TM-43-0106
TO 1-1A-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-9
TM 43-0106
TECHNICAL MANUAL
ENGINEERING SERIES
FOR AIRCRAFT REPAIR
AEROSPACE METALS GENERAL DATA
AND USAGE FACTORS
F09603-99-D-0382
BASIC AND ALL CHANGES HAVE BEEN MERGED TO MAKE THIS A COMPLETE PUBLICATION
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Other requests for this document shall be referred to 542
MSUG/GBMUDE, Robins AFB, GA 31098. Questions concerning technical content shall be referred to 542 SEVSG/GBZR, Robins AFB, GA 31098.
Published Under Authority of the Secretary of the Air Force and by Direction of the Chief of the Naval Air Systems Command.
26 FEBRUARY 1999
CHANGE 5 - 27 JUNE 2005
TO 1-1A-9
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.
NOTE: The portion of the text affected by the changes is indicated by a vertical line in
the margins of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by miniature
pointing hands. Changes to wiring diagrams are indicated by miniature pointing hands or by shaded areas. A vertical line running the length of a figure in
the outer margin of the page indicates that the figure is being added.
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . 26 February 1999
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 June 2001
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 October 2001
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 July 2002
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . 17 January 2003
Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 June 2005
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 288, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
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A
Change 5
USAF
T.O. 1-1A-9
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
Page
I INTRODUCTION..................................................... 1-1
1-1
PURPOSE ............................................. 1-1
II FERROUS
2-1
2-2
2-4
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-19
2-26
2-29
2-30
2-35
2-41
2-42
2-43
2-48
2-53
2-55
2-58
2-60
2-68
2-73
2-74
2-75
2-81
2-117
2-128
2-131
2-135
2-147
2-152
2-168
2-184
2-186
2-195
(STEEL) ALLOYS................................. 2-1
Classification ........................................ 2-1
SAE Numbering System ...................... 2-1
Carbon Steels ........................................ 2-1
Nickel Steels ......................................... 2-2
Chromium Steels .................................. 2-2
Chromium - Nickel Steels.................... 2-2
Chrome - Vanadium Steels .................. 2-3
Chrome - Molybdenum
Steels .................................................. 2-3
Principles of Heat Treatment of Steels .................................... 2-3
Hardening ............................................. 2-3
Quenching Procedure ........................... 2-4
Tempering (Drawing) ........................... 2-4
Normalizing........................................... 2-5
Case Hardening .................................... 2-5
Carburizing ........................................... 2-6
Cyaniding .............................................. 2-7
Nitriding................................................ 2-7
Heat Treating Equipment.................... 2-7
Heat Control, Furnace Temperatures Survey and
Temperature Measuring
Equipment.......................................... 2-8
Furnace Control Instruments Accuracy.................................. 2-8
Salt Bath Control ............................... 2-10
Quenching Tanks and
Liquids.............................................. 2-10
Heat Treating Procedures.................. 2-10
Hardness Testing................................ 2-11
Specification Cross
Reference.......................................... 2-11
General Heat Treating
Temperatures, Composition (Chemical) and
Characteristics of Various Steel and Steel Alloy ................ 2-35
Machining of Steels
(General) .......................................... 2-60
Machining Corrosion Resisting Steel ..................................... 2-65
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Section
Page
2-199
2-200
2-201
2-202
2-203
2-216
2-234
2-292
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Fabrication of Ferrous
Alloys .............................................. 2-121
Steel Surface Finishes...................... 2-130
III ALUMINUM ALLOYS............................................. 3-1
3-1
Classification ........................................ 3-1
3-4
Commercial and Military
Designations ...................................... 3-1
3-8
Mechanical Properties.......................... 3-2
3-16
Physical Properties............................. 3-18
3-17
Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys ....................................... 3-18
3-51
Heat Treatment .................................. 3-24
3-56
Heat Treating Equipment.................. 3-24
3-70
Fabrication .......................................... 3-28
3-73
Forming Sheet Metal.......................... 3-28
3-96
Deleted
3-97
Deleted
3-118
Deleted
3-123
Deleted
3-131
Deleted
3-145
Deleted
3-154
Deleted
3-175
Machining............................................ 3-45
3-179
Cutting Tools for Machining Aluminum.................................. 3-45
3-180
Turning................................................ 3-46
3-183
Milling-Aluminum .............................. 3-46
3-189
Shaping and Planing .......................... 3-49
3-195
Tapping................................................ 3-56
3-198
Filing ................................................... 3-56
3-202
Reaming .............................................. 3-57
3-204
Sawing ................................................. 3-57
3-210
Grinding .............................................. 3-58
3-216
Polishing.............................................. 3-58
3-218
Roughing ............................................. 3-58
3-219
Greasing or Oiling .............................. 3-58
3-221
Buffing ................................................ 3-59
3-223
Hardness Testing................................ 3-59
3-226
Non-Destructive
Testing/Inspection ........................... 3-59
3-228
Anodizing Process for Inspection of Aluminum
Alloy Parts ....................................... 3-59
3-231
Aluminum Alloy Effects on
Scratches on Clad Aluminum Alloy .................................... 3-59
3-233
Allowable Defects................................ 3-59
3-234
Harmful Scratches.............................. 3-60
Change 4
i
T.O. 1-1A-9
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Section
Page
3-241
3-242
Disposition of Scratches
Sheets/Parts ..................................... 3-60
Cleaning of Aluminum Alloy Sheet (Stock).............................. 3-60
IV MAGNESIUM ALLOYS .......................................... 4-1
4-1
Classification ........................................ 4-1
4-4
Definitions............................................. 4-1
4-13
Safety Requirements for
Handling and Fabrication
of Magnesium Alloys ......................... 4-2
4-19
Safety Precautions for All
Alloys (Including Fire
Hazards) ............................................. 4-3
4-22
Grinding and Polishing
Safety Practices ............................... 4-14
4-24
Deleted
4-25
Heat Treating Safety
Practices ........................................... 4-15
4-26
Identification ...................................... 4-16
4-29
Heat Treating Magnesium
Alloys -(General).............................. 4-16
4-45
Alloy General Characteristic Information................................. 4-19
4-47
Deleted
4-77
Deleted
4-78
Deleted
4-79
Deleted
4-82
Deleted
4-93
Deleted
V TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS................. 5-1
5-1
Classification ........................................ 5-1
5-4
General .................................................. 5-1
5-5
Military and Commercial
Designations ...................................... 5-1
5-6
Physical Properties............................... 5-1
5-7
Mechanical Properties.......................... 5-1
5-10
Methods of Identification..................... 5-1
5-11
Hardness Testing.................................. 5-1
5-12
Tensile Testing ..................................... 5-1
5-13
Non-Destructive Testing ...................... 5-1
5-14
Fire Damage ......................................... 5-6
5-15
Heat Treatment - (General) ................. 5-6
5-22
Hydrogen Embrittlement ..................... 5-8
5-25
Fabrication .......................................... 5-11
5-26
Forming Sheet Metal (General) .......................................... 5-11
5-28
Draw Forming..................................... 5-11
5-29
Hydraulic Press Forming ................... 5-11
5-32
Stretch Forming.................................. 5-11
5-33
Drop - Hammer Forming ................... 5-11
5-34
Joggling ............................................... 5-12
5-35
Blanking and Shearing ...................... 5-12
5-37
Deleted
5-38
Deleted
ii
Change 4
Section
Page
5-39
5-40
5-42
5-43
5-45
5-47
5-48
5-51
5-52
5-54
5-57
5-63
5-66
5-69
5-70
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Soldering ............................................. 5-15
Riveting ............................................... 5-15
Machining and Grinding.................... 5-17
Machining............................................ 5-17
Turning................................................ 5-17
Milling ................................................. 5-17
Drilling ................................................ 5-17
Tapping................................................ 5-19
Reaming .............................................. 5-19
Grinding .............................................. 5-19
VI COPPER AND COPPER BASE
ALLOYS .................................................................... 6-1
6-1
Copper and Copper Base
Alloys .................................................. 6-1
6-3
Copper Alloying Elements ................... 6-1
6-5
Heat Treatment and Hot
Working Temperature of
Copper Alloys..................................... 6-1
6-7
Stress Relief of Copper
Alloys .................................................. 6-1
6-9
Machining Copper and Copper Alloys ........................................... 6-1
6-10
Wrought - Copper - Beryllium Alloys ........................................... 6-1
6-12
Heat Treating Procedures
and Equipment
Requirements................................... 6-10
6-15
Solution - Heat Treatment
Copper Beryllium ............................ 6-11
6-17
Precipitation or Age
Hardening ........................................ 6-11
VII TOOL STEELS......................................................... 7-1
7-1
General .................................................. 7-1
7-4
Alloying Elements in Tool
Steels .................................................. 7-1
7-5
Specifications ........................................ 7-1
7-6
Class Designations ............................... 7-5
7-7
Applications of Tool Steels................... 7-5
7-9
Selection of Material for a
Cutting Tool ....................................... 7-5
7-16
Heat Treat Data ................................... 7-6
7-18
Distortion in Tool Steels ...................... 7-6
7-19
Deleted
7-21
Deleted
7-22
Deleted
7-23
Deleted
VIII TESTING AND INSPECTION, HARDNESS TESTING....................................................... 8-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Section
Page
8-1
8-3
8-5
8-8
8-15
8-18
8-20
8-21
8-22
8-24
8-27
8-33
8-34
Section
General .................................................. 8-1
Methods of Hardness
Testing................................................ 8-1
Brinell Hardness Test .......................... 8-1
Rockwell Hardness Test....................... 8-1
Vickers Pyramid Hardness
Test ..................................................... 8-4
Shore Scleroscope Hardness
Test ..................................................... 8-8
Testing with the
Scleroscope ......................................... 8-9
Tensile Testing ..................................... 8-9
Decarburization
Measurement ..................................... 8-9
Hardness Method................................ 8-10
Nondestructive Inspection
Methods............................................ 8-14
Chemical Analysis .............................. 8-14
Spectrochemical Analysis................... 8-14
Page
IX HEAT TREATMENT ............................................... 9-1
9-1
General .................................................. 9-1
9-9
Special Heat Treatment
Information ........................................ 9-1
9-11
Tint Test for Determining
Coating Removal from
Nickel Base and Cobalt Base
Alloys .................................................. 9-1
9-13
Titanium Alloy Parts............................ 9-3
9-16
Solution, Stabilization, or
Precipitation Heat Treatment .......... 9-3
9-38
Stress-Relief After Welding ................. 9-8
9-59
Local Stress-Relief .............................. 9-11
9-68
Description of Methods ...................... 9-11
A Supplemental Data ..................................................A-1
Glossary ...............................................................GLS 1
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
3-1
3-2
4-1
Title
Page
Number and Distribution of
Thermocouples............................................ 2-9
Deleted
Deleted
Stretch Forming......................................... 2-127
Surface Roughness .................................... 2-135
Head to Alloy Identification
Method ...................................................... 3-20
Drill Designs and Recommended
Cutting Angles.......................................... 3-55
Typical Dust Collectors for
Magnesium................................................ 4-22
Figure
4-2
4-3
4-4
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
Title
Page
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Brinell Hardness Tester................................ 8-4
Rockwell Hardness Tester ............................ 8-5
Attachments for Rockwell Tester ................. 8-6
Vickers Pyramid Hardness Tester ............... 8-7
Standard Pyramid Diamond
Indentor....................................................... 8-8
Shore Scleroscope .......................................... 8-8
Test Specimens ............................................ 8-11
LIST OF TABLES
Number
2-1
2-2
2-3
Title
Page
Soaking Periods for Hardening
Normalizing and Annealing
(Plain Carbon Steel)................................. 2-10
Specification Cross Reference .................... 2-12
Cutting Speeds and Feeds for
SAE 1112 Using Standard
High Speed Tools ..................................... 2-61
Number
2-4
2-5
2-6
Title
Page
Machinability Rating of Various
Metals........................................................ 2-61
Conversion of Surface Feet Per
Minute (SFM) to Revolutions
Per Minute (RPM).................................... 2-63
Tool Correction Chart ................................. 2-64
Change 4
iii
T.O. 1-1A-9
LIST OF TABLES - Continued
Number
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
2-17
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-22
2-23
2-24
2-25
2-26
2-27
2-28
2-29
2-30
2-31
2-32
2-33
2-34
2-35
2-36
2-37
2-38
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
iv
Change 4
Title
Page
General Machining Comparison
of Corrosion Resisting Steel to
Free Machining Screw Stock
B1112 ........................................................ 2-65
Suggested Cutting Speeds and
Feeds ......................................................... 2-66
Tool Angles - Turning ................................. 2-68
Suggested Milling Cutting
Speeds and Feeds..................................... 2-69
Suggested Tool Angles - Milling................. 2-70
Drilling Speeds for Corrosion
Resisting Steel.......................................... 2-70
Tapping Allowances (Holes Size
to Screw Size) ........................................... 2-71
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Cold Bend Radii (Inside) Carbon/Low Alloy Steels.............................. 2-128
Cold Bend Radii (Inside) Corrosion Resistant Steel Alloys................. 2-128
Forging Temperature Ranges
for Corrosion Resistant Steel ................ 2-128
Galvanic Series of Metals and
Alloys....................................................... 2-134
Surface Roughness and Lay
Symbols ................................................... 2-136
Designations for Alloy Groups ..................... 3-1
Aluminum Alloy Designation and
Conversions to 4 Digit System .................. 3-1
Federal and Military
Specifications.............................................. 3-3
Chemical Composition Nominal
and General Use Data 1/ ........................... 3-9
Mechanical Properties - Typical................. 3-14
Physical Properties - Standard
Alloys......................................................... 3-16
Number
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20
3-21
3-22
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-26
3-27
3-28
4-1
4-2
4-3
Title
Page
Heat Treating (Soaking)
Temperatures ........................................... 3-17
Soaking Time for Solution Heat
Treatment of All Wrought
Products .................................................... 3-23
Soaking Time for Solution
Treatment of Cast Alloys......................... 3-23
Recommended Maximum
Quench Delay, Wrought Alloys (For Immersion Type
Quenching)................................................ 3-24
Precipitation (Aging) Treating
Temperatures, Times and
Conditions ................................................. 3-25
Reheat Treatment of Alclad
Alloys......................................................... 3-27
Cold Bend Radii (Inside) for
General Applications................................ 3-29
Maximum Accumulative Reheat
Times for Hot Forming Heat
Treatable Alloys at Different
Temperatures ........................................... 3-32
Deleted
Deleted
General Rivet (Alum) Identification Chart ................................................. 3-42
General Aluminum Rivet Selection Chart (Rivet Alloy vs Assembly Alloy) ............................................ 3-45
Shear Strength of Protruding
and Flush Head Aluminum
Alloy Rivets, Inch Pounds ....................... 3-47
Bearing Properties, Typical, of
Aluminum Alloy Plates and
Shapes ....................................................... 3-48
Standard Rivet Hole Sizes with
Corresponding Shear and
Bearing Areas for Cold Driven
Aluminum Alloy Rivets............................ 3-50
Turning Speeds and Feeds ......................... 3-51
Tool Angles - Turning ................................. 3-52
Milling - Speeds and Feeds ........................ 3-52
Tool Angles - Milling................................... 3-53
Shaping and Planing - Speeds
and Feeds.................................................. 3-54
Shaping Tool Angles ................................... 3-54
Thread Constant for Various
Standard Thread Forms .......................... 3-56
Cross-Reference, Alloy Designations to Specifications................................ 4-3
Alloy Designation
Cross-Reference .......................................... 4-6
Chemical Properties of Magnesium Alloys .................................................... 4-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
LIST OF TABLES - Continued
Number
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-29
4-30
4-31
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
6-1
Title
Page
Mechanical Properties Magnesium Extrusions and Forgings at
Room Temperature - Typical..................... 4-9
Mechanical Properties Magnesium Alloy Sheet and Plate at
Room Temperature - Typical................... 4-11
Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Castings at
Room Temperatures................................. 4-12
Physical Properties - Magnesium Alloy @ 68 oF...................................... 4-13
Solution Heat Treating Temperatures and Holding Times ....................... 4-18
Artificial Aging (Precipitation
Treatment) ................................................ 4-19
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Deleted
Specification Cross Reference Titanium Alloy ............................................... 5-2
Nominal Mechanical Properties
at Room Temperature ................................ 5-7
Heat Treat, Stress Relief and Annealing Temperatures and Times ............. 5-9
Recommended Minimum CCLD
Bend Radii ................................................ 5-12
Deleted
Turning Speeds for Titanium
Alloys......................................................... 5-18
Tool Angles for Alloys ................................. 5-18
Speeds and Feeds for Milling ..................... 5-18
Angles for Tool Grinding ............................ 5-19
Chemical Composition by Trade
Name ........................................................... 6-2
Number
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
8-1
8-2
8-3
9-1
9-2
9-3
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
A-10
A-11
A-12
A-13
Title
Page
Hot Working and Annealing
Temperatures for Copper and
Wrought Copper Alloys.............................. 6-9
Typical Stress-Relief Treatments for Certain Copper Alloys ............ 6-11
Standard Machinability Rating
of Copper Alloys ....................................... 6-12
Typical Engineering Properties.................. 6-13
Age Hardening
Time-Temperature Conditions
and Material Temper Designations ............................................. 6-13
Tool Steel Specifications............................... 7-2
Chemical Composition, Tool Steel................ 7-3
Tool Steel Selection ....................................... 7-5
Tool Steel Hardening and Tempering Temperatures ................................. 7-5
Forging, Normalizing and Annealing Treatments of Tool and
Die Steels .................................................... 7-7
Thermal Treatment for Hardening and Tempering Tool Steel
- General ................................................... 7-11
Comparison of Tool Steel
Properties.................................................. 7-14
Hardness Conversion Chart ......................... 8-3
Rockwell Scales, Loads and Prefix Letters ................................................. 8-10
Approximate Hardness - Tensile
Strength Relationship of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels ........................ 8-12
Typical Heat Treatment
Application.................................................. 9-1
Cross-Index for Solution, Stabilization or Precipitation Heat
Treatments ................................................. 9-4
Cross-Index for Stress-Relief
Heat Treatments ........................................ 9-9
Chemical Symbols .........................................A-1
Decimal Equivalents .....................................A-2
Engineering Conversion Factors ..................A-6
Table of Weights - Aluminum
and Aluminum Alloy................................. A-8
Table of Weights - Brass...............................A-9
Table of Weights - Bronze ..........................A-10
Table of Weights - Copper ..........................A-11
Table of Weights - Iron ...............................A-12
Table of Weights - Lead..............................A-12
Table of Weights - Magnesium
and Magnesium Alloy ............................. A-12
Table of Weights - Nickel Chromium Iron Alloy (Inconel) ...................... A-13
Table of Weights - Nickel Copper Alloy................................................... A-13
Table of Weights - Steel..............................A-13
Change 4
v
T.O. 1-1A-9
LIST OF TABLES - Continued
Number
A-14
A-15
A-16
A-17
vi
Change 4
Title
Page
Table of Weights - Zinc ...............................A-16
Temperature Conversion Chart .................A-17
Standard Bend Radii for 90o
Cold Forming-Flat Sheet ........................ A-18
Metal Bending and Bend Radii
Bend Allowances Sheet Metal
Bend Allowances Per Degree
of Bend Aluminum Alloys....................... A-19
Number
A-18
A-19
A-20
Title
Page
Bend Set Back Chart ..................................A-21
Comparative Table of Standard
Gages........................................................ A-22
Melting Points Approximate.......................A-23
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION I
INTRODUCTION
1-1.
PURPOSE.
1-2. This is one of a series of technical or engineering technical manuals prepared to assist personnel engaged in the maintenance and repair of
Aerospace Weapon Systems and Supporting Equipment (AGE). Army Personnel: Wherever the text
of this manual refers to other technical orders
(T.O.’s) for supporting information, refer to comparable Army documents.
1-3. This technical manual provides precise data
on specif ic metals to assist in selection, usage and
processing for fabrication and repair. It includes
such data as specif ication cross reference;
approved designation system for alloys and tempers; temperatures and other controls for heat
treatments; mechanical and physical properties
processing instructions for basic corrosion prevention; forming characteristics; and other information required for general aerospace weapon system
repair. Procedures for general foundry practice,
sand control, gating and risering of both ferrous
and non-ferrous castings may be obtained from
available commercial handbooks and/or publications. Due to the many types, grades, deversif ied
uses and new developments of metal products, it
may not include all data required in some
instances and further study and citation of this
data will be required. If a requirement exists for
information not included, a request for assistance
should be made to WR-ALC, LEM.
1-4. The information/instruction contained
herein are for general use. If a conf lict exists
between this technical manual and the specif ic
technical manual(s) or other approved data for a
particular weapon, end item, equipment, etc., the
data applicable to the specif ic item(s) will govern
in all cases.
1-5. The use of ‘‘shall’’, ‘‘will’’, ‘‘should’’ and
‘‘may’’ in this technical manual is as follows:
a. Whenever the word ‘‘shall’’ appears, it shall
be interpreted to mean that the requirements are
binding.
b. The words ‘‘will’’, ‘‘should’’ and ‘‘may’’, shall
be interpreted as nonmandatory provisions.
c. The word ‘‘will’’ is used to express declaration of purpose.
d. The word ‘‘should’’ is used to express nonmandatory desired or preferred method of
accomplishment.
e. The word ‘‘may’’ is used to express an
acceptable or suggested means of accomplishment.
1-6.
Deleted
1-7. WELDING. Information on welding aerospace metals is contained in NAVAIR 01-1A-34,
T.O. 00-25-252, T.C. 9-238.
Change 1
1-1/(1-2 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION II
FERROUS (STEEL) ALLOYS
2-1.
CLASSIFICATION.
2-2. SAE NUMBERING SYSTEM. A numeral
index system is used to identify the compositions
of the SAE steels, which makes it possible to use
numerals that are partially descriptive of the composition of material covered by such numbers. The
f irst digit indicates the type to which the steel
belongs; for example ‘‘1’’ indicates a carbon steel;
‘‘2’’ a nickel steel; and ‘‘3’’ a nickel chromium steel.
In the case of the simple alloy steels, the second
digit generally indicates the approximate percentage of the predominant alloying element. Usually
the last two or three digits indicate the approximate average carbon content in ‘‘points’’ or hundredths of 1 percent. Thus ‘‘2340’’ indicates a
nickel steel of approximately 3 percent nickel (3.25
to 3.75) and 0.40 percent carbon (0.38 to 0.43). In
some instances, in order to avoid oonfusion, it has
been found necessary to depart from this system of
identifying the approximate alloy composition of a
steel by varying the second and third digits of the
number. An instance of such departure is the
steel numbers selected for several of the corrosion
--and heat resisting alloys.
2-3. The basic numerals for the various types of
SAE steel are:
TYPE OF STEEL
NUMERALS
(AND DIGITS)
Carbon Steels
Plain Carbon
Free Cutting (Screw Stock)
1xxx
10xx
11xx
Manganese Steels
13xx
Nickel Chromium Steels
1.25 Percent Nickel; 0.65
percent Chromium
Corrosion and Heat Resisting
3xxx
Molybdenum Steels
0.25 Percent Molybdenum
31xx
303xx
4xxx
40xx
TYPE OF STEEL
NUMERALS
(AND DIGITS)
Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum
Steels
1.80% nickel; 0.50 and 0.80%
Chromium; 0.25% Molybdenum
0.55% Nickel; 0.50 and 0.65%
Chromium; 0.20% Molybdenum
0.55% Nickel; 0.50 Chromium
0.25% Molybdenum
3.25% Nickel; 1.20 Chromium
0.12% Molybdenum
Nickel-Molybdenum Steels
1.75 Percent Nickel; 0.25
percent Molybdenum
3.50 Percent Nickel; 0.25
percent Molybdenum
Chromium Steels
Low Chromium
Medium Chromium
High Chromium
Corrosion and Heat
Resisting
Chromium-Vanadium Steel
0.80-1.00 percent Chromium,
0.10-0.15 Vanadium
Silicon Manganese Steels
A Percent Silicon
Low Alloy, High Tensile
Boron Intensified
Leaded Steels
43xx
86xx
87xx
93xx
46xx
48xx
5xxx
50xx
51xxx
52xxx
514xx and
515xx
6xxx
61xx
9xxx
92xx
950
xxBxx
xxLxx
2-4. CARBON STEELS. Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.10 to 0.30 percent is classed as low carbon steel. The equivalent
SAE numbers range from 1010 to 1030. Steels of
this grade are used for the manufacture of articles
such as safety wire, certain nuts, cable bushing,
etc. This steel in sheet form is used for secondary
structural parts and clamps and in tubular form
for moderately stressed structura1 parts.
2-5. Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.30 to 0.50 percent is classed as medium
carbon steel. This steel is especially adaptable for
machining, forging, and where surface hardness is
2-1
TO 1-1A-9
important. Certain rod ends, light forgings, and parts such as
Woodruff keys, are made from SAE 1035 steel.
2-6. Steel containing carbon in percentage ranging from 0.50
to 1.05 percent is classed as high carbon steel. The addition of
other elements in varying quantities adds to the hardness of
this steel. In the fully heat-treated condition it is very hard and
will withstand high shear and wear, but little deformation. It
has limited use in aircraft construction. SAE 1095 in sheet
form is used for making flat springs and in wire form for
making coil springs.
2-7. NICKEL STEELS. The various nickel steels are produced by combinining nickel with carbon steel. Some benefits
derived from the use of nickel as an alloy in steel are as
follows:
a. Lowers the percentage of carbon that is necessary for
hardening. The lowering of the carbon content makes the steel
more ductile and less susceptible to uneven stress.
b. Lowers the critical temperature ranges (heating and
cooling) and permits the use of lower heating temperatures for
hardening.
c. Hardening of nickel alloy steels at moderate rates of
cooling has the advantage of lowering the temperature gradients, reducing internal stress/warpage and permits deeper/
more uniform hardening.
d. The low heat treating temperatures required, reduces the
danger of overheating, excessive grain growth and the consequent development of brittleness.
e. The characteristics depth hardening from the addition of
nickel to steel as an alloy results in good mechanical properties after quenching and tempering. At a given strength
(except for very thin sections/parts) the nickel steels provide
greatly improve elastic properties, impact resistance and
toughness.
Both nickel and chromium influence the properties of steel;
nickel toughens it, while chromium hardens it. Chrome-nickel
steel is used for machined and forged parts requiring strength,
ductility, toughness and shock resistance. Parts such as crankshafts and connecting rods are made of SAE 3140 steel.
2-10. Chrome-nickel steel containing approximately 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel is known as corrosionresistant steel. It is usually identified as aisi types 301, 302,
303, 304, 304L, 309, 316, 316L, 321, 347, 347F or Se, etc.,
however; the basic 18-8 chrome-nickel steel is type 302. The
other grades/types have been modified by changing or adding
alloying elements to that contained in the basic alloy. The
alloys are varied to obtain the required mechanical properties
for some specific purpose such as improving corrosion resistance or forming machining, welding characteristics, etc. The
following are examples of variations:
a. 301-Chromium and Nickel (approximate 0.5 Nickel) is
lowered to increase response to cold working.
b. 302-Basic Type 18 Chromium 8 Nickel.
c. 303-Sulfur(s) or Selenium (se) added for improved
machining characteristics.
d. 304-Carbon (c) lowered to reduce susceptibility to carbide precipitation. This alloy is still subject to carbide preceipitation from exposure to temperatures 800-1500F range
and this shall be considered when it is selected for a specific
application.
e. 304L-Carbon (c) lowered for welding applications.
f. 309-Cr and Ni higher for additional corrosion and scale
resistance.
g. 316-Molybdenum (Mo) added to improve corrosion
resistance and strength.
h. 316L-C- lowered for welding applications.
2-8. CHROMIUM STEELS. Chromium steel is high in
hardness, strength, and corrosion resistant properties. SAE
51335 steel is particularly adaptable for heat-treated forgings
which require greater toughness and strength than may be
obtained in plain carbon steel. It may be used for such articles
as the balls and rollers of anti-friction bearings.
2-9. CHROMIUM-NICKEL STEELS. Chromium and nickel
in various proportions mixed with steel form the chromenickel steels. The general proportion is about two and one-half
times as much nickel as chromium. For all ordinary steels in
this group the chromium content ranges from 0.45 to 1.25
percent, while the nickel content ranges from 1 to 2 percent.
2-2
Change 5
i. 321-Titanium (Ti) added to reduce/avoid carbide precipitation (stabilized grade).
j. 347-Columbium (Cb), Tantalum (Ta)- Added to reduce/
avoid carbide precipitation (stabilized grade).
k. 347F or Se - Sulfur (s) or Selenium (Se) added to
improve machinability.
The chrome-nickel steels are used for a variety of applications
on aircraft and missiles. In plate and sheet form it is used for
firewalls, surface skin,
T.O. 1-1A-9
exhaust stacks, heater ducts, gun wells, ammunition chutes, clamps, heat shields/def lectors, fairing, stiffeners, brackets, shims, etc. In bar and
rod it is used to fabricate various f ittings, bolts,
studs, screws, nuts, couplings, f langes, valve
stems/seats, turn-buckles, etc. In wire form it is
used for safety wire, cable, rivets, hinge pins,
screens/screening and other miscellaneous items.
2-11. CHROME-VANADIUM STEELS. The
vanadium content of this steel is approximately
0.18 percent and the chromium content approximately 1.00 percent. Chrome-vanadium steels
when heat-treated have excellent properties such
as strength, toughness, and resistance to wear and
fatigue. A special grade of this steel in sheet form
can be cold-formed into intricate shapes. It can be
folded and f lattened without signs of breaking or
failure. Chrome-vanadium steel with medium
high carbon content (SAE 6150) is used to make
springs. Chrome-vanadium steel with high carbon
content (SAE 6195) is used for ball and roller
bearings.
2-12. CHROME - MOLYBDENUM STEELS.
Molybdenum in small percentage is used in combination with chromium to form chrome-molybdenum steel; this steel has important applications in
aircraf t. Molybdenum is a strong alloying element,
only 0.15 to 0.25percent being used in the chromemolybdenum steels; the chromium content varies
from 0.80 to 1.10 percent. Molybdenum is very
similiar to tungsten in its effect on steel. In some
instances it is used to replace tungsten in cutting
tools, however; the heat treat characteristic varies.
The addition of up to 1% molybdenum gives steel a
higher tensile strength and elastic limit with only
a slight reduction in ductility. They are especially
adaptable for welding and for this reason are used
principally for welded structural parts and assemblies. Parts fabricated from 4130, are used extensively in the construction of aircraf t, missiles, and
miscellaneous GSE equipment. The 4130 alloy is
used for parts such as engine mounts (reciprocating), nuts, bolts, gear structures, support brackets for accessories, etc.
2-13. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT TREATMENT OF
STEELS.
2-14. HARDENING. At ordinary temperatures,
the carbon content of steel exists in the form of
particles of iron carbide scattered throughout the
iron matrix; the nature of these carbide particles,
i.e., their number, size, and distribution, determines the hardness and strength of the steel. At
elevated temperatures, the carbon is dissolved in
the iron matrix and the carbide-particles appear
only af ter the steel has cooled through its ‘‘critical
temperature’’ (see paragraph 2-15). If the rate of
cooling is slow, the carbide particles are relatively
coarse and few; in this condition the steel is sof t.
If the cooling is rapid, as be quenching in oil or
water, the carbon precipitates as a cloud of very
f ine carbide particles, which condition is associated with high hardness of the steel.
2-15. At elevated temperatures, the iron matrix
exists in a form called ‘‘austenite’’ which is capable
of dissolving carbon in solid solution. At ordinary
temperatures the iron exists as ‘‘ferrite’’, in which
carbon is relatively insoluble and precipitates; as
described in the preceding paragraph, in the form
of carbide particles. The temperature at which
this change from austenite to ferrite begins to
occur on cooling is called the ‘‘upper critical temperature’’ of the steel, and varies with the carbon
content; up to approximately 0.85 percent carbon,
the upper critical temperature is lowered with
increasing carbon content; from 0.85 to 1.70 percent carbon the upper critical temperature is
raised with increasing carbon content. Steel that
has been heated to its upper critical point will
harden completely if rapidly quenched; however, in
practice it is necessary to exceed this temperature
by/from approximately 28o to 56oC (50o to 100oF)
to insure thorough heating of the inside of the
piece. If the upper critical temperature is
exceeded too much, an unsatisfactory coarse grain
size will be developed in the hardened steel.
2-16. Successful hardening of steel will largely
depend upon the following factors af ter steel has
been selected which has harden ability desires:
a. Control over the rate of heating, specif ically to prevent cracking of thick and irregular
sections.
b. Thorough and uniform heating through sections to the correct hardening temperatures.
c. Control of furnace atmosphere, in the case
of certain steel parts, to prevent scaling and
decarburization.
d. Correct heat capacity, viscosity, and temperature of quenching medium to harden adequately and to avoid cracks.
e. In addition to the preceding factors, the
thickness of the section controls the depth of hardness for a given steel composition. Very thick sections may not harden through because of the low
rate of cooling at the center.
2-17. When heating steel, the temperature
should be determined by the use of accurate
instruments. At times, however, such instruments
are not available, and in such cases, the temperature of the steel may be judged approximately by
its color. The accuracy with which temperatures
2-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
may be judged by color depends on the experience
of the workman, the light in which the work is
being done, the character of the scale on the steel,
the amount of radiated light within the furnace,
and the emissivity or tendency of steel to radiate
or emit light.
2-18. A number of liquids may be used for
quenching steel. Both the medium and the form of
the bath depend largely on the nature of the work
to be cooled. It is important that a suff icient
quantity of the medium be provided to allow the
metal to be quenched without causing an appreciable change in the temperature of the bath. This is
particularly important where many articles are to
be quenched in succession.
NOTE
Aerators may be used in the Quench
Tanks to help dissipate the vapor
barrier.
2-19. QUENCHING PROCEDURE. The tendency of steel to warp and crack during the
quenching process is diff icult to overcome, and is
due to the fact that certain parts of the article cool
more rapidly than others. Whenever the rate of
cooling is not uniform, internal stresses are set up
on the metal which may result in warpage or
cracking, depending on the severity of the stresses.
Irregularly shaped parts are particularly susceptible to these conditions although parts of uniform
section size are of ten affected in a similar manner.
Operations such as forging and machining may set
up internal stresses in steel parts and it is therefore advisable to normalize articles before attempting the hardening process. The following recommendations will greatly reduce the warping
tendency and should be carefully observed:
a. An article should never be thrown into
quenching media/bath. By permitting it to lie on
the bottom of the bath it is apt to cool faster on
the top side than on the bottom side, thus causing
it to warp or crack.
b. The article should be slightly agitated in
the bath to destroy the coating of vapor which
might prevent it from cooling rapidly. This allows
the bath to remove the heat of the article rapidly
by conduction and convection.
c. An article should be quenched in such a
manner that all parts will be cooled uniformly and
with the least possible distortion. For example, a
gear wheel or shaf t should be quenched in a verticle position.
d. Irregularly shaped sections should be
immersed in such a manner that the parts of the
greatest section thickness enters the bath f irst.
2-4
2-20.
QUENCHING MEDIUM.
2-21. Oil is much slower in action than water,
and the tendency of heated steel to warp or crack
when quenched may be greatly reduced by its use.
Unfortunately, parts made from high carbon steel
will not develop maximum hardness when
quenched in oil unless they are quite thin in cross
section. In aircraf t, however, it is generally used
and is recommended in all cases where it will produce the desired degree of hardness.
NOTE
Alloy steels should never be quenched
in water.
2-22. In certain cases water is used in the
quenching of steel for the hardening process. The
water bath should be approximately 18oC (65oF),
as extremely cold water is apt to warp or crack the
steel and water above this temperature will not
produce the required hardness.
2-23. A 10%, salt brine (sodium chloride) solution
is used when higher cooling rates are desired. A
10% salt brine solution is made by dissolving 0.89
pound of salt per gallon of water.
2-24. For many articles such as milling cutters
and similar tools, a bath of water covered by a
f ilm of oil is occasionally used. When the steel is
plunged through this oil f ilm a thin coating will
adhere to it, retarding the cooling effect of the
water slightly, thus reducing the tendency to crack
due to contraction.
2-25. STRAIGHTENING OF PARTS WARPED
IN QUENCHING. Warped parts must be
straightened by f irst heating to below the tempering temperature of the article, and then applying
pressure. This pressure should be continued until
the piece is cooled. It is desirable to retemper the
part af ter straightening at the straightening temperature. No attempt should be made to
straighten hardened steel without heating, regardless of the number of times it has been previously
heated, as steel in its hardened condition cannot
be bent or sprung cold with any degree of safety.
2-26. TEMPERING (DRAWING). Steel that
has been hardened by rapid cooling from a point
slightly above its critical range is of ten harder
than necessary and generally too brittle for most
purposes. In addition, it is under severe internal
stress. In order to relieve the stresses and reduce
the brittleness or restore ductility the metal is
always ‘‘tempered’’. Tempering consists in reheating the steel to a temperature below the critical
range (usually in the neighborhood of 600 1200oF). This reheating causes a coalescence and
enlargement of the f ine carbide particles produced
T.O. 1-1A-9
by drastic quenching, and thus tends to sof ten the
steel. The desired strength wanted will determine
the tempering temperature. This is accomplished
in the same types of furnaces as are used for hardening and annealing. Less ref ined methods are
sometimes used for tempering small tools.
2-27. As in the case of hardening, tempering
temperatures may be approximately determined
by color. These colors appear only on the surface
and are due to a thin f ilm of oxide which forms on
the metal af ter the temperature reaches 232oC
(450oF). In order to see the tempering colors, the
surface must be brightened. A buff stick consisting
of a piece of wood with emery cloth attached is
ordinarily used for this purpose. When tempering
by the color method, an open f lame of heated iron
plate is ordinarily used as the heating medium.
Although the color method is convenient, it should
not be used unless adequate facilities for determining temperature are not obtainable. Tempering
temperatures can also be determined by the use of
crayons of known melting point. Such crayons are
commercially available for a wide range of temperatures under the trade name of ‘‘Tempilstiks’’. The
above method may be used where exact properties
af ter tempering is not too important such as for
blacksmith work. The most desireable method for
general aeronautical use, is to determine temperatures by hardness checks, and subsequent adjustments made as necessary to obtain the properties
required. For recommended tempering temperatures see heat treat data for material/composition
involved.
2-28. Steel is usually subjected to the annealing
process for the following purposes:
a. To increase its ductility by reducing hardness and brittleness.
b. To ref ine the crystalline structure and
remove stresses. Steel which has been coldworked is usually annealed so as to increase its
ductility. However, a large amount of cold-drawn
wire is used in its cold-worked state when very
high yield point and tensile strength are desired
and relatively low ductility is permissible, as in
spring wire, piano wire, and wires for rope and
cable. Heating to low temperatures, as in soldering, will destroy these properties. However, rapid
heating will narrow the affected area.
c. To sof ten the material so that machining,
forming, etc., can be performed.
2-29. NORMALIZING. Although involving a
slightly different heat treatment, normalizing may
be classed as a form of annealing. This process
also removes stresses due to machining, forging,
bending, and welding. Normalizing may be accomplished in furnaces used for annealing. The articles are put in the furnace and heated to a point
approximately 150o to 225oF above the critical
temperature of the steel. Af ter the parts have
been held at this temperature for a suff icient time
for the parts to be heated uniformly throughout,
they must be removed from the furnace and cooled
in still air. Prolonged soaking of the metal at high
temperatures must be avoided, as this practice will
cause the grain structure to enlarge. The length
of time required for the soaking temperature will
depend upon the mass of metal being treated. The
optimum soaking time is roughly one-quarter hour
per inch of diameter or thickness.
2-30. CASE HARDENING. In many instances
it is desirable to produce a hard, wear-resistant
surface or ‘‘case’’ over a strong, tough core. Treatment of this kind is known as ‘‘case hardening’’.
This treatment may be accomplished in several
ways, the principal ways being carburizing, cyaniding, and nitriding.
2-31. Flame Hardening/Sof tening. Surface hardening/sof tening by applying intense heat (such as
that produced by an Oxy-Acetylene f lame) can be
accomplished on almost any of the medium carbon
or alloys steel, i.e. 1040, 1045, 1137, 1140 etc.
The parts are surface hardened, by applying a
reducing f lame (An Oxidizing f lame should never
be used) at such a rate, that the surface is rapidly
heated to the proper quenching temperature for
the steel being treated. Following the application
of the heat, the part is quenched by a spraying of
water/oil rapidly. The fast quench hardens the
steel to the depth that the hardening temperature
has penetrated below the surface. The actual hardness resulting will depend on the rate of cooling
from the quenching temperature. In hardening by
this method the shape and size/mass of the part
must be considered. Most operations will require
special adapted spray nozzles to apply the quenching media, which is usually water. Normally,
f lame hardening will produce surface hardness
higher than can be obtained by routine furnace
heating and quenching, because surface can be
cooled at a faster rate. If a combination of high
strength core and surface is required some of the
medium carbon alloy steels can be heat treated
and subsequently surface hardened by the f lame
method.
NOTE
This method is not adapted for surface hardening of parts for use in critical applications.
2-32. Surface sof tening is accomplished by heating the surface to just below the temperature
2-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
required for hardening and allowing the material
to cool (in air) naturally. This method is sometimes used to sof ten material that has been hardened by frame cutting. Of ten it is necessary to
apply the heat in short intervals to prevent
exceeding the hardening temperature.
2-33. Induction. Hardening/Heating. The induction method of heating can be used to surface
harden steels, in a manner similar to that used for
f lame hardening. The exception is that the heat
for hardening is produced by placing the part in a
magnetic f ield (electrical) specif ically designed for
the purpose. Parts hardened (surface) by this
method will be limited to capability and size of
loop/coil used to produce the magnetic f ield.
2-34. In some instances the induction method
can be used to deep harden; the extent will depend
on exposure/dwell time, intensity of the magnetic
f ield, and the size of the part to be treated.
2-35. CARBURIZING. At elevated temperatures iron can react with gaseous carbon compounds to form iron carbide. By heating steel,
while in contact with a carbon-aceous substance,
carbonic gases given off by this material will penetrate the steel to an amount proportional to the
time and temperature. For example, if mild or
sof t steel is heated to 732oC (1,350oF) in an
atmosphere of carbonic gases, it will absorb carbon
from the gas until a carbon content of approximately 0.80 percent has been attained at the surface, this being the saturation point of the steel for
the particular temperature. By increasing the
heat to 899oC/(1,650oF) the same steel will absorb
carbon from the gas until a carbon content of
approximately 1.1 percent has been attained,
which is the saturation point for the increased
temperature.
2-36. The carburizing process may be applied to
both plain carbon and alloy steels provided they
are within the low carbon range. Specif ically, the
carburizing steels are those containing not more
than 0.20 percent carbon. The lower the carbon
content in the steel, the more readily it will
absorb, carbon during the carburizing process.
2-37. The amount of carbon absorbed and the
thickness of the case obtained increases with time;
however, the carburization progresses more slowly
as the carbon content increases during the process.
The length of time required to produce the desired
degree of carburization material used and the temperature to which the metal is subjected. It is
apparent that, in carburizing, carbon travels
slowly from the outside toward the inside center,
and therefore, the proportion of carbon absorbed
must decrease from the outside to the inside.
2-6
2-38. Solid, liquid, and gas carburizing methods
are employed.
a. The simplest method of carburizing consists of soaking the parts at an elevated temperature while in contact with solid carbonaceous
material such as wood charcoal, bone charcoal and
charred leather.
b. Liquid carburizing consists of immersing
the parts in a liquid salt bath, heated to the
proper temperature. The carbon penetrates the
steel as in the solid method producing the desired
case.
c. Gas carburizing consists of heating the
parts in a retort and subjecting them to a carbonaceous gas such as carbon monoxide or the common
fuel gases. This process is particularly adaptable
to certain engine parts.
2-39. When pack carburizing, the parts are
packed with the carburizing material in a vented
steel container to prevent the solid carburizing
compound from burning and to retain the carbon
monoxide and dioxide gases. Nichrome boxes,
capped pipes of mild steel, or welded mild steel
boxes may be used. Nichrome boxes are most economical for production because they withstand oxidation. Capped pipes of mild steel or welded mild
steel boxes are useful only as substitutes. The
container should be so placed as to allow the heat
to circulate entirely around it. The furnace must
be brought to the carburizing temperature as
quickly as possible and held at this heat from 1 to
16 hours, depending upon the depth of case
desired and the size of the work. Af ter carburizing, the container should be removed and
allowed to cool in air or the parts removed from
the carburizing compound and quenched in oil or
water. The air cooling, although slow, reduces
warpage and is advisable in many cases.
2-40. Carburized steel parts are rarely used
without subsequent heat treatment, which consists
of several steps to obtain optimum hardness in the
case, and optimum strength and ductility in the
core. Grain size of the core and case is ref ined.
a. Ref ining the core is accomplished by
reheating the parts to a point just above the critical temperature of the steel. Af ter soaking for a
suff icient time to insure uniform heating, the
parts are quenched in oil.
b. The hardening temperature for the high
carbon case is well below that of the core. It is,
therefore, necessary to heat the parts again to the
critical temperature of the case and quench them
in oil to produce the required hardness. A soaking
period of 10 minutes is generally suff icient.
T.O. 1-1A-9
c. A f inal stress relieving operation is necessary to minimize the hardening stresses produced
by the previous treatment. The stress relieving
temperature is generally around 350oF. This is
accomplished by heating, soaking until uniformly
heated, and cooling in still air. When extreme
hardness is desired, the temperature should be
carefully held to the lower limit of the range.
2-41. CYANIDING. Steel parts may be surfacehardened by heating while in contact with a
cyanid salt, followed by quenching. Only a thin
case is obtained by this method and it is, therefore, seldom used in connection with aircraf t construction or repair. Cyaniding is, however, a rapid
and economical method of case hardening, and
may be used in some instances for relatively unimportant parts. The work to be hardened is
immersed in a bath of molten sodium or potassium
cyanide from 30 to 60 minutes. The cyanide bath
should be maintained at a temperature to 760oC to
899oC (1,400oF to 1,650oF). Immediately af ter
removal from the bath, the parts are quenched in
water. The case obtained in this manner is due
principally to the formation of carbides and
nitrides on the surface of the steel. The use of a
closed pot and ventilating hood are required for
cyaniding, as cyanide vapors are extremely
poisonous.
2-42. NITRIDING. This method of case hardening is advantageous due to the fact that a
harder case is obtained than by carburizing. Many
engine parts such as cylinder barrels and gears
may be treated in this way. Nitriding is generally
applied to certain special steel alloys, one of the
essential constituents of which is aluminum. The
process involves the exposing of the parts to
ammonia gas or other nitrogenous materials for 20
to 100 hours at 950oF. The container in which the
work and ammonia gas are brought in contact
must be airtight and capable of maintaining good
circulation and even temperature throughout. The
depth of case obtained by nitriding is about 0.015
inch if heated for 50 hours. The nitriding process
does not affect the physical state of the core if the
preceding tempering temperature was 950oF or
over. When a part is to be only partially treated,
tinning of any surface will prevent it from being
nitrided. Nitrided surfaces can be reheated to
950oF with out losing any of their hardness, however, if heated above that temperature, the hardness is rapidly lost and cannot be regained by
retreatment. Prior to any nitriding treatment, all
decarburized metal must be removed to prevent
f laking of the nitrided case. When no distortion is
permissible in the nitrided part, it is necessary to
normalize the steel prior to nitriding to remove all
strains resulting from the forging, quenching, or
machining.
2-43. HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT. Equipment necessary for heat treating consists of a suitable means for bringing the metal to the required
temperature measuring and controlling device and
quenching medium. Heat may, in some instances,
be supplied by means of a forge or welding torch;
however, for the treatment required in aircraf t
work, a furnace is necessary. Various jigs and f ixtures are sometimes needed for controlling quenching and preventing warping.
2-44. FURNACES. Heat treating furnaces are
of many designs and no one size or type perfectly
f ills every heat treating requirement. The size
and quantity of metal to be treated and the various treatments required determine the size and
type of furnace most suitable for each individual
case. The furnace should be of a suitable type and
design for the purpose intended and should be
capable of maintaining within the working zone a
temperature varying not more than + or - 14oC
(25oF) for the desired value.
2-45.
HEAT TREATING FURNACES/BATHS.
2-46. The acceptable heating media for heat
treating of steels are air, combusted gases, protective atmosphere, inert atmosphere or vacuum furnaces, molten-fused salt baths, and molten-lead
baths. The heat treating furnaces/baths are of
many designs and no one size or type will perfectly
f ill every heat treating requirement. Furnaces
and baths shall be of suitable design, type and
construction for purpose intended. Protective and
inert atmospheres shall be utilized and circulated
as necessary to protect all surfaces of parts comprising the furnace load.
2-47. The design and construction of the heating
equipment shall be such that the furnace/bath is
capable of maintaining within the working zone, at
any point, a temperature varying not more than
±25oF (±14oC) from the required heat treating temperature, with any charge. Af ter the charge has
been brought up to treating/soaking temperature
all areas of the working zone shall be within the
permissible temperature range specif ied for the
steel/alloy being heat treated (See Table 2-3, MILH-6875 or engineering data for material involved).
2-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
Specification SAE-AMS-H-6875, Heat
Treatment of Steel, will be the control
document for heat treating steel
material to be used on aerospace
equipment. Where new alloys are
involved, it will be necessary to
review the involved specif ication or
manufacturer’s engineering or design
data for the appropriate heat information (temperature, control, atmosphere, times, etc). In case of conf lict
the Military/Federal Specif ication will
be governing factor or the conf lict will
be negotiated with the responsible
technical/engineering activities for
resolution.
2-48. HEAT CONTROL, FURNACE TEMPERATURES SURVEY AND TEMPERATURE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.
2-49. Furnaces/baths shall be equipped with
suitable automatic temperature control devices,
properly calibrated and arranged, preferably of the
potentiometer type to assure adequate control of
temperature in all heat-treating zones. The
resulting temperature readings shall be within
±1.0 percent of the temperature indications of the
calibrating equipment. Thermocouples shall be
properly located in the working zones and adequately protected from contamination by furnace
atmospheres by means of suitable protecting
tubes.
2-50. A survey shall be made before placing any
new furnace in operation, af ter any change is
made that may affect operational characteristics,
and semi-annually thereaf ter to assure conformance with temperature and control requirement
previously cited. Where furnaces are used only for
annealing or stress relieving, an annual survey
will be acceptable. The survey may be waived at
the discretion of the authorized inspector or representative provided that the results from previous
tests, with the same furnace or bath and same
type of load, show that the temperature and control uniformity is within specif ied limits. As a
part of the inspection thermocouples should be
closely inspected for condition and those severely
deteriorated and of doubtful condition should be
replaced.
2-51. The initial and succeeding (semi-annual
and annual) surveys shall be performed with a
standard production type atmosphere, controlled if
required. A minimum of 9 test thermocouples or 1
per 15 cubic feet, whichever is greater, shall be
used for air furnaces except circulating air furnaces used for tempering only. In the tempering
2-8
Change 4
furnaces, a minimum of 9 test thermocouples or 1
per 25 cubic feet, whichever is greater, shall be
used. Bath furnaces shall be tested by use of a
minimum of 5 test locations or 1 per each 15 cubic
feet. The locations may be surveys, using suitable
protected multiple or single brake test thermocouples. For distribution of test thermocouples, see
Figure 2-1. Temperature measuring and recording
instruments used for controlling the furnace shall
not be used to read the temperature of the test
temperature sensing elements.
2-52. For all surveys, the furnace or bath temperature shall be allowed to stabilize at the potential test temperature. The initial survey shall be
made at the highest and lowest temperatures of
the furnace specif ied operating range. Periodic
surveys may be made at a convenient temperature
within the operating range. The temperature of
all test locations/thermocouples shall be recorded
at 5 minute intervals, starting immediately af ter
insertion of the test thermocouples in the furnace
or bath. Reading shall be continued for 1/2-hour
or more af ter furnace control thermocouple reads
within 25oF of original setting. Af ter all the test
thermocouples have reached the minimum of the
heat treating range, their maximum variation
shall not exceed ±25oF (14oC) and shall be within
the specif ied heat treating temperature range in
accordance with Specification SAE-AMS-H-6875 or
Table 2-3. If the test indicates that conditions are
not satisfactory, the required changes shall be
made in the furnace and arrangements of the
charge. The furnace control couples shall be corrected for any deviation from the standard electromative force (EMF) temperature chart as determined in calibration of the couples.
2-53. FURNACE CONTROL INSTRUMENTS
ACCURACY.
2-54. The accuracy of temperature measuring,
recording and controlling instruments shall be
checked at regular intervals, not exceeding 3
months or upon request of personnel in charge or
authorized (Government) inspector or representatives. The accuracy of the instrument shall be
made by comparison tests with a standardized precision potentiometer type instrument of known
(tested) accuracy used with a calibrated thermocouple. The test thermocouple shall be located
approximately 3 inches from the installed furnace
thermocouple(s). The temperature for check shall
be at working temperature with a production load.
If instruments are replaced or not used for 3
months they shall be checked before use.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 2-1.
Number and Distribution of Thermocouples
2-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
2-55.
SALT BATH CONTROL.
2-56. The bath composition shall be adjusted as
frequently as necessary to prevent objectionable
attachment of the steel or alloy to be treated and
to permit attainment of the desired mechanical
properties of the f inished product. The bath will
be checked at least once a month.
2-57. Temperature recording should be of the
automatic controlling and recording type, preferably the potentiometer type. Thermocouples should
be placed in a suitable protecting tube, unless the
furnace atmosphere is such that undue deterioration of the thermocouples will not result.
2-58. QUENCHING TANKS AND LIQUIDS.
Suitable tanks must be provided for quenching
baths. The size of tanks should be suff iciently
large to allow the liquids to remain approximately
at room temperature. Circulating pumps and coolers may be used for maintaining approximately
constant temperatures where a large amount of
quenching is done. The location of these tanks is
very important due to the fact that insuff iciently
rapid transfer from the furnace to the quenching
medium may destroy the effects of the heat treatment in many instances.
2-59. The quenching liquids commonly used are
as follows: Water at 18oC (65oF), Commercial
Quenching Oil, and Fish Oil.
2-60.
HEAT TREATING PROCEDURES.
NOTE
Additional Heat Treatment information is discussed in Section IX.
2-61. INITIAL FURNACE TEMPERATURES.
In normalizing, annealing and hardening where
parts are not preheated, the temperature in that
zone of the furnace where works is introduced
should be at least 149oC (300oF) below the working temperature at the time of insertion of parts of
simple design. For parts of complicated design
involving abrupt change of section or sharp corners, the temperature should be at least 260oC
(500oF) below the working temperature. The furnace must be brought to the proper temperature
gradually.
2-62. SOAKING PERIODS. The period of soaking is governed by both the size of the section and
the nature of the steel. Table 2-1 indicates in a
general way the effect of size on the time for soaking. This table is intended to be used as a guide
only and should not be construed as being a mandatory requirement. It applies only to plain carbon and low alloy steels.
2-10
Table 2-1.
Soaking Periods for Hardening Normalizing and
Annealing (Plain Carbon Steel)
DIAMETER
OR
THICKNESS
TIME OF
HEATING TO
REQUIRED
TEMPERATURE
(APPROX)
TIME OF
HOLDING
(APPROX)
INCHES
HOURS
HOURS
1 and less
Over 1
through 2
Over 2
through 3
Over 3
through 4
Over 4
through 5
Over 5
through 8
3/4
1 1/4
1/2
1/2
1 3/4
3/4
2 1/4
1
2 3/4
1
3 1/2
1 1/2
2-63. HARDENING. Temperatures required for
hardening steel are governed by the chemical composition of the steel, previous treatment, handling
equipment, size and shape of piece to be treated.
Generally, parts of heavy cross section should be
hardened from the high side of the given temperature range.
2-64. TEMPERING (DRAWING.) Tempering
consists of heating the hardened steel to the applicable temperature holding at this temperature for
approximately 1 hour per inch of the thickness of
the largest section, and cooling in air or quenching
in oil at approximately 27o to 66oC (80o to 150oF).
The temperature to be used for tempering of steel
depends upon the exact chemical composition,
hardness, and grain structure obtained by hardening and the method of tempering. The tempering
temperatures given are only approximate, and the
exact temperature should be determined by hardness or tension test for individual pieces. The
f inal tempering temperatures should not be more
than 111oC (200oF) below the tempering, temperature given. If the center of the section is more
that 1/2-inch from the surface, the tensile strength
at the center will in general be reduced; therefore,
a lower tempering temperature should be used for
sections thicker than 1 inch in order to obtain the
required tensile strength.
2-65. ANNEALING. Annealing consists of
heating to the applicable temperature, holding at
this temperature for approximately the period of
time given, and cooling in the furnace to a temperature not higher than 482oC (900oF). The steel
T.O. 1-1A-9
may then be removed from the furnace and cooled
in still air.
2-66. NORMALIZING. Normalizing consists of
heating the steel to the applicable temperature,
holding at this temperature for period of time,
removing from furnace and cooling in still air.
2-67. CARBURIZING. Carburizing consists of
heating the steel packed in a carburizing medium,
in a closed container, to the applicable temperature and holding at this temperature for the necessary period of time to obtain the desired depth of
case. 1020 steel will require 1 to 3 hours at a
carburizing temperature of 899oC (1650oF) for
each 1/64 inch of case depth, required. Parts may
be cooled in the box or furnace to a temperature of
approximately 482oC (900oF) then air cool. This
treatment leaves the alloy in a relatively sof t condition and it is then necessary to condition by
heating and quenching, f irst for core ref inement,
followed by heating and quenching for case hardness. Alloy may be quenched directly from the
carburizing furnace, thus producing a hard case
and a core hardness of Rockwell B67. This treatment produces a coarse grain in some types of
steel and may cause excessive distortion. Usually
there is less distortion in f ine grain steels. The
core treatment outlined above ref ines the grain as
well as hardens.
2-68.
HARDNESS TESTING.
2-69. GENERAL. Hardness testing is an
important factor in the determination of the
results of the heat treatment as well as the condition of the metal before heat treatment and must,
therefore, be carefully considered in connection
with this work. The methods of hardness testing
in general use are: the Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers,
and Shore Scleroscope. Each of these methods is
discussed in section VIII.
2-70. TENSILE STRENGTH. Tempering temperatures listed with the individual steels in Table
2-3 are offered as a guide for obtaining desired
tensile and yield strength of the entire cross section. When the physical properties are specif ied
in terms of tensile strength, but tension tests are
impractical, hardness tests may be employed using
the equivalent hardness values specif ied in Table
8-3.
2-71. HARDNESS-TENSILE STRENGTH RELATIONSHIP. The approximate relationship
between the tensile strength and hardness is indicated in Table 8-3. This table is to be used as a
guide. It applied only to the plain carbon and low
alloy steels not to corrosion-resistant, magnet,
valve, or tool steels. When a narrow range of
hardness is required, the tests to determine the
relationship between hardness and strength
should be made on the actual part. Hardness values should be within a range of two points
Rockwell or 20 points Brinell or Vickers. The tensile strength-hardness relationship is quite uniform for parts which are suff iciently large and
rigid to permit obtaining a full depression on a
f lat surface without def lection of the piece. For
cylindrical parts of less than 1 inch in diameter,
the Rockwell reading will be lower than indicated
in the table for the corresponding tensile strength.
Any process which affects the surface, such as
buff ing and plating, or the presence of decarburized or porous areas and hard spots, will affect
the corresponding relation between hardness and
tensile strength. Therefore, these surfaces must
be adequately removed by grinding before measurements are made.
2-72. In making hardness measurements on
tubular sections, correction factors must be determined and applied to the observed readings in
order to compensate for the roundness and def lection of the tubing under the pressure of the penetrator. This may be impractical because every
tube size end wall thickness would have a different factor. As an alternate, the following procedure
may be used: Short lengths may be cut from the
tube. A mandrel long enough to extend out both
ends of the tube and slightly smaller in diameter
than the inner diameter of the tube is then passed
through the section and the ends supported in ‘‘V’’
supports on the hardness tester. Hardness readings may then be taken on the tubing.
2-73. SPECIFICATION CROSS REFERENCE.
Table 2-2 is a cross reference index listing the
steel and alloy types and the corresponding Federal, Military, and aeronautical material specif ications for the different conf igurations. Where two
or more specif ications cover the same material,
stock material meeting the requirements of a military specif ication shall be used for all aeronautical
structural items. Some of the specif ications listed
in Table 2-2 are for reference only, and are not
approved for Air Force use.
2-11
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
FORM/COMMODITY
Specification Cross Reference
AMS
FEDERAL
5030
MILITARY
1005
Rod, welding steel and
cast iron, rod and wire,
steel welding (A/C
application)
1008
Steel, sheet and strip,
f lat, aluminum coated
low carbon, MIL-S-4174
MIL-S-4174
1010
Bars, Billets, Blooms,
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Bars (General Purpose)
QQ-S-633
Wire
QQ-W-461
Sheet and Strip
5047
Sheet and Strip
5040
Sheet and Strip
5042
QQ-S-698
Sheet and Strip
5044
QQ-S-698
Tubing, Seamless
5050
Tubing, Welded
5053
Rivets
7225
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-S-698
QQ-W-409
MIL-S-13468
Blooms, Billets, Slabs
MIL-S-16788 C1 1
Steel Disks (For Deep
Drawn Ammunition
items)
MIL-S-13852
Tubes, Seamless
(Marine Boiler
application)
MIL-T-16286 C1 A
Electrodes, Welding
MIL-E-6843 C1 E
6013
5031
MIL-E-6843 C1 E
6013
Electrodes, Welding
MIL-E-18193 ty 60
Rod and Wire (Welding
Low Carbon Steel)
MIL-R-5632 C1 1
Bar (General Purpose)
Bar and Billets
Tube, Seamless/Welded
2-12
MIL-S-11310
Strip (For Small Arms,
Bullets)
Electrodes, Welding
1015, 1016,
1017, 1018
and 1019
MIL-R-908, C1 1
5060
QQ-S-633 (Comp
C1015-C1019)
WW-T-731 Comp A
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
1015, 1016,
1017, 1018
and 1019
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Tube, Mechanical
Steel - Carbon
MILITARY
QQ-T-830 MT1015
5060
QQ-S-633 Comp C1015
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-W-409 (Comp 1015
1019
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-W-461
Tubing
MIL-T-3520
Steel Disks
MIL-S-13852
Plate, Sheet and Strip
(See Corten)
MIL-S-7809
Sheet and Strip, Bars,
Billets
1020
FEDERAL
QQ-S-640
Blooms, Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Bars, Billets, Blooms,
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Bars
QQ-S-633
Sheet and Strip
Wire (Carbon)
MIL-S-3090
MIL-S-7952
5032
QQ-W-461
Wire
Wire (Book Binder)
Sheet and Strip
QQ-W-414
5045
QQ-S-698 1020
Plate (Carbon)
QQ-S-635
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-W-409
Tubing (Automotive)
MIL-T-3520
Bars
MIL-S-11310
Blooms, Billets, Slabs
MIL-S-16788 C1 2
Tubing (Welded)
MIL-T-20162 Gr 1
Tubing
MIL-T-20169
Steel Disks (For deep
drawn ammunition
items)
MIL-S-13852
Sheet and Strip
Tubing (Seamless and
Welded)
QQ-T-830
Change 1
2-13
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
1022
1025
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
Bars and Forgings
AMS
5070
FEDERAL
QQ-S-633
Plates (Up to 1″)
QQ-S-691, C1 A
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-W-409
MILITARY
MIL-S-11310
Steel Disk (For deep
drawn ammunition
items)
MIL-S-13852
Bars, Billets, Blooms,
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Sheet and Strip
QQ-S-640
Tubing
QQ-S-643
Tubing, Mechanical
QQ-T-830
Fittings
MIL-F-20236 ty 1
Bars
QQ-S-633
Tubing
MIL-T-3520
Tubing
MIL-T-5066
Castings
QQ-S-681, C1 1
Castings
QQ-S-681, C1 2
Bars
MIL-S-11310
Tubing, Seamless
5075
MIL-T-5066
Tubing, Welded
5077
MIL-T-5066
Wire
QQ-W-409
Casting
MIL-S-15083 C1 B
Steel Disks
MIL-S-13852
Sheet and Strip
MIL-S-7952
Tubing
QQ-S-643
Plate
MIL-P-20167 C1 C
Corten
Plate, Sheet and Strip
(High Str)
MIL-S-7809
NAX AC
9115
Sheet, Plate, Bar,
Billet, Bloom, Strip
6354
1035
Steel, Carbon (Bars,
Forgings, and Tubings)
5080
2-14
QQ-S-633 (Bar)
Ingot
MIL-S-20145 Gr N
Plate
MIL-P-20167 C1 A
Bar
QQ-S-633
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-W-461
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
1035
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
Tubes
MIL-T-20141
Plate (Carbon)
QQ-S-635
Forgings
Tubes, Seamless
MIL-S-16900
5082
Plate and Disk
MIL-S-3289
Plates (Marine Boiler)
QQ-S-691 C1 B
Plates (Marine Boiler)
QQ-S-691 C1 C
Shapes, Bar and Plate
(Structural)
QQ-S-741 Gr A
Wire
QQ-W-409
Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-640
Forgings (Naval Ship
Board)
MIL-S-19434, C1 1
Plates and Disks (For
artillery ammunition
cartridge cases)
MIL-S-3289
Tubes
1040
1045
MIL-T-11823
Bars
QQ-S-633
Plate (Carbon)
QQ-S-635
Castings
QQ-S-681, C1 1
Wire
QQ-W-409
Bars
MIL-S-11310
Blooms, Billets, Bars
and Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Tubes (Welded)
MIL-T-4377
Bars
QQ-S-633
Wire (Carbon)
QQ-W-461
Ingots
1050
MILITARY
MIL-S-20145 Gr P
Plate
QQ-S-635
Sheets, Strip, Tubes,
Seamless
QQ-S-640
Strip
MIL-S-303
Strip (For ammunition
cartridge clips)
MIL-S-3039
Bars
QQ-S-633
Plate (Carbon)
QQ-S-635
MIL-S-20137
2-15
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
1050
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Blooms, Billets, and
Slabs (For Forgings)
Bars, Billets, Blooms,
Slabs, Castings
5085
QQ-S-681
QQ-T-880
Ingots
MIL-S-20145 Gr R
Forgings (For Shell
Stock)
MIL-S-10520
Bars
QQ-S-633
Electrodes
1060
MIL-E-18193 (Ty 201)
Bar
QQ-S-633
Bars, and Wire
MIL-S-16410 comp 3
Wire, Springs,
QQ-W-428 Ty 1 and 2
Spring
MIL-S-2839
Blooms, Billets, Slabs
MIL-S-16788, C1 C6
Bars, Blooms, Billets,
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Forgings
MIL-S-10520 comp 3
Sheet, Strip
1070-1075
QQ-S-640
Sheet, Strip
Wire, Spring
MIL-S-8143
5115
Steel Tool
Washers
QQ-T-580
7240
Wire Bars
FF-W-84 C1 A
QQ-S-633
Steel, Strip (SpringTime Fuse)
Strip, Spring
1080, 1086,
1090
2-16
MILITARY
MIL-S-16788, C1 C5
Tubing, Seamless/
Welded
1055
FEDERAL
MIL-S-12504
MIL-S-11713 comp 2
5120
(1074)
Bars
QQ-S-633
Steel, Tool
QQ-T-580 C1-W1-09
Blooms, Billets, Slabs
(For Forgings)
MIL-S-16788 C1 C8
Wire, Drawn Metal
(Stitching, (Galvanized)
MIL-W-6714
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
1080, 1086,
1090
(Continued)
1095
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
Blooms, Billets, Bars,
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Wire, Comm Quality
5110
Wire, Carbon
Spring, Music
5112
QQ-W-470
Bars
5132
QQ-S-633
Bars, Wire
QQ-W-428
Sheet, Strip
MIL-S-11713 comp 3
Wire (High Carbon)
1117
QQ-W-470
Sheet, Strip
5121
Strip
MIL-S-7947 cond A
Sheet, Strip
5122
Strip
MIL-S-7947 cond H
Springs
7340
Wire, Spring (For
small arms
application)
MIL-W-13604
Blooms, Billets, Slabs
MIL-S-16788
Steel Bars, Round,
Square and Flat for
Forgings
MIL-S-46033
Strip
MIL-S-17919
Bars, Blooms, Billet
and Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Steel, Carbon, Bars
Forging and
Mechanical Tubing
5010
Bars
5010
Steel - Carbon, Bars,
Forging and
Mechanical Tubing
5022
QQ-S-633
Bars
Bars
MIL-S-16124, C1 1,
comp A
5022
Forgings
1137
MIL-S-8559
MIL-S- 16410 comp 1
Wire, Spring
1112
MILITARY
Steel - Carbon, Bars,
Forging and
Mechanical Tubing
QQ-S-633
MIL-S-10520
5024
2-17
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
1137
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
Bars
AMS
5024
FEDERAL
QQ-S-633
Bars
2317
2330
2340
3115
Tubing, Seamless
QQ-S-643
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Ingots
MIL-S-20145
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Tubing
QQ-S-629
Bars
QQ-S-624
Tubing
QQ-S-629
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
MIL-S-20145 Gr V
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bars, Billets (For
carburizing)
3140
MIL-S-866
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bars, Blooms, Billets
3310
MIL-S-16974
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire
QQ-S-405
3316
Bars
4037
Bars, Wire
MIL-S-7397 comp 1
MIL-S-1393 comp 2
6300
Bar
QQ-S-624
Wire
QQ-W-405
4050
Steel, Tool
QQ-T-570 C1 1
4130
Bars, Rods, Forgings
(A/C Quality)
2-18
MIL-S-43
MIL-S-16124, C1 2
Ingots
2515
MILITARY
6370
QQ-S-624
MIL-S-6758
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
4130
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
Plate, Sheet Strip
(A/C Quality)
AMS
FEDERAL
6350
6351
MIL-S-18729
Bars, Blooms, Billets
and Slabs
Tubing, Seamless
MIL-S-16974
6360
6361
6362
MIL-T-6736
Tubing, Welded
Tubing, Mechanical
4135
MIL-S-6731
6371
Plate (Commercial
Quality)
QQ-S-626
Sheet, Strips
QQ-S-627
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bars
QQ-S-624
Plate, Sheet, Strip
Tubing, Seamless
MILITARY
MIL-S-18733
6365
MIL-T-6735 cond N
Tubing, Seamless
MIL-T-6735
Bars, Blooms
MIL-S-16974
Tubing, Seamless
6372
Tubing
17-22-A(V)
Bar, Forging,
Forging Stock
6303
4137C0
Mellon
- Alternate designation: Unimuch UCX2, MX - 2, Rocoloy.
XMDR-2, Sheet, Steel.
Specif ication:
4140
Bars, Rods, Forgings,
Plates (Commercial
Grade)
6882
MIL-S-5626
Tubing
6381
QQ-S-624
QQ-S-626
Bar, Blooms, Billets
4150
MIL-S-16974
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bar
QQ-S-624
Bar (For Small arms
Weapons Barrels)
MIL-S-11595 MR
Bar (Special Bar for
AF Bullet Cores and
Shot)
MIL-S-12504 MR
2-19
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
52100
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Bars, Forgings
6440
Tubing, Mechanical
6441
FEDERAL
MILITARY
MIL-S-7420
Ladish D-6-A - Alternate designation, D-6-A-V - and D-6-A-C.
Nitralloy 135 Bar, Forging, Forging Stock
(Nitriding)
6470
Bar
and
Forgings
MIL-S-6709, comp A
Alternate designations, Nitralloy Type G, Modif ied and ASTM-A355-57T
C1 A
Nitralloy 4330 Bars and Forgings Stock
(Mod)
Nitralloy
4337
MIL-E-8699
Bars, Forging
64126475
Tubing, Seamless
6413
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-S-624
QQ-W-405
Ingot
4340
MIL-S-20145 Gr U
Plate, Sheet and Strip
6359
Bar, Forging and
Tubing
6414
Bar, Forging and
Tubing
6415
MIL-S-5000
Bar, Reforging
MIL-S-8844 C1 1
Bar
Bar, Forging and
Tubing
QQ-S-624
6428
Strip and Sheet
QQ-S-627
Bar, Rod, Plate
and Sheet
MIL-E-21515
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bars, Blooms, Billets
MIL-S-16974
4335 (Mod)
Bars, Plates, Sheets
and Strips
MIL-S-21515
HyTuf
Bar, Forging and
Mechanical Tubing
4615
Bars
2-20
6418
MIL-S-7108
QQ-S-624
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
4615
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Wire
FEDERAL
MILITARY
QQ-W-405
Bars, Billets
MIL-S-866
4617
Bars
MIL-S-7493
4620
Bars
QQ-S-624
Wire
QQ-W-405
4640
Bars, Blooms, Billets
MIL-S-16974
Bars
6312
QQ-S-624
Bars and Forgings
6317
QQ-S-624C Bars
Wire (Alloy)
6150
QQ-W-405
Sheet, Strip
MIL-S-18731
Bars
QQ-S-624
Bar
Bars, Forging
MIL-S-7493
MIL-S-8503
MIL-S-46033
6448
MIL-S-8503
Wire
Wire, Spring
6450
QQ-W-428 comp D
Bars, Wire (Spring)
MIL-S-16410 comp 4
Ingots
MIL-S-20145 Gr Z
Sheet, Strip (Springs)
6455
Springs (Highly
Stressed)
7301
Sheet, Strip
MIL-S-18731
QQ-S-627
Wire
8615
Bars, Forgings, Tubing
MIL-W-22826
6270
Wire (Alloy)
8617
QQ-S-624 (Bar)
QQ-W-405
Bars, Billets
MIL-S-866
Bars, Blooms, Billets
and Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Castings
5333
(8615
mod)
Bars, Forgings, Tubing
Bars
6272
QQ-S-624 (Bar)
Bars
QQ-S-624
Sheet and Strip
QQ-S-627
2-21
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
8617
(Continued)
Wire
QQ-W-405
8620
Bars
QQ-S-624
Bars, Forgings, Tubing
8630
6274
MIL-S-8690
Plates (Commercial
Grade)
QQ-S-626
Sheet and Strip
QQ-S-627
Wire
QQ-W-405
Bars, Blooms, Billets
MIL-S-16974
Plate, Sheet, Strip
(A/C Quality)
MIL-S-18728
Tubing
MIL-T-6732
Bars
QQ-S-624
Bars, Forgings
6280
MIL-S-6050
Tubing
6281
Tubing, Seamless
6530
MIL-T-6732 cond N
Tubing, Welded
6550
MIL-T-6734 cond N
Sheet, Strip
6355
Bars, Blooms, Billets
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Plate (Commercial
Grade)
QQ-S-626
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Sheet, Strip (Hot
Rolled)
QQ-S-627
Bars, Rods, Forgings
8640
MILITARY
MIL-S-6050
Bars
QQ-S-624
Bars, Blooms, Billets
Slabs
MIL-S-16974
Plate
QQ-S-626
Tubing, Seamless
MIL-T-16690
Tubing
Wire (Alloy)
8735
2-22
QQ-W-405
Tubing, Seamless
6535
MIL-T-6733 cond N
Tubing, (Mechanical)
6282
MIL-S-6098
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
8735
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
Tubing, rods, bars and
forging stock (A/C
quality)
MIL-S-6098
Sheet, Strip and Plate
6357
MIL-S-18733
Bars, Forgings
6320
MIL-S-6098
Bars, Rods, Forgings
8740
MILITARY
Bars, Forgings
MIL-S-6098
6322
Bars
MIL-S-6049 cond C
QQ-S-624
Bars, Forgings
6325
6327
Plate, Sheet and Strip
6358
Tubing, Mechanical
6323
MIL-S-6049
Plate (Commercial)
QQ-S-626
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-W-405
Bars, Rods, Forgings
MIL-S-6049
9250
Bars, and Reforging
Stock
MIL-S-8844
C1 2/3
9620
Bars
QQ-S-624
Bar
MIL-S-46033
Wire, Spring
9262
QQ-W-474, comp E
Bars, Wire (Spring)
MIL-S-16410, comp 5
Steel, Strip
MIL-S-17919, C1 6
Wire, Spring
QQ-W-428
Bar
9310
MIL-S-46033
Bars
QQ-S-624
Sheet and Strip
QQ-S-627
Bars, Forgings,
Tubings
6260
Bar, Forgings and
Tubing
6265
Wire (Alloy)
QQ-S-624 (Bar)
QQ-W-405
9315
Bars
6263
Type 301
(30301)
Casting Prec Invest
(S±)
5358
Sheet, Strip, Plate (ST)
5515
MIL-S-5059
2-23
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
Type 301
(30301)
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
5517
MIL-S-5059
Sheet, Strip, Plate
(1/2 H)
5518
MIL-S-5059
Sheet, Strip, Plate
(Full H)
5519
MIL-S-5059
QQ-S-766
Wire, (Spring Temper)
5688
QQ-W-423 comp 502
Bars (CD to 100000
tensile)
5636
QQ-S-763 CL 303
Bars (CD to 125000
tensile)
5637
QQ-S-763 C1 302
Bars, Forgings
Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-763, C1 1
5516
MIL-S-5059 comp 302
Plate, Sheet, Strip
(60302)
MIL-S-5059
Pins, Cotter
7210
Rivets (18CR 8N:)
7228
FF-P-386 Type C
Steel, Stainless, Bar
and Billets (Reforging Applications)
MIL-S-862 C1 302
Bars, Forgings
MIL-S-7720
Steel, Castings
5358
Wire, Annealed
QQ-W-423
Castings
MIL-S-17509, C1 1
Plate, Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-682
Plate, Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-766
Wire
303
2-24
MILITARY
Sheet, Strip, Plate
(1/4 H)
Plate, Sheet, Strip
Shape
302
(30302)
FEDERAL
MIL-W-17481
Lockwashers, Helical
7241
FF-W-84 C1 C
Bar, Forging
5640
QQ-S-763
Bar
5738
Bar, Billets,
Reforging
MIL-S-862
Bars, Forgings
MIL-S-7720
Bar, Forging
(Swaging)
5641
Bar, Forging
5642
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
304
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
Tubing
5566
MIL-T-6845
Tubing
5567
MIL-T-8504
Castings
MIL-S-867 C1 1
Plate, Sheet, Strip
MIL-S-4043
Plate
MIL-F-20138
Plate, Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-766
Castings, Precision
Invest
5370
Castings, Sand
5371
Wire
5697
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing
5647
Bar
QQ-W-423
QQ-S-763
Plate, Sheet, Strip
5511
MIL-S-4043
Tubing, Bar, Forging
5639
QQ-S-763
Wire
5697
QQ-W-423
Tubing
316
MIL-S-7720
MIL-T-5695
Bars, Forgings
314
MILITARY
QQ-S-763
Tubing, Seamless
5560
MIL-T-8506
Tubing, Welded
5565
MIL-S-8506
Bar, Forging,
Mechanical Tubing
and Rings
5652
Sheet, Strip, Plate
5522
Casting, Investment
5360
Casting, Sand,
Centrifugal
5361
Sheet, Strip, Plate
5524
Tubing, Seamless
5573
Bar, Forging, Tubing
5648
Wire, Screen
5698
Wire
MIL-S-867 (C1 III)
QQ-S-766
MIL-S-5059 comp 316
QQ-S-763
MIL-S-7720 comp MCR
QQ-W-423
Electrode, Coated,
Welded
5691
Bar, Forging (Free
Machining)
5649
2-25
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
316
(Continued)
321
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Wire
FEDERAL
QQ-W-423
Pipe, Seamless and
Welded
MIL-P-1144
Bar, Billets,
Reforgings
MIL-S-862
Bar, Forgings,
Tubing Mechanical
5645
Plate, Sheet, Strip
5510
Plate, Sheet, Strip
Tubing, Seamless
QQ-S-763 C1 321
MIL-S-6721, comp T1
QQ-S-766
5570
MIL-T-8606 T1, G321
Tubing, Welded,
Thin Wall
Tubing, Welded
MIL-T-8887
5576
MIL-T-6737, T 321
Tubing, Flexible
MIL-T-7880
Wire, Screen
5689
Pins, Cotter
7211
Tubing, Hydraulic
5557
Tubing, Welded
MIL-T-6737
Bar, Forgings
QQ-S-763
Tubing
MIL-T-8606
Plate, Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-682
Tubing, Hydraulic
Tubing, Welded,
Thin Wall
347
MIL-T-8808
5559
Tube
MIL-T-8606
Rivets
7229
Bars, Forgings,
Tubing
5646
Castings
Sheet, Strip
5512
Casting, Sand
5363
Tubing, Seamless
Tubing, Seamless,
Welded Drawn
QQ-S-763 C1 347
MIL-S-867 C1 II
Casting
2-26
MILITARY
MIL-S-6721 Type
CB + TA) (CB)
MIL-S-17609 C1 II
5571
MIL-T-8606, Type
1, G347
MIL-T-8606
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
347
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
Tubing, Welded
AMS
FEDERAL
5575
MIL-T-6737, Type 347
Tubing, Flexible
MIL-T-7880
Tubing, Hydraulic
5556
Tubing, Welded
5558
Plate, Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-682
Tubing, Welded
MIL-T-6737
Bars, Forgings
QQ-S-763
Plate, Sheet, Strip
MIL-S-6721
Castings
MIL-S-17509, C1 2
Rods, Welding
MIL-R-5031
Plate, Sheet, Strip
QQ-S-766
Tubes, Seamless
(Marine Boiler
Application)
MIL-T-16286
Tubes, Hydraulic
MIL-T-8808
Casting, sand and
Centrif
5362
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing
5613
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing
(Ferrite
Controlled
Modified)
5612
410-MO
Bars and Forgings
5614
410-MOD
Bars and Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing
5609
410
Plate, Sheet and
Strip
5504
410
Plate, Sheet and
Strip (Ferrite Modif ied/
controlled)
5505
410
(51410)
MILITARY
QQ-S-763 C1 410
QQ-S-766 C1 410
Change 1
2-27
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
410
(60410)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Casting Investment
5350
Casting, Sand
5351
Wire
(51410)
FEDERAL
MIL-S-16933 C1 I
QQ-W-423 comp 410
Bars
MIL-S-861
Bars, and Billets
(For Reforging)
MIL-S-862
Tubing, Seamless
5591
Tubing, Flexible
414
Bars, Forgings
MIL-T-7880
5615
QQ-S-763 C1 414
Bars
416
(51416F)
MIL-S-862
Bars
5610
Bars and Forgings
5610
QQ-S-763 C1 416 Se
(Bar)
Bars and Billets
(Reforging)
420
(51420)
MIL-S-862 C1 6
Bars and Billets (For
Reforging)
MIL-S-862 C1 5
Bars and Forgings
(Free Mach)
5620
Bars and Forgings
5621
Bars
5621
QQ-S-763 C1 420
Plate, Sheet and
Strip
5506
QQ-S-766 C1 420
Wire
431
QQ-W-423
Bars and Billets (For
Reforging)
MIL-S-862
Bars, Billets,
Forgings, Tubing
MIL-S-18732
Castings, Sand
5372
Bars, Forgings
5682
431 MOD
Castings, Precision
Investment
5353
440 C
Bars and Forgings
5630
QQ-S-763, C1 440C
440 A
Bars and Forgings
5631
QQ-S-763, C1 440A
2-28
MILITARY
QQ-S-763, C1 431
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
FORM/COMMODITY
Specification Cross Reference
AMS
440 F
Bars and Forgings
5632
14-4PH
Castings, Investment
5340
15-7 MO
Bar and Forging
5657
Plate, Sheet and
Strip
5520
Bar
5643
Castings - Investment
(Heat Treated 130,000
PSI)
5342
Castings - Investment
(Heat Treated 150,000
PSI)
5343
Castings - Investment
(Heat Treated)
5344
Electrode - Welding
5827
Castings - Investment
5355
Plate, Sheet and Strip
5528
Sheet and Strip (Precipitation Hardening)
5530
Bar and Forgings
5644
Tubing, Welded
5568
Casting Sand (Solution
Treated)
5369
Plate, Sheet and Strip
5526
Plate, Sheet and Strip
(125000TS, Hot rolled,
Stress Relieved)
5527
Bars (Up to 1.5 inch)
5720
Bars (Up to 1 inch)
5721
Bars and Forgings
5722
Bars, Forgings and
Rings
5723
Bars (Up to 1 inch)
5724
Bars (Up to 1.5 inch)
5729
Plate, Sheet and Strip
5538
17-4 PH
17-7 PH
19-9DL
19-9DX
FEDERAL
MILITARY
QQ-S-763, C1 440F
MIL-S-25043
Change 1
2-29
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
19-9DX
(Continued)
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Plate, Sheet and Strip,
(Hot rolled and Stress
Relieved 125,000TS)
5539
Bars, Forgings and
Rings
5723
Bars (Up to 1 inch)
5724
Bars (Up to 1.5 inch)
5729
19-9 MOD
Electrode, Welding,
Covered (Armor
applications)
AM350
Bar
5745
Sheet and Strip
(Cold rolled)
5540
Sheet and Strip
(High Temp
Annealed)
5548
Bar and Forgings
5745
Tubing, Seamless
5554
Wire, Welding
5774
Electrode, Coated
Wire
5775
Bar
5743
Castings, Investment
5368
Sheet and Strip
5547
Plate (Solution
Heat Treated)
5549
Plate (Equalized and
Over-Tempered)
5594
Electrode, Coated
Welding
5781
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing
5734
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing and
Rings
5735
AM355
A286
2-30
Change 1
FEDERAL
MILITARY
MIL-E-13080
MIL-S-8840
MIL-S-8840
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
A286
(Continued)
Rene 41
Greek
Ascoloy
Inconel 600
42 Inconel
Alloy X750
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
MILITARY
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing and
Rings (Sol Treated)
5736
Bars and Forgings and
Mechanical Tubing
(Annealed
and Precip Treated)
5737
Rivets, Steel (Annealed
1650oF and partially
precip treated)
7235
Bars and Forgings
(Solution Treated
5712
Bars and Forgings
(Solution and
Precip Treated)
5713
Plate Sheet and Strip
(Solution Heat
Treated)
5545
Castings, Investment
5354
Plate, Sheet and Strip
5508
Bars, Forgings,
Mechanical Tubing
and Rings
5616
Wire, Annealed
5687
Plate, Sheet and Strip
5540
MIL-N-6840
Bars, Forgings and
Rings
5665
MIL-N-6710
Tubing, Seamless
5580
MIL-T-7840
Sheet and Strip
5542
MIL-N-7786
QQ-W-390
Change 1
2-31
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
42 Inconel
Alloy X750
(Continued)
Inconel X750
Hastelloy C
Hastelloy W
Hastelloy X
HNM
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
MILITARY
Bars and Forgings
5667
Bars and Forgings
5668
MIL-N-8550 Cond E
Wire, No 1 Temper
5698
JAN-W-562, C1 1
Wire, Spring Temper
5699
JAN-W-562, C1 2
Castings, Prec
Invest
5388
Casting, Sand
5389
Sheet
5530
Bar, Forgings
5750
Bars and Forgings
5755
Wire
5786
Castings, Alloy Prec
Invest
5390
Sheet
5536
Bar and Forgings
5754
Wire
5798
MIL-N-18088
MIL-R-5031, C1 12
Bars, Billet, Forging,
Wire
WASP Alloy
MIL-S-17759
NONE NONE
NONE
MISC STANDARDS/SPECIFICATIONS - METAL
PRODUCTS
Steel: Chemical Composition and
Hardenability
Metal Test Methods
Fed Std 66
Fed Std 151
Surface Passivation
Corrosion Resistant Steel Parts
2-32
Change 1
QQP-35
MIL-STD-753
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
FEDERAL
MILITARY
X-Ray Standards for Welding
Electrode Qualif ication and Quality
Conformance Test Welds
MIL-STD-775
Identification of Pipe, Hose and Tube Lines
for Aircraf t, Missile Space Vehicles and
Associated Support Equipment and Facilities
MIL-STD-1247
Preparation of Test Reports
MIL-STD-831
Marking of Aircraf t and Missile Propulsion
System Parts, Fabricated From Critical
High Temp Alloys
MIL-STD-841
Procedures for Determining
Particle Size, Distribution
and Packed Density of
Powdered Materials
MIL-STD-1233
Alloy Designation System for
Wrought Copper and Copper
Alloys
MIL-STD-455
Inspection Radiographic
MIL-STD-453
Mechanical Tests for Weld
Joints
MIL-STD-418
Qualification of Inspection
Personal Magnetic Particle
MIL-STD-410
Alloy, Nomenclature and
Temper Designation for
Magnesium Base Alloys
MIL-STD-409
Tolerances for Copper and
Copper Base Alloy Mill
Products
FED-STD-146
Continuous Identification
Marking of Iron and Steel
FED-STD-183
Identification Marking of
Aluminum Magnesium and
Titanium
FED-STD-184
Continuous Identification
Marking of Copper and Copper
Base Alloy Mill Products
FED-STD-185
Change 1
2-33
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-2.
