Specifications | Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide

Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5
Client Configuration Guide
Red Hat Network Satellite
Edition 3
Landmann
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Red Hat Network Satellite
Edition 3
Landmann
rlandmann@redhat.co m
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Abstract
Welcome to the Red Hat Network Satellite Client Configuration Guide.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
. . . . . . . . . 1.
Chapter
. . .Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .
.Chapter
. . . . . . . . 2.
. . .Client
. . . . . . .Applications
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .
2.1. Deploying the Latest Red Hat Network Client RPMs
4
2.2. Configuring the Client Applications
5
2.2.1. Registering Clients to Red Hat Network RHN Satellite Server
5
2.2.2. Registering with Activation Keys
5
2.2.3. T he up2date --configure Option
6
2.2.4. Updating the Configuration Files Manually
7
2.2.5. Implementing Server Failover
8
2.3. T he Package Updater Applet
8
.Chapter
. . . . . . . . 3.
. . .SSL
. . . . Infrastructure
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
............
3.1. A Brief Introduction T o SSL
10
3.2. T he RHN SSL Maintenance T ool
11
3.2.1. Generating SSL Certificates
12
3.2.2. RHN SSL Maintenance T ool Options
12
3.2.3. Generating the Certificate Authority SSL Key Pair
17
3.2.4. Generating Web Server SSL Key Sets
18
3.3. Deploying the CA SSL Public Certificate to Clients
18
3.4. Configuring Client Systems
19
.........4
Chapter
. ...Importing
. . . . . . . . . . Custom
. . . . . . . . .GPG
. . . . . Keys
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
............
.Chapter
. . . . . . . . 5.
. . .Using
. . . . . . RHN
. . . . .Bootstrap
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
............
5.1. Preparing for RHN Bootstrap Installation
21
5.2. Generating RHN Bootstrap Scripts
22
5.3. Using the RHN Bootstrap Script
22
5.4. Configuring RHN Bootstrap Options
23
. . . . . . . . . 6.
Chapter
. . .Manually
. . . . . . . . . .Scripting
. . . . . . . . . the
. . . . RHN
. . . . . Bootstrap
. . . . . . . . . . . Configuration
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
............
. . . . . . . . . 7.
Chapter
. . .Implementing
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kickstart
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
............
. . . . . . . . .Bootstrap
Sample
. . . . . . . . . . .Script
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
...........
. . . . . . . . . .History
Revision
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
...........
.Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
...........
Symbols
37
A
37
B
37
C
38
G
38
K
38
R
38
S
39
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
2
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 1. Introduction
T his best practices guide is intended to help customers of RHN Satellite Server and RHN Proxy Server
configure their client systems.
By default, all Red Hat Network client applications are configured to communicate with central Red Hat
Network Servers. When clients connect to the RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy server instead, the
default settings change. T his document is intended to assist by offering mass reconfiguration steps
which will help large enterprise environments, containing hundreds or thousands of systems, address
the default setting changes.
Due to the complexity of this undertaking, customers may utilize a pre-populated script that automates
many of the tasks necessary to access their Satellite or Proxy server; refer to Chapter 5, Using RHN
Bootstrap for details. Red Hat believes that understanding the implications of these changes is helpful
and therefore describes the manual steps for reconfiguration in the opening chapters. Use your best
judgement in determining the ideal solution for your organization.
Although many of the commands provided within this guide can be applied as they appear, it is
impossible to predict all potential network configurations adopted by customers. T herefore, Red Hat
encourages you to use these commands as references that must take into account your organization's
individual settings.
Note
Unix client configuration information may be found in the RHN Satellite Server Reference Guide in
the Unix Support chapter.
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Chapter 2. Client Applications
In order to utilize most enterprise-class features of Red Hat Network, such as registering with a RHN
Satellite, configuration of the latest client applications is required. Obtaining these applications before the
client has registered with Red Hat Network can be difficult. T his paradox is especially problematic for
customers migrating large numbers of older systems to Red Hat Network. T his chapter identifies
techniques to resolve this dilemma.
Important
Red Hat strongly recommends that clients connected to a RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite
Server be running the latest update of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to ensure proper connectivity.
Additionally, if client firewalls are configured, ports 80 and 443 should be open for proper
functionality with Red Hat Network.
2.1. Deploying the Latest Red Hat Network Client RPMs
T he Package Updater (pup), yum , the yum RHN Plugin (yum -rhn-plugin)and the Red Hat
Network Registration Client (rhn_register) on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6 are
prerequisites for using much of Red Hat Network's enterprise functionality. It is crucial to install them on
client systems before attempting to use RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server in your environment.
T here are several sensible approaches to accomplish this update of the RHN client software. One of
which involves storing the RPMs in a location that is accessible by all client systems and deploying the
packages with the simplest command possible. In nearly all cases, a manual deployment of yum , pup,
and rhn_register do not need to be performed. T hose client tools should have no issues connecting
to the RHN Satellite or Proxy environment. T he following information below assumes that the "out of box"
yum , pup, and rhn_register are not the latest and do not work for your environment.
Note that systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6 must have registered with RHN in either
firstboot after installation or using the rhn_register command.
T his document presumes that the customer has installed at least one RHN Satellite Server and/or RHN
Proxy Server on their network. T he example below demonstrates a simple approach of deploying yum ,
pup, and rhn_register (or up2date) for the first time by an administrator, assuming the machines
do not have an existing, working RHN:
rpm -Uvh
http://satellite.example.com/pub/rhn-setup-0.4.17-8.el5.i386.rpm
http://satellite.example.com/pub/yum-3.2.8-9.el5.i386.rpm
http://satellite.example.com/pub/pirut-1.3.28-13.3l5.noarch.rpm
T he administrator has already pre-populated the /var/www/htm l/pub/ directory, on the RHN Satellite
or RHN Proxy environment, with a copy of the yum , pup, and rhn_register RPMs that the client
systems need, and then by running the command above, the RPMs have been deployed onto the client
systems with a simple rpm -Uvh command. T he rpm -Uvh command, when run from a client, installs
the RPMs to that client, assuming the domain name, paths, and RPM versions are correct (note that the
command has been split into multiple lines for print and PDF purposes but should be typed as one line
at a shell prompt):
Keep in mind that the architecture (in this case, i386) and package versions may need to be altered
depending on the systems to be served.
4
Chapter 2. Client Applications
2.2. Configuring the Client Applications
While not every customer must connect securely to a RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server within
their organization; nor every customer needs to build and deploy a GPG key for custom packages; every
customer who uses RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server must reconfigure the Red Hat Update
Agent (up2date) and possibly the Red Hat Network Registration Client (rhn_register) to
redirect it from Red Hat Network to their RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server.
Important
Although this is not configurable, note that the port used by the up2date is 80 for HT T P and
443 for secure HT T P (HT T PS). By default, yum on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 uses SSL only.
For this reason, users should ensure that their firewalls allow connections over port 443. T o
bypass SSL, change the protocol for serverURL from https to http in
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date. Similarly, to use RHN's Monitoring feature and probes
requiring the Red Hat Network Monitoring Daemon, note that client systems must allow
connections on port 4545 (or port 22, if it is using sshd instead).
By default, rhn_register and up2date refer to the main Red Hat Network Servers. Users must
reconfigure client systems to refer to their RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server.
Note that the latest versions of the Red Hat Update Agent can be configured to accommodate several
RHN Servers, thereby providing failover protection in case the primary server is inaccessible. Refer to
Section 2.2.5, “Implementing Server Failover” for instructions on enabling this feature.
T he next sections describe different methods of configuring the client systems to access your RHN
Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server. T o see how virtually all reconfiguration can be scripted, see
Chapter 6, Manually Scripting the RHN Bootstrap Configuration.
