v2r1nspd

v2r1nspd
Basic Problem Determination
Network Station Education
IBM Network Computer Division
June 1999
01/31/00 v2r1nspd.prz
Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 -©
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1
Objectives/Contents
Using the Advanced Diagnostics session
Displaying messages
Retreiving messages remotely
Executing commands remotely
Working with the Boot Monitor Service Aids
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Network Computer Division 2
Notes
The topic of this presentation is problem determination (PD) on the IBM Network Station.
The objective of this presentation is to provide some insight into the tools and techniques
that can be used to do problem determination with version 2 release 1(V2R1).
For anyone who was familiar with V1R3, this is an area that must be relearned since just
about everything is different from the previous release.
This should be considered as an introduction only as we are just beginning to understand
some of the tools and to get familiar with the new ways to access some of the critical
information for PD.
We will take a quick look at how to look at how to use the Advanced Diagnostics session,
how to display messages, what are some of the shortcut keys, how to access a station
remotely, highlight a few useful commands, and take a look at the service aids menu from
the boot monitor.
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Problem Determination Tools
Two main Tools
Boot Monitor Service Aids
Advanced Diagnostic (Command line)
Boot Monitor Service Aids Menu
More extensive than V1R3 boot monitor
Use for problems prior to getting operational
Advanced Diagnostic is a command line interface
Unix environment
All functions done through commands
Requires some Unix knowledge
Command Line replaces V1R3 console
More versatile
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Network Computer Division 4
Notes
There are two main tools for doing problem determination in V2R1.
While the station is not yet under the control of the kernel but still in the boot process, the
Boot Monitor Service Aids menu is used to do problem determination. It contains a lot
more functions that the V1R3 boot monitor had and allows all the basic functions that are
needed to isolate a problem. For example, you can display the ARP cache, and the routing
table, and ping, and display the last 20 packets sent and received, and display DHCP
responses, and so on.
After the station is operational and under the control of the kernel, the Advanced
Diagnostic window becomes the primary problem determination tool by allowing the
administrator to issue a variety of commands. This is a lot more extensive than what was
available in the previous release since there was no command line facility.
Most of the commands are Unix commands, so if you are already Unix knowledgeable,
these will be familiar to you. Otherwise, there may be a slight learning curve for some
users, although many of the network related commands such as netstat for example are
fairly similar to those that would be used on many other platforms.
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Advanced Diagnostics - Messages
Scroll Bar
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Network Computer Division 6
Notes
A click on the Toolkit icon on the launchbar and then Advanced Diagnostics brings up an
xterm session where all the commands can be issued by the administrator.
In this example we used the df (display filesystem) command to see the mount points and
the ps command to display some of the active processes, and then the dmesg command
to display messages.
By default, the number of lines held is 1000 and so there is a need to be able to scroll to
see previous messages.
This is easy using the scroll bar located on the left of the window. The easiest method to
scroll seems to be to put the cursor on the scroll bar at the junction of the black and white
areas (where we have put a small black arrow in this diagram) and to drag the bar while
holding BOTH the left and right mouse buttons.
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Xterm Session Options
Ctl + Right Mouse
Ctl + Left Mouse
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Notes
There are other useful operational tips on the use of the Advanced Diagnostics window.
For example, this chart shows two menus that can be displayed from the advanced
diagnostic window using the Control-Right Mouse and the Control-Left mouse button key
sequences.
You can also use the left and right mouse buttons to copy and paste within the same
window. Drag to select (a character, a word, multiple words) and hit the right mouse to
copy the selected string to the command line.
If you issue a long command, and do not want to retype it, you can copy and paste it.
You can also recall commands on the command line by issuing the "set -o vi" or "set -o
emacs" command, after which the use of the up and down arrows lets you scroll through
previous message. You are then into the vi editor or emacs editor environment to make
changes to those recalled commands, and we find that those editing commands are not
always intuitive unless you are proficient at using vi . If that's a problem for you, use the
copy/paste and then modify your command before hitting enter.
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Network Computer Division 9
Using Alt-Tab to switch windows
Alt-Tab
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Notes
The Alt-Tab keyboard shortcut displays a list of opened windows from which you can
choose one to become the active window.