COMP/ALLOY
DESIGN
Specification Cross Reference - Continued
FORM/COMMODITY
AMS
Identification of Pressed Bonds,
Forms, Seams and Joints Sheet
Metal
FED-STD-187
Tolerance for Aluminum Alloy
and Magnesium Alloy Wrought
Products
FED-STD-245
Change 4
MILITARY
Heat Treatment of Steels
(Aircraf t Practice) Process for
SAE-AMS-H-6875
Steel Mill Products Preparation
for Shipment and Storage
MIL-STD-163
Tolerances for Steel and Iron
Wrought Products
2-34
FEDERAL
FED-STD-48
T.O. 1-1A-9
2-74. GENERAL HEAT TREATING TEMPERATURES,
COMPOSITION (CHEMICAL) AND CHARACTERISTICS
OF VARIOUS STEEL AND STEEL ALLOYS.
Normalize: 1700oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1600oF, furnace cool.
Carburize: 1600oF, quench in water, oil, or brine.
CARBO-NITRIDING
See supplement data for chemical symbols.
1010. Low Carbon steel of this grade is used for
manufacture of such articles as safety wire, certain nuts, cable bushings and threaded rod ends,
and other items where cold formability is the primary requisite. Heat treatment is frequently
employed to improve machinability. Welding is
easily accomplished by all common welding
methods.
For 1560F, use 35NH3d 25CH4 generator gas*.
For 1650 use 38NH3 & 24CH4
COMPOSITION RANGE
*Gas - American Gas Assoc Class 302.
C%
Mn%
0.08-0.13
0.3-0.6
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.5
Fe%
Balance
Temp Time
1560
1650
2.5
2.5
HardCase Depth ness Cool
0.019
0.018
62
59
OQ
OQ
Draw
350
350
FORMS. See Specif ication Table 2-2.
1022. Low Carbon. This steel is similar in content and heat treatment requirements to 1020.
Typical applications are case hardened roller
chains, bearing races, cam shaf ts, etc.
HEAT TREATMENT
COMPOSITION RANGE
Normalize: 1650o-1750oF, cool in still air.
Anneal: 1650oF.
Harden: 1650o-1750oF, Quench in oil (minimum
hardness) Water, and Brine (maximum hardness).
C%
Mn%
Si%
0.18-0.23 0.7-0.10 0-0.2
1015. Low Carbon. This material is similar in
content and characteristics to 1010. Of low tensile
value, it should not be selected where strength is
required.
HEAT TREATMENT
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.13-18
Mn%
0.3-0.6
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORMS. See Specif ication Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1650o-1750oF
Anneal: 1600o-1650oF
Harden: 1650o-1700oF
Quench with water, oil, brine.
COMPOSITION RANGE
Mn%
0.3-0.6
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See specifications
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
S%
Fe%
0-.05 Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
Normalize: 1700oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1600oF, furnace cool.
Carburize: 1550oF to 1650oF, water quench.
Tensile: 130,000 psi.
Yield: 78,000 psi.
1025. Low Carbon. Typical applications are bolts,
machinery, electrical equipment, automotive parts,
pipe f langes, etc. With this steel no martensite is
formed and tempering is not required. This material is not generally considered a carburizing type;
however, it is sometimes used in this manner for
larger sections, or where greater case hardness is
needed.
COMPOSITION RANGE
1020. Low Carbon. Because of the carbon range
this metal has increased strength and hardness
but reduced cold formability compared with the
lowest carbon group. It f inds wide application
where carburizing is required. It is suitable for
welding and brazing.
C%
8-0.23
P%
0-.04
C%
Mn%
0.22-0.28
0.3-0.6
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1700oF, furnace cool.
Hardening: 1575o-1650oF, water quench.
Carburize: 1650o-1700oF, water or brine quench.
Tempering: 250o-400oF is optional.
Tensile strength: hot rolled 67000, cold rolled
80000.
Yield strength: hot rolled 45000, cold rolled 68000.
This steel is readily welded by common welding
2-35
T.O. 1-1A-9
methods.
Temper: 1150oF for 70,000 psi.
CORTEN Low Carbon, Low Alloy. This steel is
not heat treatable, but in the annealed or normalized condition it is stronger than plain carbon
steel, is easily formed, welded and machined. In
addition, this alloy is 4-6 times more resistant to
atmospheric corrosion than plain carbon steel.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0-0.12
Cr%
0.30-1.25
Si%
0.25-0.75
Cu%
Mn%
0.25-0.055 0.2-0.5
P%
0.07-0.15
S%
0-0.05
Ni%
0-0.65
Fe%
Balance
Stress relief anneal 900o-1150oF, air cool, 30 minutes to 6 hours. Typical room temperatures: tensile
76,500, yield 53,000. For arc welding, use low
hydrogen electrodes E6015 (thin gauges) and
E7015. For heliarc welding use drawn f iller wire
of MIL-R-5032. Perform spot welding by pulsation
method for heavier gauges; use post heat cycle for
lighter gauges.
1035. Medium Carbon. This steel is selected
where higher mechanical properties are needed
since it may be further hardened and strenghtened
by heat treatment or by cold work. Typical applications are gears, clutch pedals, f lywheel rings,
crank shaf ts, tools and springs.
COMPOSITION RANGE
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1550oF, furnace cool.
C% Q
0.32-0.38
Stress relief 1150oF, 1 hour per inch of maximum
section thickness. This alloy cannot be hardened.
Tensile strength, annealed or normalized 67,000
psi. Yield strength, annealed or normalized 47,000
psi. This alloy is readily welded by the usual gas
and arc methods with complete freedom from air
hardening. ASTM A233 or E60 electrodes are recommended for shielded arc welding. For gas welding, high strength welding rods such as ASTM
A251, CA-25, are recommended. This steel may be
resistance welded to itself or other resistance
weldable ferrous alloys, using the same methods
applied to plain carbon steel.
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
NAXAC9115 Low Carbon, Low Alloy. This material is usually in the stress relieved condition.
Moderate strength is maintained with high toughness up to approximately 800oF. Weldability is
excellent and it machines better than carbon steels
of the same tensile strengths.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.1-0.17
Cr%
0.5-0.75
Cu%
0-0.35
Mn%
0.5-0.8
Mo%
0.15-0.25
Ni%
0-0.25
Si%
0.6-0.9
Zn%
0.05-0.15
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.04
Fe%
Balance
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1575o-1650oF, cool in still air.
Anneal: 1575o-1650oF, 1 hour per 1″ of section,
(Preheat) Temper at 900oF for 100,000 psi.
Spheroidize: 1250o-1375oF.
Harden: 1525o-1600oF, quench in water or oil.
(Brine or caustic may also be used for quenching.)
Weldability is very good by all common welding
methods. Cold formability is poor, but hot
formability is excellent. Tensile strength, hot
rolled 85,000 psi, cold rolled 92,000 psi, yield
strength, hot rolled 54,000 psi, cold rolled 79,000
psi, Brinill 183-201, respectively.
1040. Medium Carbon is selected where intermediate mechanical properties are needed and may
be further hardened and strengthened by heat
treatment or cold work.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si%
0.37-0.44 0.6-0.9 0-0.2
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
SPECIFICATIONS
AMS
FORM
6354
6440
Sheet, strip, plate.
Wire.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal: 1625o-1650oF, furnace cool.
Normalize: 1650o-1675oF, air cool.
2-36
Mn%
0.6-0.9
Normalize: 1575o-1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1550o-1625oF, furnace cool. (Tensile
79,000 psi, yield 48,000 psi annealed).
Harden: 1500o-1575oF, water or oil quench.
Temper: 1100o-1150oF, to obtain tensile 100,000
psi, yield 80,000 psi. For tensile 125,000 and yield
85,000 psi temper at 700oF. Suitable heat treatment is required to permit machining.
T.O. 1-1A-9
1045. Medium Carbon. Forgings such as connecting rods, steering arms, axles, axle shaf ts and
tractor wheels are fabricated from this steel. Not
recommended for welding.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.43-0.5
Mn%
0.6-0.9
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.04
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATION. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1575o-1675oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1550o-1600oF, furnace cool for maximum
softness.
Harden: 1475o-1550oF, quench, water or oil.
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 100,000 psi, yield
65,000 psi.
Temper: 1000oF for tensile 125,000 psi, yield
95,000 psi.
1050. Medium Carbon. This is a medium carbon
type steel with high mechanical properties which
may be further hardened and strengthened by
heat treatment or by cold work. Application is
similar to 1045. Not recommended for welding.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
0.46-0.55
0.6-0.9
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATION. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1450o-1525oF, furnace cool (Tensile 90,000
yield 50,000 annealed.)
Harden: 1475o-1550oF, oil or water quench.
Temper: 1250oF for 100,000 psi tensile, 75,000 for
yield.
Temper: 1025oF for 125,000 psi tensile, 90,000 for
yield.
Temper: 700oF for 150,000 psi tensile, 114,000 for
yield.
1055. High Carbon. Steels of this type (1060,
1070, 1080 are in same category) have similiar
characteristics and are primarily used where
higher carbon is needed to improve wear characteristics for cutting edges, as well as for manufacture of springs, etc. Not recommended for
welding.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
0.50-0.60
0.6-0.9
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1550o-1575oF.
Harden: 1450o-1550oF, water or oil quench.
Temper: 1250oF for 100,000 psi tensile, 1050oF for
125,000 tensile, 600oF for 150,000 tensile.
1060. High Carbon. See 1055 for application and
characteristics
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
0.55-0.65 0.6-0.09
P%
0-0.04
S%
Fe%
0-0.05 Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1525o-1625oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1500o-1575oF (Tensile 104,000 psi, yield
54,000 psi annealed).
Harden: 1450o-1550oF, water or oil quench.
Temper: 1125oF for 130,000 tensile, 80,000 yield.
Temper: 1025oF for 139,000 tensile, 96,000 yield.
Temper: 925oF for 149,000 tensile, 99,000 yield.
1070. High Carbon. See 1055 for application and
characteristics. In addition this alloy is used for
f lat springs and wire form as coil springs.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
0.65-0.75
0.6-0.9
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1525o-1625oF, air cool, retard cooling
rate to prevent hardness.
Anneal: 1500o-1575oF, furnace cool.
Harden: 1450o-1550oF, water or oil quench
(Preheat).
Hot Working Temperature: 1550o-1650oF.
Temper: 1250oF for 100,000 psi tensile.
Temper: 1100oF for 125,000 psi tensile.
Temper: 1000oF for 150,000 psi tensile.
The high carbon content of this steel causes diff iculties in arc or gas welding processes. Welding
by the thermit process is satisfactory. Hot formality is very good at 1550o-1650oF.
1080. High Carbon. See 1055 for applications and
characteristics.
COMPOSITION RANGE
2-37
T.O. 1-1A-9
C%
Mn%
0.75-0.88
0.6-0.9
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1475o-1525oF (Tensile 120,000, yield
66,000 psi annealed).
Harden: 1450o-1550oF, quench oil.
Temper: 1200oF for 129,000 tensile, 87,000 yield.
Temper: 1100oF for 145,000 tensile, 103,000 yield.
Temper: 900oF for 178,000 tensile, 129,000 yield.
1095. High Carbon. See 1055 for applications. In
addition these steels are used for f lat spring applications and in wire form as coil springs.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.9-1.03
Mn%
0.3-0.5
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
OIL QUENCH
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1425o-1475oF (Tensile 98,000 psi, yield
52,000 psi annealed) furnace cool. To reduce
annealing time, furnace cool to 900oF and air cool.
Speroidize for maximum sof tness when required.
Harden: 1425o-1550oF (oil quench).
Temper: 1100oF for 146,000 psi tensile, 88,000
yield.
Temper: 800oF for 176,000 psi tensile, 113,000
yield.
Temper: 600oF for 184,000 psi tensile, 113,000
yield.
WATER QUENCH
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1425o-1475oF.
Harden: 1425o-1500oF, quench with water.
Temper: 1100oF for 143,000 psi tensile, 96,000
yield.
Temper: 800oF for 200,000 psi tensile, 138,000
yield.
Temper: 600oF for 213,000 psi tensile, 150,000
yield.
1112. Free Cutting. This steel is used as the
standard for rating the machinability of other
steels. It is easy to machine and resulting surface
f inish is excellent. It has good brazing characteristics but is diff icult to weld except with the low
hydrogen electrode E6015 (AWS). This and similar grades are widely used for parts for bolts, nuts,
2-38
screws, but not for parts subjected to severe
stresses and shock.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Fe%
0-0.13 max 0.7-0.9 0.07-0.12 0.16-0.23 Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
May be surface hardened by heating in cyanide at
1500o-1650oF, followed by single or double quench
and draw. Preheat and soak at 1500oF to 1650oF
and quench in oil or water; tempering is optional.
Tensile strength hot rolled bars 65,000.
Tensile strength cold drawn 83,000.
1117. Carbon (Free Cutting Steel). This material
is used where a combination of good machinability
and uniform response to heat treatment is needed.
It is suited for fabrication of small parts which are
to be cyanided or carbonitrided and may be oil
quenched af ter case hardening heat treating.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.41-0.2
Mn%
1.0-1.3
P%
S%
Fe%
0-0.04 0.08-0.13 Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1650oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1575oF, furnace cool (Tensile 68,000 psi
annealed)
Harden: 1450oF, quench in water
SINGLE QUENCH AND TEMPER
Carburized 1700oF for 8 hours.
Pot Cool
Reheat to 1450oF.
Quench in water.
Temper at 350oF
Case depth 0.045.
Case hardness 65 RC.
1137. Carbon, Free Cutting. This steel is
intended for those uses where easy machining is
the primary requirement. It is characterized by a
higher sulphur content than comparable carbon
steels, which result in some sacrif ice of cold forming properties, weldability and forging
characteristics.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Fe%
0.32-0.39 1.35-1.65 0-0.04 0.08-0.13 Balance
T.O. 1-1A-9
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1700oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1400o-1500oF, furnace cool.
Harden 1525o-1575o, oil or water quench.
TYPICAL STRENGTH OF OIL QUENCHED
2330. Nickel Alloy. This is a heat treatable steel
which develops high strength and toughness in
moderate sections. It is used in highly stressed
bolts, nuts, studs, turnbuckles, etc.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
0.28-0.33 0.6-0.8
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 100,000 psi, yield
80,000 psi.
Temper: 825oF for tensile 125,000 psi, yield
100,000 psi.
Ni%
3.25-0.75
TYPICAL STRENGTH OF WATER QUENCHED
HEAT TREATMENT
o
Temper: 1100 F for tensile 105,000 psi, yield
90,000 psi.
Temper: 975oF for tensile 125,000 psi, yield
100,000 psi.
Tensile strength: 85,000 psi, yield 50,000 psi in
annealed condition.
2317. Nickel Alloy. These specif ications cover
steel castings for valves, f langes, f ittings and
other pressure containing parts intended principally for low temperature parts.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
Fe%
15-0.2 0.4-0.6 0.04 0.04 0.2-0.35 3.25 Balance
P%
0-0.04
S%
Si%
0-0.04 0.2-0.35
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
Normalize: 1600oF, preheat, cool in air.
Anneal: 1425o-1600oF, furnace cool.
Harden: 1400o-1500oF.
Quench with oil.
Temper: 1200oF-1250oF for tensile 100,000 psi,
yield 90,000 psi.
Temper: 900oF for tensile 140,000 psi.
Temper: 700oF for 178,000 psi.
WATER QUENCH
700oF
900oF
1100oF
-
190,000 psi
150,000 psi
124,000 psi
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
2340. Nickel Alloy. This metal is similar to 2330,
but has greater strength. It is an oil hardening
steel.
HEAT TREATMENT
COMPOSITION RANGE
o
o
Normalize: 1600 -1700 F, air cool
Anneal: 1500o-1550oF
Harden: 1375o-1525oF
Carburize: 1650o-1700oF, reheat to 1450oF to
1550oF, temper at 250o-300oF.
C%
Mn%
0.38-0.43 0.7-0.9
WATER QUENCH
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 100,000 psi, yield psi
83,000.
Temper: 875oF for tensile 125,000 psi, yield psi
100,000.
Temper: 750oF for tensile 150,000 psi, yield psi
124,000.
OIL QUENCH
Temper: 1025oF for tensile 100,000 psi, yield psi
83,000.
Temper: 850oF for tensile 125,000 psi, yield psi
88,000.
Temper: 650oF for tensile 150,000 psi, yield psi
108,000.
This steel may be welded by common welding
procedures.
P%
0-0.04
S%
Si%
0-0.04 0.2-0.35
Ni%
3.25-3.75
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1700oF.
Anneal: 1450o-1600oF.
Harden: 1400o-1550oF, quench in oil.
Temper: 1100oF for 125,000 psi tensile, 105,000
psi yield.
Temper: 900oF for 150,000 psi tensile, 132,000 psi
yield.
Temper: 800oF for 182,000 psi tensile, 164,000 psi
yield.
2515. Nickel Alloy. This steel is quite similar to
SAE 2512 and 2517, both in composition and
response to heat treatment.
COMPOSITION RANGE
2-39
T.O. 1-1A-9
C%
Mn%
0.12-0.17 0.4-0.6
Ni%
4.75-5.25
P%
0-0.04
S%
Si%
0-0.04 0.2-0.35
Fe%
Balance
3140. Nickel Chrome Alloy. This is a medium
deep hardening steel capable of developing good
strength and toughness when oil quenched.
COMPOSITION RANGE
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
C%
0.37-0.45
HEAT TREATMENT
Ni%
1.0-1.5
Normalize: 1650o-1750oF
Anneal: 1500oF
Quench: 1425o-1525oF, oil quench.
Temper: 1200oF for tensile 104,000, yield 80,000
psi.
Temper: 900oF for tensile 125,000, yield 106,000
psi.
Temper: 700oF for tensile 152,000, yield 125,000
psi.
WATER QUENCH
Temper: 1100oF for 116,000 psi.
Temper: 900oF for 138,000 psi.
Temper: 700oF for 165,000 psi.
3115. Steel Nickel Chromium Alloy.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.11-0.2
Si%
0.18-0.37
Mn%
0.37-0.63
Ni%
1.05-1.45
P%
0-0.048
S%
0-0.058
Cr%
0.52-0.78
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1625o-1725oF
Anneal: 1550o-1600oF
Harden: 1425o-1525oF, with oil.
Temper: 300oF for tensile, 125,000 psi, yield
86,000 psi.
CORE
PROPERTIES
3115
Box cooled
1425oF
3120
3115
Reheated
1475oF
3120
3115
Oil Quenched 1525oF
3120
2-40
DRAW
TEMP
Mn%
0.6-0.95
P%
S%
Si%
0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35
Cr%
Fe%
0.5-0.8 Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1700oF
Anneal: 1475o-1550oF (Tensile 94,000 psi, yield
66,000 psi annealed).
Harden: 1475o-1550oF, oil quench.
Temper: 1200oF for tensile 125,000 psi, yield
105,000 psi.
Temper: 1000o for Tensile 14,000 psi, yield 125,000
psi.
Temper: 800oF for Tensile 184,000 psi, yield
178,000 psi.
Temper: 700oF for Tensile 200,000 psi.
3310. Nickel - Chromium Alloy. This steel has
execeptionally high hardenability and is well
suited for heavy parts which must have high, surface hardness combined with high and uniform
properties when heat treated. It is commonly used
in case hardened gears, pinions, etc. It is similar
to Krupp Nickel Chromium except it contains
more nickel.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.08-0.13
Mn%
0.45-0.6
Cr%
1.4-1.75
P%
0-0.025
Si%
Ni%
0.2-0.35
3.25-3.75
S%
0-0.25
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
TENSILE
KSI
YIELD
KSI
300oF
125
88
300oF
300oF
155
125
115
86
300oF
300oF
155
125
115
86
4037. Molydenum Alloy. This steel is used for
such parts as gears, shaf ts, leaf and coil springs
and hand tools.
300oF
155
110
COMPOSITION RANGE
Normalize: 1600o-1700oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1475o-1575oF, furnace cool to 700oF, air
cool.
Quench: 1500oF-1550oF, 0il, Cool Slowly
Carburize: 1700oF, for 8 hours, reheat to 1500oF,
oil quench, temper 300oF, for tensile 170,000 psi,
yield 142,000 typical for 1/2″ diameter rod.
PSI. Effective case depth 0.05″.
T.O. 1-1A-9
C%
0.35-0.4
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
0.7-0.9 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35
Mo%
0.2-0.3
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Temper: 1100oF for 125,000 tensile psi.
Temper: 1050oF for 150,000 tensile psi.
Temper: 850oF for 180,000 tensile psi.
17-22A(V). Structural (Ultra High Strength) Low
Alloy. This is a high strength, heat resistant steel
with a 1000 hour rupture strength of 1100oF
(30,000 psi tensile strength). It is used in turbine
rotors, and for components of guided missiles, in
which high temperatures are encountered for short
periods.
Anneal: 1500o-1600oF, furnace cool.
Normalize: 1600oF, cool in air.
Harden: 1550oF, quench in oil.
Temper: 1225oF for 100,000 psi.
Temper: 1100oF for 125,000 psi.
Temper: 975oF for 150,000 psi.
COMPOSITION RANGE
4130. Chromium - Molydenum Alloy. Typical
usages for this material is in the manufacture of
gear shaf ts axles, machine tool parts, etc.
Ni%
Si%
0-0.5 0.55-0.75
Fe%
Balance
C%
0.25-0.3
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.26-0.35
Cr%
0.75-1.2
Mn%
0.3-0.75
P%
S%
Si%
0-0.04 0-0.05 0.15-0.35
Mo%
0.08-0.25
Ni%
0-0.25
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Harden (austenitize): 1550o-1600oF, water quench,
for oil quench 1575o-1625oF.
Austenitize Castings:1600o-1650oF,1 hour, oil
quench.
Spherodize: 1400o-1425oF, 6-12 hours, furnace cool.
Temper: 1150oF for tensile 132,000, yield 122,000.
Temper: 1025oF for tensile 151,000, yield 141,000.
Temper: 950oF for tensile 163,000, yield 159,000.
SAE Steels: 8630 and 8730 have similar characteristics.
Annealed: 1525o-1585oF (tensile 80,000 psi, yield
57,000 psi annealed), furnace cool.
Normalize: (cast) 1900oF, 1 hour, A.C. Hardening:
1550o-1650oF, quench in oil.
Normalize: (wrought) 1600o-1700oF, air cool.
4135. Chromium Molydenum Alloy.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.32-0.39
Mn%
0.6-0.95
Mo%
0.15-0.25
P%
0-0.04
Si%
0.2-0.35
S%
0-0.04
Cr%
0.8-1.15
Fe%
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1700oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1525o-1575oF, furnace cool.
Harden: 1550o-1625oF, quench in oil.
Cr%
1.0-1.5
Ce%
0-0.5
Mn%
Mo%
0.6-0.9
0.4-0.6
V%
P%
0.75-0.95 0-0.04
S%
0-0.04
FORM-SPECIFICATION. AMS6303 Bar, forging,
forging stock.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1700o-1850oF, hold for 1 hour per inch
of thickness, air cool. Larger sections may be fancooled in order to accelerate cooling. All sections
should be so placed as to provide access of air to
all surfaces.
Anneal: 1450oF, hold at this temperature 1 hour
for each inch of section thickness. Cool down 20oF
per hour to 1100oF, then air cool.
Oil Quenching requires prior heating to 1750oF,
for each inch of thickness. Annealed bars, 1 inch
diameter have tensile strength 87,000 yield
strength, 67,800. Pancake forgings normalized at
1800oF + tempering at 1225oF, 6 hours have tensile strength 142,000, yield strength 126,500,
hardness BHN 311-321. This alloy may be welded
by any of the commercial methods in use. A welding rod corresponding to 17-22A(S) is available.
When pre-heating is required depending upon size
of section and type of welding procedure, a temperature of 600oF is generally used. Post heating or
stress relief is recommended.
4137CO. This ultra-high strength steel has yield
strength in the 230,000-240,000 psi range. It
forms and welds readily. It was developed for use
in high performances solid rocket motor cases.
Alternate designations are Unimach VC X 2, MX2, and Rocoloy. Machining characteristics are similar to 4140.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.39-0.4
Cr%
0.95-1.2
Co%
0.98-1.23
Mn%
0.6-0.79
2-41
T.O. 1-1A-9
Mo%
0.22-0.35
S%
0-0.012
Si%
0.97-1.19
V%
0.14-0.16
P%
0-0.015
Fe%
Balance
Anneal: 1550o-1600oF furnace cool.
Harden: 1550o-1600oF 30 minutes, oil quench.
Spheroidize: 1400o-1425oF furnace cool.
Temper 4 hours to obtain desired strength. See
table below.
SPECIFICATIONS: None
DRAW TEMPERATURES
FORMS: Sheet, strip, plate, bar, forging, wire.
1300oF - 100,000 psi
1175oF - 120,000 to 140,000 psi
1075oF - 140,000 to 160,000 psi
950oF - 160,000 to 180,000 psi
850oF - 180,000 to 200,000 psi
725oF - 200,000 to 220,000 psi
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1750oF, 30 minutes, air cool.
Spheroidize: Anneal: 1420o-1460oF, 2 hours, fast
cool to 1235o-1265oF, hold 14 to 24 hours, air cool.
Resulting hardness RB95 maximum.
Intermediate stress relieve to restore ductility of
formed parts, 1250oF for 10 minutes, air cool.
Stress relieve af ter welding 1250oF, 30 minutes
minimum.
Austenitize: 1700oF for sections less than 1/2 inch
1725oF for sections larger than 1/2 inch, 20 minutes minimum to 1 hour maximum per inch thickness, oil or salt quench at 400oF. Maximum time
in salt 12 minutes.
Double temper 540o-560oF for two consecutive 2
hour periods with intermediate cooling to room
temperature. Weldability characteristics are good
using the Tungsten-arc-inert-gas process.
4140. Medium Carbon Chromium - Molybdenun
(Nitriding Grade). This steel is widely used where
the higher strength and higher hardenability of
4340 is not required. It can be nitrided.
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Cr%
0.38-0.43 0.75-1.0 0-0.040 mx 0-0.040 mx 0.80-1.1
Mo%
0.15-0.25
Si%
0.2-0.35
Fe%
Balance
SPECIFICATIONS
5336
5338
6378
6379
6381
6382
FORM
Precision Investment
Castings
Precision Investment
Castings
Bars
Bars
Heavy Wall Tubing
Bars, Forgings,
Forgings, Stock
MILITARY
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
Si%
Cr%
0.28-0.33 0.75-1.00 0.20-0.35 0.040 0.040 0.75-1.00
Ni%
1.65-2.00
Mo%
0.35-0.50
V%
0.05-0.10
Fe%
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o to 1700oF, air cool.
Temper: normalized condition for machinability
1250oF maximum.
Full anneal at 1525oF to 1575oF furnace cool or
cool in ash or lime.
Austenitize: 1550o to 1600oF 15 minutes per inch
thickness, oil quench 75o to 140oF.
Temper: 180 to 200 KSI, 950o to 110oF, 4 hours.
Temper: 200 to 220 KSI, 750o to 950oF, 4 hours.
Temper: 220 to 240 KSI, 600o to 750oF, 4 hours.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Cr%
0.48-0.53 0.75-1.0 0-0.040 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.8-0.12
Mo%
0.18 - 0.25
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
MIL-S5626
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1650oF (air cool) minimum 1
hour.
2-42
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
4150. Chromium-Molybdenun. This metal is used
for such items as gears, shaf ts, pistons, springs,
axles, pins, connecting rods.
TYPE 4140
AMS
SAE 4330 V Mod. This steel is 4330 improved by
the addition of vanadium, and is primarily used
heat treated to a tensile strength between 220 and
240 KSI. It is highly shock resistant and has better welding characteristics than higher carbon
steels.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF
Anneal: 1450o-1525oF
Harden: 1475o-1525oF, oil quench
Temper: 1200oF for tensile 128,000 yield 116,000
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 150,000 yield 135,000
T.O. 1-1A-9
Temper: 950oF for tensile 180,000 yield 163,000
Temper: 800oF for tensile 200,000 yield 186,000
521000. High Carbon, High Chromium Alloy.
This steel is used for anti-friction bearings and
other parts requiring high heat treated hardness
of approximately Rockwell C60, toughness and
good wear resistance qualities. It is best machined
in the spheroidized annealed condition.
COMPOSITION RANGE
Anneal: 1500o-1550oF, cool down at 50oF per hour
to 1000oF.
Normalize: 1600o-1650oF, 30 minutes, air cool.
Austenitize: 1550o-1575oF, 30 minutes, oil quench.
Sections 1 inch or less in cross sections may be air
cooled.
Temper: 300o-1275oF, time and temperature
depend on hardness desired.
Stress relieve: 1000o-1250oF one to two hours, air
cool.
C%
Cr%
Mn%
Si%
S%
P%
0.95-1.1 1.3-1.6 0.25-0.45 0.2-0.35 0-0.025 0-0.025
Fe%
Balance
TYPE LADISH D-6-A
FORM
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
UP TO 1″ THICK BAR
Condition
Vacuum remelt by consumable electrode process.
Normalize 1650oAC 1550oF,
air cool + 600oF temper.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1650o-1700oF air cool
Anneal: 1250o-1340oF hold 5 hours. Heat to
1430o-1460oF, at 10oF per hour, hold 8 hours.
Cool to 1320oF at 10oF per hour. Cool to 1250oF
at furnace rate and air cool.
Spheroidize: Slow cool (about 5oF per hour) following austenitizing by extended heating at a temperature near the ACM point or by isothermal transformation at 1275oF following austenitizing.
Harden: Quench in water from 1425oF-1475oF or
quench in oil from 1550o-1600oF, then temper to
desired hardness. The Rockwell hardness at various temperatures is listed below:
Temper:
Temper:
Temper:
Temper:
Temper:
400oF, RC60
600oF, RC55
800oF, RC48
100oF, RC40
1200oF, RC28
LADISH D-6-A. Low Alloy High Strength. This
alloy is suitable for hot work die applications and
structural material in aircraf t and missiles. It
may be heat treated to strength levels up to
300,000 psi, and at 240,000 has excellent toughness. At strength levels below 220,000 psi it is
suitable for elevated temperature applications
below 900oF. It may readily be welded and cold
formed in the annealed or spheroidized condition.
It also can be temper straightened.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C% Cr% Mn% Mo% Ni% Si% V% Fe%
0.46 1.0 0.75 1.0 0.55 0.22 0.05 Balance
SPECIFICATION. None.
FORMS. Available in most wrought forms and
forgings.
HEAT TREATMENT
Tensile
282,000 psi
Yield
255,000 psi
Nitralloy 135 Mod. Steel ultra high strength
(Nitriding Grade). This alloy is well suited for
case hardening by nitriding. This process produces a case of extreme hardness without appreciably changing core tensile strength or yield
strength. It is also readily machined. Af ter
nitriding it may be used where high resistance to
abrasion and mild corrosion resistance are
required.
COMPOSITION RANGE
A1%
C5
Cr%
Mn%
Mo%
Si%
0.95-1.3 0.38-0.43 1.4-1.8 0.5-0.7 0.3-0.4 0.2-0.4
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.04
Fe%
Balance
SPECIFICATIONS
TYPE NITRALLOY 135 MOD
AMS
FORMS
5470
Plates, Tubing, Rods, Bar,
forgings stock.
MILITARY
MIL-S6701
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal: 1450oF, 6 hours, furnace cool.
Normalize by slowly heating to 1790o-1810oF, air
cool.
Austenitize: 1700o-1750oF.
Oil quench sections less than 2 inches thick.
Temper: 1000o-1300oF 1 hour minimum per inch of
thickness.
Change 1
2-43
T.O. 1-1A-9
(NOTE: Temper 50oF minimum above nitriding
temperatures).
Nitride: 930o-1050oF.
TYPE NITRALLOY 135 MOD
FORM
BAR
Condition
1725oF, oil quench sections less
than 3 inches, water quench sections greater than 3 inches temper
1200oF, 5 hours.
SIZE DIA
LESS
THAN
1 1/2
inches
1 1/2 to
3 inches
3 to 5
inches
Tensile
135,000
psi
125,000
psi
110,000
psi
Yield
100,000
psi
90,000 psi
85,000 psi
In welding the major problem to avoid is loss of
aluminum and chromium in the weld area, the
loss of which would prevent subsequent nitriding.
4337, 4340 Steel Nickel - Chromium Molybdenum
Alloy. These two alloys are similar except that
carbon content differs slightly. The carbon content
of 4337 is minimum 0.35%, maximum 0.4%, good
strength, high hardenability and uniformity are
characteristics. It can be heat treated to strength
values within a wide range. At 260,000 to 280,000
psi tensile this steel has been found superior to
other common low alloy steels as well as some of
the recently developed more complex low alloy
steels. It possesses fair formability when annealed
and may be welded, by special processes, which
require strict control. No welding shall be performed on this alloy heat treated above 200,000
psi unless specif ically approved by design
engineer.
COMPOSITION RANGE
or lime.
Harden: 1475o-1550oF, oil quench.
Spheroidize Anneal: 1425oF, 2 hours, then furnace
cool to 1210oF, hold 8 hours, furnace cool or air
cool.
Stress relief parts af ter straightening, machining,
etc.
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 150,000 yield, 142,000.
Temper: 900oF for tensile 190,000, yield, 176,000.
Temper: 725oF for tensile 220,000, yield, 200,000.
Temper: 400o-500oF for tensile 260,000, 2 hours
per thickness, 6 hours minimum.
Parts heat treated to 260,000-280,000 psi tensile
and subsequently subjected to grinding, machining
or straightening should be tempered to 350o-400oF,
4 hours minimum. Temperature should not exceed
tempering temp or reduce the tensile strength
below 260,000 psi. Austenitize 1475o-1575oF, 15
minutes for each inch of thickness. Normalize,
welded or brazed parts before austenitizing. Cool
af ter austenitizing.
To heat treat for regular machining, normalize or
austenitize, then heat to 1200oF (maximum
1250oF) for 15-20 hours. Resulting hardness
should be 229-248 BHN.
Austenitize: 1575o-1625oF, oil quench.
Tempering range is limited to 400o-600oF preferably no higher than 550oF.
Temper: 600oF for 230,000 psi tensile, 194,000 psi
yield.
Temper: 550oF for 234,000 psi tensile, 193,000 psi
yield.
Temper: 500oF for 235,000 psi tensile, 191,000 psi
yield.
Temper: 400oF for 239,000 psi tensile, 183,000 psi
yield.
This alloy is easily welded by conventional methods using low hydrogen electrode of similar
composition.
4615. Steel Nickel Molybdenum Alloy. This is a
high grade carburizing steel for use where reliability and uniformity are required.
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
Cr%
0.38-0.43 0.65-0.85 0.2-0.35 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.7-0.9
COMPOSITION RANGE
Ni%
1.54-2.0
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.13-0.18 0.45-0.65 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 1.65-2.0
Mo%
Fe%
0.2-0.3 Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
Mo%
0.2-0.3
HEAT TREATMENT
HEAT TREATMENT
o
o
Normalize: 1600 -1700 F, 1 hour of maximum
thickness, air cool. Temper, normalize condition
for improved machinability 125oF maximum.
Anneal: 1475o-1575oF, furnace cool or cool in ash
2-44
Fe%
Balance
Normalize: 1675o-1725oF
Anneal: 1575o-1625oF
Harden: 1425o-1550oF oil quench.
Carburize: 1425o-1550oF
T.O. 1-1A-9
Where case hardening is paramount, reheat to
1425o-1475oF quench in oil. Tempering 250o-350oF
is optional. It is generally employed for partial
stress relief and improved resistance to cracking
from grinding operation.
and small distortion in heat treatment. Its application is primarily gears, spline shaf ts, hand tools,
and machine parts.
4620. Steel Nickel Molybdenum Alloy. This is a
medium hardenability case steel. Its hardenability
characteristics lie between that of plain carbon
steel and the high alloy carburized steel. It may
be used for average size case hardened automotive
parts such as gears, piston pins, crackshafts, etc.
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.38-0.43 0.6-0.8 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 1.65-2.0
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.17-0.24 0.45-0.65 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 1.65-2.0
Mo%
0.2-3.0
Fe%
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1650o-1750oF
Anneal: 1550o-1600oF
Quench: (High temperature) 1550oF
Quench: (Low temperature) 1425oF
Carburize: 1650o-1700oF.
Recommend practice for maximum case hardness:
Direct quench from pot.
(1) Carburize: at 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Quench: in agitated oil.
(3) Temper: at 300oF
Case depth: 0.075.
Case hardness: RC62
Single Quench and Temper:
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Pot cool.
(3) Reheat: 1500oF.
(4) Quench: in agitated oil.
(5) Temper: 300oF.
Case depth: 0.075.
Case hardness: RC62
Recommended practices for maximum core toughness: Direct quench from pot.
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Quench: in agitated oil.
(3) Temper: 450oF.
Case depth: 0.06
Case hardness: RC58
Single Quench and Temper:
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Pot Cool.
(3) Reheat: to 1500oF
(4) Quench: in agitated oil.
(5) Temper: 450oF.
Case depth: .065
Case hardness: RC59
4640. Steel Nickel Molybdenum. This steel has
excellent machinability at high hardness levels,
COMPOSITION RANGE
Mo%
0.2-0.3
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1750oF
Anneal: 1450o-1550oF
Quench: 1450o-1550oF, oil quench, agitated oil.
Temper: 1200oF for 100,000 psi.
Temper: 1100oF for 120 to 140,000 psi.
Temper: 1000oF for 140 to 160,000 psi.
Temper: 900oF for 160 to 180,000 psi.
Temper: 800oF for 180 to 200,000 psi.
Temper: 700oF for 200 to 220,000 psi.
6150, 6152. Chromium Vanadium Alloy. These
two steels are essentially the same, differing only
in the amount of Vanadium. Alloy 6152 contains a
minimum of 0.1% Vanadium. Typical usages are
for f lat springs under 1/8 inch thick, cold formed,
and 1/8 inch and over hot formed; oil quenched,
and drawn at 725o-900oF to 44-48 or 48-52 RC,
and for coil springs over l/2 inch diameter with
same heat treatment. It is also used for valve
springs, piston rods, pump parts, spline shaf ts,
etc.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Cr%
0.48-0.53 0.7-0.9 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.8-1.1
V%
0.15 min
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1625o-1750oF, furnace cool.
Anneal: 1500o-1600oF. (Tensile psi 90,000 yield
58,000 psi annealed.)
Harden: 1550o-1600oF, oil quench.
Temper: 1100oF for tensile psi 150,000 yield psi
137,000 psi.
Temper: 800oF for tensile psi 210,000 yield psi
194,000 psi.
Spheroidized annealed to 183-241 BHN = 45%
8615. Steel-Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy. This is a triple alloy
case-hardening steel with medium hardenability.
2-45
T.O. 1-1A-9
It is primarily used for differential pinions, engine
pins, gears etc.
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
COMPOSITION RANGE
HEAT TREATMENT
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
Cr%
0.13-0.18 0.7-0.9 0-.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.3 0.4-0.6 0.4-0.6
Normalize: 1600o-1750oF.
Anneal: 1575o-1625oF.
Mo%
0.15-0.25
CARBURIZING:
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Psuedo-Carburize 1650o-1700oF, box cool, reheat
1550oF, oil quench.
Temper: 300oF for tensile 100,000 psi yield 72,500
psi.
Normalize: 1650o-1725oF.
Anneal: 1575o-1650oF.
Harden: 1475o-1575oF.
8617. Steel Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy. This steel is very
similar to 8615, but develops somewhat greater
strength.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.15-0.2 0.7-0.9 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.4-0.7
Cr%
0.4-0.6
Mo%
0.15-0.25
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1650o-1725oF
Anneal: 1575o-1650oF.
Harden: 1474o-1575oF
Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours, oil quench.
Draw at 300oF
Tensile: 128,000 psi yield 94,000 psi.
8620. Ni-Cr-Mo-Alloy. This steel is similar to
8615 and 8617 though stronger. It is used for ring
gears, transmission gears, cam shaf ts and for good
core properties with high surface hardness af ter
case hardening. It is also used in the heat treated
condition as chain, at about 100,000 psi yield
strength. It is classed as medium hardenable.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.18-0.23 0.7-0.9 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.4-0.7
Cr%
0.4-0.6
2-46
Mo%
0.15-0.25
Fe%
Balance
For maximum case hardness: Direct quench from
pot.
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Quench: in agitated oil.
(3) Temper: 300oF.
Case depth: 0.075.
Case hardness: RC64.
Single Quench and temper:
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Pot cooled.
(3) Reheat: to 1550oF.
(4) Quench: in agitated oil.
(5) Temper: 300oF.
Case depth: 0.075
Case hardness: RC64
Recommended practices for maximum core toughness.
Direct quench from pot.
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Quench: in agitated oil.
(3) Temper: 450oF.
Case depth: 0.050
Case hardness: RC58
Single Quench and Temper.
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Pot cool.
(3) Reheat: to 1500oF.
(4) Quench: in agitated oil.
(5) Temper: 450oF.
Case depth: 0.076.
Case hardness: RC61.
8630. Steel Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy This steel has characteristics very similar to 4130. It is used for aircraf t engine mounts, and other aircraf t parts due
to good properties when normalized in light sections, and its air hardening af ter welding.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.28-0.33 0.7-0.9 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.4-0.7
Cr%
0.4-0.6
Mo%
0.15-0.25
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF.
Anneal: 1500o-1550oF (Tensile 90,000 psi, tensile
T.O. 1-1A-9
60,000 annealed), furnace cool.
Harden: 1500o-1575oF, oil or water quench.
Temper: 1000oF for 150,000 psi tensile, 140,000
psi yield strength.
Temper: 700oF for 200,000 psi tensile, 180,000 psi
yield strength.
8640. Steel Ni-Cr-Mo. Typical uses, propeller
shaf ts, transmission gears, spline shaf ts, heavy
duty bolts, etc. 4140 has higher strength and ductility and slightly better machinability.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.38-0.43 0.75-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.4-0.7
Cr%
0.4-0.6
Mo%
0.15-0.25
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1550o-1650oF.
Anneal: 1475o-1575oF.
Harden: 1475o-1575oF, oil quench.
Temper: 1100oF for 145,000 psi tensile, 130,000
psi yield.
Temper: 800oF for 200,000 psi tensile, 184,000 psi
yield.
Temper: 700oF for 220,000 psi tensile, 205,000 psi
yield.
8735. Steel Ni-Cr-Mo. This metal is used for
shapes, tubing, aircraf t engine studs, knuckles,
etc. It is similar in characteristics to 8630 and
8640
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.33-0.38 0.75-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.4-0.7
Cr%
0.4-0.6
Mo%
0.2-0.3
Fe%
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
o
o
Normalize: 1575 -1625 F
Anneal: 1525o-1525oF.
Harden: 1525o-1600oF Oil quench.
Temper: 1200oF for tensile 119,000 psi, yield
93,000 psi.
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 131,000 psi, yield
107,000 psi.
Temper: 900oF for tensile 149,000 psi, yield
127,000 psi
Temper: 800oF for tensile 170,000 psi
Temper: 775oF for tensile 200,000 psi
8740.
4140.
joints,
piston
etc.
Steel Ni-Cr-Mo. This steel is similar to
It may be satisfactorily used for axles, tool
bits, core drills, reamer bodies, drill collars,
rods, aircraf t engine bolts, shapes, tubing
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.38-0.43 0.75-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.04 0.2-0.35 0.4-0.7
Cr%
0.4-0.6
Mo%
0.2-0.3
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2 .
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1575o-1625oF.
Anneal: 1500o-1575oF (Tensile 103,000 psi, yield
66,000 psi annealed)
Harden: 1500o-1575oF (Quench in agitated oil)
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 160,000 psi, yield
152,000 psi.
Temper: 900oF for tensile 190,000 psi, yield
183,000 psi.
Temper: 800oF for tensile 210,000 psi, yield
198,000 psi.
Temper: 725oF for tensile 220,000.
9260, 9261, 9262. Steel Silicon. These are similar
alloy spring steels, oil hardening type. The quantities of chromium in each, constitutes the only
chemical variations in these alloys. Typical applications are coil and f lat springs, axles, chisels,
bolts. etc.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S% Si%
9260 0.55-0.65 -0.7-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.04 1.8-2.2
Cr%
---
Fe%
Balance
C%
Mn%
P%
S% Si%
9261 0.55-0.65 0.75-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.04 1.8-2.2
Cr%
0.1-0.25
Fe%
Balance
C%
Mn%
P%
S% Si%
9262 0.55-0.65 0.75-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.04 1.8-2.2
Cr%
0.25-0.4
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATION. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1600o-1650oF.
Anneal: 1525o-1575oF
Harden: 1575o-1625oF quench in agitated oil.
2-47
T.O. 1-1A-9
Temper: 1100oF for tensile 165,000 psi, yield
144,000 psi.
Temper: 900oF for tensile 214,000 psi, yield
192,000 psi.
Temper: 600oF for tensile 325,000 psi, yield
280,000 psi.
9310. Steel Ni Cr-Mo (Electric Furnace Steel).
This is a high hardenability case steel, since it is a
high alloy, both the case and core have high
hardenability. This type of steel is used particularly for carburized parts having thick sections
such as bearing races, heavy duty gears etc.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Ni%
0.7-0.13 0.4-0.7 0-0.025 0-0.025 0.2-0.35 2.95-3.55
Cr%
1.0-1.45
Mo%
0.08-0.15
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Normalize: 1625o-1725oF, air cool.
Anneal: 1475o-1575oF, furnace cool.
Recommended practice for maximum case hardness:
Direct quench from pot.
(1) Carburize: at 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Quench: in agitated oil.
(3) Temper: 300oF.
Case depth: 0.047 inch
Case hardness: RC62
Single Quench and Temper:
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Pot cool.
(3) Reheat: to 1450oF.
(4) Quench: in agitated oil.
(5) Temper: 300oF.
Case depth: 0.047 inch
Case hardness: RC62.
To obtain maximum core toughness: Direct
quench from pot.
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Quench in agitated oil.
(3) Temper: 450oF.
Case depth: 0.039 inch.
Case hardness: RC54.
Single quench and temper:
(1) Carburize: 1700oF for 8 hours.
(2) Pot cool.
(3) Reheat to 1450oF.
(4) Quench: in agitated oil.
(5) Temper: 450oF.
Case depth: 0.047 inch.
Case hardness: RC59.
2-48
Type 301. Steel Austenitic Stainless. This steel
belongs to the sub-family of 18-8 steels, which vary
only slightly in chromium and nickel and contain
no other metallic alloying element. This alloy may
be strengthened to an exceptional degree by cold
work. For best results, cold work should be followed by stress relieving at 400o-800oF.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si% P%
Cr%
Ni%
S%
0.08-0.15 0-2.0 0-1.0 0-0.04 17.0-19.0 6.0-8.0 0-0.03
Cu%
0-0.05
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal: 1950o-2050oF,1 hour per inch thickness,
water quench.
Cool to 800oF within 3 minutes maximum.
To relieve the elastic characteristics and increase
the compressive yield strength of cold worked conditions, 400o-800oF, 36 to 8 hours maximum
respectively. Af ter forming in order to prevent
stress cracking, full anneal, or alternately 600oF,
1/2 to 2 hours. This alloy can be hardened only by
cold work. Maximum tensile strength, 1/4 hard
125,000, 1/2 hard 150,000, full hard 185,000 psi.
Full anneal is mandatory when, exposed to corrosive media, such as hot chlorides, etc. which may
lead to stress corrosion cracking.
Type 302. Steel Austenitic Stainless. This alloy is
similar to Type 301 in composition and characteristics. It is inferior in strength to 301, however,
possesses superior corrosive resistance. It is generally used in the annealed conditions
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
Cr%
0.08-0.25 0-2.0 0-1.0 0-0.045 0-0.03 17.0-19.0
Ni%
8.0-10.0
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table, 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
The heat treatment and resulting strength is similar to that recommended for type 301, except that
the temperature range for annealing type 302
ranges between 1925o-2075oF.
Type 303, Type 303Se, Steel Austenitic Stainless.
These varieties of the 18-8 austenitic stainless
family contain additions of sulphur and selenium
for the purpose of improving machining characteristics. However the presence of these elements
T.O. 1-1A-9
tend to decrease formability and corrosion resistance. Type 303 Se is superior to 303 in these
respects. The cast form of 303Se is also known as
CF-16F.
ALLOY
TYPE 303
PERCENT
Min
C
Mn
Si
P
S
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
Se
Iron
(Fe)
.18
17.0
8.0
Balance
TYPE 303Se
PERCENT
Max
Min
0.15
2.0
1.0
0.04
0.35
19.0
10.0
0.75
0.5
-
.12
17.0
8.0
0.15
Balance
Max
0.15
2.0
1.0
0.17
0.04
19.0
10.0
0.5
0.5
0.35
HEAT TREATMENT
o
o
Anneal or solution treat: 1900 -2050 F, air cool or
quench, depending on section thickness, cool to
800oF maximum within 3 minutes.
Bars, forgings: 1900o-1950oF, 1/2 hour per inch of
thickness, water quench.
Sheet, tubing: 1900o-1950oF, 10 minutes, air cool
up to 0.064 thickness, water Quench 0.065 inch
and thicker.
Castings: 2000o-2100oF, 30 minutes minimum.
This alloy may be hardened only by cold work.
Welding is not generally recommended.
These steels are subject to carbide precipitation
when subjected to temperature over 800oF.
Type 304, Type 304L. Steel Austenitic Stainless.
This steel is produced in two grades, type 304 with
0.08 carbon (maximum) and type 304L with 0.03%
maximum carbon. They have properties similar to
Type 302 but the corrosion resistance is slightly
higher. These metals are available as castings
under the designations CF-8 and CF-3 respectively. Welding may be readily accomplished by
all common methods.
COMPOSITION RANGE
TYPE 304
PERCENT
MIN
MAX
C
Mn
Si
P
S
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
18.0
8.0
-
Iron
Balance
TYPE 304L
PERCENT
MIN
MAX
0.08
2.0
1.0
0.04
0.03
20.0
11.0
0.5
0.5
0.5
18.0
8.0
-
0.03
2.0
1.0
0.04
0.03
20.0
11.0
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Same as types 303 and 303Se. This alloy can only
be hardened by cold work.
TYPE 314. Steel-Austenitic Stainless. This is a
non-heat-treatable stainless steel generally used in
the annealed condition. It possesses high resistance to scaling and carburizing and is used for
parts and welded assemblies requiring corrosion
and oxidation resistance to 2000oF. It is subject to
embrittlement af ter long time exposure to temperature in the 1200o-1600oF range.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
0.12
Cr%
Cu%
23.0-25.0 0.50
Si%
1.7-2.3
P%
0.04
Mn%
1.0-2.0
S%
0.03
Mo%
Ni%
0.50 19.0-22.0
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal (solution treat) 1900o-2100oF using rapid
air cooling for sheet and light plate and water
quench for heavier sections. Stress relief and best
corrosion resistance to high temperatures properties is achieved by f inal annealing at 1900oF minimum. To restore ductility af ter embrittlement has
occurred, anneal 1900o-1950oF for 10-60 minutes.
This alloy may be hardened only by cold work.
2-49
T.O. 1-1A-9
TYPE 314
FORMS
BAR
PLATE
SHEET
WIRE
CONDITION
ANNEALED
ANNEALED
ANNEALED
ANNEALED
HARD
DRAWN
THICKNESSIN
1 IN DIA
0.002 to 0.010
0.002 to 0.010
Tensile
100,000
100,000
100,000
95,000-130,000
245,000275,000
Yield
50,000
50,000
50,000
35,000-70,000
230,000260,000
-------------
-------------
Hardness RB
89
89
TYPE 316 and 317. Steel Austenitic Stainless.
Wrought products are readily formable and weldable. Castings are also weldable, and the metal arc
method is most of ten used. These alloys have better corrosion resistance than 30302 or 30304 types.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
Cr%
0-.08 1.25-2.0 0-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.03 16.0-19.0
Ni%
11.0-14.0
Mo%
2.0-2.5
Cu%
0-0.5
Iron%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal wrought products 1850o-2150oF, air cool or
quench depending on section size.
For sheet alloys, annealing temperature 1950oF,
minimum.
Castings 1950o-2100oF, water or oil quench or air
cool. Low side of temperature range is used for
CF 8M, (Cast Alloy) but CF 12M castings should
be quenched from above 2000oF.
Stabilize for high temperature service 1625o1675oF, stress relieve 400o-500oF, 1/2 to 2 hours.
This alloy may be hardened only by cold work. In
annealed condition, tensile 90,000 psi, yield 45,000
psi.
TYPE 321. Steel Austenitic Stainless.This is one
of the two stabilized 18-8 steels Since titanium
2-50
89
forms a carbide of low solid solubility, the possibility of intergranular precipitation and of the associated intergranular corrosion is reduced. Therefore, type 321 is used primarily either for parts
fabricated by welding without postweld annealing
or for service at 800o-1500oF. This steel is available in all wrought forms. Welding rods and castings are not produced in this type.
CORROSION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
Cr%
0-0.08 0-2.0 0.4-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.03 17.0-20.0
Ni%
Mo%
8.0-13.0 0-0.5
Ti%
Cu%
*6XC-0.7 0-0.5
Iron (Fe)%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
* 6 times columbian content.
HEAT TREATMENT
Full anneal 1750o-1850oF, 1 hour per inch in
thickness, two hours minimum for plate furnace
cool or air cool. Stabilizing anneal for service
900o-1500oF, heat to 1500o-1650oF one hour per
inch thickness, 2 hours minimum for plate. Stress
relieve af ter fabrication 1300oF.
This may be hardened only by cold work.
T.O. 1-1A-9
TYPE 321
TENSILE - YIELD
FORM
SHEET, STRIP
CONDITION
THICKNESS IN
ANNEAL
--
PLATE
--
BAR
ALL
ANN+CD
1 INCH
WIRE
SOFT TEMPER
0.062
0.50
Tensile
90000
85000
85000
95000
115000
95000
Yield
35000
30000
35000
60000
85000
65000
Full anneal or stabilizing anneal will eliminate
sensitized conditions.
TYPES 347 and 348. Steel Austenitic Stainless is
the second of two stabilized 18-8 steels (see type
321 for other). Since columbian forms a carbide of
very low solubility, the possibility of intergranular
precipitation and of the associated intergranular
corrosion are practically eliminated. Therefore,
Type 347 is used principally for parts fabricated by
welding without postweld annealing, or for long
service between 800o-1500oF. Columbian is usually associated with the similar element tantalum
which is included in the columbian analysis, specifying only the total of both elements. Corrosion
resistance of this alloy is similar to Type 302, however it has a greater tendency to pitting corrosion
and attacks in streaks. Intergranular corrosion is
absent in this steel unless it is overheated to
above 2150oF. At this temperature columbian carbides are going in to solid solution and subsequent
rapid cooling, followed by heating to 1200oF, will
cause precipitation and reduce the resistance to
intergranular attack. A stabilizing anneal will
restore the corrosion resistance.
Welding. Fusions welding of this alloy is comparable to type 304L. Heavy sections may crack during welding or subsequent heating. Postweld
annealing is not required, although a stress relief
is recommended. This steel is subject to carbide
precipitation at temperatures in excess of 2150oF.
Type 414. Steel Martensitic Stainless. This steel
has good resistance to weather and water. It
should be passivated. Stainless type 416 has similar mechanical properties, workability and resistance to corrosion, however, corrosion resistance is
not as good as the 300 series stainless. It has
better machinability but less weldability. Type
420 has higher mechanical properties, similar
workability and machinability.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
P%
S%
Si%
Cr%
0.08-0.15 0-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.03 0-0.10 11.5-13.5
Ni%
1.25-2.5
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
COMPOSITION RANGE
HEAT TREATMENT
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
Cr%
0-0.08 0-2.0 0.5-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.03 17.0-19.0
Annealing: 1200o-1300oF.
Hardening: 1800o-1900oF, cool rapidly.
Tensile strength in annealed condition 117,000
yield, 98,000 psi.
Tensile strength in annealed cold drawn 130,000
yield, 115,000 psi.
Ni%
9.0-13.0
Mo%
0-0.5
Cb1%
*10XC-1.1
Iron (Fe%)
Balance
*10 Times Columbian Content.
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Full anneal wrought products 1800o-1900oF, 1
hour per inch of thickness 2 hours minimum for
plate, furnace cool or air cool. Full anneal castings
1900o-2000oF 30 minutes minimum. Stabilizing
anneal for service 800o-1500oF, 1500o-1650oF, 1
hour per inch thickness, 2 hours minimum for
plate. Stress relieve af ter fabrication 1300oF.
Alloy may be hardened only by cold work.
TYPES 403, 410, 416. Steel-Martensitic Stainless.
This is a free machining type of alloy. Best performance is obtained if heat treated or cold worked
to 180-240 BHN. It is magnetic in the hardened
condition and is not normally used in the annealed
condition.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C% Mn% P% S% Si% Cr%
0.15 1.25 0.06 0.15 1.0 14.0
Mo% Si%
0.6 0.6
Fe%
Balance
2-51
T.O. 1-1A-9
FORMS-SPECIFICATION. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal: 1500o-1650oF, furnace cool 50oF per hour
to 1100oF.
Harden: 1700o-1850oF, cool rapidly, oil and
quench.
Tensile - Yield strength is as follows:
(1) Annealed - Tensile 75,000 psi, yield 40,000 psi.
(2) Heat Treated - Tensile 110,000 psi, yield
85,000 psi.
(3) Tempered and Drawn - Tensile 100,000 psi,
yield 85,000 psi. Weldability is poor except by use
of low-hydrogen electrodes.
Temper:
range.
Temper:
Temper:
Temper:
400o-1300oF. Avoid 700o-1075oF temper
1300oF for 100,000 psi.
1075oF for 120,000 psi.
575o-600oF for 180,000 psi.
TYPE 420. Steel Martensitic Stainless. This is a
medium carbon grade of martensitic stainless
which in the past has been intensively used in the
cutlery industry. It has recently proved satisfactory for air weapon application where its high
strength permits heat treatment for tensile
strength up to 240,000 psi. In the fully annealed
condition formability of this alloy almost equals
the 1/4 hard austenitic stainless steels. Shearing
type operations such as blanking and punching are
not recommended. It machines best in conditions
having approximately 225 BHN.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
0.3-0.4 0-1.0
Si%
P%
S%
0-1.0 0-0.04 0-0.03
Ni%
0-0.5
Fe%
Balance
Mo%
0-0.5
Cr%
12.0-14.0
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
o
Full anneal 1550 -1650 F one hour per inch of
thickness, furnace cool (50oF per hour) to 1100oF.
Subcritical anneal 1300o-1350oF, 3 hours minimum, air cool. Austenitize 1800o-1850oF oil
quench, depending on section size. Heavy sections
should be preheated at 1250oF. Temper 400o1500oF, 3 hours minimum. Tempering between
600o-1000oF is not generally recommended due to
reduced ductility and corrosion resistance.
TYPE 431. Steel Martensitic Stainless. This alloy
is suitable for highly stressed parts in corrosive
environment.
2-52
Change 1
C%
Mn% Si% P%
0.2
1.0
1.0
0.04
Ni%
1.25-2.5
S%
Cr%
0.03 15.0-17.0
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Type 431 steel must be protected from contamination at furnace temperature by dry inert atmosphere (organ, helium) or vacuum in the furnace
working zones, except that air or salt bath furnaces may be employed for tempering operations.
Parts shall be transferred from furnace working
zones to the oil bath within a 30-second interval
prior to quenching. Materials in the solutiontreated condition (not more than 2 percent segregated ferrite or austenite in the microstructure)
may be hardened by the following treat treatment.
HT-200 CONDITION
Austenitize at 1850o±25oF for 30 minutes, quickly
transfer from furnace to oil quenching bath at not
over 100oF followed by refrigeration at 100oF±10oF for 2 hours, tempering at 550oF±25oF
for 2 hours, air cool, and f inal temper at
550o±25oF for 2 hours; or austenitize 1850o±25oF
for 30 minutes, marquench into salt bath at 400oF,
air cool to room temperature, refrigerate at 100o±10oF for 2 hours, temper 550o±25oF for 2
hours, air cool, temper 550oF for 2 hours.
HT-125 (125,000 tensile)
Austenitize at 1850o±25oF for 30 minutes, quickly
transfer from furnace to oil quench to bath at not
over 100oF, temper 1200o±25oF for 2 hours, air
cool, temper 1200o±25oF for 2 hours.
CAUTION
HEAT TREATMENT
o
COMPOSITION RANGE
Avoid tempering or holding within
range from 700o to 1100oF.
HT-115 (115,000 Tensile and Yield 90,000 PSI)
Heat Cond A material to 1800o-1900oF for 30 minutes, oil quench from furnace, temper at a temperature not lower than 1100oF.
HT-175 (175,000 Tensile and 135,000 Yield PSI)
Heat Cond A material to 1850o-1950oF, quench in
oil from furnace temper at a temperature not
higher than 700oF.
T.O. 1-1A-9
17-4PH. Steel, Martensitic Stainless, Precipitation
Hardening. This stainless steel possesses high
strength and good corrosion and oxidation resistance up to 600oF.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Cb%
0.07 max 0.15-0.45
Ni%
3.0-5.0
P%
0.04 max
Cr%
15.5-17.5
S%
.03 max
Cu%
3.0-5.0
Si%
1.0 max
Mn%
1.0 max
Fe%
Balance
SPECIFICATION: MIL-S-81506
HEAT TREATMENT
To condition A-1900o±25oF 30 minutes, air cool or
oil quench below 90oF.
From condition A to
Condition H900(RH-C 40/47) 900o ± 10oF,
1 hour, air cool.
Condition H925(RH-C 38/45) 925o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H950(RH-C 37/44) 950o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H975(RH-C 36/43) 975o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1000(RH-C 35/42) 1000o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1025(RH-C 35/42) 1025o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1050(RH-C 33/40) 1050o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1075(RH-C 31/39) 1075o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1100(RH-C 32/38) 1100o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1125(RH-C 30/37) 1125o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
Condition H1150(RH-C 28/37) 1150o ± 10oF,
4 hours, air cool.
17-7PH. Steel Martensitic Stainless (Precipitation
Hardening). This stainless steel possesses good
corrosion resistance, may be machined and formed
in its annealed condition, and is used up to temperatures of 800oF.
COMPOSITION RANGE
A%
0.50-1.0
C%
0.10-0.12
Si%
1.0-5.0
P%
0.045
Cr%
16.0-18.0
S%
0.030
Mn%
Ni%
1.00 6.0-8.0
Iron
Balance
SPECIFICATION: See MIL-S-25043.
hour, air cool to 50o to 60oF within 1 hour, hold at
50o to 60oF 1/2 hour (condition TO) + 1040o to
1060oF, 1-1/2 hour. Age condition A to condition
RH 950, 1735o to 1765oF, 10 minutes, refrigerate
(condition A 1750o) to -90o to -110oF 8 hours (condition R100), + 940o to 960oF, 1 hour. Age condition C of cold rolled sheet or cold drawn wire to
condition CH 900, 890o to 910oF for 1 hour.
Condition A - 130 to 150 KSI ultimate, 55 KSI
yield.
Condition T - 125 to 145 KSI ultimate 75 to 100
KSI yield.
Condition RH950 - 200 to 215 KSI ultimate 180 to
190 KSI yield.
Condition RH1050 - 180 to 200 KSI ultimate 150
to 185 KSI yield.
Condition C - 200 to 215 KSI ultimate 175 to 185
KSI yield.
Condition CH900 - 240 to 250 KSI ultimate, 230 to
240 KSI yield.
TYPE 440A, 440B, 550C, 440C. Steel Martensitic
Stainless. These steels are similar except for carbon range, therefore they are grouped since heat
treatment requirements are the same. These
steels are used for cutlery, valves, etc.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
440A
0.6-0.75 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 0.04 max 0.03 max
Cr%
Mo%
Fe%
16.0-18.0 max 0.75 max Balance
C%
Mn% Si% P% S% Cr%
Mo%
440B
0.75-0.95 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 0.75
Fe%
Balance
C%
Mn% Si% P% S% Cr%
Mo%
440C
0.95-1.2 1.0 1.0 0.04 0.03 16.0-18.0 0.75
Fe%
Balance
FORMS-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal: 1550o to 1650oF.
Temper: 300o-800oF.
Harden: 1850o-1950oF, cool rapidly.
440A, tensile 270,000 psi, yield 260,000 psi.
HEAT TREATMENT
Condition A. Solution anneal 1925o-1975oF, 30
minutes per inch of thickness, air cool. Age condition A to condition TH1050, 1375o to 1425oF, 1-1/2
Change 3
2-53
T.O. 1-1A-9
440B, tensile 280,000 psi, yield 270,000 psi.
440C, tensile 285,000 psi, yield 275,000 psi.
Condition CH900 - 265 KSI ultimate, 260 yield,
hardness RC50.
Welding is not recommended.
PH 14-8 MO. This alloy (sheet) is similar to PH
15-7 MO except it has slightly lower tensile and
yield strength but considerable higher toughness
and superior welding characteristics. In general
this alloy is unstable during exposure to temperatures exceeding 500oF, which is a common characteristic of precipitation hardening stainless steels.
15-7-MO. Steel Martensitic Stainless. This alloy
is a further development of 17-7PH alloy and due
to molybdenum content it can be heat treated to
high strength at room and elevated temperature
(up to 1000oF). The heat treatment is identical to
17-7PH and other properties are identical or similar to 17-7PH.
FORMS - sheet, strip, plate, bars and forgings.
SPECIFICATION - AMS 5520, AMS 5657.
Mo%
2.0-3.0
A1%
0.75-1.50
S%
0.03
Cr%
14.0-16.0
Fe%
Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Condition A. Solution anneal sheet and strip,
1925o-1975oF, 3 minutes per 0.1 inch thickness, air
cool. Bar and forgings solution anneal 1925o1975oF, 30 minutes per inch thickness, water
quench. Age condition A to condition TH1050,
1375o to 1425oF, 1-1/2 hour (austenite conditioning), air cool to 50o - 60oF within 1 hour, hold at
50o - 60oF, 1/2 hour (condition T) + 1040o - 1060oF,
1-1/2 hour, air cool. Age condition A to condition
RH 950, 1735o - 1765oF, 10 minutes (austenite
conditioning), air cool (condition A 1750) ±90o to
110oF, 8 hours (condition R100) + 940o to 960oF, 1
hour, air cool. Age condition C, sheet cold rolled
or wire cold drawn to condition CH 900, by heating 890o -910oF for 1 hour, air cool. TH and RH
conditions are also used with difference f inal age
hardening temperatures, such as TH1150,
RH1050, etc.
TYPICAL PROPERTIES FOR VARIOUS
CONDITIONS:
Condition A - 130 to 150 KSI ultimate, 55-65 KSI
yield, hardness 90-100.
Condition T - 125 to 145 KSI ultimate, 75-90 KSI
yield, hardness 28-30.
Condition TH1050 - 190 to 210 KSI ultimate, 170200 KSI yield, hardness RC40-45.
Condition RH950 - 225 to 240 KSI ultimate, 200225 KSI yield, hardness RC46-48.
Condition R100 - 180 KSI ultimate, 125 KSI yield,
hardness RC40.
Condition C - 220 KSI ultimate, 190 yield, hardness RC45.
2-54
Condition A - annealed C cold worker.
CHEMICAL CONDITION
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn% Si% P%
0.09 1.0 1.0 0.4
Ni%
6.50-7.75
FORMS AND CONDITIONS - available - sheet
and strip.
C%
Mn%
0.02-0-05 1.0
Ni%
7.50-9.50
Me%
2.0-3.0
Si% Ph%
1.0 0.015
Al%
0.75-1.50
S%
1.0
Cr%
13.50-15.50
Fe%
Rem
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal to Condition A, 1800o-1850oF, 30 minutes
air cool. Age condition A to SRH conditions, 1685o
1715oF, 1 hour, air cool and within 1 hour cool to 100oF, 8 hours + age 1 hour, air cool. Aging at
940o-960oF or 1040o-1060oF is generally used with
the higher temperature giving somewhat lower
strength but af ter better toughness. Age cold
worked alloy, condition C, 890o-910oF or 1040o1060oF, 1 hour, air cool.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES TYPICAL
Condition A - 150 KSI ultimate, 65 KSI yield,
hardness, RB100 max.
Condition SRH 950 - 220 KSI ultimate, 190 KSI
yield hardness RC40.
Condition SRH1050 - 200 KSI ultimate, 180 KSI
yield, hardness RC38.
This alloy is subject to salt stress corrosion, however, early test indicate it is superior in this
respect to 17-7PH and PH 15-7 MO.
This general welding characteristics is similar to
17-7 PH. Higher toughness may be obtained by
annealing af ter welding and then heat treating.
19-9 DL 19-9 DX. These stainless steels are not
heat treatable, but can be hardened to a limited
extent by cold working or hot cold working. In
chemical composition 19-9DL contains columbium
which was replaced by a higher molybdenum and
titanium conten in 19-9DX.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF 19-9DL:
T.O. 1-1A-9
C%
Mn%
Si%
Ph%
Si%
Cr%
0.28-0.35 0.75-1.50 0.30-0.80 0.040 0.030 18.0-21.0
Ni%
Mo%
W%
Cb+Ta
Ti%
Cu%
8.0-11.0 1.0-1.75 1.0-1.75 0.10-0.35 0.10-0.35 0.50
Fe%
Balance
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 19-9DX:
C%
Mn%
Si%
Ph%
S% Cr%
0.28-0.35 0.75-1.50 0.30-0.80 0.040 0.030 18.0-21.0
Ni%
Mo%
W%
Ti%
Cu%
Fe%
8.0-11.0 1.25-2.00 1.0-1.75 0.40-0.75 0.50 Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Bar and forgings, 1800o to 2150oF (1/2 to 1 hour)
rapid air cool, oil water quench. Sheet/strip, 1650o
to 1800oF (1/2 to 1 hour) rapid air cool. Avoid
higher temperatures to prevent resolution and precipitation of carbides.
Castings, 1950o to 2050o, 1/2 to 1 hour minimum,
air cool.
Solution Treat: Same as anneal.
Stress relief: 1175o to 1225oF (4 hours) air cool.
This treatment is applied to hot worked or hot cold
worked material for service up to 1300oF. It is
also applied to cold worked materials immediately
af ter working to prevent stress cracking.
Age: Bar and forgings, 1200o to 1400oF, casting
1575o to 1625oF, 8 hours minimum, air cool.
NOTE
Intergranular corrosion may occur in
certain environments unless annealed
at 1800oF, followed by rapid cooling.
AM-350. Steel - Age Hardening Stainless. This
alloy is one of a series of age hardening steels
which combines high strength at temperatures up
to 800oF and higher with the corrosion resistance
of stainless steels.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Mn%
Si%
P%
S%
Cr%
0.08-0.12 0.5-1.25 0-0.5 0-0.04 0-0.03 16.0-17.0
Ni%
4.0-5.0
Mo%
2.5-3.25
N%
0.07-0.13
Fe%
Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATION TABLE 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal to condition H - 1900o to 1950oF, 3/4 hour
minimum per inch of thickness, rapid air cool to
80oF. Anneal to condition L - 1685o to 1735oF, 3/4
hour minimum, per inch of thickness, rapid air
cool to 80oF. Subzero cool and age condition L to
condition SCT, cool to 100oF, hold 3 hours minimum + 850o to 1050oF, 3 hours minimum Age to
condition SCT 850o, 825o - 875oF. Age to condition
SCT 1000 975o to 1025oF. Double age either condition H or condition-L to condition DA, 1350o 1400oF, 2 hours, air cool to 80oF and heat to 825o 875oF, 3 hours. Thoroughly degreased and cleaned
prior to annealing to avoid harmful surface reactions and to facilitate subsequent pickling. Allowance must also be made for growth which will
result from heat treating. The expansion on aging
from condition H to set amounts to 0.002 - 0.004
inch per inch.
AM-355. Steel - Age Hardening stainless This
alloy combines high strength at temperatures up
to 850oF with the corrosive resistance of stainless
steel. This alloy differs from AM-350 by a lower
chromium and a higher carbon content. It possesses good formability in the high temperature
annealed condition. Corrosion resistance of this
alloy is slightly lower than that of AM-350.
FORM-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification Table
2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal to condition H for maximum formability
and stability.
Anneal to condition H: Plate and forgings at
1925o-1975oF, 1 hour minimum per inch, water
quench: sheet and welded tubing, 1850o to 1900oF,
3/4 hour minimum per inch, rapid air cool. Bar
should not be annealed to condition H unless subsequently subjected to forgings. Anneal to Condition L: 1685o-1735oF ---Sheet and strip, 3/4 hour
per inch, air cool; plate 3/4 hour inch, oil or water
quench. Condition H plate, if not subsequently
severely cold formed, should be equalized before
annealing to condition L and aging to condition
SCT. Bar forgings and tubing, 1 hour minimum
per inch thickness, oil or water quench. Equalize
and age bar for best machineability, 1350o-1400oF,
3 hours, air cool to 80oF maximum + 1000o to
1050oF, 3 hours. Resulting should be approximately RC38 Subzero cool and age condition L to
condition SCT, cool to -100oF, hold 3 hour minimum, 850o to 1050oF for 3 hours minimum. Age
condition SCT 850, 825o to 875oF. Age to condition SCT 1000, 975o to 1025oF. Double age condition L to condition DA, 1300o to 1450oF 1 to 2
hours, air cool to 80oF, 825o to 875oF, 3 hours minimum. Homogenize sand and shell mold castings,
2000oF, 2-4 hours, air cool up to 1 inch thick, oil or
water quench, section above 1 inch.
HNM. Steel - Age Hardening Stainless. This is a
precipitation hardening austenitic steel, with high
rupture and creep properties in the 1000o1400oand not prone to overage at these temperatures. In the solution annealed condition it has a
Brinell hardness of 201 maximum. It has a low
2-55
T.O. 1-1A-9
magnetic permeability, and is suitable for transformer parts, non-magnetic bolts, aircraft structural, engine components, shaf ts and gears. This
material is very susceptible to work hardening. It
is somewhat inferior to regular 18cr-8ni stainless
types, however, machining requirements are similar requiring heavy positive feeds and sharp cutting tools. Welding is not recommended, however
brazing may be successfully accomplished by use
of orayacetylene torch and furnace methods, using
an alloy conforming to specif ication AMS 4755.
C% Cr% Mn% Ni% P% Si% S% Iron
0.30 18.5 3.5 9.5 0.25 0.5 0.025 Balance
FORM-SPECIFICATIONS. See Specification
Table 2-2.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal 2000o-2150oF, 30 minutes, water quench.
Sections 5/8 inches thick may be air cooled. The
optimum solution treatment for best properties
af ter aging is approximately 2050oF. Age 1300oF,
16 hours, air cool.
COMPOSITION RANGE
AM355
FORM
BAR
SHEET
Condition
Solution Treat
2050oF 30 minutes
oil quench
Solution Treat
2050oF 30 minutes
Water quench
Solution Treat 15
minutes air cool
Solution Treat
2050oF air cool &
age 1300oF, 16 hrs
Tensile PSI
116,000
145,000
106,000
133,000
Yield PSI
56,000
92,000
55,000
90,000
192
302
Hardness
BHN
RB
87.5
RC
33
16-15-6. Steel - Iron - Chromium - Nickel - Alloy.
This alloy was developed as a replacement for 1625-6 alloy and contains less nickel. However, the
lower nickel content is balanced by additional
manganese which allows an increase in the nitrogen content that can be retained during melting.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Cr%
Mn%
Mo%
Ni%
Si%
0-.07 15.0-17.5 6.5-8.5 5.0-7.0 14-0-17.0 0-1.0
N%
0.30-0.40
P%
0-0.03
S%
.03
Iron (Fe)
Balance
FORM. Bar, forging.
SPECIFICATION. None.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal 1700o-2300oF.
Solution treat 2125o-2175oF, air cool, water or oil
quench, depending on section size. Cold work
(about 20% reduction) and age (bar up to 1-1/2
inch) 1200o-1300oF, 2 to 8 hours. At a temperature of 1200oF a tensile of 145,000 and yield of
100,000 psi is obtained.
2-56
V57. Steel - Nickel Chromium Stainless (Austenitic). This alloy has a good combination of tensile
and creep rupture properties up to 1500oF at high
stresses and is used for some parts of aircraf t gas
turbines.
COMPOSITION RANGE
A1% B% C% Cr% Mn%
0.25 0.008 0.06 15.0 0.25
Ti%
3.0
V%
0.25
S%
0.025
Mo% Ni% Si%
1.25 25.5 0.55
P%
0.025
Iron
Balance
FORM. Bar, Forging.
SPECIFICATION. None.
HEAT TREATMENT
Anneal 1700o-2300oF.
Solution treat 2125o-2175oF, air cool, water or oil
quench, depending on section size. Cold work
(about 20% reduction) and age (bar up to1/2 inch)
1200oF-1300oF 2 to 8 hours.
At a temperature of 1200oF a tensile of 145,000
and yield of 100,000 psi is obtained.
T.O. 1-1A-9
SUPPER ALLOYS H/L
SPECIFICATION. None.
V36. Steel Cobalt Base - Chromium-Nickel-Alloy.
This is a solid solution - hardening alloy for service at 1300o-1800oF where strength and corrosion
resistance is important. Used for guide vanes in
gas turbines, af ter burner parts and high temperature springs. Chief ly furnished in sheet, but may
be supplied in billet, bar, forging and wire.
FORMS. Available in ‘‘as cast condition’’.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Cr%
C1% Ta% Iron% Mn% Mo%
0.25-0.33 24.0-26.0 1.5-2.5 0-5.0 0-1.2 3.5-4.5
Ni%
Si%
W%
S%
P%
Cobalt
19.0-21.0 0-1.0 1.5-2.5 0-0.03 0-0.03 Balance
HEAT TREATMENT
Stress relief: 1575o-1625oF, 2 hours, air cool. Age
hardening: Above 1200oF susceptible to age hardening which increases alloy strength but causes
loss in ductility.
Tensile Strength: As cast, tensile strength 125,000
psi. Rockwell As cast, RC38.
HAYNES ALLOY NO. 151. Cobalt Base Corrosion
Resistant Alloy. This alloy may be air melted or
air cast. It is used as gas turbine blades and
rotors within the heat range 1200o-1700oF.
SPECIFICATION. None.
COMPOSITION RANGE
HEAT TREATMENT
This alloy is primarily solid solution hardened and
only small strength increases can be obtained by
aging. Solution treatment for thick sections 2200o2275oF, 1 hour, water quench. Age 1400oF for 16
hours. Stress relieve cold worked alloy 900oF, 2
hours.
TYPE V36
FORM
Condition
Tensile
Yield
RC
Cr%
Iron%
Mn%
Ni%
19.0-21.0 0-2.0 0-1.0 0-1.0
Si%
Ti%
W%
P%
S%
Cobalt%
0-1.0 0.05-0.5 12.0-13.5 0-0.03 0-0.03 Balance
SPECIFICATION. None.
FORMS. Available as castings and investment
castings.
SHEET
HEAT TREATMENT
Sol Treat
15 min
2250oF+
age
Sol Treat
+20%,
cool
rapidly
Sol Treat
+60%,
cool
rapidly
147,000
83,000
25
166,000
127,000
---
279,000
248,000
---
W152. Steel. Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Corrosion Resistant Alloy. This is a casting alloy generally used in the ‘‘as-cast’’condition. It is used for
investment cast parts requiring high stress rupture properties at elevated temperatures, has
excellent castability and foundry characteristics.
Primary use has been f irst-stage turbine vanes.
Alternate Designations. Haynes Alloy No 152,
PWA 653, CF 239.
COMPOSITION RANGE
C%
Cr%
C1+TA
Iron% Mn% Ni%
0.40-0.5 20.0-22.0 1.5-2.5 1.0-2.0 0-0.5 0-1.0
Si%
0-0.5
B%
C%
0.03-0.08 0.4-0.5
W%
10.0-12.0
P%
0-0.04
S%
0-0.04
Cobalt
Balance
This material is generally used in the ‘‘as cast’’
condition. The best creep rupture properties are
in the 1300o-1500oF range. Solution treat 2170o2200oF 1 hour minimum, rapid air cool. This treatment reduces tensile properties below 1400oF and
lowers creep rupture strength.
Aging 1400oF 4 hours air cool af ter solution treating, results in higher tensile properties than ‘‘as
cast’’ material, but creep rupture properties are
somewhat lower than the ‘‘as cast’’ alloy.
Hardenability. As-Cast hardness at room temperature RC33.
GMR-235. Nickel Base Corrosive Resistant Alloy.
GMR-235 and GMR-235D are nickel based alloys
precipitation hardening, high temperature alloys
developed for investment cast gas turbine wheels,
buckets and vanes, operating above 1400oF. They
are similar to Hastelloy R-235 but contain more
aluminum. The composition with maximum aluminum and titanium content is designated GMR235D.
COMPOSITION RANGE
2-57
T.O. 1-1A-9
GMR-235
%
MIN
A1
B
C
Cr
Co
Iron
Mn
Mo
Si
Ti
Ni
2.5
0.05
0.1
14.0
0.1
8.0
0
4.5
0
1.5
Balance
GMR-235D
MAX
3.5
0.1
0.2
17.0
0.2
12.0
0.25
6.0
0.60
2.5
Balance
MIN
MAX
3.25
4.0
0.05
0.1
0.1
0.2
14.0
17.0
0
0
3.5
5.0
0
0.1
4.5
6.0
0
0.3
2.0
3.0
Balance Balance
SPECIFICATIONS. None.
HEAT TREATMENT
Solution treatment 2050oF 1 to 3 hours, air cool
(GMR 235) Solution treatment 2100oF 2 hours, air
cool (GMR-235D). For heavier sections (of both
alloys) temperatures should be increased to
2150oF, 2 to 4 hours, air cool. Aging at 1800oF, 5
hours from the ‘‘as cast’’ condition improves the
stress rupture life of the alloy. These alloys precipitation harden rapidly during air cooling and
aging treatments are usually unnecessary.
‘‘As-Cast’’ room temperatures hardness for both
alloys is RC36 maximum. Tensile 115,000 psi
yield 90,000 psi.
Form This material is available in wrought form
only, except that GMR235 is available in cast
form.
HASTELLOY ALLOY R-235. Nickel Base Corrosion Resistant Alloy. This is a nickel base aluminum-titanium precipitation hardening alloy. It
possesses high strength up to 1800oF with good
resistance to oxidation and overaging in high temperature service. This alloy is readily fabricated
and welded in the solution treated condition.
Solution treatment 1950o-2000oF 1/2 hour, water
quench. Material treated at higher solution temperature (2200oF) is subject to strain-age cracking.
Final heat treatment af ter fabrication of sheet and
bar depends upon properties desired. To obtain
maximum long time stress-rupture life, solution
treat at 2175o 2225oF, 15 minutes, water quench.
Then heat to 2025o-2075oF, hold at temperature
for 30 minutes and cool in still air. To obtain
maximum room and high temperature tensile
strength or short time rupture strength, solution
treat at 1950o-2000oF hold at temperature for 30
minutes and air cool. Then age at 1385o-1415oF
hold at temperature for 16 hours and air cool.
TYPE HASTELLOY ALLOY R-235
FORM
SHEET
Condition
Thickness-in
Sol Treat
1975oF Water
Quench 0.021
Sol Treat
2200oF Water
Quench 0.70
Tensile, Max
psi
Yield, Max
psi RC-Max
150,000
150,000
95,000
27
95,000
25
INCONEL ALLOY 718. Steel Nickel Chromium
Stainless Alloy. This is a relatively new alloy and
heat treatment and fabrication procedures are still
under development. It has good properties up to
1300oF, slow response to age-hardening and good
ductility from 1200o-1400oF. It is readily welded
in either the annealed or aged condition.
COMPOSITION RANGE
A1%
C%
Cr%
C1%+Ta%
Cu% Mn%
0.4-1.0 0-0.1 17.0-21.0 4.5-5.75 0-0.75 0-0.50
Mo%
Ni%
Si%
Ti%
S%
Iron
2.0-4.0 50.0-55.0 0-0.5 .3-1.3 0-0.03 Balance
SPECIFICATION. None.
COMPOSITION RANGE
FORMS. Sheet, Strip, Bar, Investment Castings.
A1%
B%
C%
Cr%
Co%
Iron%
1.75-2.25 0-0.009 0-0.16 14.0-17.0 0-2.5 9.0-11.0
HEAT TREATMENT
Mn%
Mo%
Si%
Ti%
P%
S%
0-0.25 4.5-6.5 0-0.6 2.25-2.75 0-0.01 0-0.03
Ni%
Balance
SPECIFICATION. None.
FORMS. Sheet, Strip, Plate, Bar and Wire
HEAT TREATMENT
2-58
Both single age and double age treatments may be
employed, however, the latter is preferred for highest strength up to 1300oF. Solution treat rods,
bars and forgings 1800o-1900oF. Somewhat higher
creep rupture properties are obtained at the
higher temperatures. Solution treat sheet at
1725oF. Single age anneal alloy at 1325oF 16
hours, air cool. Double age anneal alloy at 1325oF
8 hours, furnace cool, 20oF per hour to 1150oF air
cool or 1325oF 8 hours, furnace cool, 100oF per
hour to 1150oF, hold 8 hours, air cool. Both of
T.O. 1-1A-9
these double age treatments appear to give the
same results.
TYPE INCONEL ALLOY 718
HOT ROLLED BAR 0.0500
IN DIA
FORM
Condition
Anneal
+
o
+
1325oF
8 hour*
8 hour**
16 hour
0.500
211,000
174,000
204,000
173,000
1800 F 1 hour
Thickness - in
Tensile PSI
Yield PSI
Age
hardening results and forming becomes diff icult.
Distortion is comparatively low if material is subsequently solution treated and water quenched.
Best machinability is obtained in the fully aged
condition af ter either oil or water quenching from
solution treating temperature. This alloy may be
fusion welded if copper and gas backing with a
tight hold down is used. Start and f inish should
be made on metal tab of the same thickness using
an inert gas atmosphere of 2 helium to 1 argon.
Following the torch with a water spray reduces the
hardness and produces maximum ductility in the
weld and heat affected zones.
COMPOSITION RANGE
193,000
154,000
C%
Mn%
Si%
Cr%
Ti%
A1%
0.06-0.12 0-0.5 0-0.5 18.0-20.0 3.0-3.3 1.5-1.8
*Furnace cool at temperature reduction of 100oF
per hour to 1150oF hold 8 hours air cool.
** Furnace cool at temperature reduction of 20oF
per hour to 1150oF air cool.
Mo%
9.0-10.5
UDIMET 700. Highly Alloyed Nickel Base Corrosion Resistant. This alloy has higher elevated
temperature tensile and stress-rupture strength
than most wrought cobalt or nickel based alloys.
It also has superior creep resistance, fatigue
strength and high oxidation resistance. Welding is
generally not recommended.
FORMS: Sheet, Strip, Plate, Bar, Wire.