2.2.1. Registering Clients to Red Hat Network RHN Satellite Server
T o register a system with a RHN Satellite Server, a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) and the SSL cert
of the RHN Satellite Server is required. Once these requirements are fulfilled, proceed with the following
steps:
1. Download the SSL certificate to the client:
cd /usr/share/rhn/
wget http://satellite.example.com/pub/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
2. Edit the /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date file:
serverURL=https://satellite.example.com/XMLRPC
noSSLServerURL=http://satellite.example.com/XMLRPC
sslCACert=/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
3. Register the machine:
rhn_register
2.2.2. Registering with Activation Keys
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Red Hat recommends using activation keys for registering and configuring client systems that access
RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server. Activation keys can be used to register, entitle, and subscribe
systems in a batch. Refer to the section "Activation Keys" in the RHN Satellite Server Reference Guide
for more information on activation keys.
When registering with an activation key:
1. Generate an Activation Key. (Refer to the section "Activation Keys" in the RHN Satellite Server
Reference Guide)
2. Import custom GPG keys.
3. Download and install the SSL Certificate RPM from the /pub/ directory of the RHN Proxy Server
or RHN Satellite Server. T he command for this step could look something like this:
rpm -Uvh http://satellite.example.com/pub/rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-1.01.noarch.rpm
4. Register the system with the RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server::
rhnreg_ks --activationkey mykey --serverUrl
https://satellite.example.com/XMLRPC
Alternatively, most of the above steps can be combined in a shell script that includes the following lines:
wget -0 - http://satellite.example.com/pub/bootstrap.sh | bash
&& rhnreg_ks --activation-key my_key --serverUrl
https://satellite.example.com/XMLRPC
Note that the command has been split into multiple lines for print and PDF purposes but should be typed
as one line at a shell prompt.
T he bootstrap script, generated at installation and available for both RHN Satellite Server and RHN
Proxy Server, is such a script. T he script and the RHN Bootstrap that generates it are discussed in
detail in Chapter 5, Using RHN Bootstrap.
2.2.3. The up2date --configure Option
T he Red Hat Update Agent in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4 provides an interface for configuring
various settings. For full listings of these settings, refer to the up2date manual page (m an up2date at
a command line).
T o reconfigure the Red Hat Update Agent, issue the following command as root:
up2date --configure
A dialogue box offering various settings that can be reconfigured will appear.In the General tab, under
Select a Red Hat Network Server to use replace the default value with the fully qualified
domain name (FQDN) of the RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server, such as
https://satellite.exam ple.com /XMLRPC. Retain the /XMLRPC at the end. When finished, click
OK.
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Chapter 2. Client Applications
Figure 2.1. Red Hat Update Agent GUI Configuration
Make sure to enter the domain name of the RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server correctly. Entering
an incorrect domain or leaving the field blank may prevent up2date --configure from launching.
T his may be resolved, however, by editing the value in the up2date configuration file. Refer to
Section 2.2.4, “Updating the Configuration Files Manually” for precise instructions.
Warning
Systems running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 or 4 have registration functionality built into the Red
Hat Update Agent and therefore do not install the Red Hat Network Registration Client.
Systems on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6 do not use up2date, and need rhn_register to
register their systems to RHN or Satellite and yum and pup to update their packages.
2.2.4. Updating the Configuration Files Manually
As an alternative to the GUI interface described in the previous section, users may also reconfigure the
Red Hat Update Agent by editing the application's configuration file.
T o configure Red Hat Update Agent on the client systems connecting to the RHN Proxy Server or
RHN Satellite Server, edit the values of the serverURL and noSSLServerURL settings in the
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date configuration file (as root). Replace the default Red Hat Network URL
with the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server. For
example:
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
serverURL[comment]=Remote server URL
serverURL=https://your_primary.your_domain.com/XMLRPC
noSSLServerURL[comment]=Remote server URL without SSL
noSSLServerURL=http://your_primary.your_domain.com/XMLRPC
Warning
T he httpProxy setting in /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date does not refer to the RHN Proxy
Server. It is used to configure an optional HT T P proxy for the client. With an RHN Proxy Server in
place, the httpProxy setting must be blank (not set to any value).
2.2.5. Implementing Server Failover
Beginning with up2date-4 .2.38, the Red Hat Update Agent can be configured to seek updates
from a series of RHN Servers. T his can be especially helpful in sustaining constant updates if the
primary RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server may be taken offline.
T o use this feature:
1. Ensure that you are running the required version or newer of up2date as well as running Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or 6.
2. Manually add the secondary servers to the serverURL and noSSLServerURL settings in the
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date configuration file (as root).
3. Add the fully qualified domain names (FQDN) for the Proxy or Satellite immediately after the
primary server, separated by a semicolon (;). For example:
serverURL[comment]=Remote server URL
serverURL=https://satellite.example.com/XMLRPC;
https://your_secondary.your_domain.com/XMLRPC;
noSSLServerURL[comment]=Remote server URL without SSL
noSSLServerURL=http://satellite.example.com/XMLRPC;
http://your_secondary.your_domain.com/XMLRPC;
Connection to the servers is attempted in the order provided here. Include as many servers as
necessary.
2.3. The Package Updater Applet
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 features a running program on the graphical desktop panel that periodically
checks for updates from the RHN or Satellite server and will alert users when a new update is available.
Figure 2.2. Package Updater Applet
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Chapter 2. Client Applications
T he Package Updater Applet stays in the notification tray of the desktop panel and checks for new
updates periodically. T he applet also allows users to perform a few package maintenance tasks from the
applet by clicking the notification icon and choosing from the following actions:
Refresh — Check RHN or the Satellite for new updates
View Updates — launches the Package Updater application so users can see any available updates
in more detail and configure the updates to specifications.
Apply Updates — Download and Install all updated packages.
Quit — close the applet
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Chapter 3. SSL Infrastructure
For Red Hat Network customers, security concerns are of the utmost importance. One of the strengths
of Red Hat Network is its ability to process every single request over Secure Sockets Layer, or SSL. T o
maintain this level of security, customers installing Red Hat Network within their infrastructures must
generate custom SSL keys and certificates.
Manual creation and deployment of SSL keys and certificates can be quite involved. Both the RHN Proxy
Server and the RHN Satellite Server allows users to build their own SSL keys and certificates based on
their own private Certificate Authority (CA) during installation. In addition, a separate command line utility,
the RHN SSL Maintenance T ool, exists for this purpose. Regardless, these keys and certificates must
then be deployed to all systems within the managed infrastructure. In many cases, deployment of these
SSL keys and certificates is automated. T his chapter describes efficient methods for conducting all of
these tasks.
Please note that this chapter does not explain SSL in depth. T he RHN SSL Maintenance T ool was
designed to hide much of the complexity involved in setting up and maintaining this public-key
infrastructure (PKI). For more information, please consult some of the many good references available at
your nearest bookstore.
3.1. A Brief Introduction To SSL
SSL, or Secure Sockets Layer, is a protocol that enables client-server applications to pass information
securely. SSL uses a system of public and private key pairs to encrypt communication passed between
clients and servers. Public certificates can be left accessible, while private keys must be secured. It's the
mathematical relationship (a digital signature) between a private key and its paired public certificate that
makes this system work. T hrough this relationship, a connection of trust is established.
Note
SSL private keys and public certificates will be discussed throughout this document. Both can be
referred to as keys, one public and one private. However, when discussing SSL, it is the
convention to refer to the public half of an SSL key pair (or key set) as the SSL public certificate.
An organization's SSL infrastructure is generally made up of these SSL keys and certificates:
Certificate Authority (CA) SSL private key and public certificate — only one set per organization
generally generated. T he public certificate is digitally signed by its private key. T he public certificate
is distributed to every system.
Web server SSL private key and public certificate — one set per application server. T he public
certificate is digitally signed by both its private key and the CA SSL private key. It is often referred to
as a Web server's key set; this is because there is an intermediary SSL certificate request that is
generated. T he details of what this is used for are not important to this discussion. All three are
deployed to an RHN Server.
