNDNR NHIS Plant Species Occurrences in the Vicinity of the West Range Site.......3.8-16
Table 3.8-6. MNDNR NHIS Species Occurrences within 1 Mile of Transportation or Utility Corridors
(West Range Site) .........................................................................................................3.8-18
Table 3.8-7. MNDNR NHIS Species Occurrences within 1 Mile of Transportation or Utility Corridors
(West Range Site) .........................................................................................................3.8-19
Table 3.8-8. MNDNR NHIS Species Occurrences within 1 Mile of Transportation or Utility Corridors
Associated (East Range Site) ........................................................................................3.8-20
Table 3.9-1. Archaeological Sites Previously Identified Within the Study Area ..................................3.9-3
Table 3.9-2. Historic Properties Within the West Range Site APE .......................................................3.9-4
Table 3.9-3. Historic Properties Within the East Range Site APE ........................................................3.9-6
Table 3.9-4. List of Contacted Native American Tribes and Reservations............................................3.9-8
Table 3.11-1. Population Trends by County for Arrowhead Region...................................................3.11-2
Table 3.11-2. The 10 Largest Municipalities in Northeast Minnesota (2002).....................................3.11-2
Table 3.11-3. Local Population Change, West Range (1990 to 2000).................................................3.11-3
Table 3.11-4. Population Trend in Taconite (1980 to 2004)................................................................3.11-3
Table 3.11-5. Population Trend in Hoyt Lakes (1980 to 2004) ...........................................................3.11-4
Table 3.11-6. Itasca County Housing Characteristics (2000) ..............................................................3.11-5
Table 3.11-7. St. Louis County Housing Characteristics (2000) .........................................................3.11-6
Table 3.12-1. National and Regional Population Distributions (2000)................................................3.12-2
Table 3.12-2. Population Profiles (2000): Percentage of Minorities, West Range .............................3.12-2
Table 3.12-3. Population Profiles (2000): Percentage of Minorities, East Range ..............................3.12-3
Table 3.12-4. Regional and National Poverty Rates ............................................................................3.12-3
Table 3.12-5. Population Profiles (2000): Local Poverty Rates, West Range .....................................3.12-4
Table 3.12-6. Population Profiles (2000): Local Poverty Rates, East Range ......................................3.12-4
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 3.13-1. Educational Statistics for Greenway School District in Itasca County .........................3.13-3
Table 3.13-2. Educational Statistics for Mesabi East School District in St. Louis County .................3.13-4
Table 3.15-1. Annual Average Daily Traffic Volumes and Levels of Service on US 169 and CR 7 (Itasca
County, Minnesota).......................................................................................................3.15-4
Table 3.15-2. Annual Average Daily Traffic Volumes and Levels of Service on CR 110 and CR 666 (St.
Louis County, Minnesota).............................................................................................3.15-5
Table 3.15-3. Location of Railroad At-Grade Crossings – West Range Site........................................3.15-8
Table 3.15-4. Location of Railroad At-Grade Crossings – East Range Site......................................3.15-10
Table 3.16-1. Shipments of Manifested Waste from Minnesota Generators to Treatment, Storage or
Disposal Facilities (1996 and 1999)a.............................................................................3.16-1
Table 3.17-1. Statistics for Work Place Hazards .................................................................................3.17-1
Table 3.17-2. Five-Year Traffic Accident History near Intersection of US 169 and CR 7 at West Range
Site ................................................................................................................................3.17-3
Table 3.17-3. Estimated Percent of Adults with Behavioral Health Risk Factors (2004) ...................3.17-4
Table 3.17-4. Estimated Number of Adults with Cancer Incidences (2004) .......................................3.17-5
Table 3.17-5. Causes of Mortality, State and County Statistics (2003 and 2004) ...............................3.17-5
Table 3.17-6. State Transmission Line Standards and Guidelines.......................................................3.17-9
Table 3.18-1. Noise Levels for Common Sounds ................................................................................3.18-1
Table 3.18-2. Noise Area Classification (NAC) Thresholds for NAC-1 and NAC-2..........................3.18-4
Table 3.18-3. Existing Noise Levels at Ambient Noise Receptors for West Range Site.....................3.18-5
Table 3.18-4. Existing Noise Levels at Ambient Noise Receptors for East Range Site ......................3.18-7
Table 4.2-1. IGCC Power Plant Structure Dimensions..........................................................................4.2-2
Table 4.3-1. Annual Criteria Air Pollutant Emission (Phase I and Phase II).........................................4.3-3
Table 4.3-2. Annual Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions (Phase I and Phase II) ..................................4.3-4
Table 4.3-3. Daily Emission Rates from Vehicle Traffic – Peak Construction .....................................4.3-7
Table 4.3-4. Highest Project Impacts and PSD SILs for the West Range Site ......................................4.3-9
Table 4.3-5. Results of Class II PSD Increment Analysis at West Range Site....................................4.3-10
Table 4.3-6. Results of Class II NAAQS Modeling at the West Range Site .......................................4.3-11
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 4.3-7. PSD Significant Monitoring Concentrations and Maximum Impacts from Mesaba Energy
Project (Phase I and Phase II) .......................................................................................4.3-12
Table 4.3-8. Class I PSD Increment Modeling Results for West Range Site .......................................4.3-13
Table 4.3-9. Class I Area Visibility Results for Mesaba Energy Project – West Range Site (Method 2
Analysis) .......................................................................................................................4.3-14
Table 4.3-10. Class I Area Visibility Results for Mesaba Energy Project – West Range Site (CALPUFF
Analysis) .......................................................................................................................4.3-16
Table 4.3-11. Characteristics of Days with Predicted Visibility Impacts ............................................4.3-17
Table 4.3-12. Comparison of Near-Field Model Predictions Impacts East Range Site/West
Range Site .....................................................................................................................4.3-18
Table 4.3-13. Mesaba Energy Project (Phases I and II) PSD Increment Impacts East Range Site/West
Range Site .....................................................................................................................4.3-19
Table 4.3-14. Class I Area Visibility Impacts for Mesaba Energy Project – East Range Site CALPUFF
Method 2 Model Results for East Range Site ...............................................................4.3-20
Table 4.3-15. Maximum Annual Deposition of S and N from Mesaba Energy Project in Class I Areas
(kilogram per hectare per year) .....................................................................................4.3-21
Table 4.3-16. Comparison of Projected Class I SO2 Concentrations to Green Line Screening Criteria for
Vegetation Impacts........................................................................................................4.3-23
Table 4.3-17. Comparison of Projected S and N Deposition Rates to Green Line Criteria for Impacts to
Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems..............................................................................4.3-23
Table 4.4-1. Areas of Disturbance (West Range Site) ...........................................................................4.4-4
Table 4.4-2. Areas of Disturbance Associated with HVTL Corridors (West Range Site).....................4.4-5
Table 4.4-3. Areas of Disturbance Along Proposed Pipeline Corridors (West Range Site)..................4.4-6
Table 4.4-4. Key Information Regarding the West Range Rail Alignment Alternatives and Access
Roads...............................................................................................................................4.4-8
Table 4.4-5. Key Information Regarding Construction on the East Range IGCC Power Plant ............4.4-9
Table 4.4-6. Key Information Regarding the East Range HVTL corridors.........................................4.4-10
Table 4.4-7. Key Information Regarding the East Range Pipeline Corridors......................................4.4-11
Table 4.4-8. Key Information Regarding the East Range Rail Alignment Alternatives and Access
Roads.............................................................................................................................4.4-12
Table 4.5-1. Process Water Resources Identified for Use at the West Range Site ................................4.5-9
Table 4.5-2. Water Source Supply Capability .....................................................................................4.5-10
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Table 4.5-3. Process Water Requirements Matched with Water Supply Capabilities .........................4.5-11
Table 4.5-4. West Range Pumping Station Capacities ........................................................................4.5-11
Table 4.5-5. Discharge Flow Rates for the West Range Site...............................................................4.5-15
Table 4.5-6. Expected IGCC Power Station Discharges and Applicable State Numerical Water Quality
Standards.......................................................................................................................4.5-16
Table 4.5-7. Summary of Hill-Annex Mine Pit NPDES and Appropriations Permits......................... 4.5-18
Table 4.5-8. Estimated Annual Mass Permitted for Discharge to the Swan River Watershed From the