COMPOSITION RANGE
A1%
3.75-4.75
B%
0-025-0.035
Co%
Cu%
17.0-20.0 0-0.1
Ti%
2.75-3.75
C%
0.03-0.1
Cr%
14.0-16.0
Iron
Mn%
Mo%
Si%
0-4.0 0-0.15 4.5-6.0 0-0.2
Zr%
0-0.06
S%
0-0.015
Ni%
Balance
B%
0-0.01
HEAT TREATMENT
Solution annealing for castings 2075o-2125oF 2
hours air cool.
Solution annealing for forgings 2125o-2175oF 4
hours air cool.
Solution treat. 1950o-2000oF 4 to 6 hours, air cool.
Intermediate aging 1535o-1565oF 24 hours air cool.
Final aging 1385o-1415oF 16 hours air cool.
Hardens by aging and cold working.
RENE 41. Nickel Base Heat Treatable Stainless
Alloy. This alloy possesses exceptional mechanical
properties at temperatures up to 1800oF. It can be
formed and also welded in the annealed condition.
If cooled at a slower rate than specif ied, e.g. in
less than 4 seconds from 2150oF to 1200oF, age
Ni%
Balance
SPECIFICATIONS: None
HEAT TREATMENT
For maximum formability 1950o-2150oF 30 minutes, water quench or cool from 2150o to 1200oF in
4 seconds maximum.
Solution treat 1950o-2150oF 30 minutes, quench or
air cool.
Heat treatment for high short time strength: Solution treat 1950oF 30 minutes, cool to 1200oF in 4
seconds maximum + 1400oF, 16 hours.
Heat treat for good ductility and high creep rupture strength, solution treat 2150oF 30 minutes +
1650oF 4 hours. Hardenability: Alloy must be
water quenched to retain sof t solution treated
conditions.
TYPE RENE 41
SPECIFICATIONS. None
FORMS. Bars, Billets, Castings, Forgings
Co%
Iron%
10.0-12.0 0-5.0
FORM
ALL
Condition
2150oF air
cooled
2150oF water
quenched
Tensile
Yield
Rockwell
Hardness
195,000
160,000
RC43
130,000
65,000
RB93
NICROTUNG. Nickel Base Corrosion Resistant
Alloy. This is a nickel base investment casting
alloy which is strengthened by addition of cobalt,
aluminum and titanium. It has high creep
strength and excellent oxidation resistance in the
high temperature range 1500o-1800oF combined
with good room temperature strength.
2-59
T.O. 1-1A-9
COMPOSITION RANGE
e.
A1%
B%
C%
Cr%
Co%
3.75-4.75 0.02-0.08 0.08-0.13 11.0-13.0 9.0-11.0
Ti%
3.75-4.75
W%
7.0-8.5
Zr%
0.02-0.08
Ni%
Balance
SPECIFICATIONS. None
FORMS. Investment castings.
The structure of the steel to be machined.
2-77. The cutting tool angles (back rake, side
clearance, front clearance, and side rake) are
highly important in the machining of metals. The
range of values based on general practice for the
machining of steel and steel alloys, are as follows:
a.
Back rake angle, 8-16 degrees.
b.
Side rake angle, 12-22 degrees.
c.
Front clearance angle, 8-13 degrees.
d.
Side clearance angle, 10-15 degrees.
HEAT TREATMENT
Heat treatment is not recommended for this alloy.
This material has ‘‘as-cast’’ hardness of RC38-40.
NIMONIC 105. Nickel-Cobalt-Chromium Corrosion Resistant Alloy. This alloy has excellent
resistance to creep at very high temperatures. It
is designed for use as turbine blades and rotors
used in gas turbines. Corrosion resistance is good
and resistance to oxidation under repeated heating
and cooling is very good.
COMPOSITION RANGE
A1%
4.2-4.8
C%
0-0.2
Cr%
13.5-16.0
Mn%
0-1.0
Mo%
4.5-5.5
Co%
Cu%
18.0-22.0 0-0.5
S1%
0-1.0
Ti%
0.9-1.5
Iron%
0-1.0
Ni%
Balance
SPECIFICATION. None
FORMS. Sheet, Strip, Bar.
HEAT TREATMENT
For maximum stress-rupture life in range 1560o1740oF, fully heat treat solution treat, and double
age as follows: Solution treat 2102oF 4 hours, air
cool. Double age 1922oF, 16 hours, air cool and
1526oF, 8 hours, air cool. Where stress rupture
strength above 1562oF is not the important property, but tensile strength, elongation and impact
strength up to 1292oF is desired, the following
heat treatment is recommended.
Solution treat 2104oF, 4 hours, air cool.
Age 1562oF, 16 hours, air cool.
2-75.
MACHINING OF STEELS (GENERAL).
2-76. There are f ive basic factors affecting
machinability as related to steel:
a.
tool.
b.
The capacity and rigidity of the machine
Cutting f luids.
c. Design composition and hardness of the
cutting tool.
d. Cutting condition with respect to feeds and
speeds.
2-60
2-78. Regardless of the material of which the
cutting tool is made, the cutting action is the
same. The main difference is the cutting speed.
The carbon-steel tool cuts at low speed. The highspeed tool cuts at twice the speed of carbon-steel,
the cast alloys at twice the speed of high-speed
steel, and the sintered carbides at twice that of
the cast alloys. The cutting speeds listed in Table
2-4 are approximate speeds using high-speed steel
tools, and are to be used only as a basis from
which proper speeds for a particular part may be
calculated. These speeds are based on SAE 1112
steel, which is assigned a machinability rating of
100%. In order to obtain an approximate starting
speed for different steels, select the type of operation, the width, depth or diameter of cut and
obtain the recommended cutting speed for SAE
1112 from Table 2-3 then refer to Table 2-4 for the
percent rating of the metal to be machined, and
multiply the SFM value from Table 2-5 by the rating in Table 2-4. The result is the recommended
surface feet per minute (SFM) for the cutting operation. For a known diameter and surface feet per
minute (SFM) be used for an operation, the corresponding revolution per minute (RPM) can be
obtained from Table 2-5.
2-79. The term cutting feed is used to express
the axial distance the tool moves in each revolution. A course feed is usually used for roughing
operations, and a f ine feed for f inishing operations. In general, the feed remains the same for
different cutting tool steels, and only the speed is
changed. Approximate cutting feeds are listed in
Table 2-3. For tool corrections when improper
machining on an operation is encountered, refer to
Table 2-6 for recommended checks.
2-80. The use of a proper coolant (cutting f luid)
of ten results in an increase of cutting speed for
the same tool life, and also acts as a lubricant giving better cutting action and surface f inish. Recommended cutting f luids for steels are lard oil,
mineral oils, sulphurized oils, and soluble or emulsif iable oils.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-3.
Cutting Speeds and Feeds for SAE 1112 Using Standard High Speed Tools
TOOL
NAME
SIZE OF
HOLE, IN.
Form
Circular
or Dovetail
--
Twist
Drills
0.250
0.500
0.750
1.000
1.250
WIDTH OR DEPTH
OF CUT, IN.
Width
Width
Width
Width
Width
Box
Tools
Blade
Threading
and Tapping
Depth
Depth
Depth
Depth
-
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
0.125
0.250
0.375
0.500
Over 25 Pitch
15 to 25 Pitch
Less than 15 Pitch
0.062
0.125
0.187
0.250
Under 1/2″
Over 1/2″
Cut Off
Width
Width
Width
Width
Table 2-4.
FEED
IN./REV
165
160
160
155
150
0.0025
0.0020
0.0018
0.0015
0.0012
105
105
115
115
120
0.0045
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
165
160
155
150
0.007
0.0065
0.0055
0.0045
30-40
20-30
15-20
Hollow
Mills
Reamers
-
SURFACE
FPM
-
0.062
0.125
0.187
0.250
150
140
135
130
0.010
0.008
0.007
0.0065
145
145
0.007
0.010
165
175
180
190
0.002
0.0025
0.0025
0.003
Machinability Rating of Various Metals
SAE
DESIGNATION
RATING %
BRINELL HARDNESS
1010
50
131-170
1015
50
131-170
1020
65
137-174
1022
70
159-192
1025
65
116-126
1035
65
174-217
1040
60
179-229
1045
60
179-229
1050
50
179-229
1055
55
192-197
1060
60
183-201
2-61
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-4.
2-62
Machinability Rating of Various Metals - Continued
SAE
DESIGNATION
RATING %
BRINELL HARDNESS
1070
45
183-241
1080
45
192-229
1095
42
197-248
1112
100
179-229
1117
85
143-179
1137
70
187-229
2317
55
174-217
2330
50
179-229
2340
45
187-241
2515
30
179-229
3115
65
143-174
3140
55
187-229
3310
40
170-229
4037
65
170-229
4130
65
187-229
4135
64
170-229
4137
60
187-229
4140
66
179-197
4150
50
187-235
4337
50
187-241
4340
45
187-241
4615
65
174-217
4620
62
152-179
4640
55
187-235
5210
30
183-229
6150
50
197
8615
67
170-217
8617
63
170-217
8620
60
170-217
8630
65
179-229
8640
60
179-229
8735
55
179-229
8740
60
179-229
9260
45
187-255
9262
45
187-255
9310
40
207-217
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-5.
Conversion of Surface Feet Per Minute (SFM) To Revolutions Per Minute (RPM)
DIAMETER
SURFACE FEET PER MINUTE
IN INCHES
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
1/16
611
917
1222
1528
1823
2445
3056
3667
4278
4889
5500
6111
6722
1/8
306
458
611
764
917
1222
1528
1833
2139
2445
2750
3056
3361
3/16
204
306
407
509
611
815
1019
1222
1426
1630
1833
2037
2241
1/4
153
229
306
383
458
611
764
917
1070
1222
1375
1528
1681
5/16
122
183
244
306
367
489
611
733
856
978
1100
1222
1345
3/8
102
153
204
255
306
407
509
611
713
815
917
1010
1120
7/16
87
131
175
218
262
349
437
524
611
698
786
873
960
1/2
76
115
153
191
229
306
382
458
535
611
688
764
840
9/16
68
102
136
170
204
272
340
407
475
543
611
679
747
5/8
61
92
122
153
183
244
306
267
428
489
550
611
672
11/16
56
83
111
139
167
222
278
333
389
444
500
556
611
3/4
51
76
102
127
153
203
255
306
357
407
458
509
560
13/16
47
71
94
118
141
188
235
282
329
376
423
470
517
7/8
44
65
87
109
131
175
218
262
306
349
393
436
480
15/16
41
61
81
102
122
163
204
244
285
326
367
407
448
1
38
57
76
96
115
153
191
229
267
306
344
382
420
1 1/8
34
51
68
85
102
136
170
204
238
272
306
340
373
1 1/4
31
46
61
76
92
122
153
183
214
244
275
306
336
1 3/8
28
42
56
69
83
111
139
167
194
222
250
278
306
1 1/2
25
38
51
64
76
102
127
153
178
204
229
255
280
1 5/8
24
35
47
59
70
94
117
141
165
188
212
235
259
1 3/4
22
33
44
55
65
87
109
131
153
175
196
218
240
1 7/8
20
31
41
51
61
81
102
122
143
163
183
204
224
2
19
29
38
48
57
76
95
115
134
153
172
191
210
2 1/4
17
25
34
42
51
68
85
102
119
136
153
170
187
2 1/2
15
23
31
38
46
61
76
92
107
122
137
153
168
2 3/4
14
21
28
35
42
56
69
83
97
111
125
139
153
3
13
19
25
32
38
51
64
76
89
102
115
127
140
DIAMETER
IN INCHES
SURFACE FEET PER MINUTE
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
225
250
270
300
1/16
7334
7945
8556
9167
9778
10390
11000
11612
12223
13751
15279
16807
18334
1/8
3667
3973
4278
4584
4889
5195
5500
5806
6111
6875
7639
8403
9167
3/16
2445
2648
2852
3056
3259
3463
3667
3871
4074
4584
5093
5602
6112
1/4
1833
1986
2139
2292
2445
2597
2750
2903
3056
3438
3820
4202
4584
5/16
1467
1589
1711
1833
1956
2078
2200
2322
2445
2750
3056
3361
3667
3/8
1222
1324
1436
1528
1630
1732
1833
1935
2037
2292
2546
2801
3056
2-63
T.O. 1-1A-9
DIAMETER
IN INCHES
SURFACE FEET PER MINUTE
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
225
250
270
300
7/16
1048
1135
1222
1310
1397
1484
1572
1659
1746
1964
2183
2401
2619
1/2
917
993
1070
1146
1222
1299
1375
1451
1528
1719
1910
2101
2292
9/16
815
883
951
1019
1086
1154
1222
1290
1358
1528
1698
1867
2037
5/8
733
794
856
917
978
1039
1100
1161
1222
1375
1528
1681
1833
11/16
667
722
778
833
889
945
1000
1056
1111
1250
1389
1528
1667
3/4
611
662
713
764
815
866
917
968
1019
1146
1273
1401
1528
13/16
564
611
658
705
752
799
846
893
940
1058
1175
1293
1410
7/8
524
567
611
655
698
742
786
829
873
982
1091
1200
1310
15/16
489
530
570
611
652
693
733
774
815
917
1019
1120
1222
1
458
497
535
573
611
649
688
726
764
859
955
1050
1146
1 1/8
407
441
475
509
543
577
611
645
679
764
849
934
1019
1 1/4
367
397
428
458
489
519
550
581
611
688
764
840
917
1 3/8
333
361
389
417
444
472
500
528
556
625
694
764
833
1 1/2
306
331
357
382
407
433
458
484
509
573
637
700
764
1 5/8
282
306
329
353
376
400
423
447
470
529
588
646
705
1 3/4
262
284
306
327
349
371
393
415
437
491
546
600
655
1 7/8
244
265
285
306
326
346
367
387
407
458
509
560
611
2
229
248
267
287
306
325
344
363
382
430
477
525
573
2 1/4
204
221
233
255
272
289
306
323
340
382
424
467
509
2 1/2
183
199
214
229
244
260
275
290
306
344
382
420
458
2 3/4
167
181
194
208
222
236
250
264
278
313
347
382
417
3
153
166
178
191
204
216
229
242
255
286
318
350
382
Table 2-6.
A.
Tool Correction Chart
TOOL CHATTER
Check: 1. Tool overhand (reduce to minimum)
2. Work Support (eliminate vibration)
3. Nose radius (too large a radius may cause chatter)
4. Tool clearance (be sure end cutting edge angle is suff icient)
5. Feed (increase feed if too light a feed has tendency to rub rather than cut)
6. Tool load (vary side cutting edge angle to correct improper load)
7. Chip breaker (widen breaker if chips are too tight.)
2-64
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-6.
B.
Tool Correction Chart - Continued
CHIPPING OF CUTTING EDGE
Check: 1. Edge sharpness (Hone or chamber slightly)
2. Chip Breaker (widen breaker if tight chip causes chipping)
3. Speed (Increase)
4. Coolant (Heating and cooling of tip may cause chipping)
C.
RAPID TOOL WEAR
Check: 1. Feed (Increase)
2. Speed (Low and excessive speeds cause tool wear)
3. Relief angles (clearance may not be suff icient)
4. Nose radius (decrease size)
D.
UNSATISFACTORY FINISH
Check: 1. Speed (rough f inishes can be eliminated by increasing speed)
2. Nose radius (too large a nose radius mats f inish)
2-81. MACHINING CORROSION RESISTING
STEEL.
designated by a suff ix to type number such as 430
F or Se. Exceptions are types 416 and 303.
2-82. The corrosion resisting steels, especially
the 18-8 grades, are more diff icult to machine
than the carbon steels and most other metals.
Even though they are more diff icult to machine,
the same general methods are used with modif ication/compensation for the individual characteristics of each type or grade. To improve machining
characteristics of some types, their chemical content is modif ied by adding selenium (Se) and sulfur (S). The modif ied alloys which are usually
2-83. For comparison and as a general guide to
the machining characteristics of free machining
screw stock grade B1112 as an 100% machinable
‘‘norm.’’ This table is only intended as a starting
point and is not intended to replace any information accumulated through experience or other
available data.
Table 2-7.
General Machining Comparison of Corrosion Resisting Steel To Free Machining Screw Stock B1112
GRADE/TYPE
Group I 430F
MACHINABILITY
RATING
GRADE/TYPE
MACHINABILITY
RATING
80%
Group III 420
45%
416
75%
431
45%
420F
70%
440
45%
303
65%
442
45%
446
45%
347
40-45%
Group II 403
55%
Group IV 302
40%
410
50%
304
40%
430
50%
309
40%
440F
50%
316
40%
2-65
T.O. 1-1A-9
2-84. In machining of the corrosion resisting
steels, diff iculty will be experienced from seizing,
galling and stringing. To overcome these problems
requires control of speeds, cutting tools, and lubricants. The following general practices are recommended for shaping/grinding cutting tools, equipment, etc., for cutting corrosion resisting steel:
a. Select tools of proper alloy/type and keep
cutting edges sharp, smooth, free of burrs, nicks
and scratches.
(18-41) and Molybdenum-Tungsten Type M3 (6-63).
b. For medium runs at approximately 25%
higher speed, use Tungsten-Cobalt Type T5 (18-42-8) and Tungsten-Cobalt Type T4.
c. For long production runs at high speed, use
Tungsten Carbides. Cutting tool of these alloys can
be used at approximately 100% faster speeds than
the Tungsten-Cobalt type.
b. Avoid overheating cutting tool when grinding to prevent surface and stress cracking.
NOTE
Some types of tool steel are available
in raw stock in accordance with Federal Specif ications, see paragraph 7-4.
Prior to attempting local manufacture
of cutting tools, facilities/equipment
must be available to properly heat
treat. In addition, from an economic
standpoint, it is usually advisable to
obtain most cutting tools pref inished
to size, etc., and heat treated.
c. Grind tools with generous lip rake and
with ample side and front clearance.
d. Speeds are critical in machining stainless;
select speed about 50% slower than those used for
carbon steels as a starting point.
e. In general, use slow speeds and heavy feed
to reduce effect of work hardening. Avoid riding of
tool on work and intermittent cutting when
possible.
f. Apply proper lubricant/coolant to cutting
tool to prevent overheating.
g. Support cutting tool rigidly near work to
prevent lash and other diff iculty from use of heavy
cutting feeds.
2-85. Cutting Tools for Machining Corrosion
Resisting Steels. Selection of cutting tool is important for machining stainless due to tough machining characteristics. The following is a recommended guide for selection of tools:
a. For general machining and short runs use
high speed tool steels such as Tungsten Type T1
Table 2-8.
ALLOY
TYPE/GRADE
302, 304, 309,
310, 314, 316
2-66
2-86. TURNING OF THE CORROSION
RESISTING STEELS.
2-87. Tools for turning the corrosion steels
should be ground with a heavy side rake clearance
for maximum cut freedom. The upper surface of
the tool should be f inished with a f ine wheel or
hand stoned to prevent galling. For chip disposal
or breakage a chip grove is usually necessary
except with the free machining grades. In addition, the chip breakage is a safety precaution to
prevent diff iculty and hazards in breaking the
expelled cutting. Do not allow tools to become dull
to prevent surface hardening from rubbing and
hard spots which are diff icult to remove.
Suggested Cutting Speeds and Feeds
FEED INCH
1/
CUTTING SPEED SURFACE
FT.PER MIN
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
0.020-0.040
20-40
Rough
High Speed
Steel
0.008-0.015
50-80
Finish
High Speed
Steel
0.020-0.040
40-60
Rough
TungstenCobalt
0.008-0.015
90-110
Finish
TungstenCobalt
0.010-0.030
150-200
Rough
Carbide
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-8.
ALLOY
TYPE/GRADE
Suggested Cutting Speeds and Feeds - Continued
FEED INCH
1/
CUTTING SPEED SURFACE
FT.PER MIN
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
0.008-0.018
150-300
Finish
Carbide
0.015-0.040
20-40
Rough
High Speed
Steel
0.008-0.018
55-90
Finish
High Speed
Steel
0.015-0.040
40-80
Rough
TungstenCobalt
0.008-0.018
100-130
Finish
TungstenCobalt
0.015-0.030
165-220
Rough
Carbide
0.005-0.015
165-330
Finish
Carbide
0.015-0.040
30-60
Rough
High Speed
Steel
0.008-0.018
75-120
Finish
High Speed
Steel
0.015-0.040
60-105
Rough
TungstenCobalt
0.005-0.015
135-180
Finish
TungstenCobalt
0.010-0.030
225-300
Rough
Carbide
0.005-0.015
225-450
Finish
Carbide
420F
0.015-0.050
25-55
Rough
High Speed
Steel
303
0.005-0.015
65-105
Finish
High Speed
Steel
0.020-0.050
50-90
Rough
TungstenCobalt
420, 431, 440,
442, 446, 347,
321
430F, 416
2-67
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-8.
ALLOY
TYPE/GRADE
Suggested Cutting Speeds and Feeds - Continued
FEED INCH
1/
CUTTING SPEED SURFACE
FT.PER MIN
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
0.005-0.015
100-155
Finish
TungstenCobalt
0.010-0.030
175-240
Rough
Carbide
0.005-0.015
195-350
Finish
Carbide
NOTE: 1/ Feeds cited are based on turning 1 inch stock or larger. Feeds for smaller sizes should be
reduced proportionally to size of material being turned.
Table 2-9.
Tool Angles - Turning
NOTE
In grinding chip breakers, allow for
chip to clear work or rough f inish will
result.
2-88. The sof ter condition of stainless is not necessarily the easiest to cut. It is generally preferable that material be moderately hardened (Brinell
2-68
200-240) for best machining. Another factor
requiring consideration in machining stainless is
high co-eff icient of thermal expansion which will
necessitate adjusting (slacking off) centers as
material heats up.
T.O. 1-1A-9
2-89. The recommended cutting speeds, tool
angles and feeds for turning corrosion resisting
steel are cited in Tables 2-8 and 2-9.
2-90. MILLING CORROSION RESISTING
STEEL. The same general procedures/equipment
are used in working stainless as those used with
carbon steel. However more power and rigid support of tool is required to accomplish cutting due
to inherent strength and toughness of the various
stainless alloys.
2-91. In milling the corrosion resisting steel, diff iculty will be experienced from heat build-up.
Heat conduction of the chromium-nickel grades is
about 50% slower than the carbon steels. This
problem can be controlled in most cases by adjusting cutting speeds, tool angles, method of grinding,
and use of proper lubricants in adequate quantities. In close tolerance work, controlling of heat
build-up is of utmost importance to meet dimensional requirements.
2-92. Cutters for Milling. High speed tool steel
is used for most milling on stainless. The other
grades are used under certain conditions, such as
cemented carbides; however, capacity of equipment
and cost of tooling for specif ic uses requires
consideration.
2-93. All the standard cutter designs used for
cutting carbon steel can be used to cut stainless
but preferred design is those with helical (spiral)
teeth. The use of helical cutter minimizes vibration and chatter especially when cutter/cut exceeds
1 inch. Chip removal and loading of cutter can be
aided when milling slots by staggering teeth to cut
Table 2-10.
successively on alternate sides and half the
bottom.
2-94. Cutter lands should be ground to narrow
width (0.020 to 0.025) with clearance (3o-10o primary angular) behind cutting lip to reduce frictional heat resulting from rubbing. The exact
amounts the land is ground will depend on diameter of cutter, material hardness, grade, etc. However, in grinding the lands, care should be taken
to avoid unnecessary weakening of support for cutting edge. As a further measure against rubbing,
a secondary clearance of 6o-12o starting at the
back of the land is recommended. On side cutter,
angular clearance of 3o to 10o to avoid frictional
heat and rubbing is recommended.
CAUTION
Before starting operation/equipment,
carefully check for proper set up,
safety, rigid support of work and cutters, running condition of equipment,
and f low of coolant/lubrication. Once
cutting is started, it should be carried
to completion to avoid the effects of
changes in metal temperature. Naturally the continuous operation will
depend on satisfactory operation of
equipment and other factors.
2-95. The recommended cutting speeds, tools,
angles, and feeds for milling are cited in tables
2-10 and 2-11. The information in these tables is
only provided as a starting point, or as a guide.
Suggested Milling Cutting Speeds and Feeds
FEED INCH
1/
SPEED
SFPM
TOOL MATERIAL
0.002-0.005
35-70
High Speed Steel
0.002-0.007
30-95
High Speed Steel
403-410, 430
0.002-0.008
35-90
High Speed Steel
440F
0.002-0.008
35-70
High Speed Steel
303
0.002-0.008
50-100
High Speed Steel
430F, 416
0.002-0.006
50-130
High Speed Steel
420F
0.002-0.006
35-80
High Speed Steel
ALLOY TYPE/GRADE
301,
310,
347,
420,
446
302, 304, 309,
314, 316, 321,
17-4PH, 17-7PH,
431, 440, 442,
1/ Use heavy feeds for rough cuts and light feeds for f inishing.
2-69
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-11.
TOOL ANGLES
Suggested Tool Angles - Milling
TOOL MATERIAL
HIGH SPEED STEEL
CEMENTED CARBIDE/C
Rake Radial 1/
o
10 -20
Use lower angle
Rake Axial 1/
30o-50o
Use lower angle
Clearance
Land Width
o
o
o
4 -8
Approximately same
1/64″-1/16″
Approximately same
ALLOY
1/ Saws, form relieved cutters, and miscellaneous prof ile cutters, etc., are sometimes used
with rake angle as low as 0 degrees.
2-96. Lubrication for Milling. The lubrication of
milling cutter is very important to control generation of heat which is considerable in cutting all
grades of stainless, and to prevent seizing of chips
to cutting edges. The cutting oils used should be
applied in large quantities directly on the cutter
and zone of cut. The sulphurized oils diluted to
desired viscosity with paraff in oil are usually
satisfactory.
2-97. DRILLING CORROSION RESISTING
STEEL. High speed steel drills are commonly
used for drilling stainless. Special types are used
for drilling grades (420, 440, etc.) that are abrasive
due to high carbon content. Speeds for drilling the
high carbon types are usually reduced 25-50%o in
comparison to the other grades.
2-98. Drills for use with the corrosion resisting
steels are prepared with different cutting angles
than used with carbon steel. Drill point/tips for
use with the chromium-nickel grades are usually
ground with 135o-140o (included) angle and 8o-15o
lip clearance. The webb support for the point
should be as heavy as possible; however, thinning
of the webb at the point will relieve point pressure. When drilling the free machining 400 series
grades the angle is reduced to 118o-130o. For general illustration of point designs see Figure 3-2.
2-99. Speeds used for drilling the corrosion
resisting steels should be closely controlled to prevent hardening of metal and excessive drill damage from heat. For suggested drilling speed using
high speed steel drill bits, see Table 2-12.
Table 2-12.
Drilling Speeds for Corrosion Resisting Steel
GRADE TYPE
301, 302, 304, 310
303
309, 316, 321, 347
403, 410
416, 420F, 430F
420 AB & C
442, 446
SPEED SFPM
(APPROX)
20
40
30
35
60
20
30
-
40
80
50
75
95
40
60
NOTE
Do not let drill ride on work to prevent work hardening and heat damage to drill. On larger diameter drills
use chip curling grooves to help expel
and prevent chip accumulation in
area of hole being drilled.
2-100. Lubrication for Drilling Stainless. The
recommended lubrication for general use and light
drilling is soluble oil, and for heavy work,
sulphurized mineral or fatty oils. Utilization of
adequate lubrication/ coolant is of utmost importance in drilling stainless due to poor heat conduction of this material.
2-101. REAMING CORROSION RESISTING
STEEL. The recommended reamer for the corrosion resisting steels is the spiral f luted type which
is made from high speed steel/carbide tipped.
These spiral f luted reamers are used to help alleviate chatter and chip removal that are associated
with the straight f luted reamers.
2-102. Due to the work hardening characteristics
of the corrosion resisting steel, it is advisable to
leave suff icient stock to insure that cutting will
occur behind the work hardening surface resulting
from drilling. The recommended material to be lef t
for reaming is 0.003-0.007 inch, and feed per
revolution should be 0.003-0.005 for holes up to 1/2
2-70
T.O. 1-1A-9
inch and 0.005-0.010 for reamers up to 1 inch
diameter.
2-103. Reamers for cutting stainless should have
a 26o-30o starting chamfer with a slight lead angle
behind the chamfer of 1o-2o for about 1/8-3/16 inch
on the land to reduce initial shock of cutting. The
land should be ground with a clearance of 4o-7o
(and width should not be reduced below 0.0100.012 inch) to reduce rubbing and frictional heat.
2-104. Speeds for reaming will vary according to
type of material being cut. The recommended
speed for reaming types 301, 302, 304, 316, 321,
347, 403 and 410 is 20 - 75 surface feet per minute; for 430F, 420F, 416, 440F and 303 --35 - 100
SFPM; and for 309, 310, 430, 431, 440, 442, 426 20-60 SFPM. Trial should be conducted to determine best cutting for indivldua1 operations.
2-105. TAPPING CORROSION RESISTING
STEEL. Conventional or standard type taps are
used with stainless; however, better results can
sometimes be obtained by modif ication of taps (in
shop) as required and by use of two f luted type
Table 2-13.
taps for small holes. For instance modif ication of
taps can be accomplished by grinding longitudinal
grooves along the lands, omission of cutting edges
on alternate threads and relieving cutting edges
will reduce binding and frictional drag. These
modif ications will also aid in distribution of lubrication to cutting area, provide additional clearance
for chips and compensate for the swelling which is
encountered with the sof ter temper material. The
modif ication is usually accomplished as follows:
a. Longitudinal grooves are ground down the
center of each land about 1/3 to 1/2 thread depth
and 1/3 to 1/2 approximately of land width.
b. Cutting edges are relieved by grinding a 2o5 radial taper on each land.
o
c. Lands are narrowed by removing about
half the threading area from each land. The portion removed should trail the foremost cutting
edge. Also, cutting edge should be ground to have
positive hook/rake 15o-20o for sof ter material and
10o-15o for harder material.
Tapping Allowances (Hole Size to Screw Size)
THREAD/SCREW
SIZE
MAJOR DIA.
MINOR DIA.
DRILL SIZE
DECIMAL & NR
THREAD DEPTH
PERCENT
4-40
0.1120
0.0871±0.002
0.0810-46
95
0.827-45
90
0.0860-44
80
0.0890-43
71
0.0960-41
49
0.0995-39
95
0.1040-37
83
0.1100-35
72
0.1160-32
54
0.1065-36
97
0.1130-33
77
0.1200-31
65
0.1250-1/8″
96
0.1285-30
87
0.1360-29
69
0.1405-28
57
6-32
6-40
8-32
0.1380
0.1380
0.1640
0.1100±0.004
0.1144±0.0035
0.1342±0.004
2-71
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-13.
Tapping Allowances (Hole Size to Screw Size) - Continued
THREAD/SCREW
SIZE
MAJOR DIA.
MINOR DIA.
DRILL SIZE
DECIMAL & NR
THREAD DEPTH
PERCENT
10-32
0.1900
0.1593±0.003
0.1520-24
93
0.1562-5/32″
83
0.1610-20
71
0.1660-19
59
0.1695-18
50
0.1850-13
100
0.1875-3/16″
96
0.1935-10
87
0.1990-8
78
0.2090-4
63
0.1960-9
100
2031-13/64″
86
0.2090-4
75
0.2130-3
68
0.2090-4
88
0.2130-3
80
0.2187-7/32″
67
0.2610-G
95
0.2656-17/64″
86
0.2720-1
75
0.2770-J
65
0.3281-2 1/64″
86
0.3320-Q
70
0.3390-R
66
0.4531-29/64″
86
0.4687-15/32″
57
1/4-20
1/4-24
1/4-28
5/16-24
3/8-24
1/2-24
0.2500
0.2500
0.2500
0.3125
0.3750
0.5000
0.2010±0.005
0.2143±0.003
0.2193±0.002
0.2708±0.0032
0.3278±0.002
0.4579±0.003
2-106. In addition to the above, the tap basically
should have a taper/chamfer of about 9o with
center line on the starting end to facilitate entry
into hole. The taper should be held short (1st
thread) for blind holes, and on through holes, it
may extend over 3 or 4 threads
2-72
2-107. Due to high strength and poorer cutting
quality of the stainless series steels, holes for tapping are usually made as large as possible consistent with f it specif ied by drawing or other data.
Actually due to the higher strength of this material less thread area or engagement is required in
comparison to most other metals. Due to the
above and the fact that less cutting is required,
75% thread depth is generally used as maximum
T.O. 1-1A-9
unless otherwise specif ied. Higher percentages of
thread depth are necessary in material when stock
is not thick enough to permit the required number
of thread. For tapping allowances of some size
screws/bolts see Table 2-13.
2-108. The decreased thread depth also reduces
tendency to gall and seize, power required to drive
tap, tap wear, and effect of swelling in sof t
material.
2-109. Tapping Speeds Corrosion Resisting Steel.
Tapping speeds used for stainless should be slower
than those used for carbon steel. The 18-8 (300
series) are usually tapped at 10-25 SFPM except
for the free machining types which are tapped at
15-30 SFPM. The straight-chromium 400 series
generally is tapped at 15-25 SFPM, except the free
machining grades, which are tapped at 15-35
SFPM.
2-110. Lubrication for Tapping. The lubrications
recommended for tapping are sulphurized mineral
oils with paraff in and lard oil. The lubricant
serves to prevent overheating as well as lubrication, and if applied under pressure, aids in chip
removal. Oil f low/application should be applied
before tapping commences to prevent initial congestion of cuttings.
2-111.
SAWING.
2-112. Hack saws (hand) for cutting corrosion
resisting steel should be of high speed steel with
approximately 32 teeth per inch for light work and
approximately 24 teeth per inch for heavy work.
The teeth area should be of wavy construction to
increase width of cut area to prevent binding. As
with cutting other metal, the blade should not be
allowed to drag/ride on the return stroke, especially with the 300 series types to prevent work
hardening. The hack saw blade should be lightly
lubricated with lard oil/other cutting oil for best
results.
2-113. Hack saws (mechanical drive). Power
hack saws are used for heavy cross-cutting section
bars, tubing, etc. With the power hack saw,
deeper cuts are made at relatively low speed. The
deeper cuts are used to get under work hardened
surface resulting from previous cut (stroke). The
teeth per inch for saw blades average 8-12 and
speed of saw travel usually ranges from 50-100
feet per minute depending on type and temper of
material being cut. Coolant/lubrication is essential to prevent excess blade damage from heat.
Lubrication recommended is soluble oil/water
mixed about 1 part oil to 4 parts water for heavy
work, and for light work, a light grade cutting oil.
2-114. Band Sawing. Band saws are well suited
for low speed (straight line/contour) sawing of
stainless/corrosion resisting steel within prescribed
limitation. The saw manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed for cutting speed, saw
selection, etc. However, speeds usually vary with
the physical properties, temper, etc., of type/grade
being cut. As general guide, speeds range from
100-125 feet per minute for material under 0.062
and 60-100 FPM for thickness over 0.062 inch.
Saw blades must be kept in sharp condition for
effective low speed sawing.
2-115. For faster cutting with the band saw, the
friction cutting method may be employed. In
utilizing the friction method, the band saw velocity
ranges from 5000 FPM for cutting f lat 1/32 inch
material to about 10,000 FPM for 1/2 inch and
14,000 for 1 inch material; tubing material is run
at slightly higher speed. Feed for this method can
be considerably higher than is used for slow speed
cutting, rates range from about 100 FPM for light
gauge to 15-18 FPM for 1/2 inch material. Saw
teeth per inch varies from 18 for material below
1/ 8 inch thick to 10 per inch for thicknesses over
1/2 inch.
2-116. Heavy pressure to maintain cut is not
usually necessary. Pressure should be just suff icient to create proper heating and sof tening at cut
point without forcing the saw. Lubricants should
not be used.
Paragraph 2-117 through 2-227 deleted.
Tables 2-14 through 2-33 deleted.
Figures 2-2 and 2-3 deleted.
Pages 2-75 through 2-120 deleted.
Change 1
2-73/(2-74 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
2-228.
(Deleted)
2-229.
(Deleted)
2-230.
(Deleted)
2-231.
(Deleted)
2-232.
(Deleted)
2-233.
(Deleted)
2-234. FABRICATION OF FERROUS ALLOYS. The
information furnished in this section is provided as
a guide to aid personnel engaged in the use and
application of the ferrous alloys. Due to varied
usage of steel products, details and rules related
will not f it every application. In many instances,
experimentation trial and further study will be
required.
2-235. Personnel assigned to accomplish designs,
application and fabrication must be well trained in
fundamentals of metal forming practices, analysis,
properties, corrosion control, machining, plating,
welding, beat treat, riveting, painting, blue print
reading, assembly, etc., in accordance with scope of
relation to fabrication process. Also, these personnel must keep constantly abreast of advancing
processes for maximum eff iciency/prof iciency.
2-236. The section of steel for design or application to equipment and component is usually based
on the following:
a. Strength and weight requirement of part/
equipment to be fabricated.
b. Method to be used for fabrication, i.e.,
welding, forming, machining, heat treat, etc.
c. Corrosion resistance to certain chemicals/
environments.
d. Temperatures to which part will be
subjected.
e.
Fatigue properties under cyclic loads, etc.
2-237. The following general rules should be
employed in handling and forming:
Change 1
2-121
T.O. 1-1A-9
a. Sheet, sheared/sawed strips and blank
shall be handled with care to prevent cutting and
other parts of the body.
b. Sheared or cut edges shall be sanded, f iled,
or polished prior to forming. The removal of rough
and sharp edges is also recommended prior to
accomplishing other machining operations to
reduce hazards in handling.
c. Form material across the grain when possible using correct or specif ied bend radii. Also provide bend relief in corner when required.
d. Observe load capacity of equipment such as
brakes, presses, rolls, drills, lathes, shears, mills,
etc.
CAUTION
Machines rated for carbon steel shall
not be used over 60% of rated capacity when cutting, forming or machining stainless steel unless approved by
responsible engineering activity.
When in doubt inquire.
e. Tool and equipment shall be maintained
smooth, free of nicks, rust, burrs and foreign material. In addition to above, dies, ways, etc., shall be
checked for alignment tolerances, etc., periodically/
each set-up.
f. Surfaces of material, especially f inished
sheet, shall be protected from scratching, foreign
particles, etc. These surfaces can be protected
using non-corrosive paper, tape, other approved
material and good cleaning procedures. Polished
sheet material should be protected when forming
to prevent die tool marking.
g. Af ter forming/machining is completed,
remove all cutting lubrication, etc., by cleaning,
degreasing, pickling, prior to any heat treat, plating or painting process.
CAUTION
Avoid handling parts, especially corrosion resistant steel, with bare hands
af ter cleaning and subsequent to heat
treating/ passivation because f inger
prints will cause carburization and
pitting of surface, when heated.
2-238. BENDING (SINGLE CURVATURE).
The bending of most steel sheet and thin bar stock
can be readily accomplished provided that equipment with adequate bending and cutting capacity
is available and if the materials are formed in the
2-122
sof t condition/lower temper range. The heat treatable alloys are usually formed in the annealed or
normalized condition and heat treated if required/
specif ied af ter forming. Some diff iculty will be
encountered from warping due to treat treating
and precautions must be taken when forming the
material to prevent sporadic or uneven stress in
the work piece. Also, parts will require jigs or
close control during the heating and cooling phase
of heat treatment. The use of heat treated formed
sheet metal parts on aerospace craf t are usually
an exception in part due to above and most materials are used in the normalized or annealed
condition.
2-239. Springback allowance will vary according
to the type and temper of material being formed.
The use of sharp bend radii on parts for aeronautical application shall be avoided and other application where the parts will be subjected to f lexing
(cycle) or concentrated stresses, due to possible
fatigue or stress corrosion failure. For recommended General Bend Radii for use on Aerospace
weapon/equipment (see Table 2-34 for Low Carbon/low alloy steel and Table 2-35 for Corrosion
Resistant Steel.)
2-240. In utilizing Table 2-34 and Table 2-35 it is
recommended that in practice bend area be
checked for strain, grain, or bend cracking. If
parts show presence of above, increase radius by
one thickness or more until diff iculty does not
exist. Other details, inspection requirements, etc.,
shall be used when specif ied.
2-241. DRAW FORMING. Control of die
design, and material from which dies are made,
are essential to successfully draw form steel. For
long production runs, high carbon, high chromium
steel is recommended to manufacture drawing dies
because of wear resistance and hardness. For
medium and short production runs, Kirksite/case
zinc alloy can be used with drop hammer hydraulic press if the draw is not severe. Hardwood and
phenolic can be used in some cases for piece production where draws are shallow.
2-242.
on:
Successful drawing of steel will depend
a. Radii used for forming or bending. Use
moderate radii, usually equal to 3-6 times thickness of material depending on specif ic requirements, and the severity of draw.
b. Finish of die-all scratches and surface
roughness should be removed.
c. Blank hold down pressure and drawing
rings. Hold down pressure should be suff icient to
prevent wrinkling of material, but not to the
extent that would prevent f low of the metal into
T.O. 1-1A-9
the female portion of the die. Drawing rings radii
should be 4-8 times metal thickness and smoothly
polished.
d. Clearance between punch and die - Generally punch clearance should be about 1 1/4 to 1 1/2
times thickness for the initial draws, and about
1 1/8 to 1 1/4 times for the following draws. If
parts show signs of galling, clearance (drawing)
should be increased when clearance is increased,
size requirement must be considered.
e. Temper-drawing should be started with
annealed/normalized material and intermediate
annealing accomplished as required. The requirement for annealing (intermediate) usually is
needed af ter reduction exceeds 30-35% for stainless/20-25% carbon steel on the initial draw, and
when reduction exceeds 8-15% on each following
draw. Parts should be cleaned removing all lubrication and other contaminate prior to annealing
and desealed af ter annealing. In instances where
draws exceed 22-25% annealing is recommended
af ter completion of the drawing operation followed
by descaling and passivation (stainless). Restriking
on f inal stage die to remove distortion af ter f inal
anneal is permissible without further heat
treatment.
f. Drawing Speed - Generally a speed of 2055 feed per minute is satisfactory. Drawing using
a hydraulic powered press in lieu of a cam operated or toggle type press is usually the most
satisfactory,
g. Lubricant - Compounds used should be of
heavy consistency capable of withstanding high
temperature and restating pressure necessary to
form material. One heavy bodied lubricant used is
lard oil, sulfur (one pound of sulfur to 1 gallon of
oil) to which lithopone is added in equal parts
until consistency equals 600W engine grease, or as
desired. Other compounds such as tallow, mixture
of mineral oil and sof t soap, powdered graphite
mixed to thin paste with lightweight oil can be
used.
h. Blank size and preparation - A good practice is to use minimum size required to meet
dimensional size of parts and for hold down.
When trimming, consideration must be given to
the fact that on rectangular parts, the majority of
drawings will occur on wider portions of the rectangle away from the corners. To overcome this
problem, the radius of the vertical corner should
be approximately 10% of the width. Trial, using a
very ductile material to determine blank size and
stress areas prior to starting the forming operation
is recommended. Af ter size is determined by trial,
etc., the blank should be f iled/polished to prevent
cracking in wrinkle/stress areas, handling hazard
and surface friction which hinders f low of metal
into die.
2-243. The surface condition of the blank also
has an effect on drawing. A slightly roughened
surface, such as obtained by pickling (dull surface)
improves control of metal under hold down pads
and the holding lubricants. On the other hand,
the roughened surface may be less desirable
because of greater friction, especially where free
f lowing drawing methods are used (without hold
down).
2-244. Where facilities are available, cold forming of some steels (primarily straight chromium
stainless such as 410, 416,430, 442, 446) can be
improved by preheating dies and blanks. The
preheating tends to reduce work hardening and
the requirement for intermediate annealing during
the drawing operation.
2-245. When forming involves more than one
draw, the f irst operation should be a moderate
draw with punch diameter equal to 60% of blanks
diameter and reduction of 15-25%. The second
and subsequent draws should be made with
punches about 20%. It is recommended that part
be cleaned and annealed following each draw.
Excessive distortion may result from f inal
annealing af ter last draw. This problem can be
overcome in most instances, by reducing the severity of the last draw or restriking af ter f inal
annealing on last stage die for the purpose of
removing distortion.
CAUTION
Parts shall be cleaned of all contaminates, lubrication, f iling, other foreign
material, etc., before heating or
annealing and upon completion of
forming or drawing operation. Failure to clean the parts will result in
pitting and carburization, which will
damage the surface.
2-246. STRETCH FORMING. Stretch forming
is a process where material, sheet or strip, is
stretched beyond the elastic limit until permanent
set will take with a minimum amount of
springback.
2-247. The stretch forming is usually accomplished by gripping ends of material (blank) and
applying force by a separate ram carrying the
forming die. The ram pressure suff icient to cause
the material to stretch and wrap to contour of the
die form blank is applied perpendicular to the
blank (see Figure 2-4). This method of forming is
2-123
T.O. 1-1A-9
usually limited to parts with large radii of curvature and shallow depth, such as shallow dishing,
reverse curves, and curved pan shaped parts containing f lat areas.
some cases, it will be necessary to use a combination of hand forming shrinking/stretching using
supplemental machinery and pressing to complete
forming by this method.
2-248. The trimming of edges and removal of
nicks and scratches is important to prevent starting points for concentrated stress, which, under
tension loads, would tear. The direction of major
tension (stretch) and direction of grain is also
important. It is recommended in forming that the
major tension be transverse to the direction of
grain. Lubrication aids in uniform distribution of
stress and the lubricant shall be applied uniformly
to work piece to avoid distortion which could result
from unequal friction when material is sliding
across the forming die during stretching.
2-251. DROP HAMMER FORMING. Dies for
drop hammer forming are usually made by casting
metals such as kirksite. These dies can be rapidly
produced; are more economical than permanent
dies; can be melted and recast; and can be reinforced at selected points of wear by facing with
harder material, such as tool steel for long production runs.
2-249. Forming dics/blocks for general production
are made from kirksite/zinc, alloy; for piece production from phenolic and hardwood. Some types
and kinds of plastic with good hardness and high
impact strengths are also used. The rubber pad
hydraulic press is used to form relatively f lat
parts having f langes, beads, lightening holes, and
for very light drawing of pan shaped parts having
large radii.
2-250. Form blocks are usually manufactured
from steel, phenolic (mechanical grades), kirksite/
zinc cast alloy, and some types of hard molding
plastic with high impact strength. The work is
accomplished by setting the form block on the
lower press plate or bed, and the blank is placed
on the block. The blank is held in place on the
block by locating pins (holes are drilled through
the blank and into the form block for the insertion
of the locating pins). These holes are referred to
as ‘‘tooling holes,’’ which prevent slippage of blank
when pressure is applied. If tooling holes are not
allowed, another method of alignment and holding
of blank must be utilized. The sheet metal blank
should be cut to size (allow suff icient material to
form f lange), deburred, and f iled prior to pressing.
Af ter the block is prepared and placed on the
plate, the rubber pad f illed press head is lowered
or closed over the block, and as the hydraulic pressure (applied by a ram to the head) increases, the
rubber envelopes the form block forcing the blank
to conform to the form block contour or shape. It
is recommended that additional rubber be supplemented in the form of sheets (usuually l/2 - 1 inch,
hardness of 70-80 durometers) over the form block
and blank to prevent damaging the rubber press
pad. The design of form blocks for hydropress
forming requires compensation for springback.
The form for forming f langes on ribs, stiffners,
etc., should be undercut approximately 2-8 degrees
depending on the alloy, hardness, and radius. In
2-124
2-252. Normally, drop hammer forming is accomplished without benef it of hold down. The metal is
slowly forced in shape by controlling the impact of
blows. In many instances, it is necessary to use
drawings, rings, 2 or 3 stage dies, supplemental
equipment, and hard forming such as bumping
hammer, wooden mallet to remove wrinkles, etc.
To successfully complete forming operations,
another aid that may be necessary is to anneal
material between die stages and intermediately for
single stage die forming.
CAUTION
Parts should be cleaned prior to
annealing to protect f inish. Care
should be taken to remove all traces
of zinc that may be picked up from
kirksite forming dies, as failure to
remove the zinc will result in penetration of the steel (stainless) when
treated and will cause cracking.
2-253. SPINNING. Those steels that have low
yield strengths in the sof t/annealed condition, and
low rates of work hardening are the best grades
for spinning. To overcome work hardening
problems, intermediate annealing and 2-3 or more
stage spinning blocks are used. Annealing of the
part at intervals also aids the operator when manual spinning, because less pressure is required to
form metal and springback is lower.
2-254. Form blocks for spinning are usually
made of phenolic, hard wood, or carbon steel.
Manual spinning is usually accomplished on a
lathe specif ically adapted and f itted for that purpose. The main requirements are that required
speed be maintained without vibration; clamping
pressure is suff icient to hold part; facilities are
provided to apply pressure at a uniform rate; and
tools are of proper design. Normally, spinning
tools are the roller or round nose type designed in
such a manner that high pressure can be applied
without bending. Where local design of tools are
T.O. 1-1A-9
required, raw material for manufacture is obtainable under QQ-T-570, Type D2, hardened to
Rockwell C40-50.
2-255. SHEARING AND BLANKING. To prevent damage to shear, and to assure clean, accurate cuts, clearance between shear blades should
be approximately one-twentieth (5%) thickness of
material to be cut. Also, blades or knives must be
maintained in sharp condition, clean, and free of
nicks. Where only one shear is available, a clearance of 0.005 to 0.006 could be used for general
shearing of sheet stock up to 0.125 inches thick.
Excessive blade clearance should be avoided to
prevent work hardening of cut area which
increases susceptibility to stress corrosion and burring. Lubrication such as lightweight engine oil or
soap should be applied at regular intervals to prevent galling and to clean blades for prolonged
shear blade life.
2-256. BLANKING AND PUNCHING. Blanking and punching requires close control of die
clearance, shearing action of punch/blanking die.
Clearance for blanking and punching should be 5%
of thickness and closely controlled for all gauges.
In designing dies and punches, it is important that
shear action be incorporated to equalize and
reduce load. Double shear should be used when
possible to minimize off balance condition and
load. Punches and dies should be maintained in
clean sharp condition and lubricated by swabbing
or spraying material to be punched with lightweight lube oil to prevent galling and to aid in
keeping punch/die clean.
2-257. GENERAL FABRICATING
CHARACTERISTICS.
2-258.
PLAIN CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS.
2-259. Plain Carbon Steel - 1006 through 1015.
This group of steels is used where cold formability
is the main requirement, and have good drawing
qualities. This series is not used where great
strength is required. The strength and hardness
of these grades will vary according to carbon content and amount of cold work.
2-260. Plain Carbon Steels - SAE 1016 through
lO30. This group of steels is commonly known as
the carburizing or case hardening grades. The
addition of manganese improves machining qualities but reduces the cold formability characteristics. This group is widely used for forged stock.
2-261. Plain Carbon Steels - 1030 through 1050.
This group (medium carbon types) is used where
higher mechanical properties are required. The
lower carbon and manganese types are used for
most cold formed parts. Alloys 1030 - 1035 are
used for wire and rod for cold upsetting applications, such as bolts. The higher carbon groups,
such as 1040 are of ten cold drawn to required
physical properties for use without heat treatment.
2-262. Alloy Steels - 1055 through 1095. This
alloy group is used where wear resistance resulting from high carbon content is needed, and is
heat treated before use in partically every
application.
2-263. 1100 Series Steel. Steels in this group
are generally used where easy machining is the
primary requirement. The main use of these
steels is for screw stock.
2-264. 1300 Series Alloy Steel. The basic advantages of this group is high strength coupled with
fair ductility and abrasion resistance. The major
use is in the manufacture of forgings.
2-265. 2300 Series Nickel Alloy Steels. The addition of nickel has very little effect on machinability and greatly increases elasticity and strength.
This material is normally machined in the forged,
annealed, and normalized condition, and heat
treated af ter fabrication.
NOTE
These grades not currently being produced. Listed for reference only.
2-266. 2500 Series Nickel Steel. This series
almost without exception, is a carburizing grade
with extremely high strength core. However, the
case is not as hard as obtained with other carburizing steels. This steel is used for parts requiring
a high strength core and good wear resistance.
NOTE
These grades not currently being
produced.
2-267. 3100, 3200, and 3300 Series Nickel Chromium steels. This series of steels is characterized
by good wear resistance and tough core and surface. The 3300 series is used primarily in the
form of forgings and bars which are required to
meet rigid mechanical properties. This steel is
more diff icult to handle in fabrication and heat
treatment than lower nickel - chromium alloys.
2-268. 4000 Series Molybdenum Steels. This
group of steels have good impact strength and
require close control of heat treatment practices to
obtain the required strength and ductility.
2-269. 4100 Series Chromium - Molybdenum
Steels. This series has good working properties,
response to heat treatment, and high wear resistance. This group is easily fabricated by forging
2-125
T.O. 1-1A-9
and rolling. Af ter welding and cold forming, internal stresses produced should be relieved and loss
in strength regained by normalizing.
2-270. 4130 Grade Steel. This grade is used
extensively in aircraf t construction in the form of
sheet, bar, rod and tubing. This grade has very
good cold forming characteristics. Forming and
welding operations are accomplished utilizing
annealed material, and heat treated or normalized
af ter these operations are completed. 4130 sheet
(MIL-S-18729 can be cold bent in the annealed
condition to an angle of 180o with a radius equal
to the thickness of the sheet. In the normalized
condition, a radius equal to 3 times the thickness
is recommended.
2-271. 4140 Series Steel. This steel is used for
structural, machined and forged parts over 1/2
inch thick. It is usually obtained in the normalized condition. Forgings are always normalized or
heat treated af ter fabrication.
2-272. 4300 Series Nickel - Chromium - Molybdenum Steels. These steels are used to meet conditions in which other alloy steels have insuff icient
strength. Preparation for machining or forming
must be by a suitable annealing cycle.
2-273. 8000 Series Molybdemum Steels. These
steels are characterized by their high impact
strength and resistance to fatigue. They are easy
to forge and machine, and are stable at high
temperatures.
2-274. 8600, 8700, 9300, 9700, 9800, and 9900
Series Steels. These steels have approximately the
same characteristics as the 4300 series steele.
2-275. CORROSION RESISTANT (STAINLESS)
AND HEAT RESISTANT STEELS.
2-276. The fabrication of stainless steel requires
the use of modif ied procedures in comparison to
those used for carbon steels.
2-277. Forming Sheet Stock. The corrosion
resisting series, i.e., types 301, 302, 304, 305, 316,
321, 347, 410, 430, 431, etc., generally have good
forming and drawing qualities. Some types (302,
304 and 305) have forming characteristics superior
to plain carbon steel because of the wide spread
between tensile and yield strength, and higher
elongation. However, more power is required to
form these types than is required for carbon steel
because of higher tensile strengths and the fact
that yield strength increases rapidly during forming or bending.
2-126
2-278. The straight chromium grades such as
410, 416, 430, 442, and 446 react similar to carbon
steel and are somewhat less ductile than the 300
series stainless. The tensile strength are higher
than carbon steel and consequently will stand
higher loads before rupture. Yield strengths are
also higher which means that more power is
required for bending and forming. Because of the
ductility factor of this series drawing and forming
should be limited to 20 -25% reduction.
2-279. The 301, 302, 304, 305 and 316 types can
be drawn based on a reduction of 35 to 50%, i.e., a
shape 8 inches in diameter and 4 inches in depth
could be drawn in one operation, based on a 50%
reduction.
2-280. The strains set up by severe reductions
(above 45% with chromium-nickel types and 20%
with straight chromium types) should be relieved
by annealing immediately af ter the operation is
completed, especially if using type 301. If this
material is not relieved in 2 - 4 hours, it may
crack.
2-281. Springback allowance should be about 2
to 3 times the amount allowed for carbon steel,
and naturally will vary according to the type of
material being formed. The use of sharp radii
shall be avoided where parts are subjected to f lexing or concentrated stresses due to possible fatigue
or stress corrosion failure.
2-282. Recommended bend radii for use with
stainless is shown in Table 2-35.
2-283. Draw Forming. Stainless steels should be
annealed for draw forming, and hardness should
not exceed Rockwell B90. The beat drawing
grades are of the 18-8 series. In selecting the type
for drawing, welding of the f inished parts, if
required, shall be considered.
2-284. Drop Hammer Forming. The most common types of corrosion resistant steel used for drop
hammer forming are 301, 302, 304, 305, and stablized grades 321 and 347. 301 work hardens more
rapidly and is subject to strain cracking. The condition of material for best forming should be
annealed. It is possible to form some type (301
and 302) in 1/4 and 1/2 hard condition. However,
the severity of the forming operation must be
reduced to compensate for the prehardened
material.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 2-4.
Stretch Forming
2-127
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-34.
Cold Bend Radii (Inside) Carbon/Low Alloy Steels
Temper, Sheet Thickness = T (Inches)
Alloy Temper
0.016
0.020
0.025
0.032
0.040
0.050
0.063
0.125
0.187
1020/1025
2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
4130 Annealed
2T
3T
2 1/2T
2T
2 1/2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
4130 Normalized
2T
3T
2 1/2T
3T
3T
3T
3T
3T
3T
8630 Annealed
3T
3T
2 1/2T
3T
2 1/2T
2T
2T
2T
2T
8630 Normalized
3T
3T
2 1/2T
3T
3T
3T
3T
3T
3T
Table 2-35.
Cold Bend Radii (Inside) Corrosion Resistant Steel Alloys
Sheet Thickness = T (Inches)
Alloy
Temper
0.012 - 0.051
0.051 - 0.090
0.190 - 0.250
201, 202
Annealed
1-2T
1T
1 1/2T
301, 302
1/4 Hard
1-2T
1 1/2T
2T
305, 304
1/2 Hard
2T
2T
2T
309, 310
3/4 Hard
2T
3T
--
316, 321, 347
Hard
3-4T
4-5T
--
405, 410, 430
Annealed
1T
1T
1 1/2T
17-7PH
Annealed
1T
1 1/2T
2T
Table 2-36.
TYPE/GRADE
Forging Temperature Ranges For Corrosion Resistant Steel
PREHEAT oF
FORGING TEMPERATURE oF
STARTING
FINISHING
301
1500-1600
2050-2200
1600-1700
302
1500-1600
2050-2200
1600-1700
303
1500-1600
2050-2200
1700-1800
304
1500-1600
2050-2200
1600-1700
305
1500-1600
2100-2200
1600-1700
308
1500-1600
2100-2200
1600-1700
316
1500-1600
2150-2250
1600-1700
321
1500-1600
2100-2200
1600-1700
374
1500-1600
2100-2200
1650-1750
2-128
HEAT TREATED
SEE HEAT TREAT
DATA FOR ANNEALING AND STRESS
RELIEF, SEE TABLE
2-3.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-36.
TYPE/GRADE
Forging Temperature Ranges For Corrosion Resistant Steel - Continued
PREHEAT oF
FORGING TEMPERATURE oF
STARTING
FINISHING
HEAT TREATED
AIR HARDENING
403
1400-1500
1900-2100
1600-1700
410
1400-1500
1900-2100
1600-1700
414
1400-1500
2050-2200
1600-1700
416
1400-1500
2100-2250
1600-1700
420
1400-1500
2000-2100
1600-1700
431
1400-1500
2050-2150
1600-1700
440
1400-1500
1950-2100
1950-2100
405
1400-1500
1900-2100
1750-1850
430
1400-1500
1900-2100
1350-1450
442
1400-1500
1900-2000
1300-1400
446
1400-1500
1800-2000
1300-1500
These grades shall be
promptly annealed after forging because
they air harden intently if allowed to
cool from forging
temperatures. See
Heat Treat Data Table
2-3 for temperatures.
NON-HARDENING
2-285. Spinning. Spinning procedures for stainless are similar to those used for other metals.
Diff iculty and variations depend on individual
characteristics of grade to be worked, i.e., yield
strength, ultimate strength, ductility, hardness
and reaction to cold working. The best grades for
spinning are those that have low yield strength in
sof t/annealed condition and low rate of work hardening such as 304, 305, 403, 410 and 416. The
straight chromium grades respond to spinning
similar to carbon steel, however, more power is
required. Mild warming above 200oF improves
performance of the straight chromium grades.
2-286. Shearing and Blanking. Shearing and
blanking of corrosion resisting steels as with other
fabrication processes requires more power in comparison to shearing carbon steel and most other
metals. Shears and other equipment rated for carbon steel should not be used above 50 - 70% of
rated capacity when cutting stainless.
2-287. Hot Forming. Hot forming is used to form
shapes in stainless that cannot be accomplished by
cold forming and for forging parts economically. In
using heat for forming, it is important that temperature be closely controlled. Also, f inished parts
should be relieved of residual stress and carbide
precipitation which affects corrosion resistance. In
Post annealing required. See Heat Treat
Data Table 2-3 for
temperatures.
either case, this is accomplished by fully
annealing.
CAUTION
Difference in temper of raw material
will result in variation of preheating,
especially with the air hardening
grades. The air hardening grades in
tempers other than annealed may
crack from thermal shock upon loading into a hot furnace.
2-288. Hot forming by methods other than forging is accomplished at somewhat lower temperatures. The unstabilized chromium-nickel grades
may be formed at temperatures up to 800oF and
the extra low carbon grades up to 1000oF. The use
of temperatures higher than those cited above
should be avoided to prevent subjection of material
to the carbide precipitation heat zone.
2-289. The straight chromium (type 400 series)
are more responsive to hot forming than the chromium-nickel grades. The reaction of these metals
to hot forming in similar to carbon steels. Upon
heating to 800o-900oF, their tensile strength is
2-129
T.O. 1-1A-9
lowered considerably and at the same time ductility begins to increase.
2-290. Forming of the air hardening grades type
403, 410 is accomplished in two temperature
ranges as follows:
a. Low temperature forming up to 1400oF.
The advantage of forming at this temperature is
that parts can be stress relieved at 1350o - 1450oF
to restore strength uniformity, and scaling is held
at a minimum.
b. High temperature forming at 1525o - 1575o
F. Forming at this temperature is somewhat easier
because strength is low and ductility is higher.
Upon completion of forming at this temperature,
parts shall be fully annealed under controlled conditions by heating to 1550oF and holding, slowly
cooling to 1100oF (at approximately 50oF per hour)
and then cooling in air.
Grades 403, and 410 are not subject to loss of
corrosion resistance due to the forming of
intergranular carbides at grain boundaries.
2-291. When it is required that the non-hardening grades 430, 442, and 446 be hot formed, the
recommended temperature for forming is 1400o 1500oF. This temperature is recommended in view
of the following:
provide envelope or anodic protection. Porous
coatings of the more noble metals such as silver,
copper, platinum and gold, tend to accelerate the
corrosion of steel. For processing instructions,
refer to T.O. 42C2-1-7. The following galvanic
series table and dissimiliar metal def inition in
accordance with MS33586 are for use as a guide in
the selection of the most suitable plating for parts
subject to uses where galvanic corrosion would be
a prime factor.
2-294. DEFINITION OF DISSIMILIAR METALS. Dissimiliar metals and alloys, for the purpose of aircraf t and aircraf t parts construction are
separated into four groups in accordance with
MS33586. Metals classif ied in the same group are
considered similar to one another and materials
classif ied in different groups are considered dissimilar to one another. The metal/material
referred to in the groups is the metal on the surface of the part; e.g., zinc includes all zinc parts
such as castings as well as zinc coated parts,
whether the zinc is electro deposited, applied by
hot dipping, or by metal spraying over similar or
dissimiliar metal parts. The four groups are as
follows:
a. GROUP I - Magnesium and its alloys. Aluminum alloys 5052, 5056, 5356, 6061 and 6063.
a. Heating these grades above 1600oF promotes grain growth which can only be corrected by
cold working.
b. GROUP II - Cadmium, zinc, and aluminum
and their alloys (Including the aluminum alloys in
Group I).
b. For types 442 and 446, the 1400o-1500oF
temperature is below the scaling limit and very
close to being below the scaling limit for type 430.
c. GROUP III - Iron, lead, and tin and their
alloys (except stainless steels).
2-292.
STEEL SURFACE FINISHES.
2-293. Metal plating is a process where an item
is coated with one or more thin layers of some
other metal. This is the type of f inishes generally
used on ferrous parts, other than organic f inishes.
It is usually specif ied when there is a need for
surface characteristics that the basic metal does
not possess. The most commonly used types of
plating are: Cadmium plate; zinc plate; nickel
plate; chromium plate; copper plate; tin plate; and
phosphate coatings. The thickness of the plated
coating is important since its protective value is
primarily dependent on its thickness. The type of
plated coatings is generally dependent on the characteristics desired. For protection against corrosion when appearance is unimportant, either cadmium or zinc coatings is usually used. For
appearance, nickel, chromium, and silver plating
are the most commonly used. For hardness, wear
resistance, and buildup of worn parts, nickel and
chromium plating are used. Effectiveness of most
other metallic coatings depends on their ability to
2-130
d. GROUP IV - Copper, chromium, nickel, silver, gold, platinum, titaniam, cobalt, rhodium and
rhodium alloys; stainless steels; and graphite.
NOTE
The above groups do not apply to
standard attaching parts such as rivets, bolts, nuts and washers which are
component parts of assemblies, which
will be painted prior to being placed
in service unless other wise specif ied
by specif ications MIL-F-7179, or other
approved data.
2-295.
TYPES OF PLATING.
2-296. CADMIUM PLATING (QQ-P-416). The
primary purpose of cadmium plating is to retard or
prevent surface corrosion of parts. Unless otherwise specif ied, the plating shall be applied af ter
all machining, brazing, welding, forming and perforating of the item has been completed. Proper
safety precautions should be observed in the event
any welding or soldering operations are required
T.O. 1-1A-9
on cadmium plated parts because of danger from
toxic vapors during such operations. Cadmium
coatings should not be used on parts subjected to
temperatures of 450oF or higher. All steel parts
having a hardness of Rockwell C40 (180,000 PSI)
and higher shall be baked at 375o± 25oF for 3
hours minimum af ter plating for hydrogen embrittlement relief. All steel parts having an ultimate
tensile strength of 220,000 PSI or above shall not
be plated, unless otherwise specif ied. When permission is granted, a low embrittlement cadmium
plating bath shall be used. Federal Specif ications
QQ-P-416 should be used for cadmium plate
requirements. Critical parts should be
magnaf luxed af ter plating.
2-297. Zinc Plating (QQ-Z-325). The primary
purpose of zinc coatings is to retard or prevent the
formation of corrosion products on exposed surfaces. Unless otherwise specif ied, the plating
shall be applied af ter all machining, brazing, welding, forming and perforating have been completed.
All parts having a hardness greater than Rockwell
C40 and higher shall be baked at 375o ± 25oF for 3
hours af ter plating for hydrogen embrittlement
relief. Zinc shall be deposited directly on the basic
metal without a preliminary plating of other
metal, except in the case of parts made from corrosion resisting steels on which a preliminary plating of nickel is permissible. Zinc plating (Type 1)
should not be used in the following applications:
a. Parts which in service are subjected to a
temperature of 700oF or higher.
b. Parts in contact with structural fabric
structure.
c. Parts in functional contact where gouging
or binding may be a factor or where corrosion
might interfere with normal functions.
d. Grounding contacts where the increased
electrical resistance of zinc plated surfaces would
be objectional.
e. Surfaces where free circulation of air does
not exist and condensation of moisture is likely to
occur. For additional information, refer to QQ-Z325.
CAUTION
Chromium and nickel electro deposits
severely reduce the fatigue strength
of high strength steels. All steel
parts having a tensile strength of
180,000 PSI or above should be shotpeened prior to electro plating. In
addition high strength steels are susceptible to detrimental hydrogen
embrittlement when electro plated.
All steel having an ultimate strength
of 220,000 PSI or above shall not be
electro plated without specif ic
approval of the procuring service or
responsible engineering activity.
2-298. Nickel Plating (QQ-N-290). This coating
is divided into two classes. Class I, plating is
intended for decorative plating, and Class lI, plating is intended for wear and abrasion resistance.
Unless otherwise specif ied, the plating shall be
applied af ter all base metal heat treatments and
mechanical operations such as machining, brazing,
welding, forming and perforating on the article
have been completed, all steel parts shall be given
a stress relief at 375o ±25F(191o ± 14C) for 3 hours
or more prior to cleaning and plating, as required,
to relieve residual tensile caused by machining,
grinding or cold forming. Steel parts having a
hardness of Rockwell C40 and higher shall be
baked at 375o ± 25F for 3 hours or more and
within eight (8) hours af ter plating to provide
embrittlement relief. Parts shall not be reworked
f lexed or subjected to any form of stress loads
af ter placing and prior to the hydrogen embrittlement relief treatment. The general requirements
for nickel plating are specif ied in QQ-N-290.
Nickel shall be used for the following application
only in accordance with MIL-S-5002:
a. Where temperatures do not exceed 1,000oF
and other coating would not be adequate or
suitable.
b. To minimize the effect of dissimilar metal
contacts, such as mild steel with unplated corrosion resisting steel.
c. As an undercoat for other functional
coatings.
d.
To restore dimensions.
2-299. Chromium Plating (QQ-C-320). This coating is of two classes; Class I, intended for use as a
decorative coating; and Class II, for wear resistance and corrosion protection. Heavy chromium
electro deposits (0-1-10 MILS) are of ten used to
salvage under machine parts. Unless otherwise
specif ied, the plating shall be applied af ter all
basic metal heat treatments and mechanical operations such as machining, brazing, welding, forming and perforating have been completed. Hydrogen embrittlement relief shall be in accordance
with blue prints and /or applicable specief ications.
All plated parts which are designed for unlimited
life under dynamic loads shall be shot peened in
accordance with military Specif ication MIL-S-
2-131
T.O. 1-1A-9
13165 prior to plating. All parts with a hardness of
Rockwell C40 (180,000 PSI), af ter shot peening
and plating, shall be baked at 375o ±25oF for 3
hours for hydrogen embrittlement relief. It is
extensively used as an undercoating for nickel and
chromium plating.
2-300. Tin Plating (QQ-T-425). Tin plating is
used where a neat appearance, protective coating
and easy solderability are of prime importance.
The base metal for tinplate shall be low carbon
cold steel.
2-301. Phosphate Coating (MIL-P-16232). The
description of phosphate coatings herein is specif ied as ‘‘heavy’’coatings. Light phosphate coatings
used as a paint base are covered by specif ication
TT-C-490. Type ‘‘M’’ (Manganese) coatings are
resistant to alkaline environments and should not
be exposed to temperatures in excess of 250oF.
Except for special purpose applications, phosphate
coatings should be used with a suitable supplementary treatment. Type ‘‘Z’’ (Zinc) coatings
should not be used in contact with alkaline materials or temperature in excess of 200oF. For the
different classes of coatings and required supplemental treatments, refer to MIL-P-16232. This
coating should be applied af ter all machining,
forming, welding and heat treatment have been
completed. Parts having a hardness of Rockwell
C40 or higher shall be given a suitable heat treat
stress relief prior to plating and shall be baked
subsequent to coating as follows:
o
o
a. Type ‘‘M’’ shall be baked at 210 - 225 F for
1 hour.
b. Type ‘‘Z’’ shall be baked at 200o - 210oF for
15 minutes (embrittlement relief).
2-302. Silver Plating (QQ-S-635). Silver plating
(electro deposits) has high chemical and oxidation
resistance, high electrical conductivity and good
bearing properties. Silver is of ten used as an antisieze and for preventing fretting corrosion at elevated temperatures. Silver plating shall be of the
following types and grades:
a. Type I, Matte. Deposits without luster,
normally obtained from silver-cyanide plating solutions operated without the use of brighteners.
b. Type II, Semi-Bright. Semi-lustrous deposits normally obtained from silver-cyanide plating
solutions operated with brightener.
c. Type m, Bright. Sometimes obtained by
polishing or by use of ‘‘brighteners’’.
d. Grade A. With supplementary tarnish
resistant treatment (chromate treated).
2-132
e. Grade B. Without supplementary
tarnishresistant treatment.
2-303. Intended Use. The following applications
of thicknesses are for information purposes only:
a. 0.0005 - for corrosion protection of nonferrous base metal.
b. 0.0003 - for articles such as terminals
which are to be soldered.
c. 0.0005 to 0.010 - for electrical contacts,
depending on pressure, friction and electrical load.
d. 0.0005 - for increasing the electrical conductivity of base metals.
e. On ferrous surfaces, the total plated thickness shall not be less than 0.001inch. Af ter all
base-metal heat treatments and mechanical operations such as machining, brazing, welding, forming
and perforating of the article have been completed,if the type is not specif ied, any type is
acceptable. All steel parts subject to constant f lexure or impact having a Rockwell hardness of RC40
or greater shall be heated at 375o ±25oF for 3
hours for stress relief prior to cleaning and
plating.
2-304. Hardened parts which have been heat
treated at less than 375oF shall not be heated as
noted above, but shall be treated by any method
approved by the contracting agency.
2-305. For complete information pertaining to
silver plating, refer to Federal Specif ication QQ-S365.
2-306. SURFACE TREATMENTS FOR CORROSION AND HEAT-RESISTING STEELS AND
ALLOYS. Normally the corrosion-resisting and
heat resisting alloys are unplated unless a coating
is necessary to minimize the effect of dissimiliar
metal contacts. When a plating is required it shall
be in accordance with specif ication MIL-S-5002A
or other approved technical engineering data.
Where a plating is required, steel parts plated
with hard coating, such as nickel and chromium or
combinations thereof, shall be processed as follows
in accordance with MIL-S-5002A:
a. Plated parts below Rockwell C40 hardness
and subject to static loads or designed for limited
life under dynamic loads, or combinations thereof,
need not be shot peened prior to plating or baked
af ter plating.
b. Plated parts below Rockwell C40 hardness
which are designed for unlimited life under
dynamic loads shall be shot peened in accordance
with specif ication MIL-S-13165 prior to plating.
Unless otherwise specif ied, the shot peening shall
T.O. 1-1A-9
be accomplished on all surfaces for which the coating is required and on all immediately adjacent
surfaces when they contain notches, f illets or other
abrupt changes of section size where stresses will
be concentrated.
c. Plated parts which have a hardness of
Rockwell C40, or above, and are subject to static
loads or designed for limited life under dynamic
loads or combination thereof, shall be baked at
375o ±25oF for not less than three (3) hours af ter
plating.
d. Plated parts which have a hardness of
Rockwell C40, or above, and are designed for
unlimited life under dynamic loads, shall be shot
peened in accordance with specif ication MIL-S13165 prior to plating. Unless otherwise specif ied,
the shot peening shall be accomplished on all surfaces for which the coating is required and all
immediately adjacent surfaces when they contain
notches, f illets, or other abrupt changes of section
size where stresses will be concentrated. Af ter
plating, the parts shall be baked at 375o± 25oF for
not less than three (3) hours.
2-307. PASSIVATION OF STAINLESS STEELS.
The stainless steels are usually passivated af ter
fabricating into parts to remove surface contaminates, which may cause discoloration or corrosive
attack af ter the parts are placed in use. The process is primarily a cleaning operation which
removes the contamination and speeds up the formation of the protective (invisible) oxide f ilm
which would occur naturally but slower in the
presence of oxygen in a normal atmosphere. The
protective f ilm formation is inherent with the
stainless steels in normal air when they are clean.
2-308. The foreign materials are removed from
stainless to provide for uniform surface contact
with oxidizing agents (Air or Acid) which forms
the protective f ilm or passive surface. In this case
af ter the f ilm has formed the material is placed in
a condition approaching that of maximum corrosion resistance. Any areas to which oxygen contact is prevented by contaminants or other means
tends to remain activated and subject to corrosion
attack.
2-309. Prior to accomplishing the passivation
treatments the parts shall be cleaned, all grease,
oil, wax, which might contaminate the passivation
solution and be a detriment to the passivation
treatment shall be removed. Surfaces will be considered suff iciently clean when a wetted surface is
free of water breaks. Af ter cleaning the parts will
be passivated by immersing in a solution of 2025% (Volume) nitric acid (Sp.gr 1.42) plus 1.5 2.5% (Weight) sodium dichromate with process
times and temperatures as follows:
CAUTION
Excessive time shall not be used, as
damage to parts may occur. In addition the times and temperatures shall
be selected according to the alloy
involved.
TYPES OF
PROCESS
TEMPERATURE
I
II
III
70-90
120-130
145-155
TIME
(Minutes
Minimum)
30
20
10
For parts made of ferritic or austenitic stainless
use process Type I, II or III. For parts made of
martensitic stainless steel, use process Type II or
III. Within 15 minutes af ter above treatment,
thoroughly rinse in hot water (140oF - 160oF).
Within 1 hour af ter hot water rinse, immerse in
an agueous solution containing 4 - 6% sodium
dichromate (by weight) at 140 - 160oF for 30 minutes, and rinse thoroughly with water and dry.
NOTE
Af ter the parts are passivated they
shall be handled the minimum necessary consistant with packaging,
assembly/installation. Parts for
installations in high temperature
areas shall not be handled with bare
hands because f inger prints will
cause carburization and pitting of surface when heated.
2-310. VAPOR DEPOSITED COATING. Vapor
deposited coating’s are applied by exposing the
base metal to a heated vaporized metallic coating
such as cadmium and aluminum in a high vacuum. The metal coating forms by condensation of
the vaporized coating metal on all exposed surfaces of the base metal. Vapor-deposited coatings
can be obtained by processes in which a volatile
compound of the coating is reduced or thermally
decomposed upon the heated surface of the base
metal. Vapor deposited coatings are used to provide good corrosion resistance for steel and eliminate sources of hydrogen embrittlement. Specif ic
requirements for coating, aluminum vacuum
deposited, are cited in specif ication MIL-C23217A; and for coating, cadmium vacuum deposited, in specif ication MIL-C-8837.
2-311. MECHANICAL-SURFACE FINISH. The
following paragraphs are concerned with mechanical surface f inish of the geometrical irregularities
of surfaces of solid materials and established classif ication for various degrees of roughness and
2-133
T.O. 1-1A-9
waviness. The surface roughness of a part is a
measurement rating of the f inely spaced irregularities, such as the surfaces produced by machining
and abrading (abrasive honing, grinding, f iling,
sanding, etc.) The roughness height ratings are
specif ied in microinches as the arithmetic average
of the absolute deviations from the mean surface.
Prof ilometers and other instruments used to measure surface height if calibrated in RMS (Root
Mean Square) average will read approximately
11% higher on a given surface than those calibrated for arithmetic average. Also associated
with roughness high is roughness width, usually
specif ied in inches and the maximum permissible
spacing of surface irregularities. As the arithmetic
average of the absolute diviations from the mean
surface. Waviness height rating (when required)
may be specif ied in inches as the vertical distance
from peaks to valleys of the waves, whereas waviness width is the distance in inches from peak to
peak of the waves. Figure 2-5 shows the meaning
of each symbol def ined.
2-313. Designation of Surface Finish. Surface
f inish should be specif ied for production parts only
on those surfaces which must be under functional
control. For all other surfaces the f inish resulting
from the machining method required to obtain
dimensional accuracy is generally satisfactory.
The surface chosen (unless already designated) for
a specif ic application will be determined by its
required function. Table 2-38 gives the typical
normal ranges of surface roughness of functional
parts. The values cited are microinches, for example 63 = 63 Microinches or 0.000063 inches
average deviation from mean.
2-312. The symbol used to designate surface
irregularities is the check mark as shown below.
*When waviness width value is required, the value
may be placed to the right of the waviness height
value.
**Roughness width cutoff value, when required, is
placed immediately below the right-hand
extension.
Table 2-37.
Galvanic Series of Metals and Alloys
CORRODED END - ANODIC (LEAST NOBLE)
Magnesium
Magnesium Alloys
Zinc
Aluminum - 7075 Clad
Aluminum - 6061 Clad
Aluminum - 5052
Aluminum - 2024 Clad
Aluminum - 3003
Aluminum - 6061 - T6
Aluminum - 7075 - T6
Aluminum - 7178
Cadmium
Aluminum - 2017 - T4
Aluminum - 2024 - T6
Aluminum - 2014 - T6
Steel or Iron
Lead
2-134
Tin
Nickel (active)
Inconel (active)
Brass
Copper
Bronze
Titanium
Monel
Silver Solder
Nickel (Passive)
Inconel (Passive)
Silver
Graphite
Gold
Platinum
Protected End - Cathodic
(Most Noble)
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 2-5.
Surface Roughness
2-135
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 2-38.
2-136
Surface Roughness and Lay Symbols
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION III
ALUMINUM ALLOYS
3-1.
CLASSIFICATION.
3-2. Aluminum alloys are produced and used in
many shapes and forms. The common forms are
casting, sheet, plate, bar, rod (round, hex, etc.),
angles (extruded and rolled or drawn), channels
and forgings. The inherent advantages of this
material are lightweight, corrosion resistance to
the atmosphere and many varieties of chemicals,
thermal and electrical conductivity, ref lectivity for
radiant energy of all wave lengths and ease of
fabrication.
3-3. The above factors plus the fact that some
alloys of this material can be formed in a sof t condition and heat treated to a temper comparable to
structural steel make it very adaptable for
fabricating various aircraf t and missile parts.
3-4. COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY DESIGNATIONS. The present system utilized to identify
aluminum alloys is the 4 digit designation system.
The major alloy element for each type is indicated
by the f irst digit (see Table 3-1) i.e., 1XXX indicates aluminum of 99.00% minimum, 2XXX indicates an aluminum alloy in which copper is the
main alloying element, etc. Although most aluminum alloys contain several alloying elements only
one group the 6XXX designate more than one
alloying element. See Table 3-1 for complete
listing.
Table 3-1.
Designations for Alloy Groups
1XXX - - - Aluminum 99.00% of minimum
and greater
2XXX - - - Copper
3XXX - - - Mangenese
4XXX - - - Silicon
5XXX - - - Magnesium
6XXX - - - Magnesium and Silicon
7XXX - - - Zinc
8XXX - - - Other element
9XXX - - - Unused series
The second digit of the destination indicates modif ication in impurity limits. If the second digit is 0
it indicates that there is no special control on the
impurities, while numbers 1 - 9 which are
assigned consecutively as needed indicates special
control of one individual impurity. Thus 1040
indicates 99.40% minimum aluminum without special control on individual impurities and 1140,
1240 etc. indicate same purity with special control
on one or more impurities.
3-5. The last two of the four digits in alloy
groups 2XXX through 8XXX have no special significance except that they serve to designate the alloy
by its former number, i.e., 243, 525, 758, etc.
3-6. Experimental alloys are, also, designated by
this system except that the 4 digit number is
pref ixed by an X.
Table 3-2.
Aluminum Alloy Designation and Conversions to 4
Digit System
MAJOR ALLOYING
ELEMENT
None (Aluminum
99.00X)
Manganese
Manganese
Copper
Copper
OLD
2S
NEW
1100
3S
4S
11S
14S R301
Core
17S
A17S
3003
3004
2011
2014
18S
24S
19S
32S
50S
52S
56S
61S
62S
63S
MA15
-72S
75S
78S
2018
2024
2219
4032
5050
5052
5056
6061
6062
6063
7050
7475
7072
7075
7178
Copper
Copper (Special control
of impurities)
Copper
Copper
Copper
Silicon
Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium & Silicon
Magnesium & Silicon
Magnesium & Silicon
Zinc
Zinc
Zinc
Zinc
Zinc
79S
7079
Zinc
2017
2117
3-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
Cladding which is a sacrif icial aluminum coating applied to an aluminum
alloy core for the purpose of increasing corrosion resistance is designated
as alclad 2024, alclad 2014, alclad
7075, etc.
3-7. Aluminum alloys for military use are identif ied by military and federal specif ications which
are comparable to commercial specif ications and
designations. The following table is a general list
of the commonly used military and federal specif ications according to the commercial designation
and forms of material.
3-8. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. Prior to
presenting factual data on mechanical properties
the tempers (hardness) and methods of designation
should be explained. For nominal mechanical
properties see Table 3-4.
3-9. The tempers of aluminum alloys are produced essentially by three methods. These methods are cold working (strain hardening), heat
treatment and a combination of the two. The various alloys of aluminum are either classed as heattreatable or non-heat-treatable. Alloys 1100, 3003,
alclad 3003, 3004, alclad 3004, 5050 and 5052 are
classed as nonheat-treatable. The tempers of
these alloys are designated by symbols H1, H2,
H3, H4, F & O.
3-10. A second number added to the above indicates the degree of strain hardening-actual
temper.
Example: 2=1/4 hard (2/8) - H12, H22, H32
4=1/2 hard (4/8) - H14, H24, H34
6=3/4 hard (6/8) - H16, H26, H36
8=Full Hard (8/8) - H18, H28, H38
As previously pointed out the above tempers designation symbols are hyphen (-dash) suff ixed to the
4 digit alloy designation. Example: 1000-H12,
5052-H24, 3004-H34 etc. The general symbols
used for the nonheat-treatable alloys are as
follows:
-F As fabricated
-O Annealed
-H21 Strain hardened only
-H2 Strain hardened then partial annealed
-H3 Strain hardened then stabilized
NOTE
Attempt should not be made to alter
the temper characteristics of the ‘‘H’’
series of aluminum alloys other than
in emergencies. This shall be limited
to annealing operation only.
3-2
3-11. Alloys alclad 2014, 2024, alclad 2024, 6061,
7075, alclad 7075 and 7178 are classed as heat
treatable. The mechanical properties of these
alloys is improved by heat treatment or by a combination of heat treatment and strain hardening.
The tempers for these alloys is designated by symbols, W, T, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, F
and O. Following is a summary of these symbols.
-F As fabricated
-O Annealed
-W Solution heat treated - unstable temper
-T Treated to produce stable tempers other than -F
or -O
-T2 Annealed (cast products only)
-T3 Solution heat treated and then cold worked
-T4 Solution heat treated
-T5 Artif icially aged only
-T6 Solution heat treated and then artif icially
aged
-T7 Solution heat treated and stabilized
-T8 Solution heat treated, cold worked and then
artif icially aged
-T9 Solution heat treated, artif icially aged, and
then cold worked
-T10 Artif icially aged and then cold worked
Added numbers to the above denotes a modif ication of standard tempers. Example: The numeral
‘‘6’’ following ‘‘T3’’ indicates a different amount of
cold work then used in ‘‘T3’’ such as 2024-T36.
The numbers added to indicate modif ication or signif icant alternation of the standard temper are
arbitrarily assigned and specif ication for the alloy
should be utilized to determine specif ic data.
3-12. The following standard modif ication digits
have been assigned for wrought products in all
alloys: TX-51 - Stress-Relieved by Stretching:
Applies to products which are stress-relieved by
stretching the following amounts af ter solution
heat treatment:
Plate
Rod, Bar and Shapes
1 1/2 to 3% permanent set
1 to 3% permanent set
Applies directly to plate and rolled or cold f inishes
rod and bar. These products receive no further
straightening af ter stretching. Applies to
extruded rod, bar and shapes which receive minor
straightening af ter stretching to comply with standard tolerances.
-TX510 - Applies to extruded rod, bar and shapes
which receive no further straightening
af ter stretching.
-TX511 - Applies to extruded rod, bar and shapes
which receive minor straightening af ter
stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-3.
Federal and Military Specifications
ALLOY
FORM (COMMODITY)
AMS
FEDERAL
MILITARY
1100
Bars Rolled
Bar, rod, wire and shapes,
rolled or drawn
Sheet and Plate
Tubing
4102
QQ-A-411, QQ-A-225/1
-
-
QQ-A-411, QQ-A-225/1
QQ-A-561, QQ-A-250/1
WW-T-783 (Old), WW-T700/1
-
Extrusion (Impact)
-
-
MIL-A-12545
1360
Wrought Product
-
-
MIL-A-799
2011
Bar and Rod
-
QQ-A-365, QQ-A-225/3
-
2014
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Extruded
4153A
QQ-A-261, QQ-A-200/2
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Rolled or Drawn
4121B
QQ-A-266, QQ-A-225/4
Forgings
4134A,4135H
QQ-A-367
*
4001B,4003B
4062C
Extrusions (Impact)
Alclad
2014
2017
(See QQ-A-367 & 367-1)
MIL-A-148
MIL-A-12545
QQ-A-255, QQ-A-250/3
Plate and Sheet
Bar, Rod, Wire and Shapes,
Rolled or Drawn
4118
QQ-A-351, QQ-A-225/5
WIRE - ROD
QQ-A-430
FORGINGS
QQ-A-367
2018
Forgings
2020
Sheet and Plate
2024
Bar, Rod and Shapes
4140
MIL-W-7986
QQ-A-367
QQ-A-250/16
4152
QQ-A-267, QQ-A-200/3
4120
QQ-A-225/6, QQ-A-268
4035
4037
QQ-A-355, QQ-A-250/4
MIL-A-8882
Extruded
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Rolled or Drawn
2024
Plate and Sheet
3-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-3.
