qsguide3

qsguide3
IBM Network Station Quick Start Boot Server Guide
Setting Up A Small Boot Server To Run IBM Network Station Manager Release 3
A Road Map for IBM Business Partners and Integrators to achieve a "Quick Start"
installation of IBM Network Computers.
Last Updated 10/22/98
Print a PDF version of this guide Quick Start PDF
Table of Contents
PURPOSE OF THIS QUICK START GUIDE
BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE IBM NETWORK STATION
WHY MIGHT A CUSTOMER WANT A SEPARATE BOOT SERVER ?
WHAT ARE THE HARDWARE/SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ?
HOW IS THE SERVER BUILT ?
PLANNING
INSTALL NT SERVER 4.0
HOW ARE THE IBM NETWORK STATIONS CONFIGURED ?
SETTING UP APPLICATIONS USING NSM
CONFIGURING A 3270 SESSION
CONFIGURING A 5250 SESSION
CONFIGURING THE NAVIO NC NAVIGATOR BROWSER
SPECIAL SYNTAX TO PASS PARAMETERS TO APPLICATIONS FROM MENU BUTTONS
CONFIGURING THE VT320 EMULATOR
CONFIGURING REMOTE MENU ITEMS (like WinCenter and eSuite)
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
1
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
APPENDIX
HELPFUL SHORTCUTS AND TIPS
MANUAL OVERRIDES TO ACHIEVE CUSTOM REQUIREMENTS
TEMPLATE FOR REPLACING SIMPLE 3270 TERMINAL WITHOUT LOGIN
TEMPLATE FOR REPLACING SIMPLE 5250 TERMINAL WITHOUT LOGIN
TEMPLATE FOR REPLACING PCs RUNNING WINDOWS WITHOUT LOGIN
TEMPLATE FOR REPLACING UNIX/CDE TERMINAL WITHOUT LOGIN
TEMPLATE FOR NAVIO BROWSER FULL SCREEN SESSION WITHOUT LOGIN
Purpose of this Quick Start Guide
This Quick Start guide describes how to quickly install, set up, and use the IBM Network
Station Manager for Windows NT Server 4.0/Window NT Server 4.0 Terminal Server
Edition, regardless what host platform the customer uses for production work. The boot
server described here is for booting and Network Station administration and user
authentication. The reasons for building this separate "boot server" are listed below. This
guide will provide step-by-step instructions, key reference information, and several special
use template examples (e.g. 5250, 3270, X Station, Windows applications, and browser
based applications) to make the initial installation process fast and efficient. In order not to
impact the customer's production servers, this guide recommends the use of a dedicated
"boot and administration server" which will provide the programs and data files that an IBM
Network Station needs for its set up and initialization. IBM Network Stations boot server
configuration specifications, performance information, service and support information are
included in this guide.
It is assumed that the professionals that perform this installation have strong skills
and experience with NT Server 4.0/NT Server 4.0 Terminal Server Edition, TCP/IP,
and networking/LAN technologies.
Note to Business Partners and Integrators: To achieve the best "out of box
experience" for the customer, please build the NSM "boot" server on your site then
move the "built" system to the customer location.
Trademarks
2
Acrobat is a trademark of Adobe Corporation.
Citrix MetaFrame and Citrix WinFrame are trademarks of Citrix Systems, Incorporated.
Intel is a trademark of Intel Corporation.
WinCenter is a trademark of Network Computing Devices, Inc.
Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT, and DOS are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Introduction to the IBM Network Station
The IBM Network Station is IBM's network computer. It is designed to be easy to install,
use and manage. It operates without any internal disk storage, using supporting software and
applications from associated servers. Through network connections, the IBM Network
Station can attach to a number of servers, including the IBM AS/400, RISC System/6000,
System/390, or PC server. Ideal for multi-platform computing environments, it allows access
to a wide variety of applications running on one server or many servers, to the worldwide
resources of the Internet or a private intranet, and to the fast emerging world of Java (TM)
applets and applications downloaded on demand from Internet or intranet servers. Visit our
web site at www.ibm.com/nc for more information.
This document explains the highlights of installing IBM Network Station Manager for NT
Server 4.0. Once Network Station Manager is installed, the IBM Network Stations can be
booted and managed by an administrator. Once booted, the IBM Network Station can
access applications on any server in the TCP/IP network.
IBM Network Station Manager has been developed to provide a common support
environment for the IBM Network Station across all IBM server platforms, and versions
have been introduced for the AS/400, RISC System/6000, System/390, and PC Server
running Windows NT.
The user of the IBM Network Station may access a Windows NT Server for various
reasons:
The first reason, and the purpose of this document is to "boot" the IBM Network
Stations
When the IBM Network Station is powered on, it links to the network by
downloading relevant control information from a designated server. This is
called the "boot" process and the NT server is called the "boot server" in this
case.
Some small local applications can also be loaded from this small "boot" server,
3
for local execution on the Network Station. These are 3270 Emulation, 5250
Emulation, and VT320 Emulation.
A second reason an IBM Network Station (after booting) might access another
Windows NT Server, is to run Windows applications. A special multi-user version of
NT Server is required, such as WinCenter from NCD Inc., or WinFrame or
MetaFrame from Citrix Inc. In this case the applications actually execute on the
server and only the screen content, keystrokes and mouse movements are handled by
the IBM Network Station.
A third reason an IBM Network Station (after booting) might access another
Windows NT Server, is to run eSuite applications from Lotus. In this case, these Java
applications are loaded from the server to local memory of the IBM Network Station.
Execution of the eSuite (JAVA) applications then run locally in the IBM Network
Station. Note: The IBM Network Station Series 1000 is the only model optimized for
Java applications.
Just How Does It Work Anyway?
When powered on, the IBM Network Station performs initial diagnostics and then initiates
contact, requesting the server to download the IBM Network Station operating system
kernel. Upon completion of the kernel download, various software environments can be
downloaded to the IBM Network Station. These environments include 5250 or 3270
terminal session support, the NC Navigator browser, X-windows capability and a Java
Virtual Machine.
At power-on, the Flash-BIOS (512K) has sufficient intelligence to activate the IP address of
the unit. It can use either a fixed address to a certain boot server, or a dynamic IP address
from DHCP server. The IBM Network Station is then ready to download the required
software as needed.
The required software for the IBM Network Station can be downloaded from the Internet or
delivered free of charge by requesting the "Quick Start Server" package from the web, and
details are given in the sections which follow. This document is intended as an overall guide.
Why Might A Customer Want A Separate Boot Server
4
The IBM Network Station Manager Quick Start configuration should be considered in the
following environments:
The customer wants to quickly install and test a pilot Network Station
environment
The customer does not want to disrupt the production server environment
The customer does not want to/cannot bring the production server down
to install NSM
The operating system on the production server is not at the level required
by IBM's Network Station Manager (NSM)
What Are The Hardware/Software Requirements ?
The following is a tested boot server configuration that will ease the installation of Network
Stations by removing the requirement to install NSM on the customers production server.
This low cost configuration is provided as a guide and is not intended to imply a formal
product offering.
Deviations to this configuration may change the performance results.
Tested Configuration:
5
Server (IBM PC 300GL)
166 Mhz
64 MB RAM
2.5GB hard disk
CD-ROM drive
IBM PCI EtherJet 10/100 Adapter
Keyboard and mouse
2 MB Video RAM
Monitor
(note: video adapter and monitor must support 800x600 resolution with 256 colors)
IBM Network Stations
Series 300 Model 110 (Ethernet)
The base 16 MB of dynamic RAM in the Series 300 will be adequate for light
application load.
A monitor for each Network Station
With the standard 1 MB video RAM, the IBM Network Station supports resolutions
up to 1024x768. With the additional 1 MB of video RAM, resolutions up to
1600X1280 can be supported.
Infrastructure choices
Ethernet (tested) or Token Ring (see note in performance section)
TCP/IP protocol is required on each host for access to emulation, and for Internet and
intranet applications.
Speeds: 10Mbit Ethernet; 4 or 16 Mbit Token Ring
RJ45 LAN connection to IBM Network Stations
For further information on cabling, see Table A-3 on page A-4 of the booklet SA41-0036,
IBM Network Station Use packaged with
each IBM Network Station.
6
Software Prerequisites
Windows NT Server 4.0 (with Service Pack 3) or Windows NT Server 4.0 Terminal
Server Edition
Windows NT Server is a product of Microsoft Corporation and its use is
governed by Microsoft’s license terms. These include the requirement of “client
access” licenses permitting access to the server. Microsoft currently offers the
option of purchasing a client access license for each of your Network Stations,
or a server-based license, allowing a certain number of Network Stations to
access the server at any one time. Depending on your need to access other
Windows NT servers and the particulars of your Network Station environment,
you should carefully consider which of these options makes the most sense for
you. Of course, you are responsible for your licensing arrangements with
Microsoft for Windows NT Server.