T he following is a scenario to help visualize the concept: An organization with one RHN Satellite Server
and five RHN Proxy Servers will need to generate one CA SSL key pair and six Web server SSL key
sets. A CA SSL public certificate is distributed to all systems and used by all clients to establish a
connection to their respective upstream servers. Each server has its own SSL key set that is specifically
tied to that server's hostname and generated using its own SSL private key and the CA SSL private key
in combination. T his establishes a digitally verifiable association between the Web server's SSL public
certificate and the CA SSL key pair and server's private key. T he Web server's key set cannot be shared
10
Chapter 3. SSL Infrastructure
with other web servers.
Important
T he most critical portion of this system is the CA SSL key pair. From that private key and public
certificate an administrator can regenerate any Web server's SSL key set. T his CA SSL key pair
must be secured. It is highly recommended that once the entire RHN infrastructure of servers is
set up and running, archive the SSL build directory generated by this tool and/or the installers
onto separate media, write down the CA password, and secure the media and password in a safe
place.
3.2. The RHN SSL Maintenance Tool
Red Hat Network provides a command line tool to ease the management of the organization' s secure
infrastructure: the RHN SSL T ool, commonly known by its command rhn-ssl-tool. T his tool is
available as part of the spacewalk-certs-tools package. T his package can be found within the
software channels for the latest RHN Proxy Server and RHN Satellite Server (as well as the RHN
Satellite Server ISO). T he RHN SSL T ool enables organizations to generate their own Certificate
Authority SSL key pair, as well as Web server SSL key sets (sometimes called key pairs).
T his tool is only a build tool. It generates all of the SSL keys and certificates that are required. It also
packages the files in RPM format for quick distribution and installation on all client machines. It does not
deploy them. T hat is left to the administrator, or in many cases, automated by the RHN Satellite Server.
Note
T he spacewalk-certs-tools, which contains rhn-ssl-tool, can be installed and run on
any current Red Hat Enterprise Linux system with minimal requirements. T his is offered as a
convenience for administrators who wish to manage their SSL infrastructure from their
workstation or another system other than their RHN Server(s).
Here are the cases in which the tool is required:
When updating the Certificate Authority (CA) public certificate
When installing an RHN Proxy Server version 3.6 or later that connects to the central RHN Servers
as its top-level service - the hosted service, for security reasons, cannot be a repository for the CA
SSL key and certificate, which is private to the organization.
When reconfiguring the RHN infrastructure to use SSL where it previously did not.
When adding multiple RHN Satellite Servers to the RHN infrastructure - consult with a Red Hat
representative for instructions regarding this.
Here are the cases in which the tool is not required:
During installation of an RHN Satellite Server - all SSL settings are configured during the installation
process. T he SSL keys and certificate are built and deployed automatically.
During installation of an RHN Proxy Server version 3.6 or later if connected to an RHN Satellite
Server version 3.6 or later as its top-level service - the RHN Satellite Server contains all of the SSL
information needed to configure, build and deploy the RHN Proxy Server's SSL keys and certificates.
T he installation procedures of both the RHN Satellite Server and the RHN Proxy Server ensure the CA
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
SSL public certificate is deployed to the /pub directory of each server. T his public certificate is used by
the client systems to connect to the RHN Server. Refer to Section 3.3, “Deploying the CA SSL Public
Certificate to Clients” for more information.
In short, if the organization's RHN infrastructure deploys the latest version of RHN Satellite Server as its
top-level service, there should be little need to use the tool.
3.2.1. Generating SSL Certificates
T he primary benefits of using the RHN SSL Maintenance T ool are security, flexibility, and portability.
Security is achieved through the creation of distinct Web server SSL keys and certificates for each RHN
server, all signed by a single Certificate Authority SSL key pair created by the organization. Flexibility is
supplied by the tool's ability to work on any machine that has the spacewalk-certs-tools package
installed. Portability exists in a build structure that can be stored anywhere for safe keeping and then
installed whenever the need arises.
Again, if the organization infrastructure's top-level RHN Server is the most current RHN Satellite Server,
the most that may be required is to restore the ssl-build tree from an archive to the /root directory
and utilize the configuration tools provided within the RHN Satellite Server's website.
T o make the best use of the RHN SSL Maintenance T ool, complete the following high-level tasks in
roughly this order. Refer to the remaining sections for the required details:
1. Install the spacewalk-certs-tools package on a system within the organization, perhaps but
not necessarily the RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server.
2. Create a single Certificate Authority SSL key pair for the organization and install the resulting RPM
or public certificate on all client systems. Refer to Section 3.2.3, “Generating the Certificate
Authority SSL Key Pair” for more information.
3. Create a Web server SSL key set for each of the Proxies and Satellites to be deployed and install
the resulting RPMs on the RHN Servers
4. Restart the httpd service:
/sbin/service httpd restart
5. Back up the SSL build tree - consisting of the primary build directory and all subdirectories and
files - to removable media, such as a CD or DVD. (Disk space requirements are insignificant.)
6. Verify and then store that archive in a safe location, such as the one described for backups in the
Additional Requirements sections of either the Proxy or Satellite installation guide.
7. Record and secure the CA password for future use.
8. Delete the build tree from the build system for security purposes, but only once the entire RHN
infrastructure is in place and configured.
Note
When additional Web server SSL key sets are needed, restore the build tree on a system
running the RHN SSL Maintenance T ool and repeat steps 3 through 7.
3.2.2. RHN SSL Maintenance Tool Options
T he RHN SSL Maintenance T ool offers a multitude of command line options for generating Certificate
Authority SSL key pair and managing your server SSL certificates and keys. T he tool offers essentially
three command line option help listings: rhn-ssl-tool --help (general), rhn-ssl-tool --gen-
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Chapter 3. SSL Infrastructure
ca --help (Certificate Authority), and rhn-ssl-tool --gen-server --help (Web server). T he
manual page for rhn-ssl-tool is also quite detailed and available to assist: m an rhn-ssl-tool.
T he two tables below break down the options by their related task, either CA or Web server SSL key set
generation.
T his set of options must be preceded by the --gen-ca argument:
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
T able 3.1. SSL Certificate Authority (CA) Options (rhn-ssl-tool --gen-ca --help)
Option
Description
--gen-ca
Generate a Certificate Authority (CA) key
pair and public RPM. T his must be issued
with any of the remaining options in this
table.
-h, --help
Display the help screen with a list of base
options specific to generating and
managing a Certificate Authority.
-f, --force
Forcibly create a new CA private key and/or
public certificate.
-p=, --password=PASSWORD
T he CA password. Users will be prompted
for this if it's missing. Record it in a safe
manner.
-d=, --dir=BUILD_DIRECTORY
Required for most commands - T he
directory where certificates and RPMs are
built. T he default is ./ssl-build.
--ca-key=FILENAME
T he CA private key filename. T he default is
RHN-ORG-PRIVAT E-SSL-KEY.
--ca-cert=FILENAME
T he CA public certificate filename. T he
default is RHN-ORG-T RUST ED-SSLCERT .
--cert-expiration=CA_CERT_EXPIRE
T he expiration date of the public CA
certificate. T he default is the number of
days until one day prior to epoch rollover
(or 01-18-2038).
--set-country=COUNTRY_CODE
T he two-letter country code. T he default is
US.
--set-state=STATE_OR_PROVINCE
T he state or province of the CA. T he
default is ''.
--set-city=CITY_OR_LOCALITY
T he city or locality. T he default is ''.
--set-org=ORGANIZATION
T he company or organization, such as Red
Hat . T he default is Example Corp. Inc.
--set-org-unit=SET_ORG_UNIT
T he organizational unit, such as RHN. T he
default is ''.
--set-com m on-nam e=HOSTNAME
Not typically set for the CA. - T he common
name.