This is now identical to the Microsoft Windows Alt-Tab operation where, while holding Tab,
the first tab displays all opened windows as an icon in a small window, with one
pre-selected, and each subsequent tab selects another icon. Releasing the Alt key makes
the selected window the active one.
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Network Computer Division11
V1R3 Console vs V2R1 Commands
Login New X Session...
Logout...
Clear Messages
Rescan Messages
Reboot...
Close
Builtin Window Manager
Motif Window Manager...
New Terminal...
New Telnet...
Refresh Screen
Blank Screen
Lock Screen...
Rescan Font Path
Test Network...
?
dmseg
reboot
Change Quick Setup...
Change Setup Parameters...
Change User Preferences...
Show Version...
Show Memory...
Show X Connections...
Show Statistics...
Ctl-Alt-i
telnet
nsterm
V2R1 Equivalent Commands
ping
netstat -a
netstat, nfsstat, pstat,
vmstat, iostat
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Notes
This diagram summarizes the differences between the functions provided through the
V1R3 Console facilities and the way to get similar functions through the V2R1 command
line.
At the top is the V1R3 console with each pulldown expanded to show the available
functions.
The functions that are either not applicable or not available in V2R1 have been indicated
with a horizontal bar through it.
Others have an arrow pointing to the command to issue on the V2R1 command line to get
either an identical or similar function.
In the case of the Screen lock and the Logout, it is not a command but a click on an icon
located at the bottom of the launchbar, and the memory function is located at the top of the
launchbar (if enabled).
In general, there is additional flexibility provided in V2R1 through a variety of commands
that were not available in V1R3.
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Network Computer Division13
Remote telnet into the Network Station
Network Station
user accounts/passwords
telnetd
rap protocol
4
nsldv2
Auth Server
1
2
3
Boot Server
nfsd
telnet
client
auth
administrator
qsecofr
root
/usr/local/nc/boot/login/
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Notes
This diagram illustrates the process that takes place when an administrator wants to telnet into a Network
Station to do problem determination.
From any telnet client, telnet into the station(1). The telnetd daemon should be running as it is
automatically started from the .profile file. Telenetd asks the client for user name and password(2).
Telnetd then accesses, using nfs, the auth file (3) located at /usr/local/nc/boot/login to verify that the userid
is present in that file. By default, the qsecofr, administrator and root userids are present in the auth file, but
you can add others.
(Note: If you add users, make sure that you use an editor which only puts line feeds at the end of the line
and not carriage return/line feed. In Windows NT, we use the PFE editor available free on the Web.)
If the user is present in the auth file, the telnetd daemon then uses the rap protocol to contact the auth
server (4) and verify the validity of this user, just as if this user was logging in to the Network Station. So
the user must have a user account on the server and be part of the NSMUser group. If the user is valid and
the password is correct, access is granted.
At that point, certain commands may be restricted. To get full access as if using the advanced diagnostic
session on the station itself, comment out the RPATH statement in the .profile file that reads
RPATH=/usr/diag.
Note that you can telnet into the station even before a user has logged in.
Note also that if an administrator password (unit-global-password) is set on this station (through the NSM
configuration), then the telnetd daemon does not ask for userid and password, but only for the password,
which is this case is the administrator password. Here again however, only a restricted access is permitted
unless the RPATH statement is commented out of the .profile file.
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Network Computer Division15
Useful Commands
Ping -r host # pings a host showing also the route
Netstat -r # Displays the IP routing table
traceroute host # traces a route to a host
netstat -a # display active connections
df # display file system
ps aux # display active processes
set # display all current environment variables
echo $variable name # display the setting of an env. variable
lpr or nclpr # sends a print job to a remote printer
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Notes
Here are a few common commands used in every day life for doing problem determination
and displaying the status of resources.
Many of these have other options and settings that can be used but we cannot here list all
of these options.
Most command have a -help parameter that will at least list the available options, although
these are often listed without any explanations as to what they mean.
Since most available commands are Unix commands, you might be able to find some
documentation in the many available publications on Unix.