IBM Network Station Manager 3.02 for NT 4.0
The software can be obtained on the following CD-ROMs
LCD4-1733-02 North America
LCD4-1734-02 International
LCD4-1735-02 French
The software CD and product hardcopy documentation can be obtained in the
US. by calling 1-800-879-2755 and ordering
SK3T-3038-02 North America
SK3T-3039-02 International
SK3T-3052-02 French
The software and product documentation can be obtained by requesting the
"Network Station NT Quick Start Server Package" at
http://www.pc.ibm.com/networkstation/support
This software can also be downloaded from the Web at
http://service.boulder.ibm.com/nc
How Is The Server Built ?
7
In the previous versions of this Quick Start Guide, the exact details of server creation and
software installation were included within this WEB based guide. Now the greatly enhanced
product documentation contains the required steps to "Plan" and "Build" the server and
configure the IBM Network Stations.
Chapters 1 and 2 of the "IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use" describes in
exactly the required steps to build the server on the NT Server or NT Terminal Server.
Complete NSM Manual for all IBM Servers (Adobe Acrobat PDF Format).
"IBM Network Station ManagerInstallation and Use"
If you do not have the Acrobat Reader, you can download here.
Installing NT Server 4.0
Installing and Configuring an IBM Network Station Environment on a Microsoft
Windows NT Server
To view or print the latest update, go to http://www.ibm.com/nc/pubs and print the "Release
3 IBM Network Station Manager"
You will find instructions for planning, installing, upgrading, and configuring a Network
Station environment on a Windows NT Server 4.0 server or a Windows NT Server 4.0,
Terminal Server Edition server in this section.
The following table is created from Chapter 2 of the PDF version of "IBM Network Station
Manager Installation and Use" it should be used as a guide to find information on common
IBM Network Station Manager installation tasks and IBM Network Station Manager
configuration tasks. It is recommended that you print at least Chapters 1 & 2 of the PDF
document.
8
If you need to...
Read this section
Read the “Prerequisites and Installation” on
page 31 to install Windows NT Server 4.0
Install IBM Network Station Manager for the
software; or Windows NT Server 4.0,
first time.
Terminal Server Edition software; and all of
the IBM Network Station Manager software.
Install IBM Network Station Manager on
several identical servers.
Read the “Installing IBM Network Station
Manager Software Automatically Using a
Response File” on page 49 to install IBM
Network Station Manager on several
identical servers.
Install IBM Network Station Manager
software as a separate boot server and a
separate authentication server.
Read the “Installing a Boot Server for Your
Network Stations” on page 51 to install IBM
Network Station Manager software on
separate boot servers and separate
authentication servers.
Upgrade IBM Network Station Manager
software.
Apply a Service Update to your IBM
Network Station Manager software.
Read the “Updating IBM Network Station
Manager Software and Migrating IBM
Network Station Manager Preference Files”
on page 80 to upgrade your IBM Network
Station Manager software to the new release
and preserve your current IBM Network
Station Manager information.
Add a new IBM Network Station user to
your network.
Read the “Managing Users and Groups for
IBM Network Station Users” on page 74 to
add a Windows NT Server 4.0 user and add
the new user to the IBM Network Station
Manager software.
Configure a printer to work with your IBM
Network Station Manager.
Read the “Configuring Printers on Windows
NT Server 4.0” on page 77 to configure
printers to work with your Network Stations.
Run Windows applications on your IBM
Network Station
Use DHCP to assign IP addresses to your
IBM Network Stations
Read the “Installing Citrix MetaFrame
Software on Your Windows NT Server 4.0,
Terminal Server Edition Server” on page 53
for information how to run Windows
applications on your Network Station.
Read the “Installing Additional Software
Components After the Initial Installation” on
page 53 to install DHCP services and
configure DHCP services in your network.
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Note: Do not use this guide to install the IBM Network Station Manager on a WinCenter
version 3. x server.
You can find the WinCenter information in the book ²IBM Network Station Manager for
WinCenter Pro V3.0,² 6th Edition. The publication code of that book is WINAB202. PDF.
You can access the WinCenter book on the Web at http:// www.ibm.com/nc/pubs.
How Are The IBM Network Stations Configured ?
Chapter 10 of the PDF version of "IBM Network Station Manager Installation and Use"
describes how to configure the Setup Screens on the Network Stations.
References will be made to screen captures included in the IBM Network Station Use
booklet
SA 41-0036, included with every IBM Network Station.
Arranging the Network Station Hardware
Set the Monitor Display Resolution
Set the Network Parameters (TCP/IP)
Configuring Boot Parameters for each IBM Network Station
Setting Up Applications using NSM Administration
10
One way the Network Station simplifies desktop management while reducing your total cost
of ownership is by delivering a powerful tool for centralized desktop administration: The
IBM Network Station Manager or NSM. The Network Station Manager eliminates the
need to send a team of people out to the "desktop" to manage and support the users. One
person can do it all ... from one location ... with just one tool ... NSM !
It is highly recommended to use Network Station Manager to setup applications for the
users of the IBM Network Stations. By using NSM to manage the Network Stations and
associated applications, the administrator can perform these tasks from any Java capable
browser that has network access to the NSM boot server.
By default, Network Station Manager sets up the Network Stations to present a login screen
to the user after boot. After successful login the user can be presented with different buttons
to start different applications. This login feature is sometimes referred to as "LOGIN" or
"ACTLogin".
By using NSM an administrator can:
Assign applications to Buttons on the Menu bar that the user can click on to start
them.
Configure the Menu bar to disappear, i.e. hide it, when not actively being used.
Auto start applications after the user logs into the Network Station.
Modify the default behavior of applications and the Network Station
Easily access useful, context sensitive, help
If however the customer needs a more custom solution, some manual templates are
provided in the Appendix section to allow the customization of control files normally
handled by Network Station Manager.
Use the override templates with extreme care.
To start NSM from the NT system console
Log on to the NT console as the system administrator ID
Start the NSM in your favorite Java capable browser
EX: C:\<PATH>\netscape "localhost"
Log in as administrator and supply the proper password
This will be the regular NT administrator ID
11
Caution
Liberal use of the Help button while in Network Station Manager may result in a thorough
understanding of the options available and how to use and implement the features of NSM
to manage the Network Station desktop(s). The context sensitive help screens are really
very good.
Configuring a 3270 session
The 3270 session can be globally configured via NSM to:
Add a button to the Menu bar to start a 3270 session
Select Startup -> Menus -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the 3270 Menu Items section
Fill in the text that is to appear on the button of the menu bar in the Menu item
label box
Enter the hostname or IP address in the System/390 box
Optionally enter a title to appear on the 3270 window in the Session tile
(optional) box
Scroll the window to the right for additional configuration boxes
Select a preferred screen size from the pull down in the Screen size box
Select whether you want to enable graphics via the pull down in the Graphics
box
Optionally enter a telnet port if using a SNA gateway or specific port on the
S/390 in the Telnet port box
The default is port 23 and probably does not need to be changed
Put any additional optional parameters in the Optional parameters box
See the available Help screen for a list of valid choices
If you want to configure additional Menu bar 3270 buttons, select the Add a
3270 session button and fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Auto start a 3270 session
Select Startup -> Programs -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the 3270 Sessions to AutoStart section
Fill in the appropriate values, as listed in the Add a button section, above
If you wish to start multiple 3270 sessions, select the Add a 3270 session
button and fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Configure the default behavior of all 3270 sessions
Select 3270 -> System defaults -> Next
Select and adjust available options
Some of the options do NOT have an available adjustment, but many do,
especially the ones towards the bottom of the screen
12
See the available Help screen for a list of valid choices
Select Finish
In addition to the System wide settings described above, settings can be made on a per user
basis.
However, not as many options are available on the per user settings.
Things to know about per user settings:
Only the authenticated user or the NSM Administrator can change per user settings
All of the available Help screens are available
Per user settings will take precedence over system wide settings
The user can be selected from the list of available users or entered directly into the
users box
Select the topic, as above, then select User defaults instead of System defaults
Press the Browse... button to select from the list of users
Select Next
Adjust the settings as needed
Select Finish
Configuring a 5250 session
The 5250 session can be globally configured via NSM to:
Add a button to the Menu bar to start a 5250 session
Select Startup -> Menus -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the 5250 Menu Items section
Fill in the text that is to appear on the button of the menu bar in the Menu item
label box
Enter the hostname or IP address in the AS/400 system box
Optionally enter a title to appear on the 5250 window in the Session tile
(optional) box
Scroll the window to the right for additional configuration boxes
Select a preferred screen size from the pull down in the Screen size box
Select whether you want to enable Image/graphics via the pull down in the
Image/Fax display box
Put any additional optional parameters in the Optional parameters box
See the available Help screen for a list of valid choices
If you want to configure additional Menu bar 5250 buttons, select the Add a
5250 session button and fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Auto start a 5250 session
Select Startup -> Programs -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the 5250 Sessions to AutoStart section
Fill in the appropriate values, as listed in the Add a button section, above
If you wish to start multiple 5250 sessions, select the Add a 5250 session
13
button and fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Configure the default behavior of all 5250 sessions
Select 5250 -> System defaults -> Next
Select and adjust available options
Some of the options do NOT have an available adjustment, but many do,
especially the ones towards the bottom of the screen
See the available Help screen for a list of valid choices
Select Finish
In addition to the System wide settings described above, settings can be made on a per user
basis.