--set-em ail=EMAIL
Not typically set for the CA. - T he email
address.
--rpm -packager=PACKAGER
Packager of the generated RPM, such as
"RHN Admin (rhn-admin@example.com)."
--rpm -vendor=VENDOR
Vendor of the generated RPM, such as
"IS/IT Example Corp."
-v, --verbose
Display verbose messaging. Accumulative added "v"s result in increasing detail.
--ca-cert-rpm =CA_CERT_RPM
Rarely changed - RPM name that houses
the CA certificate (the base filename, not
filename-version-release.noarch.rpm).
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Chapter 3. SSL Infrastructure
--key-only
Rarely used - Only generate a CA private
key. Review --gen-ca --key-only -help for more information.
--cert-only
Rarely used - Only generate a CA public
certificate. Review --gen-ca --certonly --help for more information.
--rpm -only
Rarely used - Only generate an RPM for
deployment. Review --gen-ca --rpm only --help for more information.
--no-rpm
Rarely used - Conduct all CA-related steps
except RPM generation.
T he following set of options must be preceded by the --gen-server argument:
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
T able 3.2. SSL Web Server Options (rhn-ssl-tool --gen-server --help)
Option
Description
--gen-server
Generate the Web server's SSL key set,
RPM and tar archive. T his must be issued
with any of the remaining options in this
table.
-h, --help
Display the help screen with a list of base
options specific to generating and
managing a server key-pair.
-p=, --password=PASSWORD
T he CA password. Users will be prompted
for this if it's missing. Record it in a safe
manner.
-d=, --dir=BUILD_DIRECTORY
Required for most commands - T he
directory where certificates and RPMs are
built. T he default is ./ssl-build.
--server-key=FILENAME
T he Web server's SSL private key filename.
T he default is server.key.
--server-cert-req=FILENAME
T he Web server's SSL certificate request
filename. T he default is server.csr.
--server-cert=FILENAME
T he Web server's SSL certificate filename.
T he default is server.crt.
--startdate=YYMMDDHHMMSSZ
T he start date for server certificate validity
in the example format: year, month, date,
hour, minute, second (two characters per
value). Z stands for Z ulu and is required.
T he default is one week before generation.
--cert-expiration=SERVER_CERT_EXPIRE
T he expiration date of the server certificate.
T he default is the number of days until one
day prior to epoch rollover (or 01-18-2038).
--set-country=COUNTRY_CODE
T he two-letter country code. T he default is
US.
--set-state=STATE_OR_PROVINCE
T he state or province. T he default is North
Carolina.
--set-city=CITY_OR_LOCALITY
T he city or locality. T he default is Raleigh.
--set-org=ORGANIZATION
T he company or organization, such as Red
Hat. T he default is Example Corp. Inc.
--set-org-unit=SET_ORG_UNIT
T he organizational unit, such as RHN. T he
default is unit.
--set-hostnam e=HOSTNAME
T he hostname of the RHN Server to
receive the key. T he default is dynamically
set to the build machine's hostname.
--set-em ail=EMAIL
T he email address of the certificate
contact. T he default is
admin@example.corp.
--rpm -packager=PACKAGER
Packager of the generated RPM, such as
"RHN Admin (rhn-admin@example.com)."
--rpm -vendor=VENDOR
Vendor of the generated RPM, such as
"IS/IT Example Corp."
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Chapter 3. SSL Infrastructure
-v, --verbose
Display verbose messaging. Accumulative added "v"s result in increasing detail.
--key-only
Rarely used - Only generate a server
private key. Review --gen-server -key-only --help for more information.
--cert-req-only
Rarely used - Only generate a server
certificate request. Review --gen-server
--cert-req-only --help for more
information.
--cert-only
Rarely used - Only generate a server
certificate. Review --gen-server -cert-only --help for more information.
--rpm -only
Rarely used - Only generate a RPM for
deployment. Review --gen-server -rpm -only --help for more information.
--no-rpm
Rarely used - Conduct all server-related
steps except RPM generation.
--server-rpm =SERVER_RPM
Rarely changed - RPM name that houses
the Web server's SSL key set (the base
filename, not filename-versionrelease.noarch.rpm).
--server-tar=SERVER_TAR
Rarely changed - Name of .tar archive of
the Web server's SSL key set and CA
public certificate that is used solely by the
hosted RHN Proxy Server installation
routines (the base filename, not filenameversion-release.tar).
3.2.3. Generating the Certificate Authority SSL Key Pair
Before creating the SSL key set required by the Web server, generate a Certificate Authority (CA) SSL
key pair. A CA SSL public certificate is distributed to client systems of the Satellite or Proxy. T he RHN
SSL Maintenance T ool allows you to generate a CA SSL key pair if needed and re-use it for all
subsequent RHN server deployments.
T he build process automatically creates the key pair and public RPM for distribution to clients. All CA
components end up in the build directory specified at the command line, typically /root/ssl-build (or
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/ssl for older Satellites and Proxies). T o generate a CA SSL key pair, issue a
command like this:
rhn-ssl-tool --gen-ca --password=MY_CA_PASSWORD --dir="/root/ssl-build" \
--set-state="North Carolina" --set-city="Raleigh" --set-org="Example Inc." \
--set-org-unit="SSL CA Unit"
Replace the example values with those appropriate for your organization. T his will result in the following
relevant files in the specified build directory:
RHN-ORG-PRIVAT E-SSL-KEY — the CA SSL private key
RHN-ORG-T RUST ED-SSL-CERT — the CA SSL public certificate
rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-VER-REL.noarch.rpm — the RPM prepared for distribution to
client systems. It contains the CA SSL public certificate (above) and installs it in this location:
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-T RUST ED-SSL-CERT
rhn-ca-openssl.cnf — the SSL CA configuration file
latest.txt — always lists the latest versions of the relevant files.
Once the steps are completed, distribute the RPM to the client systems. Refer to Section 3.3, “Deploying
the CA SSL Public Certificate to Clients” for more information.
3.2.4. Generating Web Server SSL Key Sets
At this point, a CA SSL key pair should already be generated. However there is a likelihood of generating
web server SSL key sets more frequently, especially if more than one Proxy or Satellite is deployed. A
distinct set of SSL keys and certificates must be generated and installed for every distinct RHN server
hostname therefore note that the value for --set-hostnam e is different for each server.
T he server certificate build process works much like CA SSL key pair generation with one exception: All
server components end up in subdirectories of the build directory that reflect the build system's machine
name, such as /root/ssl-build/MACHINE_NAME. T o generate server certificates, issue a command
like this:
rhn-ssl-tool --gen-server --password=MY_CA_PASSWORD --dir="/root/ssl-build" \
--set-state="North Carolina" --set-city="Raleigh" --set-org="Example Inc." \
--set-org-unit="IS/IT" --set-email="admin@example.com" \
--set-hostname="rhnbox1.example.com
Replace the example values with those appropriate for the organization. T his will result in the following
relevant files in a machine-specific subdirectory of the build directory:
server.key — the Web server's SSL private server key
server.csr — the Web server's SSL certificate request
server.crt — the web server's SSL public certificate
rhn-org-httpd-ssl-key-pair-MACHINE_NAME-VER-REL.noarch.rpm — the RPM prepared
for distribution to RHN Servers. Its associated src.rpm file is also generated. T his RPM contains the
above three files. It will install them in these locations:
/etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/server.key
/etc/httpd/conf/ssl.csr/server.csr
/etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
rhn-server-openssl.cnf — the Web server's SSL configuration file
latest.txt — always lists the latest versions of the relevant files.
Once completed, distribute and install the RPM on its respective RHN Server. Note that the httpd
service must be restarted after installation:
/sbin/service httpd restart
3.3. Deploying the CA SSL Public Certificate to Clients
Both the RHN Proxy Server and RHN Satellite Server installation processes make client deployment
relatively easy by generating a CA SSL public certificate and RPM. T hese installation processes make
those publicly available by placing a copy of one or both into the /var/www/htm l/pub/ directory of the
RHN Server.