Hill-Annex Mine Pit......................................................................................................4.5-18
Table 4.5-9. Chemical Additives Used Per Year (Phases I and II) ......................................................4.5-21
Table 4.5-10. Dimensions of Required Mixing Zones for IGCC Power Station Discharge – Spring
Conditions .....................................................................................................................4.5-22
Table 4.5-11. Water Quality Criteria Standards for the Swan River ...................................................4.5-24
Table 4.5-12. Water Supply Alternatives for the East Range Mesaba IGCC Power Plant..................4.5-32
Table 4.5-13. Existing Water Appropriation Permits for Surface Waters around East Range Site.....4.5-36
Table 4.7-1. Summary of Permanent Wetland Impacts (West Range Site)...........................................4.7-4
Table 4.7-2. Wetland Impacts - HVTL Alternatives (West Range Site) ...............................................4.7-5
Table 4.7-3. Tree and Shrub Clearing in Wetlands - HVTL Alternatives (West Range Site) ............... 4.7-6
Table 4.7-4. Surface Water Crossings - HVTL Alternatives (West Range Site)...................................4.7-6
Table 4.7-5. Wetland Impacts - Utility Pipelines Alternatives (West Range Site)................................4.7-8
Table 4.7-6. Wetland Impacts Adjacent to Surface Water Crossings - Utility Pipeline Alternatives (West
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.7-11
Table 4.7-7. Wetland Impacts - Rail Line Alternatives (West Range Site) .........................................4.7-15
Table 4.7-8. Rail Line Alternatives – Impacts to Wetlands Adjacent to Surface Water Crossings (West
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.7-16
Table 4.7-9. Wetland Impacts – Access Roads (West Range Site)......................................................4.7-17
Table 4.7-10. Wetland Impacts Adjacent to Surface Water Crossings - Access Roads (West Range
Site) ..............................................................................................................................4.7-18
Table 4.7-11. Wetland Impacts (East Range Site) ...............................................................................4.7-18
Table 4.7-12. Wetland Impacts - HVTL Alternatives (East Range Site).............................................4.7-19
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 4.7-13. Tree and Shrub Clearing in Wetlands - HVTL Alternatives (East Range Site) ............4.7-20
Table 4.7-14. Surface Water Crossings - HVTL Alternatives (East Range Site) ................................4.7-21
Table 4.7-15. Wetland Impacts - Utility Pipelines (East Range Site)..................................................4.7-22
Table 4.7-16. Wetland Impacts Adjacent to Surface Water Crossings - Utility Pipelines (East Range
Site) ...............................................................................................................................4.7-24
Table 4.7-17. Wetland Impacts - Rail Line Alternatives (East Range Site) ........................................4.7-26
Table 4.7-18. Rail Line Alternatives – Impacts to Wetlands Adjacent to Surface Water Crossings (East
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.7-27
Table 4.7-19. Wetland Impacts – Access Roads (East Range Site).....................................................4.7-28
Table 4.7-20. Wetland Impacts Adjacent to Surface Water Crossings – Access Roads (East Range
Site) ...............................................................................................................................4.7-28
Table 4.7-21. Summary of Total Temporary and Permanent ROW Wetland Impacts for West Range Site
and Associated Utility and Transportation Corridors....................................................4.7-30
Table 4.7-22. Summary of Total Temporary and Permanent ROW Wetland Impacts for East Range Site
and Associated Utility and Transportation Corridors....................................................4.7-31
Table 4.8-1. Summary of Terrestrial Floral Communities and Proposed Impacts Associated with the
Mesaba IGCC Power Plant Footprint and Buffer Land (West Range Site) ....................4.8-6
Table 4.8-2. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts to Vegetation from HVTL Alternative 1 (West
Range Site) ......................................................................................................................4.8-8
Table 4.8-3. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed HVTL Alternative 1A (West
Range Site) ......................................................................................................................4.8-9
Table 4.8-4. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed HVTL Phase 2 (West Range
Site) ...............................................................................................................................4.8-10
Table 4.8-5. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Natural Gas Pipeline
Alternative 1 (West Range Site)....................................................................................4.8-11
Table 4.8-6. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Proposed Impacts within West Range Natural Gas
Pipeline Alternative 2 (West Range Site) .....................................................................4.8-12
Table 4.8-7. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Natural Gas Pipeline
Alternative 3 (West Range Site)....................................................................................4.8-14
Table 4.8-8. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply Pipeline
Segment 1 (Lind Pit to Canisteo Pit) (West Range Site) ..............................................4.8-15
Table 4.8-9. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply Pipeline
Segment 2 (Canisteo Pit to West Range Site) (West Range Site).................................4.8-16
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Table 4.8-10. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline Segment 3 (Gross-Marble Pit to Canisteo Pit) (West Range Site)..................4.8-17
Table 4.8-11. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Cooling Tower Blowdown
Outfall 2 (Mesaba IGCC Power Plant Footprint to Holman Lake) (West Range Site).4.8-18
Table 4.8-12. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Cooling Tower Blowdown
Outfall 1 (Mesaba IGCC Power Plant Footprint to Canisteo Pit) (West Range Site)...4.8-19
Table 4.8-13. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Potable Water and Sewer
Pipelines (West Range Site)..........................................................................................4.8-20
Table 4.8-14. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Rail Line Alternative 1A
(West Range Site) .........................................................................................................4.8-21
Table 4.8-15. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Rail Line Alternative 1B
(West Range Site) .........................................................................................................4.8-22
Table 4.8-16. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Road Alignments (West
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.8-23
Table 4.8-17. Summary of Terrestrial Floral Communities and Proposed Impacts for the Mesaba IGCC
Power Plant Footprint and Buffer Land (East Range Site) ...........................................4.8-24
Table 4.8-18. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed HVTL Alternative 1 (East
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.8-25
Table 4.8-19. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed HVTL Alternative 2 (East
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.8-27
Table 4.8-20. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Natural Gas Pipeline Alternative 1
(East Range Site)...........................................................................................................4.8-28
Table 4.8-21. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline – Area 2WX to Footprint (East Range Site) ...................................................4.8-29
Table 4.8-22. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline – Area 2WX to Area 2W (East Range Site)....................................................4.8-30
Table 4.8-23. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline – Knox Mine to Area 2WX (East Range Site) ................................................4.8-31
Table 4.8-24. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline – Area 6 and Stephens Mine to Area 2WX (East Range Site) ........................4.8-32
Table 4.8-25. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline – Area 9 South to Area 6 (East Range Site)....................................................4.8-34
Table 4.8-26. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Process Water Supply
Pipeline – Area 9 North (Donora Mine) to Area 6 (East Range Site)...........................4.8-34
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 4.8-27. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Potable Water and Sewer
Pipelines (East Range Site) ...........................................................................................4.8-35
Table 4.8-28. Terrestrial Floral Communities Impacts for the Proposed Rail Line Alternative (East
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.8-37
Table 4.8-29. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Rail Line Alternative 2 (East
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.8-38
Table 4.8-30. Terrestrial Floral Communities and Impacts for the Proposed Road Alignments (East
Range Site) ....................................................................................................................4.8-39
Table 4.9-1. Results of the 2005 Archaeological Assessment Model at the West Range Site .............. 4.9-3
Table 4.9-2. Results of the 2005 Archaeological Assessment Model at the West Range Site .............. 4.9-6
Table 4.11-1. Estimated Employment – Construction Jobs (Mesaba Generating Station)..................4.11-2
Table 4.11-2. Value Added Economic Impacts for the Arrowhead Region During Construction of
Mesaba Phases I and II ($ millions) ..............................................................................4.11-3
Table 4.11-3. Total Output Economic Impacts for the Arrowhead Region During Construction of Mesaba
Phases I and II ($ millions) ...........................................................................................4.11-3
