LTC4011 High Efficiency Standalone Nickel Battery Charger FeaTures

LTC4011 High Efficiency Standalone Nickel Battery Charger FeaTures
LTC4011
High Efficiency Standalone
Nickel Battery Charger
Features
Description
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The LTC®4011 provides a complete, cost-effective nickel
battery fast charge solution in a small package using few
external components. A 550kHz PWM current source
controller and all necessary charge initiation, monitoring
and termination control circuitry are included.
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Complete NiMH/NiCd Charger for 1 to 16 Cells
No Microcontroller or Firmware Required
550kHz Synchronous PWM Current Source Controller
No Audible Noise with Ceramic Capacitors
PowerPath™ Control Support
Programmable Charge Current: 5% Accuracy
Wide Input Voltage Range: 4.5V to 34V
Automatic Trickle Precharge
–∆V Fast Charge Termination
Optional ∆T/∆t Fast Charge Termination
Automatic NiMH Top-Off Charge
Programmable Timer
Automatic Recharge
Multiple Status Outputs
Micropower Shutdown
20-Lead Thermally Enhanced TSSOP Package
Applications
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Integrated or Standalone Battery Charger
Portable Instruments or Consumer Products
Battery-Powered Diagnostics and Control
Back-Up Battery Management
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks of Linear
Technology Corporation. PowerPath is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation. All other
trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
The LTC4011 automatically senses the presence of a
DC adapter and battery insertion or removal. Heavily
discharged batteries are precharged with a trickle current. The LTC4011 can simultaneously use both –∆V and
∆T/∆t fast charge termination techniques and can detect
various battery faults. If necessary, a top-off charge is
automatically applied to NiMH batteries after fast charging is completed. The IC will also resume charging if the
battery self-discharges after a full charge cycle.
All LTC4011 charging operations are qualified by actual
charge time and maximum average cell voltage. Charging
may also be gated by minimum and maximum temperature
limits. NiMH or NiCd fast charge termination parameters
are pin-selectable.
Integrated PowerPath control support ensures that the
system remains powered at all times without allowing load
transients to adversely affect charge termination.
Typical Application
2A NiMH Battery Charger
FROM
ADAPTER
5V
2A NiMH Charge Cycle at 1C
10µF
INFET
FAULT
CHRG
TOC
READY
4.7µH
10µF
0.1µF
0.033µF
0.068µF
4011fb
LTC4011
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Pin Configuration
(Note 1)
VCC (Input Supply) to GND......................... –0.3V to 36V
DCIN to GND............................................... –0.3V to 36V
FAULT, CHRG, VCELL, VCDIV, SENSE, BAT, TOC
or READY to GND............................ –0.3V to VCC + 0.3V
SENSE to BAT.........................................................±0.3V
CHEM, VTEMP or TIMER to GND................. –0.3V to 3.5V
PGND to GND..........................................................±0.3V
Operating Ambient Temperature Range
(Note 2)......................................................... 0°C to 85°C
Operating Junction Temperature (Note 3).............. 125°C
Storage Temperature Range....................– 65°C to 150°C
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec)................... 300°C
TOP VIEW
DCIN
1
20 INFET
FAULT
2
19 READY
CHRG
3
18 VCC
CHEM
4
17 TGATE
GND
5
VRT
6
VTEMP
7
14 INTVDD
VCELL
8
13 TOC
VCDIV
9
12 BAT
21
TIMER 10
16 PGND
15 BGATE
11 SENSE
FE PACKAGE
20-LEAD PLASTIC TSSOP
TJMAX = 125°C, θJA = 38°C/W
EXPOSED PAD (PIN 21) IS GND, MUST BE SOLDERED TO PCB
TO OBTAIN SPECIFIED THERMAL RESISTANCE
Order Information
LEAD FREE FINISH
TAPE AND REEL
PART MARKING
PACKAGE DESCRIPTION
TEMPERATURE RANGE
LTC4011CFE#PBF
LTC4011CFE#TRPBF
LTC4011CFE
20-Lead Plastic TSSOP
0°C to 85°C
LEAD BASED FINISH
TAPE AND REEL
PART MARKING
PACKAGE DESCRIPTION
TEMPERATURE RANGE
LTC4011CFE
LTC4011CFE#TR
LTC4011CFE
20-Lead Plastic TSSOP
0°C to 85°C
Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges.