18
Chapter 3. SSL Infrastructure
T his public directory can be inspected easily by simply browsing to it via any web browser: http://proxyor-sat.example.com/pub/.
T he CA SSL public certificate in that directory can be downloaded to a client system using wget or
curl. For example:
curl -O http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
wget http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
Alternatively, if the CA SSL public certificate RPM resides in the /pub directory, it can be installed on a
client system directly:
rpm -Uvh \
http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-VER-REL.noarch.rpm
Confirm the actual name of the certificate or RPM before running these commands.
3.4. Configuring Client Systems
Once the RPM or raw certificate has been deployed to a client system, the administrator of that system
must then alter the configuration files of the Red Hat Update Agent and the Red Hat Network
Registraction Client (if necessary) to use the new CA SSL public certificate file and connect to the
appropriate RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server. T he generally accepted location for that CA SSL
public certificate is in the /usr/share/rhn directory.
T he RHN Proxy Server and RHN Satellite Server both have RHN Bootstrap installed by default, which
can greatly reduce these repetitive steps and simplify the process of registering and configuring client
systems. Please refer to Chapter 5, Using RHN Bootstrap for details.
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Chapter 4. Importing Custom GPG Keys
For customers who plan to build and distribute their own RPMs securely, it is strongly recommended that
all custom RPMs are signed using GNU Privacy Guard (GPG). Generating GPG keys and building GPGsigned packages are covered in the Red Hat Network Channel Management Guide.
Once the packages are signed, the public key must be deployed on all systems importing these RPMs.
T his task has two steps: first, create a central location for the public key so that clients may retrieve it,
and second, adding the key to the local GPG keyring for each system.
T he first step is common and may be handled using the website approach recommended for deploying
RHN client applications. (Refer to Section 2.1, “Deploying the Latest Red Hat Network Client RPMs”.) T o
do this, create a public directory on the Web server and place the GPG public signature in it:
cp /some/path/YOUR-RPM-GPG-KEY /var/www/html/pub/
T he key can then be downloaded by client systems using Wget:
wget -O- -q http://your_proxy_or_sat.your_domain.com/pub/YOUR-RPM-GPG-KEY
T he -O- option sends results to standard output while the -q option sets Wget to run in quiet mode.
Remember to replace the YOUR-RPM-GPG-KEY variable with the filename of your key.
Once the key is available on the client file system, import it into the local GPG keyring. Different operating
systems require different methods.
For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 or newer, use the following command:
rpm --import /path/to/YOUR-RPM-GPG-KEY
Once the GPG key has been successfully added to the client, the system should be able to validate
custom RPMs signed with the corresponding key.
Note
When using custom RPMs and channels, always create a custom GPG key for these packages.
T he location of the GPG key also needs to be added to the Kickstart profile.
T he custom GPG key needs to be added to the client systems or the Kickstart installation may
fail.
20
Chapter 5. Using RHN Bootstrap
Chapter 5. Using RHN Bootstrap
Red Hat Network provides a tool that automates much of the manual reconfiguration described in
previous chapters, this tool is called RHN Bootstrap. RHN Bootstrap plays an integral role in the RHN
Satellite Server Installation Program, enabling generation of the bootstrap script during installation.
RHN Proxy Server customers and customers with updated Satellite settings require a bootstrap tool that
can be used independently. RHN Bootstrap, invoked with the command /usr/bin/rhn-bootstrap,
serves that purpose and comes installed by default on both RHN Satellite Server and RHN Proxy Server.
If used correctly, the script this tool generates can be run from any client system to conduct the following
tasks:
Redirect client applications to the RHN Proxy or Satellite
Import custom GPG keys
Install SSL certificates
Register the system to RHN and particular system groups and channels with the help of activation
keys
Perform miscellaneous post-configuration activities, including updating packages, performing reboots,
and altering RHN configuration
Customers should note, however, the inherent risks of using a script to conduct configuration. Security
tools such as SSL certificates are installed by the script itself; therefore they do not yet exist on the
systems and cannot be used to process transactions. T his allows for the possibility of someone
impersonating the Satellite and transmitting bad data. T his is mitigated by the fact that virtually all
Satellites and client systems operate behind customer firewalls and are restricted from outside traffic.
Registration is conducted via SSL and is therefore protected.
T he bootstrap script bootstrap.sh is automatically placed in the
/var/www/htm l/pub/bootstrap/ directory of the RHN Server. From there it can be downloaded and
run on all client systems. Note that some preparation and post-generation editing is required, as
identified in the following sections. Refer to Section 5.4, “Configuring RHN Bootstrap Options” for the
tool's complete list of options. Finally, refer to the Appendix A, Sample Bootstrap Script for an example
script.
5.1. Preparing for RHN Bootstrap Installation
Since RHN Bootstrap (rhn-bootstrap) depends on other components of the Red Hat Network
infrastructure to properly configure client systems, those components must be prepared before script
generation. T he following list identifies suggested initial measures:
Generate activation keys to be called by the script(s). Activation keys can be used to register Red
Hat Enterprise Linux systems, entitle them to an RHN service level, and subscribe them to specific
channels and system groups, all in one action. Note that the organizational account must have
Management entitlements available to use an activation key, while inclusion of multiple activation keys
at once requires Provisioning entitlements. Generate activation keys through the Activation Keys
page within the System s category of the RHN website (either the central RHN Servers for Proxy or
the fully qualified domain name of the Satellite). Refer to the Red Hat Update Agent and RHN Website
chapters of the RHN Reference Guide for instructions on creation and use.
Red Hat recommends RPMs be signed by a custom GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) key. Make the key
available so that it can be referred to from the script. Generate the key as described in the RHN
Channel Management Guide and place the key in the /var/www/htm l/pub/ directory of the RHN
Server, per Chapter 4, Importing Custom GPG Keys.
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
T o deploy the CA SSL public certificate through the script, have the certificate or the package (RPM)
containing that certificate available on that RHN Server and include it during script generation with the
--ssl-cert option. Refer to Chapter 3, SSL Infrastructure for details.
Have the values ready to develop one or many bootstrap scripts, depending on the variety of
systems to be reconfigured. Since RHN Bootstrap provides a full set of reconfiguration options, use
it to generate different bootstrap scripts to accommodate each type of system. For instance,
bootstrap-web-servers.sh might be used to reconfigure the Web servers, while bootstrapapp-servers.sh can handle the application servers. Consult Section 5.4, “Configuring RHN
Bootstrap Options” for the complete list.
5.2. Generating RHN Bootstrap Scripts
Now that all of the necessary components are in place, use RHN Bootstrap to generate the required
scripts. Log into your RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server as root and issue the rhn-bootstrap
command followed by the desired options and values. If no options are included, a bootstrap.sh file is
created in the bootstrap/ subdirectory that contains the essential values derived from the server,
including hostname, the SSL certificate, it if exists, SSL and GPG settings, and a call for the clientconfig-overrides.txt file.
At a minimum, Red Hat strongly recommends the scripts also accommodate activation keys, GPG keys,
and advanced configuration options in the following manner:
Use the --activation-keys option to include keys, taking into account the entitlement
requirements identified in Section 5.1, “Preparing for RHN Bootstrap Installation”.
Use the --gpg-key option to identify the key path and filename during script generation. Otherwise,
use the --no-gpg option to turn off this verification on client systems. Red Hat recommends
retaining this security measure.
Include the --allow-config-actions flag to enable remote configuration management on all
client systems touched by the script. T his feature is useful in reconfiguring multiple systems
simultaneously.
Include the --allow-rem ote-com m ands flag to enable remote script use on all client systems.
Like configuration management, this feature aids in reconfiguring multiple systems.