However, not as many options are available on the per user settings.
Things to know about per user settings:
Only the authenticated user or the NSM Administrator can change per user settings
All of the available Help screens are available
Per user settings will take precedence over system wide settings
The user can be selected from the list of available users or entered directly into the
users box
Select the topic, as above, then select User defaults instead of System defaults
Press the Browse... button to select from the list of users
Select Next
Adjust the settings as needed
Select Finish
Configuring the Navio NC Navigator browser
14
The Navio browser can be globally configured via NSM to:
Add a button to the Menu bar to start the Navio browser
Select Startup -> Menus -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the Navio NC Navigator Menu Items section
Fill in the text that is to appear on the button of the menu bar in the Menu item
label box
Enter the target Universal Resource Locator, URL, in the URL box
Select whether you prefer to allocate a private color map in the check box
Put any additional geometry or Window size and location information in the
appropriate boxes
See the available Help screen for a list of valid choices
If you want to configure additional Menu bar Navio buttons, select the Add a
browser session button and fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Auto start a Navio session
Select Startup -> Programs -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the Navio NC Navigator Sessions to AutoStart section
Fill in the appropriate values, as listed in the Add a button section, above
If you wish to start multiple Navio sessions, select the Add a browser session
button and fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Configure the default behavior of all Navio sessions
Select Internet -> Navio NC Navigator -> System defaults -> Next
Select and adjust available options
All of the options DO have an available adjustment
Have I mentioned the available Help screens for a list of valid choices ?
Select Finish
In addition to the System wide settings described above, settings can be made on a per user
basis.
However, not as many options are available on the per user settings.
Things to know about per user settings:
Only the authenticated user or the NSM Administrator can change per user settings
All of the available Help screens are available
Per user settings will take precedence over system wide settings
The user can be selected from the list of available users or entered directly into the
users box
Select the topic, as above, then select User defaults instead of System defaults
Press the Browse... button to select from the list of users
Select Next
Adjust the settings as needed
Select Finish
Syntax To Pass Parameters To Applications From Menu Buttons
15
This section will explain how to add some additional items to the menu bar of the Network
Station that may not appear obvious.
The concept relies heavily upon optional command line flags of programs as well as an
environmental variable that is normally set by ACTLogin, i.e. ${IP}. ${IP} is the IP address
of the Network Station that is issuing the command. We can start applications on any
remote host that will allow us to start them via rsh. The Network Station can also be a target
host.
The following examples will be for the global or system wide settings.
Individual user setting can also be set for these buttons.
So fire up your favorite Java enabled browser and open up an NSM session.
To add a VT320 session button to the menu bar
Select Startup -> Menus -> System defaults -> Next
Scroll down to the Remote Program Menu Items section
Fill in the text that is to appear on the button of the menu bar in the Menu item
label box
Enter the target host in the Remote host box
Here is where the trick part comes in play. We will enter ${IP} in this box
Enter the program to run in the Program to run box
Enter any additional parameters in the Optional parameters box
If you want to configure additional Remote Program Menu Item buttons,
select the Add a Remote Program button, if there are no blank lines left, and
fill in the fields as appropriate
Select Finish
Essentially, items entered into this table will end up being issued with the rsh command.
Examples:
"VT session" = rsh ${IP} telnet -fg white -bg blue -host 1.1.1.2
Starts a VT320 session to the host 1.1.1.2
"Console" = rsh ${IP} console
Starts the Network Station console program
Remote Program Menu Items
16
Menu Item Label Remote Host
VT session
${IP}
Program to Run Optional Parameters
telnet
-fg white -bg blue -host 1.1.1.2
Console
${IP}
console
WinCenter
123.123.123.123 wincenter
-display ${IP}:0
Command Line Options for the VT320 emulator
When starting the terminal emulation client, options can be specified that will modify the
actions or appearance of the telnet client. The list of allowable options is shown in the
following Table.
Flag
-/+132
Parameter
NA
Description
Enable/disable 132 column
mode switching
-b
margin (pixels)
Specifies the size of the inner
margin. The distance between
the window and the outer
edge of the characters.
-bd
color
Specifies the color of the
border.
-bg
color
Specifies the background
color.
-bw
border_width (pixels)
Specifies the width of the
border surrounding the
window.
-cr
color
Specifies the color for the text
cursor.
-ctype
telnet | cterm | lat | serial
Connection type to start
-cu,+cu
NA
-fg
color
-fn
font name
Use this to work around
curses xenl glitch.
Specifies the color for the text
characters.
Specifies the font to use for
displaying normal text. The
foundry, family name, and
point size from the specified
font are used to override the
corresponding resource
values. Proportional fonts are
not supported.
17
-geometry
columns x rows +/-xoff +/yoff
Startup size and location. The
default is ".80x24"..
-help
NA
Print the help text to the
console message window.
-host
host name
Host system to connect to.
Use this option only with
-ctype
-iconic
-j,+j
NA
NA
Start in iconic form
Use jump scrolling. This may
improve performance on long
test scrolls.
-mb,+mb
NA
Determines if margin bell
should ring at end of typing
line.
-ms
color
-n
icon_title
Specifies the color of the
pointer.
Specifies the text which will
appear under the icon.
-name
Class name for X resources.
The default is ".NCDterm"..
-nb
number
The number of characters
from the right end of the line
at which the margin bell will
ring when enabled.
-ph
host:port
Specifies the remote printer
host and TCP/IP port for
printing.
-pm
mode
Specifies the print mode.
Options are ".Serial".,
".Parallel"., or ".Remote"..
-rv
NA
Specifies that the terminal
emulation session should start
in reverse video.
-rw,+rw
NA
Specifies that
reverse-wraparound should be
used.
-sb,+sb
NA
Specifies that a scroll bar
should be displayed.
-title
titlebar
Title for the application
window.
-tn
term_type
Specifies a terminal type to be
offered during telnet
negotiation.
-vb
NA
Use a visual bell over an
18
audible one.
-xrm
resource_string Specify an X
resource string. This option
may be used more than once.
Performance Considerations
Performance Section of NT Boot Server White Paper
Abstract
NOTE: The boot server also is the application server for the Network Station
emulators and the NC Navigator browser.
The exact number of Network Stations you can boot and serve from the that boot
server depends on the number of native emulators and browser sessions that you wish
to deploy and how often the user starts and stops them. Whether or not the browser is
setup to write back to home directorys on the server can also impact boot server load.
Some rules of thumb based on lab tests: Your mileage may very.
-- Browser only (similar to emulator use, no home directory writes)
72-74 clients supported per boot server
-- Above test with Java write test (simulate users exercise NFS home directories)
40-41 clients supported per boot server
The following tests primarily focus on the booting process up to the point of logon.
This section describes the performance study that was done to characterize the behavior of
the NT boot server and to determine it's capacity to support booting several Network
Stations concurrently. The server used was a 300GL, with a 166MHz Pentium CPU and 64
MB of RAM connected via an ethernet network to the Network Stations. The results
presented here are meant to be a guideline to enable customers to design their network,
server and Network Station configurations. Depending on the actual configurations chosen,
the results observed differ from those described here.
Assuming a worst case scenario where all Network Stations boot at the same instant, the
boot time increases with the number of Network Stations in the configuration. Boot time is
defined as the time from when all Network Stations are powered on until the time when the
last Network Station reaches the ACTlogin screen. The main factors that affect the boot
time are the CPU capacity of the Server, the capacity of the network interconnecting the
19
time are the CPU capacity of the Server, the capacity of the network interconnecting the
server with the Network Stations.
Two network configurations are considered in this study. The first configuration (Figure 1)
has the NT server connected via a 10 megabit ethernet to a set of cascaded 10 megabit hubs
which are used to connect to all the Network Stations. Although this is probably the simplest
network configuration, the bandwidth that it can support from the server is limited to the
capacity of a single 10 megabit ethernet link.
Figure 1. 10 megabit hub configuration
This configuration is recommended when the number of Network Stations is small (typically
20-30). The time taken to boot 20 Network Stations using this configuration is 90 seconds.