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Remote Reboot
To cause a reboot of the station, the reboot command is used
The reboot command is restricted to users with a NFS UID of 0
On Microsoft Windows NT, this means the NSM_NFSROOT user
NSM_NFSROOT must also be made part of the auth file to be able to telnet in
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Notes
To be able to reboot a Network Station remotely, one must be able to issue the reboot
command on the command line.
However, this reboot command can only be issued by a user whose NFS UID is zero.
Since the only user defined with a UID of 0 in Windows NT is NSM_NFSROOT, this is the
user name that must be used when logging on remotely to the Network Station.
This also means that this user name (NSM_NFSROOT) must be made part of the auth file
in order to be able to remotely log in to the station.
Only one user name in NFS can have a UID of 0, and this cannot be administrator since
NSM_NFSROOT already is UID 0.
Shown in the bottom panel if the eNOD NFS server configuration panel showing the
defined NFS users and their UID.
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Service Aids Menu
Menu70
IBM Network Station
Service Aids
Change firmware support
Change local MAC address
Change fast boot setting
Change retry settings
Change NS boot themes setting
Load factory defaults
Use cursor keys to select task.
Enter=Continue F10=Reboot IBM Network Station F12=Cancel
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Notes
When the boot monitor is started on the Network Station and the ESC key is used, the
main menu of the boot monitor is displayed.
On the main menu is an entry called Service Aids. Choosing this entry displays the panel
shown in this chart.
Actually, this is only a small portion of the real Service Aid menu because the bulk of it is
hidden. To gain access to the rest of the Service Aids, use Ctrl-F9 from this panel.
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Service Aids Main Hidden Menu (CTRL-F9)
Main Menu
1. Memory Test
2. Dump PCI Configuration Registers to serial port
3. Cache Control
4. Video test
5. Test all
6. I/O (serial and parallel)
7. Toggle auto test
8. Configuration menu
9. Misc menu
0. Exit
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Notes
This is the main menu that you get when using Crtl-F9 from the main Service Aids menu.
This is only a partial menu as nearly each item on this menu expands into further menus.
There are too many items for us to describe here, so we suggest that you explore this on
your own.
We do want to point out however that the way to get to the network items is to choose the
9. Misc option, and on the following panel, choose the Network entry.
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Service Aids Network Menus
MENU 1
1.Print ARP cache
2.Print routing table
3.Print boot configuration
4.Print card statistics
5.Print network statistics
6.Packet log
7.Bootp vendor specific/DHCP options
8.DHCP responses
9.More network menus=>MENU 2
0.Exit
MENU 2
1.Print Ethernet EEPROM data
2.Display/set EThernet Auto
Negotiate/Speed/duplex
3.Ping command
4.Duplicate network packets
5.Host command
6.Display/set TRN auto selection/speed
selection
7.Display subnet broadcast information
8.Display subnet broadcast bitmap
9.More network menus=>MENU 3
0.Exit
MENU 3
1.RPL Server discover
2.Display/set boot protocol
3.TFTP subnet boot protocol retry count
4.TFTP retry and delay values
5.NFS retry and delay values
6.Menu interruption (Alt PF9)
0.Exit
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Network Computer Division24
Notes
These are the three network menus available from the first Network option.
There are a lot more tools and facilities here than were available in the V1R3 boot monitor.
Those are probably the main items that you would use to do problem determination if there
is a problem for the station to connect over the network to a boot server.
Notice in particular the items we highlighted in red:
The packet logs allows to see the last 20 or so packets that were issued or received so that
one can see the latest activity
The Ping command can be used to see if a destination can be successfully reached
The DHCP responses can display the DHCP frame activity when attempting to use a
DHCP server
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Network Computer Division25
Where to Find Additional Information
SG24-5844 NSM V2R1 redbook
PD chapter and Appendices
Advanced Information on the Network Station home Web site
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Network Computer Division26
Notes
The best source of additional information at this time is the draft redbook on this CD
SG24-5844 - NSM V2R1. It contains a small PD chapter but also some appendices with a
list of commands and other useful information such as shortcut keys.
We have also listed in Appendix a table that identifies what function was available in V1R3
and what is the equivalent function in V2R1.
You might also look into the Advanced User Information document on the web which
should evolve over time to include additional useful information.
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Network Computer Division27
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