Federal and Military Specifications - Continued
ALLOY
FORM (COMMODITY)
AMS
FEDERAL
Alclad
2024
Sheet and Plate
4040
4041
4042
QQ-A-362, QQ-A-250/5
2024
Tube Drawn
4086
4087
4088
WW-T-785 (Old),
WW-T-700/3
2025
Forgings
4130
QQ-A-367
2218
Forgings
4142
QQ-A-367
2219
Plate and Sheet
3003
MIL-A-8720
Sheet and Plate
4031
4090
Sheet and Plate,
Alclad
4094
4095
4096
Extrusions
4162
4163
QQ-A-250/30
Bar, Rod, Shapes
Extruded
QQ-A-200/1, New
QQ-A-357, Old
Bar, Rod, Wire and
Shapes
Rolled or Drawn
QQ-A-225/2 (New)
QQ-A-356 (Old)
Plate and Sheet
4006
4008
QQ-A-359, QQ-A-250/2
Tube Drawn
4065
4067
WW-T-786 (Old)
WW-T-700/3
4032
Forgings
4145
QQ-A-367
5052
Bar, Rod, Wire
and Shapes Drawn
4114
QQ-A-225/7 (New)
QQ-A-315 (Old)
5052
5056
3-4
MILITARY
Plate and Sheet
4015
4016
4017
QQ-A-318
QQ-A-250/8
Tube, Drawn
4070
4071
WW-T-787 (Old),
WW-T-700/4
Bar, Rod and Wire
Rolled or Drawn
4182
MIL-C-915
(Ships)
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-3.
ALLOY
FORM (COMMODITY)
5056
(Cont)
Federal and Military Specifications - Continued
AMS
FEDERAL
MILITARY
Bar, Rod, ShapesExtruded
QQ-A-200/7
MIL-C-6136
Plate Sheet
QQ-A-250/9
Wire Rod
MIL-W-7986
Welding Rod
QQ-R-566 C1
FS-RA156
Bar, Rod and Shapes
QQ-A-200/4 (New)
MIL-A-19005
Plate and Sheet
QQ-A-250/8 (New)
MIL-A-87001
MIL-A-17358
5086
Plate and Sheet
QQ-A-250/7 (New)
MIL-A-19070
5154
Plate and Sheet
6061
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Extruded
5083
4018
4019
4150
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Rolled or Drawn
6061
Alclad
6061
6062
MIL-A-17357
QQ-A-270
QQ-A-225/8 (New)
QQ-A-325 (Old)
Forgings
4127
QQ-A-367d-1
Plate and Sheet
4025
4026
4027
QQ-A-327
QQ-A-250/11 (New)
Tube, Drawn
4080
4082
WW-T-789/WW-T-700/6
Tube, Hydraulic
4081
Sheet and Plate
4021
4022
4023
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Extruded
4155
Tube, Drawn
4091
4092
4093
MIL-T-7081
QQ-A-270 (Old)
QQ-A-200/8 (New)
Tube, Hydraulic
6063
6066
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Extruded
MIL-T-7081
4156
QQ-A-200/9 (New)
QQ-A-274 (Old)
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Extruded
3-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-3.
Federal and Military Specifications - Continued
ALLOY
FORM (COMMODITY)
AMS
FEDERAL
6151
Forgings
4125
QQ-A-367
7050
Plate
4050
4201
Extrusion
4340
4341
4342
Die Forging
4107
Hand Forging
4108
Bar, Rod and Shapes
Extruded
4154
QQ-A-225/11
QQ-A-277
Bar, Rod, Shapes
and Wire, Rolled
or Drawn
4122
QQ-A-225/9
QQ-A-282
Forgings
Extrusions (Impact)
4139
4170
QQ-A-367
Plate and Sheet
4044
4045
QQ-A-283
QQ-A-250/12
Plate and Sheet
4048
4049
QQ-A-287
QQ-A-250/13
7075
Alclad
7075
Plate and Sheet
Alclad one side
MIL-A-46118D
(Armor)
MIL-A-12545
QQ-A-250/13
MIL-A-8902
MIL-A-11352
7076
Forgings
4137
QQ-A-367
7079
Forgings
4138
QQ-A-367
7475
Plate and Sheet
QQ-A-250/17
Plate and Sheet
Alclad one side
QQ-A-250/18
Sheet and Plate
4207
4202
Rod
7178
Bar and Shapes
Extruded
Plate and Sheet
8280
3-6
Sheet
MILITARY
MIL-A-63547
4158
4051
4052
MIL-A-9186
QQ-A-250/14
MIL-A-9180
MIL-A-11267
(ORD)
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-3.
Federal and Military Specifications - Continued
ALLOY
FORM (COMMODITY)
AMS
FEDERAL
MILITARY
99.75%
99.5%
99.3%
99.0%
Ingot
QQ-A-451
43
108
A108
113
122
A132
Foundry Ingot
QQ-A-371
142
195
B195
214
220
319
355
356
Foundry Ingot
QQ-A-371
XB216
Foundry Ingot
43
Sand Castings
QQ-A-601
108
Sand Castings
QQ-A-601
113
Sand Castings
QQ-A-601
122
Sand Castings
QQ-A-601
142
Sand Castings
4222
QQ-A-601
195
Sand Castings
4230
4231
QQ-A-601
B214
Sand Castings
XB216
Sand Castings
220
Sand Castings
319
Sand Castings
4240
QQ-A-601
355
Sand Castings
4210
4212
4214
QQ-A-601
356
Sand Castings
4217
A612
Sand Castings
MIL-A-10936
(ORD)
ML
Sand Castings
MIL-A-25450
USAF
43
Permanent Mold Castings
QQ-A-596
A108
Permanent Mold Castings
QQ-A-596
MIL-A-10937
(ORD)
QQ-A-601
MIL-A-10936
(ORD)
QQ-A-601
3-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-3.
Federal and Military Specifications - Continued
ALLOY
FORM (COMMODITY)
AMS
113
Permanent Mold Castings
QQ-A-596
122
Permanent Mold Castings
QQ-A-596
A132
Permanent Mold Castings
QQ-A-596
B195
Permanent Mold Castings
XB216
Permanent Mold Castings
319
Permanent Mold Castings
355
Permanent Mold Castings
4280
4281
QQ-A-596
356
Permanent Mold Castings
4284
4286
QQ-A-596
750
Permanent Mold Castings
4275
QQ-A-596
ML
Permanent Mold Castings
13
Die Castings
4290
QQ-A-591
MIL-A-15153
Ships
43
Die Castings
QQ-A-591
MIL-A-15153
Ships
218
Die Castings
QQ-A-591
MIL-A-15153
Ships
360
Die Castings
A360
Die Castings
QQ-A-591
380
Die Castings
QQ-A-591
A380
Die Castings
4282
4283
FEDERAL
MILITARY
QQ-A-596
MIL-A-10935
(ORD)
QQ-A-596
4290
4291
QQ-A-591
QQ-A-591
MIL-A-15153
Ships
MIL-A-15153
Ships
Misc STANDARD/SPECIFICATIONS
-TX52 - Stress-Relieved by Compressing: Applies
to products which are stress-relieved by
compressing af ter solution heat treatment.
attain mechanical properties different from
those of the -T6 temper.*
-TX53 - Stress-Relieved by Thermal Treatment.
*Exceptions not conforming to these def initions
are 4032-T62, 6101-T62, 6062-T62, 6063-T42 and
6463-T42.
3-13. The following two digit - T temper designations have been assigned for wrought products in
all alloys:
3-14. For additional information on heat treating
aluminum alloys, see paragraph 3-22.
-T42 - Applies to products solution heat treated by
the user which attain mechanical properties
different from those of the -T4 temper.*
-T62 - Applies to products solution heat-treated
and artif icially aged by the user which
3-8
3-15. Chemical composition nominal plus general
use data are given in Table 3-4 and nominal
mechanical properties at room temperature are
given in Table 3-5. The values cited are general
and intended for use as comparisons values. For
specif ic values the specif ication for the alloy
should be utilized.
Table 3-4.
Chemical Composition Nominal and General Use Data 1/
1 NOMINAL COMPOSITION - %
ALLOY
EC
SI
CU
MN
MG
CR
ZN
AL
FLAT AND
COILED
SHEET
PLATE
SHAPES
RODS
AND
BARS
TUBE
PIPE
CHARACTERISTICS
--
--
--
--
--
--
99.45
X
Electrical conductor
1060
0.25
0.05
0.03
0.03
--
0.05
99.60
X
Good corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, formability
and weldability.
1100
1.0
0.20
0.05
--
0.10
0.10
99.0
X
1145
0.55
0.05
0.05
--
--
--
99.45
X
2014
0.8
4.5
0.8
0.4
0.10
0.25
REM
X
X
X
High strength alloy.
Electric resistance
weldability excellent
fusion weldability
limited.
2024
0.5
4.5
0.6
1.5
0.10
0.25
REM
X
X
X
Popular sheet alloy
for aircraf t similar
to 2014.
X
X
X
Excellent formability, readily welded
and brazed, corrosion
resistant.
Excellent formability
combined with high
electrical and thermal conductivity and
corrosion resistant.
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-10
Table 3-4.
Chemical Composition Nominal and General Use Data 1/ - Continued
1 NOMINAL COMPOSITION - %
ALLOY
SI
CU
MN
MG
CR
ZN
AL
FLAT AND
COILED
SHEET
PLATE
SHAPES
RODS
AND
BARS
TUBE
PIPE
CHARACTERISTICS
2219
0.1
6.2
0.3
0.01
-
0.05
REM
X
X
X
X
Strutural uses requiring high
strength up to 600
degrees F; high
strength weldments.
3003
0.6
0.20
1.2
--
--
0.10
REM
X
X
X
X
Stronger than 1100
with good weldability
and formability, high
resistance to corrosion.
3004
0.30
0.25
1.2
1.0
--
0.25
REM
X
X
Stronger than 1100
and 3003 with fair
workability and good
corrosion resistance.
5005
0.40
0.20
0.20
0.8
0.10
0.25
REM
X
X
Similar to 3003 in
strength. Good anodizing characteristics, formability and
resistance to corrosion.
5050
0.40
0.20
0.10
1.4
0.10
0.25
REM
X
X
Good anodizing
strength, formability,
weldability, and corrosion resistance.
Table 3-4.
Chemical Composition Nominal and General Use Data 1/ - Continued
1 NOMINAL COMPOSITION - %
ALLOY
SI
CU
MN
MG
CR
ZN
AL
FLAT AND
COILED
SHEET
PLATE
X
X
SHAPES
RODS
AND
BARS
TUBE
PIPE
CHARACTERISTICS
5052
0.45
0.10
0.10
2.5
0.25
0.10
REM
Highest strength of
non-heat-treatable
alloys. Good corrosion resistance and
f inishing characteristics.
5083
0.40
0.10
0.8
4.5
0.15
0.25
REM
X
X
High weld joint efficiency with basic
good strength and
resistance combined
with good formability.
5154
0.45
0.10
0.10
3.5
0.25
0.20
REM
X
X
Good strength and
excellent weldability.
5254
0.45
0.05
0.01
3.5
0.25
0.20
REM
X
5357
0.12
0.07
0.3
1.0
--
--
REM
5454
0.40
0.10
0.8
2.7
0.2
0.25
REM
X
X
5456
0.40
0.20
0.8
5.3
--
--
REM
X
X
Good strength, weldability and corrosion
resistance.
X
Excellent bright finishing characteristics.
X
Excellent strength at
elevated temperature
(150 -300 F) plus
weldability.
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-11
High strength and
corrosion resistance,
weldable.
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-12
Table 3-4.
Chemical Composition Nominal and General Use Data 1/ - Continued
1 NOMINAL COMPOSITION - %
ALLOY
5457
SI
0.08
CU
0.20
5557
MN
MG
0.3
1.0
0.25
0.6
5652
CR
--
2.5
0.25
ZN
--
AL
FLAT AND
COILED
SHEET
PLATE
SHAPES
RODS
AND
BARS
TUBE
PIPE
CHARACTERISTICS
REM
X
Superior bright finish when anodized.
REM
X
Good bright finishing characteristics.
Good weldability and
formability.
REM
X
X
6061
0.6
.25
0.15
1.0
.25
0.25
REM
6062
0.6
.25
0.15
1.0
.06
0.25
6063
0.4
0.10
0.10
0.7
0.10
0.25
Excellent strength
with good finishing
characteristics and
corrosion resistance.
X
X
REM
X
X
REM
X
X
X
Best weldability of
heat treatable alloys,
good formability and
corrosion resistance.
Good weldability
with formability better than 6061.
X
Good finishing characteristics and resistance to corrosion.
Good workability
with moderate
strength.
Table 3-4.
Chemical Composition Nominal and General Use Data 1/ - Continued
1 NOMINAL COMPOSITION - %
ALLOY
SI
CU
MN
MG
CR
ZN
AL
7050
-
2.3
-
2.25
-
6.2
REM
7075
0.50
1.6
0.30
2.5
.3
5.6
REM
7079
0.30
.6
.2
3.3
.2
4.3
REM
2.0
0.30
2.7
.3
6.8
REM
1.5
0.03
2.25
2.1
5.7
REM
7178
7475
0.05
FLAT AND
COILED
SHEET
PLATE
SHAPES
RODS
AND
BARS
TUBE
X
X
X
X
High tensile properties, good exfoliation
corrosion resistance
good stress-corrosion
cracking resistance.
X
X
X
2/ Extra high
strength and hardness. Electric resistance weldability but
limited fusion weldability.
X
X
PIPE
CHARACTERISTICS
X
Similar to 7075 but
maximum strength
in thick sections.
X
High strength alloy
for a/c applications,
however it is notch
sensitive.
X
Aerospace applications requiring high
strength, toughness
up to 300 degrees F
resistance to stresscorrosion cracking.
SI = Silicon MN = Manganese CR = Chromium AL = Aluminum CU = Copper MG = Magnesium ZN = Zinc
3-13
2/ 7075 - T73 Is Completely Resistant To Stress Corrosion Cracking.
T.O. 1-1A-9
1/ Nominal Composition Does Not Include All Alloying Elements That May Pertain, Specif ication Should Be Utilized When Specif ic
Data Required.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-5.
Mechanical Properties - Typical
Tensile
Strength
PSI
Yield
Strength
(Offset=
0.2%) PSI
Elongation, Per
Cent in 2 in.
Sheet Specimen
(1/16 in. Thick)
Brinell
Hardness
500-kg Load
10 MMM Ball
Shearing
Strength
PSI
1100-0
1100-H12
1100-H14
1100-H16
1100-H18
13,000
16,000
18,000
21,000
24,000
5,000
15,000
17,000
20,000
22,000
35
12
9
6
5
23
28
32
38
44
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
3003-0
3003-H12
3003-H14
3003-H16
3003-H18
Alclad 3003
16,000
19,000
22,000
26,000
29,000
6,000
18,000
21,000
25,000
27,000
30
10
8
5
4
28
35
40
47
55
11,000
12,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
3004-0
3004-H32
3004-H34
3004-H36
3004-H38
Alclad 3004
26,000
31,000
35,000
38,000
41,000
10,000
25,000
29,000
33,000
36,000
20
10
9
5
5
45
52
63
70
77
16,000
17,000
18,000
20,000
21,000
Alclad
Alclad
Alclad
Alclad
25,000
63,000
61,000
68,000
10,000
40,000
37,000
60,000
21
20
22
10
-----
18,000
37,000
37,000
41,000
2024-0
2024-T3
2024-T36
2024-T4
Alclad 2024-0
Alclad 2024-T3
Alclad 2024-T36
Alclad 2024-T4
Alclad 2024-T81
Alclad 2024-T86
27,000
70,000
72,000
68,000
26,000
65,000
67,000
64,000
65,000
70,000
11,000
50,000
57,000
47,000
11,000
45,000
53,000
42,000
60,000
66,000
20
18
13
20
20
18
11
19
6
6
47
120
130
120
-------
18,000
41,000
42,000
41,000
18,000
40,000
41,000
40,000
40,000
42,000
2219-0
2219-T42
2219T31,T351
2219-T37
2219-T62
2219T81,T851
2219-T87
25,000
52,000
52,000
11,000
27,000
36,000
18
20
17
--96
--33,000
57,000
60,000
66,000
46,000
42,000
51,000
11
10
1
110
113
123
37,000
37,000
41,000
69,000
57,000
10
128
40,000
5005-0
5005-H32
5005-H34
5005-H36
5005-H38
18,000
20,000
23,000
26,000
29,000
6,000
17,000
20,000
24,000
27,000
30
11
8
6
5
28
36
41
46
51
11,000
14,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
Alloy
and
Temper
3-14
2014-0
2014-T3
2014-T4
2014-T6
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-5.
Mechanical Properties - Typical - Continued
Tensile
Strength
PSI
Yield
Strength
(Offset=
0.2%) PSI
Elongation, Per
Cent in 2 in.
Sheet Specimen
(1/16 in. Thick)
Brinell
Hardness
500-kg Load
10 MMM Ball
Shearing
Strength
PSI
5050-0
5050-H32
5050-H34
5050-H36
5050-H38
21,000
25,000
28,000
30,000
32,000
8,000
21,000
24,000
26,000
29,000
24
9
8
7
6
36
46
53
58
63
15,000
17,000
18,000
19,000
20,000
5052-0
5052-H32
5052-H34
5052-H36
5052-H38
28,000
33,000
38,000
40,000
42,000
13,000
28,000
31,000
35,000
37,000
25
12
10
8
7
47
60
68
73
77
18,000
20,000
21,000
23,000
24,000
5154-0
5154-H112
5154-H32
5154-H34
5154-H36
5154-H38
35,000
35,000
39,000
42,000
45,000
48,000
17,000
17,000
30,000
33,000
36,000
39,000
27
25
15
13
12
10
58
63
67
78
83
87
22,000
--22,000
24,000
26,000
28,000
5357-0
5357-H32
5357-H34
5357-H36
5357-H38
19,000
22,000
25,000
28,000
32,000
7,000
19,000
22,000
26,000
30,000
25
9
8
7
6
32
40
45
51
55
12,000
13,000
15,000
17,000
18,000
6061-0
6061-T4
6061-T6
18,000
35,000
45,000
8,000
21,000
35,000
25
22
12
30
65
95
12,000
24,000
30,000
7050-T74,
T7451,T7452
74,000
65,000
13
142
---
7075-0
7075-T6
Alclad 7075-0
Alclad 7075-T6
A1clad 7079-T6
7178-0
7178-T6
7079-T6
7475-T7351
33,000
83,000
32,000
76,000
70,000
40,000
83,000
72,000
73,000
15,000
73,000
14,000
67,000
60,000
21,000
72,000
62,000
63,000
17
11
17
11
60
150
---
22,000
48,000
22,000
46,000
--
--
Alloy
and
Temper
10
6
14
3-15
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-6.
ALLOY
1100-0
Physical Properties-Standard Alloys
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
WEIGHTS
PER CU.IN.
APPROX
MELTING RANGE
DEGREES F
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY % COMPARE TO COPPER
STANDARD
2.71
0.098
1,190-1,215
59
1100-H18
57
3003-0
50
3003-H12
2.73
0.099
1,190-1,210
42
3003-H14
41
3003-H18
40
3004-0
2.72
0.098
1,165-1,205
3004-H38
42
42
50
2014-0
2.80
0.101
950-1,180
40
30
2024-0
2.77
0.100
935-1,810
50
2024-T3
30
2219
2.84
0.102
1010-1190
44
5050-0
2.69
0.097
1,160-1,205
50
5050-H38
5052-0
50
2.68
0.097
1,100-1,200
5052-H38
5357-0
35
2.70
0.098
1,165-1,210
5357-H38
6061-0
35
43
43
2.70
0.098
1,080-1,200
6061-T4,T6
45
40
7050
2.83
0.102
890-1175
45
7075-0
2.80
0.101
890-1,180
--
7075-T6
7475
30
2.80
0.101
890-1175
46
BRASS
8.4-8.8
0.304-0.319
--
26-43
Copper
8.94
0.322
1981
100
Monel
8.8
0.318
---
4
Nickel
8.84
0.319
2645
16
7.6-7.8
0.276-0.282
2800
3-15
Steel(18.8 stainless)
7.92
0.283
2500-2650
2-4
Tin
7.3
0.265
449
15
Zinc
7.1
0.258
787
30
Steel(low alloy)
3-16
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-7.
ALLOY DESIGNATION
WROUGHT ALLOYS
Except forgings alloys
2014
2017
2117
2024
2219
6061
6062
6066
7050
7075 (rolled or drawn)
7075 (Extruded)
7075 (Sheet .051 in thickness or less)
7178 (rolled or drawn)
7178 (Extruded)
*7079
Heat Treating (Soaking) Temperatures
SOLUTION HEAT TREAT
TEMPERATURE (DEGREES F)
925-945
925-945
925-950
910-930
985-1005
960-1010
960-1010
960-980
880-900
860-930
860-880
910-930
860-930
860-880
820-840
TEMPER
2014-T4
2017-T4
2117-T4
2024-W
2219-T4
6061-T4
6062-T4
6066-T4
7050-W
7075-W
7075-W
7075-W
7178-W
7178-W
7079-W
*7079 Other temperature may be required for certain sections and conditions.
7475
880-970
7475-W
FORGINGS ALLOYS
2014
2017
2018
925-950
925-950
940-970
2014-T4
2017-T4
2018-T4
FORGINGS
2025
4032
6151
6061
7075
950-970
940-970
950-980
960-1010
360-890
2025-T4
4032-T4
6151-T4
6061-T4
7075-W
7075 Other temperatures may be required for certain sections and conditions.
7079
820-840
7079-W
7079 Other temperatures may be required for certain sections and conditions.
SAND CAST ALLOYS
122
142
195
220
319
355
356
930-960
950-980
940-970
800-820
920-950
960-990
980-1010
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4
3-17
TO 1-1A-9
Table 3-7. Heat Treating (Soaking) Temperatures - Continued
SOLUTION HEAT TREAT
TEMPERATURE (DEGREES F)
ALLOY DESIGNATION
40E Solution heat treatment not required.
PERMANENT MOLD CAST ALLOYS
122
A132
142
B195
355
356
930-960
940-970
950-980
935-965
960-990
980-1010
3-16. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Commercially pure aluminum weights 0.098 pounds per cubic inch, corresponding to
a specific gravity of 271. Data for standard alloys are shown in
Table 3-6. The approximate weight for aluminum, including
its alloys, is one-tenth of a pound per cubic inch (see Table 36).
3-17. HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS.
NOTE
SAE-AMS-2770, Heat Treatment of wrought aluminum alloy parts, & SAE-AMS-2771, Heat Treatment
of aluminum alloy castings, will be the control documents for heat treatment of Aluminum Alloys used
on aerospace equipment. For complete description of
aluminum alloy heat treat requirements, refer to latest
issues of SAE-AMS-2770 & SAE-AMS-2771.
3-18. GENERAL. There are two types of heat treatment
applicable to aluminum alloys. They are known as solution
and precipitation heat treatment. Some alloys such as 2017
and 2024 develop their full mechanical properties as a result
of solution heat treatment followed by 96 hours (natural precipitation) aging at room temperature. Other alloys, such as
2014, 7075, and 7178 require solution heat treatment and
aging (precipitation heat treatment) for specific length of time
at a definite temperature (see Table 3-11).
NOTE
Additional Heat Treatment information is discussed
in Section IX.
3-19. Solution heat treatment is a process where the alloying
elements enter into solid solution in the aluminum at critical
temperatures. It has been found that those alloying elements
which increase the strength and hardness are more soluble in
3-18
Change 5
TEMPER
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4
T4
solid aluminum at high temperature than at low. To complete
the solution often the metal is held at high temperatures for
sufficient time; it is then quenched rapidly in cold water to
retain this condition. Immediately after quenching, the alloy is
in an unstable condition, because it consists of a supersaturated solid solution of the hardening agent. Upon standing at
room temperature the hardening constituent in excess of that
which is soluble at room temperature precipitates. The precipitate is in the form of extremely fine particles which due to
their “keying” action, greatly increase their strength. This is in
effect a method where the molecules of the aluminum and
alloying elements are realigned to increase the strength and
hardness of some aluminum alloys.
3-20. PRECIPITATION (AGE) HARDENING. This phase
of heat treatment consists of aging material previously subjected to solution heat treatments by natural (occurs at room
temperature) or artificial aging. Artificial aging consists of
heating aluminum alloy to a specific temperature and holding
for a specified length of time. During this hardening and
strengthening operation the alloying constituents in solid solution precipitate out. As precipitation progresses, the strength
of the material increases until the maximum is reached. Further aging (overaging) causes the strength to decline until a
stable condition is obtained. The strengthening of the material
is due to the uniform alignment or formation of the molecule
structure of the aluminum and alloying element.
3-21. Artificial aged alloys are usually slightly “overages” to
increase their resistance to corrosion, especially the high copper content alloys. This is done to reduce their susceptibility to
intergranular corrosion caused by under-aging.
3-22. Natural aging alloys can be artificially aged, however,
it increases the susceptibility of the material to intergranular
corrosion. If utilized it should be limited to clad sheet, extrusions and similar items. For aging treatment, temperature and
times, see Table 3-11.
TO 1-1A-9
previously
3-23. SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT. As
pointed out it is necessary that solution heat treatment of aluminum alloys be accomplished within close limits in reference
to temperature control and quenching. The temperature for
heat treating is usually chosen as high as possible without
danger of exceeding the melting point of any element of the
alloy. This is necessary to obtain the maximum improvement
in mechanical properties.
3-24. If the maximum specified temperature is exceeded
eutectic melting will occur. The consequence will be inferior
physical properties, and usually a severely blistered surface. If
the temperature of heat treatment is low, maximum strength
will not be obtained.
3-25. Heating Time. The heating time commonly called the
“soaking time” required to bring about solution increases with
the thickness of the section or part to be heat treated. Solution
heat treatment should be held to the minimum time required to
obtain the desired physical properties. In many instances the
above will require sample testing to determine the exact solution time. For the recommended approximate soaking time for
various alloys see Table 3-8.
3-26. The time at temperature (soaking time) is measured
from the time the metal reaches the minimum limit of the
temperature range. In the case of thick material the controlling
factor would be when the center (core) reached the minimum
temperature. The soaking period will vary from 10 minutes for
thin sheet to approximately 12 hours for the thicker materials,
such as heavy forgings. A general guide to use is approximately one hour for each inch of cross-sectional thickness. It
is recommended that thermocouple be placed in the coldest
part of the load to determine the period required to bring the
load to the correct temperature (soaking temperature).
3-27. The soaking temperature required is selected to put all
of the soluble elements into solid solution. With clad materials, prolonged heating may defeat the purpose of the cladding
by excessive diffusion of copper and other soluble elements
into the cladding.
3-28. RE-SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT. The
bare
heat-treatable alloys can be solution heat treated repeatedly
without harmful effects other than high temperature oxidation.
The oxidation can be retarded by using either sodium or potassium fluoborate during the heating cycle.
3-30. QUENCHING. The basic purpose of quenching is to
prevent the immediate re-precipitation of the soluble constituents after heating to solid solution.
3-31. To obtain optimum physical properties of aluminum
alloys, rapid quenching is required. The recommended time
interval between removal from the heat and immersion is 10
seconds or less. Allowing the metal to cool before quenching
promotes intergranular corrosion and slightly affects the hardness. This is caused by re-precipitation along grain boundaries
and in certain slip planes. For specific quench delay see Table
3-10.
3-32. There are three methods employed for quenching. The
one used depends upon the item, alloy and properties desired.
3-33. Cold Water Quenching. Small articles made from
sheet, extrusions, tubing and small fairing are normally
quenched in cold water. The temperature before quenching
should be 85°F or less. Sufficient cold water should be circulated within the quenching tanks to keep the temperature rise
under 20°F. This type of quench will insure good resistance to
corrosion and particularly important when heat-treating 2017
and 2024.
3-34. Hot Water Quenching. Large forgings and heavy sections can be quenched in (150° - 180°F) or boiling water. This
type of quench is used to minimize distortion and cracking
which are produced by the unequal temperatures obtained during produced by the unequal temperatures obtained during the
quenching operation. The hot water quench will also reduce
residual stresses which improves resistance to stress corrosion
cracking.
3-35. Spraying Quenching. Water sprays are used to quench
parts formed from alclad sheet and large sections of most
alloys. Principal reasons for using this method is to minimize
distortion and to alleviate quench cracking. This system is not
usually used to quench bare 2017 and 2024 due to the effect
on their corrosion resistance. The parts quenched by this
media should pass the test for corrosion required for the item
involved; (see specifications SAE-AMS-2770 & SAE-AMS2771).
3-36. STRAIGHTENING OF PARTS AFTER SOLUTION
HEAT TREATMENTS. It will be necessary to straighten
some parts after heat treating due to warping produced by the
process. These
3-29. For clad sheet the number of solution heat-treatment is
limited due to the increased diffusion of the core and cladding.
See Table 3-12 for the recommended reheat-treatment times.
Change 5
3-19
T.O. 1-1A-9
parts are usually straightened by restriking or
forming. It is desirable to place these parts in
refrigeration immediately af ter quenching to
retard natural aging until such time straightening
Figure 3-1.
is accomplished. A temperature of 32oF or below
will delay or retard natural aging for approximately 24 hours, lower temperatures will delay
the aging longer.
Head to Alloy Identification Method
3-37. HEAT TREATMENT OF RIVETS. The
heat-treatable alloys commonly used for rivets are
2117, 2017, and 2024.
d. 1100 and 5056 Rivets. These do not require
heat treatment, install as received. See Figure 3-1,
item A and 3-1, item B for identif ication.
a. 2117 Rivets. If supplied in T-4 temper no
further treatment is required. The rivet is identif ied by a dimple in the center of the head (see
Figure 3-1, item AD for head identif ication).
CAUTION
b. 2017 or 2017-T4 (D) Rivets. Heat treat
prior to installation by heating to 940oF ± 10oF for
30 minutes in a circulating air furnace, 1 hour in
still air furnace, or 30 minutes in a molten salt
bath and quench in water. These rivets must be
driven within 20 minutes af ter quenching or
refrigerate at 32oF or lower which will delay the
aging time 24 hours. If either time is exceeded
reheat treatment is required. See Figure 3-1, item
D for head identif ication. It is noted the D rivets
may also be used in the age hardened condition.
c. 2024-0 or 2024-T4 (DD) Rivets. The same
conditions apply for these rivets as for the 2017
(D) except heat treat at 920oF ± 10oF. See Figure
3-1, item DD for head identif ication.
3-20
Change 2
Rivets which have been anodically
oxide coated should not be reheattreated in direct contact with molten
salts more than 5 times.
e. 7050 (E) Rivets. These do not require heat
treatment, install as received. See Figure 3-1,
item E for head identif ication.
f. D/DD Rivets. These may be stored in
refrigerators which ensure that the rivet temperature does not rise above minus 10oF. Rivets held
at minus 10oF or below can be retained for use
indef initely. When the rivets are transported,
their temperature will be maintained at minus
10oF or below by being carried in refrigerated
boxes.
T.O. 1-1A-9
(1) Quality control shall be responsible for
periodically checking the temperature of each
refrigerator and for prohibiting the use of rivets in
any box when the temperature becomes excessive.
(2) Each refrigerator shall have the rivets
removed and be thoroughly cleaned at least once
every six months. A tag or placard that denotes
the next cleaning date shall be attached to each
refrigerator.
(3) Rivets which remain out of refrigeration for 30 minutes or more shall be reheat
treated. These rivets can be reheat treated a maximum of three times.
3-38. ANNEALING. Aluminum alloys are
annealed to remove the effects of solution heat
treatment and strain hardening. Annealing is utilized to help facilitate cold working. Parts work
hardened during fabrication are annealed at various stages of the forming operation so that complicated shapes can be formed. During prolonged
forming or stamping operations the metal becomes
strain hardened (commonly called ‘‘work hardened’’ and upon the performance of additional
work it will split or crack.) When the above is
encountered it is usually necessary to anneal the
part one or more times at progressive stages of the
forming operation, if the part is to be successfully
completed.
CAUTION
Annealed aluminum parts shall not
be used for parts or f ittings on aircraf t or missiles unless specif ied by
drawings or other approved engineering data.
3-39. Time at temperature. This factor will vary
depending upon the type of anneal (partial or full),
metal, thickness, method of furnace charging and
similar factors. Avoid excessive time at temperature to prevent growth, diffusion and discoloration,
especially when annealing clad alloys.
3-40. When fully annealing, no attempt should
be made to shorten the annealing cycle because
the soluble constituents go into solution as the
temperature is increased. If the material is then
cooled rapidly the soluble constituents remain in
solution and the material does not attain fully
annealed mechanical properties.
3-41. Annealing and subsequent forming of
material previously heat treated should be avoided
if conditions and time permit. The recommended
method is to repeat the solution heat treatment
and immediately perform the forming or drawing
operation.
3-42. Recommended times and temperatures for
annealing various alloys are as follows:
a. Annealing of Work-Hardened Alloys. All of
these alloys except 3003 are annealed by heating
to 650oF and no higher than 775oF, holding at
temperature until uniform temperature has been
established throughout the furnace load, and cooling in air or in the furnace. Annealing temperature shall not exceed 775oF to prevent excess oxidation and grain growth. The 3003 alloy is
annealed by heating to 775oF at a relatively rapid
rate and holding at the minimum soaking period
necessary to attain temperature uniformity and
then cool as cited above.
b. Annealing of heat-treated alloys (wrought).
These alloys (except 7075) are annealed by heating
to 775oF for not less than 1 hour and most
instances 2-3 hours. Material is then cooled at a
rate of no greater than 50oF per hour until the
temperature is 500oF or below. Rate of cooling
below 500oF is not restricted; cool as desired.
Alloy 7075 is fully annealed by heating to 775oF 850oF (higher temperature utilized for material
having smaller amount of cold work), soaking for 2
hours at temperature, cooling in air, reheating to
450oF, holding at this temperature for 6 hours and
then cooling to room temperature. Alternate 7075
annealing methods:
(1) If forming is to be accomplished immediately af ter annealing, heat to 775oF, 2-3 hours;
air cool.
(2) If alloy is to be stored for an extended
period before forming, heat to 670oF - 775oF, 2
hours; cool in air; reheat to 450oF; hold at this
temperature for 4 hours and then cool in air.
(3) Intermediate anneal during cold working of ‘‘O’’ condition material; heat to 670o - 700oF,
1/2 hour maximum, or heat to 910o - 930oF until
uniform temperature is attained; cool in air. A
part shall not be annealed using the 910o - 930oF
temperature more than 3 times.
c. Annealing of cast alloys. Castings are
annealed by heating to 650o - 750oF holding for
approximately 2 hours, and cooling to room temperature. The purpose of such annealing are for
the relief of stresses and attainment of dimensional stability.
d. Partial annealing of heat-treated material.
When heat-treated materials are annealed as specif ied for annealing of the work-hardened alloys,
the effect of heat-treatment is reduced considerably, but not completely. The partially annealed
Change 1
3-21
TO 1-1A-9
material is only to be utilized when moderate but not secure
operations are to be performed. If difficulty is experienced
with forming partially annealed material, recommend that “O”
fully annealed material be utilized.
3-43. Heat treating temperatures and times. Aluminum alloy
should be heat treated at the temperature given in Table 3-7.
The load should be held within the heat-treatment range (after
the coldest part has reached the minimum of the range) for a
sufficient time to insure that specified properties will be developed. In some cases sample testing will be required to ascertain that specified properties are developed. Suggested soaking
periods are given in Tables 3-8 and 3-9 for the common alloys.
In instances where new alloys are involved it will be necessary
to consult the specification for the alloys, Specifications SAEAMS-2770 & SAE-AMS-2771 or the manufacturer for the
appropriate heat treat data. In case of conflict the correct Military/Federal specification will be the governing factor.
3-44. QUENCHING. To effectively obtain the desired qualities in aluminum alloys it is necessary that the interval
between removing the charge from the furnace and immersion
in the quenching water be maintained at the absolute minimum
(See Table 3-10).
3-45. Wrought alloy products must be quenched by total
immersion in water or by a drastic spray quench. Forgings of
2014, 2017, 2117, and 7075 are quenched in water at temperatures in excess; of 100°F. 7079 forgings are generally
quenched in water at temperatures less than 100°F to obtain
optimum mechanical properties, however a hot water quench
(180°F) should be used whenever possible providing the lower
strength associated with the quench is satisfactory. The hot
water quench lowers the residual stresses considerably. This is
desirable from the point of view of reducing stress corrosion
susceptibility.
3-46. Charging of furnace and baths. Individual pieces of
materials or parts should be racked or supported to prevent
distorting if possible and permit free access to the heating and
3-22
Change 5
quenching medium. The above is necessary to maintain the
form of the material involved and to facilitate heating to the
specified temperature and quenching rapidly. To prevent distortion it is necessary in some cases to provide jig and fixture
support for complex contoured (formed) parts. However, the
jig used shall be so constructed that it will not restrict the
contact required with the heating medium of the part being
treated.
NOTE
Parts formed that are unavoidably distorted should be
reformed immediately after quenching.
3-47. When heat treating clad sheet material, the size and
spacing of the load will be arranged to permit raising to the
heat treatment temperature range in the minimum time. The
mixing of different thicknesses of clad material when charging
heat-treatment furnaces will be avoided, in order to help prevent diffusion of the cladding, especially in the case where
very thin to thick materials are involved.
Heat-treating operations will be performed on the
complete individual part or piece of material never on
a portion only. This should be accomplished in such a
manner that will produce the utmost uniformity.
Maximum quench delay for immersion quenching is
shown by Table 3-10.
3-48. Wrought alloy products may be quenched using high
velocity, high volume jets of cold water where the parts are
effectively flushed in a specially constructed chamber provided that the parts will pass the test for corrosion set forth in
Specifications SAE-AMS-2770 & SAE-AMS-2771, Metal
Specification and the mechanical property requirements of the
applicable material specification.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-8.
Soaking Time for Solution Heat Treatment of All Wrought Products
THICKNESS (INCHES)
(MIN. THICKNESS OF
THE HEAVIEST SECTION)
0.016
0.017
0.021
0.033
0.064
0.091
0.126
0.251
0.501
1.001
1.501
2.001
2.501
3.001
3.501
SALT
MIN
and under
- 0.020
- 0.032
- 0.063
- 0.090
- 0.125
- 0.250
- 0.500
- 1.000
- 1.500
- 2.000
- 2.500
- 3.000
- 3.500
- 4.000
10
10
15
20
25
30
35
45
60
90
105
120
150
165
180
3-49. Castings and forgings quenching. Casting
should be quenched by total immersion in water at
150o to 212oF. Forgings should be quenched by
total immersion in water at no more than 180oF.
Forgings and impact extrusion supplied in T41 or
T61 should be quenched in boiling water. However, if conditions warrant castings or forgings
may be quenched by complete immersion in cold
water.
3-50. Small parts such as rivets, fasteners, washers, spacers, etc., should be quenched by dumping
into cold water.
CAUTION
Rivets, fasteners, washers and other
small parts which have been anodically oxidecoated should not be heat
treated indirect contact with molten
salts or more than 5 times by this
medium.
NOTE
Quench delay time begins at the
instant furnace door begins to open or
at the instant any portion of a load
emerges from a salt bath and when
SOAKING TIME (MINUTES)
BATH
AIR
FURNACE
MAX (Alclad Only)
MIN
MAX (Alclad)
15
20
25
30
45
40
45
55
70
100
115
130
160
175
190
20
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
100
130
160
190
220
250
280
last portion of the load is immersed in
the (water) quench tank. The maximum quench delay may be exceeded
(usually conf ined to large sections or
loads) if temperature will be above
775oF when quenched.
Table 3-9.
Soaking Time for Solution Treatment of Cast Alloys
ALLOY
SAND CAST ALLOYS
122
142
195
S195 (105)
220
319
355
356
PERMANENT MOLD
CAST ALLOYS
122
A132
142
B195
355
356
TIME (HOURS)
6-18
2-10
6-18
6-24
12-24
6-18
6-18
6-18
6-18
6-18
2-10
4-12
6-18
6-18
3-23
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-10.
Recommended Maximum Quench Delay, Wrought
Alloys (For Immersion Type
Quenching)
NOMINAL THICKNESS
(INCHES)
up to 0.016
0.017 to 0.031
0.032 to 0.091
0.091 and over
3-51.
MAXIMUM TIME
(SECONDS)
5
7
10
15
HEAT TREATMENT.
3-52. PRECIPITATION (ARTIFICIAL AGE)
HEAT TREATMENT. Precipitation heat treatment
of many aluminum alloys is necessary to obtain
the required properties. Heating of some aluminum alloys bare or alclad at an elevated temperature, but well below the annealing temperature,
af ter solution heat treatment will result in tensile
and yield strength well above those obtained by
room temperature aging. The above will also
apply to alloy 2024. However, this process will
reduce the elongation factor of the material and
increase resistance to forming. Therefore, most
forming operations should be performed prior to
this stage of treatment.
3-53. Mechanical properties obtained from precipitation (aging) are dependent on the amount of
cold work present in the material at the time of
aging. The selection of material for various uses
will therefore be governed by, the severity of the
cold work to be performed, strength and condition
of the material required.
3-54. Annealing or solution heat treating will
remove any properties developed as a result of cold
working the material. Subsequent heat treatment
and aging of annealed material or aging of solution
heat treated material will result in T-6 condition,
provided the material is not cold worked prior to
aging. The higher strength conditions can only be
obtained by a controlled amount of cold work prior
to aging. Conditions T-81 or T-86 would necessitate a cold work percentage of approximately 1%
for T-81 and 6% for T-86 af ter solution heat
treated and prior to aging.
3-55. Field accomplishment of the cold work
required to produce the higher strength conditions
is considered impractical. This is due to the
amount and types of equipment necessary to
3-24
stretch or roll the material in order to produce
these conditions.
3-56. HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT. Equipment and heating media used are divided into two
distinct groups. They are liquid baths and controlled atmosphere. Either method has certain
advantages over the other and it generally is
advisable to weigh the advantages desired and
consider environmental conditions.
3-57. The above are heated by gas, electricity
and oil regardless of the method utilized it must
be demonstrated that satisfactory results are
obtained and the material is not injured.
3-58. AIR FURNACES. Air furnaces are ideal
for precipitation (aging), thermal treatments and
annealing. These furnaces are also used for solution heat treating. The initial cost of these type
furnaces is higher than for the salt bath types, but
they are usually more economical to operate, safer,
cleaner and more f lexible. Air furnaces used for
heat treatment of aluminum alloy should be of the
recirculating air type. The heated air in this type
furnace is recirculated at high velocities to obtain
a rapid heating cycle and uniform temperatures.
The products of combustion must be excluded from
the furnace atmosphere to help avoid high temp
oxidation and atmosphere contamination.
3-59. SALT BATHS. The salt bathe method has
certain advantages over the air furnace. However,
the advantages are usually conf ined to solution
heat treatment only. Associated advantages are
uniform temperature without excess danger of
high temperature oxidation and faster heating
which reduces the time required to bring the load
to temperature. This method is adaptable for solution heat treating small parts, large thin sections
and missed loads. The above advantages may be
completely nullif ied by the slower quench caused
by the necessary arrangement of equipment, f ire
and explosion hazards, and decomposition of the
sodium nitrate which when dissolved in quenching
water forms a compound that attacks aluminum
alloys. The addition of potassium dichromate
(approximately 1/2 ounce per hundred pounds of
nitrate) tends to inhibit the attack.
3-60. Hollow core casting or parts where the
salts are likely to be diff icult or impossible to
remove should not be treated by bath salt.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-11.
Precipitation (Aging) Treating Temperatures, Times and Conditions
ALLOY & TEMPER OR
COND BEFORE AGING
AGING TIME
(HOURS)2/
AGING TEMP
(DEGREES F)2/
TEMPER
AFTER AGING
WROUGHT ALLOYS
(EXCLUDING FORGINGS)
2017 - as quenched(w)
96
room
2017-T4
2117 - as quenched(w)
96
room
2117-T4
2024 - as quenched(w) 3/
96
room
2024-T4
6061 - as quenched(w)
96
room
6061-T4
6061-T4
71/2 - 81/2
340-360
6061-T6
2020-W
18
310-360
2020-T6
2024-T4 1-T42
16
370-380
2024-T6 1-T62
2024-T4 (Alternate for sheet)
11-13
370-380
2024-T6
2024-T3
11-13
370-380
2024-T81
2024-T36
7-9
370-380
2024-T86
2014-T4 1-T42
8 - 12
305-330
2014-T6 1-T62
2014-T4 (Alternate for Plate)
17-20
305-330
2014-T6
2219-T31/T351
17-19
350
2219-T81/T851
2219-T4
35-37
375
2219-T62
2219-W
96
room
2219-T4
6066-T4
71/2 - 81/2
340-360
6066-T6
6061-T4
71/2 - 81/2
340-360
6061-T6
7050-W
6-8
250 followed by
350, 6-8 hours
7050-T74
7075-W 1/
22 Minimum
240-260
7075-T6
7178-W
22 Minimum
240-260
7178-T6
6063-F
1-2
440-460
6063-T5
7079 - as quenched(w)
5 days at room
temperature
following 48
hours at 230250 degrees F
7475-W, Plate
24-25
250
7475-T6
7475-W, Sheet
3-5
250 followed by
315, 3-3.25 hours
7475-T61
2014-T4
5-14
340-360
2014-T6
2014 - as quenched
96 Minimum
room
2014-T4
2017 - as quenched
96 Minimum
room
2017-T6
FORGING ALLOYS
Change 1
3-25
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-11.
Precipitation (Aging) Treating Temperatures, Times and Conditions - Continued
ALLOY & TEMPER OR
COND BEFORE AGING
AGING TIME
(HOURS)2/
AGING TEMP
(DEGREES F)2/
TEMPER
AFTER AGING
2018-T4
4-12
330-350
2018-T6
2025-T4
6-14
330-350
2025-T6
4032-T4
4-12
330-350
4032-T6
6151-T4
4-12
330-350
6151-T6
7075-W
22 Minimum
230-260
7075-T6
X7079
5 days at room
temperature followed by 48 hours
at 230-250 degrees
F
X7079-T6
SAND CAST ALLOYS
142-T41
1-3
400-450
142-T61
195-T4
1-3
300-320
142-T6
S195-T4
1-4
300-320
S195-T6
220-W
96 Minimum
room
220-T4
319-T4
1-6
300-320
319-T6
335-T4
1-6
300-320
335-T6
356-T4
1-6
300-320
356-T6
356-F
6-12
430-450
356-T6
40
9-11
345-365
40-E
40-
21 days
room
40-E
142-T41
1-3
400-450
142-T61
B195-T4
1-8
300-320
B195-T6
319-T4
1-6
300-330
319-T6
355-T4
1-6
300-320
355-T6
356-T4
1-6
300-320
356-T6
A132-T45
14-18
300-350
A132-T65
PERMANENT MOLD CAST ALLOYS
1/ Alternate aging treatment for 7075-W sheet only; in thicknesses less than 0.500 inch: Heat at 230o250oF for 3-4 hours, then heat 315o-335oF for 3-4 hours. The temperature may be raised directly from
the lower to the higher temperature, or load may be allowed to cool between the two steps of the
treatment.
2/ Time is soak time af ter recorder is at temperature, for 0.500 inch thickness or less. Add 1/2 hour for
each additional 1/2 inch of thickness.
3/ The 96 hour minimum aging time required for each alloy listed with temper designation W is not
necessary if artif icial aging is to be employed to obtain tempers other than that derived from room
temperature aging. (For example, natural aging (96 hours) to achieve the -T4 or -T42 temper for 2014
alloy is not necessary prior to artif icial aging to obtain a -T6 or -T62 temper.)
3-26
Change 1
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-12.
Reheat Treatment of Alclad Alloys
THICKNESS
(INCHES)
MAXIMUM NO. OF
REHEAT TREATMENT PERMISSIBLE
0.125 and less
1
over 0.125
2
NOTE
Heat treatment of a previously heattreated material is classif ied as a
reheat treatment. Therefore, the f irst
heat treatment of material purchased
in the heat treated condition is a
reheat treatment. Insofar as this
chart is concerned annealing and precipitation treatments are not considered heat treatments.
3-61. Salt baths must be operated with caution
to prevent explosions as any water on the material
being treated is instantly transformed to steam
upon imersion in the salt bath.
3-62. Nitrate charged salt baths should not be
used to heat-treat aluminum alloys types 5056 and
220 due to the fact that the bath compound will
attack the alloy.
3-63. Temperature Control and Uniformity.
Good temperature control is essential to produce
the exacting temper requirements for superior
quality material. Upon bringing a change to temperature, the furnace and the load should be controllable with ±5oF of the required temperature
range. The design and construction of the furnaces and baths should be such that during the
recovery and soaking period, the air and metal
(load) temperature at any point in the working or
soaking area shall not exceed the maximum soaking temperature (see Table 3-7) for the specif ic
alloy being heat treated.
3-64. Furnace temperature survey. Furnace
equipment shall be installed with the necessary
furnace control, temperature measuring, and
recording instruments to assure and maintain
accurate control.
3-65. Upon the initial installation and af ter each
change is made in the furnace which might affect
the operational characteristics a temperature survey should be made. The temperatures should be
checked at the maximum and minimum required
for solution and precipitation heat treatment for
which the furnace is to be used. A minimum of 9
test locations within the furnace load area should
be checked, one in each corner, one in the center
and one for each 25 cubic feet of air furnace volume up to the maximum of 400 cubic feet. For
salt bath the same as above except one test location for each 40 cubic feet of air volume, 40 test
locations are recommended. Other size furnaces
should be checked with a ratio of test locations in
accordance with those previously cited. A monthly
survey should be made af ter the initial survey,
unless separate load thermocouples are employed,
to record actual metal temperatures. However,
periodic surveys shall be made as outlined for the
initial survey. The monthly survey should be
made at one operating temperature for solution
treatment and one for precipitation heat treatment. There should be a minimum of 9 test locations with at least one for each 40 cubic feet of
heat treating volume. For all surveys, the furnaces should be allowed to heat to point of stabilization before commencing the survey. The temperature of all test locations should be determined
at 5 to 10 minute intervals af ter insertion of the
temperature sensing elements in the furnace.
Temperature readings should be taken for a suff icient length of time af ter thermal equilibrium to
determine the recurring temperature pattern.
Af ter all temperature sensing elements have
reached equilibrium, the maximum temperature
variation of all elements shall not exceed 20oF and
at no time af ter equilibrium is reached should the
temperature readings be outside the solution heat
treating or precipitation range being surveyed.
3-66. Temperature measuring instruments used
for furnace control shall not be used to read the
temperature of the test temperature sensing
elements.
3-67. Furnace thermocouple and sensing element
should be replaced periodically. This is necessary
due to oxidation and deterioration of the elements.
3-68. Salt Bath Testing - Temperature uniformity in a salt bath may be determined by use of a
temperature sensing element enclosed in a suitable protected tube. The temperature sensing element should be held in one position until thermal
equilibrium has been substantially reached and
reading made. The temperature sensing element
should then be placed in a new location and the
procedure repeated. These operations should be
repeated until the temperature in all parts of the
bath have been determined. The maximum variation indicated by reading from the various locations in the load zone shall not exceed 20oF and no
reading shall be outside the heat treating range
specif ied for the materials involved.
3-27
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-69. At this point it should be explained that a
substantial amount of the diff iculties encountered
in heating aluminum alloys is due to improper or
inadequate temperature control and circulation of
heating medium. When diff iculties arise the function of these units should be checked prior to performing other system test.
3-70.
FABRICATION.
3-71. This portion is intended to provide some of
the information required to fabricate the various
aluminum products into parts and assemblies.
Aluminum is one of the most workable of all the
common metals. It can be fabricated into a variety
of shapes by conventional methods.
3-72. The formability varies considerably with
alloy and temper. Specif ic application usually
depends on the shape, strength and temper of the
alloy. The preceeding will necessitate that the
mechanic be well trained to cope with the variables associated with this material especially when
the end use of the item is an aircraf t or a missile.
3-73.
FORMING SHEET METAL.
3-74. GENERAL. The forming of aluminum
(1100) is relatively easy, using approximately the
same procedures as those used for common steel
except that care must be taken to prevent scratching. Do not mark on any metal surface to be used
as a structural component with a graphite pencil
or any type of sharp pointed instrument. Use pencil, Aircraf t Marking, Specif ication MIL-P-83953,
NSN 7510-00-537-6928 (Black),7510-00-537-6930
(Yellow), and 7510-00-537-6935 (Red). All shop
equipment, tools and work area should be kept
smooth, clean and free of rust and other foreign
matter.
3-75. Alloyed aluminum (2024, 7075, 7178, etc.)
are more diff icult to form, and extensive control is
required to prevent scratching and radii cracking.
Scratching will make forming more diff icult plus it
provides an easy path for corrosion attack, especially on clad materials. The clad coating referenced is usually a sacrif icial corrosion resisting
aluminum alloy coating sandwiched metalurgically
to an alloyed core material. The thickness of the
coating will depend on the thickness of the sheet
or plate. The nominal cladding thickness is 4% of
composite thickness for material under 0.063 inch;
2.5% for material in the range of 0.063 - 0.187 inch
and 1.5% for material 0.188 inch and thicker.
b. Provide clean smooth (rust free) and adaptable forming equipment.
c. Sheared or cut edges shall be sanded and
f iled or polished, prior to bending or forming.
d. Use only straight and smooth forming dies
or brake leafs of the correct radius which are free
of nicks, burrs and sharp edges.
e. Form material across the direction of grain
f low when possible.
f. Material should be of the correct temper,
thickness and alloy in the range of ‘‘formable’’
material.
3-77. For intricate forming operations it is necessary to use annealed (Con‘‘O’’) material and f inal
strength developed by heat treating af ter the
forming has been accomplished. Heat-treated
alloys can also be formed at room temperature
immediately af ter quenching (‘‘W’’temper), which
is much more formable than the fully heat-treated
temper. The part is then aged to develop full
strength. The forming operation should be performed as soon af ter quenching as possible, in
view of the natural aging that occurs at room temperature on all the heat treatable alloys. The natural aging can be delayed to a certain extent by
placing the part in a cold storage area of 32o or
lower. The lower the temperature the longer the
delay to a point where maximum delay is
obtained.
3-78. BENDING. Bending is classif ied as single
curvature forming. Upon bending sheet metal, bar
or rod, the material at the bends f lows or deforms
i.e., the material adjacent to the other surface of
the bend is under tension and the length is
increased due to stretching and the material adjacent to and on the inner surface is under compression and the length is decreased.
3-76. The following general rules should be
employed in the handling and forming operation:
3-79. The most common problems encountered in
practice are springback and cracking within the
bend area. Problems associated with bend cracking are usually a result of improper bend radii,
rough edges of material being formed or forming
equipment and bending parallel to direction of
grain f low. For the approximate bend radius to
use in bending various thicknesses and types of
aluminum see Table 3-13. Actual practice may
reveal that a larger or a smaller radius may be
used in some instances. If tighter bend radii is
required, then fabricators should proceed with
additional caution and if needed, should seek
assistance of engineering or laboratory
metallurgists.
a. Provide clean area; free of chips, grit and
dirt and other foreign material.
3-80. Diff iculties encountered with springback
are most commonly associated with bending of the
3-28
T.O. 1-1A-9
stronger alloys, especially those having high yield
strength. Springback problem associated with this
material can be overcome to a certain degree by
overforming. The amount of overforming utilized
will depend on the temper and the alloy; the sof ter
the material the less springback compensation
Table 3-13.
Alloy and Temper
required. Other means of reducing springback is
to bend the material in the sof t condition (Condition ‘‘O’’) or immediately af ter quenching and
reducing the thickness or the radius if allowed.
Avoid reducing radii to the point that grain separation or bend cracking results.
Cold Bend Radii (Inside) for General Applications
Sheet Thickness = T (Inches)
0.016
0.032
0.040
0.063
0.125
0.1875
0.250
1100-0
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.125
0.187
0.250
3003-0
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.160
0.187
0.250
5052-0
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.160
0.187
0.250
6061-0
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.16
0.1875
0.250
2014-0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.09
0.19
0.312
0.44
2219-0
0
0
--
0.5-1.5T
0.5-1.5T
0.5-1.5T
1-2T
7075-0
0.03
2T
2T
2T
2T
21/2T
3T
7178-0
0.03
2T
2T
2T
2T
21/2T
3T
1100-H12
0.02
0.03
0.03
1T
1T
11/2T
11/2T
3003-H12
0.03
0.03
0.03
1T
1T
11/2T
11/2T
5052-H32
0.03
0.06
0.06
11/2T
2T
21/2T
2T
1100-H16
0.03
0.06
2T
2T
2T
21/2T
3T
3003-H16
0.03
0.06
2T
2T
21/2T
4T
5T
5052-H36
0.03
0.06
2T
2T
21/2T
4T
5T
0.016
0.032
0.064
0.125
0.1875
0.250
1100-H18
0.03
2T
2T
21/2T
3T
31/2T
3003-H18
0.03
2T
2T
21/2T
3T
41/2T
5052-H38
0.03
2T
3T
4T
5T
6T
6061-T4
0.03
2T
2T
2T
3T
4T
6061-T6
0.03
2T
2T
2T
3T
4T
2219-T4
0-1T
0-1T
1-2T
1-2T
1.5-2.5T
1.5-2.5T
2219-T62,T81
2-3.5T
2.5-4T
3.5T
4-6T
4-6T
5-7T
2024-T4
0.06
4T
4T
5T
6T
6T
2024-T3
0.06
4T
4T
5T
6T
6T
2014-T3
0.06
3T
4T
5T
6T
6T
7075-T6
0.06
5T
6T
6T
6-8T
9-10T
7178-T6
0.06
5T
6T
6T
6-8T
9-10T
7050-T7
--
--
--
8T
9T
9.5T
7475
--
--
--
--
--
--
3-29
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-81. DRAW FORMING. Draw forming is
def ined as a method where a male die (punch) and
a female die is used to form a sheet blank into a
hollow shell. Draw forming is accomplished by
forcing the male die and the metal blank into the
female die. Generally mechanical press either
single or double action and hydraulic presses are
used to perform the drawing operation. Results
will depend on die design, radii of die forming surfaces, f inish of die, surface clearance between
punch and female die, blank hold down pressure,
shape of blank, material allowance on blank, elongation factor of material, temper, shape of part
being formed, drawing speed, and lubricant.
Optium results usually requires experimentation
and adjustment of one or more of these factors.
Drawing of very deep shells require more experimentation and the utilization of a succession of
limit draws. Because of the work hardening
resulting from each draw, reduction in successive
draws must be less. In severe conditions an intermediate anneal is sometimes used. Condition ‘‘O’’
material of the heat treatable alloys can be heat
treated af ter drawing to obtain higher strength
and to relieve the effect of work hardening. However, the non-heat treatable alloys can only be
annealed to relieve the effect of work hardening.
This material should not be annealed if high
strength is the major requirement.
3-82. The recommended material to manufacture
drawing dies is hardened tool steel for large scale
production; kirksite and plastic for medium or
short run production; and phenolic and hardwood
for piece production.
3-83. STRETCH FORMING. This process
involves stretching a sheet or strip to just beyond
the elastic limit where permanent set will take
place with a minimum amount of springback.
Stretch forming is usually accomplished by gripping two opposite edges f ixed vises and stretching
by moving a ram carrying the form block against
the sheet. The ram pressure being suff icient to
cause the material to stretch and wrap to the contour of the form block.
3-84. Stretch forming is normally restricted to
relatively large parts with large radii of curvature
and shallow depth, such as contoured skin. The
advantage is uniform contoured parts at faster
speed than can be obtained by hand forming with
a yoder hammer or other means. Also, the condition of the material is more uniform than that
obtained by hand forming. The disadvantage is
high cost of initial equipment, which is limited to
AMA level repair facilities.
3-85. Material used for stretch forming should be
limited to alloys with fairly high elongation and
3-30
good spread between yield and tensile strength.
Most of the common alloys are formed in the
annealed condition. It is possible to stretch form
the heat treatable alloys in tempers T4 or T6,
where the shape is not too deep or where narrow
width material is used. For the deeper curved
shapes, the material is formed in the annealed
‘‘O’’temper, heat treated and reformed, to eliminate distortion resulting from heat treatment. As
previously stated the material should be reformed
as fast as possible af ter heat treatment. In some
instances the material is formed immediately af ter
heat treating and quenching. Selection of a system or condition of material to be utilized will
require experimentation and the subsequent utilization of the system that gives the best results.
3-86. HYDRAULIC PRESS FORMING. The rubber pad hydropress can be utilized to form many
varieties of parts from aluminum and its alloys
with relative ease. Phenolic, masonite, kirksite
and some types of hard setting molding plastic
have been used successfully as form blocks to
press sheet metal parts such as ribs, spars, fans,
etc. The press forming operations are usually
accomplished by setting the form block (normally
male) on the lower press platen and placing a prepared sheet metal blank on the block. The blank
is located on the block with locating pins, to prevent shif ting of blank when the pressure is applied
(the sheet metal blank should be cut to size and
edges deburred prior to pressing). The rubber pad
f illed press head is then lowered or closed over the
form block and the rubber envelope, the form block
forcing the blank to conform to the form blocks
contour. This type forming is usually limited to
relatively f lat parts having f langes, beads and
lightening holes. However, some types of large
radii contoured parts can be formed with a combination of hand forming and pressing operations.
It is recommended that additional rubber be supplemented in the form of sheets when performing
the above to prevent damage to the rubber press
pad. The rubber sheet used should have a shore
hardness of 50-80 durometers. The design of foam
block for hydropress forming require compensation
for springback even through the material normally
used is Condition ‘‘O’’ or annealed. Normal practice is to under cut the form block 2-7o depending
on the alloy and radii of the form block.
3-87. DROP HAMMER FORMING. The drop
hammer can be used to form deep pan shaped and
beaded type parts. Kirksite with a plastic surface
insert is satisfactory for male and female dies.
The surface of kirksite dies used without plastic
insert should be smooth to prevent galling and
scratching of the aluminum surface. When forming deep pans and complicated shaped parts it is
T.O. 1-1A-9
of ten necessary to use drawings rings, pads or 2-3
stage dies. An intermediate anneal is sometimes
used to relieve the hardened condition (cold work)
resulting from the forming operation.
3-88. JOGGLING. A joggle is an offset formed to
provide for an overlap of a sheet or angle which is
projecting in the same plain. The inside joggle
radii should be approximately the same as used
for straight bending. Joggle run out or length as a
normal rule should be three times the depth of the
joggle for the medium strength alloys (2024, 2014,
etc.) and approximately four times the depth for
the higher strength alloys (7075, 7178, 7079 etc).
Where deep and tight joggles are required,
annealed material should be used with heat treatment to follow.
3-89. HOT-FORMING. Hot forming is not generally recommended, however, it is sometimes
used where it is not possible to form an article by
other methods. Accomplishment shall not be
attempted unless adequate facilities are available
to control temperature requirements. Actual
formability will depend on the temperature that
various alloys are heated. The higher the temperature the easier formed. Excessively high temperature shall not be used, as considerable loss in
strength and corrosion resistance will occur. Frequent checks should be made using an accurate
contact pyrometer. Table 3-14 cites the recommended times and temperature (accumulative) for
the various alloys. The losses in strength as a
result of re-heating at the temperature cited by
this table will not exceed 5%. Equal formability
will be obtained with shorter periods of heating in
most cases and the minimum times should be
used. It should be understood that this table cited
the maximum accumulative times at cited
temperature.
3-90. SPINNING. Spinning is an art and makes
exacting demands upon the skill and experience of
the mechanic performing the operation. For this
reason mass production of parts is impractical.
However, it can be used to advantages where only
a few parts are required and to assist in the
removal of buckles and wrinkles in drawn shell
shaped objects.
3-91. Forming by spinning is a fairly simple process, an aluminum disc (circle) is placed in a lathe
in conjunction with a form block usually made of
hardwood; as the disc and form block are revolved,
the disc is molded to the form block by applying
pressure with a spinning stick or tool. Aluminum
soap, tallow or ordinary soap can be used as a
lubricant.
3-92. The best adapted materials for spinning
are the sof ter alloys i.e., 1100, 3003, 5052, 6061,
etc. Other alloys can be used where the shape to
be spun is not excessively deep or where the spinning is done in stages and intermediate annealing
is utilized to remove the effect of strain hardening
(work hardening) resulting from the spinning operation. Hot forming is used in some instances
when spinning the heavier gauge materials and
harder alloys.
3-93. BLANKING AND SHEARING. Accurate
shearing will be affected by the thickness of material, type of shear or knife blades, condition of
material, adjustment and sharpness of blades, size
of cut and the relationship of the width of the cut
to sheet thickness.
3-94. Normally most aluminum alloys can be
sheared 1/2 inch and less in thickness except for
the harder alloys i.e., 7075-T6 and 7178-T6. These
alloys have a tendency to crack in the vicinity of
the cut especially if the sheer blades are dull or
nicked. The above will naturally require that tooling used be designed to handle the thickness of
material to be cut. Correct clearance between
shear blades is important for good shearing. Too
little clearance will quickly dull or otherwise damage the blades or knives; too much will cause the
material to be burred, or even to fold between
blades. Normal clearance is from one-tenth to oneeighth the sheet thickness. Blade life will be prolonged by occasionally lubricating. When the
capacity of shear is doubtful the shear manufacturer should be consulted.
3-31
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-14.
Maximum Accumulative Reheat Times for Hot Forming Heat Treatable Alloys at Different Temperatures
ALLOY
450oF
425oF
400oF
375oF
350oF
325oF
300oF
2014-T6
To Temp
To Temp
5-15 Min
30-60 Min
2-4 Hrs
8-10 Hrs
20-50 H
2024-T81
5 Min
15 Min
30 Min
1 Hr
2-4 Hrs
---
20-40 H
2024-T86
5 Min
15 Min
30 Min
1 Hr
2-4 Hrs
---
10-20 H
6061-T6
5 Min
15 Min
30 Min
1-2 Hrs
8-10 Hrs
5-100 Hrs
100-200 H
7075-T6
No
No Temp
5-10 Min
30-60 Min
1-2 Hrs
2-4 Hrs
10-12 H
*2014-T4, 2014-T3 No
No
No
No
No
No
No
*2024-T4, 2024-T3 No
No
No
No
No
No
No
* These materials should not be hot formed unless subsequently artif icially aged.
3-95. BLANKING. Blanking is usually accomplished utilizing a blanking die in almost any type
of punch press equipment. The essential factors
requiring control are die clearance, shearing edge
lead, and stripping action. The shearing principle
is primarily the same as that encountered with the
squaring shear. However, the method of grinding
punch dies will vary according to the results
required and in such manner that will reduce load
on equipment. Commonly two or more high points
are ground on die to keep side thrust on the punch
at a minimum. Lubrication is essential in blanking operations. Suitable lubricants are engine oil,
kerosene and lard oil which are normally used in
mixed form.
Paragraphs 3-96 through 3-155 deleted.
Tables 3-15 through 3-16 deleted.
Pages 3-33 through 3-38 deleted.
3-32
Change 1
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-156.
Deleted.
3-157.
Deleted.
3-158.
Deleted.
3-159.
Deleted.
3-160.
Deleted.
3-161.
Deleted.
3-162. RIVETING. Riveting is the most common
method of assembling components fabricated from
aluminum. Typical advantages of this method of
mechanical fastening are simplicity of application,
consistent joint uniformity, easily inspected (X Ray
and other type equipment not required.), low cost,
and in many cases lighter weight.
3-163. The rivets used in USAF Weapon System
structures require that the alloys and shapes be
closely controlled by specif ication/standards, to
assure structural integrity and uniformity. These
rivets are presently classif ied as solid shank, hishear, blind (structural-non-structural) explosive/
chemical expanded. They are available in a variety of shapes, alloys, sizes, lengths and types. The
most common alloys utilized are aluminum
because the structure alloys are normally aluminum. In addition some of the aluminum rivet
characteristics can be changed by heat treating
which facilitates application (see paragraph 3-37.)
3-164. All of the aluminum alloys could be used
to manufacture rivets; however, due to some alloys
having superior properties they have been selected
as standard. See Table 3-17 for alloys head, identif ication, MS/AN standard cross references, etc.,
for general rivets used on AF weapons systems.
(3-39 blank)/3-40
Change 1
3-165. Rivets in aluminum alloys 1100(A),
5056(B), 2117(AD) are used in the condition
received Alloys 2017(D) and 2024(DD) of ten
referred to as ‘‘Ice Box Rivets’’ require heat treatment prior to use (see paragraph 3-43). Rivets in
alloy 2017 and 2024 should be driven immediately
af ter quenching with a maximum delay of 20 minutes or refrigerated to delay aging. The customary
procedure (unless only a few rivets are involved) is
to place the rivets under refrigeration immediately
af ter heat treatment The time the rivets may be
used will depend on refrigeration equipment available. Cooling to 32oF will retard natural aging to
the extent that the rivets may be driven up to 24
hours. Cooling rivets +0-10oF and below will
retard natural aging to the extent that the rivets
may be retained for use indef initely.
3-166. Rivets utilized with extended driving time
should be closely inspected af ter upsetting for
cracks. If inspection reveals that rivets are
cracked, discontinue use, remove defective rivets
and obtain reheat treated rivets prior to continuing the assembly operation.
3-167. If for some reason it is necessary to determine if a rivet has been heat treated this may be
done by Rockwell Hardness testing. Test by supporting rivets in a vee block and hardness reading
taken with a 1/16 inch ball 60 kilogram load . A
hardness of over 75 will indicate a heat treated
rivet.
T.O. 1-1A-9
CAUTION
Heat treatment and most other operations requiring use of heat will be
accomplished prior to installing rivets, since heating af ter rivets are
installed will cause warping and possible corrosion if salt bath is used.
The salt from the bath will contaminate cracks and crevices of the assembly and complete removal can not be
assured.
3-168. Shear strength (ultimate) of a driven rivet
can be determined by the formula Ps=SsAN.
Ps=ultimate shear strength (pounds), Ss=specif ied
shear strength of the driven rivet (psi), A=cross
sectional (area of the driven rivet, normally equal
to hole cross section (square inch) and N=number
of shear planes. For shear strength of protruding
and f lush head rivets see Table 3-19.
3-169. The load required to cause tensile failure
of a plate in a rivet joint can be determined by the
formula Ts=P+ (D-A) Tp. Ts=ultimate tensile
strength (pounds), PT = specif ied ultimate tensile
strength of the plate (psi), D=pitch of the rivets
(inch) - pitch is the distance between the center of
two adjacent rivets on the same gauge line,
A=diameter of hole (inch) and Tp=thickness of
plate.
3-170. Rivet Selection. Unless otherwise specif ied rivets should be selected that have comparable strength and alloy as material being assembled. This is an important factor in preventing
corrosion from dissimilar metal contact and to
assure structurely sound assemblies. The following tables are provided as a general guide for
selection of rivet alloy vs assembly alloy.
3-171. The formula Ps = Sb AC can be used to
determine failure in bearing strength. Ps = ultimate bearing strength of the joints (lbs), Sb =
specif ied ultimate bearing strength of the plate
(psi) and AC = projected crushing area (bearing
area) of rivet, or diameter (sq in) see table 3-20 for
typical bearing properties of aluminum alloy plates
and shapes.
3-172. Rivet hole preparation is one of the key
factors in controlling successful upsetting of rivet
head, material separation and buckling which
weakens the structural strength of the rivet joint,
and corrosion attack of rivets and material af ter
equipment is placed in service/use. The rivet hole
should be drilled, punched/reamed to size that
allows the minimum clearance (apprximately 0.003
for thin sheet and up to about 0.020 for 0.750 1.000 inch thick material) required to insert rivet
without forcing. Theoretical rivets holes should be
completed i.e., drilled, reamed to size, deburred,
chips removed that may lodge or be trapped in
between surface of metal and treated (anodized
etc.) before starting to rivet assembly. The above
cannot always be accomplished especially where
the assembly is large and requires the application
of a large amount of rivets due to hole tolerance
and variations in holding clamping/pressures. To
overcome these problems requires that holes be
pilot drilled end reamed to size at time rivet is to
be installed. This method has a twofold purpose:
(1) allows easy insertion of rivets, (2) prevents
3-41
T.O. 1-1A-9
elongation of rivet holes and resulting weakening
of rivet joint.
3-173. Rivet holes drilled/reamed af ter assembly
is started should be treated by coating with zinc
Table 3-17.
OLD AN/
STD
SUPERSEDING
MS STD
chromate primer or other approved material. Two
methods for coating rivets and improving protection of hole surfaces from corrosion are:
General Rivet (Alum) Identification Chart
FORM
MATERIAL
HEAD AND
NUMERICAL
IDENT
CODE
CONDITION
HEAT
TREAT
AN456
MS20470
Brazier Head
Solid Modified
See
AN470
USAF460
See MS20601
1000 Flush Head
Blind Type II
Class 2
See
MS20601
USAF461
See MS20600
Protruding Head
Type II Class I
Blind
See
MS20601
USAF463
See MS20600
Same
Same
NAF1195
See MS20600
Same
Same
AN470
MS20470
Universal Head
Solid
1100
A-Plain
F
No
5056
B-Raised
Cross
F
No
2117
AD-Dimple
T-4
No
2017
D-Raised
Dot
T-4
Yes
2024
DD-Raised
Dash
T-4
Yes
5056
B
F
No
2117
AD
T-4
No
Monel
M
5056
B
F
No
2117
AD
T-4
No
Monel
M
5056
B
F
No
2017
D
T-4
No
MS20600
MS20601
MS20602
3-42
Protruding
Head-Blind
Type II,
Class I
o
100 Flash
Head Blind
Type II,
Class 2
Protruding
Head Blind
Chemically
Expanded Type
I, Class I,
Styles A & B
No
No
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-17.
OLD AN/
STD
SUPERSEDING
MS STD
MS20604
General Rivet (Alum) Identification Chart - Continued
FORM
Universal Head
Blind Class I
Non Struct
MATERIAL
HEAD AND
NUMERICAL
IDENT
CODE
CONDITION
HEAT
TREAT
5056
B
F
No
2117
AD
T-4
No
Monel M or
MP (MP =
Monel Plated)
MS20605
MS20606
MS20613
MS20615
100o Flash
Head Blind
Class 2, Non
Struct
Modified
Trusshead
Blind Class 3
Non-Struct
Universal Head
Solid
Universal Head
Solid
No
5056
B
F
No
2117
AD
T-4
No
Monel M or
MP (MP =
Monel Plated)
No
5056
B
F
No
2117
AD
T-4
No
Monel M or
MP (MP =
Monel Plated)
No
1010
Recessed
Triangle
Annealed
No
302
C-None
Copper
CW
Annealed
Monel
Raised
Dots
Annealed
No
No
Class
A
No
NOTE: Copper, steel, and monel listed for information purposes only. For special rivets see manufacturing drawing, data, specif ication, etc. For other information on rivets see T.O. 1-1A-8/1-1A-1.
3-43
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-17.
OLD AN/
STD
AN426
SUPERSEDING
MS STD
MS20426
General Rivet (Alum) Identification Chart - Continued
FORM
Countersunk
100o
MATERIAL
HEAD AND
NUMERICAL
IDENT
CODE
CONDITION
HEAT
TREAT
1100
A-Plain
F
No
5056
B-Raised
Cross
F
No
2117
AD-Dimple
T-4
No
2017
D-Raised Dot
T-4
Yes
2024
DD-Raised
Dashes
T-4
Yes
1006/
1010
Recessed
Triangle
A
No
Copper
302/304
C-None FRecessed
A
A
No
No
Monel M
Dash
M-None
NOTE: See paragraph 3-44 for heat treat data.
AN427
MS20427
Countersunk
100o
AN430
MS20470
Round Head replaced by universal See AN470 + M520470
AN435
MS20435
Round Head
Solid
NOTE: Listed for Reference only.
AN441
Use MS20435
See AN435
AN442
Use MS20470
See AN70+
MS20470
AN450
MS20450
Countersunk &
oval tubular
Note: Listed for Reference only.
AN455
3-44
MS20470
Brazier Head
Solid Superseded by Universal.
1006
Head Ident
Recessed
Triangle
A
No
Copper
C-None
A
No
302/304
F-Head
Ident
None
A
No
Monel
M-None
1006/
1010/
1015
Blank/
None
A
No
Copper
C-None
A
No
2117
AD-None
T-4
No
Brass
B-None
Grade B
No
MONEL
M-None
A
No
See
AN470
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-18.
General Aluminum Rivet Selection Chart (Rivet Alloy vs Assembly Alloy)
Rivet Alloy
Assembly Alloy
1100
1100, 3003, 3004, 5052
2117-T4 (AD)
3003 - H16 and H-18, 5052 - H16
and H18, 2014, 2017, 2024, 6061,
7075, and 7178
2017-T4 (D), 2024T4 (DD)
2014, 2017, 2024, 5052, 6061,
7075 and 7178
5056-H32 (B)
5052 and magnesium alloys, AZ31B, etc.
a. Spraying holes with primer af ter drilling
and immediately preceding installation of rivet.
a. Allow more space for chips to be formed
and expelled from tool than allowed for steel.
b. Dipping rivet in zinc chromate primer and
installing while still wet.
b. Design tools (grind tool) so that chips and
cuttings are expelled away from the work piece.
3-174. For additional information on rivets
(strengths, factors, etc.) see MIL-HDBK-5, T.O.’s 11A-8 and 1-1A-1.
3-175. MACHINING. The resistance encountered in cutting alminum alloys is low in comparison to other metals. In fact most of the aluminum
alloys will machine approximately 10 times faster
than steel. This factor combined with other
properties, i.e., strength, heat treatability, weight,
corrosion resistance, etc. makes aluminum a preferred material in many instances for fabrication
of parts by machining. Brass (free machining) is
the only other material with comparable machining properties.
3-176. Personnel accomplishing the work should
be properly trained in machining aluminum as
with other types of metals. Due to various circumstances personnel familiar with machining steel
products are required to machine aluminum without proper training/information on speeds, feeds,
tools etc., required to effectively accomplish a specif ic task. The purpose of this section is to provide
a general guide for selection of tools, machining,
speeds, etc.
3-177. The tools used for machining aluminum
will normally require more rake side-top and operation at higher/feeds than used for steel. The
amount of rake required will depend on composition, physical form (cast or wrought) and temper.
The more ductile or sof ter the alloy the more rake
required. The following general practices are recommended for shaf ing, grinding and maintaining
tools for cutting aluminum:
c. Keep cutting edges of tools sharp, smooth,
free of burrs, wire edges and scratches.
d. Use high machining speeds, moderate feeds
and depths of cut.
e. Apply lubricant/coolant in large quantities
to tool when cutting.
3-178. The higher speeds utilized for machining
aluminum requires:
a. Machines be free of vibration and lost
motion.
b. Rigid support of tool near cutting edge to
minimize clatter and vibration.
c. Secure clamping of work to machine to
avoid distortion or slippage.
d. Use of proper lubricant, cutting compound
or coolants to prevent overheating, warpage/distortion and to provide adequate lubrication to cutting
tool.
3-179. CUTTING TOOLS FOR MACHINING
ALUMINUM. There are four general types of tool
steel material that can be used to machine aluminum. They should be selected in accordance with
availability and scope of job to be accomplished.
The following is a suggested guide for selection of
tools:
a. High carbon tool steel is adequate for
machining a small number of parts or where cutting speed required is relatively low. This material will exceed the performance of some of the
other types of tools when used for fragile tools
such as drills, taps, etc., because it does not break
as easily as the other types. Stock material is
3-45
T.O. 1-1A-9
obtainable in accordance with Federal Specif ication QQ-T-580 where required for local fabrication
of high carbon tools etc.
b. High speed tool steel is the most common
type used for machining except on the higher
silicon alloys.
(1)
Availability, reasonable cost.
(2) Heat resistance (will retain cutting
edge up to about 950oF dull red).
(3) Permits use of large rake angle
required. Federal Specif ication QQ-T-590 applies
to stock material. All the various classes (T1, T2,
T3, etc.) may be used for machining aluminum.
Class T1 (18-4-1) general purpose type is the most
widely used.
c. Where long production runs are involved
cemented carbide (solid or tipped) tools give better
service. The carbide tools have been known to last
thirty times longer than high speed tool steel. The
carbide tools are also recommended for cutting
high silicon content alloys. Because of the brittleness of the cemented carbide tool the cutting angle
should be greater than those recommended for
high carbon/high speed steels.
d. Diamond tipped tools should only be used
for light f inishing cute or special f inishing operations. Normal cutting of 75o - 90o are used with
top rake angles of 6o - 10o. Tool projection (or set)
should be slightly above center line (CL) of the
work.
3-180. TURNING. To properly perform the turning operation f irmly attach the work to the
machine (lathe) chuck, collet or faceplate. The
work should be held in the best manner to minimize distortion from chuck or centrifugal force
action during the turning operation. Long rods/
stock should be supported by ball or roller bearing
tailstock centers which are more satisfactory than
solid or f ixed centers in resisting thrusts from
centrifugal force and thermal expansion. Sof t liners may be used between work and machine jaw
faces to prevent jaw teeth from damaging/marring
work piece. When it is necessary that work be
held by clamping from inside diameter outward
the tightness of jaws should be checked frequently
to be sure that work is not being released as a
result of thermal expansion.
3-181. The recommended cutting f luids are the
soluble oil emulsion which combine the functions
of cooling and lubricating for general purpose use.
For heavy cutting especially when speeds are low,
3-46
lard oil such as Specif ication C-O-376 or mineral
oil, Specif ication VV-O-241 is recommended. In
practice it will be found that some machining operations can be performed dry.
3-182. Tables 3-22 and 3-23 cite suggested turning speeds, tool angles and feeds. Tool projection
in relation to work should be set at or slightly
above work piece center line. Sturdy construction
of tools and holders is essential to minimize vibration/chatter at the high speeds aluminum alloys
are machined.
NOTE
Parting tools should have less top
rake than turning tools. Recommend
top rake angles of 12o - 20o and front
clearances of 4o - 8o grind face concave (slightly) and so that corner
adjacent to work will lead opposite
corner by 4o - 12o or as required for
best results.
3-183. MILLING - ALUMINUM. Milling of aluminum alloys should be accomplished at high cutter speeds. The limitations will usually depend on
the machine and type cutters used. The reason for
the higher cutter speeds is that at low speeds the
cutters will have a tendency to load and gum. This
will normally clear as the speed is increased.
3-184. The tooling for milling should be selected
according to the operation and duration/size of job
to be performed. The cutters should have fewer
teeth and should be ground with more top and side
rake than those used for milling steels. Most operations can be accomplished with spiral cutters.
Nick tooth cutters are used when reduction in size
of chips is required. Solid-tooth cutters with large
helix angles are used where free-cutting tools are
required. When cutters with large helix angles are
used it is of ten necessary that two interlocking
cutters of opposite helixes be employed to alleviate
axial thrust.
3-185. Tool alloys should be selected for milling
aluminum as follows:
a. For short runs high carbon steel is normally satisfactory.
b. For production runs of extended duration
high speed steel is recommended.
c. Where climb milling/high speeds are utilized, carbide tipped tools are recommended for
extended runs.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-19.
Shear Strength of Protruding and Flush Head Aluminum Alloy Rivets, Inch Pounds
Size of Rivet(In Dia)
1/16
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
Alloy + driven temper
5056 FSU = 28 KSI
99
203
363
556
802
1,450
2,290
3,280
2117-T321, FSU = 30 KSI
2017-T31, FSU = 34 KSI
2017-T3, FSU = 38 KSI
2024-T31, FSU = 41 KSI
106
120
135
145
217
297
275
296
388
442
494
531
596
675
755
815
862
977
1,090
1,180
1,550
1,760
1,970
2,120
2,460
2,970
3,110
3,360
3,510
3,970
4,450
4,800
FSU = Average Shear Strength of alloy in specif ied temper.
KSI = 1000 lbs square inch example: 34 KSI = 34,000 lbs per square inch.
Single shear rivet strength correction factor (resulting from use in thin plates and shapes).
Sheet thickness (in)
0.016
0.0964
0.018
0.0984
0.020
0.0996
0.025
1.000
0.032
0.972
1.000
0.964
0.036
0.980
0.040
0.996
0.964
0.045
1.000
0.980
0.050
0.996
0.972
0.063
1.000
1.000
0.964
0.071
0.980
0.964
0.080
0.996
0.974
0.090
1.000
0.984
0.100
0.996
0.972
0.125
1.000
1.000
0.160
0.190
0.250
Double shear rivet strength correction factor (resulting from use in thin plates and shapes)
SIZE OF RIVETS
Sheet Thick Inch
1/16
0.016
0.688
0.018
0.753
0.020
0.792
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
3-47
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-19.
Shear Strength of Protruding and Flush Head Aluminum Alloy Rivets, Inch Pounds - Continued
0.025
0.870
0.714
0.032
0.935
0.818
0.688
0.036
0.974
0.857
0.740
0.040
0.987
0.896
0.792
0.688
0.045
1.000
0.922
0.831
0.740
0.050
0.961
0.870
0.792
0.714
0.063
1.000
0.935
0.883
0.818
0.688
0.071
0.974
0.919
0.857
0.740
0.080
1.000
0.948
0.896
0.792
0.688
0.090
0.974
0.922
0.831
0.753
0.100
1.000
0.961
0.870
0.792
0.714
1.000
0.935
0.883
0.818
0.160
0.987
0.835
0.883
0.190
1.000
0.974
0.935
1.000
1.000
0.125
0.250
Note: Values (lbs) of shear strength should be multiplied by the correction factor whenever the D/T =
rivet diameter/plates sheet or shape thickness ratio is large enough to require correction. Example:
Rivet diameter 1/8 (alloy 2117 - T3) installed in 0.040 sheet, shear factor is 388 lbs correction factor
0.996 =
388
0.996
2328
3492
3492
386.448 corrected shear pounds
Table 3-20.
Bearing Properties, Typical, of Aluminum Alloy Plates and Shapes
Edge Distance = 1.5
X Rivet Diameter
Edge Distance = 2.0X
X Rivet Diameter
Alloy
Yield Strength
Ultimate Strength
Yield Strength
Ultimate Strength
1100 - 0
10,000
21,000
12,000
27,000
1100 - H12
18,000
23,000
21,000
29,000
1100 - H14
22,000
24,000
23,000
31,000
1100 - H16
23,000
16,000
26,000
34,000
1100 - H18
27,000
19,000
32,000
38,000
3003 - 0
12,000
22,000
15,000
34,000
3003 - H12
21,000
27,000
24,000
36,000
3003 - H16
28,000
34,000
33,000
42,000
3003 - H18
32,000
38,000
38,000
46,000
3-48
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-20.