Table 4.11-4. Estimated Jobs Created in the Arrowhead Region During Construction of Mesaba Phases I
and II .............................................................................................................................4.11-4
Table 4.11-5. Estimated Employment, Permanent Operating Jobs (Mesaba Generating Station) ......4.11-5
Table 4.11-6. Value Added Economic Impacts for the Arrowhead Region for a Typical Year of
Operation, Mesaba Phases I and II ($ millions) ............................................................4.11-5
Table 4.11-7. Total Output Economic Impacts for the Arrowhead Region for a Typical Year of
Operation, Mesaba Phases I and II ($ millions) ............................................................4.11-6
Table 4.11-8. Estimated Jobs Created in the Arrowhead Region During a Typical Year of Operation,
Mesaba Phases I and II..................................................................................................4.11-6
Table 4.14-1. HVTL Route and Voltage Options for the West Range Site.........................................4.14-3
Table 4.14-2. Recommended Network Upgrades ................................................................................4.14-5
Table 4.14-3. Environmental Comparison of Natural Gas Pipeline Alternatives – West Range Site .4.14-8
Table 4.15-1. “No Build” and “Build” ADT Volumes and LOS at West Range Site (year 2010)......4.15-6
Table 4.15-2. “No Build” and “Build” ADT Volumes and LOS at West Range Site (year 2028)......4.15-7
Table 4.15-3. “No Build” and “Build” ADT Volumes and LOS at East Range Site (year 2010) ......4.15-9
Table 4.15-4. “No Build” and “Build” ADT Volumes and LOS at East Range Site (year 2028) .....4.15-10
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 4.16-1. Estimated Construction Waste Streams (Phase I and II) ...............................................4.16-3
Table 4.16-2. Feedstock Storage Requirements (Each Phase).............................................................4.16-5
Table 4.16-3. Annual Quantity of Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Waste Generated from Phase I and
Phase II Operations .......................................................................................................4.16-9
Table 4.17-1. Chemicals Evaluated in the AERA (Phases I and II) ....................................................4.17-2
Table 4.17-2. IRAP Exposure Pathways Evaluated.............................................................................4.17-4
Table 4.17-3. Predicted Incidents for the Proposed Action .................................................................4.17-5
Table 4.17-4. IRAP Summary of Highest Total Risks and Hazard Indices by Exposure Scenarios (1) 4.17-8
Table 4.18-1. Noise Levels of Typical Construction Equipment at 50 feet from Source ....................4.18-2
Table 4.18-2. Noise Area Classification Thresholds for NAC-1 .........................................................4.18-2
Table 4.18-3. Ground-Borne Vibration Guideline for Residential Land Use......................................4.18-4
Table 4.18-4. Proposed Train Operating Conditions ...........................................................................4.18-4
Table 4.18-5. Receptor Locations for Noise Analyses at the West Range Site ...................................4.18-5
Table 4.18-6. Receptor Locations for Noise Analyses at the East Range Site ....................................4.18-6
Table 4.18-7. Aggregate Estimated Noise Levels Generated by Construction Activities at the West Range
Site ................................................................................................................................4.18-9
Table 4.18-8. Estimated Steam Blow Noise Levels at West Range Site .............................................4.18-9
Table 4.18-9. Aggregate Estimated Noise Levels during Construction at East Range Site...............4.18-10
Table 4.18-10. Estimated Steam Blow Noise Levels at East Range Site...........................................4.18-10
Table 4.18-11. Estimated Plant Noise Levels at Receptors for West Range Site ..............................4.18-11
Table 4.18-12. Estimated Operational Noise Levels at Receptors at East Range Site ......................4.18-12
Table 4.18-13. Estimated Freight Train and Yard Activity Noise Levels at West Range Site..........4.18-14
Table 4.18-14. Estimated Freight Train and Yard Activity Noise Levels at East Range Site ...........4.18-15
Table 4.18-15. MINNOISE L10 Noise Levels at Virtual Receptor Locations for West Range Site ..4.18-16
Table 4.18-16. Summary of Noise Mitigation Project Design Features ............................................4.18-20
Table 5.1-1. Expected Characteristics of CO2 Capture Scenarios .........................................................5.1-4
Table 5.1-2. Summary of Impacts and Mitigation Measures for CO2 Capture and Storage................5.1-12
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 5.2.2-1. Comparison of Present and Future Emissions1, 2, 3 ..........................................................5.2-3
Table 5.2.2-2. Maximum Predicted Concentrations for Cumulative Impact to Class I Areas from Mesaba
Energy Project combined with All Existing and Foreseeable Future Sources................5.2-4
Table 5.2.2-3. Maximum Predicted Concentrations for Cumulative Impact to Air Quality from Mesaba
Energy Project combined with All Existing and Foreseeable Future Sources................5.2-5
Table 5.2.2-4. Results of Cumulative Visibility Impacts in Class I Areas from Mesaba Energy Project
combined with All Existing and Foreseeable Future Sources.........................................5.2-6
Table 5.2.2-5. Maximum Annual S and N Deposition from Mesaba Energy Project combined with All
Existing and Foreseeable Future Sources........................................................................5.2-7
Table 5.2.2-6. Comparison of Projected S and N Deposition Rates to Green Line Criteria for Impacts to
Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems................................................................................5.2-7
Table 5.2.2-7. Average Mercury Concentration from Mesaba Energy Project combined with All Existing
and Foreseeable Future Sources......................................................................................5.2-8
Table 5.2.5-1. Foreseeable Future Actions within the Defined Study Areas.......................................5.2-18
Table 5.2.5-2. West Range Site Cumulative Wetland Impacts Analysis Results ................................5.2-19
Table 5.2.5-3. East Range Site Cumulative Wetland Impacts Analysis Results .................................5.2-20
Table 5.2.6-1. Reasonably Foreseeable Future Actions within the Defined Study Areas ...................5.2-22
Table 5.2.6-2. West Range Site Cumulative Wildlife Habitat Impacts Analysis Results....................5.2-22
Table 5.2.6-3. Total Habitat Impacts for Existing Conditions and Proportion Lost Due to Reasonably
Foreseeable Future Actions within West Range Site Study Area .................................5.2-23
Table 5.2.6-4. Mesaba Energy Project Wildlife Habitat Impacts ........................................................5.2-24
Table 5.2.6-5. Minnesota Steel Industries Wildlife Habitat Impacts ...................................................5.2-24
Table 5.2.6-6. Nashwauk Gas Pipeline Wildlife Habitat Impacts .......................................................5.2-25
Table 5.2.6-7. Itasca County Highway 7 Realignment Wildlife Habitat Impact s ..............................5.2-25
Table 5.2.6-8. Itasca County Railroad Wildlife Habitat Impacts.........................................................5.2-26
Table 5.2.6-9. East Range Site Cumulative Wildlife Habitat Impacts Analysis Results .....................5.2-27
Table 5.2.6-10. Total Habitat for Existing Conditions and Proportion Lost Due to Reasonably
Foreseeable Future Actions within East Range Study Area..........................................5.2-27
Table 5.2.6-11. Mesaba Energy Project Wildlife Habitat Impacts ......................................................5.2-28
Table 5.2.6-12. PolyMet Mining NorthMet Project Wildlife Habitat Impacts ....................................5.2-29
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MESABA ENERGY PROJECT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 5.2.6-13. Mesabi Nugget Wildlife Habitat Impacts ...................................................................5.2-29
Table 5.2.7-1. Grade Rail Crossing Delay Times ................................................................................5.2-32
Table 5.3-1. Mitigation Measures for the Mesaba Energy Project ........................................................5.3-1
Table 5.3-2. Summary of CTB Mitigation Alternatives ........................................................................5.3-6
Table 5.3-3. Water Source Supply Capacities. ......................................................................................5.3-8
Table 5.3-4. Expected IGCC Power Station Discharges for the Base Case and Mitigation Alternative 1
and Applicable State Numerical Water Quality Standards ...........................................5.3-10
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure S-1. Potential Project Locations in Taconite Tax Relief Area.......................................................S-1
Figure S-2. West Range Site and Corridors............................................................................................S-16
Figure S-3. East Range Site and Corridors .............................................................................................S-20
Figure 1.1-1. General Location Map.........................................................................................................1-2
Figure 1.5-1. The NEPA Process ............................................................................................................1-10
Figure 1.5-2. Minnesota Power Plant Siting Process..............................................................................1-12
Figure 2.1-1. West and East Range Sites in Taconite Tax Relief Area ....................................................2-3
Figure 2.1-2. West Range Site and Corridors ...........................................................................................2-8
Figure 2.1-3. East Range Site and Corridors ............................................................................................2-9
Figure 2.2-1. Process Block Diagram, Mesaba Energy Project ..............................................................2-15