When done, the command will look something like this:
rhn-bootstrap --activation-keys KEY1,KEY2 \
--gpg-key /var/www/html/pub/MY_CORPORATE_PUBLIC_KEY \
--allow-config-actions \
--allow-remote-commands
Remember to include the actual key names. Refer to Section 5.4, “Configuring RHN Bootstrap Options”
for the complete list of options.
5.3. Using the RHN Bootstrap Script
Once the script has been prepared for use, it is now ready to be run. Log into the RHN Satellite Server or
RHN Proxy Server, navigate to the /var/www/htm l/pub/bootstrap/ directory and run the following
command, altering the hostname and name of the script as needed to suit the system type:
cat bootstrap-EDITED-NAME.sh | ssh root@CLIENT_MACHINE1 /bin/bash
A less secure alternative is to use either wget or curl to retrieve and run the script from every client
22
Chapter 5. Using RHN Bootstrap
system. Log into each client machine and issue the following command, altering script and hostname
accordingly:
wget -qO - \
https://your-satellite.example.com/pub/bootstrap/bootstrap-EDITED-NAME.sh \
| /bin/bash
Or with, curl:
curl -Sks \
https://your-satellite.example.com/pub/bootstrap/bootstrap-EDITED-NAME.sh \
| /bin/bash
When this script has been run on each client system, all should be configured to use the RHN Server.
5.4. Configuring RHN Bootstrap Options
T he RHN Bootstrap offers many command line options for creating client boostrap scripts. Although
descriptions of these options can be found within the following table, ensure that they are available in
the version of the tool installed on the RHN Server by issuing the command rhn-bootstrap --help
or reviewing its man page.
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
T able 5.1. RHN Bootstrap Options
Option
Description
-h, --help
Display the help screen with a list of
options specific to generating the
bootstrap script.
--activation-keys=ACTIVATION_KEYS
activation key(s) as defined in the RHN
website with multiple entries separated
by a comma and no space
--overrides=OVERRIDES
Configuration overrides filename. T he
default is client-config-overrides.txt.
--script=SCRIPT
T he bootstrap script filename. T he
default is bootstrap.sh.
--hostnam e=HOSTNAME
T he fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) of the server to which client
systems will connect.
--ssl-cert=SSL_CERT
T he path to the organization's public
SSL certificate, either a package or a
raw certificate. It will be copied to the -pub-tree option. A value of "" will
force a search of --pub-tree.
--gpg-key=GPG_KEY
T he path to the organization's public
GPG key, if used. It will be copied to the
location specified by the --pub-tree
option.
--http-proxy=HTTP_PROXY
T he HT T P proxy setting for the client
systems in the form hostnam e:port.
A value of "" disables this setting.
--http-proxy-usernam e=HTTP_PROXY_USERNAME
If using an authenticating HT T P proxy,
specify a username. A value of ""
disables this setting.
--http-proxy-password=HTTP_PROXY_PASSWORD
If using an authenticating HT T P proxy,
specify a password.
--allow-config-actions
Boolean; including this option sets the
system to allow all configuration
actions via RHN. T his requires
installing certain rhncfg-* packages,
possibly through an activation key.
--allow-rem ote-com m ands
Boolean; including this option sets the
system to allow arbitrary remote
commands via RHN. T his requires
installing certain rhncfg-* packages,
possibly through an activation key.
--no-ssl
Not recommended - Boolean; including
this option turns SSL off on the client
system.
--no-gpg
Not recommended - Boolean; including
this option turns GPG checking off on
the client system.
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Chapter 5. Using RHN Bootstrap
--no-up2date
Not recommended - Boolean; including
this option ensures up2date will not
run once the system has been
bootstrapped.
--pub-tree=PUB_TREE
Change not recommended - T he public
directory tree where the CA SSL
certificate and package will land; the
bootstrap directory and scripts. T he
default is /var/www/htm l/pub/.
--force
Not recommended - Boolean; including
this option forces bootstrap script
generation despite warnings.
-v, --verbose
Display verbose messaging.
Accumulative; -vvv causes extremely
verbose messaging.
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Chapter 6. Manually Scripting the RHN Bootstrap
Configuration
Note that this chapter provides an alternative to using RHN Bootstrap to generate the bootstrap script.
Below are instructions that should assist in creating a bootstrap script from scratch.
All of the initial techniques have shared a common theme: the deployment of necessary files in a
centralized location to be retrieved and installed using simple, scriptable commands run on each client.
In this chapter, we explore putting all of these pieces together to create a single script that can be
invoked by any system in your organization.
By combining all of the commands learned in the previous chapter and putting them in the most snesible
order, we are able to produce the script below:
# First, install the latest client RPMs to the system.
rpm -Uvh \
http://proxy-or-sat.example.com.com/pub/rhn_register-2.8.27-1.7.3.i386.rpm \
http://proxy-or-sat.example.com.com/pub/rhn_register-gnome-2.8.27-1.7.3.i386.rpm
\
http://proxy-or-sat.example.com.com/pub/up2date-3.0.7-1.i386.rpm \
http://proxy-or-sat.example.com.com/pub/up2date-gnome-3.0.7-1.i386.rpm
# Second, reconfigure the clients to talk to the correct server.
perl -p -i -e 's/s/www\.rhns\.redhat\.com/proxy-or-sat\.example\.com/g' \
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn_register \
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date
# Third, install the SSL client certificate for your company's
# RHN Satellite Server or RHN Proxy Server.
rpm -Uvh http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/rhn-org-trusted-ssl-cert-*.noarch.rpm
# Fourth, reconfigure the clients to use the new SSL certificate.
perl -p -i -e 's/^sslCA/#sslCA/g;' \
/etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn_register
echo "sslCACert=/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT" \
>> /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date
echo "sslCACert=/usr/share/rhn/RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT" \
>> /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn_register
# Fifth, download the GPG key needed to validate custom packages.
wget -O - -q http://proxy-or-sat.example.com.com/pub/YOUR-RPM-GPG-KEY
# Sixth, import that GPG key to your GPG keyring.
rpm --import /path/to/YOUR-RPM-GPG-KEY
Note
Remember, the sixth step is documented here as it pertains to systems running Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 3 or newer.
T his script comprises a clean and repeatable process that should fully configure any potential Red Hat
26
Chapter 6. Manually Scripting the RHN Bootstrap Configuration
Network client in preparation for registration to an RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server. Remember,
key values, such as the URL of the RHN Server, its public directory, and the actual GPG key must be
inserted into the placeholders listed within the script. Also, depending on the environment, additional
modifications may be required. Although this script may work nearly verbatim, it should be used as a
guide.
Like its' components, this script may be centrally located. By placing this script in the /pub/ directory of
the server, running wget -O- on it, and piping the output to a shell session, one may run the entire
bootstrap process with a single command from each client:
wget -O - http://proxy-or-sat.example.com.com/pub/bootstrap_script | bash
Warning
Running a shell script directly from input piped in over a Web connection obviously has some
inherent security risks. T herefore, it is vital to ensure the security of the source server in this
instance.
T his one-line command may then be invoked across all of the systems on a network. If the administrator
has SSH access to all of the systems in question, it would be a simple task to iterate over a list of these
systems and run the command remotely on all of them. T his script would also be a good addition to the
%post section of an existing kickstart script.
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Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
Chapter 7. Implementing Kickstart
T he best time to make configuration changes to a system is when that system is first being built. For
customers who already use kickstart effectively, the bootstrapping script is an ideal addition to that
process.
Once all of the configuration issues have been resolved, a system may also register with the local Red
Hat Network Servers using the rhnreg_ks utility that comes with the up2date and rhn_register
RPMs. T his chapter discusses the proper use of rhnreg_ks to register systems.
T he rhnreg_ks utility uses activation keys to register, entitle, and subscribe systems to specified
channels in one swift motion. T o find out more about activation keys, refer to the Red Hat Update Agent
and RHN Website chapters of the Red Hat Network Management Reference Guide.