Bearing Properties, Typical, of Aluminum Alloy Plates and Shapes - Continued
Edge Distance = 1.5
X Rivet Diameter
Edge Distance = 2.0X
X Rivet Diameter
Alloy
Yield Strength
Ultimate Strength
Yield Strength
Ultimate Strength
2014 - T4
56,000
93,000
64,000
118,000
2014 - T6
84,000
105,000
96,000
133,000
2024 - T3
64,000
102,000
74,000
129,000
Alclad 2024-T-3
60,000
96,000
69,000
122,000
2024 - T36
80,000
110,000
91,000
139,000
Alclad 2024-T36
74,000
100,000
85,000
127,000
5052 - 0
25,000
46,000
30,000
61,000
5052 - H32
37,000
54,000
42,000
71,000
5052 - H34
41,000
59,000
47,000
78,000
5052 - H36
47,000
62,000
54,000
82,000
5052 - H38
50,000
66,000
58,000
86,000
6061 - T4
29,000
56,000
34,000
73,000
6061 - T6
56,000
72,000
64,000
94,000
7075 - T6
101,000
123,000
115,000
156,000
Alclad 7075-T6
94,000
114,000
107,000
144,000
3-186. Milling cutters should be inclined to work
and beveled on leading corner (least bevel for f inish cuts) to minimize clatter.
3-187. The cutting f luids for milling aluminum
should combine cooling and lubrication properties.
Coolant lubrication should be applied under pressure (atomized spray if available) in large quantities to tool and work. The recommended cutting
f luids are water base cutting f luids such as soluble oils and emulsions, mixed 1 part to 15 for high
speeds and 1 part to 30 for low speed cutting.
3-188. Tables 3-24 and 3-25 cite suggested
speeds, contour and tool angles, for milling aluminum. The best combination of cutting speeds, feed
and cut for a given job will depend on design of
tool/cutter, kind of tool material, condition of
machine, machine power, size, clamping method
and type material being worked.
3-189. SHAPING AND PLANING. The speed at
which aluminum alloys can be cut by planing and
shaping is somewhat slower in comparison to other
machining methods, due to equipment design and
limitations.
The slower cutting speeds can be overcome to
some extent by securely anchoring the work to the
machine and using heavy rough cutting feeds.
The tools used for rough cut should be (round
nose) of heavy construction and properly ground to
operate eff iciently. Rough cut tools should be
ground with moderate amount of rake to provide
maximum cutting edge support. Finish tool should
have more top rake and an extra large amount of
side rake. Finishing tool shall be used with f ine
feeds only due to the additional side and top rake
(f inish cut should not exceed 0.018 inch).
3-190. Most cutting operations by shaping and
planning can be accomplished without cutting
f luids, however f ine f inishing can be improved by
lubrication. Recommended cutting compounds are
kerosene, mixture of 50-50 lard-oil and soluble oil.
3-191. Tables 3-26 and 3-27 cite suggested turning speeds, tool angles and feeds. Secure clamping
of work is re-emphasized especially when heavy
cutting feeds are to be used.
3-49
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-21.
Standard Rivet Hole Sizes with Corresponding Shear and Bearing Areas for Cold Driven Aluminum Alloy Rivets
3-192. DRILLING ALUMINUM ALLOY. Standard type twist drills may be used satisfactorily
for many drilling operations in aluminum alloys.
However, better results can be obtained with
improved designed drills where sof t material and
drilling of thick material or deep holes are
involved. These drills are usually designed having
more spiral twists per inch (see f igure 3-2). The
additional spiral twist gives more worm action or
force to drill causing the drill to cut/feed faster and
is helpful in removing chips, especially in deep
hole drilling operations.
3-193. Generally a drill for a given job should be
selected according to the thickness, type alloy and
3-50
Change 3
machine/drill motor to be utilized. The following
is a general guide for the selection of drills and
recommended speeds:
a.
Drill press.
Point Angle: 118o - 140o for general work and 90o 120o for high silicon.
Spiral Angle: 24o - 28o for thin stock and medium
depth holes up to 6 times drill diameters, 24o - 48o
for deep holes over 6 times drill diameter.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-22.
ALLOY TYPE
AND TEMPER
CUT INCHES
Turning Speeds and Feeds
CUTTING
SPEED
FPM
FEED, IN./REV
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
Sof t Series,
1100 All temp
0.250 Maximum
700 - 1600
0.050 Maximum
Rough
Plain high
carbon/high
speed
5052-H12, H14
0.040 Maximum
1500 - 3500
0.004 - 0.015
Finish
Plain high
carbon/high
speed
2011-2024-0
0.250 Maximum
4000 - 7000
0.012 Maximum
Rough
Carbide
5056-0-6061-0
0.020 Maximum
6000 - 8000
0.010 Maximum
Finish
Carbide
7075-0, 113
0.010 Maximum
At Minimum
vibration
0.002 - 0.005
Finish only Diamond
HARD SERIES
0.200 Maximum
400 - 650
0.007 - 0.020
Rough
Plain high
carbon/high
speed
108, 319, 43
0.020 Maximum
600 Maximum
0.002 - 0.004
Finish
Plain high
carbon/high
speed
5052-H34, H36,
H38
0.200 Maximum
500 - 1300
0.010 Maximum
Rough
Carbide
T4, 2024-T3
0.020 Maximum
700 - 2500
0.010 Maximum
Finish
Carbide
7075-T6, 7178T6
Not recommended
Rough
Diamond
tipped
6061-T4, T6,
etc.
0.006 Maximum
At minimum
vibration
0.002 - 0.004
Finish
Diamond
tipped
HIGH SILICON
SERIES
0.120 Maximum
600 Maximum
0.007 - 0.020
Rough
Plain high
carbon/high
speed
0.020
600 Maximum
0.002 - 0.004
Finish
Plain high
carbon/high
speed
4032, 333,
0.120 Maximum
500 - 1000
0.008 Maximum
Rough
Carbide
A132, 132, 356
0.020 Maximum
500 - 1500
0.004 Maximum
Finish
Carbide
138, 214, 212
750, 220, 122
3-51
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-22.
ALLOY TYPE
AND TEMPER
CUTTING
SPEED
FPM
CUT INCHES
etc
Turning Speeds and Feeds - Continued
FEED, IN./REV
NOT RECOMMENDED
0.006
At minimum
vibration
Table 3-23.
TOOL ANGLES
0.001 - 0.003
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
Rough
Diamond
tipped
Finish
Diamond
tipped
Tool Angles - Turning
PLAIN HIGH CARBON/HIGH
SPEED
CARBIDE
DIAMOND
Cutting Angles
30o - 50o
52o - 80o
74o - 88o
Top Rake
30o - 53o
0o- 32o
10o - 0o
Side Rake
10o - 20o
5o - 10o
0o - 6o
Front Clear
7o - 10o
6o - 10o
Nose Radii
0.06 - 0.10
Side Clear
7o - 10o
6o - 10o
Table 3-24.
ALLOY
CUT
---
Milling - Speeds and Feeds
CUTTER
SPEED
FEED
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
Temper
Inches
Ft/minutes
Ft/minutes
Inches per
tooth
Soft
0.250
Maximum
700 - 2000
10 Maximum
0.005 - 0.025
Rough
High
carbon/
High
Speed
Soft
0.020
Maximum
5000
Maximum
10 Maximum
0.005 - 0.025
Finish
″
″
Hard
0.200
Maximum
500 - 1500
10 Maximum
0.005 - 0-025
Rough
″
″
Hard
0.020
Maximum
4000
Maximum
10 Maximum
0.005 - 0.025
Finish
″
″
Soft
0.300
Maximum
3000 - 15000
20 Maximum
0.004 - 0.020
Rough
Carbide
Tipped
Sof t
0.020
Maximum
3000 - 15000
20 Maximum
0.004 - 0.020
Finish
″
3-52
″
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-24.
ALLOY
CUT
Milling - Speeds and Feeds - Continued
CUTTER
SPEED
FEED
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
Hard
0.250
Maximum
3000 - 15000
20 Maximum
0.004 - 0.020
Rough
Carbide
Tipped
Hard
0.020
Maximum
4000 - 15000
20 Maximum
0.004 - 0.020
Finish
″
Lip Clearance (lip relief): 17o for sof t alloys 15o for
medium and hard alloys, 12o for silicone alloys
Speed: 600 f t/min, with high speed drills and up to
2000 f t/min with carbide tipped drills.
Feed: 0.004 - 0.012 inch per revolution for drills
3/8 inch diameter, 0.006 - 0.020 in/rev for
3/8 - 1 1/4 inch diameter and 0.016 to 0.035 in/rev
for drills over 1 1/4 inch diameter. When using
carbide tipped drill, feed should be slightly less.
Feed also may be determined by the formular
feeds = square root of drill diameter (inches)
divided by 60 feet = Drill diameter (IN) + 0.002.
b.
Lathe/screw-machine.
Point Angle: 118o - 140o
Spiral Angle: 0o - 28o
Lip Clearance (lip relief): 15o - 20o
Speed f t/min up to 1500
Feed inches/revolution 0.004-0.016.
c. Portable Drills Electric/Air Driven. Due to
variables involved no set factors can be given.
However, factors given for drill press should be
used as a guide. Feed should be adjusted in accordance with speed of motor to prevent tip heating
and also to satisfy operation/operator.
Table 3-25.
TOOL ANGLES
″
WARNING
When operating any machinery all
safety precautions must be observed,
i.e., safety goggles shall be worn when
grinding/ drilling. Machinery shall be
inspected to insure that safety guards
are in place/ for safe operation etc.
prior to operating. Work shall be
securely clamped to prevent slippage.
Consult safety off icer when in doubt
about the safety of an operation.
3-194. The drilling of thin material normally
does not require coolant/lubrication however adequate lubrication is essential to drill life and hole
quality when drilling holes of 1/4 inch depth or
more. Soluble oil emulsions and lard oil mixtures
are satisfactory for general drilling. The lubrication should be applied by forced feed spray/f low
where possible and the drill should be withdrawn
at intervals to be sure lubricant f lows to the drill
tip (f ill holes completely) when drill is withdrawn.
Tool Angles - Milling
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
CARBIDE
Cutting Angle
48o - 67o
68o - 97o
Top Rake
20o - 35o
10o - 15o
Clearance
3o - 7o Primary
3o - 7o Primary
7o - 12o Secondary
7o - 12o Secondary
Helix
10o - 50o
10o - 20o
Tooth Spacing
Course - Suff icient for chip
Clearance.
Approximately 1 tooth
per inch of diameter.
3-53
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-26.
METHOD
CUT INCHES
Shaping and Planing-Speeds and Feeds
CUTTING
SPEED
FEED
(INCHES)
OPER
TOOL
MATERIAL
Shaping
1/4 Maximum
Maximum
speed of RAM
0.008 - 0.031
Rough
High Carbon/
High Speed
Shaping
0.005 - 0.014
Maximum
speed of RAM
0.094 - 0.156
Finish
High Carbon/
High Speed
Planing
3/8 Maximum
Maximum
speed of Table
0.020 - 0.100
Rough
High Carbon/
High Speed
Planing
0.005 - 0.018
Maximum
speed of Table
0.050 - 0.375
Finish
High Carbon/
High Speed
Table 3-27.
Shaping Tool Angles
OPERATION
ROUGH FINISH
TOOL MATERIAL
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
Top rake
19o - 10o 43o - 52o
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
Bottom Clear
7o - 9o 8o - 10o
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
Side Rake
30o - 40o 50o - 60o
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
Side Clear
7o - 9o 0o - 0o
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
Cutting Angle
64o - 71o 30o - 37o
HIGH CARBON/HIGH SPEED
3-54
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 3-2.
Drill Designs and Recommended Cutting Angles
3-55
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 3-28.
Thread Constant for Various Standard Thread Forms
PERCENT OF FULL THREAD DESIRED
THREAD FORM
75%
80%
85%
90%
American Std Course Series C =
0.9743
1.0392
1.1042
1.1691
Whitworth C =
0.9605
1.0245
1.0886
1.1526
British Ass’n Std C =
0.9000
0.9600
1.0200
1.0800
Amer Std 60o Stub C =
0.6525
0.6960
0.7395
0.7830
Amer Std Sq C =
0.7500
0.8000
0.8500
0.9000
0.7500
0.8000
0.8500
0.9000
o
Amer Std 10 modified
Sq Sq C =
3-195. TAPPING. The taps used for threading
aluminum alloys should be of the spiral f luted
type for best results. Straight f luted tape can be
used but have a tendency to clog and tear the
threads during the tapping operation. Spiral
f luted taps for cutting right-handed threads
should have a right-hand spiral of about 40o angle
with a generous back off taper and highly polished
f lutes.
3-196. Spiral - Pointed or ‘‘Gun Taps’’ (straight
f luted except they have a short spiral on the starting end) cut aluminum more freely than the other
types. With this type tap the major portion of
cutting occurs at the spiral end and curls ahead of
the tap. The use of the ‘‘Gun Tap’’ is therefore
limited to tapping holes which have room for the
cuttings ahead of the tool. This spiral pointed tap
should not be used for cutting tapered thread or
for bottoming taps.
3-197. The following procedures and tools are
recommended for tapping aluminum alloys:
a. Cutting Speed: 40 to 130 feet/minute use
lower speed for hard alloys and higher speed for
sof t alloys.
b. Tap Type Selection: For blind holes and
bottoming use spiral f luted; for semi-blind use spiral pointed (gun taps); and for hole through work
use spiral pointed (gun taps).
c. Thread Type: Rounded or f lattened (turn
coated) thread contour for general use.
d. Tool Angles: Spiral f lute-grind a lead spiral
extending one full thread beyond chamfer on
straight f luted tap. To make gun tap and spiral
f lute tap should be 28o to 40o; cutting angel 40o to
45o; top rake 45o to 50o; back rake 4 - 8o; cutter
area (included angles); 2 f lute 36o to 72o and 3
f lutes 24oto 48o.
3-56
e. Tapping Allowance: Drill diameter for general tapping should be from 0.005 to 0.006 inches
per inch larger than standard for the same thread
in steel or in accordance with the following.
C
Drill Diameter = (1.005 X tap diameter)-thread per inch
C = Thread constant for various thread forms and
percentages of thread depth required as given in
Table 3-28.
f. Lubrication: For high speed tapping use
lard oil/mineral oil and for hand tapping a more
viscous lubricant is recommended such as heavy
grease/oil, white lead, etc.
3-198.
FILING.
3-199. Hand f iles of the single cut type having
milled teeth usually give the best results for f iling
aluminum. The main consideration in f ile design/
selection for aluminum is to provide ample chip
space clearance. The cuttings generated are large
and have a tendency to powder, pack and clog
between f ile teeth. To overcome clogging problem
chip space is increased, grooves are cut deeper and
teeth are cut with generous side and top rake.
3-200. For f inish f iling a long angle mill f ile
(single) (cut) with tooth spacing of 14-24 teeth per
inch with side rake angle of 45o to 55o is recommended. In absence of the preferred f ile the same
effect can be obtained using standard mill cut f iles
by adjusting angle of f iling incidence to the metal
worked. The f ile is of ten adjusted until force or
motion applied is parallel to the work piece for
best results. A good general purpose f ile is the
curved tooth type (of ten called ‘‘vixen’’) having
about ten deeply cut teeth per inch. It can be used
for heavy and f inish cuts. Lightly double cut f iles
having tooth spacing of 14 - 20 per inch can be
used for light duty rough cutting and f inishing
when working the harder alloys. User should be
T.O. 1-1A-9
careful not to drag f ile across work on back stroke
as with any f illing operation. Files shall be kept
clean and free of rust. Clogged f iles can be
cleaned by wire brushing. The use of chalk or talc
on f ile will help prevent clogging.
3-201. Machine f iling using rotary f iles (miniature milling cutters having spiralled sharp teeth
with smooth deeply cut f lutes) are operated at
high speed. The rotary f iles are operated up to
10,000 RPM for small diameter and to 2,000 maximum peripheral feet/min for the larger diameter.
The teeth should be coarse (about 14 teeth per
inch) with deep polished f lute and spiral notched
design.
CAUTION
Wear goggles or face shield when f iling with rotary f iles to protect eyes.
3-202. REAMING. Generally most of the different type reamers may be used for aluminum, but
for best results the spiral f luted reamers are recommended - solid, expansion or adjustable. The
spiral should be opposite to the rotation to prevent
reamer from feeding and hogging into the hole.
Holes to be f inished by reaming should be drilled
suff iciently under-size to assure positive cutting
rather than scraping and swedging (indication of
oversize drilled holes and improper feed is the projection of a lip around hole diameter af ter the
reaming operation is accomplished). Finish reamers should be maintained with exceptionally keen
cutting edges and highly polished f lutes for
smooth work.
3-203. The following procedures and tools are
recommended for reaming aluminum alloys:
a. Tool material: High carbon steel for general
use; high speed steel/or carbide tipped for durability and continued production jobs.
b. Tool type: Straight/spiral with 10o spiral
f lute and solid teeth.
c. Clearance and rake angles: Top rake 5o to
8 ; clearance angle primary 4o to 7o, secondary
angle 15o to 20o; cutting angle 84o to 90o.
o
d. Machine speed and hole reaming allowance: Cutting speeds up to 400 f t/min for straight
holes, tapered hole should be somewhat slower
about 300 - 350. The desired feed in inches/revolution is 0.003 to 0.010. Hole to be reamed should
be undersize 0.005 - 0.015 inch diameter (reaming
allowance).
e. Cutting f luids: Soluble oil/mixture of kerosene and lard oil, light weight machine oil.
3-204. SAWING. It should be emphasized that
the same principles which govern the shape of cutting tools for aluminum should be applied, as far
as practicable to saws for aluminum.
3-205. Band Saws. Band saw blades of spring
temper steel having a tooth spacing from 4 to 11
teeth per inch and with amply radiused gullets are
recommended for aluminum alloys. Curved or copying cuts are made with band saws. In any type
of work, high blade speed are desirable with a
speed range from 1,500 to 5,000 feet per minute.
For heavy sections the saw teeth should be fairly
coarse with a slight set and a slight amount of
front rake, the restricted chip space requires the
use of coarser tooth spacing of about four teeth per
inch to avoid clogging and binding. Also the f lexible back type of saw with teeth hardened to the
bottom of the gullet is used for heavy work.
Blades having as many as 14 teeth per inch are
satisfactory for thin materials. A good and simple
general rule to follow when sawing aluminum is
that the spacing of the teeth on band saws for
aluminum should be as coarse as is consistent
with the thickness of the material being sawed.
The sof ter alloys require appreciably more blade
set than do the harder, heat treated alloys. Usually an alternate side rake of about 15o and a top
rake or ‘‘hook’’ of 10o to 20o proves quite satisfactory. This amount of hook, however, requires a
power feed and securely clamped work. For hand
feeds the top rake must be reduced considerably to
avoid overfeeding.
3-206. The band saw blades must be well supported by side rollers and back support both immediately below the saw table and about 2 or 3
inches above the work. The top blade supports are
placed slightly in advance of those below the
tables and the blade should be allowed to vibrate
freely to eliminate excessive saw breakage. As a
general rule, a noisy band saw is cutting more
eff iciently than the saw that cuts quietly. Quiet
smooth cutting band saws usually produce smooth
burnished surfaces accompanied by excessive heat
and consequently decreased blade life.
3-207. Hack Saws. Hack saw blades of the
wavyset type are well suited for cutting aluminum
by hand. The wavy set type of blade having 5 to
15 teeth per inch has suff icient chip space to avoid
clogging and binding on aluminum alloys. For
extremely f ine work a jewelers blade may be used.
3-208. Special routing machines are available
which cut varied prof iles from aluminum sheet or
plate rapidly and eff iciently.
3-209. Lubricants and coolants. Power hacksaws
and hand saws require a cutting lubricant for most
operations involving thick sections. Soluble oil
3-57
T.O. 1-1A-9
cutting compounds and neutral mineral-base lubricating oils applied to the sides of the blade aid in
minimizing friction and gullet clogging. Light
applications of heavy grease or paraff in wax will
provide ample lubrication for some work. A wide
selection of lubricants exists, ranging from tallow
or grease stick to kerosene-thinned mineral base
lubricating oil. Stick type lubricants should be
applied very frequently. Experience has revealed
in most cases it is more convenient and adaptable
to use the f luid type lubricant applied freely
through a recycling system directly to the blade
and work stock.
3-210. GRINDING. The grinding characteristics
of the various aluminum alloys vary in many
instances. The harder free-cutting aluminum
alloys may be ground satisfactorily with free cutting commercial silicon carbide grinding wheels,
such as crystalon, carborundum and natalon.
Rough grinding operations are usually performed
by use of resin bonded wheels of medium hardeners and grit sizes of 24 to 30. Also the aluminum
abrasives from No. 14 to No. 36 have been found
to be satisfactory for rough grindings.
3-211. Common alloys, particularly in their
sof ter tempers have a tendency to clog the wheels
and do not f inish to as bright and smooth a surface as the harder materials.
3-212. Caution should be taken in selecting the
proper grade of each commercial make of wheel.
Once the grinding wheel has been selected there
are three variables that affect the quality of a f inish; these are the wheel speed, work speed and
grinding compound. Experienced operators have
proven that their own good judgement is a determining factor as to the correct wheel and work
speeds, however, wheel speeds of about 6,000 feet
per minute have given good results.
3-213. For f inish work, a sof t silicon carbide
wheel of 30 to 40 grit in a vitrif ied bond have
proven to be very satisfactory. A grinding compound of soluble cutting oil and water works well.
However, the f ine grindings of aluminum must be
strained from the compound before reusing in
order to prevent deep scratches on the f inished
surface.
3-214. Special care should be exercised when
grinding castings and wrought alloy products that
have been heat treated, since their greater resistance to cutting or grinding generates a considerable amount of heat which may cause warping and
damage to the material.
3-215. Lubricants and Coolants. Generous applications of stick grease are recommended to prevent
clogging of the grinding wheels during rough
3-58
grinding, while copious quantities of a low viscosity coolant type grinding compound are essential
and recommended for f inish grinding. Soluble oil
emulsions of the proportions of 30 or 40 to 1 are
most suitable.
3-216. POLISHING. Polishing or f inishing aluminum and most of its alloys, by the application of
proper machining procedures, gives it a smooth
lustrous f inish. Aluminum and its alloys are polished in the same manner as other metals, but a
lower wheel-to-metal pressure is used for
aluminum.
3-217. Polishing is the act of removing marks,
scratches or abrasion on the metal resulting from
previous handling and operations; it must be
understood that a more gentle cutting action or
f iner abrasives are used for polishing aluminum
than used for steel. The various operations covered under the polishing category include roughing, greasing or oiling, buff ing and coloring.
These operations are brief ly described in the following paragraph.
3-218. ROUGHING. This is a term used to
describe the preliminary f inishing operation or
process, used to prepare aluminum surfaces having deep scratches gouges or unusually rough surfaces, for subsequent polishing procedures. Roughing is not required on smooth undented or
unscratched surfaces. The preliminary f inishing
or roughing process usually employs a f lexible aluminum oxide paper disc, a semi f lexible bonded
muslin or canvas wheel, faced with suitable abrasives. Usually 50 - 100 grit abrasives are for this
process and are set in an adhesive in accordance
with standard practice. The peripheral speed of
these discs runs around 6,000 feet per minute;
faster wheel speeds would cause heating or ridging
of the sof t metal surface. Heating is also reduced
by small applications of tallow or a tallow oil
mixture.
3-219. GREASING OR OILING. This is a
ref ined or gentle roughing procedure for f inishing
aluminum surfaces. Application is visually
employed by a sof t wheel faced with 100 to 200
grit aluminum oxide emery, plus a light coat of
tallow or beeswax lubricant to prevent excessive
heating. Here again, peripheral speeds of about
6,000 FPM are used.
3-220. Greasing or oiling is a necessary operation
in f inishing coatings and other fabricated work
which has been marred by previous operations.
Excess aluminum pick-up on the wheels as results
from overheating will cause deep scratches in the
metal.
T.O. 1-1A-9
3-221. BUFFING. This is a term used to
describe a f inishing procedure employed to obtain
a smooth high luster on an aluminum surface.
This high luster f inish is obtained by use of a f ine
abrasive, such as tripole powder mixed with a
grease binder, which is applied to the face of the
wheel. These wheels usually consist of muslin
discs sewed together, turned at a peripheral speed
of 7,000 FPM.
3-222. Many factors, such as, the thread count of
the buff, the pressure applied to the buff against
the work, the buff ing compound used, the speed of
the buff or wheel and the skill and experience of
the operator must be considered in obtaining a satisfactory and quality type f inish.
3-223.
3-230. Defects are indicated by darkening of
cracked or void areas af ter the anodic treatment.
Insuff icient rinsing in cold water af ter anodizing
produces stains which may be confused with
defects. In case of doubt strip f ilm from part and
reanodize. If the indications do not reappear the
defects shall be considered absent and part should
not be rejected for that reason.
NOTE
For additional general information on
inspection and testing see Section
VIII of this technical order.
HARDNESS TESTING.
3-224. Hardness is the resistance of a metal to
deformation by scratching penetration or indentation, and is usually a good indication of strength.
Metal hardness can be measured accurately by the
Brinell, Rockwell or Vickers Process.
3-225. BRINELL HARDNESS. The Brinell technique is usually used to obtain the hardness of
aluminum and aluminum alloys. This hardness
value is obtained by applying a load through a ball
indenter and measuring the permanent impression
in the material. To obtain the hardness value of a
material, divide the applied load in kilograms by
the spherical area of the impression in square millimeters. Hardness value of aluminum alloy is
tested by applying a load of 500 kilograms to a
ball ten millimeters in diameter for 30 seconds.
3-226.
method of inspection is not acceptable for inspection of parts subject to internal defects, i.e. inclusion in castings and forging or any part subject to
internal stress, etc.
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING/INSPECTION.
3-227. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are susceptible to stress risers resulting from notching,
nicking or scratching. A very close visual inspection is required of all raw material prior to any
forming or machining operations. Before any
fabrication commences it is necessary that all
scratches, nicks and notches be removed by sanding, polishing and f iling.
3-228. ANODIZING PROCESS FOR INSPECTION OF ALUMINUM ALLOY PARTS. Parts for
which anodic coating is applicable in accordance
with MIL-A-8625 Type I, can be anodized for the
inspection of defects as cited in Specif ication MILI-8474.
3-229. The parts are examined visually for indications of cracks, forging laps or other defects.
Parts inspected by this method shall be limited to
sheet stock and surface defect of forgings. This
3-231. ALUMINUM ALLOY EFFECTS ON
SCRATCHES ON CLAD ALUMINUM ALLOY.
The purpose of the following information on the
effects of scratches on aluminum alloys is to assist
in eliminating controversy in depots and f ield
inspection, regarding serviceability of aluminum
alloy, sheet, skin and aircraf t structural parts
which have been scratched, abraded or discolored
from the stand point of corrosion resistance and
fatigue strength.
3-232. In some instances, serviceable aluminum
alloy parts and sheets, have been disposed of due
to lack of knowledge by inspection personnel as to
the effect of various depth scratches on the
strength and corrosion resistance of the clad alloy.
Also, attempts have been made to remove
scratches from aircraf t skin by sanding, buff ing,
or polishing resulting in removal of much of the
cladding material and causing decrease in strength
and corrosion resistance.
3-233.
ALLOWABLE DEFECTS.
a. The following surface defects are those
which do not affect the strength or corrosion
resistance.
(1) Scratches which penetrate the surface
layer of clad aluminum alloy sheets or parts but do
not extend beneath the cladding are not serious or
detrimental.
(2) The presence of small corroded areas
will not materially affect the strength of clad
unless the corroded pitted area extends through
the cladding down to or into the bare metal Clean
corroded areas thoroughly by authorized methods
(See Paragraph 3-242).
(3) Stains are not grounds for rejection
since they affect neither the strength nor the corrosion resistance.
3-59
T.O. 1-1A-9
CAUTION
No attempt will be made to remove
scratches or other surface defects by
sanding or buff ing since the protective layer of cladding will be removed
by such operations.
3-234. HARMFUL SCRATCHES. Scratches
which extend through the cladding and penetrate
the core material act as notches and create stress
concentrations which will cause fatigue failure if
the part is highly stressed or subjected to repeated
small stress reversals. However, sheets so
scratched may utilized for non-stressed
applications.
3-235. INSPECTION. Assemblies fabricated
from clad aluminum-alloy sheets will not be
rejected by inspection personnel, unless the defect
is of suff icient depth to adversely affect the
mechanical properties or cover suff icient area to
impair the corrosion resistance of the assembly.
Scratches or abrasions which penetrate the cladding will not affect corrosion resistance. Scratches
resulting from the normal handling and processing
of clad aluminum-alloy sheet rarely extend
through the cladding and penetrate the core.
3-236. TEST FOR DEPTH OF SCRATCHES.
Since it is very diff icult to measure the depth of a
scratch on a sheet without cross sectioning the
sheet, it has been found convenient (on clad material) to use a ‘‘spot’’ test to determine whether or
not a scratch extends through the cladding.
3-237. On alloys except 7075 and 7178 the ‘‘spot’’
test is made by placing a drop of caustic solution
(10% by weight of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, in
water) on a portion of the scratch, and allowing it
to react for 5 minutes. The caustic solution will
then be rinsed off the sheet with water, and the
spot allowed to dry. If a black residue remains in
the base of the scratch at the spot tested, it indicates that the scratch extends to the core. If no
black color is visible and only a white residue
remains in the base of the scratch, it indicates
that the scratch does not penetrate through the
cladding. For alloys 7075 and 7178 a drop of 10%
cadmium chloride solution will produce a dark discolorationm within two minutes if the scratch penetrates the clad. The cadmium chloride applied as
above will not cause 2024 to discolor within two
minutes.
3-238. When making the ‘‘spot’’ test to determine
whether a scratch extends to the core, it is advisable for comparison purposes to spot test an adjacent area in which there are no scratches. It is
3-60
then easier to determine whether the residue
which remains is black or white.
3-239. Before making the ‘‘spot’’ test, the sheet
area will be cleaned and degreased with solvent
Federal Specif ication P-D-680, Type II, or other
suitable solvent, so that the caustic solution will
react properly.
3-240. Caution will be exercised to make sure
that all of the caustic solution is removed from the
sheet by thorough rinsing, since the caustic solution is very corrosive to aluminum and aluminum
alloys. Care wi11 be taken not to use excessive
amounts of the caustic solution for the same reason and it is preferable that only one drop be used
for each test. The caustic solution will be prepared fresh for each series of tests to be made.
3-241. DISPOSITION OF SCRATCHED
SHEETS/PARTS.
a. All scratched clad aluminum-alloy sheets
wi11 be utilized to the fullest extent. Serviceable
portions of damaged sheets will be used in the
manufacture of smaller parts and assemblies.
Only that portion of sheet that is scratched and
otherwise damaged beyond serviceability will be
administratively condemned.
b. Parts (air weapon) shall be closely
inspected as cited and they do not meet specif ied
requirement shall be condemned and replaced as
directed.
3-242. CLEANING OF ALUMINUM ALLOY
SHEET (STOCK).
3-243. Solvent Cleaning. Stubborn or exceptionally oily sheets may be cleaned by using solvent,
Federal Specif ication P-D-680, Type II, before
cleaning with alkali solution. The cleaning will be
accomplished by brushing, soaking, scrubbing and
wiping. Material or equipment that would scratch
or abrade the surface shall not be used. Also
material shall not be stored af ter solvent cleaning
and prior to alkaline cleaning, unless solvent is
completely removed from the surfaces of the metal.
3-244. Alkali Cleaning Solution. Composition of
solution is 4 to 6 oz of cleaner specif ication MIL-C5543 to one gallon of water. The material is
cleaned by immersing in the solution (as prepared
by instructions cited in paragraph 3-245) for 4-6
minutes, thoroughly rinsing in water (fresh tap)
and then completely drying. Never pile/store
material while damp, wet or moist. Refer to T.O.
00-85A23-1 for packaging and storage.
T.O. 1-1A-9
9 gallons of water.
CAUTION
Do not use strong alkali solution
because it will etch the aluminum.
3-245. Preparation. Use water heated to a temperature of 170oF (77oC). Add not more than one
pound of cleaner at a time. Prepare the solution
in the following manner:
a.
Fill the task 1/2 to 2/3 full of water.
b.
Carefully dissolve the alkaline cleaner.
c. Add water to operating level and stir thoroughly with a wooden paddle or other means.
3-246. Maintain solution in the following
manner:
a.
Add tap water to balance-up solution loss.
b. Make addition as required to maintain the
active alkali concentration between 4 and 6 oz
alkaline cleaner for each gallon of water added
and stir thoroughly.
c. Prepare a new solution when contamination impares the cleaning ability of the solution.
d. Clean the tank thoroughly before preparing
a new solution.
3-247. Corrosion Removal from Aluminum Alloy
Sheets. Corrosion is removed by immersing the
sheet in the following acid cleaning solution:
CAUTION
When using acid solution wear
approved clothing, acid resisting
gloves, aprons/ coveralls, face shields
or respirator. If solution is splashed
into eyes, f lush thoroughly with
water immediately, and then report to
dispensary. For special instructions,
contact local safety off icer
a. Nitric-Hydrof luoric Acid Cleaning. The
solution shall consist of 1 gallon technical nitric
acid (58-62% HNO3) (39.5o Be).
1/2 pint technical hydrof luoric acid (48oHF) (1.15
Sp).
b. Parts shall be immersed for 3 to 5 minutes
in cold acid (50o - 105oF).
3-248. Af ter removing from the acid, the parts
shall be washed in fresh hot or cold running water
for a suff icient length of time to thoroughly
remove the acid. Diluted solution of sodium
dichromate (Na2Cr2 O7) 12 to 14 ounces per gallon
of water, shall be added to the rinse water as a
corrosion inhibitor. The rinsing time depends
upon the freshness of the solution, size of the part
and the amount of solution circulated. One half
hour or less should be suff icient. Parts shall then
be completely dried by blasting with compressed
air or other approved method.
NOTE
The sheet will stain when rinsed with
sodium dichromate. The stronger the
solution the darker the stain. A light
detectable stain is desired on corroded
areas. If the stain is dark reduce the
amount of sodium dichromate added
to rinse water.
3-249. Corrosion Removal and Treatment of Aluminum Sheets When Immersion Is Not Practical.
3-250. The surface shall be cleaned with water
base cleaner, Specif ication MIL-C-25769, Type II.
a. Heavily soiled areas. Dissolve the contents
of two 5-pound packages in 10 gallons of water.
Stir with a wooden paddle until fully dissolved.
b. Lightly soiled areas. Dissolve four 5-pound
packages in 50 gallons of water (a 55 gallon drum
is suitable for this purpose). Agitate thoroughly
with wooden paddle to insure proper mixture.
c. Application. Apply the solution by spraying, or with a mop, sponge, or brush. Allow to
remain on the surface for several minutes while
agitating with a brush. Rinse thoroughly with a
spray or stream of water. Do not allow solution to
dry before rinsing as less effective cleaning will
result.
3-251. Corrosion Removal. To remove corrosion
products use a metal conditioner and brightener,
Specif ication MIL-C-38334.
3-61
T.O. 1-1A-9
WARNING
When using acid solution wear
approved clothing, acid resistant
gloves, aprons/coveralls, face shields
or respirator. If solution is splashed
into eyes, f lush thoroughly with
water immediately, and then report to
dispensary. For special instructions
contact local safety off icer.
38334 shall be treated with Specif ication MIL-C5541. Most solutions conforming to Specif ication
MIL-C-5541 leave a stain. A clear Specif ication
MIL-C-5541 coating is available (reference QPL
5541) and should be used when a bright metal f inish is desired.
WARNING
.
CAUTION
Metal conditioner and brightener is
for use only on aluminum alloys, and
it shall not be used just for the sake
of improving the appearance of material. Material in storage shall not be
treated with this material more than
one time.
.
Conversion coating is a toxic chemical
and requires use of rubber gloves by
personnel during its application. If
acid, accidentally contacts the skin or
eyes, f lush immediately with plenty
of clear water. Consult a physician if
eyes are affected or if skin is burned.
Do not permit Specif ication MIL-C5541 material to contact paint thinner, acetone or other combustible
materials. Fire may result.
a. Prepare the brightening solution by mixing
Specif ication MIL-C-38334 compound with an
equal amount of water, in a rubber pail.
a. Mix the solution in a stainless steel, rubber
or plastic container; not in lead, copper alloy or
glass.
b. Apply enough diluted brightener to completely cover the area being treated with a nonmetallic bristle brush.
b. Mix in accordance with manufacturers
instructions.
c. Agitate the brightener by scrubbing with a
non-metallic bristle brush. Depending on the ambient temperature and amount of corrosion deposits
present, allow approximately 5 to 10 minutes from
application of brightener before rinsing. When
using brightener at high ambient temperature
(above 80oF) leave brightener on for shorter periods of time. Do not leave brightener on the surface longer than necessary to dissolve the
corrosion.
c. Apply the conversion coating (light) by
using a f iber bristle brush or a clean, sof t cloth.
Keep the surface wet with the solution until a
coating is formed which may take from 1 to 5 minutes depending on the surface condition of the
metal.
NOTE
Do not permit excess conversion coating to dry on the metal surface
because the residue is diff icult to
f lush off with water.
d. Rinse the brightener from the surface
(using approximately 50 gallons of water per minute. Insure that all traces of brightener have been
removed (shown by no foaming or bubbles while
rinsing).
d. Rinse with clear water, or sponge the area
with a clean, moist cloth, frequently rinsing the
cloth in clear water. Thorough rinsing is required.
3-252. Chromate Conversion Coating Specif ication MIL-C-5541, for aluminum alloys. Aluminum
alloys which are treated with Specif ication MIL-C-
e. Allow the surface to air dry. To speed drying the surface may be blown dry with warm clean
air (140oF maximum).
3-62
T.O. 1-1A-9
WARNING
Any absorbent material used in
applying or wiping up MIL-C-5541
material shall be rinsed in water
before discarding. They are extreme
f ire hazards if allowed to dry
otherwise.
CAUTION
Avoid brushing or rubbing the newly
applied chemical conversion coating,
since it is sof t and can be easily
rubbed off the surface before completely drying.
.
.
NOTE
A light (just visible to the naked eye)
evenly dispersed conversion coating is
all that is required. It is recommended that a test panel be prepared
and subjected to complete cleaning/
treating procedure before applying
material to a sheet. The test panel
shall be used to determine the dwell
time of MIL-C-5541 material. When
clear material is being used, no control of discoloration is necessary.
Af ter the procedures cited in
paragraphs 3-252 through 3-263 have
been complied with, an AF Form 50A
will be attached to each sheet with a
statement that, ‘‘This material has
been cleaned and treated for corrosion
in accordance with T.O. 1-1A-9 Section III, date . . . . . .’’ If original
markings are removed as a result of
the cleaning and treatment process,
the material shall be remarked (staggered) at each end and in the middle
with the Specif ication, size/thickness,
temper and type or grade. The marking may be applied with Black paint
Specif ication TT-L-50, MIL-E-7729 or
‘‘Magic Marker’’ manufactured by
Speeddry Products Inc., Richmond
Hill, N.Y. or ‘‘Equal’’. A felt tip pen
may also be used.
3-253. For Packaging, Packing,. and Storage of
Aluminum Alloy Sheets and Plates Refer to T.O.
00-85A-23-1.
3-254. ANODIC COATINGS FOR ALUMINUM.
Anodizing is the anodic process of treating aluminum alloys; a thin f ilm of artif icially produced
oxide is formed on the surface of the metal by electrochemical reaction. Military Specif ication MILA-8625 lists the requirements of aluminum anodizing, and TO 42C2-1-7 gives the anodizing process.
3-255. Military Specif ication MIL-C-5541 lists
the requirements for corrosion protection and
paint base of aluminum by the use of chemical
f ilm. These chemical f ilms are substitutes that
may be used in lieu of anodic f ilms, and may be
applied by spray, brush, or immersion as specif ied
by QPL-5541. The anodizing method is preferrable to chemical f ilms on aluminum parts where
facilities are available. For process procedures
applying to chemical f ilms, refer to Technical
Orders 1-1-8 and 1-1-2.
3-63/(3-64 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION IV
MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
4-1.
CLASSIFICATION.
4-2. Magnesium alloys are produced and used in
many shapes and forms, i.e., castings, extruded
bars, rods, tubing, sheets and plate and forgings.
They are suitable for varied stress and non-stress
aerospace applications. Their inherent strength,
lightweight, shock and vibration resistance are
factors which make their use advantageous. The
weight for an equal volume of magnesium is
approximately two-thirds of that for aluminum
and one-f if th of that for steel.
4-3. The current system used to identify magnesium alloys, is a two letter, two or three digit
number designation in that order. The letters designate the major alloying elements, (arranged in
decreasing percentage order, or in alphabetical
order if the elements are of equal amounts), followed by the respective digital percentages of
these elements. The percentage is rounded off to
the nearest whole number or if a tolerance range
of the alloy is specif ied, the mean of the range
(rounded off to nearest whole number) is used. A
suff ix letter following the percentage digits,
denotes the latest qualif ied revision of the alloy.
For example: Alloy Designation AZ92A would consist of 9% (mean value) aluminum and 2% (mean
value) zinc as the major alloying elements. The
suffix ‘‘A’’ indicates this is the f irst qualif ied alloy
of this type. One exception to the use of the suff ix
letter is that an ‘‘X’’ denotes that impurity content
is controlled to a low limit. Some of the letters
used to designate various alloying elements are:
A Aluminum,
H Thorium,
M Manganese,
4-4.
E Rare Earth,
K Zirconium,
Z Zinc.
DEFINITIONS.
4-5. HARDNESS. Hardness is the resistance of
a metal to plastic deformation from penetration,
indentation, or scratching. The degree of hardness
is usually a good indication of the metals strength.
The hardness of a metal can be accurately measured using the Brinell on Rockwell process of
testing. Tables 4-4, 4-5 and 4-6 list the nominal
hardness of various magnesium alloys. Brinell
hardness testing is explained in Section VIII of
this manual.
4-6. TENSILE STRENGTH. The useful tensile
strength of a metal is the maximum stress it can
sustain in tension or compression without permanent deformation. The yield strength is that point
of stress, measured in pounds per square inch, at
which permanent deformation results from material failure. The data in Tables 4-4, 4-5 and 4-6
lists the nominal yield strengths of various alloys.
The yield point in magnesium is not reached
abruptly, but rather a gradual yielding when the
metal is stressed above the proportional limit.
Tensile and yield strengths decrease at elevated
temperatures.
4-7. TEMPER is the condition produced in the
alloy by mechanically or thermally treating it to
alter its mechanical properties. Mechanical
includes cold rolling, cold working, etc.; thermal
includes annealing, solution and precipitation heat
treat and stabilization treating. See paragraph 412 for temper designations.
4-8. SHEAR STRENGTH is the maximum
amount (in pounds per square inch) in cross sectional stress that a material will sustain before
permanent deformation or rupture occurs.
4-9. ELONGATION is the linear stretch of a
material during tensile loading measured before
and af ter rupture. In magnesium it is the
increase in distance which occurs when stretch is
applied between two gage marks placed 2 inches
apart on the test specimen. Af ter rupture the two
pieces are f itted together and remeasured. The
elongation is the percentile difference of the
amount of stretch in ratio to the original 2 inches.
4-10. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Magnesium, in
its pure state, has a specif ic gravity of 1.74, weighing .063 pounds per cubic inch. Similar data for
magnesium alloys are included in Table 4-6 as
well as other physical property information.
4-11. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. Chemically
bare magnesium is resistant to attack by alkalis,
chromic and hydrof luoric acids and many organic
chemicals including hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, amines, esters and most oils. It is
susceptible to attack by salts and by galvanic corrosion from contact with dissimilar metals and
other materials. Adequate protection of the metal
against unfavorable conditions can be maintained
generally, by using proper surface f inish (See paragraph 4-93) and assembly protection. The chemical property constituents of the various alloys are
listed in Table 4-3.
4-12. TEMPER DESIGNATION SYSTEM. The
hyphenated suff ix symbol which follows an alloy
designation denotes the condition of temper, (heat
4-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
treat or strain hardening), to which the alloy has
been processed. These symbols and their meanings are listed below: (Heat treating itself is discussed in subsequent paragraphs of this section of
the manual).
-AC As-Cast
-F As-fabricated
-O Annealed
-W Solution heat treated - unstable temper
-T Treated to produce stable tempers other
than for -O
-T2 Annealed (cast products only)
-T3 Solution heat treated and then cold
worked
-T4 Solution heat treated
-T5 Artif icially aged only
-T6 Solution heat treated and then artif icially aged
-T7 Solution heat treated and stabilized
-T8 Solution heat treated, cold worked and
then artif icially aged
-T9 Solution heat treated, artif icially aged
and then cold worked
-T10 Artif icially aged and then cold worked
-H1 Strain hardened only
-H2 Strain hardened and partially annealed
-H3 Strain hardened and stabilized
Added suff ix digits 2, 4, 6, 8, to the H1, H2, H3
symbols indicate the degree of strain hardening,
i.e., 2=1/4 hard, 4=1/2 hard, 6=3/4 hard, and 8=full
hard.
4-13. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR HANDLING
AND FABRICATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS.
4-14. There are two special major areas of safety
precautions to observe in proceeding of magnesium
alloys other than general shop safety practices.
One is the fact some alloys contain thorium, a
radioactive element (e.g., HK31A, HM21A,
HM31A) and the other is the low melting point/
rapid oxidation (f ire hazard) characteristics of the
metal. Where the application of heat is to be
made to a thorium alloy, both of these areas must
be considered.
WARNING
Magnesium thorium alloys shall be
handled, stored and disposed of in
accordance with T.O. 00-110N-4.
4-15. MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS (HK31,
HM21, HM31, HZ32, ZH42, ZH62) are mildly radioactive but are within the safe limits set by the
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and represent
no hazard to personnel under normal conditions. A
4-2
standard of 0.1 milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3)
of thorium in air is a safe limit for continuous
atmospheric exposure and is readily met in
processing magnesium alloys containing up to 10%
thorium, For example: Stirring alloy melt of 5%
thorium content resulted in 0.002 mg/m3 atmospheric contamination and grinding air alloy of 3%
thorium content gave thorium contamination in
the breathing zone ranging from 0.008 to 0.035
mg/m3. Only long exposure to f ine dust or fumes
need cause concern as to radioactive toxicity of
magnesium-thorium. Normal dust control precautions, followed to avoid f ire hazards, can be
expected to control any health hazards that might
result from f ine dust in grinding the low thorium
content alloys. In welding these alloys without
local exhaust, concentrations of thorium above the
tentative limit of 0.1 mg/m3 of air were found in
the breathing zone. Use of local exhaust reduced
thorium concentrations to well within acceptable
1imits . If ventilation is such that the visible
fumes f low away from the welder, it is adequate,
providing such fumes are not permitted to accumulate in the immediate vicinity. An alternate practice involves use of ventilated welder’s hood, if
there is not suff icient room ventilation to control
contamination of the general atmosphere. Thorium containing scrap and wet grinding sludge
may be disposed of by burning providing an AEC
ammendment is secured for the basic AEC license.
If burned, the ashes which will then contain the
thorium, must be disposed of in accordance with
AEC Standards for Protection Against Radiation
10 CFR Part 20. As an alternative the ashes or
scrap may be turned over to an AEC licensed
scrap dealer, through applicable disposal procedures, See T.O.00-110N-4
4-16. For indoor storage of thorium alloy sheets
and plates, the size of stacks should be limited to
1000 cubic feet with an aisle width not less than
one-half the stack’s height. Such storage is within
the normal recommendations for f ire safety.
4-17. Radiation surveys have shown that exposure of workers handling the referenced thorium
alloys is well within the safe limits set by the
AEC. Assuming hand contact, the body one foot
away from the alloy for an entire 40 hour work
week, the exposure would be 168 millirems (mr) to
the hands and 72 mr to the whole body. These are
maximum values which probably would not be
approached in actual practice. The corresponding
AEC permissible safe limits are 1500 mr/week for
the hands and 300 mr/week for the whole body.
4-18. Despite the relative safety present in the
handling, to rage and processing of thorium containing alloys, it is mandatory that all such
actions be made according to the requirements and
T.O. 1-1A-9
restrictions of the 00-100 series technical orders,
as applicable, and AEC regulations. As previously
stated, the normal precautions taken in the shop
processing of magnesium will suff ice for safe handling of thorium alloys. These precautions are
noted in the following paragraphs on safety
precautions.
4-19. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ALL
ALLOYS (INCLUDING FIRE HAZARDS).
temperature, certain precautions should be taken
during working of it.
4-21. Machining Safety Rules. During machining operations, observance of the following rules
will control any potential f ire hazard:
a. Keep all cutting tools sharp and ground
with adequate relief and clearance angles
b.
Use heavy feeds to produce thick chips.
4-20. Since magnesium will ignite and burn
f iercely when heated to a point near its melting
Table 4-1.
ALLOY
AM100A
AZ31B
FED
SPEC
Cross-Reference, Alloy Designation to Specifications
MIL
SPEC
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-55
__
__
QQ-M-31
QQ-M-40
WW-T-825
QQ-M-44
QQ-M-44
QQ-M-44
__
__
__
__
__
__
MIL-R6944
__
__
__
HNBK
SAE
AMS
ASTM
(ASME)
USE
4483
B80
B199
Sand Casting
Permanent Mold Casting
52
510
52
510
510
510
__
4375
4376
4377
__
B107
B91
B217
B90
B90
B90
B260
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
Forgings
Extruded Tubes
Sheet and Plate
Sheet and Plate
Sheet and Plate
Welding Rod
__
__
__
__
__
__
B107
B217
B90
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
Extruded Tubes
Sheet and Plate
502
AZ31C
____
____
____
AZ61A
QQ-M-31
QQ-M-40
WW-T-825
__
__
__
MIL-R6944
520
530
520
__
4350
4358
4350
__
B107
B91
B217
B260
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
Forgings
Extruded Tubes
Welding Rod
AZ63A
QQ-M-56
MIL-C19163
MIL-C19163
MIL-C19163
MIL-R6944
50
B80
Sand Castings
50
4420,
4422
4424
B80
Sand Castings
__
__
B199
Permanent Mold Castings
__
__
B260
Welding Rod
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-55
____
AZ80A
QQ-M-31
QQ-M-40
___
___
523
532
__
4360
B107
B91
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
Forgings
AZ81A
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-55
___
___
505
505
__
__
B80
B199
Sand Castings
Permanent Mold Castings
AZ91A
QQ-M-55
QQ-M-38
QQ-M-38
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-55
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
501
501
504
__
__
4490
__
4437
__
B199
B94
B94
B80
B199
Permanent Mold Castings
Die Castings
Die Castings
Sand Castings
Permanent Mold Castings
QQ-M-56
MIL-C19163
500
4434
B80
Sand Castings
AZ91B
AZ91C
AZ92A
_
_
_
_
_
4-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 4-1.
ALLOY
AZ92A
(Cont)
FED
SPEC
QQ-M-55
____
Cross-Reference, Alloy Designation to Specifications - Continued
MIL
SPEC
MIL-C19163
MIL-R6944
SAE
AMS
HNBK
ASTM
(ASME)
USE
503
4484
B199
Permanent Mold Castings
__
__
B260
Welding Rod
EK30A
QQ-M-56
___
__
__
B80
Sand Castings
EK41A
QQ-M-56
___
__
B80
Sand Castings
QQ-M-55
___
__
4440,
4441
__
B199
Permanent Mold Castings
EZ33A
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-55
____
___
___
MIL-R6944
506
506
__
4442
__
__
B80
B199
B260
Sand Castings
Permanent Mold Castings
Welding Rod
HK31A*
QQ-M-56
____
___
MIL-M26075
MIL-M26075
MIL-R6944
507
507
4445
4384
B80
B90
Sand Castings
Sheet and Plate
__
__
B260
Welding Rod
*
____
4385
HK21A*
QQ-M-40
____
___
MIL-M8917
__
__
__
4390
__
B90
Forgings
Sheet and Plate
HM31A*
____
MIL-H8916
MIL-H8916
__
4388
B107
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
__
4389
__
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
____
HZ32A*
QQ-M-56
___
__
4447
B80
Sand Castings
KIA
QQ-M-56
MIL-M45207
__
__
B80
Sand Castings
MIA
QQ-M-31
QQ-M-40
WW-T-825
QQ-M-44
____
___
___
___
___
MIL-R6944
522
533
522
51
__
_
_
_
_
_
B107
__
B217
B90
B260
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
Forgings
Extruded Tubes
Sheet and Plate
Welding Rod
QE22A
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-55
___
___
__
__
__
__
__
__
Sand Castings
Permanent Mold Castings
TA54A
QQ-M-40
___
53
__
B91
Forgings
ZE10A
____
___
534
__
B90
Sheet and Plate
ZE41A
QQ-M-56
___
__
__
__
Sand Castings
ZH42*
____
___
__
__
__
Sand Castings
ZH62*
QQ-M-56
___
508
4438
B80
Sand Castings
ZK21A
____
MIL-M46039
__
4387
__
Extrusions
4-4
_
_
_
_
_
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 4-1.
ALLOY
ZK51A
ZK60A
FED
SPEC
Cross-Reference, Alloy Designation to Specifications - Continued
MIL
SPEC
HNBK
SAE
AMS
ASTM
(ASME)
USE
ZK60B
QQ-M-56
QQ-M-31
QQ-M-40
WW-T-825
____
___
___
___
___
MIL-M26696
509
524
__
524
__
4443
4352
4362
4352
__
B80
B107
B91
B217
__
Sand Castings
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
Forgings
Extruded Tubes
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
ZK61A
QQ-M-56
___
513
4444
B80
Sand Castings
*These alloys contain radioactive thorium element. See paragraph 4-15 for precautionary instructions.
MISC SPECIFICATION
MIL-M-3171 Magnesium alloy, processes for corrosion protection of
SAE-AMS-M-6857 Magnesium alloy castings, heat treatment of
Change 4
4-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 4-2.
NEW
DESIGNATOR
FORMER
DOW REVERE
Alloy Designation Cross-Reference
FORMER
AMERICAN
MAGNESIUM
FORMER *
MILITARY
NEW
FEDERAL
USE
AZ63A
H
AM265
____
QQ-M-56
Castings, Sand
MIA
M
AM3S
AN-M-26
QQ-M-31
Extruded Bars, Rods, Shapes
MIB
M
AM403
AN-M-30
QQ-M-56
Castings, Sand
MIA
M
AM3S
AN-T-73
WW-T-825
Extruded Tube
MIA
M
AM3S
AN-M-22
QQ-M-40
Forgings
MIA
M
AM3S
AN-M-30
QQ-M-44
Sheet
A292A
C
AM260
____
QQ-M-56
Castings, Sand
AZ92A
C
AM260
____
QQ-M-55
Castings, Perm Mold
AM100A
G
AM240
____
QQ-M-55
Castings, Perm Mold
AZ91A
R
AM263
AN-M-16
QQ-M-38
Castings, Die
AZ31B
FS-1
AM52S
AN-M-27
QQ-M-31
Extruded Bar, Rod, Shape
AZ31B
FS-1
AM52S
AN-T-72
WW-T-825
Extruded Tube
AZ31B
FS-1
AM52S
____
____
Forgings
AZ31B
FS-1
AM52S
AN-M-29
QQ-M-44
Sheet
AZ61A
J-1
AMC57S
AN-M-24
QQ-M-31
Extruded Bar, Rod, Shape
AZ61A
J-1
AMC57S
AN-T-71
WW-T-825
Extruded Tubes
AZ61A
J-1
AMC57S
AN-M-20
QQ-M-40
Forgings
AZ80A
0-1
AMC58S
AN-M-25
QQ-M-31
Extruded Bar, Rod, Shape
AZ80A
0-1
AMC58S
AN-M-21
QQ-M-40
Forgings
ZK60A
__
AMA76S
____
QQ-M-31
Extruded Bar, Rod, Shape
EX41A
__
AMA130
____
____
Castings, Perm Mold
EZ33A
__
AMA131
____
____
Castings, Perm Mold
TA54A
__
AM65S
____
QQ-M-40
Forgings
NOTES: *These ‘‘AN’’ Specif ications have been superseded by the listed Federal Specif ications.
4-6
Table 4-3.
ALLOY
AL
MN
ZINC
Chemical Properties of Magnesium Alloys
ZIRCONIUM
RARE
EARTH
THORIUM
SI
CU
NICKEL
MG
FORMS
AM100A
AZ31B(1)(2)
9.3-10.7
2.5-3.5
0.10
0.20
0.30max
0.6-1.4
-----
-----
-----
0.30
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.01
0.005
Bal
Bal
Castings, sand, perm mold
Extruded Bars, rods, shapes
tubes = sheets
AZ31C
AZ63A(2)
2.4-3.6
5.3-6.7
0.15
0.15
0.5-1.5
2.5-3.5
-----
-----
-----
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.03
0.005
Bal
Bal
Same
Castings, sand and perm mold
AZ80A
7.8-9.2
0.12
0.2-0.8
---
---
---
0.30
0.25
0.01
Bal
Extruded bars, rods, shapes,
forgings
AZ81A
7.0-8.1
0.13
0.40-1.0
---
---
---
0.30
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, sands and perm mold
AZ91A
8.1-9.3
0.13
0.4-1.0
---
---
---
0.30
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, perm mold
AZ91A
8.1-9.7
0.13
0.4-1.0
---
---
---
0.50
0.10
0.03
Bal
Castings, Die
AZ91B
8.3-9.7
0.13
0.4-1.0
---
---
---
0.50
0.30
0.03
Bal
Castings, Die
AZ91C
8.1-9.3
0.13
0.4-1.0
---
---
---
0.30
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, sand and perm mold
AZ92A
8.3-9.7
0.10
1.6-2.4
---
---
---
0.30
0.25
0.01
Bal
Same
EK30A
---
---
0.3 max
0.20 min
2-3.0
---
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, sand only
EK41A
---
---
0.3
0.4-1.0
3.0-5.0
---
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, sand and perm mold
EZ33A
---
---
2.0-3.1
0.5-1.0
2.5-4.0
---
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, Sand/Sheet Plate
HK31A*
---
0.15mx
0.3mx
0.4-1.0
---
2.5-4.0
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, Sand/Sheet/Plate
HM21A*
---
0.45-1.1
---
---
---
1.5-2.5
---
---
---
Bal
Forgings, Sheet/Plate
HM31A*
---
1.2mn
---
---
---
2.5-3.5
---
---
---
Bal
Extruded Bars/Rods/Shapes
HZ32A*
---
---
1.7-2.5
0.5-1.0
0.1mx
2.5-4.0
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, Sand
KIA
---
---
---
0.4-1.0
---
---
---
---
---
Bal
Castings, Sand
MIA(1)
---
1.2
---
---
---
---
0.10
0.05
0.01
Bal
Extruded Bars, rods, shapes
tube-sheets-forgings
QE22A(3)
---
---
---
0.4-1.0
1.8-2.5
---
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, sand
TA54A(4)
3.0-4.0
0.20
0.3mx
---
---
---
0.30
0.05
0.01
Bal
Forgings
ZE10A
---
---
1.0-1.5
---
0.120.22
---
---
---
---
Bal
Sheet and Plate
T.O. 1-1A-9
4-7
ALLOY
AL
MN
ZINC
Chemical Properties of Magnesium Alloys - Continued
ZIRCONIUM
RARE
EARTH
THORIUM
SI
CU
NICKEL
MG
FORMS
ZE41A
---
---
4.25
0.5
1.25
---
---
---
---
Bal
Castings, Sand
ZH42*
---
---
3.0-4.5
0.5
---
1.5-2.5
---
---
---
Bal
Castings, Sand
ZH62A*
---
---
5.2-6.2
0.5-1.0
---
1.4-2.2
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, Sand
ZK20A
---
---
2.0-2.6
0.45mn
---
---
---
---
---
Bal
Extrusions
ZK51A
---
---
3.6-5.5
0.5-1.0
---
---
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Castings, Sand
ZK60A
---
---
4.8-6.2
0.45
---
---
---
---
---
Ba1
Extruded Bars/Rods/Shapes
Tube-Forgings
ZK60B
---
---
4.8-6.8
0.45
---
---
---
0.10
0.01
Bal
Same
*NOTE: These alloys contain radioactive thorium. See paragraph 4-15
(1) Calcium, AZ31B, 0.04---MIA, 0.4.0.14
(2) Iron, AZ31B, 0.005---AZ61A, 0.005---AZ63A, 0.005.
(3) Silver, QE22A, 2.5-3.0
(4) Tin, TA54A, 4.6-6.0
T.O. 1-1A-9
4-8
Table 4-3.
Table 4-4.
ALLOY
& C0ND
AZ31B-F
and
AZ31C-F
FORM
Bars, Rods,
shapes
Hollow
shapes
AZ61A-F
Bars, rods,
shapes
Hollow
shapes
Mechanical Properties Magnesium Extrusions and Forgings at Room Temperature - Typical
DIEMN (DIA
THICKNESS: WALL
THKNESS - IN’S)
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
(INCHES)
MIN TENSILE STR
(1000PSI)
MIN TEN
YLD STR
(1000PSI)
MIN
ELONGAtion
(2″ %)
MIN
SHEAR
STR
(1000PSI)
HARDNESS
(BRINELL)
0.249 and under
0.250-1.499
0.500-2.499
2.500-4.999
All dimensions
All
All
All
All
All
areas
areas
areas
areas
areas
35
35
34
32
32
21
22
22
20
16
7
7
7
7
8
17
17
17
-17
-49
--49
0.249 and under
0.250-1.499
0.250-4.999
All dimensions
All
All
All
All
areas
areas
areas
areas
38
39
40
36
21
24
22
16
8
9
7
7
-18
-18
-60
-60
0.249 and under
0.250-1.499
1.500-2.499
2.500-4.999
0.249 and under
0.250-2.499
2.500-4.999
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
areas
areas
areas
areas
areas
areas
areas
43
43
43
42
47
48
45
28
28
28
27
30
33
30
9
8
6
4
4
4
2
19
19
19
--21
--
60
60
60
60
82
82
82
4
2
3
2
2
2
-15
15
-15
44
44
44
44
44
AZ80A-F
Bars, Rods,
shapes
T-5
Same
HM31A-T5*
Bars, rods,
shapes
Not applicable
Under 4.000
37
26
MIA-F
Bars, rods,
shapes
0.249 and under
0.250-1.499
1.500-2.499
2.500-4.999
All dimensions
All
All
All
All
All
30
32
32
29
28
not
not
not
not
not
All dimensions
All dimensions
4.999 and under
5.000-29.999
All areas
43
43
40
31
31
28
5
4
5
22
22
--
75
75
--
All dimensions
4.999 and under
45
36
4
22
82
All dimensions
All areas
46
38
4
22
82
Hollow
shapes
ZK60A-F
T5
req
req
req
req
req
4-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
Bars, rods,
shapes
Hollow
shapes
Bars, rods,
shapes
Hollow
shapes
areas
areas
areas
areas
areas
ALLOY
& C0ND
FORM
T.O. 1-1A-9
4-10
Table 4-4.
Mechanical Properties Magnesium Extrusions and Forgings at Room Temperature - Typical - Continued
DIEMN (DIA
THICKNESS: WALL
THKNESS - IN’S)
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
(INCHES)
MIN TENSILE STR
(1000PSI)
MIN TEN
YLD STR
(1000PSI)
MIN
SHEAR
STR
(1000PSI)
MIN
ELONGAtion
(2″ %)
HARDNESS
(BRINELL)
EXTRUDED TUBES
AZ31B-F
and
AZ31C-F
0.050-0.500
Not applicable
32
16
8
--
46
AZ61A-F
0.050-0.500
Not applicable
28
--
2
--
42
MIA-F
0.050-0.500
Not applicable
40
28
5
--
75
ZK60A-F
ZK60A-T5
0.050-0.250
0.050-0.250
Not applicable
Not applicable
46
46
38
38
5
4
---
75
82
AZ31B-F
34
19
6
17
55
AZ61A-F
38
22
6
19
55
AZ80A-F
42
26
5
20
69
AZ80A-T5
42
28
2
20
72
T6
50 (typ)
34 (typ)
5 (typ)
--
72
MIA
IA54A-F
ZK60A-T5
30
36
42
18
22
26
3
7
7
14
---
47
---
DIE FORGINGS
NOTE: This alloy contains radioactive elements. See paragraph 4-15 for precautions.
Table 4-5.
ALLOY &
COND
DIMENSION
THICKNESS
(INCHES)
Mechanical Properties Magnesium Alloy Sheet and Plate at Room Temperature - Typical
MINIMUM**
TENSILE
STRENGTH
(1000PSI)
MINIMUM**
TENSILE
YIELD STR
(1000PSI)
MIN ELONGATION
(2″--%)
MINIMUM
SHEAR
STRENGTH
(1000PSI)
HARDNESS
(BRINELL)
AZ31B-F
AZ31B-H10
-H11
All gauges
0.251-2.000
0.016-0.250
35 (typical)
30
32
19 (typical)
12
12
12 (typical)
10
12
----
----
-H23
0.016-0.064
0.065-0.064
0.016-0.063
0.065-0.250
0.251-0.500
0.501-1.000
0.501-0.750
0.751-1.000
1.001-1.500
0.016-0.060
0.061-0.250
0.251-0.500
0.501-2.000
All gauges
39
39
39
39
37
37
37
37
35
32
32
32
30
32
25
25
29
29
24
22
25
23
22
18
15
15
15
15
4
4
4
4
10
10
8
8
8
12
12
12
10
8
--18
18
-----17
17
----
--73
73
-----56
56
--52
0.016-0.250
0.251-0.500
0.501-1.000
1.001-3.000
0.016-0.125
0.126-0.250
0.251-1.000
1.001-3.000
30
30
30
29
34
31
34
33
16
16
15
14
26
22
25
25
12
12
12
12
4
4
4
4
----21
21
20
20
----57
57
---
HM21A-T8
0.016-0.250
0.251-0.500
0.501-1.000
1.001-2.000
31
32
30
29
18
21
19
18
4
6
6
6
MIA-O
H
All Gauges
All gauges
33 (typ)
35 (typ)
18 (typ)
26 (typ)
17 (typ)
7 (typ)
ZE10-0
0.016-0.060
0.061-0.250
0.251-0.500
0.016-0.125
0.126-0.188
0.189-0.250
30
30
29
36
34
31
18
15
12
25
22
20
15
15
12
4
4
4
-H24
-H26
-0
AZ31C-F
HK31A-0*
-H24*
H24
4-11
** Values given are all minimum unless otherwise noted beside value.
Tooling Plate
Standard Plate
Standard Plate and
Sheet
Standard Sheet
and Plate
Spec Sheet and Plate
Same
Same
Same
Spec Sheet and Plate
Spec Sheet and Plate
Same
Same
Same
Tread plate
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
17 (typ)
7 (typ)
48
54
and
and
and
and
Plate
Plate
Plate
Plate
Sheet and Plate
Sheet and Plate
Sheet and Plate
T.O. 1-1A-9
* Contains radioactive thorium element. See paragraph 4-19 for precautionary data.
(typ)
(typ)
(typ)
(typ)
USE
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 4-6.
ALLOY & COND
Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Castings at Room Temperatures
TENSILE
STRENGTH
(1000 PSI)
TYPE
MIN
TENSILE
STRENGTH
YIELD
(1000 PSI)
TYPE
MIN
TYPICAL
ELONGATION
SHEAR
IN 2″--%
TYPE
MIN
STRENGTH
(1000 PSI)
HARDNESS
(Brinell)
AM100A-F
-T4
-T6
-T61
22
40
40
40
20
34
34
34
12
13
16
22
10
10
15
17
2
10
4
1
-6
2
--
18
20
21
21
54
52
69
69
AZ63A-F
-T4
-T5
-T6
29
40
30
40
24
34
24
34
14
14
16
19
10
10
10
16
6
12
4
5
4
7
2
3
16
17
17
19
50
55
55
73
AZ81A-T4
40
34
14
10
12
7
17
55
AZ91C-F
-T4
-T5
-T6
24
40
23
40
18
34
23
34
14
14
12
19
10
10
12
16
2.5
11
2
5
-7
-3
16
17
-19
52
55
-73
AZ92A-F
-T4
-T5
-T6
24
40
26
40
20
34
20
34
14
14
17
21
10
10
11
18
2
10
1
2
1
6
-1
16
17
16
20
65
63
80
84
EK30A-T6
23
20
16
14
3
2
18
45
EK41A-T5
-T6
23
25
20
22
16
18
14
16
1
3
-1
18.7
19.4
45
50
EZ33A-T5
23
20
15
14
3
2
19.8
50
HK31A-T6*
30
27
15
13
8
4
21
55
HZ32A-T5*
29
27
14
13
7
4
20
57
KIA-F
24
24
6
6
14
14
--
--
QE22A-T6
35
35
25
25
2
2
--
--
ZE41A-T5
28
28
19
19
2.5
2.5
23
62
ZH42-T51*
32.5
--
21.6
--
4.5
--
--
--
ZH42-T4*
33.6
35
--
--
12
--
--
--
ZH62A-T5
35.0
35
22
22
4
5
24
70
ZK51A-T5
40
34
24
20
8
5
22
65
ZK61A-T6
39
39
26
26
5
5
26
68
AZ91A-F
AZ91B-F
33
33
---
22
22
---
20
20
67
67
DIE CASTINGS
---
3
3
NOTE: *This alloy contains radioactive thorium element. See paragraph 4-19 precautionary instructions.
4-12
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 4-7.
ALLOY & COND
Physical Properties Magnesium Alloy @68oF
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
DENSITY
LBS/CU in
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.77
1.80
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.80
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.81
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.79
1.81
1.81
1.83
1.79
1.77
1.80
1.83
1.76
1.87
1.76
1.86
1.86
1.80
1.81
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.80
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.064
0.065
0.066
0.066
0.066
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.066
0.066
0.066
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.066
0.065
0.064
0.065
0.066
0.064
0.067
0.063
0.067
0.067
0.645
0.066
0.066
0.066
0.066
0.065
AM100A-F
-T4
-T6
AZ31B and AZ31C
AZ61A
AZ63A-F
-T4
-T6
AZ80A
AZ81A
AZ91A-AZ91B
AZ91C-F
-T4
-T6
AZ92A-AC
-T4
-T6
EK30A
EK41A-T5
-T6
EZ33A
HK31A-T6
HM21A
HM-31A-F
HM32A
MI-A
TA54A
ZE10A
ZH42
ZH62A
ZK21A
ZK51A
ZK60A-F
-T5
ZK60B
ZK61A
MELTING
RANGEoF
867-1101
867-1101
867-1101
1116-1169
977-1145
850-1130
850-1130
850-1130
914-1130
914-1132
875-1105
875-1105
875-1105
875-1105
830-1100
830-1100
830-1100
1100-1184
1193
1193
1010-1189
1092-1204
1100-1195
1121-1202
1026-1198
1200
-1100-1200
1180
1180
-1020-1185
968-1175
968-1175
968-1175
1145
ELECTRICAL
CONDUCTIVITY
(IACS)
11.5
9.9
12.3
18.5
11.6
15.0
12.3
13.8
10.6
12.0
10.1
11.5
9.9
11.2
12.3
10.5
12.3
27.0
24.0
26.0
25.0
22.0
26.0
26.5
34.5
--23.9
26.5
-28.0
29.0
30.0
31.0
--
NOTE: Percentage conductivity of annealed copper at 68oF (international annealed copper standard).
c. Machine the metal dry whenever possible,
avoiding f ine feeds and keeping speeds below 500 700 surface feet per minute during turning and
boring. If a coolant is def initely required use a
mineral oil.
d.
Keep work areas clean.
e. Store magnesium chips in clean, plainly
labeled, covered, non-combustible containers where
they will remain dry. Do not allow chips to accumulate on machines or operator’s clothing.
Machinists should not wear textured or fuzzy
clothing and chips and sawdust should not be
allowed to accumulate in cuffs or pockets.
f. Do not permit tools to rub on the work
af ter a cut has been made.
g. Keep an adequate supply of a recommended magnesium f ire extinguisher within reach
of the operators. If chips should become ignited,
extinguish them as follows:
4-13
T.O. 1-1A-9
WARNING
Water or any of the common liquid or
foam type extinguishers will intensify
a magnesium chip f ire and may cause
an explosion and shall not be used.
(1) Cover with a layer of G-1 or Met-L-X
powder. Clean, dry unrusted cast iron chips,
graphite powder, clean dry sand, talc and pitch
may also be used.
(2) Actively burning f ires on combustible
surfaces should be covered with a 1/2 inch layer or
more of extinguishing powder; then the entire
mass shoveled into an iron container or onto a
piece of iron plate. Alternately, a one or two inch
layer of powder can be spread on the f loor or surface nearby and the burning metal transferred to
it, then add more powder as required.
(3) High cutting speeds, extremely f ine
feeds, dull, chipped or improperly designed tools,
tool dwell on work af ter feed is stopped, tool rub,
or tool hitting a steel or iron insert increase the
chances of chip ignition. Keeping the cutting speed
below 700 feet per minute will greatly reduce the
f ire possibilities even with a dull or poorly
designed tool and f ine feeds.
4-22. GRINDING AND POLISHING SAFETY
PRACTICES. During grinding and polishing operations a proper dust collection system must be
used. Figure 4-1 illustrates acceptable type collectors. The dust produced during grinding and polishing of magnesium must be removed immediately from the working area with a properly
designed wet type dust collection system. Proper
systems precipitate the magnesium dust by a
heavy spray of water and must be so designed that
dust or sludge cannot accumulate and dry out to a
f lammable state. Small collectors as shown in
Figure 4-1, detail A serving one or two grinders
are the best. The grinder-to-collector ducts should
be short and straight. The self opening vents
illustrated prevent hydrogen collection during shut
down. The grinder’s power supply, air exhaust
blower and liquid level controller should be electrically water connected so cessation or failure of the
dust collector operation will shut the grinder off.
In addition a suitable devise should be installed in
the system that will insure the collector system is
in full operation and has changed the air in the
ducts, etc., several times before the grinder begins
running. Dry type f ilter collectors or central collector systems which carry the dust through long
dry ducts should not be used for magnesium. The
collector portrayed in Figure 4-1, detail B is used
4-14
with booth type portable grinding and polishing
where the dust passes through the grate with the
air being circulated into a liquid spray which
removes the dust. Design the booth to catch all
the dust possible. On individual grinders for small
scale work, as shown in Figure 4-1, detail C, the
hood design and the oil pan combine to afford a
satisfactory dust collection. Any dust escaping the
hood should be kept swept up and properly disposed of.
4-23. The following specif ic safety rules pertain
to the grinding and polishing of magnesium:
a. Magnesium grinding should be done on
equipment set aside and labeled for that purpose.
Do not grind sparking material on these grinders
unless the magnesium dust has been completely
removed from the equipment system. In addition,
the grinding wheel or belt must be replaced prior
to grinding of any other metal.
b. If chrome pickled magnesium is to be
ground, sparks may result. Therefore, dust and
air-dust mixtures must not be allowed to accumulate within spark range.
c. Maintain adequate supplies of plainly
labeled approved f ire extinguishing powder and
suitable dispensing tools readily available to operators. Fire control is the same as detailed in paragraph 4-21 for machine chips.
d. Keep dust from accumulating on surrounding f loors, benches, windows, etc. If such accumulation is evident the collector system is not operating properly and must be checked and repaired.
Periodically and no less than once a month, completely clean the entire collector systems. Inspect
and clean the grinder to collector ducts daily or
move frequently if the volume of collection is high.
e. Dispose of grinding sludge as soon as it is
removed from the equipment. Do not store or
allow to even partially dry since it is extremely
f lammable. This may be done by spreading it on a
layer of f ire brick or hard burned paving brick to a
maximum depth of 3″ to 4″, then placing a combustible material on top of it and burning the
entire lot. The sludge will burn with intense heat,
therefore, a safe location must be used. A method
of rendering magnesium sludge chemically inactive
and non-combustible by reacting it with a 5% solution of ferrous chloride (Fe C122H2O) is detailed in
the National Fire Protection Association’s Bulletin
No. 48, Standards for Magnesium.
f. The clothing of operators should be smooth
and f ire retardant without pockets and cuffs. Caps
should be worn. All clothing should be easy to
remove and kept free of dust accumulations.
T.O. 1-1A-9
4-24.
Deleted.
4-25. HEAT TREATING SAFETY PRACTICES.
Heat treating of magnesium alloys requires the
exercising of certain def inite rules, if safe and good
quality workmanship is to result. The following
rules should be closely followed:
a. Use furnace equipment having two sets of
temperature controls, operating independently of
each other.
b. Standardize checking procedures and
adjustments of all equipment and of operating
cycles.
c. Load the furnace with castings of one identical alloy only. Insure the castings are clean.
d. Use SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide) atmosphere to
control oxidation.
e. Use the recommended time and temperature operating ranges at all times.
f. Provide approved f ire extinguishing
equipment.
WARNING
Water and other extinguishers for
Class A, B, and C f ires shall not be
used.
4-26. If a f ire should occur for any reason, as
evidenced by excessive furnace temperature and
omission of a light colored smoke, proceed as
follows:
a. Shut off all power, fuel and SO2 feed lines
to the furnace.
b.
Notify f ire marshal control crew at once.
c. Begin f ire extinguishing procedures using
one of the following methods:
(1)
G-1 Powder Method.
Where it can be safely done, a small f ire should be
removed from the furnace, dumped into an iron
container and then extinguished by covering with
G-1 powder which is a graphite base powder of the
Pyrene CO2 Company. Metal Fyr Powder of the
Fyr Fyter Company is the same material. In large
furnaces or with f ires of high intensity, the powder
can be applied to the burning parts with a shovel
(assuming the furnace door can be opened safely).
Paper bags f illed with the powder can be used if
the f ire is so located that such bags can be thrown
in effectively. Remove parts not burning with long
handled hooks. Af ter all burning parts have been
covered with the powder, the furnace load should
be allowed to cool with the door open. For the
handling of large quantities of G-1 powder, pumps
have been constructed which can throw 75-100 lbs/
minute onto the f ire through a 30 foot hose and
nozzle.
(2)
Boron Trif luoride (BF3) Gas Method.
WARNING
Boron trif luoride vapor or gas is toxic
in the proportion of more than 1 part
per million by volume of air when
exposures are prolonged or frequently
repeated. Five parts per million by
volume of air or more are usually present in visible clouds of material
resulting from the release of the gas
to atmosphere. Therefore, personnel
must not enter such clouds or any
area where there is reason to believe
the safe level is exceeded unless wearing a gas mask with an acid gas canister containing a dust f iller. Analysis of atmosphere in the worker’s
breathing zone will be accomplished
to assure personnel safety.
This is an effective gaseous means of extinguishing magnesium f ires in heat treating furnaces.
The gas is introduced into the furnace from a storage cylinder through an entry port preferably
located near f loor level. Connect the gas feed line
to this port, open the feed line valve to provide
about 2 lbs/minute (depending on furnace size and
number of gas cylinders) and maintain gas f low
until furnace temperature drops to 700oF indicating the f ire is out. The furnace door should be
kept closed during this action and until a def inite
temperature drop below 700oF is evident. Running the furnace circulating fans for about 1 minute af ter the gas is f irst introduced will assist in
gas dispersal, then shut the fan off. The gas cylinder used should be f itted with a Monel needle
valve and a ‘‘tee’’ for attaching a 0-160 psi pressure gauge. A suitable gas transfer system uses a
5/16″ f lexible bronze hose to carry the gas to the
furnace where it enters through a 1/4″ steel pipe
entry port. Using 10 feet of hose and feed of pipe,
a gauge pressure of 15-30 psi will deliver 1-2 lbs of
BF3 per minute. The cylinders may be permanently connected or brought to the furnace, when
needed, on a suitable dolly. This gas does not
require heating in order to f low. The cylinders
should be weight checked for contents every 6
months.
Change 1
4-15
T.O. 1-1A-9
(3) Boron Trichloride (BCL3) Gaseous
Method. This material has been successfully used
to extinguish magnesium heat treat furnace f ires.
However, there are several factors involved with
its use which makes it less preferred than boron
trif luoride, these include: ten times more concentration than the 0.04% of boron trif luoride, the gas
must be heated to f low freely; it is more expensive
than trif luoride; the liquid is corrosive and the
fumes irritating with a health hazard similar to
hydrochloric acid fumes. Workmen should not
occupy areas where noticeable vapors are present
unless wearing a gas mask with an acid gas canister containing a dust f ilter. If this agent must be
used, the liquid containing cylinders should be
heated with infrared lights to provide the heat
necessary to insure adequate gas f low. The cylinder outlet should be f itted with a special valve and
gauge to control gas f low. Flexible 5/8″ ID neoprene hose may be used to connect the cylinder to
a steel pipe for insertion into the furnace port.
Otherwise its use in extinguishing a furnace f ire is
similar to the procedures for boron trif luoride.
iridescent coating forms the alloy contains aluminum. The solution is made in the proportions of
24 ounces sodium dichromate and 24 f luid ounces
concentrated nitric acid to enough water to make
one gallon. Prior to the test the metal should be
thoroughly cleaned down to the base metal, if necessary, by grinding or f iling a clean area on the
surface.
4-27.
4-30. PRECAUTIONS DURING HEATING. Of
f irst importance in the heat processing of these
alloys is a clear understanding of the characteristics of the metal relative to heat. Pure magnesium
will melt at approximately 1202oF. The alloys
melting points range from 830oF to 1204oF,
approximately, according to their element constituency. Therefore, during any heating of alloy items,
specif ied temperature maximums must be closely
adhered to, particularly during solution heat treating. The metal is easily burned and overheating
will also cause formation of molten pools within it,
either condition resulting in ruining of the metal.
Certain alloys such as AZ63A Type 1, or AZ92A
Type 1, are subject to eutectic melting of some of
its elements if heated too rapidly. They must be
brought up to heat treating temperature slowly
enough to prevent this. In the case of these two
IDENTIFICATION OF ALLOY.
4-28. Positive identif ication of an alloy, from a
constituency standpoint, can only be determined
by laboratory analysis. However, whether a light
metal is magnesium or not can be generally determined by a simple test consisting of placing the
test metal in contact with an 0.5% solution of silver nitrate, and observing the reaction for 1 minute. The solution is made by dissolving 0.5g. of
silver nitrate in 100 ml. of water. Formation of a
black deposit of metallic silver on the metal indicates magnesium or high-magnesium alloy. Then
immerse the metal in a chrome pickle chemical
solution, Type I Specif ication MIL-M-3171 (Commercially known as DOW No. 1). The solution
should be freshly prepared and the test operator
familiar with the colors of chemical treatment. If
the metal assumes a very bright brassy coating, it
indicates it is aluminum free alloy. If a greyish
4-16
Change 4
4-29. HEAT TREATING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
- GENERAL.
.
.
NOTE
SAE-AMS-M-6857, Heat Treatment of
Magnesium Alloy Castings, will be
the control for heat treatment of magnesium alloy castings used on aerospace equipment. For complete
description of magnesium alloy castings heat treat requirements, refer to
latest issue of SAE-AMS-M-6857.
Additional Heat Treatment information is discussed in Section IX.
T.O. 1-1A-9
examples, no less than two hours should be consumed in bringing them from 640oF to treating
temperature.
4-31. An additional and no less important characteristic of the metal relative to heat treatment,
is that it is subject to excessive surface oxidation
at 750oF and higher temperatures. In an oxidizing
atmosphere, this characteristic can result in ignition and f ierce burning. To prevent such occurrences, a protective atmosphere containing suff icient sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide or other
satisfactory oxidation inhibitor shall be used when
heating to 750oF and over. When oxidation inhibitors are used, their concentration percentage in
the furnace atmosphere should be periodically
checked for correct amounts. The particular
requirements for various alloys are detailed in paragraph 4-46 in this section. These requirements
and those of other pertinent specif ications and
instructions should be consulted and strictly
adhered to in processing the metal. The safety
measures def ined in paragraph 4-1 must be rigidly
practiced.
4-32.
HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT.
4-33. Furnaces used for solution heat treatment
shall be of the air chamber type with forced air
circulation. Heating provisions can be gas, electricity or oil. Their design must be such as to make
impossible, direct heating element radiation or
f lame impingement on the articles being treated.
The furnaces shall be installed with the necessary
control, temperature measuring and recording
instrument equipment to assure complete and
accurate control. The temperature control shall be
capable of maintaining a given temperature to
within ± 10o F at any point in the working zone,
af ter the charge has been brought up to this temperature. Each furnace used shall be equipped
with a separate manual reset safety cut-out which
will turn off the heat source in the event of any
malfunction or failure of the regular automatic
controls. The safety cut-outs shall be set as close
as practicable above the maximum solution heat
treating temperature for the alloy being treated.
This will be above the variation expected but shall
not be more than 10oF above the maximum heat
treat temperature of the alloy being processed.
There shall also be protective devices to shut off
the heat source in case of circulation air stoppage.
These devices shall be interconnected with a manual reset control.
4-34. Upon initial furnace installation and af ter
any maintenance on the furnace or its equipment
which might affect its operational characteristics,
a temperature survey shall be made to test its
capability of maintaining the minimum and maximum temperatures required for the various treatments it will be used for. A minimum of 9 test
locations within the furnace load area should be
checked. One in each corner, one in the center
and one for each 25 cubic feet of furnace volume
up to the maximum of 400 cubic feet. A monthly
survey should be made af ter the initial survey,
unless separate load thermocouples are employed,
to record actual metal temperatures. The monthly
survey should consist of one test for a solution
heat treat temperature and one test for a precipitation heat treat temperature, one for each 40
cubic feet of heat treating volume with a minimum, of 9 test locations required regardless of the
volume. In addition, a periodic survey should be
made, using the test criteria of the initial survey.
For all surveys, the furnaces should be allowed to
heat to a point stabilization before taking any
readings. The temperature of all test locations
should be determined at 5 to 10 minute intervals
af ter insertion of the temperature sensing elements in the furnace. The maximum temperature
variation of all elements shall not exceed 20oF and
shall not exceed the solution or precipitation heat
treating range at any time af ter equilibrium is
reached.
4-35. Furnace control temperature measuring
instruments shall not be used as test instruments
during any survey. The thermocouple and sensing
elements should be replaced periodically because
of the in-service incurred effects of oxidation and
deterioration.
4-36. Pyrometers used with the automatic control system to indicate, maintain and record the
furnace temperatures, should preferably be of the
potentiometer type.
4-37. Suitable jigs, f ixtures, trays, hangers,
racks, ventilators and other equipment shall be
used in processing the articles.
4-38. HEAT TREATMENT SOLUTION. Solution for heat treating of magnesium alloyed articles is accomplished by heating at an elevated
temperature in an air furnace for a specif ic length
of time (holding period); during which certain
alloying elements enter into uniform solid solution,
since the alloys tend to become plastic at high heat
treat temperatures, it is mandatory that suitable
support be provided for articles being processed to
prevent warping. Table 4-8 below lists the recommended soaking and holding time for solution heat
treating alloys. The holding periods given are for
castings up to 2 inches thick. Items thicker than 2
inches will require longer periods.
4-39. AZ92A (Type 2), AZ91C and QE22A sand
castings and AM100A permanent mold castings
4-17
T.O. 1-1A-9
may be charged into the furnace which is at the
heat treating temperature. Since magnesium castings are subject to excessive surface oxidation at
temperatures of 750oF and over, a protective
atmosphere containing suff icient sulphur dioxide,
carbon dioxide or other satisfactory oxidation
inhibitor shall be used when solution heat treating
at 750oF and over. The whole casting must be
heat treated, not just part of it.
4-40. Precipitation heat treatment or artif icial
aging of alloys is accomplished at temperature
lower than those of the solution treatment. Suggested aging treatments for various alloys are as
cited in Table 4-9.
Table 4-8.
ALLOY
4-41. Stabilization heat treating an alloy
increases its creep strength and retards growth at
service encountered elevated temperatures. The
same general procedure of heating to temperature,
holding for a time and cooling to room temperature is used as in the other two types, only the
temperature and time elements are different.
When applied to a solution treat treated alloy, it
increases the alloy’s yield strength. Actually stabilization treatment is a high temperature aging
treatment accomplished quickly rather than
allowing an alloy to age naturally over a period of
time.
