# Buck MPPT and charge controller, modeling and simulation ```Lecture 4
ECEN 4517/5517
Experiment 3
DC-DC converter
Battery charge controller
Peak power tracker
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Quiz 2 on Exp 2: last 15 minutes today
This week in lab:
Continue Exp. 3 Part 1.
Get your converter running open-loop, and take data outside
Next week in lab:
Finish Exp. 3 Part 1, including simulations
Exp. 3 Part 1 report will be due Feb 28
Exp. 2 prelab 2 (sensing circuitry + MPPT code) due Feb 24
Exp. 2 on-line modules and quizzes coming up – keep an
eye on D2L
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Converter modeling and simulation
Conduction modes
– Continuous conduction mode (CCM)
– Discontinuous conduction mode (DCM)
Equivalent circuit modeling
– The dc transformer model: CCM
– DCM model
Simulation
– Averaged switch model in CCM
– Averaged switch model in DCM
– A combined automatic model for PSPICE (or Simulink,
optional)
– Exp. 3 Part 1: simulation model for your system, including
PV panel and converter
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Averaged switch modeling
Basic approach (CCM)
L
Q1
Given a switching converter
operating in CCM
+
+
–
Vg
Buck converter example
R
C
D1
V
–
+
L
Separate the switching
elements from the
remainder of the converter
Vg
+
–
i1
R
V
–
Define the terminal
voltages and currents of
the two-port switch
network
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C
i2
+
Switch
network
v1
–
4
+
v2
Q1
D1
–
Terminal waveforms of the switch network
Relationship between average
terminal waveforms:
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Averaged model of switch network
So
Modeling the switch network via
averaged dependent sources
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Switch Library File
Spice simulation of averaged waveforms
.subckt CCM1 1 2 3 4 5
Et 1 6 value={(1-v(5))*v(3,4)/v(5)}
Vdum 6 2 0
Gd 4 3 value={(1-v(5))*i(Vdum)/v(5)}
.ends
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Basic CCM SEPIC Example
Frequency Response
Ideal SEPIC frequency response
.lib switch.lib
Vg 1 0 dc 120V
L1 1 2x 800uH
RL1 2x 2 1U
C1 2 3 100uF
L2 3 0 100uH
C2 4 0 100uF
RL 4 0 40
Vc 5 0 dc 0.4 ac 1
Rc 5 0 1M
Xswitch 2 0 4 3 5 CCM1
.ac DEC 201 10 100kHz
.PROBE
.end
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AC analysis in Spice
Given a nonlinear time-invariant circuit, as on the previous slide, we can
get Spice to automatically perturb, linearize, and plot small-signal ac
transfer functions:
• Use DC sources to set up the correct quiescent operating conditions
• Include an AC source having amplitude 1
• Perform an AC analysis: Spice will
• Do a DC analysis to find the quiescent operating point
• Linearize all nonlinear elements at this point, to construct a linear model
• Perform an AC (phasor) analysis at specified frequencies to find the
magnitudes and phases of all signals
• Construct Bode plots of selected signals. With an input amplitude of 1,
the signal magnitude and phase plot is the transfer function.
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AC analysis
SEPIC Example: Control-to-output transfer function
Magnitude
Phase
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Discontinuous Conduction
Mode
+
L
+
–
Vg
i1
R
C
i2
V
–
+
Switch
network
v1
–
+
v2
Q1
D1
–
• Again find average values of switch network
terminal voltages and currents
• Eliminate variables external to the switch
network
• Results on next slides
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Input (transistor) port
Averaged equivalent circuit
d 21(t) Ts
i1(t) T =
v1(t)
s
2L
i1(t)
Ts
=
v1(t)
i 1(t)
+
Ts
Ts
v1(t)
Re(d 1)
–
Re(d 1) = 2L
d 21 T s
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12
Ts
Re(d1)
Output (diode) port
Averaged equivalent circuit
i(t)
v1(t)
2
1
d (t) Ts
i2(t) T =
s
2L
v2(t)
i2(t)
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Ts
v2(t)
Ts
=
v1(t)
2
+
Ts
Ts
p(t)
–
2
Ts
Re(d 1)
v(t)
= p(t)
13
Ts
Averaged modeling of CCM and DCM switch networks
Switch network
i1(t)
CCM
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i 1(t)
i2(t)
+
+
v1(t)
v2(t)
–
–
i1(t)
DCM
Averaged switch model
+
v1(t)
v2(t)
–
–
1 : d(t)
+
v1(t)
i 1(t)
v2(t)
Ts
v1(t)
–
14
Ts
Ts
Ts
–
i 2(t)
Ts
p(t)
+
i 2(t)
+
–
i2(t)
+
Ts
Re(d1)
Ts
Ts
+
v2(t)
–
Ts
Spice model CCM-DCM1
Combined CCM/DCM switch model
• This is one of
the models
inside switch.lib
• It automatically
switches
between CCM
and DCM as
necessary
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LTspice simulation
Exp. 3 Part 1: open loop
•
Use your PV model from Exp. 1
•
Replace buck converter switches with averaged switch model
•
CCM-DCM1 and other Spice model library elements are linked on
the course web page
•
Online module and quiz on D2L
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