Figure 2.2-2. E-Gas Process for IGCC Power Generation ..................................................................2-16
Figure 2.2-3. Feedstock Grinding and Slurry Preparation ......................................................................2-17
Figure 2.2-4. Gasification and Slag Handling.........................................................................................2-18
Figure 2.2-5. Particulate Matter Removal...............................................................................................2-19
Figure 2.2-6. Syngas Scrubbing..............................................................................................................2-20
Figure 2.2-7. Acid Gas Removal and Mercury Removal........................................................................2-21
Figure 2.2-8. Sulfur Recovery Unit ........................................................................................................2-23
Figure 2.2-9. Sour Water Treatment System ..........................................................................................2-26
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Figure 2.2-10. Water Balance Diagram Applicable to Phases I & II......................................................2-37
Figure 2.3-1. West Range Plant Site .......................................................................................................2-51
Figure 2.3-2. West Range Rail and Road Alternatives ...........................................................................2-53
Figure 2.3-3. West Range Water Sources and Discharges......................................................................2-60
Figure 2.3-4. West Range Natural Gas Pipeline and HVTL Alternatives ..............................................2-63
Figure 2.3-5. East Range Plant Site ........................................................................................................2-67
Figure 2.3-6. East Range Rail and Road Alternatives.............................................................................2-69
Figure 2.3-7. East Range Water Sources and Discharges .......................................................................2-72
Figure 2.3-8. East Range Natural Gas Pipeline and HVTL Alternatives ...............................................2-76
Figure 3.2-1. View of the Canisteo Mine Pit and Tailings Pile Looking North ....................................3.2-2
Figure 3.2-2. View from the Lind Mine Pit Tailings Pile Looking East................................................3.2-2
Figure 3.2-3. View of West Range Site Looking North along HVTL (45L).........................................3.2-3
Figure 3.2-4. View of CR 7 Near West Range Site Looking North ......................................................3.2-4
Figure 3.2-5. View of Diamond Lake Road Near Potential Rail Crossing............................................3.2-4
Figure 3.2-6. Receptors along the West Range Corridor .......................................................................3.2-5
Figure 3.2-7. Receptors near the West Range Power Plant ...................................................................3.2-6
Figure 3.2-8. View of East Range Site from Tailings Pile Looking East ..............................................3.2-7
Figure 3.2-9. Receptors along the East Range Corridor ........................................................................3.2-9
Figure 3.2-10. Receptors near the East Range Power Plant.................................................................3.2-10
Figure 3.2-11. State Parks and Other Public Lands in Minnesota .......................................................3.2-11
Figure 3.2-12. View of Syl Laskin Energy Center from Birch Cove Park Looking North .................3.2-12
Figure 3.3-1. Wind Rose Data at Hibbing, Minnesota...........................................................................3.3-2
Figure 3.4-1. West Range Site Bedrock Geology ..................................................................................3.4-3
Figure 3.4-2. West Range Corridor Depth to Bedrock ..........................................................................3.4-6
Figure 3.4-3. East Range Site Bedrock Geology ...................................................................................3.4-8
Figure 3.4-4. East Range Corridor Depth to Bedrock............................................................................3.4-9
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Figure 3.4-5. Mining Disturbances in the Vicinity of the West Range................................................3.4-11
Figure 3.4-6. Mining Disturbances in the Vicinity of the East Range .................................................3.4-12
Figure 3.4-7. West Range Location of Prime Farmland Soils .............................................................3.4-19
Figure 3.5-1. West Range Drainage Features ........................................................................................3.5-3
Figure 3.5-2. West Range Receiving Waters .........................................................................................3.5-4
Figure 3.5-3. East Range Drainage Features........................................................................................3.5-15
Figure 3.5-4. East Range Process Water Sources ................................................................................3.5-16
Figure 3.6-1. West Range Corridor FEMA Floodplains........................................................................3.6-3
Figure 3.6-2. East Range Corridor FEMA Floodplains .........................................................................3.6-4
Figure 3.7-1. West Range Site Wetlands ...............................................................................................3.7-5
Figure 3.7-2. East Range Site Wetlands ................................................................................................3.7-6
Figure 3.10-1. West Range Site Land Use/Land Cover.......................................................................3.10-3
Figure 3.10-2. West Range Corridor Land Use/Land Cover ...............................................................3.10-4
Figure 3.10-3. East Range Site Land Use/Land Cover ........................................................................3.10-6
Figure 3.10-4. East Range Corridor Land Use/Land Cover.................................................................3.10-7
Figure 3.11-1. Arrowhead Region .......................................................................................................3.11-1
Figure 3.11-2. Census Tract 9810 in Itasca County.............................................................................3.11-3
Figure 3.11-3. Hoyt Lakes (Census Tract 140) in St. Louis County ...................................................3.11-4
Figure 3.11-4. Annual Unemployment Rate (Percent), Arrowhead Region vs. Statewide Average ...3.11-7
Figure 3.14-1. Minnesota Transmission Lines, Northeast Planning Zone...........................................3.14-4
Figure 3.14-2. West Range Existing Utilities ......................................................................................3.14-5
Figure 3.14-3. East Range Existing Utilities........................................................................................3.14-6
Figure 3.15-1. BNSF and CN Rail Lines in Vicinity of Project Sites (BNSF, 2005) ..........................3.15-7
Figure 3.15-2. At-Grade Rail Crossings near the West Range ............................................................3.15-9
Figure 3.15-3. At-Grade Rail Crossings near the East Range............................................................3.15-11
Figure 3.17-1. Number of Vehicles, Drivers, and Fatalities in Minnesota from 1962-2005 ............... 3.17-2
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Figure 4.2-1. Predicted Visibility Impact Areas for the West Range Site and Corridors ......................4.2-8
Figure 4.2-2. Predicted Visibility Impact Areas for the East Range Site and Corridors......................4.2-13
Figure 4.5-1. Water Intake Structures, Conceptual Designs .................................................................4.5-5
Figure 4.5-2. Phase I Water Balance: West Range IGCC Power Station ..............................................4.5-8
Figure 4.5-3. Phase I and II Water Balance: West Range IGCC Power Station....................................4.5-8
Figure 4.5-4. Modeled Mercury Levels in the CMP and Plant Discharge for the West Range Site....4.5-19
Figure 4.5-5. Modeled TDS Levels in the CMP and Plant Discharge for the West Range Site..........4.5-20
Figure 4.5-6. Modeled Hardness Levels in the CMP and Plant Discharge for the West Range Site...4.5-20
Figure 4.9-1. Archaeological Model for West Range Corridor .............................................................4.9-4
Figure 4.9-2. Archaeological Model for East Range Corridor...............................................................4.9-7
Figure 4.11-1. View of Syl Laskin Plant from Residences on Colby Lake .........................................4.11-9
Figure 4.14-1. Typical Cross Section, Natural Gas Pipeline Open Trench Installation.......................4.14-3
Figure 4.17-1. West Range, EMF for 230-kV – 2 Circuit Vertical Configuration Lapwing .............4.17-10
Figure 4.17-2. West Range, EMF for 345-kV – 1 Circuit Delta Configuration ................................4.17-11
Figure 4.17-3. East Range, EMF for 345-kV – Vertical Configuration Bundle with 115-kV - Vertical
Configuration Rail.......................................................................................................4.17-13
Figure 5-1.2-1. Potential Pipeline Routes from the Mesaba Energy Project to EOR Fields..................5.1-6
Figure 5-1.2-2. Potential Pipeline Route to the Lower Cretaceous Saline Formation. ..........................5.1-8
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
7Q10
seven-day low flow average with a 10-year recurrence interval
A/m
Amperes per meter
AADT
annual average daily traffic
AC
alternating-current
ADT
average daily traffic
AERA
Air Emission Risk Assessment
AERMOD
AMS/EPA Regulatory MODel (an air dispersion model)
aerodynamic diameter
A term used to describe particles with common aerodynamic properties, which
avoids the complications associated with varying particle sizes, shapes, and
densities. For example, PM10 is defined in 40 CFR Part 50 as consisting of
particles 10 micrometers or less in aerodynamic diameter, meaning particles
that behave aerodynamically like spherical particles of unit density (1 gram per
cubic centimeter) having diameters of 10 micrometers or less.