Solution Heat Treating Temperatures and Holding Times
TEMPERATURE
RANGE
TIME PERIOD(HRS)
MAX TEMP oF
AM100A
790-800
16-24
810
AZ63A (Type 1)
720-730 (F to T4)
10-14
734
AZ63A (Type 2)*
720-740 (F to T4)
10-14
745
AZ81A
770-785
16-24
785
AZ91C
770-785
16-24
785
AZ92A (Type 1)
760-770
16-24
775
AZ92A (Type 2)
775-785
14-22
785
HK31A
1045-1055
2
1060
QE22A**
970-990
4-8
1000
ZK61A
925-935
or
895-905
2
935
10
935
* Contains calcium.
** Quench in 150oF water bath within 30 seconds af ter opening of furnace.
4-42. Annealing of magnesium alloys is accomplished to relieve internal stresses, generally
resulting from forming operations; sof ten the
material for forming; improve the ductility; and/or
ref ine the grain structure. The alloy is heated to
the proper temperature, soaked or held at that
temperature for a specif ied time and cooled to
room temperature. The desired effects are gained
by controlling the temperature, hold time and cooling medium exposure. Avoid excessive time at
temperature to prevent unwanted grain growth.
Conversely, no attempt should be made to shorten
the time at temperature and over all annealing
time by increasing the temperature, since elements of the alloy subject to melting points lower
then the alloy itself can go into solution.
4-18
4-43. HEAT TREATING PROCEDURES. Placing of articles to be treated in the furnace, (generally referred to as charging the furnace), should
not be done in a haphazard fashion. Individual
pieces should be racked or supported to prevent
distorting without interfering with the free f low of
the heated atmosphere around the article. Distortion or warping can occur due to the semi-plastic
qualities of the alloys at the furnace elevated temperatures during solution heat treat. Distortion is
not a particular problem during precipitation or
stabilization treatment or annealing. However, it
is good practice to handle magnesium alloy articles
with care at all times under elevated heat conditions. In the case of complicated formed parts, it
may be necessary to utilize a specially contoured
T.O. 1-1A-9
jig or f ixture to adequately protect the design contour of the item at high temperatures.
4-44. Cooling af ter treating is accomplished in
either still or blast air, depending upon the alloy.
The one exception is alloy QE22A which is water
quenched. The water should be at 150oF
temperature.
4-45. ALLOY GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC
INFORMATION.
a. AM100-A - Used in pressure tight sand end
permanent mold castings with good combination of
tensile strength, yield strength and elongation.
Solution heat treat in 0.5% SO2 atmosphere 20
hours at 790oF; cool in strong air blast. Partially
artif icial aging -12 hours at 325oF; cool in still air.
Completely artif icial age 5 hours at 450oF; cool in
still air or oven. Aging increases basic yield
strength and hardness and decreases toughness
and elongation.
4-46. In the following paragraphs are brief summaries of the general characteristics of the various
alloys.
Table 4-9.
Artificial Aging (Precipitation Treatment)
ALLOY & TEMPER
AGING TREATMENT
AM100A-T6
5 hours at 450oF or 24 hours at 400oF
AM100A-T5*
5 hours at 450oF
AZ63A-T6
5 hours at 425oF or 5 hours at 450oF
AZ63A-T5*
4 hours at 500oF or 5 hours at 450oF
AZ91C-T6
16 hours at 335oF or 4 hours at 420oF
AZ92A-T6 (Type 1)
4 hours at 500oF or 5 hours at 425oF
AZ92A-T6 (Type 2)
5 hours at 450oF or 16 hours at 400oF
or 20 hours at 350oF
AZ92A-T5* (Type 2)
5 hours at 450oF
EZ33A-T5*
2 hours at 650oF or 5 hours at 420oF
or 5 hours at 420oF
HK31A-T6
16 hours at 400oF
HZ32A-T5*
16 hours at 600oF
QE22A-T6
8 hours at 400oF
ZH62A-T5*
2 hours at 625oF or 16 hours at 350oF
ZK51A-T5*
8 hours at 424oF or 12 hours at 350oF
ZK61A-T5*
48 hours at 300oF
ZK61A-T6
48 hours at 265oF
*T5 is aged from as-cast condition. Others are aged from T4 condition.
b. AZ31B and C - Used in low cost extruded
bars, rods, shapes, structural sections and tubing
with moderate mechanical properties and high
elongation sheet and plate; good formability and
strength, high resistance to corrosion, good weldability. Liquid temperature 1170oF; solid 1120oF.
Hot working temperature is 450 - 800oF.
Annealing temperature 650oF. Stress relief of
extrusions and annealed sheet = 500oF for 15 minutes; hard rolled sheet = 300oF for 60 minutes.
Foreign equivalents are: British DTD 120A Sheet,
1351350 forgings; German and Italian, Electron
AZ31; French - SOC Gen Air Magnesium, F3 and
T8.
c. AZ61A - Use in general purpose extrusions
with good properties, intermediate cost; press forgings with good mechanical properties. Rarely used
in sheet form. Hot working temperature 350o750oF; shortness temperature above 780oF. Anneal
Change 1
4-19
T.O. 1-1A-9
650oF. Heat treat annealed sheet extrusions and
forgings 15 minutes at 500oF rolled sheet 400oF
for 15 minutes. Foreign equivalents are British
BS 1351 (forgings) BS 1354 (extrusions); German
AZM.
d. AZ63A - Used in sand castings for good
strength properties with best ductility and toughness. Solution heat treat at 740oF in a 0.5%SO2atmosphere for 10 hours then cool in air.
Aging is done at 450oF for 5 hours and cooled in
air or furnace. Stabilize at 300oF at 4 hours and
cool in air. Foreign equivalents are Elektron AZG,
British DTD59A(as cast)and DTD-289 (heat
treated). Good salt water anti-corrosion properties.
Table 4-10.
Deleted.
Table 4-11.
Deleted.
f. AZ81A - Used in sand or permanent mold
castings for good strength, excellent ductility, pressure tightness and toughness. Readily castable
with low micro-shrinkage tendency. Solution heat
treat 775oF for 18 hours, cool in air or by fan.
Stabilizing treatment 500oF, 4 hours and air cool.
To prevent germination (grain growth) an alternate heat treat of 775oF for 6 hours, 2 hours at
665oF and 10 hours at 775oF may be used.
g. AZ91A, AZ91B - AZ91A - used for die castings generally.
h. AZ91C - AZ91B - is also die cast alloy but
has higher impurity content. AZ91C is used for
pressure tight sand and permanent mold castings
having high tensile and weld strength. Shortness
temperatures are above 750oF. Heat treat: T-4 condition, 16 hours at 780oF, cool in air blast and
then age at 400oF for 4 hours; T-7 condition, 5
hours at 450oF. Foreign equivalents are Elektron
AZ91 and British DTD136A. Good impact resistance in T-4 temper. T-6 has good yield strength
and, ductility.
i. AZ92A - Used in pressure tight sand and
permanent mold castings. Has high tensile and
yield strengths. Solution heat treat 20 hours at
760oF in an atmosphere of 0.5% SO2. Cool in
strong air blast. Artif icial aging is done at 420oF
for 14 hours. Cool in air or oven. Stabilize for 4
hours at 500oF, then cool in air. Equal to AX63A
in salt water corrosion resistance.
j. EK30A - Used in sand casting for elevated
temperature applications. Has good strength
properties in temperature range 300o- 500oF. Solution heat treat at 1060oF maximum 16 hours then
cool in air by fan. Age at 400oF then air cool.
4-20
Change 1
e. AZ80A - Used for extruded and press
forged products. Heat treatable. Hot working temperature 600-750oF. Shortness temperature above
775oF, annealing temperature 725oF. Stress relief:
as extruded, 500oF for 15 minutes, extruded and
artif icially aged 400oF for 60 minutes; forgings
500o F for 15 minutes. Foreign equivalents are
British 1351 (forgings); German AZ855 Helium or
Argon-arc weldable using AZ92A welding rod or
may be resistance welded. Stress relieve af ter
welding.
k. EK41A - Used as pressure tight sand casting alloy. Good strength at 300o - 500oF. Solution
heat treat at 1060oF maximum 16 hours then cool
in air or with fan. Age at 400oF 16 hours, air cool.
l. EZ33A - Used for pressure tight, good
strength sand and permanent mold castings where
temperatures may reach 500oF in use. Age at
420oF for 5 hours. Forgeign equivalent British
ZRE1.
m. HK31A - Used in sand castings for elevated
temperature use up to 650oF and sheet and plate
applications. Has excellent weld and forming
characteristics in sheet/plate form and retains
good strength up to 650oF. Hot working temperature is 800o to 1050oF. Anneal at 750oF. Solution
heat treat sand castings by loading into a 1050oF
furnace and holding for 2 hours, then fan or air
cool. Age for 16 hours at 400oF. H23 sheet may be
stress relieved af ter welding at 650oF for 1 hour or
675oF for 20 minutes. Sheet may be resistance
welded.
n. HM21A - Used sheet, plate and forgings,
usable at 650oF and above. Hot work at 850oF 1100oF Anneal at 850oF. Heat treat forgings
(T5)450oF for 16 hours. Resistance welding is also
satisfactory.
o. HM31A - Used in extruded bars, rods,
shapes and tubing for elevated temperature service. Exposure to temperatures through 600oF for
periods of 1000 hours caused practically no change
in short time room and elevated temperature
properties. Superior modulus of elasticity particularly at elevated temperatures. Hot work at 700oF
- 1000oF.
T.O. 1-1A-9
p. HZ32A - Used for sand castings. It is of
properties for medium and long range exposure at
temperatures above 500oF and is pressure tight.
q. KIQA - Casting alloy with comparatively
low strength has excellent damping
characteristics.
r. MIA - Used for wrought products and provides for moderate mechanical properties with
excellent weldability, corrosion resistance and hot
formability. Hot work at 560o - 1000oF. Anneal at
700oF. Stress relieve annealed sheet at 500oF, in
15 minutes; hard rolled sheet at 400oF in 60 minutes; and extrusions at 500oF in 15 minutes. Foreign equivalents are British BS1352 (forgings) and
German AM503.
s. QE22A - Castings have high yield strength
at elevated temperatures. Solution heat treat at
970o-990oF 4 to 8 hours. Quench in 150oF water
bath.
t.
TA54A - Best hammer forging alloy.
strength at room temperatures and moderate longtime creep resistance at temperatures up to 480oF
are required. The alloy is a precipitation hardening one from the as-cast condition and requires no
solution heat treatment. Maximum hardness is
developed at 480oF in 24 hours. More ductility
and better shock resistance may be obtained by
overaging at temperatures such as 750oF. For T51
condition treat at 480oF for 24 hours; T4 condition
750oF for 24 hours.
x. ZH62A - Used as a high strength good ductility structural alloy at normal temperatures and
has the highest yield strength of any alloy except
ZK61A-T6. Heat treat at 480oF for 12 hours. Foreign equivalent is British T26.
y. ZK21A - An alloy of moderate strength for
extrusion fabrication. Good weldability using
shielded arc and AZ61A or AZ92A, rod. Resistance
welding also satisfactory. ZK51A - Used for high
yield strength, good ductility, sand castings. Heat
treat for 12 hours at 350oF. Foreign equivalent is
British Z52.
u. ZE10A - Used for low cost, moderate
strength sheet and plate. No stress relief required
af ter welding. Hot work at 500o - 900oF. Anneal
400oF. AZ61A or EX33A rod is preferred for
welding.
z. ZK60A - Used as a wrought alloy for
extruded shapes and press forgings. Has high
strength and good ductility characteristics. Hot
work at 600o-750oF. Shortness temperature is
950oF. Age at 300oF for 24 hours, air cool. Foreign equivalent is German ZW6.
v. ZE41A - A good strength, pressure tight,
weldable alloy, where temperatures are below
200oF. Age 2 hours at 625oF, air cool; 16 hours at
350oF air cool. Foreign equivalent - British RZ5.
aa. ZK61A - Casting Alloy. Solution heat treat
at 925o - 935oF for 2 hours or 895o - 905o F for 10
hours.
w. ZH42A - Used in sand castings for aircraf t
engines and airframe structures where high
Paragraphs 4-47 through 4-51 deleted.
Change 1
4-21
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 4-1.
4-22
Change 1
Typical Dust Collectors for Magnesium
Paragraphs 4-52 through 4-95 deleted.
Tables 4-12 through 4-31 deleted.
Figures 4-2 through 4-4 deleted.
Pages 4-23 through 4-43/(4-44 blank) deleted.
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION V
TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS
5-1.
CLASSIFICATION.
5-2. Titanium is produced in pure form as well
as in various alloys. Pure titanium is commonly
known as unalloyed. It can be cast, formed,
joined, and machined with relative ease as compared to the various alloy grades. Unalloyed titanium cannot be heat treated. Therefore, its uses
are limited to end items not requiring the higher
strengths obtained from the heat treatable alloys.
5-3. Titanium is a very active metal, and readily
dissolves carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. The most
pronounced effects are obtained from oxygen and
nitrogen. For this reason, any heating process
must be performed in a closely controlled atmosphere to prevent the absorption of oxygen and
nitrogen to a point of brittleness.
5-4.
GENERAL.
5-5. MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL DESIGNATIONS. There are presently two military specif ications in existence (See Table 5-1) covering
alloyed and unalloyed titanium in classes established to designate various chemical compositions.
For the selection of the proper class and form of
stock required for a particular purpose, reference
will be made to Table 5-1.
5-6. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Limited physical properties are available on the titanium compositions covered by existing military specif ications.
Compared to other materials, the melting point of
titanium is higher than that of any of the other
construction materials currently in use. The density of titanium is intermediate to aluminum and
steel. Electrical resistivities of titanium are similar to those of corrosion-resistant steel. The modulus of elasticity is somewhat more than half that of
the alloy steels and the coeff icient of expansion is
less than half that of austenitic stainless steels.
5-7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. As previously pointed out, titanium is a very active metal
and readily dissolves carbon, oxygen and nitrogen.
All three elements tend to harden the metal; oxygen and nitrogen having the most pronounced
effect.
5-8. The control of these elements causes considerable diff iculty in obtaining correct mechanical
properties during the fabrication of titanium. This
variation in mechanical properties is the cause of
diff iculties encountered in the fabrication of parts,
since the absorption of small amounts of oxygen or
nitrogen makes vast changes in the characteristics
of this metal during welding, heat treatment, or
any application of heat in excess of 800oF.
5-9. Operations involving titanium requiring the
application of heat in excess of 800oF must be performed in a closely controlled atmosphere by methods explained in future paragraphs. The nominal
mechanical properties are listed in Table 5-2.
5-10. METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION. Methods of distinguishing titanium alloys from other
metals are simple and def inite. One quick method
is to contact the titanium with a grinding wheel.
This results in a pure white trace ending in a brilliant white burst. Also, identif ication can be
accomplished by moistening the titanium and
marking the surface with a piece of glass. This
leaves a dark line similar in appearance to a pencil mark. Titanium is non-magnetic. To positively
identify the various alloys, a chemical or
spectographic analysis is necessary.
5-11. HARDNESS TESTING. Hardness is the
resistance of a metal to plastic deformation by
penetration, indentation, or scratching, and is usually a good indication of strength. This property
can be measured accurately by the Brinell,
Rockwell or Vickers Technique. The hardness to
be expected from the various alloys and unalloyed
titanium is listed in Table 5-2.
5-12. TENSILE TESTING. The useful strength
of a metal is the maximum load which can be
applied without permanent deformation. This factor is commonly called yield strength. The tensile
strength of a metal is that load, in pounds per
square inch, at which complete failure occurs. In
the case of titanium the yield strength is the most
important factor and is therefore used by industry
to designate the various types of unalloyed
titanium.
5-13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING. Titanium and titanium alloys are highly susceptible to
stress risers resulting from scratching, nicking,
and notching. For this reason, close visual inspection is required of all raw stock prior to any forming or machining operations. All scratches, nicks
and notches must be removed, before fabrication,
by sanding and polishing.
5-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 5-1.
Comp/Alloy
Designation
Form/Commodity
Specification Cross Reference Titanium Alloys
Specification Data
AMS
1
Military
Other
2
COMMERCIALLY PURE (UNALLOYED)
40KS1 (A-40
55A) YIELD
55KS1 (A55;
65A) Yield
SHEET, STRIP
PLATE
4902
Tubing Welded
4941
Tubing Seamless
4942
Sheet, Strip
Plate
4900
Forgings
MIL-T-9046
Type I, COMP. A
A-40; HA1940; MST-40; RS-40;
Ti-55A
A40; 55A
MIL-T-9046
Type I, COMP. C
A55; HA-1950; MST 55 RS55;
T1-65A; NA2-7123B
MIL-F-83142
Comp. 1
70KS1 (A70;
75A) Yield
Sheet Strip Plate
4901
MIL-T-9046
Type I, COMP. B
A70; HA-1970; MST70 RS70;
Ti-75A, NA2-7126G
70KS1 (A70;
100A)
Bars, Forgings
and Forging
Stock
4921
MIL-T-9046
Type I, COMP. A
A70; HA-1970; MST70 RS70;
Ti-75A
ALPHA TITANIUM ALLOY
5AL-2.5Sn
(A110AT)
5AL-2.5Sn
EL1
Sheet Strip,
Plate
4910
MIL-T-9046
Type II, COMP.
A
A-110AT; HA5137; 0.01 014; MST
5AL-2.5Sn; RS110C; T1-5AL2.5Sn;NA2-71269
Bars and
Forgings
4926
4966
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 2
A-110AT; HA5137; MST 5AL2.5Sn; RS110C; Ti-5AL-2.5Sn;
NA2-7149A
Sheet Strip Plate
4909
MIL-T-9046
Type II, COMP.
B
Bars and
Forgings
4924
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 3
5AL-SZr-5Sn
Sheet, Strip
Plate
MIL-T-9046
Type II, COMP.
C
7AL-12Zr
Sheet, Strip
Plate
MIL-T-9046
Type II, COMP.
D
7AL-2Cb-1Ta
Sheet, Strip
Plate
MIL-T-9046
Type II, COMP.
E
5-2
Change 1
T.O. 1-1A-9
Comp/Alloy
Designation
8AL-1MO-IV
Form/Commodity
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
Specification Data
1
AMS
Military
4915
(Single
ann’1)
MIL-T-9046
Type II, COMP.
F
Bars and
Forgings
Other
2
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 5
Bars, Rings
4972
Forgings
(Solution
heat treated and
stabilized)
4973
BETA TITANIUM ALLOYS
13V-11Cr-3AL
Forgings
MIL-F-83142
Comp. 14
Bars and
Forgings
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 12
13.5V-11Cr-3AL
(B120VCA)
Plate, Sheet
and Strips
Solution Heat
Treated
11.5 Mo-6Zr-
Bars and
Forgings
8Mn
(C110M)
4917
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 13
Bars and Wire
(Solution Heat
Treated)
4977
Sheet, Strip
Plate
4908
Forgings
4AL-3Mo-IV
6AL-4V
(C120AV)
B-120VCA; MST 13V-11Cr-3AL;
R120B; Ti-13V-11C4-3AL
MIL-T-9046
Type III, COMP.
A
C110M, MST 8Mn; RS110A;
Ti-8Mn; 0.01002
MIL-T-83142
Comp. 12
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
4912
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
(Solution and
Pretreated)
4913
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
4911
MIL-T-9046
Type III COMP.
B
MST 4AL-3MO-IV; RS115;
Ti-3AL 3MO-IV; LB-0170-104
MIL-T-9046
Type III, COMP.
C
C-120AV; HA6510; MST 6AL-4V;
RS120A; TI-6AL-4V; LB0170-110
Change 1
5-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 5-1.
Comp/Alloy
Designation
6AL-4VEL1
Specification Cross Reference Titanium Alloys - Continued
Form/Commodity
Specification Data
Military
Other
Bars and
Forgings
4928
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 6
C120AV; HA6510; MST-6AL-4V;
RS120A; TI-6AL-4V; LB0170-110;
0.01037
Bars and
Forgings
(Solution &
Precipitation
Heat Treated)
4965
Extrusions
4935
C120AV; HA6510; MST-6AL-4V;
RS120A; Ti-6AL-4V; LB0170-147
Wire, Welding
4954
C120AV
Forgings
MIL-F-83142
COMP. 6
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
MIL-T-9046
Type III, COMP.
D
4930
Forgings
Wire, Welding
(Extra low
intertital
environment
controlled)
7AL-4Mo
(C135MO)
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 7
MIL-F-83142
Comp. F
4956
Forgings
MIL-F-83142
Comp. 8
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
4918
MIL-T-9046
Type III, COMP.
E
Bars and Forgings
4973
(Ann’1)
4979
(H.T.)
MIL-T-9046
COMP. B
Forgings
MIL-T-83142
Comp. 9
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
MIL-T-9046
Type III, COMP.
F
Bars and
Forgings
5-4
2
AMS
Bars and
Forgings
6AL-6V-2Sn
1
4970
(H.T.)
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 9
C135MO; HA-7146; MST 7AL4MO; RS 135; Ti-7AL-4MO;
LB0170-122
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 5-1.
Comp/Alloy
Designation
Specification Cross Reference Titanium Alloys - Continued
Form/Commodity
Specification Data
AMS
1
Military
7AL-4Mo
(C135MO)
(Cont)
Forgings
MIL-F-83142
Comp. 13
6AL-2SN4Zr-2Mo
Sheet, Strip,
Plate
MIL-T-9046
Type III, COMP.
G
Bars and
Forgings
6AL-2Sn4Zr-6Mo
Bars and
Forgings
4979
(H.T.)
4976
(Ann’1)
Other
2
MIL-T-9047
Comp. II
MIL-T-9047
Comp. 14
MISCELLANEOUS SPECIFICATIONS
Heat Treatment
of Titanium and
Titanium Alloys
SAE-AMS-H81200
1
There may be controlled requirements applicable to some specif ications listed in the same alloy
type or series. Validate any difference and assure that selected specif ication material(s) will
comply with end item specif ication requirements before specifying or using.
2
The following manufactures names apply to designations listed under other:
a. For designation beginning with A, B, C (example - A-40) CRUCIBLE STEEL CO.
b. For designation beginning with HA (example HA-1940) HARVEY ALUMINUM CO.
c. For designation beginning with MST (example MST-70) REACTIVE METAL CORP.
d. For designation beginning with RS (example RS-40) REPUBLIC STEEL CO.
e. For designation beginning with T1 (example T1-8Mn) TITANIUM METAL CORP.
f. For designation beginning with LB or NA (example LB170-110 or NA2-7123B) NORTH
AMERICAN AVIATION INC.
g. For designation beginning with 0.0 (example 0.01015) CONVAIR OR GENERAL DYNAMICS
CORP.
Change 4
5-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-14. FIRE DAMAGE. Fire damage to titanium
and titanium alloys becomes critical above 1000oF
due to the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen from
the air which causes surface hardening to a point
of brittleness. However, an overtemperatured condition is indicated by the formation of an oxide
coating and can be easily detected by a light green
to white color. If this indication is apparent following f ire damage to titanium aircraf t parts, the
affected parts will be removed and replaced with
serviceable parts.
5-15.
.
5-6
HEAT TREATMENT - GENERAL.
NOTE
SAE-AMS-H-81200, Heat Treatment
of Titanium and Titanium Alloys, will
be the control document for heat
treatment of titanium and titanium
Change 4
.
alloys used on aerospace equipment.
For complete description of titanium
heat treat requirements, refer to latest issue of SAE-AMS-H-81200.
Additional Heat Treatment information is discussed in Section IX.
5-16. A majority of the titanium alloys can be
effectively heat treated to strengthen, anneal and
stress relieve. The heating media for accomplishing the heat treatment can be air, combusted
gases, protective atmosphere, inert atmosphere, or
vacuum furnace. However, protective, inert atmospheres or vacuum shall be used as necessary to
protect all parts (titanium or titanium alloy), etc.,
which comprise the furnace load to prevent reaction with the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen
and oxygen.
Table 5-2.
Nominal Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
ANNEALED CONDITION
SOLUTION TREATED CONDITION
Yield Str
(0.2% Off
set) 1000
psi Min
Tensil Str
(Ultimate
min) 1000
psi
Elong
% in
2 in
Rock
well
Hardness
40-65
50
20
B88
70-95
80
15
C23
55-80
65
18
B95
TYPE II, Comp A (5AL-2.5SN)
Comp B (5AL-2.5SnE11)
Comp C (5AL-5Zr-5Sn)
Comp D (7AL-23Zr)
Comp E (7AL-2Cb-1Ta)
Comp F (8AL-1Mo-IV)
110
95
110
120
110
135
120
100
120
130
115
145
10
8-10
10
10
10
8-10
C35
TYPE III, Comp A (8Mn)
Comp B (4AL-3Mo-IV)
Comp C (6AL-4C)
Comp D (6AL-4V-EL1)
Comp E (6AL-6V-2Sn)
Comp F (7AL-4Mo)
110
115
120
120
140
135
120
125
130
130
150
145
10
10
8
10
10
10
TYPE IV, Comp A (13V-11Cr-3A1)
MIL-T-9047, Class 1 (Unalloyed)
Class 2 (5AL, 2.5Sn)
Class 3 (3AL, 5Cr)
Class 4 (2Fe, 2Cr, 2Mo)
Class 5 (6AL, 4V)
Class 6 (6AL, 4V)
Class 7 (5AL, 1.5Fe, 15Cr, 1.5Mo)
120
70
110
130
120
120
130
135
125
80
115-120
140
130
130
140
145
10
15
10
10
15
8
10
10
MATERIAL TYPE
Yield Str
(0.2% Off
set) 1000
psi Min
Tensil Str
(Ultimate
min) 1000
psi
Elong
% in
2 in
Rock
well
Hardness
SOLUTION TREATED AND
AGED
Yield
Str
Tensil
Elong
% in
2 in
MIL-T-9046 1/
TYPE I, Comp A
(Unalloyed 40 ksi)
Comp B
(Unalloyed 70 ksi)
Comp C
(Unalloyed 65 ksi)
C35
Not recommended
C35
C38
C36
C36
C38
Not recommended
130
150
160
8
5
155
145
170
160
5.0
5.0
160
160
170
10
10
160
160
170
170
8.0
8.0
120
125
10
160
170
10.0
145
150
160
160
5
5
150
160
160
175
5.0
5.0
C23
C36
C36
C36
C40
C39
NOTE 1/ Comp A, B and C are classif ied as commerically pure.
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
CAUTION
Cracked ammonia or hydrogen shall
not be used as a protective atmosphere for titanium and titanium
alloys in any heat treating operations.
5-17. Air-chamber furnaces are more f lexible and
economical for large volumes of work and for low
temperature heat treatments; but at high temperatures where surface oxidation (above 1000oF) is
signif icant, a muff le furnace utilizing external
heating gives more protection, especially if gas
heated. For general use, electric furnaces are preferred since heating can be accomplished internally or externally with a minimum of contamination. Furnaces which have given satisiactory
results are vacuum furnaces capable of supplying
pressures of one micron or less; and inert gas furnaces which control the atmosphere to 1% or less
of oxygen and nitrogen combined.
NOTE
Avoid direct f lame impengement to
prevent severe localized oxidation and
contamination. Also avoid contact
with scale or dirt.
5-18. Alternately direct resistance heating may
be used where extremely short heat up cycle on
nearly f inished parts is required to minimize surface oxidation.
5-19. The commercially pure, or unalloyed titanium, can only be hardened/strengthened by cold
work. Stress relief and annealing are the only
heat treatments applicable to these alloys. These
processes of heat treatment are employed to
remove residual stress resulting from grinding,
work hardening, welding, etc. For recommended
temperatures and times see Table 5-3.
5-20. The soaking period for heat treatment of
titanium alloys shall be the minimum necesaary to
develop the required mechanical properties. The
minimum soaking period (when unknown) shall be
determined by teat samples run prior to heat
treating the f iniahed material or part. Excessive
heat treat soaking periods ahall be avoided to prevent diffusion of oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen.
Oxygen and nitrogen diffusion will take the form
of a hard brittle surface layer which is diff icult to
distinguish from the base metal. The brittle layer
must be removed by mechanical or chemical
means prior to forming or application in stressed
components. For the recommended soaking periods and temperatures see Table 5-3.
5-21. Scaling (oxidation) of titanium and titanium alloys starts at about 900oF. Light scaling
which forms from exposure to temperatures up to
1000oF has little or no detrimental effect on
mechanical properties. Heating to temperatures
5-8
above 1000oF under oxidizing conditions results in
severe surface scaling as well as diffusion of
oxygen.
5-22. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT. Hydrogen embrittlement is a major problem with titanium and titanium alloys. Hydrogen is readily
absorbed from pickling, cleaning and scale removal
solution at room temperature and from the atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen embrittlement in the basically pure and alpha alloys is
evident by a reduction in ductility and a slight
increase in strength. This is associated with a
decrease in impact strength at temperatures below
200oF and a shif t in the temperature range where
the change from ductile to brittle occurs. With
alpha-beta alloys, embrittlement is found at slow
speeds of testing and under constant or ‘‘sustained’’ loads as demonstrated by tests on notched
specimens. This type of embrittlement, which is
similar to the embrittlement of steel, only becomes
evident above a certain strength level. Solution
heat treating and aging the alpha-beta alloys to
high strength levels increases sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement.
5-23. Quenching from solution heat treating for
temperature wrought titanium alloys, except for
alloy 3AL-13V-11Cr less than 2 inches thick,
which maybe air cooled, shall be by total immersion in water. The water shall be of suff icient
volume or circulation or both so that the water
temperature upon completion of the quenching
operation will not be more than 100oF. The
quenching baths shall be located and arranged to
permit rapid transfer of the load from the furnace
to the bath. Maximum quench delay for immersion-type quenching shall be 4 seconds for wrought
alloys up to 0.091 nominal thickness and 7 seconds
for 0.091 and over. Quench delay time begins
when furnace doors begin to open and ends when
the last corner of the load is immersed. With
extremely large loads or long lengths quench delay
may be exceeded if performance test indicates that
all parts comply with specif ication requirements.
5-24. AGING AND STRESS RELIEVING. For
aging, the material shall be held within temperature range for suff icient time, depending on section size, for the necessary aging to take place and
to insure that specif ied properties are developed.
Wrought alloys should be fully quenched by air
cooling from the aging temperature. The same
applies for stress relieving except the time at temperature will depend on section size plus amount
of cold work hardening present in the material.
The material is also quenched by air cooling from
the stress relieving temperature.
NOTE
All heat treating operations shall be
performed uniformly on the whole
part, etc., never on a portion thereof.
Table 5-3.
Heat Treat, Stress Relief and Annealing Temperatures and Times
STRESS
RELIEF
TEMP oF
STRESS
RELIEF
TIME
HOURS
1000-1100
900
800
1/2-1
2-4
8
1000-1300
1 1/2-2
Hardened only by cold work
5A1-2.5Sn
1080-1125
1-2
1335-1550
1/4-4
Hardened only by cold work
5A1-5Zr-5Sn
1100-1300
1/2-3/4
1335-1550
1/4-1
7A1-12Zr
1275-1325
1/2-3/4
1630-1670
1/4-1
7A1-2Cb-1Ta 2/
1000-1200
1/3-3/4
1630-1670
1/4-1
8A1-1Mo-1V 1/
1285-1315
1/2
1430-1470
8
3/
950-1000
1/2-2
1250-1300
1
2Fe-2Cr-2Mo 4/
800-1000
1/2-15
1175-1200
1/2
1650-1750
5-25
900-950
4-6
2.5A1-16V
960-990
3-5
1360-1400
1/16-1/2
1360-1400
10-30
960-990
3-5
---
---
1250-1350
MATERIAL
Unalloyed Commercially
Pure Comp A, B and C
ANNEALING
TEMP oF
ANNEALING
TIME
HOURS
HEAT
TREATING
TEMP oF
H.T.
SOAKING
TIME
MINUTES
14/
AGING
TEMP oF
AGING
SOAKING
TIME
HOURS
Alpha Alloys
Alpha-Beta Alloys
8Mn
5/
3A1-2.5V
Not recommended
1/2-1 1/2
Not recommended
4A1-4Mn
6/
1250-1350
1/2-2 1/2
1250-1300
2-24
1420-1480
60-120
875-925
6-10
4A1-3Mo-1V
7/
900-1100
1/2-8
1225-1250
2-4
1620-1660
10-20
910-940
6-12
5A1-1.25Fe-2.75Cr 7/ 8/
1000-1100
1/2-2
1425-1650
1/3-2
1350-1550
10-60
900-1000
6-10
5A1-1.5Fe-4Cr-1.2Mo 9/
1100-1200
1/2-2
1180-1200
4-24
1650-1700
30-120
950-1050
4-8
6A1-4V 7/ 10/ 5/
900-1200
1/2-50
1275-1550
1/2-8
1670-1730
5-25
960-990
4-6
6A1-6V-2Sn 9/ 15/
1000-1100
1/2-3
1300-1500
2-3
1575-1675
30-60
875-1175
4-8
7A1-4Mo 11/
900-1300
1/2-8
1425-1450
1-8
1675-1275
30-90
975-1175
4-8
6A1-4V (low o) 10/ 5/
900-1200
1/2-50
1275-1550
1/2-8
3A1-13V-11Cr 12/
900-1000
1/4-60
1430-1470
1/4-1
1375-1425
30-90
880-920
2-60
1A1-8V-5Fe 13/
1000-1100
1/4-60
1200-1300
1/2-1 1/2
1375-1470
15-60
925-1000
1-3
Not recommended
Beta Alloy
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-9
STRESS
RELIEF
TEMP oF
MATERIAL
Heat Treat, Stress Relief and Annealing Temperatures and Times - Continued
STRESS
RELIEF
TIME
HOURS
ANNEALING
TEMP oF
ANNEALING
TIME
HOURS
HEAT
TREATING
TEMP oF
H.T.
SOAKING
TIME
MINUTES
14/
AGING
TEMP oF
AGING
SOAKING
TIME
HOURS
1/ Sheet: Regular anneal furnace cool
Duplex anneal. Mill anneal + 1435oF, 15 minutes air cool.
Triplex anneal. Mill anneal + 1850oF, 5 minutes air cool, + 1375, 15 minutes air cool.
Bar and Forgings:
Duplex anneal
1650-1850, 1 hour air cool + 1000o-1100oF, 8-24 hours air cool.
2/ Bar Duplex anneal: Mill anneal + 1000o-1200oF, 1/2-6 hours air cool.
3/ Anneal furncee cool at 300oF per hour maximum to 1000oF to 1050oF.
4/ Stress relief may be accomplished at 800oF - 15 hours, 850oF - 5 hours, at 900oF - 1 hour and 950oF - 1/2 hour.
5/ For 100 % stress relief, 1000oF - 50 hours or 1200oF - 5 hours. For 50 % relief, 1000oF - 5 hours or 1100oF - 1/2 hour.
6/ Furnace cool at 300oF maximum from anneal temperature for maximum formability, also, formability may be improved by holding at annealing temperature 24
hours.
7/ Slow cool to 1000o-1050oF maximum from upper annealing temperature.
8/ Anneal sheet at temperature for 20 minutes. For bar hold at anneal temperature 2 hours.
9/ Air cool from annealing temperature.
10/ For sheet anneal, heat 1300o-1350oF, 1 hour, furnace cool at a rate of 50oF per hour maximum to 800oF. Air cool may be used for lower ductility requirements. For
bar and forging anneal, heat at 1275o-1325oF for 2 hours, air cool. For hydrogen removal by vacuum annealing, heat at 1300oF-1500oF for 1/2-2 hours, then furnace
cool to 1100oF maximum.
11/ Furnace cool from annealing temp (1425o-1450oF) to 1000o-1050oF maximum at 300oF per hour (maximum) for maximum formability. For maximum creep properties
(af ter lowering from upper annealing) temperature hold at 1050o for 24 hours.
12/ Solution heat treatment recommended for annealing. Stress relieve at temperature cited during aging. If aging not employed, heat treat at 1000oF for 15 minutes.
Aging time will depend on strength level required/desired.
13/ Furance cool from upper anneallng temperature at 300oF per hour maximum to 900oF.
14/ Longer soaking times may be necessary for specif ic forgings. Shorter times are satisfactory when soak time is accurately determined by thermocouples attached to
the load. Soaking time shall be measured from the time all furnace control instruments indicate recovery to the required (minimum) process range.
15/ Age at 1050o-1150oF air cool for best combination of mechanical properties and termal stability.
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-10
Table 5-3.
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-25.
FABRICATION.
5-26. FORMING SHEET METAL-GENERAL.
The forming of the unalloyed titantum can be
accomplished at room temperature using approximately the same procedures as those extablished
for 18-8 stainless steel. The basic diff iculties
encountered are sheet thickness, property variations, direction of grain f low and f latness. The
above factors combined with high yield strength,
high tensile strength and low uniform elongation
of commercial titanium alloys makes forming diff icult. The current equipment available was
designed for material of uniform quality and considerable work is required for adaptation to form
titanium.
5-27. BENDING. Straight-Edge Bending of titanium using power brake on hand forming equipment can be accomplished to a limited degree
using the methods developed for stainless steel.
The factors which require control are the compensation for springback and the bend radii. Springback is comparable to that of hard stainless
steel when formed at room temperature. The bend
radii will depend on the type of material or alloy
and whether forming is accomplished hot or cold.
The forming of material requiring tight bends or
small radii necessitates the application of heat in
the range of 500oF. The heat should be applied for
only short periods of time to avoid excessive oxygen and nitrogen contamination which causes
embrittlement. For approximate cold bend radii of
sheet titanium see Table 5-4. Actual practice may
reveal that smaller bend radii can be used.
5-28. DRAW FORMING. Deep draw forming
should not be attempted unless adequate equipment and facilities are available. This will require
that facilities be maintained for heating and controlling temperatures of the blanks to be formed
and the dies used in the forming operation.
5-29. HYDRAULIC PRESS FORMING. Rubber
pad hydropress forming can be accomplished
either hot or cold depending on the type tooling
employed and the press pressures used. This type
of forming is used on parts that are predominately
f lat and have f langes, beads, and lightening holes.
A male form block is set on the lower press platen
and the blank held in place on the block by locating pins. A press-contained rubber pad (45 to 55
Shore Durometer hardness and about 8 inches
thick) is located over the form block and blank.
The press is then closed. As the ram is lowered,
the rubber pad envelops the form block forcing the
sheet metal blank to conform to its contour.
5-30. Many parts can be formed at room temperature on the hydropress if f lange clips, wedges and
hinge-type dies are used. When cold forming is
employed, it is usually desirable to partially form
the parts, stress-relieve at 1000oF for 20 minutes,
then f inish form. Hot forming for severely contoured parts or when only low-forming pressures
are available is accomplished between 600oF and
800oF. For this procedure, the form block is
heated to the required temperature, the blank
positioned and covered with powdered or shredded
asbestos; then a rubber pad 70 to 80 Durometer
hardness is placed on top. This extra pad of rubber serves two purposes: First, it provides additional rigidity for forming; and second, it protects
the press-contained rubber from the hot form
block.
5-31. Tooling for hydropress form blocks, if elevated temperature forming is to be used, requires
that pressure plates and dies be made somewhat
thicker than in normal practice. If long runs are
anticipated, it is recommended that form blocks be
made from a good grade of hot-work tool steel due
to the galling action of titanium at elevated
temperatures.
5-32. STRETCH FORMING. Stretch forming
has been used on titanium primarily to bend
angles, hat sections, Z-sections and channels and
to stretch form skins so that they will f it the contour of the airplane fuselage. This type of forming
is accomplished by gripping the section to be
formed in knurled jaws, loading until plastic deformation begins, then wrapping the part around a
female die. This operation is performed at room
temperature and should be done at a very slow
rate. Spring back is equivalent to that of 1/4 hard
18-8 stainless steel. All blanks for stretch-forming
should have the edges polished to remove any
notch effects. Approximately 0.025 inch of sheared
edges should be removed.
5-33. DROP-HAMMER FORMING. Drop-hammer forming of titanium has been very successful
and has been accomplished both at room and at
elevated temperatures. Kirksite is satisfactory for
male and female dies where only a few parts are
required. If long runs are to be made, ductile iron
or laminated steel dies are usually necessary. In
drop-hammer forming, the best results have been
obtained by warning the female die to a temperature of 200o to 300oF to remove the chill and heating the blank to a temperature of 800o 1000oF for
10 to 15 minutes. The part is then struck and set
in the die. Usually a stress relief operation at
1000oF for 20 minutes is necessary, then a restrike operation. In most instances, a f inished
part requiring no hand work is obtained.
5-11
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 5-4.
Recommended Minimum CCLD Bend Radii
MINIMUM BEND RADIUS (90 DEGREE BEND) 1/
0.070 & under thickness
over 0.070 to 0.187
TYPE/COMP
Type I - Commercially Pure
Comp A (unalloyed 40,000 psi)
2T
2.5T
Comp B (unalloyed 70,000 psi)
2.5T
3T
Comp C (unalloyed 55,000 psi)
2T
2.5T
Comp A (5AL02.5Sn)
4T
4.5T
Comp B (5AL-2.5Sn EL1)
4T
4.5T
4.5T
5T
Comp D (7AL-12Zr)
5T
5T
Comp E (7AL-2Cb-1Ta)
--
--
Comp F (8AL- 1Mo-1V)
4.5T
5T
3T
3.5T
Comp B (4AL-3Mo-1V)
3.5T
4T
Comp C (6AL-4V)
4.5T
5T
Comp D (6AL-4V)
4.5T
5T
Comp E (6AL-6V-2Sn)
--
--
Comp F (7AL-4Mo)
--
--
3T
3-5T
Type II - Alpha Titanium Alloy
Comp C (5AL-5Zr-5Sn)
Type III - Alpha-Beta
Comp A (8Mn)
Type IV - Beta
Comp A (13V-11Cr-3AL)
1/ T = Thickness of material. Example: A piece of 0.040 MIL-T-9046, Type II, Composition A, would
require a bend radii of 4 x 0.040 = 0.160 bend radii (minimum).
5-34. JOGGLING. Joggling of titanium can be
accomplished without any particular diff iculty provided the following rules are adhered to:
a. The joggle die corner radius should not be
less than 3T-8T.
b. Joggle run-out should be the determining
factors whether joggles are formed hot or cold.
Joggles should be formed hot where a ratio of joggle run-out to joggle depth is less than 8.1.
c. Minimum joggle run-outs should be as
follows:
Hot joggling - four times the joggle
depth.
Cold joggling - eight times the joggle
depth.
5-35. BLANKING AND SHEARING. These
operations compare to those of 18-8 stainless steel
in the 1/4 hard condition for commercially pure,
and the alloys compare to 1/2 hard 18-8 stainless
steel. The force required for titanium and its
alloys is greater and the dies wear faster. Materials up to 0.125 inch in thickness have been
sheared on 1/2 inch capacity f lat bed shears
designed for steel. If this capacity is to be
exceeded, the shear designer should be consulted.
5-36. Before any forming or other operations are
performed 0.025 inch of the sheared, blanked,
sawed, or nibbed edges should be removed to prevent stress risers that will cause a tear in the part
during forming operations.
5-37.
Deleted.
Paragraphs 5-38 through 5-42 deleted.
Pages 5-13 through 5-14 deleted.
5-12
Change 2
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-43.
Deleted.
5-44.
Deleted.
5-45.
Deleted.
5-46.
Deleted.
5-47. SOLDERING. Limited information is
available on soldering. It is possible to successfully solder titanium where little strength is
required, by precoating with a thin f ilm of silver,
copper or tin from their chloride salts. This can be
accomplished by heating the chloride salts-coated
titanium in an atmosphere controlled furnace as
previously mentioned in paragraph 5-18. The
resultant f ilm should be made wet with either a
60% tin-40% lead or a 50%-50% tin and lead solder. Since the deposited f ilm may dissolve in the
liquid solder and dewet the surface, it is important
that the time and temperature be held to a
minimum.
5-48. RIVETING. Riveting of titanium can be
accomplished using conventional equipment with
rivets manufactured from commercially pure material; however, the rivet holes require close tolerances to insure good gripping. The driving time is
increased about 65% over that required for high
strength aluminum rivets. Better results can be
obtained by using the squeeze method rather than
the rivet gun and bucking bar. When it is necessary to have f lush-head rivets, dimpling can be
accomplished at temperatures of 500oF to 700oF.
Other types of rivets such as high strength aluminum, stainless steel and monel are also used to
join titanium.
5-49. Due to diff iculties involved, the above mentioned method will probably be replaced in most
cases with rivets of the high shear series, i.e., pin
rivets such as NAS1806 through NAS1816, tension
rivet NAS-2006 through NAS-2010, and shear
rivet NAS-2406 through NAS-2412.
5-50. As with other metals, it is necessary to
take precautions to avoid galvanic corrosion when
titanium is riveted to other metals. This can be
accomplished by coating the titanium with zinc
chromate primer Specif ication MIL-P-8585.
Table 5-5 deleted.
Change 1
5-15/(5-16 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
5-51.
MACHINING AND GRINDING.
5-52. MACHINING. Commercially pure, unalloyed titanium machines similarly to 18-8 stainless
steel, but the alloy grades are somewhat harder.
Variations in actual practice will depend on the
type of work, equipment, and f inish, so the following information is only intended as a guide.
5-53. The basic requirements are: rigid machine
setups, use of a good cutting f luid that emphasizes
cooling rather than lubrication, sharp and proper
tools, slow speeds and heavy feeds. Since titanium
has a tendency to gall and seize on other metals,
the use of sharp tools is very important. Sliding
contact, and riding of the tool on the work must be
avoided.
5-54. TURNING. Commercially pure and alloy
titanium is not diff icult to turn. Carbide tools
such as metal carbides C91 and Carboloy 44A and
other similar types give the best results for turning titanium. Cobalt-type high speed steels give
the best results of the many types available. Cast
alloy tools such as Stellite, Lantung, Rexalloy, etc.,
may be used when carbide is not available, or
when the high speed steels, are not satisfactory.
5-55. The recommended cutting f luids are
waterbase cutting f luids such as soluble oils or
chemical type f luids.
5-56. Tables 5-6 and 5-7 show suggested turning
speeds, tool angles and feeds. All work should be
accomplished with live centers since galling or
seizing will occur on dead centers. Tool sharpness
is again emphasized because a nick or a seized
chip on a tool increases temperature and will
cause rapid tool failures.
5-57. MILLING. Considering the type of tool
which is required in milling operations, it can be
readily seen that this type of machining is more
diff icult than turning. The diff iculty encountered
is that chips remain tightly welded to the cutter’s
edge at the end of cut or during the portion of the
revolution that it does not cut. As the cutter
starts the next machining portion the chips are
knocked off. This damages the cutting edge and
the tool fails rapidly.
5-58. One method that can be utilized to relieve
this diff iculty to a great extent is climb milling.
The cutter machines the thinnest portion of the
chip as it leaves the cut. Thus, the area of contact
between chip and tool is at a minimum when the
chip is removed at the start of the next cutting
portion of the revolution. This will reduce the
danger of chipping the tool. The machine used for
climb milling should be in good condition because
if there is any lost motion in the feed mechanism
of the table, the piece being cut will be pulled into
the cutter. This may damage the cutter or the
work piece.
5-59. For effective milling, the work feed should
move in the same direction as the cutting teeth,
and for face milling the teeth should emerge from
the cut in the same direction that the work is fed.
5-60. To select the appropriate tool material it is
advisable to try both cast alloy and carbide tools to
determine the better of the two for large milling
jobs. This should be done since the cutter usually
fails because of chipping, and the results are not
as satisfactory with carbide as they are with castalloy tools. The increase in cutting speeds (20 to
30%) possible by using carbide rather than cast
(all alloy tools) does not always compensate for the
additional tool grinding cost.
5-61. The same water-base cutting f luids used
for turning are recommended for milling; however,
carbide tools may give better results when dry.
5-62. See Table 5-8 for recommended speed and
feeds. For tool grinding information see Table 5-9.
5-63. DRILLING. Drilling of titanium can be
accomplished successfully with ordinary high
speed steel drills. Low speeds and heavy positive
feeds are required. The unsupported portion of
the drill should be as short as possible to provide
maximum rigidity and to prevent drill running.
All holes should be drilled without pilot holes if
possible. As with other materials, chip removal is
one of the principal problems and the appearance
of the chip is an indication of the sharpness and
correct grinding of the drill. In drilling deep holes,
intermittent drilling is recommended. That is, the
drill is removed from the hole at intervals to
remove the chips.
5-64. The cutting f luids recommended are sulfurized and chlorinated coolants for drills with diameters of less than 1/4 inch and mixtures of mineral
oil or soluble oil with water for hole sizes larger
than 1/4 inch diameter.
5-65. The cutting speed should be 50 to 60 FPM
for the pure grade of titanium and 30 to 50 FPM
for alloy grades. Feeds should be 0.005 to 0.009
inch for 1/4 to 1/2 inch diameter drills; 0.002 to
0.005 inch for smaller drills. Point angle, 90o for
drills 1/4 inch diameter and larger and 140o for
drills 1/8 inch diameter or less; but 90o, 118o and
140o should be tried on large jobs to determine the
angle that will give the best result. Helix angle
28o to 35o and lip relief 10o. Additional information
on drills may be obtained from NAS907.
5-17
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 5-6.
TYPE
MILITARY
MIL-T-9047C
Turning Speeds for Titanium Alloys
CUTTING SPEED
FPM
FEED, in/rev
TOOL
MATERIAL
Unalloyed
70,000 PSI
Class 1
250-300
150-170
170-200
0.010-0.020
0.004-0.007
0.005-0.010
Carbide
Hi-Speed Steel
Cast Allloy
5A1, 2.5 Sn
3A1, 5Cr
2Fe, Cr 2 Mo
6A1, 4V
4A1, 4Mn
Classes 2, 3, 4,
5, and 6
120-160
30-60
50-80
0.008-0.015
0.004-0.007
0.005-0.010
Carbide
Bi-Speed Steel
Cast Alloy
5A1, 1.5 Fe
1.5 Cr, 1.5 Mo
Class 7
110-150
20-40
40-70
0.005-0.012
0.003-0.006
0.004-0.008
Carbide
Hi-Speed Steel
Cast Alloy
NOTE: For cutting forging skin speed 1/4 of that above and feeds about 1/2.
Table 5-7.
TOOL ANGLES
Back Rake
CARBIDE
0o
Tool Angles for Alloys
HIGH SPEED STEEL
5o Pos
o
o
CAST ALLOY
5 Pos
Side Rake
6
5 - 15
5o - 15o
Side Cutting
Edge Angle
6o
5o - 15o
5o - 15o
End Cutting
Edge Angle
6o
5o
5o
Relief
6o
5o
5o
Nose Radius
0.040 inch
0.010 inch
0.005 inch to
0.010 inch
Table 5-8.
TYPE
MILITARY
o
Speeds and Feeds for Milling
MILLING SPEED
FPM
FEED, IPT
-IN INCHES
TOOL
MATERIAL
Unalloyed
70,000 PSI
MIL-T-9047C
Class 1
160-180
120-140
0.004-0.008
0.004-0.008
Carbide
Cast Alloy
5A1, 2.5Sn
3A1, 5CR
2Fe, 2Cr, 2Mo,
6A1, 4V
4A1, 4Mn
Class 2, 3, 4,
5, 6
80-120
80-100
0.004-0.008
0.004-0.008
Carbide
Cast Alloy
5A1, 1.5Fe, 1.5Cr
1.5Mo
Class 7
70-110
70-90
0.004-0.008
0.004-0.008
Carbide
Cast Alloy
5-18
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 5-9.
Angles for Tool Grinding
CAST ALLOY
TOOL
CARBIDE
TOOL
Axial Rake
0o
0o
Radial Rake
0o
0o
Corner Angle
30o
60o
End Cutting
Edge Angle
6o
6o
Relief
12o
6-10o
ANGLES
5-66. TAPPING. Due to the galling and seizing
that are characteristic of titanium, tapping is one
of the more diff icult machining operations. Chip
removal is one of the problems that will require
considerable attention in an effort to tap titanium.
Another problem will be the smear of titanium.
Build up from smear will cause the tap to freeze or
bind in the hole. These problems can be alleviated
to some extent by the use of an active cutting f luid
such as sulphurized and chlorinated oil.
5-67. Power equipment should be used when possible and a hole to be tapped should be drilled
with a sharp drill to prevent excessive hardening
of the hole wall. In the attempt to tap titanium,
diff iculties involved can be minimized by reducing
the thread to 55 or 65% from the standard 78%.
5-68. The following are procedures and material
recommended for tapping titanium:
c. Cutting f luid; Active cutting oil such as oil,
cutting, sulfurized mineral, Specif ication VV-O283, Grade 1.
5-69. REAMING. Preparation of the hole to be
reamed and the type of reamer used is the keynote to successful reaming operations. As with
tapping operations, the hole to be reamed should
be drilled with a sharp drill. A straight-f luted
reamer can be used, but spiral-f luted reamers
with carbide tips usually produce the best results.
Speeds of 40-200 FPM and feeds of 0.005 to 0.008
inch are satisfactory; however, these factors
depend on the size of the hole. Feeds should
increase in proportion to the size of the hole. The
removal of larger amounts lessens the degree of
concentricity. If the degree of concentricity is an
important factor, smaller amounts should be
removed.
5-70. GRINDING. The essential requirements
for grinding are the selection and use of grinding
f luids and abrasive wheels. Grinding of titanium
is different from grinding steel in that the abrasive grain of the wheel wears or is dissolved by a
surface reaction, rather than wheel wear which is
caused by breakage. To overcome this problem,
lower wheel speeds and the use of aluminum oxide
or sof t bonded silicone carbide wheels employing
wet grinding methods are recommended. Recommended wheel speeds are; 1500-2000 SFPM and
table feeds of 400 to 500 inches per minute with
down feed of 0.001 inch maximum per pass and
using 0.05 inch cross feed for highest grinding
ratios.
a. Cutting speed: 40 to 50 FPM for unalloyed
and 20 to 30 FPM for the alloy grades.
b. Type of Tap: Gun or spiral point, 2 f luted
in sizes 1/4-20 or 1ess; 3 f luted in sizes greater
than 1/4-20.
5-19/(5-20 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION VI
COPPER AND COPPER BASE ALLOYS
6-1.
COPPER AND COPPER BASE ALLOYS.
6-2. Most of the commercial coppers are ref ined
to a purity of 99.90%, minimum copper plus silver.
The two principal copper base alloys are brass and
bronze, containing zinc and tin respectively, as the
major alloying element. Alloy designations for
wrought copper and copper alloys are listed in
table 6-1, with the corresponding specif ication and
common trade names.
6-3.
COPPER ALLOYING ELEMENTS.
ZINC - Added to copper to form a series of alloys
known as brasses. They are ductile, malleable,
corrosion resistant and have colors ranging from
pink to yellow.
TIN - Added to copper to form a series of alloys
known as bronzes. Bronzes are a quality spring
material, and are strong, ductile and corrosion
resistant.
LEAD - Added to copper in amounts up to 1% to
form a machinable, high-conductivity copper rod.
It is added to brasses or bronzes in amounts of 0.5
to 4% to improve machinability and in the range of
2 -4% to improve bearing properties.
ALUMINUM - Added to copper as a predominating alloy element to form a series known as aluminum bronzes. These alloys are of high strength
and corrosion resistance.
IRON - Added to copper along with aluminum in
some aluminum bronzes and with manganese in
some manganese bronzes.
PHOSPHOROUS - Added to copper principally as
a deoxidizer and in some bronzes to improve
spring properties.
NICKEL - Added to copper for higher strength
without loss of ductility. They have excellent corrosion resistance.
SILICON - Added to copper to form the copper silicon series having high corrosion resistance combined with strength and superior welding qualities. Small amounts are used as deoxidizers.
BERYLLIUM - Added to copper to form a series of
age hardenable alloys. In the fully treated condition, it is the strongest of the copper base alloys
and has an electrical conductivity of 20%. Berryllium-coppers are widely used for tools where nonsparking qualities are desired.
MANGANESE - Added primarily as a desulfurizing and de-gassifying element for alloys containing
nickel.
6-4. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. - The chemical composition of the copper alloys (listed by commercial trade name) is listed in table 6-1.
6-5. HEAT TREATMENT AND NOT WORKING
TEMPERATURE OF COPPER ALLOYS.
NOTE
Additional Heat Treatment information is discussed in Section IX.
6-6. During production and fabrication, copper
alloys may be heated for homogenizing, hot working, stress relief for solution treatment, and precipitation hardening. The temperatures commonly
used for heating, hot working and annealing af ter
cold working are given in table 6-2.
6-7.
STRESS RELIEF OF COPPER ALLOYS.
6-8. Table 6-3 below gives a list of typical stress
relief treatments commonly used in industry. This
table is listed in terms of chemical composition
percents, and should be used as representing average stress relieving temperatures.
6-9. MACHINING COPPER AND COPPER
ALLOYS. Free cutting brass is one of the most
easily machined metals and serves as a standard
for machinability ratings of copper alloys. The following table gives the machinability ratings and
recommended speeds and feeds for use with high
speed steel tools.
6-10. WROUGHT-COPPER-BERYLLIUM
ALLOYS. The beryllium copper alloys are frequently used due to their ability to respond to precipitation or age hardening treatments and other
benef icial characteristics. Some of the characteristics are; good electrical and thermal conductivity,
high strength hardness, corrosion resistance, good
wear resistance, non-magnetic qualities and very
good fatigue strength.
6-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
Chemical Composition by Trade Name
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
101
QQ-A-673, type II
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
QQ-W-343
WW-P-377
102
QQ-A-673
Type II
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
QQ-C-576
QQ-R-571, Class
FS-RCu-1
QQ-W-343
WW-T-799
MILITARY
TRADE NAME
MIL-W-85C
Oxygen free certif ied copper.
MIL-W-85C
MIL-W-6712A
Oxygen free copper.
104
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
Oxygen free with silver.
105
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
Oxygen free with silver.
110
QQ-A-673, Type I
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
QQ-C-576
128
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
Fire refined tough pitch
with silver.
130
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
Fire refined tough pitch
with silver.
170
172
QQ-C-530
QQ-C-533
Beryllium Copper
210
QQ-W-321,
comp 1
Gilding, 95%
220
QQ-W-321,
comp 2
230
QQ-B-613,
comp 4
QQ-B-626,
comp 4
QQ-W-321
comp 3
WW-P-351
Grade A
WW-T-791
Grade 1
6-2
MIL-W-3318
MIL-W-6712
MIL-W-85C
MIL-W-6712
Electrolyte Tough pitch
copper.
Commercial bronze, 90%
Red Brass, 85%
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
240
260
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
QQ-B-591
QQ-B-613
comp 3
QQ-B-626
comp 3
QQ-B-650
comp D
QQ-W-321
comp 4
QQ-B-613
comp 2 and 11
QQ-B-626
comp 2 and 11
QQ-B-650
comp C
QQ-W-321
comp 6
MILITARY
TRADE NAME
Low Brass, 80%
JAN-W-472
*MIL-S-22499
Cartridge brass, 70%
MIL-T-6945
comp II
MIL-T-20219
*Laminated Shim
Stock
261
Same as 260
262
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
268
QQ-B-613
comp 1 and 11
QQ-B-626
comp 1 and 11
Yellow brass, 66% (Sheet)
270
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-W-321
comp 7
Yellow brass, 65% (rod and wire)
274
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-W-321
comp 8
Yellow brass 63%
6-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
MILITARY
TRADE NAME
280
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
WW-P-351
Grade C
WW-T-791
Grade 3
Muntz metal, 60%
298
QQ-B-650
comp A
Brazing Alloy
330
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
Comp 11
WW-P-351
Grade B
WW-T-791
Grade 2
Low leaded brass
MIL-T-6945
comp III
331
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
110
QQ-R-571, Class
FS-RW-1
QQ-W-343
WW-P-377
111
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
QQ-C-576
QQ-W-343
Electrolytic Touch pitch
anneal resist copper
114
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
QQ-C-576
Tough pitch with silver
116
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-825
QQ-C-576
Tough pitch with silver
120
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
WW-P-377
WW-T-797
WW-T-799
6-4
MIL-W-85C
Phosphorous deoxidized low
residual phosphorus copper
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
MILITARY
TRADE NAME
121
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
122
QQ-A-674, Type
III
QQ-C-502
122
QQ-C-576
WW-P-377
WW-T-797
123
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
125
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
Fire refined tough pitch
copper
127
QQ-C-502
QQ-C-576
Fire refined tough pitch
with silver
332
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
High leaded brass
340
QQ-B-613 comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
Medium leaded brass 641/2%
335
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
Low leaded brass
342
QQ-B-613
comp 11 and 24
QQ-B-626
comp 11 and 24
High leaded brass 641/2%
344
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
347
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
348
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
Phosphorus deoxidized high
residual phosphorus copper
6-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
MILITARY
TRADE NAME
350
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
Medium leaded brass 62%
353
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
Extra High leaded brass
356
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11 and 22
Extra High leaded brass
370
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
Free cutting muntz metal
360
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11 and 22
Free cutting brass
377
QQ-B-626
comp 21
Forging brass
443
WW-T-756
Admiralty, Arsenical
444
WW-T-756
Admiralty, Antimonial
445
WW-T-756
Admiralty, Phosphorized
462
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-B-637
comp 4
Naval Brass, 631/2%
464
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-B-637
comp 1
465
6-6
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-B-637
comp 1
Naval Brass
MIL-W-6712
MIL-T-6945
comp 1
MIL-W-6712
MIL-T-6945
comp 1
Naval brass, arsenical
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
466
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
QQ-B-613 comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-B-637
comp 1
MILITARY
MIL-W-6712
TRADE NAME
Naval Brass, antimonial
MIL-T-6945
comp 1
467
QQ-B-613
comp 11
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-B-637
comp 1
MIL-W-6712
MIL-T-6945
470
QQ-R-571
Class FS-RWZn-1
Naval brass, welding and
brazing rod
472
QQ-B 650
comp B
Brazing Alloy
482
QQ-B-626
comp 11
QQ-B-637
comp 2
MIL-W-6712
MIL-T-6945
comp 1
Naval Brass, medium leaded
485
QQ-B-626
comp 1
QQ-B-637
comp 3
MIL-W-6712
MIL-T-6945
comp 1
Naval Brass, High leaded
510
QQ-B-750
comp A
QQ-W-401
QQ-R-571,
class FS-RCuSm
-2
Phosphor Bronze A
518
QQ-R-571
Class FS-RCu
Sm-2
Phosphor bronze
521
QQ-R-571
Class FS-Rcu
Sm-2
Phosphor Bronze C
524
QQ-B-750
Comp D
Phosphor Bronze D
544
QQ-B-750
606
QQ-C-450
comp 3
612
QQ-C-450
comp 4
MIL-B-13501
Naval Brass, phosphorized
Phosphor Bronze B-2
6-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
614
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
MILITARY
QQ-C-450
comp 5
Aluminum Bronze D
618
MIL-W-6712
MIL-R-18818
MIL-RUA1-2
622
MIL-R-18818 class
MIL-RCA-B
651
QQ-C-591
comp B
655
QQ-C-591
comp A
656
QQ-R-571
Class FS-RCuS1
658
TRADE NAME
Low silicon bronze B
MIL-T-8231
High Silicon Bronze A
MIL-E13191 class
MIL-EcuSi-A
MIL-E-13191 class
MIL-ECuSi-A
661
QQ-C-591
comp D
670
QQ-B-728
Class B
Manganese Bronze B
675
QQ-B-728
Class A
Manganese Bronze A
680
QQ-R-571
Class FS-RCu-Zn-3
Bronze Low Fuming (Nickel)
681
QQ-R-571 class
FS-RCuZn-2
Bronze, Low Fuming
692
QQ-C-591
Comp E
Silicon Brass
715
QQ-R-571 Class
FS-RCuNi
Copper Nickel 30%
735
QQ-C-585
comp 6
745
QQ-C-585
comp 5
QQ-C-586
comp 5
QQ-W-340
comp 5
6-8
Nickel Silver 65-10
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-1.
COPPER
ALLOY
NO.
Chemical Composition by Trade Name - Continued
SPECIFICATION
FEDERAL
752
QQ-C-585
comp 1
QQ-C-586
comp 1
QQ-W-340
comp 1
764
QQ-C-586
comp 3
QQ-W-340
comp 3
766
QQ-C-585
comp 7
770
QQ-C-585
comp 2
QQ-C-586
comp 2
QQ-W-340
comp 2
794
QQ-C-586
comp 4
QQ-W-340
comp 4
Table 6-2.
COMMERCIAL
DESIGNATION
MILITARY
TRADE NAME
Nickel Silver 65-18
Nickel Silver 55-18
Hot Working and Annealing Temperatures for Copper and Wrought Copper Alloys
CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION
HOT WORKING
TEMP oF
ANNEALING TEMP
o
F
Copper, commercially
pure
99,93 Cu
1300 to 1650
700 to 1200
Gilding Metal
95 Cu, 5 Zn
1300 to 1650
800 to 1450
Commercial Bronze
90 Cu, 10 Zn
1400 to 1600
800 to 1450
Red Brass
85 Cu, 15 Zn
1450 to 1650
800 to 1350
Low Brass
80 Cu, 20 Zn
1450 to 1650
800 to 1300
Cartridge Brass
70 Cu, 30 Zn
1350 to 1550
800 to 1300
Yellow Brass
65 Cu, 35 Zn
(a)
800 to 1300
Muntz Metal
60 Cu, 40 Zn
1150 to 1450
800 to 1100
Leaded Commercial
Bronze
89 Cu, 9.25 Zn,
1.75 Pb
(a)
800 to 1200
Low Leaded Brass
64.5 Cu, 35 Zn,
0.5 Pb
(a)
800 to 1300
Medium Leaded Brass
64.5 Cu, 34.5 Zn,
1 Pb
(a)
800 to 1200
6-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-2.
Hot Working and Annealing Temperatures for Copper and Wrought Copper Alloys - Continued
COMMERCIAL
DESIGNATION
CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION
HOT WORKING
TEMP oF
ANNEALING TEMP
o
F
High Leaded Brass
62.5 Cu, 35.75 Zn,
1.75 Pb
(a)
800 to 1100
Extra High Leaded
Brass
62.5 Cu, 35 Zn,
2.5 Pb
(a)
800 to 1100
Free Cutting Brass
61. 5 Cu, 35.5 Zn,
3 Pb
1300 to 1450
800 to 1100
Leaded Muntz Metal
60 Cu, 39.5 Zn,
5 Pb
1150 to 1450
800 to 1100
Free Cutting Muntz
Metal
60.5 Cu, 38.4 Zn,
1.1 Pb
1150 to 1450
800 to 1100
Forging Brass
60 Cu, 38 Zn,
2 Pb
1200 to 1500
800 to 1100
Architectural Bronze
57 Cu, 40 Zn,
3 Pb
1200 to 1400
800 to 1100
Admiralty
71 Cu, 28 Zn,
1 Sn
1200 to 1500
800 to 1100
Naval Brass
60 Cu, 39.25 Zn,
0.75 Sn
1200 to 1400
800 to 1100
Leaded Naval Brass
60 Cu, 37.5 Zn,
1.75 Sn
1200 to 1450
800 to 1100
Manganese Bronze
58.5 Cu, 39.2 Zn
1 Sn, 3Mn, 1Fe
1250 to 1450
800 to 1100
Aluminum Brass
76.Cu, 22Zn, Z al
1450 to 1550
800 to 1100
Phosphor Bronze ‘‘A’’
95 Cu, 5 Sn
(a)
900 to 1250
Phosphor Bronze ‘‘C’’
92 Cu, 8 Sn
(a)
900 to 1250
Phosphor Bronze ‘‘D’’
90 Cu, 10 Sn
(a)
900 to 1250
Phosphor Bronze ‘‘E’’
98- 75 Cu, 1.25 Sn
1450 to 1600
900 to 1200
Cupro-Nickel 30%
70 Cu, 30 Ni
1700 to 2000
1200 to 1600
Nickel Silver 18% (A)
65 Cu, 17 Zn, 18 Ni
(a)
1100 to 1500
Nickel Silver 18% (B)
55 Cu, 27 Zn, 18 Ni
(a)
1100 to 1400
High-Silicon Bronze (A)
94.8 Cu, 3 Si, 1.5
Mn, 0.7 Zn
1300 to 1650
900 to 1300
Low Silicon Bronze (b)
96. Cu, 2 Si, 1.5
Zn, 0.5 Mn
1300 to 1650
900 to 1250
(a) These alloys are usually hot extruded af ter casting, further hot working is uncommon.
6-11. Typical Engineering properties of alloys
170, Specif ication QQ-C-530 and 172, Specif ication
QQ-C-533 are cited in Table 6-5.
6-10
6-12. HEAT TREATING PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS.
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
SAE-AMS-H-7199, Heat Treatment of
Wrought Copper-Beryllium Alloys,
Process for (Copper Alloy numbers
170, 172 and 175), will be the control
document for heat treatment of
wrought copper-beryllium alloy, numbers 170, 172 and 175. For complete
description of heat treat requirements
for these alloys, refer to the latest
issue of SAE-AMS-H-7199.
forming operations and then precipitation heat
treating. An exception is when the material has
been rendered unsuitable for precipitation or age
hardening as result of welding, brazing or other
fabrication operations or when, cold working
requirements demand intermediate sof tening
(annealing) treatment.
6-16. The solution heat treatment temperatures
for alloys 170 and 172 shall be 1425o to 1460oF.
The time the material is held at the temperature
will determine the potential properties of the
material. Insuff icient time will make it impossible
to achieve maximum strength af ter precipitation
hardening, while excessive time may cause grain
growth with attendant harmful possibilities. Once
the parts are brought up to temperature it is recommended that material be held at temperature
for 1 hour per inch of thickness. For parts less
than 1/2 inch in thickness, 1/6-1/2 hour may be
suff icient. Test sample should be used to determine specif ic time or if laboratory facilities are
available an examination of microstructure will
conf irm the adequacy of the time selected. The
part/material should be rapidly (10 seconds or
under) quenched in water from the annealing temperature. An agitated quench should be used.
Some oxidation will occur as a result of the
annealing temperatures and it should be removed
by pickling or other suitable cleaning process.
6-13. Furnaces for solution heat treating of copper-beryllium items/parts may be heated by electricity, gas or oil, with either controlled gas atmosphere or air (static or forced), used in the chamber,
continuous or induction types. Molten salt baths
shall not be used because of corrosive attack of
beryllium alloys by the molten salts at solution
heat treatment temperatures. Air atmosphere furnaces shall not be used when the loss of material
due to excessive scaling is detrimental to the f inished part.
6-14. The furnace alloy shall be capable of maintaining a temperature in working zone with a normal load, of ± 20oF for solution heat treatment, or
± 5oF for aging, or precipitation heat treatment.
In addition, the temperature in working zone shall
not vary above the maximum or below the minimum specif ied for the alloy being treated, during
the holding portion of the treatment cycles (See
Table 6-6).
6-17. PRECIPITATION OR AGE HARDENING.
Appreciable changes can be produced in both
mechanical and physical by this treatment. The
actual changes can be controlled by the time and
temperature of hardening. Table 6-6 gives times
and temperatures for obtaining various tempers.
6-15. SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT COPPER-BERYLLIUM. Normally solution heat treatment is not required because the material is furnished in a condition suitable for accomplishing
Table 6-3.
ALLOY COMPOSITION
Copper, commercially pure
90 Cu - 10 Zn
80 Cu - 20 ZN
70 Cu - 30 ZN
63 CU - 37 ZN
60 CU - 40 ZN
70 Cu - 29 ZN - 1 SN
85 Cu - 15 Ni
70 Cu - 30 Ni
64 Cu - 18 ZN - 18 Ni
95 Cu - 5 Sn
90 Cu - 10 Sn
Typical Stress-Relief Treatments for Certain Copper Alloys
TEMP oF
TIME, HOURS
300
400
500
500
475
375
575
475
475
475
375
375
1/2
1
1
1
1
1/2
1
1
1
1
1
1
Change 4
6-11
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-4.
ALLOY
DESIGNATION
Leaded Copper
Leaded Commercial
Bronze
Low Leaded Brass
Medium Leaded Brass
High Leaded Brass
Free Cutting Brass*
Forging Brass
Leaded Naval Brass
Architectural Bronze
Red Brass, 85%
Low Brass, 80%
Muntz Metal
Naval Brass
Manganese Bronze (A)
Leaded Nickel Silver,
12%
Leaded Nickel Silver
18%
High Silicon Bronze (A)
Leaded Silicon Bronze
(d)
Aluminum Silicon Bronze
Electrolytic Tough
pitch copper
Commercial Bronze
Phosphor Bronze
Nickel Silver
Cupro-Nickel
Aluminum Bronze
Beryllium Copper
Chromium Copper
Standard Machinability Rating of Copper Alloys
MACHINABILITY
RATING
80
SURFACE
SPEED
FEET PER
MINUTE
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
80
60
70
90
100
80
70
90
30
30
40
30
30
50
150 to 300
0.015 to 0.035
0.005 to 0.015
50
30
150 to 300
150 to 300
0.015 to 0.035
0.015 to 0.035
0.005 to 0.015
0.005 to 0.015
60
60
150 to 300
150 to 300
0.015 to 0.035
0.015 to 0.035
0.005 to 0.015
0.005 to 0.015
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040
* Table based on machining characteristics in comparison to this alloy.
6-12
FINISHING
FEED, INCH
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
150
150
150
150
150
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
300
300
300
300
300
ROUGHING
FEED, INCH
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 6-5.
TENSILE
STRENGTH
KSI
YIELD
STRENGTH
0.2%
OFFSET
A- Annealed
60-78
28-36,000
1/4 Hard
75-88
1/2 Hard
Typical Engineering Properties
% ELONGATION
IN 2
INCHES
FATIGUE
(1)
STRENGTH
KSI
ROCKWELL
HARDNESS
ELECTRICAL
CONDUCTIVITY
% OF 1 ACS
35-60
30-35
B45- 78
17-19
60-80,000
10-35
31-36
B68-90
16-18
85-100
55-70,000
5-25
32-38
B88-96
15-17
Hard
100-120
90-112,000
2-8
35-39
B96-102
15-17
AT
165-190
100-125,000
4-10
34-38
C36-MIN
22-25
1/4 HT
175-200
110-135,000
3-6
35-39
C38-MIN
22-25
1/2 HT
785-210
160-195,000
2-5
39-43
C39-MIN
22-25
HT
190-215
165-205,000
1-4
41-46
C40-MIN
22-25
(1) Based on 100,000,000 load cycles.
Table 6-6.
MATERIAL
FORM
Plate, Sheet
Age Hardening Time-Temperature Conditions and Material Temper Designations
TEMPER DESIGNATION
BEFORE AGE
HARDENING
AGE HARDENING
TIME
TEMP
HRS.
(oF)
±
±
±
±
A
1/4 H
1/2 H
H
3
2-1/2
2
2
600
600
600
600
Forgings Rod
A
3
600 ± 5
AT
and Bar 3/4
H
2
600 ± 5
HT
Inch or Less
H
3
600 ± 5
HT
A
1/4 H
1/2 H
3/4 H
3
2
1-1/2
1
600
600
600
600
or Strip
5
5
5
5
TEMPER DESIGNATION
AFTER AGE HARDENING
AT
1/4 HT
1/2 HT
HT
Over 3/4 Inch
Wire
±
±
±
±
5
5
5
5
AT
1/4 HT
1/2 HT
3/4 HT
NOTE: For additional data see Specification SAE-AMS-H-7199.
Change 4
6-13/(6-14 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION VII
TOOL STEELS
7-1.
GENERAL.
7-2. Tool steels are essential to the fabrication of
aircraf t parts. It is therefore necessary to provide
guidance in the handling of these important
metals.
7-3. Tool steels are produced and used in a variety of forms. The more common forms are bars,
(round, square, hexagonal, or octaganal), drill rods,
(round, square, or rectangular), f lats, and forged
shapes.
7-4. ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN TOOL
STEELS. (See Table 7-2, chemical composition
table.)
acts as an intensif ier. It improves the deep hardening and elevated temperature properties of steel.
f. NICKEL - Nickel makes the steel more
ductile. It is used in only a few applications and
only in small amounts.
g. SILICON - This element is present in all
steels. In amounts of 1/4 to 1% it acts as a deoxidizer. Silicon is added to shock resisting and hot
work steels to improve their impact characteristics
and hardenability. It has a graphitizing inf luence
and usually requires the addition of carbide stabilizing elements such as molybdenum and
chromium.
a. CARBON - Carbon is the most important
single element in tool steel. Changing the carbon
content a specif ic amount will change the physical
properties a greater degree than the same amount
of any other element. Degree of hardness of tool
steel quenched from a suitable temperature is a
function of carbon content alone.
h. TUNGSTEN - One of the most important
features of tungsten steels is their high red hardness. Tungsten steels are f ine grained and high
strength, which means they hold good cutting
edges. Tungsten content is usually 5 - 12% in heat
resisting tool steels, 4 - 9% in tungsten - molybdenum high speed steels, and 14 - 20% in straight
tungsten high speed steel.
b. CHROMIUM - In amounts up to 1.80% the
addition of chromium produced a marked increase
in the hardenability (depth of hardness) of steels.
Small amounts of chromium toughens the steel
(greater impact strength), and increases its
strength. Machine ability decreases as chromium
increases. The addition of 5 to 15% chromium
imparts hardening qualities to the steel. A degree
of red hardness and resistance to wear and abrasion results from the addition of chromium to
steel.
i. VANADIUM - This element forms stable
carbides and has considerable effect on the
hardenability of steels. Undissolved vanadium
carbides inhibit grain growth and reduce
hardenability. Dissolved carbides increase
hardenability. Vanadium is also used as a deoxidizer. It is added to plain carbon tool steels to
make them f ine grained and tough. It is added to
high speed and hot working steels to resist grain
growth and help maintain their hardness at elevated temperatures.
c. COBALT - Cobalt is sometimes used in
high speed tools. Addition of 5 to 8% increase the
red hardness of these steels.
7-5. SPECIFICATIONS. The armed services
procure tool steels under three different Federal
Specif ications, dependent upon its intended use.
Table 7-1 lists these specif ications, and present
and past classif ication of the tool steels. Army
Specif ication 57-108A was superseded by three
Army Ordnance Specif ications, QQ-S-778, QQ-S779, and QQ-S-780. which were then superseded
by Federal Specif ication’s QQ-T-570, QQ-T-580
and QQ-T-590 respectively.
d. MANGANESE - This element is present in
all steels. In amounts of less than 1/2%, it acts as
a deoxidizer and desulfurizer. In amounts greater
than 15% it gives steel air hardening tendencies.
In intermediate amounts it is necessary to have
other alloying agents present with manganese
because of its tendency to make the steel brittle.
e. MOLYBDENUM - Always used in conjunction with other alloying elements, molybdenum
7-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
D - High carbon-high chromium types
H - Hot work tool steels
T - High speed tool steels
M - Molybdenum Base types
L - Special purpose, low alloy types
F - Carbon tungsten tool steels
Table 7-1.
SAE
DESIGNATION
Tool Steel Specifications
FEDERAL SPECIFICATION
NUMBER
W1-.80 Carbon
W1-.90 Carbon
W1-1.0 Carbon
W1-1.2 Carbon
W2-.9 Carbon V
W2-1.0 Carbon V
W3-1.0 Carbon VV
A2
A6
D2
D3
D5
D7
F3
H11
H12
H13
H21
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
M1
M2
M3
M4
M10
M15
M30
M34
01
02
06
L6
L7
T15
S1
S2
S5
W5
7-2
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-580
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-590
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
QQ-T-570
CLASS
W1-08
W1-09
W1-10
W1-12
W2-09
W2-10
W3-10
A2
A6
D2
D3
D5
D7
F3
H11
H12
H13
H21
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
M1
M2
M3
M4
M-10
M15
M30
M34
01
02
06
L6
L7
T15
S1
S2
S5
W5
SUPERSEDED SPECIFICATION
NUMBER
57-108A
57-108A
57-108A
57-108A
57-108A
57-108A
QQ-S-00779 (Army)
57-108A
-----57-108A
57-108A
QQ-S-00778 (Army)
-----57-108A
-----QQ-S-00778 (Army)
-----QQ-S-00778 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
-----QQ-S-00780 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
MIL-S-15046 (Ships)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
-----57-108A
-----57-108A
QQ-S-00780 (Army)
57-108A.QQ-T-778
57-108A
----------QQ-S-00778 (Army)
-----QQ-S-00778 (Army)
QQ-S-00778 (Army)
QQ-S-00778 (Army)
QQ-S-00778 (Army)
CLASSIFICATION
A1
A2
A3
A4/A5
B1
B1
FS-W3-10
C1
-----C2
C3
FS-D5
-----D1
-----FS-H12
-----FS-H21
FS-T1
FS-T2
FS-T4
FS-T5
T6
FS-T7
FS-T8
FS-M1
FS-M2
FS-M3
-----F1
-----F3
FS-M34
B4
B3
----------FS-L7
-----FS-S1
FS-S2
FS-S5
FS-W5
Table 7-2.
SAE
DESIGNATION
C
MN
SI
Chemical Composition, Tool Steel
CHEMICAL C0MPOSITION, PERCENT (TABLE II)
CR
V
MO
W
CO
NI
CU
P
W1-.80 Carbon
0.70-0.85
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.10
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.025
W1-.90 Carbon
0.85-0.95
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.10
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.025
W1-1.00 Carbon
0.95-1.10
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.10
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.025
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.025
0.20
0.20
0.030
W1-1.20 Carbon
1.10-1.30
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.10
W2-.90 Carbon-V
0.85-0.95
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.15-0.35
W2-1.00 Carbon-V
0.95-1.10
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.15-0.35
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.030
W3-1.00 Carbon VV
0.95-1.10
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.35
0.15
0.35-0.50
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.030
A2-5% Chromium
0.95-1.05
0.45-0.75
0.20-0.40
4.755.50
.40
0.90-1.40
A6-Maganese
0.65-0.75
1.80-2.20
0.20-0.40
0.901.20
D2
1.40-1.60
0.30-0.50
0.30-0.50
11.013.0
0.80
0.70-1.20
D3
2.00-2.35
0.24-0.45
0.25-0.45
11.0
13.0
0.80
0.80
D5
1.40-1.60
0.30-0.50
0.30-0.50
11.0
13.0
0.80
0.70-1.20
D7
2.15-2.50
0.30-0.50
0.30-0.50
11.5
13.5
2.8-4.4
0.70-1.20
F3
1.25-1.40
0.20-0.50
0.60-0.90
H11
0.30-0.40
0.20-0.40
0.80-1.20
4.75
5.50
0.30-0.50
1.25-1.75
H12
0.30-0.40
0.20-0.40
0.80-1.20
4.755.50
0.50 max
1.25-1.75
H-13
0.30-0.40
0.20-0.40
0.80-1.20
4.755.50
0.80-1.20
1.25-1.75
H21
0.30-0.40
0.20-0.40
0.15-0.30
3.00
3.75
0.30-0.50
8.75
10.00
T1
0.65-0.75
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
0.90-1.30
17.25-18.75
T2
0.75-0.85
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
1.80-2.40
0.70-1.00
17.50-19.00
T3
1.00-1.10
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
2.90-3.50
0.70-1.00
17.50-19.00
T4
0.70-0.80
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
0.80-1.20
0.10-1.00
17.25-18.75
0.90-1.40
0.25 max
0.60
0.15
2.5-3.5
3.00
4.50
1.0-1.7
7-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
4.25
5.75
SAE
DESIGNATION
C
MN
SI
Chemical Composition, Tool Steel - Continued
CHEMICAL C0MPOSITION, PERCENT (TABLE II)
CR
V
MO
W
CO
T5
0.75-0.85
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.75
1.80-2.40
0.70-1.00
17.50-19.00
7.00
9.50
T6
0.75-0.85
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
4.00-4.75
1.50-2.10
0.70-1.00
18.50-21.25
10.25
13.75
T7
T8
0.70-0.76
0.75-0.85
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.25
3.75-4.50
1.80-2.20
1.80-2.40
0.70-1.00
0.70-1.00
13.50-14.50
13.25-14.75
M1
0.75-0.85
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
0.90-1.30
7.75-9.25
1.15-1.85
M2
0.78-0.88
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
1.60-2.20
4.50-5.50
5.50-6.75
M3
1.00-1.25
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
2.35-3.25
4.75-6.25
5.50-6.75
M4
1.25-1.40
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
4.00-4.75
3.90-4.50
4.50-5.50
5.25-6.50
M10
0.85-0.95
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.75-4.50
1.80-2.20
7.75-9.00
M15
1.50-1.60
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
4.00-5.00
4.50-5.25
2.75-3.50
6.00-6.75
4.755.25
M30
0.77-0.85
0.20-0.40
0.20-0.40
3.50-4.25
1.00-1.40
7.75-9.00
1.30-2.30
4.505.50
M34
0.85-0.92
0.20-0.30
0.20-0.30
3.50-4.25
1.90-2.30
8.00-9.20
1.30-2.30
1.75
8.75
01
0.85-0.95
1.00-1.30
0.20-0.40
0.40-0.60
0.30 max
02
0.85-0.95
1.40-1.80
0.20-0.40
0.35
0.20
06
1.35-1.55
0.30-1.00
0.80-1.20
L6
0.65-0.75
0.30-0.80
0.20-0.40
0.65-0.85
0.20-0.35
L7
T15
0.95-1.05
1.50-1.60
0.25-0.45
0.20-0.40
1.25-1.75
3.75-4.50
4.75-5.25
S1
0.45-0.55
0.20-0.40
0.25-0.45
S2
0.45-0.55
0.30-0.50
0.80-1.20
S5
0.50-0.60
0.60-0.90
1.80-2.20
0.30
0.25
0.30-0.50
W5
1.05-1.25
0.15-0.35
0.10-0.40
0.40-0.60
0.25 max
0.30-0.50
NI
4.255.75
0.40-0.60
0.30
0.20-0.30
1.25-1.75
0.20-0.35
1.25
1.75
0.30-0.50
12.00-13.00
0.15-0.30
0.40
0.25
0.40-0.60
1.0-3.0
4.75-5.25
CU
P
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-4
Table 7-2.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 7-3.
Tool Steel Selection
MATERIAL TO BE CUT
TOTAL QUANTITY OF PARTS TO BE MADE
1,000
10,000
100,000
Aluminum, copper and magnesium alloys
W1, AIS14140
W1, 01, A2
01, A2
Carbon and alloy steels, ferritic stainless
W1, AIS14140
W1, 01, A2
01, A2
Stainless steel, austenitic
W1, A2
W1, A2, D2
A2, D2
Spring steel, hardened, Rockwell C52max
A2
A2, D2
D2
Electrical sheet, transformer grade
A2
A2, D2
D2
Paper, gaskets, and similar sof t material
W1
W1
W1, A2
Plastic sheet, not reinforced
01
01
01, A2
Table 7-3 is listed for use as a guide reference in the selection of tool steel types for specif ic
applications.
Table 7-4.
Tool Steel Hardening and Tempering Temperatures
STEEL
HARDENING
TREATMENT
TEMPERING
TREATMENT
W
1450oF, Water
300oF
O
L
o
1450 F, Oil
o
1550 F, Oil
o
SIZE CHANGE, IN/IN
0.0017 - 0.0025
o
0.0014 - 0.0021
o
0.0014 - 0.0024
o
300 F
300 F
F
1600 F, Oil
300 F
0.0011 - 0.0021
S
1750oF, Oil
500oF
0.0010 - 0.0025
A
D
o
1775 F, Oil
o
1875 F, Oil
o
o
0.0005 - 0.0015
o
0.0005 - 0.0005
500 F
500 F
o
T
2350 F, Oil
1050 F
0.0006 - 0.0014
M
2225oF, Oil
1025oF
0.0016 - 0.0024
7-6.
CLASS DESIGNATIONS.
W - Water hardening tool steels
S - Shock resisting tool steels
O - Cold work tool steels, oil hardening types
A - Cold work tool steels, air hardening types
7-7.
APPLICATIONS OF TOOL STEELS.