At this point, the 10 Megabit ethernet link is already saturated, and adding further Network
Stations to the same ethernet segment linearly increases the boot time. The Section on
Configuration 1 later in this document provides additional measurement results. To
circumvent this network bottleneck, one option is to add a second 10 megabit ethernet
adapter to the NT Server. With two 10 Megabit LAN segments, 40 Network Stations (20 per
segment) can be booted in 92 seconds, with the network again becoming the bottleneck (see
section on Configuration 2). Using the 2 PCI slots in the 300 GL, it should be possible to add
multiport PCI adapters to increase the overall network bandwidth. For example, using 2 dual
ported adapters would give 4 independent LAN segments with a combined maximum
network bandwidth of 40 megabits per second.
The recommended configuration for larger numbers of Network Stations is shown in Figure
2. A 100 megabit adapter on the NT Server is connected to a 100 megabit switch (such as
the 8271 IBM Nways ethernet switch), which is then connected to multiple 10 megabit hubs
which connect to the Network Stations. In such a network, the 300 GL NT Server will
become CPU bound before the configuration reaches its network bandwidth limit (see section
on Configuration 3).
20
Figure 2. 100 megabit switch configuration
Measurements with this configuration show that the 300GL NT server can boot 30 Network
Stations in 55 seconds with a mean CPU utilization of 67% and an average network
utilization of 17%. This implies that the server could support around 40 Network Stations
before the CPU utilization reaches 100%, after which the boot times will elongate linearly
with the number of Network Stations. To better utilize the network bandwidth available in
this configuration, the 300GL could be replaced by a machine with a faster CPU.
The boot times mentioned above assumed a worst case situation where all Network Stations
are booted simultaneously. During normal operation, however, a more reasonable
assumption would be to stagger Network Station boots, such that they are spread evenly
over a fixed time interval. Assuming that all Network Stations are booted once during a 1
hour period (say, between 8a.m. and 9a.m.), a single segment 10 megabit Ethernet LAN can
support 480 Network Stations with the Ethernet being utilized 35% due to the boot activity.
This leaves sufficient bandwidth to be used by either the 3270 or 5250 emulators. If the
stagger interval is changed, the number of Network Stations which can be booted should be
scaled accordingly (at a rate of 8 Network Stations per minute). For example, if boots are
uniformly staggered over a 20 minute period, a single segment Ethernet LAN can support
160 Network Stations.
Although the results described here should be accurate, there are several factors which
would cause an actual NT boot server configuration to behave differently.
Some of the results presented in this study were measured using a 30 Network Station
setup. To estimate larger networks, however, results were obtained by simulating the
Network Station traffic using a boot simulator tool running on an AIX server. The
simulated results, especially for large networks, will underestimate boot times by
around 15%.
The results presented here assume that there is no other network traffic while these
Network Stations are being booted. For larger networks, the recommended network
configuration is to connect the NT boot server to a 100 megabit switch, which could
provide one 100 megabit link to the external network, with the other ports connected
to 10 megabit ethernet hubs.
The results presented here are valid only if the NT boot server is not being used
concurrently to support other applications, especially on the same network. Doing so
would cause the two applications to interfere with each other and lead to performance
degradation of both applications.
21
Configurations
The following configurations were used in the performance study:
The NT Server used was an IBM 300 GL, with a 166MHz Pentium CPU, 512 KB L2
cache, 64MB RAM, 2.5 GB EIDE disk, a 100/10 Etherjet PCI adapter, monitor,
keyboard and mouse. The server was running Windows NT Server version 4.0, and
IBM's Network Station Manager (NSM) version 3.
The client machines are IBM Network Station model 300s with a 66MHz PowerPC
403GCX CPU, 16 MB of dynamic RAM, a 10 Mb Ethernet NIC, monitor, keyboard and
mouse.
Two network configurations are evaluated (as shown in Figures 1 & 2). The simple
configuration has Network Stations and the NT Server connected to a single segment
of a 10 megabit Ethernet LAN. This is achieved by cascading several 10 megabit hubs
to obtain the appropriate number of ports. The alternate configuration uses a 100
megabit link from the NT server going to an 8271-216 Ethernet LAN switch which is
then connected to four 10 megabit hubs. Each 10 megabit hub is then connected to
several Network Stations. The Network Stations are spread as evenly as possible
across the four 10 Megabit hubs.
The workload used in the measurement is the worst case scenario where all Network
Stations are powered on and boot simultaneously. This scenario places the greatest demand
on the network as well as the boot server. While booting, several megabytes of data must be
read by the boot server from its disks, and then sent to the Network Station over the
network. While in terminal emulation mode, on the other hand, each command typed on the
emulator window causes a few hundreds of bytes to be sent over the network to the
mainframe host (and nothing to the boot server). The response from the mainframe host
(typically 2 KB) is also much smaller than the files transferred at boot time.
The NSM configuration allows a choice of TFTP or NFS for transferring files from the NT
Server to the Network Station. For optimal performance, it is recommended that TFTP with
a block size of 8192 bytes (the default) be used. NFS is not recommended for configurations
that have more than 15 Network Stations supported by a single boot server. During startup,
the Network Station either has the address of the NT Server saved in NVRAM, or the DHCP
protocol is used by the NT Server to address the Network Stations. DHCP was not used in
this study. Using DHCP would add an additional initial delay to the boot time (a few
seconds).
To avoid having to build a large network of Network Stations, a network station boot
simulator tool is used in parts of this study to place a load on the network and NT Server.
During a normal boot sequence, a Network Station requests a series of files from the NT
boot server (the kernel, libraries, font files, etc.). The boot simulator runs on an RS/6000
server, and simulates many Network Stations booting by sending several streams of requests
to the NT boot server concurrently. Although the boot simulator is calibrated and validated
to be as accurate as possible, there are some inherent sources of error in this methodology
that can cause the results to be skewed. The biggest potential source of inaccuracy is that
since the boot simulator uses a single adapter to connect to the network, it can send only a
single Network Station request at a given time. This serialization of outgoing Network
22
Station traffic causes different behavior on the network (few or no ethernet collisions, for
example).
During the boot process, each Network Station makes a request for a file, and then waits
while the NT boot server satisfies the file transfer request. Only after the file has been
completely received does the Network Station generate the next asynchronous request on
the ethernet. Around 95% of the traffic goes from the NT boot server to the Network
Stations. Since a single system, the boot server, is generating most of the network traffic,
there is very little chance of having ethernet collisions. For the boot workload in particular, it
is permissible to overload the ethernet to some extent, without causing a situation with
excessive collisions and retries. In this study, the ethernet network utilization during
Network Station booting frequently reaches as high as 85%. For other applications in
general, this is not a recommended approach - a rule of thumb is to load the ethernet no
more than 40%. But
Measurements
The main metric of interest is the boot time, defined to be the time it takes from power-on
until the ACTlogin screen appears on the last Network Station to complete booting. Other
secondary metrics are used to identify bottlenecks in the configuration (% utilization of the
boot server CPU and network), or to verify that the boot process was error free (number of
bytes & frames sent over the network, number of collisions). The CPU & Network
utilizations reported here are the mean utilization after the NT boot server has started
servicing the TFTP or NFS requests from the Network Stations. It does not include the period
from power-on until the Network Station makes its first request.
Single Network Station
A single Network Station booting over a 10 megabit Ethernet LAN, using TFTP with 8 KB
block sizes, has the following characteristics:
Time from power on until start of load of kernel = 18 seconds
Time from power on until ACTlogin screen appears = 35 seconds
Total number of bytes transferred over network = 3 Megabytes
Total number of frames sent (by server and Network Station) = 2,974
From power-on until the start of kernel load, the Network Station places no load on the
network or boot server while it goes through it's internal startup process (memory check,
initialize keyboard and mouse, etc.). This is followed by the transfer of the compressed
kernel file, local decompression of the kernel file on the client, followed by the transfer of
the rest of the files required to complete the boot process. Removing 18 seconds from the
boot time for a single Network Station leaves 17 seconds during which the server sends 3
megabytes over the network (at an effective bandwidth of around 1.5 megabits per second).
On a 10 Mbps Ethernet, only 4-5 Network Stations are required to saturate the ethernet
during this 17 second interval, assuming the ethernet can sustain a bandwidth of around 7
Mbps. When more than 4-5 Network Stations boot, the boot time is extended since the LAN
23
is saturated.
Figure 3. CPU Utilization graph for Single Network Station boot using TFTP with 8 KB blocks. Time scale used
is approximately 4.5 seconds per horizontal unit.
The graph in Figure 3 shows that the CPU activity is divided into two segments. The first
burst of CPU activity occurs when the kernel is being transferred to the Network Station,
followed by a delay of approximately 8 seconds during which the Network Kernel
uncompresses the kernel. The second section of CPU activity is due to the transfer of the
remaining files.
Configuration 1: One 10-Mbit Ethernet LAN Segment
In this configuration, several Network Stations are connected using cascaded 10 megabit
ethernet hubs. The first two tables show measured results using TFTP and NFS, while the
third table shows simulated TFTP boot times for upto 100 Network Stations. NFS is not
recommended for configurations with more than 15 Network Stations.