aerosol
A suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas.
AGL
above ground level
AGR
acid gas removal
air dispersion model
A computer program that incorporates a series of mathematical equations used
to predict downwind concentrations in the ambient air resulting from
emissions of a pollutant. Inputs to a dispersion model include the emission
rate; characteristics of the emission release such as stack height, exhaust
temperature, and flow rate; and atmospheric dispersion parameters such as
wind speed and direction, air temperature, atmospheric stability, and height of
the mixed layer.
air quality
The cleanliness of the air as measured by the levels of pollutants relative to
standards or guideline levels established to protect human health and welfare.
Air quality is often expressed in terms of the pollutant for which
concentrations are the highest percentage of a standard (e.g., air quality may be
unacceptable if the level of one pollutant is 150% of its standard, even if levels
of other pollutants are well below their respective standards).
alignment
The location of a rail line in a corridor.
alluvium
A general term for the sedimentary material deposited by flowing water.
AMP
Arcturus Mine Pit
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
amsl
above mean sea level
anthracite
The hardest type of coal, characteristically black in color, lustrous, with a
conchoidal fracture (smoothly curved, irregular breakage surface). Anthracite
coal consists of 92-98% carbon and less than 8% volatile constituents by
weight.
anticline
A geologic fold that is arch-like in form, with rock layers dipping outward
from both sides of the axis, and older rocks in the core. The opposite of
syncline.
APE
area of potential effect
AQRV
air quality related value
aquifer
A subsurface saturated rock unit (formation, group of formations, or part of a
formation) of sufficient permeability to transmit groundwater and yield usable
quantities of water to wells and springs.
ARDC
Arrowhead Regional Development Commission
area of potential effect
(APE)
The geographic region that may be impacted as a result of the construction and
operation of the Proposed Action or alternatives.
AREMA
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association
artesian
Groundwater conditions in which water in wells rises above its level in the
aquifer, including conditions in which groundwater rises to the ground surface
or above.
ash
The mineral content of a product remaining after complete combustion.
ASU
air separation unit
ATPA
Andean Trade Preferences Act
attainment
Air quality in the locality that meets the established standards.
ATV
all-terrain vehicle
BACT
best available control technology
baghouse
An air pollution control device that filters particulate emissions, consisting of a
bank of bags that function like a vacuum cleaner bag to intercept particles that
are mostly larger than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter.
BART
best available retrofit technology
base level
The level below which a stream cannot erode its valley further.
batholith
The largest pluton form, defined as an irregular-shaped mass with a surface
exposure greater than 100 square kilometers that has invaded layers of crustal
rocks.
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
BBER
Bureau of Business and Economic Research
BCC
bioaccumulative chemical of concern
bedrock
The rock of Earth’s crust that is below the soil and largely unweathered.
beneficiation
The process of washing or otherwise cleaning coal to increase the energy
content by reducing the ash content.
berm
A mound or wall of earth.
bgs
below ground surface
biocide
A substance (e.g., chlorine) that is toxic or lethal to many organisms and is
used to treat water.
BLM
Bureau of Land Management
blowdown
The portion of steam or water removed from a boiler at regular intervals to
prevent excessive accumulation of dissolved and suspended materials.
BMP
best management practice
BNSF
Burlington Northern/Santa Fe (Railway Company)
BOD
biochemical oxygen demand
bottom ash
Combustion residue composed of large particles that settle to the bottom of a
combustor from where they can be physically removed.
brackish
Water that has high concentrations of salts (typically 1,000 to 10,000 parts per
million of dissolved solids), but that may still be suitable for some uses.
brine
Water saturated with salt.
Btu
British thermal unit
building downwash
The downward movement of an elevated plume toward the area of low
pressure created on the lee side of a structure in the wake around which the air
flows.
BWCAW
Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
BWSR
Board of Water and Soil Resources
CAA
Clean Air Act
CAIR
Clean Air Interstate Rule
CAM
Compliance Assurance Monitoring
CAMR
Clean Air Mercury Rule
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
capacity factor
The percentage of energy output during a period of time, compared to the
energy that would have been produced if the equipment operated at its
maximum power throughout the period.
CapX2020
Capital Expansion by the year 2020
carcinogenic
Capable of producing or inducing cancer.
CBT
Coleraine – Bovey – Taconite
CCES
Critical Connections Ecological Services, Inc.
CCPI
Clean Coal Power Initiative
CCS
carbon capture and sequestration
CCT
clean coal technology
CDT
Central Daylight Time
CE
Cliffs-Erie, LLC
census tract
A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county. Census
tracts, which average about 4,000 inhabitants, are designed to be relatively
homogeneous units with respect to population characteristics, economic status,
and living conditions.
CEQ
Council on Environmental Quality
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
cfs
cubic feet per second
CH4
methane
CL
centerline
Class I area
Under the Clean Air Act, a Class I area is one in which visibility is protected
more stringently than under the national ambient air quality standards, with
only a small increase in pollution allowed. Class I areas include national
parks, wilderness areas, monuments, and other areas of special national and
cultural significance.
Class II area
Under the Clean Air Act, Class II areas are all other clean air regions not
designated Class I areas, with moderate pollution increases allowed. See
Class I area.
CLOMR
conditional letter of map revision
CMP
Canisteo Mine Pit
CN
Canadian National (Railway Company)
CO
carbon monoxide
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
CO2
carbon dioxide
coal gasification
A process that converts coal into a gaseous product, which involves crushing
coal into a powder and heating the powder in the presence of steam and
oxygen. After impurities (e.g., sulfur) are removed, the gas can be used as a
fuel or further processed and concentrated into a chemical or liquid fuel.