7-8. The majority of tool steel applications can be
divided into a small number of groups: cutting,
shearing, forming, drawing, extrusion, rolling and
battering. Cutting tools include drills, taps,
broaches, hobs, lathe tools, etc. Shearing tools
include shears, blanking and trimming dies,
punches, etc. Forming tools include draw, forging,
cold heading and die casting dies. Battering tools
include chisels and all forms of shock tools. Most
cutting tools require high hardness, high resistance to the sof tening effect of heat, and high
wear resistance. Shearing tools require high wear
resistance and fair toughness. Forming tools must
possess high wear resistance or high toughness
and strength. In battering tools, high toughness is
most important.
7-9. SELECTION OF MATERIAL FOR A CUTTING TOOL. The selection of material for a cutting tool depends on several factors: the metal
being machined, nature of cutting operation, condition of the machine tool, machining practice, size
and design of tool, coolant to be used, and cost of
tool material. Selection is usually based more on
previous experience or applications than on an
engineering or metallurgical analysis.
7-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-10. High speed cutting tools are usually manufactured from the class ‘‘T’’ or class ‘‘M’’ alloys.
Four classes, T1, M1, M2 and M10 make up nearly
90% of the general purpose high speed steels. Certain special purpose steels in each class, such as
T6, T7, T8 and T15 are advantageous for operations like milling cutters and prehardened forging
die blocks.
7-11. High speed drills should possess high
strength and toughness, notably M1, M2, M10 and
T1. Classes T1 and M1 are used for tools subject
to shock, while M2 and M10 are generally used
where tools require less toughness and more abrasion resistance.
7-12. Material for reamers should be of high
hardness and abrasion resistance, such as M1, M2,
M10 and T1. The M3 and M15 and T15 classes
possess greater abrasion resistance than the lowervanadium grades.
7-13. Material for taps is generally of the M1,
M2 or M10 types. In tapping heat-resisting alloys
or steels harder than Rockwell C35, M15 or T15
may be justif ied.
7-14. Milling cutters are usually made from the
high speed steels. As the hardness of the
workpiece increases beyond Rockwell C35, the
cobalt high speed steels should be used.
NOTE
Additional Heat Treatment information is discussed in Section IX.
7-17. The thermal treatments listed in table 7-5
cover the generally used treatments for the forgings, normalizing, and annealing of tool and die
steels. The thermal treatments listed in table 7-7
cover the usual ranges of temperatures for hardening and tempering tool and die steels. These
tables are listed for use as a guide only, and test
samples should be checked prior to use.
7-18. DISTORTION IN TOOL STEELS. Distortion is a general term encompassing all dimensional changes; the two main types being volume
change or change in geometrical form. Volume
change is def ined as expansion or contraction and
geometric change is def ined as changes in curvature or angular relations. Table 7-4 shows an
approximate range of size changes depending upon
the type of tool steel, and also dependent on specif ic tempering and heat treatments. If a very
close tolerance is required for a f inished tool, specif ic data covering this item should be obtained
from a detailed source.
7-19.
Deleted
7-15. Recommended punch and die material for
blanking parts from 0.050 inch sheet materials are
shown in following table. This table does not cover
all operations, and is a sample table intended for
use as a guide only.
7-20.
Deleted
7-21.
Deleted
7-22.
Deleted
7-16.
7-23.
Deleted
7-6
HEAT TREAT DATA.
Change 1
Table 7-5.
FORGING/a
SAE
DESIGNATION
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
Forging, Normalizing and Annealing Treatments of Tool and Die Steels
NORMALIZING/b
START
FORGING
AT
DO NOT
FORGE
BELOW
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
HOLD AT
ANNEALING/c
TEMPERATURE
MAX RATE
OF COOLING F/HR
BRINELL
HARDNESS
APPROX.
ROCKWELL
B, APPROX.
1450
1800
1950
1500
1450
1500
1400-1450
75
159-202
84-94
W1 (0.9C)
1450
1800
1950
1500
1450
1500
1375-1425
75
159-202
84-94
W1 (1.0C)
1450
1800
1900
1500
1450
1550
1400-1450
75
159-202
84-94
W1 (1.2C)
1450
1800
1900
1500
1450
1625
1400-1450
75
159-202
84-94
W2 (0.9C)
1450
1800
1900
1500
1450
1500
1375-1425
75
159-202
84-94
W2 (1.0C)
1450
1800
1900
1500
1450
1550
1400-1450
75
159-202
84-94
W3 (1.0C)
1450
1800
1900
1500
1450
1550
1400-1450
75
159-202
84-94
A2
1600
1850
2000
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1600
40
202-229
94-98
A6
1200-1300
248
102
D2
1650
1850
2000
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
40
207-255
95-102
D3
1650
1850
2000
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
212-255
96-102
D5
1650
1850
2000
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
40
207-255
95-102
D7
1650
2050
2125
1800
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
235-262
99-103
F3
1550
1800
2000
1600
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1475
50
235
99
DO NOT NORMALIZE
7-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
Change 1
W1 (0.8C)
Forging, Normalizing and Annealing Treatments of Tool and Die Steels - Continued
Change 1
FORGING/a
SAE
DESIGNATION
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-8
Table 7-5.
NORMALIZING/b
START
FORGING
AT
DO NOT
FORGE
BELOW
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
HOLD AT
ANNEALING/c
TEMPERATURE
MAX RATE
OF COOLING F/HR
BRINELL
HARDNESS
APPROX.
ROCKWELL
B, APPROX.
H11
1650
1950
2100
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1600
50
192-229
92-98
H12
1650
1950
2100
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
192-229
92-98
H13
1650
1950
2100
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1600
50
192-229
92-98
H21
1600
2000
2150
1650
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
202-235
94-99
T1
1600
1950
2100
1750
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
217-255
96-102
T2
1600
2000
2150
1750
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
223-255
97-102
T3
1925
2025
1750
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1650
50
T4
1600
2000
2150
1750
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
229-255
98-102
T5
1600
2000
2150
1800
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
248-293
102-106
T6
1600
1950
2150
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
248-293
102-106
T7
1600
1950
2150
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1625
50
217-250
96-102
T8
1600
2000
2150
1750
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
229-255
98-102
M1
1500
1900
2050
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1525-1600
50
207-248
95-102
M2
1500
1950
2100
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1625
50
217-248
96-102
Table 7-5.
Forging, Normalizing and Annealing Treatments of Tool and Die Steels - Continued
FORGING/a
SAE
DESIGNATION
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
NORMALIZING/b
START
FORGING
AT
DO NOT
FORGE
BELOW
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
HOLD AT
ANNEALING/c
TEMPERATURE
MAX RATE
OF COOLING F/HR
BRINELL
HARDNESS
APPROX.
ROCKWELL
B, APPROX.
1500
2000
2150
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1625
50
223-255
97-102
M4
1500
2000
2150
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1550-1625
50
229-255
98-102
M10
1400
1900
2100
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
235-262
99-103
M15
1400
1900
2100
1700
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
235-262
99-103
M30
1400
1900
2100
1600
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
235-262
99-103
M34
1400
1900
2100
1600
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
50
235-262
99-103
01
1500
1750
1900
1550
1500
1600
1425-1475
50
183-212
90-96
02
1500
1750
1900
1550
1500
1550
1375-1425
50
183-212
90-96
06
1500
1750
1900
1500
1500
1625
1425-1275
50
183-212
90-96
L6
1500
1800
2000
1600
1550
1650
1400-1450
50
183-212
90-96
L7
1500
1800
2000
1550
1550
1650
1450-1500
50
174-212
88-96
T15
1500
2000
2100
1600
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1600-1650
35
241-269
100-104
S1
1500
1800
2000
1600
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1450-1500
50
192-235
92-99
7-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
Change 1
M3
Forging, Normalizing and Annealing Treatments of Tool and Die Steels - Continued
Change 1
FORGING/a
SAE
DESIGNATION
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-10
Table 7-5.
NORMALIZING/b
START
FORGING
AT
DO NOT
FORGE
BELOW
HEAT
SLOWLY
TO
HOLD AT
ANNEALING/c
TEMPERATURE
MAX RATE
OF COOLING F/HR
BRINELL
HARDNESS
APPROX.
ROCKWELL
B, APPROX.
S2
1500
1900
2100
1600
1500-
1650
1400-1450
50
192-229
92-98
S5
1500
1900
2050
1600
1500
1600
1400-1450
50
192-229
92-98
W5
1200
1700
1900
1500
DO NOT NORMALIZE
1400-1425
50
192-212
92-96
a. The temperature at which to start forging is given as a range, the higher side of which should be used for large sections and heavy or rapid reductions,
and the lower side for smaller sections and lighter reductions, as the alloy content of the steel increases, the time of soaking at forging temperature
increases proportionately. Likewise, as the alloy content increases, it becomes more necessary to cool slowly from the forging temperature. With the very
high alloy steels, such as high speed or air hardening steels, this slow cooling is imperative in order to prevent cracking and to leave the steel in a semi-sof t
condition. Either furnace cooling or burying in an insulating medium such as lime, mica, or silocel is satisfactory.
b. The length of time the steel is held af ter being uniformly heated through at the normalizing temperature, varies from about 15 minutes for a small
section to about 1 hour for larger sizes. Cooling from the normalizing temperatures is done in still air. The purpose of normalizing af ter forging is to ref ine
the grain structure and to produce a uniform structure throughout the forging. Normalizing should not be confused with low temperature (about 1200F)
annealing used for the relief of redisual stresses resulting from heavy machining, bending and forming.
c. The annealing temperature is given as a range, the upper limit of which should be used for large sections, and the lower limit for smaller sections. The
temperature varies from about 1 hour for light sections and small furnace charges of carbon or low alloy steel, to about 4 hours for heavy sections and large
furnace charges of high alloy steel.
Table 7-6.
CLASS
QUENCH
MEDIUM
PREHEAT
TEMPERATURE F
Thermal Treatment for Hardening and Tempering Tool Steel - General
HARDENING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE F
HARDNESS
AFTER
QUENCHING
ROCKWELL C
TEMPERING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE F
HARDNESS
AFTER
TEMPERING
ROCKWELL C
DECARBURIZATION
(PREVENTION OF
DURING HEAT
TREATMENT)
Water
-a
1420-1450
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
W1-09
Water
-a
1420-1450
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
W1-10
Water
-a
1420-1450
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
W1-12
Water
-a
1420-1500
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
W2-09
Water
-a
1420-1500
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
W2-10
Water
-a
1420-1500
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
W3-10
Water
-a
1420-1500
65-67
350-525
65-56
-b
A2
Air
1200-1300
1725-1775
61-63
400-700
60-57
-c
A6
Air
1200-1300
1525-1600
60
D2
Air
1200-1300
1800-1875
61-63
400-700
60-58
-c
D3
Oil
1200-1300
1750-1800
62-64
400-700
62-58
-c
D5
Air
1200-1300
1800-1875
60-62
400-700
59-57
-c
D7
Air
1200-1300
1850-1950
63-65
300-500
850-1000
65-63
62-58
-c
F3
Water
-a
1550
62-66
300-500
66-62
-c
H-11
Air
1450-1500
1825-1875
53-55
1000-1100
51-43
-c
H12
Oil-Air
1450-1500
1800-1900
53-55
1000-1100
51-43
-c
H13
Air
1400-1450
1825-1575
53-55
1000-1100
51-43
-c
H21
Oil-Air
1500-1550
2100-2150
50-52
950-1150
50-47
-c
T1
Oil-AirSalt
1500-1550
2300-2375
63-65
1025-1100
65-63
-c
T2
Oil-AirSalt
1500-1550
2300-2375
63-65
1025-1100
63-65
-c
T3
Oil-Air
1500-1550
2275-2325
1000-1050
67-60
-c
T4
Oil-AirSalt
1500-1550
2300-2375
63-65
1026-1100
65-63
-c
T5
Oil-AirSalt
1500-1550
2300-2400
63-65
1050-1100
65-63
-c
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-11
W1-08
CLASS
QUENCH
MEDIUM
Thermal Treatment for Hardening and Tempering Tool Steel - General - Continued
PREHEAT
TEMPERATURE F
HARDENING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE F
HARDNESS
AFTER
QUENCHING
ROCKWELL C
TEMPERING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE F
HARDNESS
AFTER
TEMPERING
ROCKWELL C
DECARBURIZATION
(PREVENTION OF
DURING HEAT
TREATMENT)
T6
Oil
1600
2350
60-65
1000-1100
65-60
-c
T7
Oil
1600
2325
60-65
1000-1100
65-60
-c
T8
Oil-AirSalt
1500-1550
2300-2375
63-65
1025-1100
65-63
-c
M1
Oil-AirSalt
1400-1500
2150-2250
63-65
1025-1100
65-63
-c
M2
Oil-AirSalt
1450-1500
2175-2250
63-65
1025-1075
65-63
-c
M3
Oil-AirSalt
1450-1500
2150-2225
63-65
1025-1075
65-63
-c
M4
Oil-AirSalt
1450-1500
2150-2225
63-65
1025-1075
65-63
-c
M10
Oil
1400
2220
60-65
1000-1100
65-60
-c
M15
Oil
1400
2220
60-65
1000-1100
65-60
-c
M30
Oil
1400
2220
60-65
1000-1100
65-60
-c
M34
Oil
1400
2220
60-65
1000-1100
65-60
-c
01
Oil
-a
1450-1500
63-65
300-800
62-50
-b
02
Oil
-a
1420-1450
63-65
375-500
62-57
-b
06
Oil
-a
1450-1500
63-65
300-800
63-50
-b
L6
Oil
-a
1500-1600
62-64
400-800
62-48
-b
L7
Oil
-a
1525-1550
63-65
350-500
62-60
-b
T15
Oil-Air
1500-1600
2250-2300
65-66
1025-1100
66-68
-c
S1
Oil
1200-1300
1650-1800
57-59
300-1000
57-45
-c
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-12
Table 7-6.
Table 7-6.
CLASS
QUENCH
MEDIUM
S2
Water-oil
S5
W5
Thermal Treatment for Hardening and Tempering Tool Steel - General - Continued
PREHEAT
TEMPERATURE F
HARDNESS
AFTER
QUENCHING
ROCKWELL C
TEMPERING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE F
HARDNESS
AFTER
TEMPERING
ROCKWELL C
DECARBURIZATION
(PREVENTION OF
DURING HEAT
TREATMENT)
1550-1575
1660-1625
60-62
58-60
300-500
300-500
60-54
58-54
-b
-b
Water
1550-1600
60-62
300-650
60-54
-b
Oil
1600-1675
58-60
300-650
58-54
-b
1400-1550
65-66
300-400
62-65
-b
Water
-A
HARDENING
TEMPERATURE
RANGE F
1100-1200
a. For large tools and tools having intricate sections, preheating at 1050o to 1200o is recommended.
b. Use moderately oxidizing atmosphere in furnace or a suitable neutral salt bath.
c. Use protective pack from which volatile matter has been removed, carefully balanced neutral salt bath or atmosphere controlled furnaces. In the latter case, the
furnace atmosphere should be in equilibrium with the carbon content of the steel being treated. Furnace atmosphere dew point is considered a reliable method of
measuring and controlling this equilibrium.
T.O. 1-1A-9
7-13
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 7-7.
Comparison of Tool Steel Properties
CLASS
NON
DEFORMING
PROPERTIES
RESISTANCE
TO SOFTENING
EFFECT OF
HEAT
TOUGHNESS
WEAR
RESISTANCE
MACHINE
ABILITY
W1-08
Poor
Good
Poor
Fair
Best
W1-09
Poor
Good
Poor
Fair
Best
W1-10
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Best
W1-12
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Best
W2-09
Poor
Good
Poor
Fair
Best
W2-10
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Best
W3-10
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Best
A2
Best
Fair
Fair
Good
Fair
A6
Good
Fair
Poor
Good
Fair
D2
Best
Fair
Fair
Best
Poor
D3
Good
Poor
Fair
Best
Poor
D5
Best
Fair
Fair
Best
Poor
D7
Best
Poor
Fair
Best
Poor
F3
Poor
Poor
Poor
Best
Fair
H11
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
Hl2
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
Hl3
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
H21
Good
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
T1
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Fair
T2
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Fair
T3
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Fair
T4
Good
Poor
Best
Good
Fair
T5
Good
Poor
Best
Good
Fair
T6
Good
Fair
Good
Best
Fair
T7
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
T8
Good
Poor
Best
Good
Fair
M1
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Fair
M2
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Fair
M3
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
M4
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
M10
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
M15
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
M30
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
M34
Good
Poor
Good
Best
Fair
01
Good
Fair
Poor
Good
Good
7-14
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 7-7.
Comparison of Tool Steel Properties - Continued
NON
DEFORMING
PROPERTIES
RESISTANCE
TO SOFTENING
EFFECT OF
HEAT
TOUGHNESS
WEAR
RESISTANCE
MACHINE
ABILITY
02
Good
Fair
Poor
Good
Good
06
Fair
Fair
Poor
Good
Best
L6
Fair
Fair
Poor
Fair
Fair
L7
Fair
Fair
Poor
Good
Fair
T15
Good
Poor
Best
Best
Fair
S1
Fair
Good
Fair
Fair
Fair
S2
W-Poor
O-Fair
Best
Fair
Fair
Good
S5
W-Poor
O-Fair
Good
Poor
Fair
Best
W5
Poor
Good
Poor
Fair
Best
CLASS
7-15/(7-16 blank)
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION VIII
TESTING AND INSPECTION
HARDNESS TESTING
8-1.
GENERAL.
8-2. Hardness testing is used to determine the
results of heat treatment as well as the state of
the metal prior to heat treatment. Its application
in determining the approximate tensile strength of
the material by use of a hardness-tensile strength
table is very limited and should only be used in
the case of ferrous (steel) alloys. Table 8-1 should
be used only as a conversion table for converting
the various hardness values from one type of test
to another, and should not be used as an indication of tensile strength for alloys other than ferrous. In addition, it should be realized that values
given in Table 8-1 are only approximate. Whenever a specif ic type of hardness test is given in a
drawing, specif ication, etc., necessary hardness
readings should be made by that test whenever
possible, rather than by other means, and a conversion made. In obtaining hardness values, precaution must be taken to assure removal of cladding and decarburized surface layers from area to
be tested.
8-3.
METHODS OF HARDNESS TESTING.
8-4. The methods of hardness testing in general
use are: Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers (British), Tukon
and Shore scleroscope.
8-5. BRINELL HARDNESS TEST. This test
consists of pressing a hardened steel ball into a
f lat surface of the metal being tested by the application of a known pressure. The impression made
by the ball is measured by means of a microscope
with a micrometer eyepiece. The Brinell ‘‘number’’
is obtained by dividing the load in kilograms by
the area of the spherical impression made by the
ball, measured in square millimeters. The thickness of all samples used for testing must be suff icient to prevent bulging on the under side.
8-6. Brinell Tester. The Brinell tester (Figure 81) consists of the following major parts:
a. An elevating screw and anvil for bringing
the sample into contact with the ball.
b. A manually operated hydraulic pump for
applying the pressure to the hardened steel ball,
which is mounted on its actuating member.
c. A pressure gage for determining the
applied pressure.
d. A release mechanism with micrometer eyepiece for calculating the area of the impression.
8-7. Making The Brinell Test. The test is
preformed as follows:
a. Prepare the sample by f iling, grinding, and
polishing to remove all scratches and variations
that may affect the reading.
b. Place the sample on the anvil of the
machine and elevate until the hardened ball contacts the surface to be tested.
c.
Apply the load by pumping handle.
NOTE
A load of 3,000 kilograms is required
for steel, while 500 kilograms is used
when testing the sof ter metals, such
as aluminum alloy, brass, and bronze.
Normally, the load should be applied
for 30 seconds. Although this period
may be increased to 1 minute for
extremely hard steels, in order to produce equilibrium.
d. Release the pressure and measure the area
of impression with the calibrated microscope.
e. Calculate the Brinell number, completing
the test.
8-8. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST. The
Rockwell hardness test is based on the degree of
penetration of a specif ically designed indentor into
a material under a given static load. The
indentor/penetrator used may be either a diamond
or hardened steel ball. The diamond indentor
called a ‘‘brale’’ is precision ground and polished
and the shape is spheroconica. The steel ball for
normal use is 1/16 inch diameter, however, other
larger diameter steel balls such as 1/8, 1/4 or 1/2
inch may be used for testing sof t metals. The
selection of the ball is based on the hardness range
of the type of materia1 to be tested.
8-9. The Rockwell machine/tester for accomplishing the hardness test applies two loads to obtain
the controlled penetration and indicates results on
a graduated dial (see Figure 8-2). A minor load of
10 kilograms is f irst applied to seat the penetrator
in the surface of the test specimen. The actual
penetration is then produced by applying a major
8-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
load, subsequently, releasing and then reading
hardness number from the dial. The dial reading
is related to the depth of penetration, load and the
penetrator used. The shallower the penetration,
the higher the hardness value number for given
indentor and load. The normal major load is 150
kilograms (‘‘C’’ Scale) when using the diamond
penetrator and 100 kilograms (‘‘B’’Scale) when
using a 1/16 inch steel ball. A hardness value indicated by a number alone is incomplete. The number must be pref ixed with a letter to indicate the
load and indentor used to obtain the number.
There is a variety of combinations of indentors and
loads used to obtain a hardness value in accordance with hardness range of various material.
The combinations are listed in Table 8-2 which is
based on Specif ication ASTM E-18.
8-10. Review of Table 8-2 will reveal that the
Red Dial Numerals ‘‘B’’ scale are used for steel ball
indentors regardless of size of ball or load and
Black Figure ‘‘C’’ scales are used for the diamond
penetrator. When the readings fall below the
hardness value, C20 (B98) the material is considered too sof t for the diamond cone and 1/16 inch or
larger hardened ball should be used. The diamond
cone must be used for all hard materials (those
above 100 on the ‘‘B’’scale) as the steel ball may be
deformed by the test. If in doubt about the hardness of a material start with the diamond penetrator and switch to the steel ball if the material is
below C20-C22.
8-11. Rockwell Test Procedure: The procedure for
making the Rockwell test is outlined as follows:
(See Figure 8-2 for machine illustrations.)
a. Prepare the sample by removing (f ile, grind
and polish) scale, oxide f ilms, pits, variations and
foreign material that may affect the reading. The
surface should be f lat, of one thickness and no
bludge should be opposite the indentation.
NOTE
Do not perform test closer than 1/8″
from edge of specimen to assure accurate reading.
b. Select the proper anvil and penetrator and
place proper weight on the weight pan.
8-2
c. Check trip lever for proper location. Lever
should be located in the OFF LOAD position.
d. Place the test specimen on the anvil and by
turning the hand wheel, raise it slowly (do not
crash) until contact is made with the penetrator.
On the older model continue turning until pointer
of the indicator has made three revolutions and is
within f ive divisions (plus or minus) of the upright
position. On the newer model af ter contact, continue turning hand wheel until the small pointer
is nearly vertical and slightly to right of the dot.
Then watching the long pointer, raise specimen
until long pointer is approximately upright within
three degrees (plus or minus) of C-0. K the C=+3
degrees position is overshot, lower the specimen
and start over. When the pointer is within three
divisions of C-0, set dial to zero. Af ter this step is
complete, the minor load has been applied.
e. Apply the major load by tripping the trip
lever. Trip the lever, do not push.
f. When the trip lever comes to rest and there
is no further movement of pointer, return lever to
the original position and read the hardness number indicated by the dial. When dial pointer indicates a fraction, use next lower whole number for
the reading.
8-12. All hardness tests should be made on a
single thickness to obtain accurate results. In
testing curved specimens, the concave side should
face the indentor; if reversed, an inaccurate reading will result due to f latening of the piece on the
anvil. Specimens that do not balance on the anvil
because of overhang should be properly supported
to obtain accurate readings and to prevent damaging the penetrator. Also to obtain a true indication of hardness of a given part, several readings
(3-6 is usually suff icient) at different points should
be taken and averaged. If it is necessary to determine the condition of the interior, parts should be
cut by some method that does not appreciably
change the temper/ condition, such as using a
water-cooled saw-off wheel. When testing clad
material; the clad coat shall be removed. Specimen samples of clad and other materials should be
provided when possible. It is not desirable to
accomplish the test on the f inished part.
Table 8-1.
Hardness Conversion Chart
T.O. 1-1A-9
8-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
working order before making any test. The table
on which the Rockwell tester is mounted must be
rigid and not subject to any vibration if accurate
results are to be obtained.
8-14. The accuracy of the Rockwell hardness tester should be checked regularly. Test blocks are
available for testing all ranges of hardness. If the
error in the tester is more than ±2 hardness numbers, it should be re-calibrated. The dashpot
should be checked or oil and properly adjusted for
completion of travel. The ball indentor and diameter should also be checked regularly for bluntness
and chipping and replaced as required.
8-15. VICKERS PYRAMID HARDNESS TEST.
The Vickers pyramid hardness test(Figure 8-4)
covers a normal range of loading from 2.5 to 127.5
kilograms. However, for special applications such
as the hardness testing of thin, sof t materials,
loads as low as 50 to 100 grams may be used.
This test is made by pressing a square base diamond indentor into a f lat surface of the metal
being tested by the application of known pressure.
The indentation lef t by the indentor is a square,
the diagonal of which remains the hardness of the
metal. The diagonal of the square impression is
measured by a microscope which reads directly to
0.001 millimeters on a large micrometer drum.
With the standard pyramidal diamond indentor
(Figure 8-5) having an angle of 136o between opposite face of the pyramid, the pyramidal hardness
number is determined by dividing the applied load
in kilograms by the pyramidal area of the impression in square millimeters by the formula,
Hardness 1.854 applied load in kilograms
square of the diagonal of impression
or from correlation tables accompanying the tester.
Figure 8-1.
Brinell Hardness Tester
8-13. The Rockwell testers are equipped with
various anvils and indentors. Typical anvils and
attachments are shown in Figure 8-3. The anvil(s)
should be properly selected to accomplish the job.
The tester should also be properly set and in good
8-4
Rapid readings may be taken by means of three
knife edges in the f ield of the eye-piece. The f irst
knife edge is f ixed; the second knife is movable
through a micrometric screw connected to a
counter. The third knife edge, moved by means of
a special screw, may be used if rapid reading of
values to specif ied limits is desired. This method
of testing is highly f lexible and permits testing for
very high hardness values. In the Amsler-Vickers
variation of this hardness tester the surface of the
material to be tested, at which the indentor contacts may be thrown on a ground-glass screen
directly in front of the operator, allowing the
length of the diagonals to be read directly.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 8-2.
Rockwell Hardness Tester
8-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 8-3.
Attachments for Rockwell Tester
8-16. Vickers Tester. The Vickers tester consists
of the following major parts:
a.
Table for supporting the metal to be tested.
a. Prepare the sample by smooth grinding or
polishing to remove all scratches and variations
that may affect the readability of the indentation.
b. A lever with a 20 to 1 ratio through which
a load is applied through a rod to an indentor at
the end of a tube moving up and down in a vertical position.
b. Place the test piece (6) on the testing table
(5) and turn the table elevating wheel (1) until the
indentor (7) fails to contact the metal being tested.
c. A frame containing a control in which a
plunger moves up and down vertically under the
inf luence of a cam which applies and releases the
test load. The cam is mounted on a drum and
when the starting handle is depressed, the whole
is rotated by a weight attached to a f lexible cable,
the speed of rotation being controlled by a piston
and dashpot of oil. The mechanism provides for a
slow and diminishing rate of application for the
last portion of the load.
CAUTION
d. A foot pedal, which when depressed,
returns the cam, drum and weight to their original
positions, thus cocking the mechanism and preparing the instrument for another test.
Sudden contact of the indentor and
the material under test should be
avoided to prevent possible injury to
the diamond point.
c. Depress the load trip level (8) applying the
load. The duration of the load application is f ixed
by the manufacturers at 10 to 30 seconds, the time
being determined by the rate at which oil is
allowed to bleed out of the dashpot. The load is
fully applied, the indentor is automatically
released.
e. A tripper, which supports the beam during
the return of the cam, weight and drum. The tripper also released the lever for load applications.
d. Elevate the indentor by turning the wheel.
Lower the testing table by reversing the table elevating wheel.
f. A medium-power compound microscope for
measuring the indentation across the diagonal of a
square.
e. Swing the microscope (10) into place until
locked.
8-17. Making The Vickers Test. The test is
applied as follows (See f igure 8-4):
8-6
f. View the impression of the indentation in
the form of a square in the f ield shown by the
eyepiece.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 8-4.
Vickers Pyramid Hardness Tester
8-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
8-18. SHORE SCLEROSCOPE HARDNESS
TEST. The Shore scleroscope is not a precision
instrument as the others discussed in preceding
paragraphs. It is used to give approximate values
for comparative hardness readings. Testing hardness with the scleroscope consists of dropping a
diamond tipped hammer upon the test specimen
from a def inite height and measuring the rebound
produced. In one type of tester, the height of the
rebound must be measured directly on the scale of
the machine, while on another the amount is indicated on a dial.
8-19. The Scleroscope Tester. The tester (Figure
8-6) consists of the following major parts:
a. A base, provided with leveling screws, end
a clamping arrangement to hold the sample to be
tested.
Figure 8-5.
Standard Pyramid Diamond Indentor
g. Bring the lef t corner of the impression, by
means of the centering screws (13) to a point
where it touches the lef t hand f ixed knife edge.
Adjust the right hand movable knife edge by
means of the micrometric screw connected to the
counter until it touches the right hand corner of
the impression. The counter (15) will then show
an ocular reading which is transposed to the Vickers pyramid numeral by use of correlation tables
accompanying the tester.
h. Where specif ied hardness limits are
desired the third knife edge is used. This is
moved by means of special screws to correspond to
the smaller dimension or maximum hardness,
while the micrometer-controlled knife edge is
adjusted to correspond to the minimum hardness
or larger dimension. When the settings of the second and third knife edges are made, it is only necessary when taking readings to set the f ixed knife
edge to the lef t hand corner of the impression in
the usual way. If the right hand corner of the
impression appears between the second and third
knife edges, the material has the proper hardness
for the range desired.
8-8
Figure 8-6.
Shore Scleroscope
b. A vertical glass tube, mounted to the base
and containing the cylindrical diamond point
hammer.
T.O. 1-1A-9
c. A suction heat and bulb for lif ting and
releasing the hammer.
d. A scale, visible through the glass tube, for
determining the height of the rebound.
e. A magnif ier hammer with a larger contact
area is supplied for use with extremely sof t
metals.
8-20. TESTING WITH THE SCLEROSCOPE.
The test is made as follows:
a. Level the instrument by means of the
adjusting screws (1). (See f igure 8-6). The level
position is determined by means of the plumb rod
(2).
b. Prepare the test specimen as described for
the Brinell and Rockwell tests in preceding
paragraphs and clamp it on the base. This is done
by raising the lever (3) inserting the sample and
exerting the pressure on the clamping shoe (4).
c. Raise the hammer (5) by squeezing and
releasing the bulb (6)
d. Release the hammer by again squeezing
the bulb and observing its rebound.
e. Several tests should be made at different
points of a specimen, and an average reading
taken to reduce visual error.
8-21. TENSILE TESTING. The terms tension
test and compression test are usually taken to
refer to tests in which a prepared specimen is subjected to a gradually increasing load applied axially until failure occurs . For the purpose of tensile testing implied by this technical order this
type of setting would apply to determining the
mechanical properties desired in a material. For
this test, the following test specimens are listed.
(See Figure 8-7.) This does not exclude the use of
other test specimens for special materials or forms
of material. The tensile strength shall be determined by dividing the maximum load on the specimen during a tension test by the original crosssectional area of the specimen.
b. When an extensometer is required to determine elastic properties, dimensions C and L may
be modif ied. In all cases the percentage of elongation shall be based on dimension G.
c. The type R1 test specimen is circular in
cross section and is used for bars, rods, forgings,
plates, shapes, heavy-walled tubing, and castings.
Types R2, R3, R4, and R5 are circular in cross-section and are used for material of dimensions insuff icient for type R1.
(1) The ends of the reduced section shall
not differ in width by more than 0.004 inch.
(2) The ends of the specimen shall be symmetrical with the center line of the reduced section
within 0.10 inch.
(3) When material is over 2 inches thick,
machine to 3/4 inch or use type R1 test specimen.
For more detailed information, refer to Federal
Test Method Standard No. 151.
8-22.
DECARBURIZATION MEASUREMENT.
8-23. Decarburization is the loss of carbon at the
surface of ferrous materials which have been
heated for fabricating, welding, etc., or when
heated to modify mechanical properties. Effective
decarburization is any measurable loss of carbon
content which results in mechanical properties
below the minimum acceptable specif ications for
hardened materials. The most common methods
used to measure decarburization are microscopic,
hardness and chemical. The microscopic method is
suff iciently accurate for most annealed and hot
rolled material for small amounts of decarburization in high carbon (over 0.60%), high hardness
steels. The hardness method is insensitive in this
case, and recourse must be taken to chemical analysis. In this technical order, only the hardness
method is covered. When precise measurements
are required, publications giving detailed measurements must be consulted.
a. Diameter of the reduced section may be
smaller at center than at ends. Difference shall
not exceed 1% of diameter at ends.
8-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 8-2.
Rockwell Scales, Loads and Prefix Letters
SCALE PREFIX
LETTERS
INDENTOR/PENETRATOR
MAJOR LOAD
KILOGRAMS
DIAL NUMBERS
A
Diamond
60
Black
B*
1/16 in Steel Ball
100
Red
C*
Diamond
150
Black
D
Diamond
100
Black
E
1/8 in Ball
100
Red
F
1/16 in Ball
60
Red
G
1/16 in Ball
150
Red
H
1/8 in Ball
60
Red
K
1/8 in Ball
150
Red
L
1/4 in Ball
60
Red
M
1/4 in Ball
100
Red
P
1/4 in Ball
150
Red
R
1/2 in Ball
60
Red
S
1/2 in Ball
100
Red
V
1/2 in Ball
150
Red
* Most Commonly Used Scales.
8-24.
HARDNESS METHOD.
8-25. Taper or Step Grind - The specimen containing the surface on which decarburization is to
be measured is prepared so that it can be manipulated on a Rockwell superf icial or Vickers hardness tester. If the specimen is not in the hardened
condition, it is recommended that it be hardened
by quenching from heating equipment under conditions which avoid further change in carbon distribution. For the taper grind procedure, a shallow taper is ground through the case, and
hardness measurements are made along the surface. The angle is chosen so that readings spaced
equal distances apart will represent the hardness
at the desired increments below the surface of the
case. The step grind procedure is essentially the
same as the taper grind, except that hardness
8-10
readings are made on steps which are known distances below the surface. These steps should be
ground at pre-determined depths below the surfaces, and of suff icient areas to allow several hardness readings on each f lat.
8-26. The f ile method is of ten suitable for
detecting decarburization of hardened materials
during shop processing, but not for accurate measurement. Base metals expected to harden above
RC60 and found to be f ile sof t are probably decarburized. Decarburization of base metal that will
not harden to RC60 can not be detected by this
method unless specially prepared f iles are used.
The extent and severity of any decarburization
detected by this method should be verif ied by
either of the other methods.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Figure 8-7.
Test Specimens
8-11
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 8-3.
Approximate Hardness - Tensile Strength Relationship of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
Rockwell
C
150 Kg
Load
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
8-12
B
100 Kg
Load
1/16 Ball
121.3
120.8
120.2
119.6
119.1
118.5
117.9
117.4
116.8
116.2
115.6
115.0
114.4
113.8
113.3
112.7
112.1
111.5
110.9
110.4
109.7
109.1
108.5
107.8
107.1
106.4
105.7
105.0
104.3
130.7
102.9
102.2
101.5
100.8
100.2
99.5
98.9
Vickers
Brinell3
Tensile
Diamond
300 Kg Load - 10mm Ball
Strength
Pyramid
50 Kg
Load
Tungsten
Carbide
Ball
Steel
Ball
1000 lb
per
sq in.
918
884
852
822
793
765
740
717
694
672
650
630
611
592
573
556
539
523
508
493
479
465
452
440
428
417
406
396
386
376
367
357
348
339
330
321
312
304
296
288
281
274
267
261
255
250
245
240
820
796
774
753
732
711
693
675
657
639
621
604
588
571
554
538
523
508
494
479
465
452
440
427
415
405
394
385
375
365
356
346
337
329
319
310
302
293
286
278
271
264
258
252
246
241
236
231
717
701
686
671
656
642
628
613
600
584
574
561
548
536
524
512
500
488
476
464
453
442
430
419
408
398
387
377
367
357
347
337
327
318
309
301
294
286
279
272
265
259
253
247
241
235
230
225
283
273
264
256
246
237
231
221
215
208
201
194
188
181
176
170
165
160
155
150
147
142
139
136
132
129
126
123
120
118
115
112
110
107
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 8-3.
Approximate Hardness - Tensile Strength Relationship of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels - Continued
Rockwell
Vickers
Brinell3
Tensile
Diamond
300 Kg Load - 10mm Ball
Strength
C
150 Kg
Load
B
100 Kg
Load
1/16 Ball
Pyramid
50 Kg
Load
Tungsten
Carbide
Ball
Steel
Ball
1000 lb
per
sq in.
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
98.1
97.5
96.9
96.2
95.5
94.9
94.1
93.4
92.6
91.8
91.2
90.3
89.7
89
88.3
87.5
87
86
85.5
84.5
83.2
82
80.5
79
77.5
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
61
58
55
51
47
44
39
35
30
24
20
11
0
235
231
227
223
219
215
211
207
203
199
196
192
189
186
183
179
177
173
171
167
162
157
153
149
143
139
135
129
125
120
116
112
108
104
99
95
91
88
84
80
76
72
69
65
62
226
222
218
214
210
206
202
199
195
191
187
184
180
177
174
171
169
165
163
159
153
148
144
140
134
130
126
120
116
111
107
104
100
95
91
86
83
80
76
72
67
64
61
57
54
220
215
210
206
201
197
193
190
186
183
180
177
174
171
168
165
162
160
158
154
150
145
140
136
131
127
122
117
113
108
104
100
96
92
87
83
79
76
72
68
64
60
57
53
50
104
103
102
100
99
97
95
93
91
90
89
88
87
85
84
83
82
81
80
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60
58
56
54
52
50
48
46
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
30
28
8-13
T.O. 1-1A-9
8-27. NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION
METHODS.
8-28. Radiographic inspection will show internal
and external structural details of all types of parts
and materials. It is accomplished by passing penetrating radiation (usually X or gamma rays)
through the part or assembly being inspected to
expose a f ilm. Af ter developing, interpretation of
the radiograph will indicate defects or damage.
All radiographic inspections shall be accomplished
in accordance with T.O. 33B-1-1, MIL-STD-453,
and MIL-STD-410.
8-29. Penetrant inspection is a nondestructive
inspection method that is used to detect discontinuities open to the surface of nonporous material.
It is accomplished by treating the inspection area
with a f luid (penetrant) that penetrates the surface discontinuity. Surplus penetrant remaining
on the surface is removed and an absorbent material (developer) is applied to the surface. The
developer acts as a blotter and draws some of the
penetrant from the discontinuity to the surface.
Discontinuities are visible due to color contrast
between the penetrant drawn out and the background surface. Only f luorescent penetrants are
approved for Air Force use. All penetrant inspection materials shall conform to MIL-I-25135. All
penetrant inspections shall be accomplished in
accordance with T.O. 33B-1-1 and MIL-STD-410.
8-30. Ultrasonic inspection uses a high frequency
sound wave to detect discontinuities in materials.
The pulser in the ultrasonic instrument sends an
electrical impulse to a piezoelectric material in the
search unit (transducer). The transducer changes
the electrical impulse into mechanical vibrations
(sound) and transmits them into the material
being inspected. Any marked change in acoustic
properties, such as a f law or interface in the material, ref lects the sound back to the transducer.
Examination of the ref lections on a cathode ray
tube will reveal discontinuities in the material.
All ultrasonic inspections shall be accomplished in
accordance with T.O. 33B-1-1, MIL-I-8950, and
MIL-STD-410.
8-31. Magnetic particle inspection is used to
detect discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials,
principally iron and steel. Magnetic particle
inspection is accomplished by inducing a magnetic
f ield into the material being inspected. A discontinuity will interrupt this f ield, creating north and
8-14
south poles which will attract magnetic particles
applied to the material. Discontinuities are visible
due to color contrast between the magnetic particles and the background surface. All magnetic
particle inspections shall be accomplished in accordance with T.O. 33B-1-1 and MIL-STD-410.
8-32. Eddy current inspection is used to detect
discontinuities in materials that are conductors of
electricity. An eddy current is the circulating electrical current induced in a conductor by an alternating magnetic f ield, which is produced by a
small test coil in contact with or close to the material being inspected. Discontinuities in the material being tested cause variations in the induced
eddy current. The test coil measures the variations which reveal discontinuities in the material.
All eddy current inspections shall be in accordance
with T.O. 33B-1-1 and MIL-STD-410.
8-33. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. Chemical analysis methods are those in which the elements present in metals are determined by the use of
reagents in solution, by combustion methods, or by
other none-mission methods. Sample metal from
any piece shall be such that it represents as nearly
as possible the metal of the entire piece. Drilling,
milling and other machining operations for sample
metal shall be performed without the use of water,
oil, or other lubricants, and cutting speeds shall be
such that no burning takes place to cause alternation of the chemical composition of the test metal.
Method III.I of Federal Method Standard 151A is
the controlling document for chemical analysis.
8-34. SPECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS. Spectrochemical analysis includes all methods in which
measurements of electromagnetic radiations produced by a sample metal are employed to determine the chemical composition. Samples shall be
so selected as to be representative of the entire
quantity of metal under inspection. Cutting
speeds in all machining operations shall be such
that no burning takes place to cause alteration of
the chemical composition of the test metal.
Method 112.1 of Federal Test Method Standard
151A governs this type of analysis. The result of
spectrochemical analysis shall be determined to
the number of decimal places shown in the chemical requirements for the material.
T.O. 1-1A-9
SECTION IX
HEAT TREATMENT
9-1.
GENERAL.
9-2. Controlled atmosphere ovens are not
required for heat treatment operations unless
specif ied for a particular part.
9-3. A cold oven is def ined as any oven where
the temperature is not over 500oF (260oC). Loading and unloading a cold oven is possible without
further lowering the temperature.
9-4. Parts that are prone to distortion during
heat treatment shall be properly supported and
temperature raised gradually by steps. Coat f ixturing at part contact points and threaded details
with PMC 2264 boron nitride coating prior to
installing part and before heat treatment. Cooling
of these parts shall also be done gradually. Cycles
with A suff ix are recommended for this purpose.
9-5. Parts that are not prone to distortion during
heat treatment may be loaded into and withdrawn
from a hot oven.
9-6. Temperature and time are the most critical
factors in heat treatment. Time required at each
specif ied temperature begins only af ter all sections of parts have reached that temperature.
Furnace operator shall make allowance for size of
part, number of parts, and furnace input
capacities.
9-7. Optimum temperatures are given for each
cycle, with tolerances included for practical use.
However, it is best to hold to basic temperatures
listed.
Table 9-1.
Cycle No.
Type*
9-8. Some typical material applications are listed
in Table 9-1 for general guidance only. Cycle for
which an alloy type is listed may not necessarily
be specif ied for that material.
9-9. SPECIAL HEAT TREATMENT
INFORMATION.
9-10. CADMIUM PLATED PARTS. All cadmium plate shall be stripped from parts (SPOP 21)
and cadmium plated detail parts shall be removed
from assemblies prior to subjecting the part or
assemblies to any furnace temperature in excess of
500oF (260oC). At temperatures above 500oF
(260oC), stress alloying of molten cadmium will
occur with potentially harmful results on the base
materials.
9-11. TINT TEST FOR DETERMINING COATING REMOVAL FROM NICKEL BASE AND
COBALT BASE ALLOYS.
9-12.
Perform test as follows:
a. Remove coating from parts using applicable
stripping procedure.
b. Heat parts and an uncoated, vapor blasted
test panel of the same material as the parts at
1075o ±25oF (579o ±14oC) for 45 to 75 minutes in
air.
c. A uniform color match between the part
and the test piece will indicate complete removal
of the coating.
Typical Heat Treatment Application
SPOP No.
Possible Alloy Application
1, 1A
STR
455-1, 455-2
Low alloy steel, as AMS 6322 and AMS 6415; martensitic
stainless steel, as Type 410 (AMS 5504 and AMS 5613) and
Greek Ascoloy (AMS 5508 and AMS 5616)
2
STR
456
Aluminum
3
STR
457
-
4, 4A
STR
458-1, 458-2
Inconel X
5, 5A
STR
459-1, 459-2
Nickel alloys: B-1900 (PWA 663 and PWA 1455); Inconel
713 (PWA 655) Cobalt alloys: Stellite 31 (AMS 5382); WI-52
(PWA 653); MAR-M509 (PWA 647)
6, 6A
STR
460-1, 460-2
Greek Ascoloy (AMS 5508 and AMS 5616) (martensitic
stainless steel)
9-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 9-1.
Cycle No.
Type*
Typical Heat Treatment Application - Continued
SPOP No.
Possible Alloy Application
7
STR
461
Waspaloy, Udimet 700
8
STR
455-3
-
9
STR
459-3
Inconel 600 (nickel alloy); Nimonic 75 (PWA 673) (nickel
alloy); stainless steel, as Types 310, 316, 321, and 347
11
STR
464
Titanium
12, 12A
PRE
471, 465
Inconel 718 (nickel alloy), as AMS 5596, AMS 5662, and
AMS 5663
13
STR
466
17-7PH (stainless steel - austenite conditioning); Type 430
(ferritic stainless steel), welded with Type 430 f iller metal
14
STR
467
Type 430 (ferritic stainless steel), welded with AMS 5680
(Type 347 stainless steel)
15
PRE
468
A-286 (modif ied Tinidur) stainless steel, as AMS 5525, AMS
5731, AMS 5732, and AMS 5737
17
PRE
470
Incoloy 901 (nickel alloy), as AMS 5660 and AMS 5661
20
SOL
480
HASTELLOY X (nickel alloy)
21
SOL
481
Nickel alloy: HASTELLOY X (AMS 5536 and AMS 5754)
Cobalt alloys: STELLITE 31 (AMS5382); Haynes 188 (AMS
5608, AMS 5772, and PWA 1042); L-605 (AMS 5537 and
AMS 5759)
22
STR
482
Nickel alloys: Inconel 600 (AMS 5540 and AMS 5665); Inconel 625 (AMS 5599 and AMS 5666); HASTELLOY N;
HASTELLOY X (AMS 5536, AMS 5754, and PWA 1038);
HASTELLOY W Cobalt alloys: STELLITE 31 (AMS 5382);
Haynes 188 (AMS 5608, AMS 5772, and PWA 1042); L-605
(AMS 5537 and AMS 5759); MAR-M509 (PWA 647)
101
SOL
761
Waspaloy (nickel alloy), as AMS 5544, AMS 5706, and AMS
5707
102
SOL
762
Waspaloy (nickel alloy), as AMS 5544, AMS 5706, and AMS
5707
103
STA
763
Waspaloy (nickel alloy), as AMS 5544, AMS 5706, AMS
5707, AMS 5708, and AMS 5709
104
PRE
764
Waspaloy (nickel alloy), as AMS 5596, AMS 5706, AMS
5707, AMS 5708, and AMS 5709
105
SOL
765
Inconel 718 (nickel alloy), as AMS 5596, AMS 5662, and
AMS 5663
106
SOL
766
Inconel 718 (nickel alloy, as AMS 5596, AMS 5662, and
AMS 5663
9-2
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 9-1.
Cycle No.
10
Type*
PRE
Typical Heat Treatment Application - Continued
SPOP No.
767
Possible Alloy Application
Nickel alloys: Inconel 718, as AMS 5596, AMS 5662, and
AMS 5663; Inconel X-750, as AMS 5598, AMS 5670, and
AMS 5671
* PRE = Precipitation
SOL = Solution
STA = Stabilization
STR = Stress-relief
9-13.
TITANIUM ALLOY PARTS.
NOTE
AMS 4901 and 4921 are the only commercially pure titanium material
types used widely in the fabrication of
P&W engine parts. Virtually all
other titanium materials used are
titanium alloys and are subject to
these instructions.
9-14. GENERAL. All titanium alloy parts shall
be cleaned by the following procedure prior to
stress-relief. Otherwise, certain impurities that
may be present on the parts during the heating
cycle could cause stress alloying of the parts. The
thin, hard, blue-gray oxide coating sometimes
occurring on titanium alloy surfaces and unaffected by this cleaning procedure is harmless in
this respect and may be disregarded.
WARNING
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is f lammable and harmful to eyes, skin, and
breathing passages. Keep ignition
sources away, provide adequate ventilation, and wear protective clothing.
NOTE
Since only light f ilms of oil or grease
will be removed by the cleaning solution, it is essential that as much surface contamination as possible be
removed before immersing parts into
the cleaning solution.
a. Remove any visible concentrations of oil,
grease, dirt, and any other contaminants by wiping with a clean, lint-free cloth dampened with
methyl ethyl ketone TT-M-261 or acetone O-A-51.
WARNING
Alkaline rust remover causes burns.
Protect eyes and skin from contact.
.
.
NOTE
Parts shall be immersed only long
enough to obtain optimum results.
Refer to Section V. CLEANING, for
solution make-up.
b. Soak in alkaline rust remover (SPS 2, SPS
5, SPS 7, SPS 12, SPS 25, SPS 27, or PS 240) at
180o to 200oF (82o to 93oC) for 1 to 4 minutes
maximum.
c. Pressure rinse over tank with cold water,
then dip rinse in cold water, following with a cold
water pressure rinse.
d. Rinse in hot PMC 1737 deionized water at
150o to 200oF (66o to 93oC). Air dry; do not use
compressed air.
e. Immediately af ter completing step d., protect the parts from all contamination, such as dirt,
dust, oil mist, f ingerprints, etc. Cover parts with
clear plastic sheet or store them in clear plastic
bags until furnace or other operation is begun.
Use clean white gloves for all handling.
9-15. Type 6A1-4V Titanium Alloy Parts (AMS
4911, 4928, 4930, 4935, 4954, 4956, 4967, and
PWA 1213, 1215, 1262). Parts fabricated of these
titanium alloys may be stress-relieved in air only
to 1015o±15oF (546o±8oC). See Cycles 1 and 1A.
At any higher temperatures, an inert atmosphere
shall be used regardless of any contrary instructions stipulated in a particular repair.
9-16. SOLUTION, STABILIZATION, OR PRECIPITATION HEAT TREATMENT.
9-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
9-17. GENERAL. Solution heat treatment of
material (particularly HASTELLOY X) is performed to improve ductility and weldability prior
to resizing and repair. Long-time exposure to high
temperature engine operating environment causes
precipitation of carbides into the grain boundaries.
Carbides, particularly chromium carbides, are thus
precipitated into the grain boundaries of parts fabricated of HASTELLOY X material and subjected
for long periods to temperatures of 1200o to 1700oF
(649o to 927oC). The solution treatment dissolves
these carbides and puts them back into metallic
solution. The cooling cycle, therefore, shall be
rapid enough to maintain carbides or precipitation
hardeners in solution. Replication and metallurgical examination may be necessary to verify
whether f ixturing and cooling rate are adequate to
obtain desired microstructure and prevent
cracking.
9-18. Stabilization heat treatment is maintaining
a part at a selected temperature long enough to
rearrange the atoms into an improved structure.
9-19. Precipitation heat treatment is a selected
temperature and duration that produces benef icial
hardening in certain alloys. It is sometimes
referred to as Aging, or Age Hardening.
9-20. When a sequence of solution, stabilization,
or precipitation heat treatment is applied to a
given part, various temperatures are used. The
f inal condition obtained is a combined effect of
this sequence.
Table 9-2.
Cycle No.
12
12A
15
17
20
21
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
9-21. The expressions AIR COOL and AIR COOL
OR FASTER mean that parts shall be cooled
quickly enough to prevent metal structure changes
that can happen in certain alloys if cooling is too
slow. It does not mean to quench in a liquid. Circulating fans may be used, but f ixturing may be
required if distortion is a problem.
a. AIR COOL is def ined as rate of cooling of
part obtained by removing that part from furnace
at prescribed temperature and allowing it to cool
in room temperature still air. Def inition has been
broadened to include the following situations.
(1) In vacuum furnace, by force cooling in
protective atmosphere.
(2) In protective atmosphere furnace, by
shutting off heat and maintaining atmospheric
f low rates.
(3) In retort furnace, by removing retort
from furnace and fan cooling.
(4) In pit furnace, by removing parts from
furnace and cooling in room temperature still air.
b. AIR COOL OR FASTER is def ined as cooling not less than 40oF (22oC) per minute to 1100oF
(593oC) and not less than 15oF (8oC) from 1100o to
1000oF (538oC).
9-22. Cycle number, type of heat treatment,
SPOP number, and maximum temperature are
listed in Table 9-2.
Cross-Index for Solution, Stabilization, or Precipitation Heat Treatments
Type
SPOP No.
Precipitation
Precipitation
Precipitation
Precipitation
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Stabilization
Precipitation
Solution
Solution
Precipitation
471
465
468
470
480
481
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
Peak Temp., oF(oC)*
1350
1350
1325
1450
2050
2150
1825
1825
1550
1400
1750
1750
1325
(732)
(732)
(718)
(788)
(1121)
(1177)
(996)
(996)
(843)
(760)
(954)
(954)
(718)
* (disregarding tolerance)
9-23. Solution heat treatment Cycles 20 and 21
are used for various HASTELLOY X parts. Reference to these cycles will be made in the repair
9-4
instructions, as necessary, by cycle or SPOP
number.
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
manufacture. The benef icial properties derived from this lower temperature treatment could be lost permanently if subjected to a temperature
higher than 1800oF (982oC). For regular Hastelloy material, solution heat
treat shall be performed in accordance
with Cycle 20 (SPOP 480), unless otherwise directed by a specif ic repair
procedure.
These cycles apply only to the repair
of HASTELLOY X parts that require
using one of the following solution
heat treatments. The specif ic cycle
required will be included in the repair
procedure.
9-24. CYCLE 20 (SPOP 480). Perform as
follows:
a. Heat part to 2150o ±25oF (1177o ±14oC) and
hold for 7 to 10 minutes.
CAUTION
NOTE
Hydrogen, argon, or air are acceptable
atmospheres. However, when solution treating is to be followed by weld
repair that requires complete prior
removal of oxides, hydrogen is preferred because of its characteristic
and benef icial cleaning action over
the entire part. Hydrogen cleaning
removes oxides from all surfaces
including those diff icult to clean
mechanically, and to some extent,
from the inside of cracks to be welded.
Do not use this cycle for solution heat
treating PWA 1038 HASTELLOY X
material. This material was solution
treated at 1950oF (1066oC) at its
manufacture. The benef icial properties derived from this lower temperature treatment could be lost permanently if subjected to a temperature
higher than 1800oF (982oC). For
other HASTELLOY alloys, solution
heat treat shall be performed per this
cycle unless otherwise directed by a
specif ic repair procedure.
a. Heat part to 2050o ±25oF (1121o ±14oC) and
hold for 7 to 10 minutes.
NOTE
Hydrogen, argon, or air are acceptable
atmospheres; however, when solution
treating is to be followed by weld
repair that requires complete prior
removal of oxides, hydrogen is preferred because of its characteristic
and benef icial cleaning action over
the entire part. Hydrogen cleaning
removes oxides from all surfaces,
including those diff icult to clean
mechanically, and to some extent,
from the inside of cracks to be welded.
b.
Air cool or faster.
9-25. CYCLE 21 (SPOP 481). Perform as
follows:
CAUTION
Do not use this cycle for solution heat
treating PWA 1038 HASTELLOY X
material. This material was solution
treated at 1950oF (1066oC) at its
b.
Air cool or faster.
9-26. The following solution, stabilization, or precipitation heat treatment cycles apply primarily to
certain age-hardenable alloys such as WASPALOY
and INCONEL materials, for stress-relief, and to
dissolve precipitated carbides and intermetallics
(hardeners).
NOTE
These cycles apply only when specif ically invoked in repair procedures in
engine publications. Parts that are
susceptible to distortion during heat
treatment shall be adequately supported, and temperature raised and
lowered stepwise. The Suff ix A following a cycle number indicates a
stepwise cycle. Step cycles shall not
be used for solution heat treatments.
Refer to cautions in solution heat
treat cycles.
9-27. CYCLE 12 (SPOP 471). Perform as
follows:
NOTE
This is a short-term precipitation
(aging) heat treatment for INCONEL
718 or other part material specif ied
in engine publication.
9-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
a. Place part in oven and heat to 1350o±15oF
(732o±8oC).
a. Heat part to 1450o ±15oF (788o ±8oC) and
hold for 4 hours.
Hold at 1350oF (732oC) for 4 hours.
b. Cool to 500oF (260oC) at a rate equivalent
to air cool.
b.
c. Cool to 1200o ±15oF (649o ±8oC) at approximately 100oF (56oC) per hour. Hold at temperature for a total of 3 hours, including cool-down
time from 1350oF (732oC).
d.
Air cool to room temperature.
9-28. CYCLE 12A (SPOP 465). Perform as
follows:
a.
c. Heat part to 1325o ±15oF (718o ±8oC) and
hold for 14 hours.
d.
9-31. CYCLE 101 (SPOP 761). Perform as
follows:
NOTE
CAUTION
This is a short-term precipitation
(aging) heat treatment for INCONEL
718 or other part material specif ied
in engine publication.
Heating or cooling rate between
1000oF (538oC) and 1850oF (1010oC)
shall be at least 40oF (22oC) per minute to prevent cracking and to control
aging characteristics.
Place part in cold oven.
b. Heat to 600oF (316oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
c. Increase to 800oF (427oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
d. Increase to 1000oF (538oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
e. Increase to 1200oF (649oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
f. Increase to 1350o ±15oF (732o ±8oC) and
hold for 4 hours.
g. Cool to 1200o ±15oF (649o ±8oC) at approximately 100oF (56oC) per hour. Hold at temperature for a total of 3 hours, including cool-down
time from 1350oF (732oC).
h.
Air cool to room temperature.
9-29. CYCLE 15 (SPOP 468). Perform as
follows:
NOTE
Heating and cooling rates are
optional. Air is an acceptable
atmosphere.
a. Heat part to 1325o ±25oF (718o ±14oC) and
hold for 4 hours.
b.
Air cool.
9-30. CYCLE 17 (SPOP 470). Perform as
follows:
NOTE
Hydrogen, argon, or a blend of hydrogen and argon, or vacuum, are acceptable atmospheres.
9-6
Cool at a rate equivalent to air cool.
NOTE
This is a solution heat treatment
using an argon atmosphere.
a. Place part with thermocouples in retort,
and seal retort.
b. Purge retort at approximately 150 CFH
argon until dew point reaches -40oF (-40oC) or
lower at retort exhaust.
c.
Insert retort into furnace.
NOTE
Furnace may initially be set higher
than 1850oF (1010oC).
d. Heat to 1825o ±25oF (996o ±14oC) using
lower thermocouple for controlling. Do not exceed
1850oF (1010oC) on higher thermocouple. Hold at
temperature for 2 hours unless otherwise
specified.
e. Remove retort from furnace and cool with
forced argon to 1000oF (538oC) in no longer than
18 minutes; then complete cooling with argon or
air.
9-32. CYCLE 102 (SPOP 762). Perform as
follows:
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
This is a precipitation heat treatment
using air, argon, or vacuum.
CAUTION
Heating or cooling rate between
1000oF (538oC) and 1850oF (1010oC)
shall be at least 40oF (22oC) per minute to prevent cracking and to control
aging characteristics.
a.
b. Heat to 1400o ±15oF (760o ±8.3oC) for 16
hours.
c.
.
.
a.
NOTE
This is a solution heat treatment
using vacuum. Heat cycle shall be
completed in the 0.010 torr range or
lower.
CAUTION
Heating or cooling rate between
1000oF (538oC) and 1775oF (968oC)
shall be at least 40oF (22oC) per minute to prevent cracking and to control
aging characteristics.
Place part, with thermocouples, in furnace.
b. Evacuate to 0.009 torr or lower. Static
leak rate shall not exceed 50 microns per hour.
c. Heat to 1825o ±25oF (996o ±14oC) using
lower thermocouple for controlling. Do not exceed
1850oF (1010oC) on higher thermocouple. Hold at
temperature for 2 hours unless otherwise
specified.
d.
NOTE
This is a stabilization heat treatment
using air, argon, or vacuum.
Place part in cold furnace.
b. Heat to 1550o ±15oF (843o ±8.3oC) for 4
hours.
c.
NOTE
This is a solution heat treatment
using an argon atmosphere.
a. Place part with thermocouples in retort,
and seal retort.
b. Purge retort at approximately 150 CFH
argon until dew point reaches -40oF (-40oC) or
lower, at retort exhaust.
c.
Insert retort into furnace.
Cool at required rate using forced argon.
9-33. CYCLE 103 (SPOP 763). Perform as
follows:
a.
Air cool.
9-35. CYCLE 105 (SPOP 765). Perform as
follows:
Furnace system shall provide for
argon forced cooling, in order to satisfy cooling rate requirement.
NOTE
Furnace may initially be set higher
than 1850oF (1010oC).
Place part in cold furnace.
Air cool.
9-34. CYCLE 104 (SPOP 764). Perform as
follows:
NOTE
Furnace may initially be set higher
than 1775oF (968oC).
d. Heat to 1750o ±25oF (954o ± 14oC), using
lower thermocouple for controlling. Do not exceed
1775oF (968oC) on higher thermocouple. Hold at
temperature for 1 hour unless otherwise specif ied.
e. Remove retort from furnace and cool with
forced argon to 1000oF (538oC) in no longer than
16 minutes; then complete cooling with argon or
air.
9-36. CYCLE 106 (SPOP 766). Perform as
follows:
9-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
Local stress-relief of engine parts following minor repairs is authorized
only if procedure has been developed
to be compatible with applicable
parts, material, size, and operating
environment, and is approved by the
cognizant engineering authority.
CAUTION
Heating or cooling rate between
1000oF (538oC) and 1775oF (968oC)
shall be at least 40oF (22oC) per minute to prevent cracking and to control
aging characteristics.
.
.
a.
NOTE
This is a solution heat treatment
using vacuum. Heat cycle shall be
completed in the 0.010 torr range or
lower.
9-39. GENERAL. Parts that have been repaired
by fusion welding shall ordinarily be stressrelieved.
CAUTION
The required stress-relief (Cycle 1 or
1A) af ter welding or brazing Type 410
or Greek Ascoloy materials eliminates
the brittleness in the joint areas. To
avoid cracking, parts shall be handled
carefully until stress-relief is
accomplished.
Furnace system shall provide for
argon forced cooling, in order to satisfy cooling rate requirement.
Place part, with thermocouples, in furnace.
b. Evacuate to 0.009 torr or lower. Static
leak rate shall not exceed 0.05 torr per hour.
NOTE
On certain parts, experience has indicated that stress-relief is not
required. This permissible omission
will be included in appropriate manual repair section for such parts.
NOTE
Furnace may initially be set higher
than 1775oF (968oC).
c. Heat to 1750o ±25oF (954o ±14oC), using
lower thermocouple for controlling. Do not exceed
1775oF (968oC) on higher thermocouple. Hold at
temperature for 1 hour unless otherwise specif ied.
d.
Cool at required rate using forced argon.
9-37. CYCLE 107 (SPOP 767). Perform as
follows:
NOTE
This is a precipitation heat treatment
using air or argon.
a.
Place part in cold furnace.
b. Heat to 1325o ±15oF (718o ±8.3oC) for 8
hours.
c. Furnace cool at a rate not to exceed 100oF
(56 C) per hour to 1150o ±15oF (621o ±8.3oC); hold
for 8 hours.
o
d.
9-38.
9-8
Air cool.
STRESS-RELIEF AFTER WELDING.
9-40. The following stress-relief cycles are used
throughout manual for various parts. Reference to
these cycles will be made, as necessary, by cycle or
SPOP number.
.
.
NOTE
Parts may require a cycle different
from one of the following. This will
result in cycle being included in specif ic repair procedure.
Parts that are susceptible to distortion during heat treatment shall be
adequately supported, and temperature raised and lowered stepwise.
The Suff ix A following a cycle number
indicates a stepwise cycle.
9-41. Cycle number, SPOP number, and maximum temperature are listed in Table 16-3.
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table 9-3.
Cycle No.
1
1A
2
3
4
4A
5
5A
6
6A
7
8
9
11
13
14
22
Cross-Index for Stress-Relief Heat Treatments
SPOP No.
455-1
455-2
456
457
458-1
458-2
459-1
459-2
460-1
460-2
461
455-3
459-3
464
466
467
482
Peak Temp., oF(oC)*
1015
1015
350
900
1300
1300
1600
1600
1050
1050
1500
1010
1600
1150
1400
1500
1800
(546)
(546)
(177)
(482)
(704)
(704)
(871)
(871)
(566)
(566)
(816)
(543)
(871)
(621)
(760)
(816)
(982)
* (disregarding tolerance)
9-42. CYCLE 1 (SPOP 455-1). Heat part to
1015oF ±15oF (546o ±8oC) and hold for 2 hours.
NOTE
To minimize distortion, use Cycle 1A
as an alternate. Other cycles are permissible provided stress-relief requirement of 1015o ±15oF (546o ±8oC) for 2
hours is met.
d. Cool to 500oF (260oC) not faster than 100oF
(56oC) every 15 minutes.
9-46. CYCLE 4 (SPOP 458-1). Heat part to
1300o ±25oF (704o ±14oC) and hold for 2 hours.
NOTE
To minimize distortion, temperature
may be raised and cooled gradually in
accordance with Cycle 4A. Other
cycles are permissible provided stressrelief requirement of 1300o ±25oF
(704o ±14oC) for 2 hours is met.
9-43. CYCLE 1A (SPOP 455-2). Perform as
follows:
a.
Put part in cold oven.
b. Heat to 600oF (316oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
c. Increase to 800oF (427oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
9-47. CYCLE 4A (SPOP 458-2). Perform as
follows:
a.
Put part in cold oven.
d. Increase to 1015o ±15oF (546o ±8oC) and
hold for 2 hours.
b. Heat to 600oF (316oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
e. Cool to 500oF (260oC) not faster than 100oF
o
(56 C) every 15 minutes.
c. Increase to 800oF (427oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
9-44. CYCLE 2 (SPOP 456). Heat part to 350o
±10oF (177o ±6oC) and hold for 1 hour.
d. Increase to 1100oF (593oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
9-45.
e. Increase to 1300oF ±25oF (704o ±15oC) and
hold for 2 hours.
a.
CYCLE 3 (SPOP 457). Perform as follows:
Put part in cold oven.
b. Heat to 600oF (316oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
f. Cool to 500oF (260oC) not faster than 100oF
(56 C) every 15 minutes.
c. Increase to 900o ±15o(482o ±8oC) and hold
for 4 hours.
9-48. CYCLE 5 (SPOP 459-1). Heat part to
1600o±25oF (871o ±14oC) and hold for 2 hours.
o
9-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
NOTE
To minimize distortion, temperature
may be raised and lowered gradually
in accordance with Cycle 5A. Other
cycles are permissable provided
stress-relief requirement of 1600o
±25oF (871o ±14oC) for 2 hours is met.
9-49. CYCLE 5A (SPOP 459-2). Perform as
follows:
a.
Put part in cold oven.
b. Heat to 700oF (371oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
c. Increase to 1000oF (538oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
d. Increase to 1300oF (704oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
e. Increase to 1600o ±25oF (871o ±14oC) and
hold for 2 hours.
f. Cool to 500oF (260oC) not faster than 100oF
(56 C) every 15 minutes.
c. Increase to 800oF (427oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
d. Increase to 1010oF (543o±8oC) and hold for
30 minutes.
e. Cool to 500oF (260oC) not faster than 100oF
(56 C) every 15 minutes.
o
9-54. CYCLE 9 (SPOP 459-3). Heat part to
1600o ±25oF (871o ±14oC) and hold for 1 hour.
9-55. CYCLE 11 (SPOP 464). Perform as
follows:
CAUTION
.
.
o
9-50. CYCLE 6 (SPOP 460-1). Heat part to
1050o ±15oF (566o ±8oC) for 2 hours.
NOTE
To minimize distortion, temperature
may be raised and lowered gradually
in accordance with Cycle 6A. Other
cycles are permissible provided stressrelief requirement of 1050o ±15oF
(566o ±8oC) for 2 hours is met.
9-51. CYCLE 6A (SPOP 460-2). Perform as
follows:
a.
Put part in cold oven.
b. Heat to 600oF (316oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
c. Increase to 800oF (427oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
For titanium parts, a vacuum of 0.5
microns mercury, maximum, or argon
or helium with a dew point no higher
than -60oF (-51oC) shall be used.
Longer heat treatment at specif ied
temperature, or shorter heat treatment at higher temperature may be
required by engine publication for certain parts.
a. Heat part to 1150o ±15oF (621o ±8oC) and
hold for 1 hour.
NOTE
For materials other than titanium, air
or argon may be used.
b.
Air cool.
9-56. CYCLE 13 (SPOP 466). Perform as
follows:
a. Heat part to 1400o ±25oF (760o ±14oC) in
air and hold for 2 hours.
b.
Air cool, or faster.
d. Increase to 1050o ±15oF (566o ±8oC) and
hold for 2 hours.
9-57. CYCLE 14 (SPOP 467). Perform as
follows:
e. Cool to 500oF (260oC) not faster than 100oF
(56 C) every 15 minutes.
a. Heat part to 1500o ±25oF (816o ±14oC) and
hold for 30 minutes.
o
9-52. CYCLE 7 (SPOP 461). Heat part to 1500oF
±25oF (815o±14oC) and hold for 4 hours.
9-53. CYCLE 8 (SPOP 455-3). Perform as
follows:
a.
Put part in cold oven.
b. Heat to 600oF (316oC) and hold for 30
minutes.
9-10
NOTE
A protective atmosphere is suggested.
b. Furnace cool at a rate of 50oF (28oC) per
hour to 1100o (593oC), then air cool or faster.
9-58. CYCLE 22 (SPOP 482). Previously designated Cycle 10.
T.O. 1-1A-9
CAUTION
Parts shall be thoroughly cleaned
before entering oven.
NOTE
Hydrogen, argon, vacuum, or air are
acceptable atmospheres; however,
when heat treatment is to be followed
by weld repair, hydrogen is preferable
because of its cleaning action on
oxides and impurities diff icult to
clean mechanically, as within cracks
or cavities.
a. Place part in cold oven; however, this step
may be omitted for thin sheet metal parts.
b. Heat part to 1800o ±25oF (982o ±14oC) and
hold for 1 hour.
c.
9-59.
Air cool.
LOCAL STRESS-RELIEF.
9-60. GENERAL. Local stress-relief is the application of a heat treatment cycle, using a portable
heating system, to a part that has been weld
repaired, usually without disassembly. Elaborate
f ixturing is avoided when stress-relieving minor
areas of large components.
9-61. Approval for local stress-relief is governed
in part by accessibility, temperature requirement,
and conf iguration and material of part.
9-62. Local stress-relief is especially useful when
applied to parts on a mounted or partly disassembled engine.
9-63. Besides avoiding disassembly, local stressrelief provides signif icant cost and time savings.
9-64. Typical local stress-relief methods include
the following:
a.
Resistance
b.
Induction
c.
Quartz lamp
CAUTION
Gas burner shall not be used to
stress-relieve titanium parts.
Exhaust gases can produce harmful
surface reaction.
d.
Gas burner radiant heater.
9-65. Choice of method depends upon size and
shape of joint, part conf iguration, and accessibility. Resistance blankets and quartz lamps can be
used to 1350oF (732oC); induction heaters and
radiant gas burners can be used to 1825oF (996oC).
CAUTION
Thermocouples shall not be tack
welded to titanium parts.
9-66. Temperature prof ile shall be monitored
with tack welded thermocouples to provide accurate readout for manual or automatic control during heat treat cycle. Thermocouples shall be
located every 2 inches of area that is to be stressrelieved. Following the cycle, thermocouples are
broken or ground off, and part blended to original
contour.
9-67. Stress-relief duration and temperature
shall be the same as for a corresponding furnace
heat treat, unless otherwise specif ied in applicable
engine technical orders.
9-68. DESCRIPTION OF METHODS. Local
stress-relief methods are def ined in the following
paragraphs.
9-69. Resistance. Heaters consist of nichrome
wire elements insulated with ceramic f iber and
contained within a f lexible wire jacket. These
components are woven into a thermal blanket,
which shall be held in close contact with surface to
be stress-relieved. Supplementary f lexible heaters
may be added to ensure that adjacent parts do not
conduct heat away in such a manner as to make
heat distribution non-uniform.
9-70. Induction. Requirements include a high
frequency generator, with a water-cooled copper
induction coil of suff icient number of turns to be
positioned over entire area to be heat treated, such
as a welded patch. Coils shall be insulated from
metal contact, which will produce electrical arcing.
Typical applications include small weld repair of
holes or bosses, or replacement of small detail
parts.
9-71. Quartz Lamp. Radiant lamp provides
intense infrared heat, which can be easily directed
toward part being stress-relieved. Temperature
can be controlled by pulsing lamp on and off. Typical applications include inlet guide vanes, exhaust
struts, intermediate cases, door assemblies, accessory housing, and thrust reversers.
9-11
T.O. 1-1A-9
CAUTION
Gas burner shall not be used to
stress-relieve titanium parts.
Exhaust gases can produce harmful
surface reaction.
9-12
9-72. Radiant Gas Burner. Good heating patterns and temperature control are permitted by
using as burners. Heat treat of several areas can
be accomplished simultaneously. Radiant gas
burners are fueled with a mixture of air and natural gas.
T.O. 1-1A-9
APPENDIX A
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
Table A-1.
ELEMENT
SYMBOL
Aluminum
Al
Antimony
Sb
Argon
A
Arsenic
As
Barium
Ba
Beryllium
Be
Bismuth
Bi
Boron
B
Bromine
Br
Cadmium
Cd
Cesium
Cs
Calcium
Ca
Carbon
C
Cerium
Ce
Chlorine
Cl
Chromium
Cr
Cobalt
Co
Columbium (Niobium) Cb(Nb)
Copper
Cu
Dysprosium
Dy
Erbium
Er
Europium
Eu
Fluorine
F
Gadolinium
Gd
Gallium
Ga
Germanium
Ge
Gold
Au
Hafnium
Hf
Helium
He
Holmium
Ho
Hydrogen
H
Indium
In
Iodine
I
Iridium
Ir
Iron
Fe
Krypton
Kr
Lanthanum
La
Lead
Pb
Lithium
Li
Lutecium
Lu
Magnesium
Mg
Manganese
Mn
Mercury
Hg
Molybdenum
Mo
Chemical Symbols
ATOMIC NO.
ELEMENT
SYMBOL
13
51
18
33
56
4
83
5
35
48
55
20
6
58
17
24
27
-29
66
68
63
9
64
31
32
79
72
2
67
1
49
53
77
26
36
57
82
3
71
12
25
80
42
Neodymium
Nd
Neon
Ne
Nickel
Ni
Nitrogen
N
Osmium
Os
Oxygen
O
Palladium
Pd
Phosphorus
P
Platinum
Pt
Polonium
Po
Potassium
K
Praseodymium
Pr
Protactinium
Pa
Radium
Ra
Radon(radium emanation) Rn
Rhemium
Re
Rhodium
Rh
Rubedium
Rb
Ruthenium
Ru
Samarium
Sm
Scandium
Sc
Selenium
Se
Silicon
Si
Silver
Ag
Sodium
Na
Strontium
Sr
Sulphur
S
Tantalum
Ta
Tellurium
Te
Terbium
Tb
Thallium
Tl
Thorium
Th
Thulium
Tm
Tin
Sn
Titanium
Ti
Tungsten
W
Uranium
U
Vanadium
V
Xenon
Xe
Ytterbium
Yb
Yttrium
Yo
Zinc
Zn
Zirconium
Zr
ATOMIC NO.
60
10
28
7
76
8
46
15
78
84
19
59
91
8
86
75
45
37
44
62
21
34
14
47
11
38
16
73
52
65
81
90
69
50
22
74
92
23
54
70
39
30
40
A-1
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-2.
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
80
79
1/64
0.4
78
77
0.5
76
75
0.55
74
0.6
73
72
0.65
71
0.7
70
69
0.75
68
1/32
0.8
67
66
0.85
65
0.9
64
63
0.95
62
61
1.0
60
59
1.05
58
57
1.1
1.15
56
3/64
1.2
1.25
1.3
55
1.35
54
1.4
1.45
1.5
53
A-2
Decimal Equivalents
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.0135
0.0145
0.015625
0.15748
0.016
0.018
0.019685
0.02
0.021
0.021653
0.0225
0.023622
0.024
0.025
0.02559
0.026
0.027559
0.028
0.02925
0.029527
0.031
0.03125
0.031496
0.032
0.033
0.033464
0.035
0.035433
0.036
0.037
0.037401
0.038
0.039
0.03937
0.04
0.041
0.041338
0.042
0.043
0.043307
0.045275
0.0465
0.046875
0.047244
0.049212
0.051181
0.052
0.053149
0.055
0.055118
0.057086
0.059055
0.0595
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
1.7
51
1.75
50
1.8
1.85
49
1.9
48
1.95
5/64
47
2.0
2.05
46
45
2.1
2.15
44
2.2
2.25
43
2.3
2.35
42
3/32
2.4
41
2.45
40
2.5
39
38
2.6
37
2.7
36
2.75
7/64
35
2.8
34
33
2.9
32
3.0
31
3.1
1/8
3.2
3.25
30
3.3
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.066929
0.067
0.068897
0.07
0.070866
0.072834
0.073
0.074803
0.076
0.076771
0.078125
0.0785
0.07874
0.080708
0.081
0.082
0.082877
0.084645
0.086
0.086614
0.088582
0.089
0.090551
0.092519
0.0935
0.09375
0.094488
0.096
0.096456
0.098
0.098425
0.0995
0.1015
0.102362
0.104
0.106299
0.1065
0.108267
0.109375
0.11
0.110236
0.111
0.113
0.114173
0.116
0.11811
0.12
0.122047
0.125
0.125984
0.127952
0.1285
0.129921
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-2.
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
1.55
1/16
1.6
52
1.65
3.6
27
3.7
26
3.75
25
3.8
24
3.9
23
5/32
22
4.0
21
20
4.1
4.2
19
4.25
4.3
18
11/64
17
4.4
16
4.5
15
4.6
14
13
4.7
4.75
3/16
4.8
12
11
4.9
10
9
5.0
8
5.1
7
13/64
6
5.2
5
5.25
Decimal Equivalents - Continued
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.061023
0.0625
0.062992
0.635
0.06496
0.141732
0.144
0.145669
0.147
0.147637
0.1495
0.149606
0.152
0.153543
0.154
0.15625
0.157
0.15748
0.159
0.161
0.161417
0.165354
0.166
0.167322
0.169291
0.1695
0.171875
0.173
0.173228
0.177
0.177165
0.18
0.181102
0.182
0.185
0.185039
0.187007
0.1875
0.188976
0.189
0.191
0.192913
0.1935
0.196
0.19685
0.199
0.200787
0.201
0.203125
0.204
0.204724
0.2055
0.206692
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
3.4
29
3.5
28
9/64
A
15/64
6.0
B
6.1
C
6.2
D
6.25
6.3
1/4
E
6.4
6.5
F
6.6
G
6.7
17/64
6.75
H
6.8
6.9
I
7.0
J
7.1
K
9/32
7.2
7.25
7.3
L
7.4
M
7.5
19/64
7.6
N
7.7
7.75
7.8
7.9
5/16
8.0
O
8.1
8.2
P
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.133858
0.136
0.137795
0.1405
0.140625
0.234
0.234375
0.23622
0.238
0.240157
0.242
0.244094
0.246
0.246062
0.248031
0.25
0.251968
0.255905
0.257
0.259842
0.261
0.263779
0.265625
0.265747
0.266
0.267716
0.271653
0.272
0.27559
0.277
0.279527
0.281
0.28125
0.283464
0.285432
0.287401
0.29
0.291338
0.295
0.295275
0.296875
0.299212
0.302
0.303149
0.305117
0.307086
0.311023
0.3125
0.31496
0.316
0.318897
0.322834
0.323
A-3
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-2.
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
5.3
4
5.4
3
5.5
7/32
5.6
2
5.7
5.75
1
5.8
5.9
8.9
9.0
T
9.1
23/64
9.2
9.25
9.3
U
9.4
9.5
3/8
V
9.6
9.7
9.75
9.8
W
9.9
25/64
10.0
X
Y
13/32
Z
10.5
27/64
11.0
7/16
11.5
29/64
15/32
12.0
31/64
12.5
1/2
13.0
33/64
17/32
13.5
A-4
Decimal Equivalents - Continued
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.208661
0.209
0.212598
0.213
0.216535
0.21875
0.220472
0.221
0.224409
0.226377
0.228
0.228346
0.232283
0.350393
0.35433
0.358
0.358267
0.359375
0.362204
0.364172
0.366141
0.368
0.370078
0.374015
0.375
0.377
0.377952
0.381889
0.383857
0.385826
0.386
0.389763
0.390625
0.3937
0.397
0.404
0.40625
0.413
0.413385
0.421875
0.43307
0.4375
0.452755
0.453125
0.46875
0.47244
0.484375
0.492125
0.5
0.51181
0.515625
0.53125
0.531495
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
8.25
8.3
21/64
8.4
Q
8.5
8.6
R
8.7
11/32
8.75
8.8
S
23/32
18.5
47/64
19.0
3/4
49/64
19.5
25/32
20.0
51/64
20.5
13/16
21.0
53/64
27/32
21.5
55/64
22.0
7/8
22.5
57/64
23.0
29/32
59/64
23.5
15/16
24.0
61/64
24.5
31/32
25.0
63/64
1
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.324802
0.326771
0.328125
0.330708
0.332
0.334645
0.338582
0.339
0.342519
0.34375
0.344487
0.346456
0.348
0.71875
0.728345
0.734375
0.74803
0.75
0.765625
0.767715
0.78125
0.7874
0.796875
0.807085
0.8125
0.82677
0.828125
0.84375
0.846455
0.859375
0.86614
0.875
0.885825
0.890625
0.90551
0.90625
0.921875
0.925195
0.9375
0.94488
0.953125
0.964565
0.96875
0.98425
0.984375
1.0
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-2.
INCH
Mm.
35/64
14.0
9/16
14.5
37/64
15.0
19/32
39/64
15.5
5/8
16.0
41/64
16.5
21/32
17.0
43/64
11/16
17.5
45/64
18.0
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
Decimal Equivalents - Continued
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
INCH
Mm.
DRILL SIZE
NO. OR LTR
DECIMALS
OF AN INCH
0.546875
0.55118
0.5625
0.570865
0.578125
0.59055
0.59375
0.609375
0.610235
0.625
0.62992
0.640625
0.649605
0.65625
0.66929
0.671875
0.6875
0.688975
0.703125
0.70866
A-5
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-3.
Engineering Conversion Factors
LENGTH
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
inch = 2.54 Centimeters = 0.0833 Foot = 0.0278 Yard
foot = 0.305 Meter = 0.333 Yard
yard = 0.914 Meter = 3 Feet
Rod = 16 1/2 Feet = 5 1/2 Yards
Mile = 1.609 Kilometers = 5280 Feet = 1760 Yards
Centimeter = 0.3937 Inch = 0.0328 Foot
Meter = 39.37 Inches = 3.281 Feet = 1.094 Yards
Kilometer = 1000 Meters = 3280.83 Feet = 1093.61 Yards = 0.62137 Mile
AREA
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Sq. Inch = 6.452 Sq. Centimeters
Sq. Foot = 144 Sq. Inches = 929.032 Sq. Centimeters
Sq. Yard = 1296 Sq. Inches = 9 Sq. Feet = 0.836 Sq. Meter
Sq. Rod = 272 1/4 Sq Feet = 30 1/4 Sq. Yards
Acre = 43,560 Sq. Feet = 160 Sq. Rods
Sq. Mile = 640 Acres
Sq. Centimeter = 0.155 Sq. Inch
Sq. Meter = 1550 Sq. Inches = 10.764 Sq. Feet = 1.196 Sq. Yards
Sq. Kilometer = 0.3861 Sq. Miles = 247.104 Acres
VOLUME
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Cu. Inch = 16.39 Cu. Centimeters = 0.00433 Gallons*
Cu. Foot = 1728 Cu. Inches = 7.48 Gallons* = 28.317 Liters = 0.037 Cu. Yards
Cu. Yard = 27 Cu. Feet = 0.7646 Cu. Meter = 202 Gallons*
Cu. Centimeter = 0.001 Liter = 0.061 Cu. Inch
Cu. Meter = 35.31 Cu. Feet = 1.308 Cu. Yards = 264.2 Gallons*
Quart* = 0.25 Gallons* = 57.75 Cu. Inches = 0.946 Liter = 2 Pints*
Gallon* = 0.832702 Imperial Gallon = 231 Cu. Inches = 0.1377 Cu. Feet = 3.785 Liters =
3785 Cu. Centimeters
1 Gallon, Imperial = 1.20091 U.S. Gallons
1 Barrel (Std.) = 31 1/2 Gallons
1 Barrel (Oil) = 42 Gallons
*U.S. Measure
WEIGHT
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Ounce = 16 Drams = 437.5 Grains = 0.0625 Pound = 28.35 Grams = 0.9155 Ounce (Troy)
Pound = 16 0unces = 453.593 Grams = 0.453593 Kilogram
Ton (Short) = 2000 Pounds = 907.185 Kilograms = 0.892857 Long Ton = 0.907185 Metric Ton
Ton (Metric) = 2204.62 Pounds = 0.98421 Long Ton = 1.10231 Short Tons
Ton (Long) = 2240 Pounds = 1016.05 Kilograms = 1.120 Short Tons = 1.01605 Metric Tons
Gram = 15.43235 Grains = 0.001 Kilogram
Kilogram = 2.20462 Pounds
COMPOUND UNITS
1
1
1
1
A-6
gram per square millimeter
kilogram per square millimeter
kilogram per square centimeter
kilogram per square meter
=
=
=
=
=
1.422 pounds per square inch
1.422.32 pounds per square inch
14.2232 pounds per square inch
0.2048 pound per square foot
1.8433 pounds per square yard
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-3.
Engineering Conversion Factors - Continued
COMPOUND UNITS (Cont)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
kilogram meter
kilogram per meter
pound per square inch
pound per square foot
pound per square foot
pound per cubic inch
pound per cubic foot
kilogram per cubic meter
foot per second
meter per second
meter per second
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
7.2330 foot pounds
0.6720 pound per foot
0.07031 kilogram per square centimeter
0.0004882 kilogram per square centimeter
0.006944 pound per square inch
27679.7 kilograms per cubic meter
16.0184 kilograms per cubic meter
0.06243 pound per cubic foot
0.30480 meter per second
3.28083 feet per second
2.23693 miles per hour
MULTIPLES
Circumference of Circle
Area of Circle
Area of Triangle
Surface of Sphere
Volume of Sphere
Area of Hexagon
Area of Octagon
= Diameter X 3.1416
= Square of Diameter X 0.7854, or
Square of Radius X 3.1416, or
Square of Circumference X 0.07958
= Base X one-half altitude
= Circumference X diameter, or
Square of diameter X 3.1416
= Surface X one-sixth diameter, or
Cube of diameter X 0.5236
= Square of Diameter of Inscribed Circle X 0.866
= Square of Diameter of Inscribed Circle X 0.828
ENGINEERING UNITS
1 Horsepower =
33,000 foot pounds per minute
550 foot pounds per second
746 watts
0.746 kilowatts
1 kilowatt Hour =
1,000 watt hours
1.34 horsepower hours
2,655,220 foot pounds
3,412 heat units (B.T.U)
1 Horsepower Hour =
0.746 Kilowatt hours
1,980,000 foot pounds
2,545 heat units (B.T.U)
1 British Thermal Unit =
1,055 watt seconds
778 foot pounds
0.000293 kilowatt hour
0.000393 horsepower hour
1 Kilowatt =
1,000 watts
1.34 horsepower
737.3 foot pounds per second
44.240 foot pounds per minute
56.9 heat units (B.T.U) per minute
1 Watt =
1 joule per second
0.00134 horsepower
3.3412 heat units (B.T.U.) per hour
0.7373 foot pounds per second
44.24 foot pounds per minute
A-7
T.O. 1-1A-9
The following weights are approximate and variations must be expected in practice.