# of Network Stations
1
10
20
30
Boot Time (sec)
35
57
90
122
CPU Utilization (%)
7
21
25
26
Network Utilization (%)
12
56
64
71
Network Traffic (MB)
3
31
62
98
Table 1. Single 10-Mbit LAN segment; TFTP with 8 KB block size; measured
24
Although the boot times for the TFTP and NFS tables (Tables 1 & 2) are similar, the server
utilization in the NFS case is twice as much as when TFTP is used.
CPU
# of Network Stations
1
10
20
30
Boot Time (sec)
34
57
91
126
CPU Utilization (%)
10
41
50
46
Network Utilization (%)
12
54
62
64
Network Traffic (MB)
3
31
61
92
Table 2. Single 10-Mbit LAN segment; NFS with 8 KB block size; measured
Table 3 below shows simulated results for booting upto 80 Network Stations using TFTP on
a single 10 Megabit LAN segment. The simulated results are within 10% of the measured
results in Table 1. Since there is an estimated error of 15% in the simulation results, the
worst case boot times should be increased accordingly. For example, the worst case boot
time for 60 Network Stations is 219 seconds (190 + 29).
# of
Network Stations
1
10
20
30
40
60
80
Boot Time
(sec)
34
56
82
110
136
190
237
%
CPU Util
5
20
23
25
26
27
29
%
Network Util
15
61
73
76
79
81
86
Network Traffic
(MB)
3
29
58
87
116
175
235
Table 3. Single 10-Mbit LAN segment; TFTP with 8 KB block size; simulated
25
It is recommended that no more than 40 Network Stations be connected on a single 10
megabit LAN. The bottleneck is obviously the network in this configuration. The boot server
CPU utilization for 40 Network Stations is just 26% with a boot time of 136 seconds. Thus,
it should be possible to connect the NT boot server to more than one 10 megabit LAN, in
order to boot additional Network Stations.
Figure 4 shows CPU utilization booting 30 Network Stations using TFTP over a single 10
Megabit LAN. The horizontal (time) scale is 7:1 (i.e. each horizontal unit corresponds to 7
seconds). The graph shows that the CPU utilization is fairly steady at 20% for the first 7 units
(around 49 seconds) while all the Network Stations load their kernel. At this time, the
bottleneck is the single 10-Megabit ethernet. The second phase of the boot has all Network
Stations downloading
several files, typically much smaller than the kernel. This activity is much more CPU
intensive, with a much smaller bandwidth requirement (opening, reading and closing several
files).
Figure 4. CPU Utilization: 30 Network Stations using TFTP, 8 KB blocks, & Single 10-Mbit LAN. Time scale
used is 7 seconds per horizontal unit.
26
Figure 5. CPU Utilization: 30 Network Stations using NFS, 8 KB blocks, & Single 10-Mbit LAN. Time scale
used is 7 seconds per horizontal unit.
The total amount of time the CPU is busy in Figure 4. is 15 units (105 seconds). Adding on
the 18 seconds that each Network Station uses for internal startup (memory initialization,
etc.) gives the total boot time of 122 seconds for booting 30 Network Stations using TFTP.
Comparing this with Figure 5, which shows CPU utilization while booting 30 Network
Stations using NFS, is can be observed that although the overall shape of the two curves is
similar, the overall CPU utilization is much higher when using NFS. During the second phase
of the NFS boot storm, the CPU utilization remains at 100%, while the non-kernel files are
downloaded to the Network Stations.
Configuration 2: Two 10-Mbit Ethernet LAN segments
The results in Table 4 below show boot times when a second 10/100 Ethernet adapter is
added to the NT Server, and connected to a second set of cascaded 10 megabit hubs. The
second LAN allows a total of 80 Network Stations (40 per LAN) to be booted in 152
seconds.
Total # of Network
Stations in 2 Segments
20
40
60
80
100
120
Boot Time
(sec)
63
92
123
152
183
213
%
CPU Utilization
37
44
45
49
50
50
%
Network Utilization
52
63
66
69
70
72
27
Table 4. Two 10-Mbit LAN segments; TFTP with 8 KB block size; simulated
The CPU utilization of the NT Server is still only 50% with both LANs saturated. This implies
that by adding additional network bandwidth capacity, the NT Server could support even
more Network Stations. Since the 300GL server has two PCI slots which can be used for
network cards, additional 10/100 Ethernet cards cannot be added. There are some other
options which could provide additional network connectivity from the server:
using multiport adapters allows connectivity to more than one LAN using the same
adapter. By using two 2-port 10/100 megabit adapters, it should be possible to obtain
a balanced configuration which maximizes both network and CPU utilization.
using a 100 megabit ethernet adapter on the NT Server to connect to a 100 megabit
switch, with each port of the 100 megabit switch connected to a 10 megabit hub.
Configuration 3: 100 Megabit Switched backbone
# of Network Stations
1
10
20
30
Boot Time (sec)
35
39
44
55
CPU Utilization (%)
5
31
55
64
Network Utilization (%)
1
9
15
17
Table 5. 100 Mbit Switch; TFTP with 8 KB block size; measured
In both the configurations above, the network was the bottleneck, while the NT Server was
operating well below its capacity. In order to eliminate this network bottleneck, the ethernet
link from the server was replaced by a 100 megabit link connected to a 100 megabit to 10
megabit switch (as shown in Figure 2). In each configuration shown below, the Network
Stations were evenly spread across 4 10-Megabit hubs. As the results show, this
configuration yields the best performance results for larger networks. The boot time for 30
network stations using this configuration is 56 seconds, a 50% improvement over the 110
seconds obtained using a single 10 megabit link.
The network utilization numbers in Table 5 are based on utilization of the 100 Megabit link
between the boot server and the switch. The utilization of individual 10 Megabit segments
can be extrapolated from Table 1. Compared to the single 10 Mbit configuration, this
configuration results in a decrease by approximately 5% of the total number of frames
transferred between the server and the Network Stations. This is due to fewer collisions on
the ethernet. The server CPU utilization is higher in this configuration than in the single 10
Mbit case since the server has to send roughly the same amount of data to the Network
Stations in a much shorter (boot) time. Figure 6 shows the CPU utilization graph for booting
30 Network Stations in this configuration.
28
Figure 6. CPU Utilization: 30 Network Stations using TFTP, 8 KB blocks, & 100 Megabit Switch. Time scale
used is 7 seconds per horizontal unit.
Uniformly Staggered Booting
A more common situation than booting all Network Stations simultaneously would be to
stagger the booting over some period of time, say an hour. In this scenario, it is no longer
acceptable to use the full capacity of the network for booting. Once a Network Station has
completed booting, a user begins using the 3270 (or 5250) emulator to communicate with a
host. In order to ensure responsiveness, the Ethernet utilization should not exceed 40%.
Since the 3270 and 5250 emulator applications do not place any significant load on the
network, a major part (35% of the network utilization) may be used for booting.
# of Network Stations
40
80
120
160
240
480
Staggered Boot Time (minutes)
5
10
15
20
30
60
Simultaneous Boot Time (minutes)
2.5
4.4
6.3
8.3
12.1
23.7
29
Table 6. Staggered Boot Times: TFTP with 8 KB block size; based on simulation results
Table 6 shows the number of Network Stations that can be booted on a 10 megabit LAN
segment, assuming that they were booted uniformly over a period of time equal to the
staggered boot time. For example, If Network Station boots are uniformly spread out over a
20 minute period, a single segment 10 megabit LAN can support 160 Network Stations,
while leaving sufficient bandwidth for the 3270 or 5250 emulator on the Network Stations
that have been booted. If it ever became necessary to boot all 160 Network Stations
simultaneously, it would take 8.3 minutes before the last boot completed. Further, the
booted Network Stations would see very poor 3720 or 5250 emulator response times until
after all booting activity had completed. The simultaneous boot times in the table were
extrapolated from the simulated times shown in Table 3, and have a margin of error of 15%.
Many other applications are far more network intensive than 3270 and 5250 emulation. For
such applications, less (than 35%) network bandwidth should be used for booting, reducing
the number which can be booted per hour without affecting application performance. An
example of a network intensive application is viewing an animated GIF on WinCenter or
another graphic application displayed by the X protocol. Displaying the animation requires
network bandwidth proportional to the size of the image and the rate of change. This can be
large; for example, a web page from the Fox Network viewed from a browser (e.g.,
Netscape) running on WinCenter displaying on a Network Station requires 0.6 megabits per
second (about 16% of the useable Ethernet bandwidth). For such applications, response
times for both application and booting would be poor if booting needed more than the
Ethernet bandwidth remaining from the applications in use. Thus, more of the Ethernet
bandwidth must be reserved for application use, thereby lowering the number of Network
Stations that can be booted per hour without effecting application performance. This
tradeoff between booting and application performance is dependent on many things and is
beyond the scope of this study. In general, boot rates that would drive Ethernet traffic above
40% are to be avoided if applications will be using the Ethernet concurrently with booting
Network Stations.