COC
cycles of concentration
cold box
An air separation cryogenic unit contained in the air separation unit (ASU).
Combined-cycle
electric power plant
A power plant that uses both a steam turbine generator and a combustion
turbine generator at one location to produce electricity.
Combustor
Equipment in which coal or other fuel is burned at high temperatures.
Confined aquifer
An aquifer that is bounded by two confining units, and in which the water level
in wells usually rises above the top of the aquifer.
Confining unit
A geologic formation or bed that has lower permeability than layers above and
below it, and therefore restricts vertical water movement. (Confining units are
also called aquitards.)
contaminant
A substance that contaminates (pollutes) air, soil, or water. It may also be a
hazardous substance that does not occur naturally or that occurs at levels
greater than those that occur naturally in the surrounding environment.
Contamination
The intrusion of undesirable elements (unwanted physical, chemical,
biological, or radiological substances; or matter that has an adverse effect) to
air, water, or land.
Cooling tower
A structure that cools heated condenser water by circulating the water along a
series of louvers and baffles through which cool, outside air convects naturally
or is forced by large fans.
Cooling water
Water that is heated as a result of being used to cool steam and condense it to
water.
COPC
chemical of potential concern
COS
carbonyl sulfide
CP
Canadian Pacific (Railway Company)
CR
County Road
craton
Ancient crystalline rock that has generally been eroded to a low elevation and
relief, forming the stable center of a continent.
CSAH
County State Aide Highway
CTB
cooling tower blowdown
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
CTG
combustion turbine generator
culm
Coal waste that consists of rock and coal with varying amounts of carbon
material remaining after removal of higher-quality saleable coal.
Culm bank
A pile or other deposit of culm on the land surface. See culm.
CWA
Clean Water Act
CWIS
cooling water intake structures
D.A.R.E.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education
DAT
deposition analysis threshold
dB
decibel
dBA
decibels as measured on the A-weighted scale
DBH
diameter at breast height
DC
direct current
decibel (dB)
A unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a logarithmic scale
from zero for the average least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average
level at which sound causes pain to humans.
DEED
Department of Employment and Economic Development
DMIR
Duluth, Missabe, and Iron Range (Railway Company)
DO
dissolved oxygen
DOE
U.S. Department of Energy
DOT
U.S. Department of Transportation
drawdown
The process by which the water table adjacent to a well is drawn down after
active pumping from an aquifer.
Dredged material
Material that is dredged or excavated from waters of the United States,
including wetlands.
DWI
driving while intoxicated
EAW
Environmental Assessment Worksheet
ECS
Ecological Classification System
EERC
Energy and Environmental Research Center
EERE
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
EFP
Energy Facility Permitting
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
EGU
electric generating unit
EIS
Environmental Impact Statement
electrostatic
precipitator
A device that removes particles from a stream of exhaust gas. It imparts an
electrical charge to the particles, which causes them to adhere to metal plates
that can be rapped to cause the particles to fall into a hopper for disposal.
ELF
extremely low frequency
EMF
electromagnetic field
eminent domain
The right of a government to appropriate private property for public use upon
payment of its fair market value to the owner.
EMT
Emergency Medical Technician
endangered species
A species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of
its range; a formal listing of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the
Endangered Species Act.
Environmental justice
The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of
race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development,
implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and
policies. Fair treatment means that no group of people, including racial,
ethnic, or socioeconomic groups, should bear a disproportionate share of the
negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and
commercial operations or the execution of Federal, state, local, and tribal
programs and policies. Executive Order 12898 directs Federal agencies to
make achieving environmental justice part of their missions by identifying and
addressing disproportionately high and adverse effects of agency programs,
policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.
EOC
Emergency Operations Center
EOR
enhanced oil recovery
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPAct
Energy Policy Act
epicenter
Area on the earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
EQB
Environmental Quality Board
ERER
equivalent risk emission rate
ERT
Emergency Response Team
evapotranspiration
The amount of water removed from a land area by the combination of direct
evaporation and plant transpiration.
EVM
Eveleth-Virginia Municipal
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FAC
facultative plant species
FACU
facultative upland plant species
FACW
facultative wetland plant species
FAR
First-Approximation Run
fault
A fracture or fracture zone in rock along which the sides have been displaced
vertically or horizontally relative to one another.
FEED
Front-End Engineering and Design
FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency
FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FGD
flue gas desulfurization
FHWA
Federal Highway Administration
fill material
Material used for the primary purpose of replacing an aquatic or wetland area
with dry land, or changing the bottom elevation of a waterway.
FIRM
Flood Insurance Rate Map
FIS
Flood Insurance Study
Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)
synthesis
A process that uses a metal-containing catalyst to convert a mixture of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen (known as synthesis gas) into a mixture of carbon
dioxide, water, and aliphatic compounds (organic hydrocarbon compounds
joined in straight or branched chains), which are used to produce liquid fuels.
FLAG
Federal Land Managers’ Air Quality Related Values Work Group
FLM
Federal Land Manager
floodplain
The strip of relatively level land adjacent to a river channel that becomes
covered with water if the river overflows its banks.
Flue gas
Residual gases after combustion that are vented to the atmosphere through a
flue or chimney.
Flux
A material (e.g., limestone) that is added to a substance to lower the melting
temperature of the substance and promote fluidity.
Fly ash
Combustion residue composed of fine particles (e.g., soot) that are entrained
with the draft leaving the combustor.
Formation
The primary unit associated with formal geological mapping of an area.
Formations possess distinctive geological features and can be combined into
“groups” or subdivided into “members.”
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
FR
Federal Register
FRA
Federal Railroad Administration
freshwater
Water with a low concentration of salts (typically less than 1,000 parts per
million of dissolved solids).
FSQ
full slurry quench
FTA
Federal Transit Administration
fuel flexible
The ability of a generating station to operate at or near maximum capacity
using various fuels or blends of fuels. This allows the station to adapt its fuel
mix over the life of the facility thereby minimizing the cost of power.
Fugitive dust
Particulate matter composed of soil; can include emissions from haul roads,
wind erosion of exposed surfaces, and other activities in which soil is removed
and redistributed.
Fugitive emissions
Emissions released directly into the atmosphere that could not reasonably pass
through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening.
FY
fiscal year
G
Gauss
GACT
generally available control technology
GAP
Gap Analysis Program
Gaussian
Concentrations of pollutants downwind of a source are assumed to form a
normal distribution (i.e., bell-shaped curve) from the centerline of the plume in
the vertical and lateral directions.
GCP
good combustion practice
GEP
good engineering practice
GIS
Geographic Information Systems
glacial till
Direct glacial deposits that are unsorted and unstratified.
GLG
Great Lakes Gas (Transmission Company)
GLTZ
Great Lakes Tectonic Zone
GMMP
Gross-Marble Mine Pit
GMP
Greenway Mine Pit
GO
generator outlet
gpd
gallons per day
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
gpm
gallons per minute
GPS
Global Positioning System
groundwater
Water contained in pores or fractures, in either the unsaturated zone or
saturated zone, below ground level.
GTG
Gas Turbine Generator
H2
hydrogen
H 2O
water
H 2S
hydrogen sulfide
HAMP
Hill-Annex Mine Pit
HAP
hazardous air pollutant
hazardous air
pollutant (HAP)
Air pollutants that are not covered by ambient air quality standards, but may
present a threat of adverse human health effects or adverse environmental
effects, and are specifically listed on the Federal list of 189 hazardous air
pollutants in 40 CFR 61.01.
hazardous waste
A category of waste regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA). To be considered hazardous, a waste must be a solid waste
under RCRA and must exhibit at least one of four characteristics described in
40 CFR 261.20 through 40 CFR 261.24 (i.e., ignitability, corrosivity,
reactivity, or toxicity) or be specifically listed by the Environmental Protection
Agency in 40 CFR 261.31 through 40 CFR 261.33.