T he following commented kickstart file is an ideal example of how a system can be configured from start
to finish using Red Hat Network.
28
Chapter 7. Implementing Kickstart
# Generic 7.2 kickstart for laptops in the Widget Corporation (widgetco)
# Standard kickstart options for a network-based install. For an
# explanation of these options, consult the Red Hat Linux Customization
# Guide.
lang en_US
langsupport --default en_US en_US
keyboard defkeymap
network --bootproto dhcp
install
url --url ftp://ftp.widgetco.com/pub/redhat/linux/7.2/en/os/i386
zerombr yes
clearpart --all
part /boot --size 128 --fstype ext3 --ondisk hda
part /
--size 2048 --grow --fstype ext3 --ondisk hda
part /backup --size 1024 --fstype ext3 --ondisk hda
part swap --size 512 --ondisk hda
bootloader --location mbr
timezone America/New_York
rootpw --iscrypted $1$78Jnap82Hnd0PsjnC8j3sd2Lna/Hx4.
auth --useshadow --enablemd5 --krb5realm .COM --krb5kdc auth.widgetco.com \
--krb5adminserver auth.widgetco.com
mouse --emulthree genericps/2
xconfig --card "S3 Savage/MX" --videoram 8192 --resolution 1024x768 \
--depth 16 --defaultdesktop=GNOME --startxonboot --noprobe \
--hsync 31.5-48.5 --vsync 40-70
reboot
# Define a standard set of packages. Note: Red Hat Network client
# packages are found in Base. This is quite a minimal set of packages;
# your mileage may vary.
%packages
@ Base
@ Utilities
@ GNOME
@ Laptop Support
@ Dialup Support
@ Software Development
@ Graphics and Image Manipulation
@ Games and Entertainment
@ Sound and Multimedia Support
# Now for the interesting part.
%post
( # Note that we run the entire %post section as a subshell for logging.
#
#
#
#
Remember that nifty one-line command for the bootstrap script that we
went through? This is an ideal place for it. And assuming that the
script has been properly configured, it should prepare the system
fully for usage of local Red Hat Network Servers.
wget -O- http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/bootstrap_script | /bin/bash
# The following is an example of the usage of rhnreg_ks, the kickstart
# utility for rhn_register. This demonstrates the usage of the
29
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
--activationkey flag, which describes an activation key. For example,
this activation key could be set up in the Web interface to join this
system to the "Laptops" group and the local Widgetco "Laptop Software"
channel. Note that this section applies only to Proxy users, as this
step is handled by the Satellite bootstrap script.
For more information about activation keys, consult the Red Hat Network
Management Reference Guide.
/usr/sbin/rhnreg_ks --activationkey=6c933ea74b9b002f3ac7eb99619d3374
# End the subshell and capture any output to a post-install log file.
) 1>/root/post_install.log 2>&1
30
Sample Bootstrap Script
Sample Bootstrap Script
T he /var/www/htm l/pub/bootstrap/bootstrap.sh script generated by the RHN Satellite Server
installation program provides the ability to reconfigure client systems to access the RHN Server easily. It
is available to both RHN Satellite Server and RHN Proxy Server customers through the RHN Bootstrap
tool. After modifying the script for a particular use, it can be run on each client machine.
Review the sample and its' comments, beginning with a hash mark (#), for additional details. Follow the
steps in Chapter 5, Using RHN Bootstrap to prepare the script for use.
31
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
#!/bin/bash
echo "RHN Server Client bootstrap script v3.6"
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
This file was autogenerated. Minor manual editing of this script (and
possibly the client-config-overrides.txt file) may be necessary to complete
the bootstrap setup. Once customized, the bootstrap script can be triggered
in one of two ways (the first is preferred):
(1) centrally, from the RHN Server via ssh (i.e., from the
RHN Server):
cd /var/www/html/pub/bootstrap/
cat bootstrap-<edited_name>.sh | ssh root@<client-hostname> /bin/bash
...or...
(2) in a decentralized manner, executed on each client, via wget or curl:
wget -qOhttps://<hostname>/pub/bootstrap/bootstrap-<edited_name>.sh \
| /bin/bash
...or...
curl -Sks
https://<hostname>/pub/bootstrap/bootstrap-<edited_name>.sh \
| /bin/bash
# SECURITY NOTE:
# Use of these scripts via the two methods discussed is the most expedient
# way to register machines to your RHN Server. Since "wget" is used
# throughout the script to download various files, a "Man-in-the-middle"
# attack is theoretically possible.
#
# The actual registration process is performed securely via SSL, so the risk
# is minimized in a sense. This message merely serves as a warning.
# Administrators need to appropriately weigh their concern against the
# relative security of their internal network.
# PROVISIONING/KICKSTART NOTE:
# If provisioning a client, ensure the proper CA SSL public certificate is
# configured properly in the post section of your kickstart profiles (the
# RHN Satellite or hosted web user interface).
# UP2DATE/RHN_REGISTER VERSIONING NOTE:
# This script will not work with very old versions of up2date and
# rhn_register.
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
32
"MINOR MANUAL EDITING OF THIS FILE MAY BE REQUIRED!"
"If this bootstrap script was created during the initial installation"
"of an RHN Satellite, the ACTIVATION_KEYS, and ORG_GPG_KEY values will"
"probably *not* be set (see below). If this is the case, please do the"
"following:"
" - copy this file to a name specific to its use."
" (e.g., to bootstrap-SOME_NAME.sh - like bootstrap-web-servers.sh.)"
" - on the website create an activation key or keys for the system(s) to"
" be registered."
" - edit the values of the VARIABLES below (in this script) as"
" appropriate:"
Sample Bootstrap Script
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
echo
exit
"
"
"
"
- ACTIVATION_KEYS needs to reflect the activation key(s) value(s)"
from the website. XKEY or XKEY,YKEY"
- ORG_GPG_KEY needs to be set to the name of the corporate public"
GPG key filename (residing in /var/www/html/pub) if appropriate."
"Verify that the script variable settings are correct:"
" - CLIENT_OVERRIDES should be only set differently if a customized"
"
client-config-overrides-VER.txt file was created with a different"
"
name."
" - ensure the value of HOSTNAME is correct."
" - ensure the value of ORG_CA_CERT is correct."
"Enable this script: comment (with #'s) this block (or, at least just"
"the exit below)"
1
# can be edited, but probably correct (unless created during initial install):
# NOTE: ACTIVATION_KEYS *must* be used to bootstrap a client machine.
ACTIVATION_KEYS=insert_activation_key_here
ORG_GPG_KEY=insert_org_gpg_pub_key_here
# can be edited, but probably correct:
CLIENT_OVERRIDES=client-config-overrides.txt
HOSTNAME=your_rhn_server_host.example.com
ORG_CA_CERT=RHN-ORG-TRUSTED-SSL-CERT
ORG_CA_CERT_IS_RPM_YN=0
USING_SSL=1
USING_GPG=1
REGISTER_THIS_BOX=1
ALLOW_CONFIG_ACTIONS=0
ALLOW_REMOTE_COMMANDS=0
FULLY_UPDATE_THIS_BOX=1
#
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------# DO NOT EDIT BEYOND THIS POINT ----------------------------------------------# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------#
# an idea from Erich Morisse (of Red Hat).
# use either wget *or* curl
# Also check to see if the version on the
# machine supports the insecure mode and format
# command accordingly.
if [ -x /usr/bin/wget ] ; then
output=`/usr/bin/wget --no-check-certificate 2>&1`
error=`echo $output | grep "unrecognized option"`
if [ -z "$error" ] ; then
FETCH="/usr/bin/wget -q -r -nd --no-check-certificate"
else
FETCH="/usr/bin/wget -q -r -nd"
fi
else
33
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
if [ -x /usr/bin/curl ] ; then
output=`/usr/bin/curl -k 2>&1`
error=`echo $output | grep "is unknown"`
if [ -z "$error" ] ; then
FETCH="/usr/bin/curl -SksO"
else
FETCH="/usr/bin/curl -SsO"
fi
fi
fi
HTTP_PUB_DIRECTORY=http://${HOSTNAME}/pub
HTTPS_PUB_DIRECTORY=https://${HOSTNAME}/pub
if [ $USING_SSL -eq 0 ] ; then
HTTPS_PUB_DIRECTORY=${HTTP_PUB_DIRECTORY}
fi
echo
echo "UPDATING RHN_REGISTER/UP2DATE CONFIGURATION FILES"
echo "-------------------------------------------------"
echo "* downloading necessary files"
echo " client_config_update.py..."