Other Factors
This section discusses the effect of various factors on the boot server capacity. Further work
needs to be done to quantify the effects of each of these factors.
If the network were token ring instead of ethernet, it would increase the capacity of
the network, and the number of Network Stations that could be booted in a specified
time would increase.
Adding a second NT Server will make the solution more robust. The best way to
integrate the second server into the network is to use a 100 megabit switch, which is
used to connect to each of the servers, as well as to the 10 megabit hubs to which the
Network Stations are connected. In general, half the Net stations could boot from
each server. However, in the case that one server is down, all could use the same
server. This would elongate the boot time, but maintain the operability of the Network
Stations.
30
Technical Support
How to obtain technical support for the Quick Start Boot Server
The primary approach to solving problems with your Quick Start Boot Server is via the IBM
Network Computer Division's web site service and support information web page, located at
http://www.pc.ibm.com/networkstation/support. Among the options available to you within
the Service and Support section of our Web site is information on our support offerings and
services, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) function, a list of related publication options
to inform you about training options available to you, along with problem submission
functions to allow you to interact with people that can help you successfully deploy your
Quick Start Boot Server within your enterprise.
If you have a question about installation, choose "Quick Start Server", then choose Submit
Questions or Problems to ask your question.
Appendix
Helpful Shortcuts and Tips
Useful IBM Network Station key combinations.
ESC during boot file load Network Station Setup Screen
Pause After booted brings up Console panel
Alt+CapsLock+Pause Panic button, gets you to Boot Monitor
Alt+Shift+Control+F1 From Network Station Setup Screen, to Boot Monitor
F1 From Boot Monitor, to Network Station Setup Screen
Ctrl+U From the Network Station Setup Screens, F5 & F6, will delete the entire line
Useful Boot Monitor commands
To reset erratic behavior due to the NVRAM getting corrupted, reset the NVRAM by
going to the Boot Monitor prompt
then key in: nv [enter], l [enter], s [enter], y [enter], q [enter]
To set Token ring speed, enter tr 4 or tr 16
31
To reboot NFS, enter bn
To reboot TFTP, enter bt
Press ? for help
To ping an address from boot monitor use the pi syntax (see ? help)
MANUAL OVERRIDES TO ACHIEVE CUSTOM REQUIREMENTS
ATTENTION: Please Read
Bypassing the Network Station Manager configuration tool and
ACTLogin is NOT generally recommended.
Please note that these manual overrides to the configurations files are
for NSM Release 3.0 for NT and will not migrate "as is" to future
releases of IBM Network Station Manager. We intend to provide
equivalent replacements for these templates/functions in future releases
of NSM.
It is recommended that you use standard NSM Administration Menus to manage and
configure applications for the IBM Network Stations. If a customer situation exists that
requires a one-off installation from what is provided within NSM 2.5 then use the
following templates to satisfy the customer's requirements.
32
However, in certain environments it may be desirable to override the default behavior of the
IBM Network Stations by manually editing a subset of the configuration files. This can be
the case when a certain type of environment or terminal is being replaced by a Network
Station and the initial desire is to have the screen, or "glass", look and behave much like the
terminal it is intended to replace. This may help keep retraining costs of the users down or
may simply make integrating the Network Station more simple.
Below are some "templates" or examples of how to manually configure the IBM Network
Stations to mimic some typical environments when the Network Station is booted from an
NT boot server.
General notes about these templates:
The comment character for the configuration files is the US pound sign, #, placed at
the beginning of the line
The TCP/IP settings may need to be set in all of the following templates, i.e. the
"defaults.dft" file
There are two methods. In both methods, the name "localhost" is always defined as
address 127.0.0.1 and represents the Network Station that is using it. This is referred
to as the loopback address of the Network Station
Configure to use an existing domain name service, DNS, environment
In this case, these lines are modified and used. The rest are commented
out in the TCP/IP section
set tcpip-name-server-protocol = dns
set tcpip-name-servers[-1] = {"1.2.3.2"}
set tcpip-dns-default-domain = austin.ibm.com
set tcpip-name-local-cache = { { localhost 127.0.0.1 } }
Use local name resolution, all names are defined locally to the Network Station
and the server.
In this case, you must also define these same name/IP_address pairs on the NT
server in C:\WINNT\System32\drivers\etc\Hosts
In this case, these lines are used. Change the hostnames and IP addresses
to suite your needs
set tcpip-name-local-cache = {
{ localhost 127.0.0.1 }
{ bigsmile 1.2.3.232 }
{ bigeasy 1.2.3.248 }
{ sorry 1.2.3.211 }
}
Template For Replacing Single Session 3270 Terminals
This is the information to enable bringing up a full screen 3270 emulator session.
In effect, all Network Station screens will essentially look and behave like a "dumb" 3270 terminal.
To accomplish this configuration:
33
ACTLogin is NOT used
The native window manager is NOT used
Only one session can be started at a time
If the session dies, the NC must be rebooted
Requires changes to two files
defaults.dft
pref
The NC must be rebooted for any changes to the two files to be in effect
Below are the entries for the "defaults.dft" file
#########################################################################
## START /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
##
## START TCP/IP configuration ##
## Either use name-local-cache stanza or other three lines
## Comment out one of the choices below
set tcpip-name-server-protocol = dns
set tcpip-name-servers[-1] = {"1.2.3.2"}
set tcpip-dns-default-domain = austin.ibm.com
set tcpip-name-local-cache = {
#
{ bigsmile 1.2.3.232 }
#
{ bigeasy 1.2.3.248 }
{ localhost 127.0.0.1 }
#
{ sorry 1.2.3.211 }
}
## END TCP/IP configuration ##
##
## START environment variables configuration ##
## Have to set these since ACTLogin is not being used
## The PATH for these values may be different between platforms
##
set pref-environment = {
{"PATH" "/nstation/mods"}
{"HOME" "/nstation/"}
{"BOOTPATH" "/nstation/"}
{"LANGID" "ENU" }
{"MRIPATH" "MRI2924"}
{"NSM_PROD_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/ProdData/SysDef"}
{"NSM_ADMIN_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/UserData/SysDef"}
}
## END environment variables configuration ##
##
## START modules configuration ##
## set these to avoid loading unneeded modules to conserve memory
##
set modules-load-policy = {{ }}
34
## END modules configuration ##
##
## START screen background configuration ##
## Set this to cover any non-fit of the emulator screen
##
set pref-screen-background-type=solid-color
set pref-screen-background-color=black
## END screen background configuration ##
##
## See table below depending on display resolution
set exec-startup-commands = {{"ns3270 -fn 8x13,9x15,10x20,fixedR28 -LANGID ENU
<Host> "}}
## END /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
##########################################################################################
NOTES:
1) The TCP/IP information may not need to be set if TCP/IP is already working
properly.
If it is NOT already set, then modify the values in defaults.dft as appropriate.
Otherwise, remove the entire sub-section.
2) The LANGID value can be any value found in /nstation/mods/NS3270/nls
directory of the boot host
<Host> = hostname to login to, could be an IP address
3) The actual command to use in the "set exec-startup-command" should be varied
according to the following table. Although, the desired font or a smaller font can be
placed at the front of the font list parameter -fn. The first font in the list will be used
upon startup and the other fonts may be available as an alternate font via the Options
-> Fonts pulldown menu, if the screen resolution allows.
Also, the fonts must exist in one of the font directories, /nstation/fonts/pcf/...
Choose the one to your liking.
The Alternate option allows the user to "scale" down the window and font.
Display Resolution
35
Display Resolution
640x480
set exec-startup-command={{
}}
Alternate set exec-startup-command= {{
"ns3270 -fn 8x13 -LANGID ENU <Host>"
}}
800x600
"ns3270 -fn 9x15 -LANGID ENU <Host>"
"ns3270 -fn 9x15,8x13 -LANGID ENU <Host>"
1024x768
"ns3270 -fn 8x13 -LANGID ENU <Host>"
"ns3270 -fn 10x20,9x15,8x13 -LANGID ENU
<Host>"
1280x1024
"ns3270 -fn 8x13 -LANGID ENU <Host>"
"ns3270 -fn fixedR28,10x20,9x15,8x13 -LANGID
ENU <Host>"
Command-line options supported by the NS3270 emulator:
3270 Command Line Arguments
Argument
Description
-LANGID xxx
xxx is the 3 character id of a supported language
-langid in GA version
-MRIPATH
MRIxxxx corresponds with a subdirectory in which the 3270
translatable files are located. The default is MRI2924. (available
in multi-session version only)
-title
Title of the 3270 emulator window. The default is 3270.
-rows nn, -cols nnn
Select the size of the 3270 window. Only selected values
allowed
-graphics, -nographics
-pfkeys
-ims
Used to specify if GDDM style graphics should be used for the
emulator.
Causes the keypad to pop-up at emulator startup.
Used when interacting with IMS applications.