HCM
highway capacity manual
Henshaw Effect
The interaction of electric fields from power lines with electrical charges on
airborne particles, resulting in an increased charge on the particles. This
phenomenon may indirectly affect health by increasing the likelihood of
inhaled particles that would be deposited on the surface of the lungs and
airways, even at considerable distances from the power line. One study found
a possible link between the Henshaw Effect and elevated rates of childhood
leukemia.
Hg
mercury
HHRAP
Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol
HRSG
heat recovery steam generator
HVTL
high voltage transmission line
hydrology
(1) The study of water characteristics, especially the movement of water.
(2) The study of water, involving aspects of geology, oceanography, and
meteorology.
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
Hydrotest
hydrostatic pressure-testing
Hz
Hertz
I/I
inflow and infiltration
ICNIRP
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
ICRRA
Itasca County Regional Rail Authority
IGCC
integrated gasification combined cycle
igneous
(1) A type of rock formed from a molten, or partially molten, material.
(2) An activity related to the formation and movement of molten rock either in
the subsurface (plutonic) or on the surface (volcanic).
IMPROVE
Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
infiltration
The process of water entering the soil at the ground surface and the ensuing
movement downward. Infiltration becomes percolation when water has moved
below the depth at which it can return to the atmosphere by evaporation or
evapotranspiration.
Integrated gasification
combined cycle
(IGCC)
A process that uses synthesis gas derived from coal to drive a gas combustion
turbine and exhaust gas from the gas turbine to generate steam from water to
drive a steam turbine.
IR
ionizing radiation
IRAP
Industrial Risk Assessment Program
IRNP
Isle Royale National Park
IRR
Iron Range Resources
ISO
International Standards Organization
kV
kilovolt
kW
kilowatt
L10
sound pressure level exceeded 10 percent of the time
lacustrine deposit
Deposit associated with lake-level fluctuations.
Laydown area
Material and equipment storage area during the construction phase of a project.
Ldn
day-night equivalent sound level
leachate
Solution or product obtained by leaching, in which a substance is dissolved by
the action of a percolating liquid.
LEPGP
large electric power generating plant
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
Leq
continuous equivalent sound level
liquefaction
The process of transforming a gas into a liquid.
Lithic scatters
Concentrations of waste flakes resulting from the manufacture of stone tools.
LLC
Limited Liability Company
Lmax
highest sound pressure level measured
Lmin
lowest sound pressure level measured
LMP
Lind Mine Pit
loam
A soil composed of a mixture of clay, silt, sand, and organic matter.
LOS
level of service
Lp
sound pressure level
Lw
sound power level
MAAQS
Minnesota Ambient Air Quality Standards
MACT
maximum achievable control technology
magnitude (of an
earthquake)
A quantity that is characteristic of the total energy released by an earthquake.
Magnitude is determined by taking the common logarithm of the largest
ground motion recorded on a seismograph during the arrival of a seismic wave
type and applying a standard correction factor for distance to the epicenter. A
one-unit increase in magnitude (e.g., from magnitude 6 to magnitude 7)
represents a 30-fold increase in the amount of energy released.
Makeup pond
Pond used to store makeup for cooling water.
MAPP
Mid-Continent Area Power Pool
maximum
contaminant level goal
(MCLG)
The maximum concentration of a substance in drinking water at which there is
no known or anticipated adverse effect on human health, and which allows an
adequate margin of safety, as determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.
MBTA
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
MCBS
Minnesota County Biological Survey
MCL
maximum contaminant level
MD
mining district
MDEA
methyl-diethanolamine
MDH
Minnesota Department of Health
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
MDOA
Minnesota Department of Administration
MDOC
Minnesota Department of Commerce
MEPA
Minnesota Environmental Policy Act
metamorphic rocks
Rocks that have undergone chemical or structural changes produced by an
increase in heat and temperature or by replacement of elements by hot,
chemically active fluids.
mG
milligauss
MHS
Minnesota Historical Society
mining district
An area usually designated by name with described or understood boundaries
where minerals are found and mined under rules prescribed by the miners,
consistent with the General Mining Law of 1872.
Minority population
A community in which the percent of the population of a racial or ethnic
minority is 10 points higher than the percent found in the population as a
whole.
MISO
Midwest Independent System Operator
mixing height
The height in the lower atmosphere within which relatively vigorous mixing of
pollutant emissions occurs.
Mn/DOT
Minnesota Department of Transportation
MNDNR
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
MOEA
Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance
MOPS
Minnesota Office of Pipeline Safety
moraine
Glacial deposits of unsorted and unstratified material.
MP
Minnesota Power (Company)
MPCA
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
mph
miles per hour
MSDC
Minnesota State Demographic Center
MSI
Minnesota Steel Industries
msl
mean sea level
MSSS
Minnesota Standards of Statutory Sources
MSW
municipal solid waste
MVA
mega volt-Amps
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
MVR
mechanical vapor recompression
MW
megawatt
MWe
megawatt electricity
N
nitrogen
N2
nitrogen gas
NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAC
noise abatement criteria
NE MN ATP
Northeast Minnesota Area Transportation Partnership
NEPA
National Environmental Policy Act
NERC
North American Electric Reliability Council
NESHAP
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NETL
National Energy Technology Laboratory
new source
performance
standards (NSPS)
Regulation under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act enforcing stringent
emission standards for power plants constructed on or after January 30, 2004.
NFIP
National Flood Insurance Program
NH3
ammonia
NHIS
National Heritage Information System
NI
no indicator
NIEHS
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIOSH
National Industrial and Occupational Safety and Health
NIR
non-ionizing radiation
NNG
Northern Natural Gas (Company)
NOI
Notice of Intent
noise
Any sound that is undesirable because it interferes with speech and hearing; if
intense enough, it can damage hearing.
NOx
Nitrogen oxides including NO, NO2, N2O, N2O3, N2O4, and N2O5
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPS
National Park Service
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
NPUC
Nashwauk Public Utilities Commission
NRCS
Natural Resources Conservation Service
NRHP
National Register of Historic Places
NRPB
National Radiological Protection Board
NSPS
New Source Performance Standards
NWC
New Wetlands Credit
NWI
National Wetlands Inventory
O&M
operation and maintenance
O2
oxygen
O3
ozone
OBL
obligate wetland plant species
OPS
Office of Pipeline Safety
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSM
Office of Surface Mining
parent material
The unconsolidated material, from both organic and mineral sources, that is the
basis of soil development.
Particulate matter
Fine liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes, or smog, found
in air or emissions.
Pb
lead
PCBs
polychlorinated biphenyls
PCOR
Plains CO2 Reduction
petroleum coke
A high-sulfur, high-energy product having the appearance of coal, which is
produced by oil refineries by heating and removing volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) from the residue remaining after the refining process.
pH
A measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution, expressed on a
scale from 0 to 14, with the neutral point at 7. Acid solutions have pH values
lower than 7, and basic (i.e., alkaline) solutions have pH values higher than 7.
Plume (atmospheric)
A visible or measurable elongated pattern of emissions spreading downwind
from a source through the atmosphere.
Pluton
A general term for any intrusive igneous rock body.
PM
particulate matter
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
PM10
particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns
POI
point of interconnection
potentiometric surface
Imaginary surface defined by the elevations to which the groundwater in an
aquifer would rise in wells completed in the aquifer.
POTW
Publicly Owned Treatment Works
ppm
parts per million
ppmvd
parts per million, volumetric dry
PPV
peak particle velocity
PRB
Powder River Basin
PRIME
Plume Rise Model Enhancements
prime farmland
Land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for
producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oilseed, and other agricultural crops with
minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor, and without
intolerable soil erosion.