Table A-4.
Bars-Flat
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/2 x 1 .......................................0.578
1/2 x 2 .......................................1.174
3/4 x 2 .......................................1.7604
3/4 x 3 .......................................2.6408
1 x 2 ..........................................2.3472
1 x 3 ..........................................3.5208
1 1/2 x 2 ....................................3.5208
1 3/4 x 3 1/2..............................7.1883
2 x 3 ..........................................7.0416
2 3/4 x 4 ..................................12.9096
3 x 4 ........................................14.350
Bars-Hexagon
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/8 .............................................0.147
7/16 ...........................................0.20
1/2 .............................................0.262
9/16 ...........................................0.331
5/8 .............................................0.409
3/4 .............................................0.639
1 ................................................1.047
1 1/4 ..........................................1.620
1 1/2 ..........................................2.340
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/16 ...........................................0.032
1/4 .............................................0.058
5/16 ...........................................0.090
3/8 .............................................0.129
7/16 ...........................................0.176
1/2 .............................................0.230
9/16 ...........................................0.291
5/8 .............................................0.360
11/14 .........................................0.435
3/4 .............................................0.518
13/16 .........................................0.608
7/8 .............................................0.705
15/16 .........................................0.809
1 ................................................0.921
1 1/4 ..........................................1.439
1 3/8 ..........................................1.741
1 1/2 ..........................................2.072
1 3/4 ..........................................2.820
2 ................................................3.683
2 1/2 ..........................................5.755
2 3/4 ..........................................6.964
3 ................................................8.287
3 1/2 ........................................11.550
4 ..............................................15.200
Sheets
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0126 .........................................0.1797
.016 ...........................................0.2253
.020 ...........................................0.2817
.0253 .........................................0.3570
.032 ...........................................0.4501
.0359 .........................................0.5055
A-8
Table of Weights - Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy
.0403 .........................................0.5676
.0508 .........................................0.7158
.0641 .........................................0.9026
.0808 .........................................1.1382
.0907 .........................................1.2781
.128 ...........................................1.8099
.156 ...........................................2.202
.1875 .........................................2.6481
.250 ...........................................3.5215
.375 ...........................................5.2822
.500 ...........................................7.212
Tubing-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/4 x .028 ..................................0.025
1/4 x .032 ..................................0.027
1/4 x .035 ..................................0.03
1/4 x .049 ..................................0.036
1/4 x .058 ..................................0.044
1/4 x .065 ..................................0.047
5/16 x .025 ................................0.027
5/16 x .028 ................................0.032
5/16 x .035 ................................0.039
5/16 x .065 ................................0.061
3/8 x .025 ..................................0.033
3/8 x .028 ..................................0.037
3/8 x .035 ..................................0.0435
3/8 x .042 ..................................0.053
3/8 x .049 ..................................0.063
7/16 x .035 ................................0.054
7/16 x .049 ................................0.075
1/2 x .032 ..................................0.056
1/2 x .035 ..................................0.063
1/2 x .042 ..................................0.073
1/2 x .049 ..................................0.086
1/2 x .065 ..................................0.11
9/16 x .032 ................................0.067
5/8 x .035 ..................................0.08
5/8 x .042 ..................................0.093
5/8 x .049 ..................................0.11
5/8 x .058 ..................................0.13
5/8 x .065 ..................................0.14
11/16 x .049 ..............................0.105
3/4 x .035 ..................................0.096
3/4 x .049 ..................................0.1245
3/4 x .058 ..................................0.15
3/4 x .065 ..................................0.17
3/4 x .083 ..................................0.21
13/16 x .032 ..............................0.095
13/16 x .049 ..............................0.13
7/8 x .028 ..................................0.09
7/8 x .035 ..................................0.11
7/8 x .049 ..................................0.16
15/16 x .032 ..............................0.11
15/16 x .049 ..............................0.17
15/16 x .083 ..............................0.27
1 x .032 .....................................0.12
1 x .035 .....................................0.13
1 x .042 .....................................0.16
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
x .049 .....................................0.18
x .058 .....................................0.210
x .065 .....................................0.23
x .083 .....................................0.29
1/16 x .032.............................0.13
1/16 x .083 .............................0.31
1/8 x .035..............................0.15
1/8 x .049..............................0.20
1/8 x .058..............................0.24
1/8 x .065..............................0.27
3/16 x .083 .............................0.35
1/4 x .035..............................0.16
1/4 x .049..............................0.2134
1/4 x .058..............................0.27
1/4 x .065..............................0.30
1/4 x .083..............................0.37
5/16 x .083 .............................0.39
3/8 x .032..............................0.17
3/8 x .049..............................0.25
3/8 x .058..............................0.29
3/8 x .065..............................0.33
3/8 x .083..............................0.41
3/8 x .120..............................0.58
7/16 x .095 .............................0.48
1/2 x .035..............................0.19
1/2 x .049..............................0.27
1/2 x .058..............................0.32
1/2 x .065..............................0.36
1/2 x .083..............................0.45
5/8 x .065..............................0.39
5/8 x .125..............................0.72
11/14 x .095...........................0.58
3/4 x .035 ...............................0.23
3/4 x .049 ...............................0.32
3/4 x .065 ...............................0.3934
3/4 x .083 ...............................0.53
3/4 x .125 ...............................0.79
x .042 .....................................0.29
7/8 x .049 ...............................0.34
x .049 .....................................0.36
x .065 .....................................0.48
x .083 .....................................0.61
x .125 .....................................0.92
1/4 x .025 ...............................0.2052
1/2 x .065 ...............................0.61
Tubing-Streamline
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1.500 x .250 x .020...................0.082
1.500 x .375 x .020...................0.085
1.625 x .375 x .025...................0.115
1.875 x .375 x .035...................0.16
2.00 x .875 x .049....................0.27
2.01563 x .375 x .025...............0.12
2.625 x .375 x .035...................0.22
3.00 x .375 x .035....................0.25
3.125 x .375 x .032...................0.25
3.350 x 1.50 x .065...................0.61
4.0625 x 1.71 x .065.................0.73
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-5.
Bars-Flat
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/8 x 1/2 ............................. 0.238
1/8 x 3/4 ............................. 0.358
1/8 x 1 ................................ 0.475
1/8 x 1 3/4.......................... 0.815
1/8 x 2 ................................ 0.935
6/32 x 1 .............................. 0.625
3/16 x 3/4 ........................... 0.535
3/16 x 1 .............................. 0.715
3/16 x 1 1/4 ........................ 0.895
3/16 x 1 1/2 ........................ 1.00
3/16 x 1 3/4 ........................ 1.175
3/16 x 2 .............................. 1.385
3/16 x 2 1/2 ........................ 1.785
3/16 x 3 .............................. 2.055
1/4 x 1 ................................ 0.9575
1/4 x 1 1/8.......................... 1.075
1/4 x 1 1/4.......................... 1.185
1/4 x 1 3/4.......................... 1.585
1/4 x 2 ................................ 1.885
1/4 x 2 1/2.......................... 2.375
1/4 x 3 ................................ 2.815
1/4 x 6 ................................ 5.65
5/16 x 3/4 ........................... 0.957
5/16 x 1 .............................. 1.075
5/16 x 1 1/4 ........................ 1.475
5/16 x 1 1/2 ........................ 1.975
5/16 x 1 3/4 ........................ 2.075
5/16 x 2 .............................. 2.375
5/16 x 2 1/2 ........................ 3.075
5/16 x 3 .............................. 3.875
5/16 x 4 .............................. 5.125
5/16 x 6 .............................. 8.75
3/8 x 1 ................................ 1.285
3/8 x 1 1/4.......................... 1.575
3/8 x 1 1/2.......................... 2.00
3/8 x 1 3/4.......................... 2.275
3/8 x 2 ................................ 2.675
3/8 x 2 1/2.......................... 3.475
3/8 x 3 ................................ 4.175
3/8 x 4 ................................ 5.725
3/8 x 6 ................................ 8.325
1/2 x 1 ................................ 1.795
1/2 x 1 1/2.......................... 2.685
1/2 x 2 ................................ 3.675
1/2 x 2 1/2.......................... 4.675
1/2 x 3 ................................ 5.675
1/2 x 4 ................................ 7.705
1/2 x 6 .............................. 11.10
5/8 x 1 ................................ 2.156
5/8 x 2 ................................ 4.250
3/4 x 1 ................................ 2.875
3/4 x 2 ................................ 5.750
7/8 x 2 1/2.......................... 8.325
1 x 1 1/4 ............................. 4.525
1 x 2 ................................... 7.705
Bars-Hexagon
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/16 .................................... 0.1123
1/4 ...................................... 0.1997
5/16 .................................... 0.3120
Table of Weights - Brass
3/8 ...................................... 0.4493
7/16 .................................... 0.6115
1/2 ...................................... 0.7987
9/16 .................................... 1.001
5/8 ...................................... 1.248
11/16 .................................. 1.510
3/4 ...................................... 1.797
12/16 .................................. 2.109
7/8 ...................................... 2.446
15/16 .................................. 2.808
1 ......................................... 3.195
1 1/8 ................................... 4.043
1 3/16 ................................. 4.505
1 1/4 ................................... 4.992
1 5/16 ................................. 5.503
1 3/8 ................................... 6.040
1 1/2 ................................... 7.188
1 9/16 ................................. 7.800
1 5/8 ................................... 8.436
1 11/14 ............................... 9.097
1 3/4 ................................... 9.784
1 13/16 ............................. 10.50
1 7/8 ................................. 11.23
1 15/16 ............................. 11.99
2 ....................................... 12.78
2 1/2 ................................. 19.97
3 ....................................... 26.41
Bars-Square
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/16 .................................... 0.1297
1/4 ...................................... 0.2306
9/16 .................................... 0.3602
3/8 ...................................... 0.5188
7/16 .................................... 0.7061
1/2 ...................................... 0.9222
5/8 ...................................... 1.441
3/4 ...................................... 2.075
1 ......................................... 3.689
1 1/4 ................................... 5.764
1 1/2 ................................... 8.300
2 ....................................... 14.76
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/16 .................................... 0.01132
3/32 .................................... 0.03625
1/8 ...................................... 0.04527
6/32 .................................... 0.0915
3/16 .................................... 0.1019
7/32 .................................... 0.1475
1/4 ...................................... 0.1811
9/32 .................................... 0.2375
9/14 .................................... 0.2829
11/32 .................................. 0.3480
3/8 ...................................... 0.4074
28/64 .................................. 0.4185
12/32 .................................. 0.4866
7/16 .................................... 0.5546
1/2 ...................................... 0.7243
9/16 .................................... 0.9167
5/8 ...................................... 1.132
11/14 .................................. 1.369
3/4 ...................................... 1.630
13/16 .................................. 1.913
7/8 ...................................... 2.218
18/14 .................................. 2.546
1 ......................................... 2.897
1 1/8 ................................... 3.667
1 3/14 ................................. 4.086
1 1/4 ................................... 4.527
1 5/16 ................................. 4.991
1 3/8 ................................... 5.478
1 7/16 ................................. 5.987
1 1/2 ................................... 6.519
1 9/16 ................................. 7.073
1 5/8 ................................... 7.651
1 11/16 ............................... 8.250
1 3/4 ................................... 8.873
1 13/14 ............................... 9.518
1 7/8 ................................. 10.19
1 15/16 ............................. 10.88
2 ....................................... 11.59
2 1/4 ................................. 14.67
2 1/2 ................................. 18.11
2 3/4 ................................. 21.91
2 7/8 ................................. 23.95
3 ....................................... 26.08
3 1/2 ................................. 36.75
4 ....................................... 46.93
5 ....................................... 74.25
6 ..................................... 108.25
Sheet
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0031 .................................. 0.1393
.0035 .................................. 0.1564
.004 .................................... 0.1756
.0045 .................................. 0.1972
.005 .................................... 0.2214
.0056 .................................. 0.2486
.0063 .................................. 0.2792
.0071 .................................. 0.3135
.008 .................................... 0.3521
.0089 .................................. 0.3953
.010 .................................... 0.4439
.0113 .................................. 0.4985
.0126 .................................. 0.5598
.0142 .................................. 0.6286
.0159 .................................. 0.7059
.0179 .................................. 0.7927
.0201 .................................. 0.8901
.0226 .................................. 0.9995
.0253 .................................. 1.122
.0285 .................................. 1.260
.032 .................................... 1.415
.0359 .................................. 1.589
.0403 .................................. 1.785
.0453 .................................. 2.004
.0508 .................................. 2.251
.0571 .................................. 2.527
.0641 .................................. 2.838
.072 .................................... 3.187
.0808 .................................. 3.578
.0907 .................................. 4.018
.1019 .................................. 4.512
.1144 .................................. 5.067
A-9
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-5.
.1285 .................................. 5.690
.1443 .................................. 6.389
.162 .................................... 7.175
.1819 .................................. 8.057
.2043 .................................. 9.047
.2294 ................................ 10.16
.2576 ................................ 11.41
.2893 ................................ 12.81
.3249 ................................ 14.39
.3648 ................................ 16.15
.4096 ................................ 18.14
.460 .................................. 20.37
Shim Stock
Thickness
No. Of Ozs Per Sq Ft
.002 .................................... 1.40
.004 .................................... 2.75
.006 .................................... 4.50
.008 .................................... 6.00
.010 .................................... 6.75
.012 .................................... 9.00
Tubing-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/8 x .020 ........................... 0.024
1/8 x .032 ........................... 0.034
3/16 x .028 ......................... 0.052
1/4 x .032 ........................... 0.081
1/4 x .049 ........................... 0.114
5/16 x .032 ......................... 0.104
3/8 x .028 ........................... 0.112
3/8 x .032 ........................... 0.127
3/8 x .042 ........................... 0.162
3/8 x .065 ........................... 0.233
7/14 x .028 ......................... 0.133
1/2 x .032 ........................... 0.173
1/2 x .035 ........................... 0.188
1/2 x .065 ........................... 0.327
5/8 x .032 ........................... 0.220
5/8 x .049 ........................... 0.327
5/8 x .065 ........................... 0.421
3/4 x .025 ........................... 0.210
3/4 x .032 ........................... 0.266
3/4 x .049 ........................... 0.397
7/8 x .032 ........................... 0.312
7/8 x .049 ........................... 0.468
Table of Weights - Brass - Continued
7/8 x .065 ........................... 0.609
1 x .032 .............................. 0.358
1 x .035 .............................. 0.391
1 x .049 .............................. 0.567
1 x .065 .............................. 0.703
1 1/8 x .032 ........................ 0.404
1 1/8 x .049 ........................ 0.610
1 1/8 x .058 ........................ 0.716
1 1/8 x .065 ........................ 0.797
1 1/8 x .095 ........................ 1.132
1 1/8 x .134 ........................ 1.1537
1 1/4 x .020 ........................ 0.285
1 1/4 x .032 ........................ 0.451
1 1/4 x .049 ........................ 0.681
1 1/4 x .058 ........................ 0.800
1 1/4 x .065 ........................ 0.891
1 1/4 x .072 ........................ 0.981
1 3/8 x .035 ........................ 0.543
1 3/8 x .049 ........................ 0.752
1 3/8 x .065 ........................ 0.935
1 1/2 x .032 ........................ 0.544
1 1/2 x .049 ........................ 0.823
1 1/2 x .065 ........................ 1.08
1 5/8 x .032 ........................ 0.590
1 5/8 x .049 ........................ 0.893
1 5/8 x .065 ........................ 1.173
1 3/4 x .032 ........................ 0.636
1 3/4 x .049 ........................ 0.964
1 3/4 x .065 ........................ 1.267
1 7/8 x .049 ........................ 1.035
2 x .032 .............................. 0.729
2 x .035 .............................. 0.796
2 x .065 .............................. 1.455
2 1/4 x .049 ........................ 1.248
2 1/4 x .065 ........................ 1.643
2 3/8 x .035 ........................ 0.9275
2 1/2 x .035 ........................ 0.998
2 1/2 x .065 ........................ 1.831
2 7/8 x .1875...................... 5.875
3 x .032 .............................. 1.200
Wire
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
.0010 .................................. 0.000002884
.0031 .................................. 0.00002852
Table A-6.
Bars-Hexagon
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
5/16 ...........................................0.3081
3/8 .............................................0.4437
7/16 ...........................................0.6039
1/2 .............................................0.7888
9/16 ...........................................0.9983
5/8 .............................................1.232
3/4 .............................................1.775
1 ................................................3.155
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/8 .............................................0.04471
3/16 ...........................................0.1006
1/4 .............................................0.1788
A-10
.0035 .................................. 0.00003596
.004 .................................... 0.00004535
.0045 .................................. 0.00005718
.005 .................................... 0.00007210
.0056 .................................. 0.00009092
.0063 .................................. 0.0001146
.0071 .................................. 0.0001446
.008 .................................... 0.0001823
.0089 .................................. 0.0002299
.010 .................................... 0.0002898
.0113 .................................. 0.0003655
.0126 .................................. 0.0004609
.0142 .................................. 0.0005812
.0159 .................................. 0.0007328
.0179 .................................. 0.0009241
.0201 .................................. 0.001165
.0226 .................................. 0.001469
.0254 .................................. 0.001853
.0285 .................................. 0.002336
.032 .................................... 0.002946
.0359 .................................. 0.003715
.0403 .................................. 0.004684
.0453 .................................. 0.005907
.0508 .................................. 0.007449
.0571 .................................. 0.009393
.0641 .................................. 0.01184
.072 .................................... 0.01493
.0800 .................................. 0.01883
.0907 .................................. 0.02375
.1019 .................................. 0.02994
.1144 .................................. 0.03776
.1285 .................................. 0.04761
.1443 .................................. 0.06004
.162 .................................... 0.07571
.1819 .................................. 0.09547
.2043 .................................. 0.1204
.2294 .................................. 0.1518
.2576 .................................. 0.1914
.2893 .................................. 0.2414
.3249 .................................. 0.3044
.3648 .................................. 0.3838
.4096 .................................. 0.4839
.460 .................................... 0.6102
Table of Weights - Bronze
9/16 ...........................................0.2794
3/8 .............................................0.4024
1/2 .............................................0.7154
9/16 ...........................................0.9054
5/8 .............................................1.118
11/16 .........................................1.353
3/4 .............................................1.610
13/14 .........................................1.889
7/8 .............................................2.191
1 ................................................2.862
1 1/8 ..........................................3.622
1 3/16 ........................................4.035
1 1/4 ..........................................4.471
1 3/8 ..........................................5.410
1 7/14 ........................................5.913
1 1/2 ..........................................6.438
1 3/4 ..........................................8.763
2 ..............................................11.45
2 1/8 ........................................12.92
2 1/2 ........................................17.88
3 ..............................................25.75
3 1/2 ........................................35.05
4 ..............................................45.78
Sheet
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.010 ...........................................0.4406
.012 ...........................................0.5552
.0159 .........................................0.7006
.0201 .........................................0.8857
.0253 .........................................1.115
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-6.
.032 ...........................................1.410
.0359 .........................................1.582
.0403 .........................................1.776
Table of Weights - Bronze - Continued
.050 ...........................................2.238
.0641 .........................................2.825
.0808 .........................................3.567
Table A-7.
Bars-Flat
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/16 x 3/4 ..................................0.1809
1/8 x 1 .......................................0.4823
1/8 x 2 .......................................0.9646
1/4 x 1 .......................................0.9646
1/4 x 2 .......................................1.929
1/4 x 3 .......................................3.894
1/4 x 4 .......................................3.858
3/8 x 1 .......................................1.447
3/8 x 2 .......................................2.894
1/2 x 3/4 ....................................1.425
1/2 x 1 .......................................1.929
5/8 x 1 1/2.................................3.675
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/4 .............................................0.1894
9/16 ...........................................0.2959
3/8 .............................................0.4261
7/16 ...........................................0.580
1/2 .............................................0.7576
5/8 .............................................1.184
3/4 .............................................1.705
7/8 .............................................2.320
1 ................................................3.030
1 1/8 ..........................................3.835
1 1/4 ..........................................4.735
1 1/2 ..........................................6.818
1 3/4 ..........................................9.281
2 ..............................................12.12
2 1/2 ........................................18.94
3 ..............................................27.27
Sheet
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.002 ...........................................0.125
.003 ...........................................0.1434
.005 ...........................................0.2312
.006 ...........................................0.2914
.010 ...........................................0.4625
.0126 .........................................0.5827
.0142 .........................................0.6567
.0159 .........................................0.7353
.0201 .........................................0.9296
.0226 .........................................1.0452
.0253 .........................................1.170
.032 ...........................................1.4799
.0359 .........................................1.6602
.0403 .........................................1.8637
.0453 .........................................2.0950
.0508 .........................................2.3493
.0571 .........................................2.6407
.0641 .........................................2.9644
.0808 .........................................3.7367
.0907 .........................................4.1946
.1285 .........................................5.9427
Tubing-Round
.0907 .........................................3.997
.1285 .........................................5.662
Table Of Weights - Copper
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/8 x .020 ..................................0.026
1/8 x .025 ..................................0.030
1/8 x .028 ..................................0.033
1/8 x .032 ..................................0.036
1/8 x .049 ..................................0.045
3/16 x .022 ................................0.044
3/16 x .028 ................................0.055
3/16 x .032 ................................0.061
3/16 x .035 ................................0.065
3/16 x .042 ................................0.075
3/16 x .049 ................................0.083
7/22 x .065 ................................0.132
1/4 x .028 ..................................0.076
1/4 x .032 ..................................0.085
1/4 x .035 ..................................0.092
1/4 x .042 ..................................0.106
1/4 x .049 ..................................0.120
1/4 x .065 ..................................0.146
9/22 x .042 ................................0.122
3/16 x .025 ................................0.088
5/16 x .028 ................................0.097
5/16 x .032 ................................0.110
5/16 x .035 ................................0.119
5/16 x .042 ................................0.139
5/16 x .049 ................................0.158
5/16 x .058 ................................0.180
5/16 x .065 ................................0.196
3/8 x .025 ..................................0.106
3/8 x .028 ..................................0.118
3/8 x .032 ..................................0.134
3/8 x .035 ..................................0.145
3/8 x .042 ..................................0.170
3/8 x .049 ..................................0.194
3/8 x .065 ..................................0.245
3/8 x .083 ..................................0.295
3/8 x .095 ..................................0.325
7/16 x .032 ................................0.158
7/16 x .035 ................................0.171
7/16 x .042 ................................0.202
7/16 x .049 ................................0.232
7/16 x .065 ................................0.295
1/2 x .028 ..................................0.161
1/2 x .032 ..................................0.182
1/2 x .035 ..................................0.198
1/2 x .042 ..................................0.234
1/2 x .049 ..................................0.269
1/2 x .058 ..................................0.312
1/2 x .065 ..................................0.344
1/2 x .120 ..................................0.554
1/2 x .134 ..................................0.596
9/16 x .032 ................................0.207
9/16 x .035 ................................0.225
9/16 x .042 ................................0.266
9/16 x .049 ................................0.306
9/16 x .120 ................................0.645
9/16 x .134 ................................0.704
5/8 x .032 ..................................0.231
5/8 x .035 ..................................0.251
5/8 x .042 ..................................0.298
5/8 x .049 ..................................0.343
5/8 x .065 ..................................0.443
5/8 x .083 ..................................0.547
5/8 x .120 ..................................0.737
11/14 x .120 ..............................0.812
3/4 x .025 ..................................0.220
3/4 x .028 ..................................0.246
3/4 x .032 ..................................0.280
3/4 x .035 ..................................0.304
3/4 x .042 ..................................0.362
3/4 x .049 ..................................0.418
3/4 x .058 ..................................0.488
3/4 x .065 ..................................0.542
3/4 x .083 ..................................0.673
3/4 x .120 ..................................0.920
3/4 x .134 ..................................1.00
13/16 x .042 ..............................0.396
13/16 x .049 ..............................0.452
7/8 x .028 ..................................0.289
7/8 x .032 ..................................0.328
7/8 x .035 ..................................0.358
7/8 x .049 ..................................0.492
7/8 x .058 ..................................0.576
7/8 x .095 ..................................0.901
7/8 x .109 ..................................1.02
7/8 x .120 ..................................1.10
1 x .025 .....................................0.297
1 x .028 .....................................0.331
1 x .032 .....................................0.377
1 x .035 .....................................0.411
1 x .042 .....................................0.489
1 x .049 .....................................0.567
1 x .065 .....................................0.739
1 x .120 .....................................1.29
1 1/16 x .032 .............................0.403
1 1/16 x .035 .............................0.438
1 1/8 x .032 ...............................0.425
1 1/8 x .042 ...............................0.553
1 1/8 x .049 ...............................0.641
1 1/8 x .065 ...............................0.838
1 1/8 x .148 ...............................1.759
1 3/16 x .032 .............................0.453
1 1/4 x .032 ...............................0.474
1 1/4 x .035 ...............................0.517
1 1/4 x .049 ...............................0.716
1 1/4 x .065 ...............................0.937
1 1/4 x .072 ...............................1.03
1 1/4 x .148 ...............................1.98
1 5/16 x .032 .............................0.498
1 5/16 x .042 .............................0.648
1 5/16 x .049 .............................0.758
1 3/8 x .028 ...............................0.459
A-11
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-7.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3/8 x .032 ...............................0.523
3/8 x .035 ...............................0.570
3/8 x .042 ...............................0.681
3/8 x .049 ...............................0.790
3/8 x .065 ...............................1.036
3/8 x .148 ...............................2.209
7/16 x .035.............................0.597
1/2 x .032 ...............................0.571
1/2 x .042 ...............................0.745
1/2 x .049 ...............................0.865
1/2 x .058 ...............................1.017
1/2 x .065 ...............................1.135
1/2 x .148 ...............................2.434
5/8 x .032 ...............................0.620
5/8 x .042 ...............................0.809
5/8 x .049 ...............................0.939
5/8 x .058 ...............................1.106
5/8 x .065 ...............................1.238
5/8 x .148 ...............................2.659
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Table Of Weights - Copper - Continued
3/4 x .032 ...............................0.669
3/4 x .042 ...............................0.873
3/4 x .049 ...............................1.014
3/4 x .065 ...............................1.332
3/4 x .148 ...............................2.884
7/8 x .032 ...............................0.717
7/8 x .042 ...............................0.937
7/8 x .049 ...............................1.088
7/8 x .065 ...............................1.431
7/8 x .148 ...............................3.109
x .032 .....................................0.766
x .035 .....................................0.837
x .042 .....................................1.00
x .049 .....................................1.163
x .065 .....................................1.530
x .083 .....................................1.936
x .095 .....................................2.202
1/4 x .049 ...............................1.31
1/4 x .065 ...............................1.73
Table A-8.
Angle
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1 1/16 x 1 x 1............................0.40
1/8 x 3/4 x 3/4...........................0.59
1/8 x 1 x 1.................................0.80
1/8 x 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 ....................1.23
1/8 x 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 ....................1.44
1/8 x 2 x 2.................................1.65
3/16 x 1 x 1...............................1.16
3/16 x 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 ..................1.48
3/16 x 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 ..................1.80
3/16 x 1 1/2 x 2.........................2.12
3/16 x 2 x 2 1/2.........................2.75
3/16 x 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 ..................3.07
1/4 x 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 ....................1.92
1/4 x 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 ....................2.34
1/4 x 2 x 2.................................3.19
1/4 x 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 ....................4.10
1/4 x 3 x 3.................................4.9
1/4 x 4 x 4.................................6.6
5/16 x 2 1/2 x 3.........................5.6
Sheet
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
1/32 ...........................................2.10
Table A-10.
Bars-Flat
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/2 x 1 .......................................0.372
1/2 x 2 .......................................0.756
3/4 x 2 .......................................1.135
3/4 x 3 .......................................1.700
1 x 2 ..........................................1.513
1 x 3 ..........................................2.270
1 1/2 x 2 ....................................2.290
1 3/4 x 3 1/2..............................4.630
A-12
Table of Weights - Iron
5/16 x 3 x 3...............................6.1
3/8 x 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 ....................3.35
3/8 x 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 ....................5.90
5/8 x 6 x 6...............................24.2
Sheet-Black
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0156 .........................................0.625
.0188 .........................................0.75
.025 ...........................................1.00
.032 ...........................................1.25
.0375 .........................................1.50
.0438 .........................................1.723
.050 ...........................................2.00
.0625 .........................................2.55
.0781 .........................................3.2
.093 ...........................................3.757
.125 ...........................................5.1
.156 ...........................................6.4
.1875 .........................................7.56
.250 .........................................10.2
.375 .........................................15.178
Table A-9.
2 1/2 x .065 ...............................1.93
2 3/4 x .095 ...............................3.07
3 x .120 .....................................4.20
Wire
Size
No. of Ft Per Lb
.020 .......................................826.9
.0253 .....................................516.7
.032 .......................................323.0
.0359 .....................................256.6
.0403 .....................................203.7
.0508 .....................................128.2
.0625 .......................................84.67
.064 .........................................80.75
.072 .........................................63.80
.0808 .......................................50.66
.0907 .......................................40.21
.1019 .......................................31.85
.1285 .......................................20.03
.2576 .........................................4.984
.500 .........................................20.4
Sheet-Galvanized
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0156 .........................................0.781
.0188 .........................................0.906
.025 ...........................................1.156
.032 ...........................................1.406
.0375 .........................................1.656
.0438 .........................................1.9064
.050 ...........................................2.156
.0625 .........................................2.62
.0938 .........................................3.9603
.125 ...........................................5.1563
Sheet-Terne Plate
Size
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0156 .........................................0.6377
.0186 .........................................0.7685
.025 ...........................................1.022
.0313 .........................................1.2795
.037 ...........................................1.5329
.050 ...........................................2.044
Table of Weights - Lead
1/16 ...........................................4.25
3/52 ...........................................6.031
1/8 .............................................7.812
3/16 .........................................11.720
Table of Weights - Magnesium and Magnesium Alloy
2 x 3 ..........................................4.535
2 3/4 x 4 ....................................8.320
3 x 4 ..........................................9.240
Bars-Hexagon
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/8 .............................................0.095
7/16 ...........................................0.129
1/2 .............................................0.169
9/16 ...........................................0.213
5/8 .............................................0.263
3/4 .............................................0.412
1 ................................................0.674
1 1/4 ..........................................1.043
1 1/2 ..........................................1.510
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/16 ...........................................0.021
1/4 .............................................0.037
3/16 ...........................................0.058
3/8 .............................................0.083
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-10.
Table of Weights - Magnesium and Magnesium Alloy - Continued
7/16 ...........................................0.114
1/2 .............................................0.148
3/16 ...........................................0.188
5/8 .............................................0.232
11/16 .........................................0.280
3/4 .............................................0.334
13/16 .........................................0.392
7/8 .............................................0.454
15/16 .........................................0.522
1 ................................................0.593
1 1/4 ..........................................0.927
1 3/8 ..........................................1.122
1 1/2 ..........................................1.348
1 3/4 ..........................................1.818
2 ................................................2.385
2 1/2 ..........................................3.710
2 3/4 ..........................................4.480
3 ................................................5.340
3 1/2 ..........................................7.450
4 ................................................9.800
Sheets
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0126 .........................................0.1158
.020 ...........................................0.1814
.016 ...........................................0.1451
.0253 .........................................0.230
Table A-11.
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/4 .............................................0.182
3/16 ...........................................0.285
3/8 .............................................0.409
1/2 .............................................0.728
3/4 .............................................1.638
1 ................................................2.912
1 1/4 ..........................................4.55
1 1/2 ..........................................6.553
2 ..............................................11.651
2 1/2 ........................................18.203
Sheets
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.018 ...........................................0.84
.025 ...........................................1.11
.032 ...........................................1.39
.037 ...........................................1.65
.043 ...........................................1.91
.050 ...........................................2.22
.0625 .........................................2.76
.093 ...........................................4.14
.125 ...........................................5.56
.156 ...........................................6.94
.1875 .........................................8.32
Table of Weights - Nickel Chromium Iron Alloy (Inconel)
.250 .........................................11.12
Tubing
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/4 x .028 ..................................0.071
1/4 x .035 ..................................0.088
1/4 x .049 ..................................0.113
1/4 x .065 ..................................0.139
5/16 x .028 ................................0.091
5/16 x .035 ................................0.113
5/16 x .049 ................................0.150
5/16 x .065 ................................0.188
3/8 x .028 ..................................0.113
3/8 x .035 ..................................0.139
3/8 x .049 ..................................0.188
3/8 x .058 ..................................0.217
3/8 x .065 ..................................0.236
1/2 x .035 ..................................0.191
1/2 x .049 ..................................0.257
1/2 x .058 ..................................0.299
1/2 x .065 ..................................0.329
5/8 x .049 ..................................0.329
5/8 x .065 ..................................0.424
3/4 x .035 ..................................0.292
3/4 x .049 ..................................0.400
3/4 x .058 ..................................0.468
Table A-12.
Rods-Round
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/4 .............................................0.190
3/16 ...........................................0.309
3/8 .............................................0.428
1/2 .............................................0.761
3/4 .............................................1.172
x
x
x
x
x
x
Bars-Flat
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/2 ..................................0.106
3/4 ..................................0.1594
1 .....................................0.212
1 1/2 ...............................0.319
2 .....................................0.425
2 1/2 ...............................0.531
3/4 x .065 ..................................0.519
7/8 x .035 ..................................0.343
7/8 x .049 ..................................0.472
7/8 x .058 ..................................0.552
7/8 x .065 ..................................0.613
1 x .035 .....................................0.393
1 x .049 .....................................0.543
1 x .058 .....................................0.636
1 x .065 .....................................0.708
1 1/4 x .049 ...............................0.686
1 1/4 x .065 ...............................0.897
1 3/8 x .049 ...............................0.757
1 3/8 x .065 ...............................0.988
1 1/2 x .035 ...............................0.597
1 1/2 x .049 ...............................0.828
1 1/2 x .065 ...............................1.09
1 3/4 x .049 ...............................0.969
1 3/4 x .065 ...............................1.28
2 x .049 .....................................1.11
2 x .065 .....................................1.46
2 1/4 x .049 ...............................1.26
2 1/4 x .065 ...............................1.65
2 1/2 x .049 ...............................1.40
2 1/2 x .065 ...............................1.84
3 1/4 x .120 ...............................4.38
Table of Weights - Nickel Copper Alloy
1 ................................................3.044
1 1/4 ..........................................4.756
1 1/2 ..........................................6.849
2 ..............................................12.178
2 1/2 ........................................19.027
Sheets
Table A-13.
Size
1/14
1/14
1/14
1/14
1/14
1/14
.032 ...........................................0.290
.0359 .........................................0.3258
.0403 .........................................0.366
.0508 .........................................0.462
.0641 .........................................0.582
.0808 .........................................0.733
.128 ...........................................1.167
.0907 .........................................1.823
.156 ...........................................1.418
.1875 .........................................1.708
.250 ...........................................2.270
.375 ...........................................3.405
.500 ...........................................4.650
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.018 ...........................................0.86
.025 ...........................................1.15
.032 ...........................................1.44
.037 ...........................................1.72
.125 ...........................................5.75
Table of Weights - Steel
1/14 x 3 .....................................0.638
1/8 x 1/2 ....................................0.2125
1/8 x 3/4 ....................................0.3188
1/8 x 1 .......................................0.425
1/8 x 1 1/2.................................0.638
1/8 x 2 .......................................0.850
1/8 x 2 1/2.................................1.06
1/8 x 3 .......................................1.27
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
3/16
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1/2 ..................................0.319
3/4 ..................................0.478
1 .....................................0.638
1 1/4 ...............................0.797
1 1/2 ...............................0.956
2 .....................................1.28
2 1/2 ...............................1.59
3 .....................................1.91
A-13
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-13.
1/4 x 1/2 ....................................0.425
1/4 x 3/4 ....................................0.636
1/4 x 1 .......................................0.850
1/4 x 1 1/4.................................1.06
1/4 x 1 1/2.................................1.28
1/4 x 1 3/4.................................1.49
1/4 x 2 .......................................1.70
1/4 x 2 1/2.................................2.13
1/4 x 3 .......................................2.55
3/16 x 1/2 ..................................0.531
3/16 x 3/4 ..................................0.797
5/16 x 1 .....................................1.06
5/16 x 1 1/4 ...............................1.33
5/16 x 1 1/2 ...............................1.59
5/16 x 1 3/4 ...............................1.86
5/16 x 2 .....................................2.13
5/16 x 2 1/4 ...............................2.39
5/16 x 2 1/2 ...............................2.66
5/16 x 2 3/4 ...............................2.92
5/16 x 3 .....................................3.19
3/8 x 1/2 ....................................0.638
3/8 x 1 .......................................1.28
3/8 x 1 1/4.................................1.59
3/8 x 1 1/2.................................1.91
3/8 x 2 .......................................2.55
3/8 x 2 1/2.................................3.19
3/8 x 3 .......................................3.83
3/8 x 3 1/2.................................4.46
3/8 x 4 .......................................5.10
3/8 x 6 .......................................7.65
1/2 x 1 .......................................1.70
1/2 x 1 1/4.................................2.13
1/2 x 1 1/2.................................2.55
1/2 x 2 .......................................3.40
1/2 x 2 1/2.................................4.25
1/2 x 3 .......................................5.10
1/2 x 3 1/2.................................5.95
1/2 x 4 .......................................6.80
1/2 x 4 1/2.................................7.65
1/2 x 5 .......................................8.50
1/2 x 6 .....................................10.20
5/8 x 2 .......................................4.25
5/8 x 2 1/2.................................5.31
5/8 x 3 .......................................6.38
5/8 x 3 1/2.................................7.44
5/8 x 4 .......................................8.50
5/8 x 6 .....................................12.75
3/4 x 1 .......................................2.55
3/4 x 1 1/2.................................3.85
3/4 x 2 .......................................5.10
3/4 x 2 1/2.................................6.38
3/4 x 3 .......................................7.65
3/4 x 4 .....................................10.20
3/4 x 5 .....................................12.75
3/4 x 6 .....................................15.30
1 x 2 ..........................................6.80
1 x 2 1/2 ....................................8.50
1 x 3 ........................................10.20
1 x 4 ........................................13.60
1 x 5 ........................................17.00
1 x 6 ........................................20.40
1 1/4 x 2 ....................................8.50
A-14
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
Table of Weights - Steel - Continued
1/4 x 3 ..................................12.75
1/4 x 4 ..................................17.00
1/2 x 2 ..................................10.20
1/2 x 3 ..................................15.30
1/2 x 5 ..................................25.50
x 2 1/2 ..................................17.00
x 3 ........................................20.40
x 4 ........................................27.20
1/2 x 3 ..................................25.50
x 4 ........................................40.80
Bars-Hexagon
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/4 .............................................0.195
5/16 ...........................................0.29
3/8 .............................................0.43
7/16 ...........................................0.56
1/2 .............................................0.73
9/16 ...........................................0.93
5/8 .............................................1.15
11/16 .........................................1.40
3/4 .............................................1.66
13/16 .........................................1.91
7/8 .............................................2.25
13/16 .........................................2.58
1 ................................................2.94
1 1/16 ........................................3.33
1 1/8 ..........................................3.73
1 1/4 ..........................................4.60
1 5/16 ........................................5.07
1 3/8 ..........................................5.57
1 1/2 ..........................................6.62
1 3/4 ..........................................9.00
2 ..............................................11.78
Bars-Square
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/8 .............................................0.053
3/16 ...........................................0.120
1/4 .............................................0.212
5/16 ...........................................0.332
3/8 .............................................0.478
7/16 ...........................................0.651
1/2 .............................................0.850
9/16 ...........................................1.076
5/8 .............................................1.328
3/4 .............................................1.913
7/8 .............................................2.603
1 ................................................3.40
1 1/8 ..........................................4.303
1 1/4 ..........................................5.313
1 5/16 ........................................5.857
1 3/8 ..........................................6.428
1 1/2 ..........................................7.650
1 3/4 ........................................10.41
2 ..............................................13.60
2 1/4 ........................................17.21
2 1/2 ........................................21.25
3 ..............................................30.60
Rods-Rounds
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1/16 ...........................................0.010
3/32 ...........................................0.023
1/8 .............................................0.042
5/32 ...........................................0.065
3/16 ...........................................0.094
7/32 ...........................................0.128
1/4 .............................................0.167
9/32 ...........................................0.211
5/16 ...........................................0.261
11/22 .........................................0.316
3/8 .............................................0.376
7/16 ...........................................0.511
1/2 .............................................0.668
9/16 ...........................................0.845
5/8 .............................................1.043
11/16 .........................................1.262
3/4 .............................................1.502
13/16 .........................................1.763
7/8 .............................................2.044
15/16 .........................................2.347
1 ................................................2.670
1 1/16 ........................................3.015
1 1/8 ..........................................3.380
1 3/16 ........................................3.766
1 1/4 ..........................................4.172
1 3/8 ..........................................5.049
1 7/16 ........................................5.518
1 1/2 ..........................................6.008
1 5/8 ..........................................7.051
1 3/4 ..........................................8.178
1 7/8 ..........................................9.388
2 ..............................................10.68
2 1/4 ........................................13.52
2 5/16 ......................................14.28
2 3/8 ........................................15.06
2 1/2 ........................................16.69
2 3/4 ........................................20.19
3 ..............................................24.03
3 1/4 ........................................28.21
3 1/2 ........................................32.71
3 3/4 ........................................37.55
4 ..............................................42.73
4 1/2 ........................................54.07
5 ..............................................66.76
5 1/2 ........................................80.78
6 ..............................................96.13
7 ............................................130.8
8 ............................................170.9
Sheets
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.0156 .........................................0.6377
.020 ...........................................0.8952
.025 ...........................................1.022
.03125 .......................................1.2795
.0375 .........................................1.5329
.050 ...........................................2.044
.0625 .........................................2.5549
.0781 .........................................3.1928
.093 ...........................................3.8344
.109 ...........................................4.4557
.125 ...........................................5.1096
.156 ...........................................6.377
.1875 .........................................7.6851
.250 .........................................10.219
Tubing-Round
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-13.
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
3/16 x .028 ................................0.0476
3/16 x .035 ................................0.0569
1/4 x .028 ..................................0.0663
1/4 x .035 ..................................0.0803
1/4 x .049 ..................................0.1051
1/4 x .058 ..................................0.1188
1/4 x .065 ..................................0.1283
5/16 x .028 ................................0.0850
5/16 x .035 ................................0.1036
5/16 x .049 ................................0.1378
5/16 x .058 ................................0.1575
5/16 x .065 ................................0.1716
5/16 x .095 ................................0.2204
3/8 x .028 ..................................0.1037
3/8 x .035 ..................................0.1270
3/8 x .049 ..................................0.1704
3/8 x .058 ..................................0.1962
3/8 x .065 ..................................0.2150
3/8 x .083 ..................................0.2586
3/8 x .095 ..................................0.2838
7/16 x .028 ................................0.1223
7/16 x .035 ................................0.1503
7/16 x .049 ................................0.2030
7/16 x .065 ................................0.2583
7/16 x .083 ................................0.3139
7/16 x .095 ................................0.3471
1/2 x .028 ..................................0.1410
1/2 x .035 ..................................0.1736
1/2 x .042 ..................................0.2052
1/2 x .049 ..................................0.2358
1/2 x .058 ..................................0.2735
1/2 x .065 ..................................0.3017
1/2 x .083 ..................................0.3693
1/2 x .095 ..................................0.4105
9/16 x .035 ................................0.1969
9/16 x .049 ................................0.2684
9/16 x .065 ................................0.3450
9/16 x .095 ................................0.4738
5/8 x .028 ..................................0.1783
5/8 x .035 ..................................0.2203
5/8 x .049 ..................................0.3011
5/8 x .058 ..................................0.3509
5/8 x .065 ..................................0.3883
5/8 x .083 ..................................0.480
5/8 x .095 ..................................0.5372
5/8 x .120 ..................................0.6465
11/14 x .035 ..............................0.2437
11/14 x .049 ..............................0.3338
11/14 x .065 ..............................0.4317
11/14 x .095 ..............................0.6005
3/4 x .028 ..................................0.2157
3/4 x .035 ..................................0.2670
3/4 x .049 ..................................0.3665
3/4 x .058 ..................................0.4282
3/4 x .065 ..................................0.4750
3/4 x .083 ..................................0.5906
3/4 x .095 ..................................0.6639
3/4 x .120 ..................................0.8066
13/14 x .035 ..............................0.2903
13/16 x .049 ..............................0.3991
13/16 x .058 ..............................0.4669
Table of Weights - Steel - Continued
13/16 x .065 ..............................0.5184
7/8 x .028 ..................................0.2530
7/8 x .035 ..................................0.3137
7/8 x .049 ..................................0.4318
7/8 x .058 ..................................0.5056
7/8 x .065 ..................................0.5617
7/8 x .095 ..................................0.7906
7/8 x .120 ..................................0.9666
15/16 x .035 ..............................0.3370
15/16 x .049 ..............................0.4645
15/16 x .065 ..............................0.6051
15/16 x .083 ..............................0.7567
1 x .028 .....................................0.2904
1 x .035 .....................................0.3603
1 x .049 .....................................0.4972
1 x .058 .....................................0.5829
1 x .065 .....................................0.6484
1 x .083 .....................................0.8120
1 x .095 .....................................0.9173
1 x .120 .....................................1.127
1 1/16 x .035 .............................0.3837
1 1/16 x .049 .............................0.5298
1 1/16 x .065 .............................0.6917
1 1/8 x .035 ...............................0.4070
1 1/8 x .049 ...............................0.5625
1 1/8 x .058 ...............................0.6603
1 1/8 x .065 ...............................0.7351
1 1/8 x .083 ...............................0.9227
1 1/8 x .095 ...............................1.044
1 1/8 x .120 ...............................1.287
1 3/16 x .035 .............................0.4304
1 3/16 x .049 .............................0.5952
1 3/16 x .065 .............................0.7784
1 3/16 x .095 .............................1.107
1 3/16 x .120 .............................1.367
1 1/4 x .028 ...............................0.3650
1 1/4 x .035 ...............................0.4537
1 1/4 x .049 ...............................0.6279
1 1/4 x .058 ...............................0.7376
1 1/4 x .065 ...............................0.8218
1 1/4 x .083 ...............................1.034
1 1/4 x .095 ...............................1.171
1 1/4 x .120 ...............................1.447
1 1/4 x .125 ...............................1.500
1 1/4 x .134 ...............................1.595
1 5/16 x .035 .............................0.4770
1 5/16 x .049 .............................0.6605
1 5/16 x .065 .............................0.8651
1 5/16 x .095.............................1.234
1 5/16 x .120.............................1.527
1 3/8 x .035 ...............................0.5004
1 3/8 x .049 ...............................0.6932
1 3/8 x .058 ...............................0.8150
1 3/8 x .065 ...............................0.9085
1 3/8 x .083 ...............................1.144
1 3/8 x .120 ...............................1.607
1 7/16 x .049 .............................0.7259
1 7/16 x .065 .............................0.9518
1 7/16 x .095 .............................1.361
1 1/2 x .035 ...............................0.5470
1 1/2 x .040 ...............................0.7585
1 1/2 x .058 ...............................0.8923
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1/2 x .065 ...............................0.9951
1/2 x .083 ...............................1.255
1/2 x .095 ...............................1.424
1/2 x .120 ...............................1.767
1/2 x .1875 .............................2.626
9/16 x .049 .............................0.7912
9/16 x .065 .............................1.038
9/16 x .095 .............................1.487
5/8 x .049 ...............................0.8239
5/8 x .058 ...............................0.9697
5/8 x .065 ...............................1.082
5/8 x .083 ...............................1.365
5/8 x .095 ...............................1.551
5/8 x .120 ...............................1.927
11/16 x .049...........................0.8566
11/16 x .065...........................1.125
11/16 x .095...........................1.614
3/4 x .035 ...............................0.6404
3/4 x .049 ...............................0.8892
3/4 x .058 ...............................1.047
3/4 x .065 ...............................1.169
3/4 x .083 ...............................1.476
3/4 x .095 ...............................1.677
3/4 x .120 ...............................2.087
3/4 x .125 ...............................2.167
3/4 x .1875 .............................3.126
13/16 x .049...........................0.9219
13/16 x .065...........................1.212
13/16 x .095...........................1.741
7/8 x .049 ...............................0.9546
7/8 x .058 ...............................1.124
7/8 x .065 ...............................1.255
7/8 x .095 ...............................1.804
7/8 x .120 ...............................2.247
15/16 x .049...........................0.9873
15/16 x .065...........................1.299
15/16 x .095...........................1.867
x .035 .....................................0.7338
x .049 .....................................1.020
x .058 .....................................1.202
x .065 .....................................1.340
x .083 .....................................1.698
x .095 .....................................1.931
x .120 .....................................2.407
x .125 .....................................2.501
x .1875 ...................................3.626
1/8 x .035 ...............................0.7804
1/8 x .049 ...............................1.085
1/8 x .058 ...............................1.279
1/8 x .065 ...............................1.429
1/8 x .095 ...............................2.057
1/8 x .120 ...............................2.567
1/4 x .035 ...............................0.8271
1/4 x .049 ...............................1.151
1/4 x .058 ...............................1.356
1/4 x .065 ...............................1.515
1/4 x .083 ...............................1.919
1/4 x .095 ...............................2.184
1/4 x .120 ...............................2.727
1/4 x .125 ...............................2.834
1/4 x .1875.............................4.126
3/8 x .049 ...............................1.216
A-15
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-13.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3/8 x .065 ...............................1.602
3/8 x .095 ...............................2.311
3/8 x .120 ...............................2.887
1/2 x .049 ...............................1.281
1/2 x .065 ...............................1.689
1/2 x .083 ...............................2.140
1/2 x .095 ...............................2.438
1/2 x .120 ...............................3.047
1/2 x .125 ...............................3.167
3/4 x .083 ...............................2.362
3/4 x .095 ...............................2.691
3/4 x .120 ...............................3.367
3/4 x .125 ...............................3.501
x .095 .....................................2.944
x .120 .....................................3.687
3/4 x .120 ...............................4.647
3/4 x .15625...........................5.991
3/4 x .1875.............................7.127
Tubing-Streamline
Size
Lbs Per Linear Ft
1.697 x .707 x .049...................0.6279
1.70 x .70 x .035.......................0.4537
1.874 x .781 x .035...................0.5004
1.875 x .786 x .049...................0.6932
2.047 x .854 x .049...................0.7585
Table of Weights - Steel - Continued
2.047 x .854 x .058...................0.8923
2.215 x .823 x .035...................0.5937
2.21875 x .921 x .049...............0.8239
2.386 x .994 x .049...................0.8892
2.386 x .994 x .058...................1.047
2.386 x .994 x .065...................1.169
2.726 x 1.136 x .035.................0.7338
3.00 x .375 x .035.....................0.7338
3.067 x 1.278 x .049.................1.151
3.067 x 1.278 x .065.................1.515
3.748 x 1.563 x .083.................2.362
Wire
Thickness
No. of Ft Per Lb
.006 ................................... 10415.
.008 .....................................5858.
.009 .....................................4629.
.010 .....................................3749.
.011 .....................................2936.
.012 .....................................2604.
.013 .....................................2218.
.014 .....................................1913.
.016 .....................................1465.
.018 .....................................1157.
.020 .......................................937.3
Table A-14.
Sheet
Thickness
Lbs Per Sq Ft
.018 ...........................................0.67
A-16
.024 .......................................650.9
.025 .......................................599.9
.028 .......................................478.2
.031 .......................................383.9
.032 .......................................366.1
.035 .......................................306.1
.036 .......................................289.3
.040 .......................................234.3
.041 .......................................223.
.045 .......................................182.7
.047 .......................................166.2
.049 .......................................156.2
.0508 .....................................145.3
.054 .......................................128.6
.058 .......................................111.5
.0625 .......................................95.98
.0641 .......................................91.25
.071 .........................................72.32
.080 .........................................58.58
.0907 .......................................45.58
.101 .........................................36.11
.118 .........................................26.04
.1285 .......................................22.71
.162 .........................................14.29
Table of Weights - Zinc
.032 ...........................................1.20
.045 ...........................................1.68
.049 ...........................................1.87
.0508 .........................................1.87
.109 ...........................................3.98
Table A-15.
Temperature Conversion Chart
T.O. 1-1A-9
A-17
T.O. 1-1A-9
A-18
Table A-16.
Standard Bend Radii for 90o Cold Forming-Flat Sheet
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-16.
Table A-17.
Standard Bend Radii for 90o Cold Forming-Flat Sheet - Continued
Metal Bending and Bend Radii Bend Allowances Sheet Metal Bend Allowances Per Degree of Bend Aluminum Alloys
Stock Thickness
BEND
RADIUS
0.022
0.032
0.040
0.051
0.064
0.091
0.128
0.187
Bend Allowance per One Degree
1/32
1/16
3/32
1/8
0.00072
0.00126
0.00180
0.00235
0.00079
0.00135
0.00188
0.00243
0.00086
0.00140
0.00195
0.00249
0.00094
0.00149
0.00203
0.00258
0.00104
0.00159
0.00213
0.00268
0.00125
0.00180
0.00234
0.00289
0.00154
0.00209
0.00263
0.00317
0.00200
0.00255
0.00309
0.00364
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
0.00290
0.00344
0.00398
0.00454
0.00297
0.00352
0.00406
0.00461
0.00304
0.00358
0.00412
0.00467
0.00312
0.00367
0.00421
0.00476
0.00322
0.00377
0.00431
0.00486
0.00343
0.00398
0.00452
0.00507
0.00372
0.00426
0.00481
0.00535
0.00418
0.00473
0.00527
0.00582
9/32
5/16
11/32
3/8
0.00507
0.00562
0.00616
0.00671
0.00515
0.00570
0.00624
0.00679
0.00521
0.00576
0.00630
0.00685
0.00530
0.00584
0.00639
0.00693
0.00540
0.00595
0.00649
0.00704
0.00561
0.00616
0.00670
0.00725
0.00590
0.00644
0.00699
0.00753
0.00636
0.00691
0.00745
0.00800
13/32
7/16
15/32
1/2
0.00725
0.00780
0.00834
0.00889
0.00733
0.00787
0.00842
0.00896
0.00739
0.00794
0.00848
0.00903
0.00748
0.00802
0.00857
0.00911
0.00758
0.00812
0.00867
0.00921
0.00779
0.00834
0.00888
0.00943
0.00808
0.00862
0.00917
0.00971
0.00854
0.00908
0.00963
0.01017
17/32
9/16
19/32
0.00943
0.00998
0.01051
0.00951
0.01005
0.01058
0.00957
0.01012
0.01065
0.00966
0.01020
0.01073
0.00976
0.01030
0.01083
0.00997
0.01051
0.01105
0.01025
0.01080
0.01133
0.01072
0.01126
0.01179
A-19
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-17.
Metal Bending and Bend Radii Bend Allowances Sheet Metal Bend Allowances Per Degree of Bend Aluminum Alloys Continued
Stock Thickness
BEND
RADIUS
0.022
0.032
0.040
0.051
0.064
0.091
0.128
0.187
Bend Allowance per One Degree
5/8
0.01107
0.01114
0.01121
0.01129
0.01139
0.01160
0.01189
0.01235
21/32
11/16
23/32
3/4
0.01161
0.01216
0.01269
0.01324
0.01170
0.01223
0.01276
0.01332
0.01175
0.01230
0.01283
0.01338
0.01183
0.01238
0.01291
0.01347
0.01193
0.01248
0.01301
0.01357
0.01214
0.01268
0.01322
0.01378
0.01245
0.01298
0.01351
0.01407
0.01289
0.01344
0.01397
0.01453
Example: To determine bend allowance
Given: Stock = 0.064 aluminum alloy, Bend Radius = 1/8, Bend Angle = 50o
Find bend allowance for 1o in column for 0.064 Aluminum opposite 1/8 in column ‘‘Bend Radius’’.
Multiply this bend allowance (0.00268 in this case) by the number of degrees of the desired bend angle:
0.00268 x 50 = 0.1340 = total bend allowance to be added to the length of the straight sides of the
part to determine the total length of the material needed.
A-20
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-18.
Bend Set Back Chart
A-21
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-19.
Comparative Table of Standard Gages
1. United States Steel Wire Gage (STL.W.G.) Also known as: National Wire, Standard Steel Wire, Steel Wire, American Steel and
Wire Company, Roebling, Washburn and Moen Gages. Used for bare wire of galvanized, black annealed, bright basic tinned or copper
coated, iron or steel, spring steel wire. Not used for telephone and telegraph wire.
2. British Imperial Standard Wire Gage (I.S.W.G.) or (N.B.S.) Also known as British Imperial Wire or English Legal Standard
Gages. Used for bare copper telephone wires in the U.S. and for all wires and aluminum sheets in England.
3. Browne & Sharpe Gage (B.&S.G.) Also known as American or American Wire Gages. Used for bare wire of brass, phosphor
bronze, German silver, aluminum, zinc and copper (not for copper telephone or telegraph wire). Also resistance wire of German silver
and other alloys, and for insulated wire of aluminum and copper. Also for rods of brass, copper, phosphor bronze and aluminum;
sheets of copper, brass, phosphor bronze, aluminum and German silver; brazed brass and brazed copper tubing.
4. Birmingham Wire Gage (B.W.G.) Also known as Birmingham, Stubs or Studs Iron Wire Gages. Used for iron and steel telephone
and telegraph wire and strip steel, steel bands, hoop steel, crucible spring steel, round-edged f lat wire, and with limited usage for
copper sheets. Also for seamless brass, seamless copper, seamless steel, stainless steel and aluminum tubes, and for boiler tubes.
5. Standard Birmingham Sheet and Hoop Gage (B.G.) Used in England for iron and steel sheets and hoops.
6. United States Standard (Revised) (U.S.S.G.) Also known as U.S. Standard Sheet Metal or U.S. Standard for Steel and Iron Sheets
and Plates Gages. This is a gage based on the weight per square foot of sheets rather than on thickness. It is used for commercial
iron and steel sheets and plates including planished, galvanized, tinned and terne plates, black sheet iron, blue annealed sof t steel,
steel plate, hot-rolled sheet steel, cold-rolled sheet steel, hot-rolled monel metal, cold-rolled monel metal.
Other gages in use:
Trenton Iron Company Gage.
Zinc gage for sheet zinc only.
Birmingham Metal Gage-in England for brass sheets. American Steel and Wire Company’s music wire gage. Twist Drill and Steel
Wire Gage for twist drill and steel drill rods.
THICKNESS IN DECIMALS OF AN INCH
United States Standard
(Revised) U.S.S.G.
Gage
Number
0000000
000000
00000
0000
000
00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
A-22
United
States
Steel Wire
(STL.W.G)
.4900
.4615
.4305
.3938
.3625
.3310
.3065
.2830
.2625
.2437
.2253
.2070
.1920
.1770
.1620
.1483
.1350
.1205
.1055
.0915
.0800
.0720
.0625
.0540
.0475
British
Imperial
Standard
Wire
(I.S.W.G.)
.500
.464
.432
.400
.372
.348
.324
.300
.276
.252
.232
.212
.192
.176
.160
.144
.128
.116
.104
.092
.080
.072
.064
.056
.048
Browne &
Sharpe
(B.& S.G.)
------.580000
.516500
.460000
.409642
.364796
.324861
.289297
.257627
.229423
.204307
.181940
.162023
.144285
.128490
.114423
.101897
.090742
.080808
.071962
.064084
.057068
.050821
.045257
.040303
Birmingham
Wire
(B.W.G.)
Standard
Birmingham
Sheet and
Hoop
(B.G.)
----------.500
.454
.425
.380
.340
.300
.284
.259
.238
.220
.203
.180
.165
.148
.134
.120
.109
.095
.083
.072
.065
.058
.049
.6666
.6250
.5883
.5416
.5000
.4452
.3964
.3532
.3147
.2804
.2500
.2225
.1981
.1764
.1570
.1398
.1250
.1113
.0991
.0882
.0785
.0699
.0625
.0556
.0495
Thickness
Approx.
---------------------------------------------.2391
.2242
.2092
.1943
.1793
.1644
.1494
.1345
.1196
.1046
.0897
.0749
.0673
.0598
.0538
.0478
Weight
Oz/Sq Ft.
---------------------------------------------160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
45
40
36
32
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-19.
Comparative Table of Standard Gages - Continued
THICKNESS IN DECIMALS OF AN INCH
United States Standard
(Revised) U.S.S.G.
Gage
Number
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
United
States
Steel Wire
(STL.W.G)
.0410
.0348
.03175
.0286
.0258
.0230
.0204
.0181
.0173
.0162
.0150
.0140
.0132
.0128
.0118
.0104
.0095
.0090
.0085
.0080
.0075
.0070
British
Imperial
Standard
Wire
(I.S.W.G.)
.040
.036
.032
.028
.024
.022
.020
.018
.0164
.0148
.0136
.0124
.0116
.0108
.0100
.0092
.0084
.0076
.0068
.0060
.0052
.0048
Browne &
Sharpe
(B.& S.G.)
.035890
.031961
.028462
.025346
.022572
.020101
.017900
.015941
.014195
.012641
.011257
.010025
.008928
.007950
.007080
.006305
.005615
.005000
.004453
.003965
.003531
.003144
Table A-20.
Birmingham
Wire
(B.W.G.)
Standard
Birmingham
Sheet and
Hoop
(B.G.)
.042
.035
.032
.028
.025
.022
.020
.018
.016
.014
.013
.012
.010
.009
.008
.007
.005
.004
---------------------
.0440
.0392
.0349
.03125
.02782
.02476
.02204
.01961
.01745
.015625
.0139
.0123
.0110
.0098
.0087
.0077
.0069
.0061
.0054
.0048
.0043
.0038
Weight
Oz/Sq Ft.
.0418
.0359
.0329
.0299
.0269
.0239
.0209
.0179
.0164
.0149
.0135
.0120
.0105
.0097
.0090
.0082
.0075
.0067
.0064
.0060
-----------
28
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
11
10
9
8
7
6.5
6
5.5
5
4.5
4.25
4
-----------
Melting Points Approximate
ELEMENTS
ALUMINUM
ANTIMONY
BARIUM
BERYLIUM
BISMUTH
CADMIUM
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHROMIUM
COBALT
COPPER
GOLD
IRON
LEAD
LITHIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE
MERCURY
MOLYBDENUM
Thickness
Approx.
DEGREES
C
F
660
631
850
1350
271
321
810
3500
1765
1480
1083
1063
1535
327
186
651
1260
-39
2620
1220
1167
1562
2462
520
610
1490
6332
3209
2696
1981
1945
2795
621
367
1204
2300
-38
4748
A-23
T.O. 1-1A-9
Table A-20.
Melting Points Approximate - Continued
ELEMENTS
NICKEL
PHOSPHOROUS (YELLOW)
PLATINUM
SILICON
SILVER
TIN
TUNGSTEN
VANADIUM
ZINC
A-24
DEGREES
C
F
1446
44
1773
1420
961
232
3400
1710
420
2635
111
3223
2588
1761
449
6152
3110
787
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY
A
ACID BRITTLENESS--Brittleness of steel resulting from use of acid solutions to remove scale, clean and
electroplate. Brittleness is caused by the absorption of hydrogen into the metal from the acid solutions (also called hydrogen embrittlement).
AGING--(a) Generally any change in properties with time which occurs at relatively low temperature
(room or elevated) af ter a f inal heat treatment of a cold marking operation. Aging is a process in
which the trend is toward restoration of real equilibrium and away from an unstable condition
induced by a prior operation. (b) Specif ically the formation of a new phase by cooling a solid solution
to super saturated state and allowing the super saturated solution to partially return to equilibrium
by the formation of a less concentrated solid solution and a new phase.
AIR HARDENING--An alloy which does not require quenching from a high temperature to harden. Hardening of the material occurs simply by cooling in air from above critical temperature. The term refers
only to the ability of the material to harden in air and does not imply any def inite analysis or
composition.
AIR COOLING/QUENCHING--Cooling from an elevated temperature in air, still or forced.
ALLOY--A mixture with metallic properties composed of two or more elements of which at least one is a
metal. However, a metal is not designated an ‘‘alloy’’ based on elements incidental to its manufacture. For example; iron, carbon, manganese, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen are incidental to the manufacture of plain carbon steel. It does not become an ‘‘alloy steel’’ until
the elements are increased beyond regular composition or until other elements (metal) are added in
signif icant amounts for a specif ic purpose.
ALLOY ELEMENTS--Chemical elements comprising an alloy, usually limited to the metallic elements
added to modify the basic metal properties.
AMORPHOUS--Non-crystalline.
ANNEALING--Generally it is a controlled heating procedure which leads to maximum sof tness, ductility
and formability. The annealing procedure is utilized for the following: (a) Remove stresses. (b) Induce
sof tness. (c) Af ter ductility, toughness, electrical, magnetic, or physical properties. (d) Ref ine crystalline structure. (e) Remove gases. (f) Produce a def inite micro-structure.
ANNEALING FULL--A controlled heating procedure which leads to maximum sof tness, ductility and
formability.
ANNEALING, ISOTHERMAL--Heating of a ferritic steel to a austenitic structure (fully or partial) followed
by cooling to and holding at a temperature that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively
sof t ferrite and carbide structure.
ANODIC OXIDE COATING--A thin f ilm of aluminum oxide formed on the surface of aluminum and
aluminum alloy parts by electro-chemical means.
AS CAST--Condition of a casting as it leaves the mold with no heat treatment.
AUSTENITE--A solid solution of iron carbide in gamma iron. It forms when the metal solidif ies and
remains a solution until it cools to about 732oC (1350oF). Theoretically the solution would remain if
the iron or steel were cooled instantaneously from a bright red heat to atmospheric temperature, but
in practice, this degree of rapidity is impracticable, and only a portion of the austenite is preserved by
rapid cooling. Addition of certain alloying elements such as nickel and manganese perserves austenite
below - 17oC (0oF).
Glossary 1
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
B
BARK--The decarburized skin or layer just beneath the scale found af ter heating steel in an oxidizing
atmosphere.
BASE METAL--The metal to which other elements are added to form an alloy possessing specif ic
properties.
BESSEMER PROCESS--A process for making steel by blowing air through molten pig iron contained in a
suitable vessel. The process is one of rapid oxidation primarily of silicon and carbon.
BILLET--An ingot or bloom that has been reduced through rolling or hammering to an approximate square
ranging from 1 1/2 inches square to 6 inches square, or to an approximate rectangular cross-section of
equivalent area. Billets are classif ied as semi-f inished products for re-rolling or forging.
BINARY ALLOY--An alloy containing two elements, apart from minor impurities.
BLACK ANNEALING--A process of box annealing of sheets prior to tinning whereby a black color is
imparted to the surface of the product.
BLUE ANNEALING--A process of annealing sheets af ter rolling. The sheets, if fairly heavy, are allowed
to cool slowly af ter the hot rolling; if of lighter gage, as is usually the case, they are passed singly
through an open furnace for heating to the proper annealing temperature. The sheets have a bluishblack appearance.
BLUE BRITTLENESS--Brittleness occurring in steel when in the temperature range of 149o to 371oC
(300o to 700oF), or when cold af ter being worked within this temperature range.
BOX ANNEALING--Sof tening steel by heating it, usually at a sub-critical temperature, in a suitable closed
metal box or pot to protect it from oxidation, employing a slow heating and cooling cycle; also called
closed annealing or pot annealing.
BRIGHT ANNEALING--A process of annealing, usually with reducing gases, such that surface oxidation is
reduced to a minimum, thereby yielding a relatively bright surface.
BRITTLENESS--Brittleness is the property of a material which permits little bending or deformation
without fracture. Brittleness and hardness are closely associated.
BURNING--The heating of a metal to temperatures suff iciently close to the melting point to cause permanent injury. Such injury may be caused by the melting of the more fusible constituents, by the
penetration of gases such as oxygen into the metal with consequent reactions, or perhaps by the
segregation of elements already present in the metal.
BUTT-WELD--The welding of two abutting edges.
C
CARBON FREE--Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon.
CARBURIZING (CEMENTATION)--Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by heating the metal
below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids, or gases.
CASE--The surface layer of an iron-base alloy which has been made substantially harder than the interior
by the process of case hardening.
CASE HARDENING--A heat treatment of a combination of heat treatments in which the surface layer of
an iron-base alloy is made substantially harder than the interior by altering its composition by
carburizing, cyaniding, or nitriding.
Glossary 2
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
C (Cont)
CHAPMANIZING--A process for hardening steel by bubbling ammonia through a cyaniding salt bath and
holding the f inished part in the gas stream. This method produces a case almost as hard as nitriding
at a time factor of slightly longer than required for cyaniding.
CHARPY IMPACT--An impact test made by measuring in a Charpy machine the energy required to
fracture a standard notched specimen in bending. The values so obtained are merely comparative
between different materials tested by the same method.
COLD DRAWING--The permanent deformation of metal below its recrystallization temperature, by drawing the bay through one or more dies.
COLD ROLLING--The permanent deformation of metal below its recrystallization temperature by rolling.
This process is frequently applied in f inishing rounds, sheets, strip, and tin plate.
COLD TREATING--Cooling to sub-zero temperature for various purposes, but primarily to promote transformation of austenite.
COLD WORKING--Plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature low enough to insure strain hardening.
CORE--The interior portion of an iron-base alloy which is substantially sof ter than the surface layer as the
result of case hardening. Also, that portion of a forging removed by trepanning; the inner part of a
rolled section of rimmed steel as distinct from the rimmed portion or rim; a body of sand or other
material placed in a mold to produce a cavity in a casting.
CONVERSION COATING (CHEMICAL)--A f ilm intentionally produced on a metal by subjection to a
selected chemical solution for the purpose of providing improved corrosion resistance or to improve
the adhesion of subsequently applied organic coating.
CYANIDING--Surface hardening by carbon and nitrogen absorption of an iron-base alloy article or portion
of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt, followed by quenching.
COOLING--Any decrease in temperature; however, specif ic term usually applies to reducing metal temperature in a gaseous environment rather than quenching in a liquid.
D
DECALESCENCE--When a piece of steel is heated, the temperature rises uniformly until it reaches a
point between 718oC and 732oC (1,325oF and 1,350oF). At this point the rise in temperature suddenly
halts due to the fact that the metal absorbs the heat necessary for the change of state. Af ter this
halt the temperature will continue its normal rate of increase. It is the halting in the temperature
range that is termed decalescence. At the point of decalesence, the carbon and iron are forming a
solid solution and the steel is passing from its annealed condition into its hardened condition.
DECARBURIZATION--The removal of carbon (usually refers to the surface of solid steel) by the (normally
oxidizing) action of media which reacts with carbon. The decarburized area is sometimes referred to
as the bark.
Glossary 3
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
D (Cont)
DEFECTS IN METALS--Damage occurring to metal during manufacture/fabrication process. Some typical
defects are as follows: (a) Blister - a defect in metal produced by gas bubbles either on the surface or
formed beneath the surface. Very f ine blisters are called pinhead or pepper blisters. (b) Blow hole - a
hole produced during the solidif ication of metal by evolved gas which in falling to escape, is held in
pockets. (c) Bursts -ruptures made in forging or rolling. (d) Fin (Flash) - a thin f in of metal formed at
the side of a forging or weld where a small portion of the metal is forced out between the edges of the
forging or welding case. (e) Flake -Internal f issures (cracks or clef ts) in large steel forgings or large
(MASS) rolled shapes. In a factured surface or test piece, they appear as sizable areas of silvery
brightness and coarser grain size than their surroundings. Sometimes known as ‘‘chrome checks’’ and
‘‘hairline cracks.’’ (f) Ghost - (Ferrite ghost) a faint band of ferrite. (g) Lap - a surface defect appearing
as a seam caused from folding over hot metal, f ins, or sharp corners and then rolling or forging, but
not welding, them into the surface. (h) Pipe - a cavity formed in metal (especially ingots) during
solidif ication of the last portion of liquid metal causes the cavity or pipe. (i) Scab - a rough projection
on a casting caused by the mold breaking or being washed by the molten metal; or occuring where the
skin from a blowhole has partly burned away and is not welded. (j) Seam - a crack on the surface of
metal which has been closed but not welded; usually produced by blowholes which have become
oxidized. If very f ine, a seam may be called a hair crack or hair seam. (k) Segregation a mixture of
compounds and elements, which, when cooled from the molten state, solidify at different temperatures. (l) Ductility the ability of a metal to withstand plastic deformation without rupture. Ductility
is usually determined by tension test using a standard test (2″ gauge length) specimen. The test
specimen is loaded in tension to rupture. The specimen is then assembled and measured for length
and diameter at the fracture. The increase in length is expressed as per cent elongation and the
decrease in diameter as per cent reduction of area. The above terms measure ductility and since they
are comparative, considerable experience is required for proper evaluation of material for the purpose
intended.
DUCTILITY--The property that permits permanent deformation before fracture by stress in tension.
E
ELASTIC LIMIT--The elastic limit of a material is the greatest load per unit area which will not produce a
measurable permanent deformation af ter complete release of load.
ELONGATION--The amount of permanent extension at any stage in any process which continuously
elongates a body.
EMBRITTLEMENT--Loss of ductility of a metal, which may result in premature failure. (see acid
brittleness).
ENDURANCE LIMIT--The highest unit stress at which a material can be subjected to a very large number
of repetitions of loading and still show no evidence of failure. Above this limit failure occurs by the
generation and growth of cracks until fracture results in the remaining section.
ENDURANCE RATIO--The ratio of the endurance limit for cycles of reversed f lexural stress to the tensile
strength.
EQUALIZING--Intermediate heat treatment (special) which assists in developing desired properties, primary use is for equalizing/relieving stresses resulting from cold working.
EUTECTIC ALLOY--An alloy which has a lower melting point than neighboring compositions. More then
one eutectic composition may occur in a given alloy system.
EXFOLIATION--The cracking or f laking off of the outer layer of an object.
EXPOSURE--Heating to or subjecting to an elevating temperature or environment for a certain period of
time.
Glossary 4
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
E (Cont)
ETCHING--Attack of metals structure by reagents. In metallography, the process of revealing structual
details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface. (a) Micro - etching is for the
examination of the sample under a microscope and for this purpose the sample must be very carefully
polished (by an experienced person) prior to etching. (b) Macro-etching is for the examination of the
sample under a low power magnifying glass or by unaided eye. High polishing for this purpose is not
absolutely essential; however, a good polish is necessary. (c) Deep-etching is a form of macro-etching
in which the sample with regular cut surface may be immersed in hot hydrocloric acid (50% acqueous
solution) and then examined for major defects such as inclusions, segregations, cracks; etc.
F
FATIGUE--The phenomenon of the progressive fracture of a metal by means of a crack which spreads
under repeated cycles of stress.
FATIGUE LIMIT--Usually used as synonymous with endurance limit.
FERRITE--A solution in which alpha iron is the solvent, and which is characterized by a body centered
cubic crystal structure.
FILLET--A concave junction of two surfaces usually perpendicular.
FLAME HARDENING--A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation
range by means of a high-temperature f lame and then cooling as required.
FORGING STRAINS--Elastic strains resulting from forging or from cooling from the temperature.
FORMING--To shape or fashion with hand/tools or by a shape or mold.
FRACTURE TESTING--A test used to determine type of structure, carbon content and the presence of
internal defects. The test specimen is broken by any method that will produce a clean sharp fracture.
The fracture is then examined by eye or with the aid of a low former magnifying glass. A trained/
experienced observer will determine grain size; approximate depth of carburized or decarburized
surface area; the presence of inclusions of dirty steel; and defects such as seams, cracks, pipes bursts
and f lakes.
FULLY HARDENED--Applies generally to the maximum hardness obtainable. (In particular, applies to
materials that are hardened by a strain and/or age hardening process).
FUSIBLE ALLOYS--A group of nonferrous alloys which melt at relatively low temperatures. They usually
consist of bismuth, lead, tin, etc., in various proportions, and iron only as an impurity.
G
GALVANIC SERIES--A list of metals and alloys arranged in order of their relative potentials in a given
environment. The galvanic series indicates the tendency of the serval metals and alloys to set up
galvanic corrosion. The relative position within a group sometimes changes with external conditions,
but it is only rarely that changes occur from group to group.
GRAINS--Individual crystals in metal. When metal is in molten state, the atoms have no uniform grouping. However, upon solidif ication they arrange themselves in a geometric pattern.
GRAIN GROWTH--An increase in the grain size of metal.
Glossary 5
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
H
HARDENABILITY--The ability of an alloy to harden fully throughout the entire section thickness either by
cold working or heat treatment. The maximum thickness at which this may be accomplished can be
used as a measure of hardenability.
HARDENING--Hardening accomplished by heating the metal to a specif ied temperature, then rapidly
cooling by quenching in oil, water, or brine. This treatment produces a f ine grain structure, extreme
hardness, maximum tensile strength, and minimum ductility.
HARDNESS--Hardness refers to the ability of a material to resist abrasion, penetration, indentation, or
cutting action. The wearing qualities of a material are in part dependent upon its hardness. Hardness and strength are properties which are closely related for wrought alloys.
HARDNESS TESTING--Test used to determine the ability of a metal to resist penetration. The test
results are usually directly related to tensile and yield strength of the metal involved. An exception
would be case hardness. See Section VIII for typical testing methods.
HEAT TINTING--Heating a specimen with a suitable surface in air for the purpose of developing the
structure by oxidizing or otherwise affecting the different constituents.
HEAT TREATMENT--An operation, or combination of operations, involving the heating and cooling of a
metal or alloy in the solid state for the purpose of obtaining certain desirable conditions or properties.
Heating and cooling for the sole purpose of mechanical working are excluded from the meaning of this
definition.
HOMOGENIZING--Annealing or soaking at very high temperatures in order to reduce alloy segregation by
diffusion.
HOT SHORTNESS--Brittleness in metal when hot. In iron when sulphur is in excess of the manganese
necessary to combine with it to form manganese sulphide the excess sulphur combines with the iron
to form iron sulphide. This constituent has a lower melting point than the iron and the result can be
that steel may crack during hot working.
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT--See Acid Brittleness.
I
IMPACT TEST--A test in which one or more blows are suddenly applied to a specimen. The results are
usually expressed in terms of energy absorbed or number of blows (of a given intensity) required to
break the specimen. See Charpy Impact and Izod Impact.
INCLUSION--Particles of impurities, usually oxides, sulphides, silicates, and such which are mechanically
held during solidif ication or which are formed by subsequent reaction of the solid metal.
INDUCTION HARDENING--A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating above the transformation
range by means of electrical induction and then cooling as required.
M
MACHINABILITY--The cutting characteristic of metal and resulting surface f inish using standard cutting
tools and coolant/lubricants. There are various factors that effect the machinability of a metal such
as hardness, grain size, alloy constituents, structure, inclusions; shape, type, condition of tool and
coolant. The standard machinability ratings are usually based on comparison to SAE 1112/Aisi B
1112 Bessemer screw stock which is rated at 100% machinability.
Glossary 6
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
M (Cont)
MAGNA FLUX TESTING--A method of inspection used to detect/locate defects such as cavities, cracks or
seams in steel parts at or very close to the surface. The test is accomplished by magnetizing the part
with equipment specially designed for the purpose and applying magnetic powder, wet or dry, Flaws
are then indicated by the powder clinging to them (see Section VIII for additional data).
MALLEABILITY--Malleability is the property of a material which enables it to be hammered, rolled, or to
be pressed into various shapes without fracture. Malleability refers to compression deformation as
contrasted with ductility where the deformation is tensile.
MARTEMPERING--This is a method of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature
into a medium at a temperature in the upper part of or slightly above the martensite range and
holding it in the medium until temperature is substantially uniform throughout the alloy is then
allowed to cool in air through the martensite range.
MARTENSITE--It is the decomposition product which results from very rapid cooling of austenite. The
lower the carbon content of the steel, the faster it must be cooled to obtain martensite.
MECHANICAL HARDNESS--See Hardness.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES--Those properties that reveal the reaction, elastic and inelastic, of a material to an applied force, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain; for example,
tensile strength, yield strength, and fatigue limit.
MECHANICAL TESTING--Testing methods by which mechanical properties are determined.
MECHANICAL WORKING--Subjecting metal to pressure exerted by rolls, presses, or hammers, to change
its form, or to affect the structure and therefore the mechanical and physical properties.
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY--The ratio, within the limit of elasticity, of the stress in the corresponding
strain. The stress in pounds per square inch is divided by the elongation in fractions of an inch for
each inch of the original gage length of the specimen.
N
NITRIDING--Adding nitrogen to iron-base alloys by heating the metal in contact with ammonia gas or
other suitable nitrogenous material. Nitriding is conducted at a temperature usually in the range
502o-538oC (935o-1000oF) and produces surface hardening of the metal without quenching.
NORMALIZING--Heating iron-base alloys to approximately 55oC (100oF) above the critical temperature
range, followed by cooling to below that range in still air at ordinary temperatures. This process is
used to remove stresses caused by machining, forging, bending, and welding.
O
OVERHEATING--Heating to such high temperatures that the grains have become coarse, thus impairing
the properties of the metal.
P
PATENTING--Heating iron-base alloys above the critical temperature range followed by cooling below that
range in air, or in molten lead, or a molten mixture of nitrate or nitrites maintained at a temperature
usually between 427o-566oC (800-1050oF),depending on the carbon content of the steel and the
properties required of the f inished product. This treatment is applied to wire and to medium or high
carbon steel as a treatment to precede further wire drawing.
Glossary 7
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
P (Cont)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES--Those properties exclusive of those described under mechanical properties; for
example, density, electrical conductivity, coeff icient of thermal expansion. This term has of ten been
used to describe mechanical properties, but this usage is not recommended.
PHYSICAL TESTING--Testing methods by which physical properties are determined. This term is also
inadvisedly used to mean the determination of the mechanical properties.
PICKLING--Removing scale from steel by immersion in a diluted acid bath.
PLASTIC DEFORMATION--The permanent change in size or shape of a material under stress.
POTENTIOMETER--Potentiometer 1s an instrument used to measure thermocouple voltage by balancing a
known battery voltage against it.
PROCESS ANNEALING--Heating iron-base alloys to a temperature below or close to the lower limit of the
critical temperature range, followed by coolings desired. This treatment is commonly applied to sheet
and wire and the temperatures generally used are from 549o to 649oC (1020o to 1200oF).
PROOF STRESS--The proof stress of a material is that load per unit area which a material is capable of
withstanding without resulting in a permanent deformation of more than a specif ied amount per unit
of gage length af ter complete release of load.
PROPORTIONAL LIMIT--The proportional limit of a material is the load per unit area beyond which the
increases in strain cease to be directly proportional to the increases in atress.
PYROMETER--An instrument for measuring temperature.
Q
QUENCHING--Rapid cooling by immersion in liquids or gases.
QUENCHING MEDIA--Quenching media are liquids or gases in which metals are cooled by immersion.
Some of the more common are brine (10 percent sodium chloride solution), water 18oC (65oF), f ish oil,
paraff in base petroleum oil, machine oil, air, engine oil, and commercial quenching oil.
R
RECALESCENCE--When steel is slowly cooled from a point above the critical temperature, the cooling
proceeds at a uniform rate until the piece reaches a point between 677o and 704oC (1,250o and
1,300oF). At this time, the cooling is noticeably arrested and the metal actually rises in temperature
as the change of state again takes place. This change is the opposite of decalescence and is termed
recalescence.
REDUCTION OF AREA--The difference between the original cross-sectional area and that of the smallest
area at the point of rupture. It is usually stated as a percentage of the original area; also called
‘‘contraction of area.’’
REFINING TEMPERATURE OR HEAT--A temperature employed in case hardening to ref ine the case and
core. The f irst quench is from a high temperature to ref ine the core and the second quench is from a
lower temperature to further ref ine and harden the case.
S
SCALE--A coating of metallic oxide that forms on heated metal.
SENSITIZING--Developing a condition in stainless steels, which is susceptible to intergranular corrosion.
The condition is usually formed by heating the steel above 800oF and cooling slowly, e.g., welding.
Glossary 8
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
S (Cont)
SHEETS COLD ROLLED--The f lat products resulting from cold rolling of sheets previously produced by
hot rolling.
SHEETS HOT ROLLED--The f lat-rolled products resulting from reducing sheet bars on a sheet mill, or
slabs, blooms, and billets on a continuous strip-sheet mill.
SOAKING--Holding steel at an elevated temperature for the attainment of uniform temperature throughout the piece.
SOLIDIFICATION RANGE--The temperature range through which metal freezes or solidif ies.
SPALLING--The cracking and f laking of small particles of metal from the surface.
SPHEROIDAL OR SPHEROIDIZED CEMETITE--The globular condition of iron carbide resulting from a
spheroidizing treatment. The initial structure may be either pearlitic or martensitic.
SPHEROIDIZING--Any process of heating and cooling steel that produces a rounded or globular form of
carbide. The spheroidizing methods generally used are: (a) Prolonged heating at a temperature just
below the lower critical temperature, usually followed by relatively slow cooling. (b) In the case of
small objects of high carbon steels, the spheroidizing result is achieved more rapidly by prolonged
heating to temperatures alternately within and slightly below the critical temperature range. (c) Tool
steel is generally spheroidized by heating to a temperature of 749o-804oC (1380o-1480oF) for carbon
steels and higher for many alloy tool steels, holding at heat from 1 to 4 hours, and cooling slowly in
the furnace.
STRAIN--The elongation per unit length.
STRESS--The internal load per unit area.
STRESS-RELIEF--This is annealing process which removes or reduces residual stresses retained af ter
forming, heat treating, welding or machining. The anneal is accomplished at rather low temperatures
for the primary purposes of reducing residual stresses, without material affecting other properties.
T
TEMPERING (ALSO TERMED DRAWING)--Reheating hardened steel to some temperature below the
lower critical temperature, followed by any desired rate of cooling. Although the terms ‘‘tempering’’
and ‘‘drawing’’ are practically synonymous as used in commercial practice, the term ‘‘tempering’’ is
preferred.
TENSILE STRENGTH--The tensile strength is the maximum load per unit area which a material is
capable of withstanding before failure. It is computed from the maximum load carried during a
tension test and the original cross-sectional area of the specimen.
TENSION--That force tending to increase the dimension of a body in the direction of the force.
THERMOCOUPLE--Thermocouple consists of a pair of wires of dissimilar metals connected at both ends.
When the two junctions are subjected to different temperatures an electric potential is set up
between them. This voltage is almost in direct proportion to the temperature difference, and hence, a
voltage measuring instrument inserted in the circuit will measure temperature. The voltage measuring instrument is usually calibrated in oC or oF.
TOLERANCES--Slight deviations in dimensions or weight or both, allowable in the various products.
V
VISCOSITY--Viscosity is the resistance offered by a f luid to relative motion of its parts.
Glossary 9
T.O. 1-1A-9
GLOSSARY - Continued
W
WIRE--The product obtained by drawing rods through a series of dies.
WORK HARDNESS--Hardness developed in metal resulting from mechanical working, particularly cold
working.
Y
YIELD POINT--The load per unit of original cross section at which a marked increase in deformation
occurs without increase in load.
YIELD STRENGTH--Stress arbitrarily def ined as the stress at which the material has a specif ied permanent set (the value of 0.2% is widely accepted).
YOUNG’S MODULUS--See Modulus of Elasticity.
Glossary 10
T.O. 1-1A-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-9
TM 43-0106
By Order of the Secretaries of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force:
PETER J. SCHOOMAKER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
SANDRA R. RILEY
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0514409
JOHN P. JUMPER
General, Usaf
Chief of Staff
GREGORY S. MARTIN
General, USAF
Commander, AFMC
Army authentication for this publication includes the basic dated 26 February
1999 through Change 5 dated 27 June 2005.
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 340867,
requirements for TM 43-0106.
PIN: 037247-000
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