-debug
This option is used when debugging a 3270 problem.
A number of detailed messages are written to the message
console that will be useful to service.
-trace
Causes the telnet 3270/3270 data stream traffic to be written to
the message console.
-sk, -nosk
Sets the position of the enter key to Enter or Ctrl/Act
Control of the enter key is available now only through the
36
-sk, -nosk
Control of the enter key is available now only through the
preferences (or through remapping the keyboard).
Below are the entries for the "PREF" file
## START 3270 preferences file
## /nstation/userdata/SysDef/NS3270/pref
NS3270*KeyRemap: disable
NS3270*Keymap101Path: 0
NS3270*Keymap102Path: 0
NS3270*ColorMap: basic
NS3270*ColorMapPath: 0
NS3270*rows: 32
NS3270*cols: 80
NS3270*autoAction: false
NS3270*buttonBox: false
NS3270*Speckey: false
NS3270*Port: 23
NS3270*Graphics: false
NS3270*DefaultColorMapPath: 0
## END 3270 preference file
###########################################################################
NOTE:
The /nstation/userdata/NS3270/pref file is normally managed by NSM and is the global or
system wide defaults file. It is an ASCII file that can be edited. However, care must be taken
so as not inject any erroneous characters at the end of the line and file. It is NOT normally
edited on systems that are using NSM, but can be if all due caution is exercised.
Values/definitions of the 3270 "PREF" file
3270 X Resources Preferences
Resource
NS3270*KeyRemap
Description
Default
Controls the use of the
disable
keyboard remapper utility.
Effect:
37
Values
enable, disable,
disable_and_hide
disable -> grey out the keyboard remapper button
disable_and_hide -> Do not even show the keyboard remapper button
enable -> do NOT grey out the keyboard remapper button
Notes: The keyboard remapper utility is a common utility shared between the 5250 and
3270 emulator.
Path to a customized
default.101 keyboard file
NS3270*Keymap101Path to use if the user does not
have a personal keyboard
mapping file.
0
0, Pathname
Effect: A value of 0 means there is no path to a default key translation file for a 101
keyboard. If a value is specified, then it should point to a file by the extension .101 that
contains the default translations for a 101 style keyboard. There could still be user-level
translation files that override this file.
Notes: If no path is specified, then use the hard coded default translations.
Path to a customized
default.101 keyboard file
NS3270*Keymap102Path to use if the user does not
have a personal keyboard
mapping file.
0
0, Pathname
Effect: A value of 0 means there is no path to a default key translation file for a 102
keyboard. If a value is specified, then it should point to a file with an extension of .102 that
contains the default translations for a 102 style keyboard. There could still be user-level
translation files that override this file.
Notes: If no path is specified, then use the hard coded default translations. /TD>
NS3270*ColorMap
Determines if the
ColorMapper button is
displayed.
basic
advanced, basic,
disable,
disable_and_hide
Effect:
disable/disable_and_hide -> affect presentation of the ColorMapper button
advanced/basic -> input to the colormapper
Notes: No support for this right now.
NS3270*ColorMapPath
The path to the default
color mapping file.
Currently not supported.
0
0, path
NS3270*rows:
The number of rows for
the 3270 display. This
value can be overridden
from the command line
32
24, 32, and 43
Notes: The intent is to use this resource as a method for the system administrator to set
38
the default. The design is for the Act Manager to present only four choices for screen
sizes:
24x80 (mod 3278-2)
32x80 (mod 3278-3)
43x80 (mod 3278-4)
27x132 (mod 3278-5)
However, the ns3270 code only sees this in terms of specific settings for rows and
columns. This note also applies to NS3270*cols
NS3270*cols
NS3270*autoAction
Number of columns
80
This function is similar to
but not quite the same as
hot spot support. With the
mouse, you can highlight
and execute a word (by
double clicking) on it as if
you had pressed a
corresponding key. For
example, you could
highlight the string "pa1",
double-click, and the
3270 emulator will treat
this as if you pressed the
false
PA1 key. The "words"
that the 3270 will accept
are common 3270 actions
such as all of the function
keys, the enter key, PA1,
etc. For the function keys
(PF1-PF24), the user can
highlight just the number
and it will be treated as if
the user pressed the
corresponding function
key (i.e., a "1" is treated
as pf1).
80, 132
true, false
Effect:
false -> turn autoAction function off
true -> turn autoAction function on, which enables the user to use the mouse to
highlight text to be interpreted as a attn key (pf1, f1, Enter, etc.)
The buttonBox, externally
known as the keypad, is a
pop-up window that
contains a series of
customizable buttons for
39
NS3270*buttonBox
3270 actions. As shipped,
the keypad presents
buttons for the function
keys 1-12. The keypad
can be invoked from the
options pull down menu.
It also can be invoked at
the same time as the
emulator window by
supplying the -pfkeys
command line option.
false
true, false
Effect:
false -> "keypad" button, as its now called, should be greyed out.
true -> "keypad" button should NOT be greyed out.
Notes: The intent of this setting was for the administrator to disable/enable use of the
keypad (xbuttons) function. There has not been a lot of emphasis placed on the keypad
function and its flexibility. The main reason for this is that there is no interface/utility for
maintaining the keypad layout. It can only be customized by editing the file N3keypad
under the MRIxxxx directory (ex: œPATH/NS3270/MRI2924/N3keypad). The possible
actions that can be invoked from a button are essentially the same actions that you can
configure using the keyboard remapper.
NS3270*Speckey
Determines the position of
false
the Enter key
true,false
Effect:
true -> use the Enter key as the Enter key.
false -> use the Ctrl/Act key as the Enter key.
Notes: The Speckey setting is ignored if there is a customized keyboard mapping file. The
thought here is that the speckey setting is a poor man's keyboard remapping. If a keyboard
file has been defined, then it should contain the correct location of the Enter key.
NS3270*Port
TCP/IP port of the target
telnet 3270 server
23
23, 5001-65K
Effect: Value should override the code default for the corresponding port resource
(NS3270*port). This value can still be overridden by a command line option.
Notes: Normally this will not need to be customized. However, if you are using a tn3270
gateway product (like a comm. server), then the tn3270 port will normally NOT be the
default port of 23.
NS3270*Graphics
Determines whether the
3270 session is started in
graphics mode or not.
Effect:
40
false
true,false
true -> Set NS3270*graphics to true, run emulator session in graphics mode.
Setting can still be overridden by the command line.
false -> Set NS3270*graphics to false, run emulator session in normal mode.
Notes: The intent was to give the system administrator the ability to set the graphics mode
on a system wide basis in the event that running in graphics mode would be the norm for
everyone. If a user attempts to access a graphics application when in non graphics mode, it
is application dependent as to what kind of error will occur. The 3270 will NOT
automatically switch into a graphics mode.
Graphics mode consumes considerably more than non graphics mode such that it should
only be used as needed.
Template For Replacing Single Session 5250 Terminals
This is the information to enable bringing up a full screen 5250 emulator session.
In effect, all Network Station screens will essentially look and behave like a "dumb" 5250 terminal.
To accomplish this configuration:
ACTLogin is NOT used
The native window manager is NOT used
Only one session can be started at a time
If the session dies, the NC must be rebooted
Requires changes to two files
defaults.dft
pref
The NC must be rebooted for any changes to the two files to be in effect
Below are the entries for the "defaults.dft" file
##########################################################################
## START /nstation/Configs/defaults.dft
## 5250 template definition
##
## START TCP/IP configuration ##
## Either use name-local-cache stanza or other three lines
## Comment out one of the choices below
set tcpip-name-server-protocol = dns
set tcpip-name-servers[-1] = {"1.2.3.2"}
set tcpip-dns-default-domain = austin.ibm.com
set tcpip-name-local-cache = {
#
{ bigsmile 1.2.3.232 }
#
{ bigeasy 1.2.3.248 }
{ localhost 127.0.0.1 }
#
{ sorry 1.2.3.211 }
41
}
## END TCP/IP configuration ##
##
## START environment variables configuration ##
## Have to set these since ACTLogin is not being used
## The PATH for these values may be different between platforms
##
set pref-environment = {
{"PATH" "/nstation/mods"}
{"HOME" "/nstation/"}
{"BOOTPATH" "/nstation/"}
{"LANGID" "ENU" }
{"MRIPATH" "MRI2924"}
{"NSM_PROD_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/ProdData/SysDef"}
{"NSM_ADMIN_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/UserData/SysDef"}
}
## END environment variables configuration ##
##
## START modules configuration ##
## set these to avoid loading unneeded modules to conserve memory
##
set modules-load-policy = {{ }}
## END modules configuration ##
##
## START screen background configuration ##
## Set this to cover any non-fit of the emulator screen
##
set pref-screen-background-type=solid-color
set pref-screen-background-color=black
## END screen background configuration ##
##
set exec-startup-commands = {{"ns5250 -geometry 9999x9999+0+0 <Host> "}}
## END /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
##############################################################################
NOTES:
1) This -geometry option is set to 9999x9999 so it works in any of the big 4 monitor resolutions.