Proposed Action
The activity proposed to accomplish a Federal agency’s purpose and need. An
EIS analyzes the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action. A proposed
action includes the project and its related support activities (preconstruction,
construction, and operation, along with post-operational requirements).
PSD
Prevention of Significant Deterioration
PSQ
partial slurry quench
PUC
Public Utilities Commission
PVC
public value credit
PWI
Protected Waters Inventory
PWL
sound power level
RACT
reasonable available control technology
RASS
Risk Assessment Screening Spreadsheet
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
recharge
The movement of water from an unsaturated zone to a saturated zone.
Reference
concentrations
Estimates of continuous inhalation exposure to human population (including
sensitive subgroups) that are likely to be without an appreciable risk of
deleterious effects during a lifetime.
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
Region of influence
(ROI)
The physical area that bounds the environmental, sociologic, economic, or
cultural features of interest for the purpose of analysis.
RGGS
RGGS Land & Minerals, LTD., L.P.
Richter scale
A measure of earthquake magnitude developed by Charles Richter.
Riparian
Of, on, or pertaining to the bank of a river or stream, or of a pond or small
lake.
RLW
Rainbow Lakes Wilderness Area
RO
reverse osmosis
ROD
Record of Decision
RODM
Routine Onsite Determination Methodology
ROW
right-of-way
RR
Rural Residential
S
sulfur
safe yield
The maximum quantity of water that can be withdrawn continuously from a
surface water or groundwater source during a 50-year (or greater) drought
without ultimate depletion of the source (considering intrusion of undesirable –
quality water, interference with other existing water sources, downstream flow
requirements, and other factors).
Saline
Describes water with high concentrations of salts (typically more than 10,000
parts per million dissolved solids), making it unsuitable for use.
scf
Standard cubic foot
SCORE
Governor’s Select Committee on Recycling and the Environment
scrubber
Chemical or physical devices, also known as flue gas desulfurization systems,
that remove sulfur compounds formed during coal combustion by combining
the sulfur in gaseous emissions with another chemical medium to form inert
sludge, which is removed for disposal.
SEC
sediment and erosion control
secondary drinking
water standards
Non-enforceable Federal guidelines regarding cosmetic effects (e.g., tooth or
skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (e.g., taste, odor, or color) of drinking
water.
Sedimentary rocks
Rocks formed by the accumulation of sediment in water or from air.
Sandstone, chert, limestone, dolomite, shale, siltstone, and mudstone are types
of sedimentary rocks identified in the EIS. They are differentiated by
chemistry and texture.
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
SEH
Short Elliott Hendrickson, Inc.
seismic
Pertaining to, characteristic of, or produced by earthquakes or earth vibrations.
seismicity
A seismic event or activity such as an earthquake or earth tremor; seismic
action.
selective catalytic
reduction
A system to reduce NOx emissions by injecting a reagent, such as ammonia,
into exhaust gas to convert NOx emissions to nitrogen gas and water via a
chemical reduction reaction.
sensitive receptor
As used in this EIS, it is any specific resource (i.e., population or facility) that
would be more susceptible to the effects of the impact of implementing the
proposed action than would otherwise be.
SHPO
State Historic Preservation Office
SIA
significant impact area
SIL
Significant impact level; used at the screening level to determine whether a
more refined modeling is required to evaluate impacts.
SIP
State Implementation Plan
slag
Molten inorganic material collected at the bottom of a combustor and
discharged into a water-filled compartment where it is quenched and removed
as glassy particles resembling sand.
slickens
Mine tailings left over from the taconite concentration process. This material
is in basins having containment dikes constructed from mine overburden.
sludge
A semi-solid residue containing a mixture of solid waste material and water
from air or water treatment processes.
slurry
A watery mixture or suspension of fine solids, not thick enough to consolidate
as a sludge.
SNA
state natural area
SO2
sulfur dioxide
sound pressure
The physical force from a sound wave that affects the human ear, typically
discussed in terms of decibels (dB).
sour water
Water with dissolved sulfur compounds and other contaminants condensed
from synthesis gas (syngas).
SPCC
Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
specific yield
The volume of water released from storage in a unit area of an unconfined
aquifer per unit decline in the water table. Values are dimensionless
(corresponding, for example, to cubic feet of water per square foot of aquifer
per foot of water table decline) and typically are between 0.01 and 0.3. In
physical terms, the specific yield can be understood as the fraction of the
aquifer volume that consists of drainable void space.
SPL
sound pressure level
spring
A location on the land surface or the bed of a surface water body where
groundwater emerges from rock or soil without artificial assistance.
SR
State Route
SRU
sulfur recovery unit
STB
Surface Transportation Board
steam-stripping
A two-step process in which dissolved gases (CO2, NH3, H2S) and other trace
contamination are removed from sour water.
STG
steam turbine generator
sub-bituminous
A type of coal, which is used primarily as fuel for electrical power generation,
whose properties range between those of lignite and those of bituminous coal.
At the lower end of the range it may be dull, dark brown to black, soft, and
crumbly. At the higher end of the range it may be bright, jet black, hard, and
relatively strong. Sub-bituminous coal contains 20 to 30% moisture by
weight. Heating value varies from 7,000 Btu/lb to slightly over 9,000 Btu/lb.
SWANCC
Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County
SWCD
Soil and Water Conservation District
SWPPP
Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
syncline
A geologic fold in which the rock layers dip inward from both sides toward the
axis, with younger rocks in the core. The opposite of anticline.
syngas
synthesis gas
synthesis gas (syngas)
A mixture of gases produced as feedstock, especially as a fuel produced by
controlled combustion of coal in the presence of water vapor.
tailings pond
An outside water-filled enclosure that receives discharges of wastewater
containing solid residues from processing of minerals. The solid residues
settle due to gravity and separate from the water.
TDS
total dissolved solids
TH
Trunk Highway
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
THPO
Tribal Historic Preservation Office
threatened species
A species that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable
future throughout all or a significant part of its range.
TMDL
total maximum daily load
TP
total phosphorous
tpd
tons per day
tpy
tons per year
transmission corridor
Area used to provide separation between the transmission lines and the general
public and to provide access to the transmission lines for construction and
maintenance.
TRB
Transportation Research Board
TSD
treatment, storage and disposal
TSP
total suspended particulate matter
TSS
total suspended solids
TTRA
Taconite Tax Relief Area
TVB
tank vent boiler
UMRB
Upper Mississippi River Basin
UK
United Kingdom
UP
Union Pacific/Wisconsin Central (Railway Company)
UPL
obligate upland plant species
US
U.S. Highway
USACE
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USDA
U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDI
U.S. Department of the Interior
USFS
U.S. Forest Service
USFWS
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
USGS
U.S. Geological Survey
UV
ultraviolet
V/m
Volts per meter
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ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
Acronym or Term
Definition
viewshed
A non-managed area with aesthetic value.
VIP
Value Improving Practices
VMT
vehicle miles of travel
VNP
Voyageurs National Park
VOC
volatile organic compound
water table
(1) The upper limit of the saturated zone (the portion of the ground wholly
saturated with water).
(2) The upper surface of a zone of saturation above which the majority of pore
spaces and fractures are less than 100 percent saturated with water most of the
time (unsaturated zone) and below which the opposite is true (saturated zone).
WCA
Wetland Conservation Act
wetlands
Those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a
frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal
circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life
in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes,
bogs and similar areas.
wind rose
A graph in which the frequency of wind blowing from each direction is plotted
as a bar that extends from the center of the diagram. Wind speeds are denoted
by bar widths and shading; the frequency of wind speed within each wind
direction is depicted according to the length of that section of the bar.
WMA
Wildlife Management Area
WWTF
wastewater treatment facility
WWTP
wastewater treatment plant
ZLD
zero liquid discharge
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