rm -f client_config_update.py
$FETCH ${HTTPS_PUB_DIRECTORY}/bootstrap/client_config_update.py
echo " ${CLIENT_OVERRIDES}..."
rm -f ${CLIENT_OVERRIDES}
$FETCH ${HTTPS_PUB_DIRECTORY}/bootstrap/${CLIENT_OVERRIDES}
if [ !
echo
exit
fi
if [ !
echo
exit
fi
-f "client_config_update.py" ] ; then
"ERROR: client_config_update.py was not downloaded"
1
-f "${CLIENT_OVERRIDES}" ] ; then
"ERROR: ${CLIENT_OVERRIDES} was not downloaded"
1
echo "* running the update scripts"
if [ -f "/etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn_register" ] ; then
echo " . rhn_register config file"
/usr/bin/python -u client_config_update.py /etc/sysconfig/rhn/rhn_register \
${CLIENT_OVERRIDES}
fi
echo " . up2date config file"
/usr/bin/python -u client_config_update.py /etc/sysconfig/rhn/up2date \
${CLIENT_OVERRIDES}
if [ ! -z "$ORG_GPG_KEY" ] ; then
echo
echo "* importing organizational GPG key"
rm -f ${ORG_GPG_KEY}
$FETCH ${HTTPS_PUB_DIRECTORY}/${ORG_GPG_KEY}
# get the major version of up2date
res=$(rpm -q --queryformat '%{version}' up2date | sed -e 's/\..*//g')
if [ $res -eq 2 ] ; then
gpg $(up2date --gpg-flags) --import $ORG_GPG_KEY
else
rpm --import $ORG_GPG_KEY
fi
fi
34
Sample Bootstrap Script
echo
echo "* attempting to install corporate public CA cert"
if [ $USING_SSL -eq 1 ] ; then
if [ $ORG_CA_CERT_IS_RPM_YN -eq 1 ] ; then
rpm -Uvh ${HTTP_PUB_DIRECTORY}/${ORG_CA_CERT}
else
rm -f ${ORG_CA_CERT}
$FETCH ${HTTP_PUB_DIRECTORY}/${ORG_CA_CERT}
mv ${ORG_CA_CERT} /usr/share/rhn/
fi
fi
echo
echo "REGISTRATION"
echo "------------"
# Should have created an activation key or keys on the RHN Server's
# website and edited the value of ACTIVATION_KEYS above.
#
# If you require use of several different activation keys, copy this file and
# change the string as needed.
#
if [ -z "$ACTIVATION_KEYS" ] ; then
echo "*** ERROR: in order to bootstrap RHN clients, an activation key or keys"
echo "
must be created in the RHN web user interface, and the"
echo "
corresponding key or keys string (XKEY,YKEY,...) must be mapped to"
echo "
the ACTIVATION_KEYS variable of this script."
exit 1
fi
if [ $REGISTER_THIS_BOX -eq 1 ] ; then
echo "* registering"
/usr/sbin/rhnreg_ks --force --activationkey "$ACTIVATION_KEYS"
echo
echo "*** this system should now be registered, please verify ***"
echo
else
echo "* explicitely not registering"
fi
echo
echo "OTHER ACTIONS"
echo "------------------------------------------------------"
if [ $FULLY_UPDATE_THIS_BOX -eq 1 ] ; then
echo "up2date up2date; up2date -p; up2date -uf (conditional)"
else
echo "up2date up2date; up2date -p"
fi
echo "but any post configuration action can be added here. "
echo "------------------------------------------------------"
if [ $FULLY_UPDATE_THIS_BOX -eq 1 ] ; then
echo "* completely updating the box"
else
echo "* ensuring up2date itself is updated"
fi
/usr/sbin/up2date up2date
/usr/sbin/up2date -p
if [ $FULLY_UPDATE_THIS_BOX -eq 1 ] ; then
/usr/sbin/up2date -uf
fi
echo "-bootstrap complete-"
35
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
36
Revision History
Revision History
Revision 3-5.4 00
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
2013-10-31
Rüdiger Landmann
Revision 3-5
Final packaging for 5.5
Wed Sept 19 2012
Dan Macpherson
Revision 3-4
Staging for review
Fri Aug 10 2012
Athene Chan
Revision 3-0
T ue Jun 28 2012
Prepared for RHN Satellite 5.5 publication
T echnical Review Edits
BZ #837703 Custom GPG Key note added
Athene Chan
Revision 2-2
Mon Aug 15 2011
Folded z-stream release into y-stream
Lana Brindley
Revision 2-1
Prepared for publication
Wed Jun 15 2011
Lana Brindley
Revision 2-0
Prepared for translation
Fri May 7 2011
Lana Brindley
Revision 1-8
BZ #662876 - Certificates
Mon Feb 7 2011
Lana Brindley
Revision 1-7
BZ #636703 - Latest Clients
T ue Feb 1 2011
Lana Brindley
Index
Symbols
--configure
- use of, T he up2date --configure Option
A
activation keys
- registering with, Registering with Activation Keys
B
bootstrap.sh
- preparation and use, Using RHN Bootstrap
- sample file, Sample Bootstrap Script
37
Red Hat Network Satellite 5.5 Client Configuration Guide
C
client applications
- configuration of, Configuring the Client Applications
- installation of, Deploying the Latest Red Hat Network Client RPMs
client configuration
- Red Hat Update Agent , T he up2date --configure Option
configuration
- manual, Updating the Configuration Files Manually
- scripting completely, Manually Scripting the RHN Bootstrap Configuration
- server failover, Implementing Server Failover
G
GPG keys
- importing of, Importing Custom GPG Keys
K
kickstart
- use of, Implementing Kickstart
R
Red Hat Update Agent
- configuring to use RHN Proxy Server or RHN Satellite Server, Updating the Configuration
Files Manually
registering , Registering Clients to Red Hat Network RHN Satellite Server
RHN Bootstrap
- command line options, Configuring RHN Bootstrap Options
- generating the script, Generating RHN Bootstrap Scripts
- preparing, Preparing for RHN Bootstrap Installation
- using, Using RHN Bootstrap
- using the script, Using the RHN Bootstrap Script
RHN SSL Maintenance T ool
- generating the CA, Generating the Certificate Authority SSL Key Pair
- generating the server certificate, Generating Web Server SSL Key Sets
- generation explained, Generating SSL Certificates
- options, RHN SSL Maintenance T ool Options
- rhn-ssl-tool , T he RHN SSL Maintenance T ool
38
Revision History
rhn-ssl-tool
- generating the CA, Generating the Certificate Authority SSL Key Pair
- generating the server certificate, Generating Web Server SSL Key Sets
- generation explained, Generating SSL Certificates
- options, RHN SSL Maintenance T ool Options
- RHN SSL Maintenance T ool , T he RHN SSL Maintenance T ool
S
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
- introduction, A Brief Introduction T o SSL
SSL certificates
- configuration of, Configuring Client Systems
- generating, T he RHN SSL Maintenance T ool
- installation of, Deploying the CA SSL Public Certificate to Clients
39
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