2) <Host> = hostname to login to, could be an IP address
Below are the entries for the "PREF" file
##############################################################################
## START 5250 preferences file
## /nstation/userdata/SysDef/NS5250/pref
NS5250*27x132: enable
NS5250*ImageView: disable
42
NS5250*ColumnSeparator: disable
NS5250*KeyRemap: disable
NS5250*ColorMap: basic
NS5250*KeyPad: disable_and_hide
NS5250*PlayBack: enable
NS5250*Control: enable
NS5250*Edit: enable
NS5250*LocalPrint: enable
NS5250*ChangeIPAddress: enable
NS5250*Command: enable
NS5250*Keymap101Path: 0
NS5250*Keymap102Path: 0
NS5250*Keymap122Path: 0
NS5250*ColorMapPath: 0
NS5250*PlayBackPath: 0
NS5250*DefaultColorMapPath: 0
## END 5250 preference file
###########################################################################
NOTE:
The /nstation/userdata/NS5250/pref file is normally managed by NSM and is the global or
system wide defaults file. It is an ASCII file that can be edited. However, care must be taken
so as not inject any erroneous characters at the end of the line and file. It is NOT normally
edited on systems that are using NSM.
Template For Replacing PC Running Windows
This is the information to enable bringing up a full screen WinCenter session.
In effect, all Network Station screens will essentially look and behave like the WinCenter console.
To accomplish this configuration:
ACTLogin is NOT used
The native window manager is NOT used
Only one session can be started at a time
If the session dies, the NC must be rebooted
Requires changes to one file
defaults.dft
The NC must be rebooted for any changes to be in effect
Below are the entries for the "defaults.dft" file
##########################################################################
## START /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
## WinCenter template definition
##
43
## START TCP/IP configuration ##
## Either use name-local-cache stanza or other three lines
## Comment out one of the choices below
set tcpip-name-server-protocol = dns
set tcpip-name-servers[-1] = {"1.2.3.2"}
set tcpip-dns-default-domain = austin.ibm.com
set tcpip-name-local-cache = {
#
{ bigsmile 1.2.3.232 }
#
{ bigeasy 1.2.3.248 }
{ localhost 127.0.0.1 }
#
{ sorry 1.2.3.211 }
}
## END TCP/IP configuration ##
##
## START environment variables configuration ##
## Have to set these since ACTLogin is not being used
## The PATH for these values may be different between platforms
##
set pref-environment = {
{"PATH" "/nstation/mods"}
{"HOME" "/nstation/"}
{"BOOTPATH" "/nstation/"}
{"LANGID" "ENU" }
{"MRIPATH" "MRI2924"}
{"NSM_PROD_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/ProdData/SysDef"}
{"NSM_ADMIN_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/UserData/SysDef"}
}
## END environment variables configuration ##
##
## START modules configuration ##
## set this to be empty avoid loading unneeded modules to conserve memory
##
set modules-load-policy = {{ }}
## END modules configuration ##
##
##START command to execute configuration ##
set exec-startup-commands = {
{"wincenter <Host> -depth 4 -resolution fullscreen -noaudio " }
}
##
## END command to execute configuration ##
## END /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
###############################################################################
NOTES:
44
1. The TCP/IP information may not need to be set if TCP/IP is already working
properly. If it is NOT already set, then modify the values in defaults.dft as appropriate.
Otherwise, remove the entire sub-section.
2. <Host> = hostname to login to, could be an IP address The <Host> value must be
placed as shown in the command example. It cannot be placed elsewhere within the
command string.
3. The user will be returned to the WinCenter login screen if they exit or log out of
WinCenter without needing to reboot the NC.
Template For Replacing UNIX/CDE Terminals
This is the information to enable bringing up a full screen UNIX session.
In effect, all Network Station screens will essentially look and behave like a UNIX console.
To accomplish this configuration:
ACTLogin is NOT used
The native window manager is NOT used
Only one session can be started at a time
If the session dies, the NC must be rebooted
Requires changes to one file
defaults.dft
The NC must be rebooted for any changes to be in effect
Below are the entries for the "defaults.dft" file
##########################################################################
## START /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
## UNIX Login template definition
##
## START TCP/IP configuration ##
## Either use name-local-cache stanza or other three lines
## Comment out one of the choices below
set tcpip-name-server-protocol = dns
set tcpip-name-servers[-1] = {"1.2.3.2"}
set tcpip-dns-default-domain = austin.ibm.com
set tcpip-name-local-cache = {
#
{ bigsmile 1.2.3.232 }
#
{ bigeasy 1.2.3.248 }
{ localhost 127.0.0.1 }
#
{ sorry 1.2.3.211 }
}
## END TCP/IP configuration ##
##
## START environment variables configuration ##
## Have to set these since ACTLogin is not being used
##
set pref-environment = {
45
{"PATH" "/nstation/mods"}
{"HOME" "/nstation/"}
{"BOOTPATH" "/nstation/"}
{"LANGID" "ENU" }
{"MRIPATH" "MRI2924"}
{"NSM_PROD_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/ProdData/SysDef"}
{"NSM_ADMIN_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/UserData/SysDef"}
}
## END environment variables configuration ##
##
## START modules configuration ##
## set this to be empty avoid loading unneeded modules to conserve memory
##
set modules-load-policy = {{ }}
## END modules configuration ##
##
##START command to execute configuration ##
set exec-startup-commands = {{ "login <Host>" }}
## END command to execute configuration ##
## END /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
##########################################################################
NOTES:
1) The TCP/IP information may not need to be set if TCP/IP is already working
properly.
If it is NOT already set, then modify the values in defaults.dft as appropriate.
Otherwise, remove the entire sub-section.
2) <Host> = hostname to login to, could be an IP address
3) The user will be returned to the UNIX login screen if they exit or log out of UNIX
without needing to reboot the Network Station.
4) The template assumes that the target UNIX host is running a window manager
such as Motif or CDE.
Template For Navio full screen session
This is the information to enable bringing up a full screen Navio browser session.
In effect, all Network Station screens will essentially look and behave like a browser only session.
To accomplish this configuration:
ACTLogin is NOT used
46
The native window manager is used
Only one session can be started at a time
If the session dies, the NC must be rebooted
Requires changes to one file
defaults.dft
The NC must be rebooted for any changes to be in effect
Below are the entries for the "defaults.dft" file
##########################################################################
## START /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
## Navio template definition
##
## START TCP/IP configuration ##
## Either use name-local-cache stanza or other three lines
## Comment out one of the choices below
set tcpip-name-server-protocol = dns
set tcpip-name-servers[-1] = {"1.2.3.2"}
set tcpip-dns-default-domain = austin.ibm.com
set tcpip-name-local-cache = {
#
{ bigsmile 1.2.3.232 }
#
{ bigeasy 1.2.3.248 }
{ localhost 127.0.0.1 }
#
{ sorry 1.2.3.211 }
}
## END TCP/IP configuration ##
##
## START environment variables configuration ##
## Have to set these since ACTLogin is not being used
## The PATH for these values may be different between platforms
##
set pref-environment = {
{"PATH" "/nstation/mods"}
{"HOME" "/nstation/"}
{"BOOTPATH" "/nstation/"}
{"LANGID" "ENU" }
{"MRIPATH" "MRI2924"}
{"NSM_PROD_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/ProdData/SysDef"}
{"NSM_ADMIN_SYSDEFAULTS" "/nstation/UserData/SysDef"}
{"SOCKS_HOST" "<socks server>"}
{"SOCKS_PORT" "1080"}
{"HOME_PAGE" "http://<somehost>/<somepage>"}
}
## END environment variables configuration ##
##
## START modules configuration ##
## set this to be empty avoid loading unneeded modules to conserve memory
##
set modules-load-policy = {{ }}
47
## END modules configuration ##
##
##START commands to execute configuration
set exec-startup-commands = {
{ wm }
{"navio -geometry <resolution>+0+0 <Host> "}
}
## END /nstation/configs/defaults.dft
##########################################################################
NOTES:
1) The TCP/IP information may not need to be set if TCP/IP is already working properly.
If it is NOT already set, then modify the values in defaults.dft as appropriate.
Otherwise, remove the entire sub-section.
2) Use the following table to determine the exact parameter to use based upon desired screen resolution.
Display Resolution
set exec-startup-command={{
}}
640x480
800x600
"navio -geometry 640x480+0+0 <Host>"
" navio -geometry 800x600+0+0 <Host>"
1024x768
"navio -geometry 1024x768+0+0 <Host>"
1280x1024
"navio -geometry 1280x1024+0+0 <Host>"
3) <Host> = hostname to login to, could be an IP address
4) <socks server> = Your socks host. Comment out the line if not applicable
5) <somehost> and <somepage> = A default HOME page to start the browser with
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