For more information on lead free part marking, go to: http://www.linear.com/leadfree/ For more information on tape and reel specifications, go to: http://www.linear.com/tapeandreel/
Electrical Characteristics
(Note 4) The l indicates specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 12V, BAT = 4.8V, GND = PGND = 0V, unless otherwise noted.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
VCC Supply
VCC
Input Voltage Range
l
4.5
34
V
5
10
µA
ISHDN
Shutdown Quiescent Current (Note 5)
VCC = BAT = 4.8V
IQ
Quiescent Current
Waiting to Charge (Pause)
l
3
5
mA
ICC
Operating Current
Fast Charge State, No Gate Load
l
5
9
mA
VCC Increasing
l
4.2
4.45
3.85
V
VUVLO
Undervoltage Threshold Voltage
VUV(HYST)
Undervoltage Hysteresis Voltage
VSHDNI
Shutdown Threshold Voltage
DCIN – VCC, DCIN Increasing
l
5
30
VSHDND
Shutdown Threshold Voltage
DCIN – VCC, DCIN Decreasing
l
–60
–25
–5
mV
VCE
Charge Enable Threshold Voltage
VCC – BAT, VCC Increasing
l
400
510
600
mV
170
mV
60
mV
INTVDD Regulator
VDD
Output Voltage
No Load
l
4.5
5
5.5
V
IDD
Short-Circuit Current (Note 6)
INTVDD = 0V
l
–100
–50
–10
mA
VCC = 4.5V, IDD = –10mA
l
3.85
INTVDD(MIN) Output Voltage
V
4011fb
LTC4011
Electrical
Characteristics
The l indicates specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 12V, BAT = 4.8V, GND = PGND = 0V, unless otherwise noted.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
3.075
3
3.3
l
3.525
3.6
l
–9
UNITS
Thermistor Termination
VRT
Output Voltage
IRT
Short-Circuit Current
RL = 10k
VRT = 0V
V
V
–1
mA
PWM Current Source
VFS
BAT – SENSE Full-Scale Regulation
Voltage (Fast Charge)
0.3V < BAT < VCC – 0.3V (Note 5)
BAT = 4.8V
l
95
95
100
100
105
105
mV
mV
VPC
BAT – SENSE Precharge Regulation Voltage 0.3V < BAT < VCC – 0.3V (Note 5)
BAT = 4.8V
l
16
16
20
20
24
24
mV
mV
VTC
BAT – SENSE Top-Off Charge
Regulation Voltage
0.3V < BAT < VCC – 0.3V (Note 5)
BAT = 4.8V
l
6.5
6.5
10
10
13.5
13.5
mV
mV
∆VLI
BAT – SENSE Line Regulation
5.5V < VCC < 25V, Fast Charge
IBAT
BAT Input Bias Current
0.3V < BAT < VCC – 0.1V
ISENSE
SENSE Input Bias Current
SENSE = BAT
IOFF
Input Bias Current
SENSE or BAT, VCELL = 0V
fTYP
±0.3
–2
mV
2
mA
50
150
µA
l
–1
0
1
µA
Typical Switching Frequency
l
460
550
640
kHz
fMIN
Minimum Switching Frequency
l
DCMAX
Maximum Duty Cycle
VOL(TG)
TGATE Output Voltage Low
(VCC – TGATE, Note 7)
VCC > 9V, No Load
VCC < 7V, No Load
l
l
VOH(TG)
TGATE Output Voltage High
VCC – TGATE, No Load
l
tR(TG)
TGATE Rise Time
CLOAD = 3nF, 10% to 90%
tF(TG)
TGATE Fall Time
CLOAD = 3nF, 10% to 90%
VOL(BG)
BGATE Output Voltage Low
No Load
l
VOH(BG)
BGATE Output Voltage High
No Load
l INTVDD – 0.075
tR(BG)
BGATE Rise Time
CLOAD = 1.6nF, 10% to 90%
35
80
ns
BGATE Fall Time
CLOAD = 1.6nF, 10% to 90%
15
80
ns
Analog Channel Leakage
0V < VCELL < 2V, 550mV < VTEMP < 2V
tF(BG)
20
30
kHz
98
99
%
5
VCC – 0.5
5.6
VCC
8.75
0
50
mV
35
100
ns
45
100
ns
0
50
mV
INTVDD
V
V
V
ADC Inputs
ILEAK
±100
nA
Charger Thresholds
VBP
Battery Present Threshold Voltage
l
320
350
370
VBOV
Battery Overvoltage
l
1.815
1.95
2.085
mV
V
VMFC
Minimum Fast Charge Voltage
l
850
900
950
mV
VFCBF
Fast Charge Battery Fault Voltage
l
1.17
1.22
1.27
V
∆VTERM
–∆V Termination
CHEM OPEN (NiCd)
CHEM = 0V (NiMH)
l
l
16
6
20
10
25
14
mV
mV
VAR
Automatic Recharge Voltage
VCELL Decreasing
l
1.260
1.325
1.390
V
∆TTERM
∆T Termination (Note 8)
CHEM = 3.3V (NiCd)
CHEM = 0V (NiMH)
l
l
1.3
0.5
2
1
2.7
1.5
°C/min
°C/min
TMIN
Minimum Charging Temperature (Note 8)
VTEMP Increasing
l
0
5
9
°C
TMAXI
Maximum Charge Initiation
Temperature (Note 8)
VTEMP Decreasing, Not Charging
l
41.5
45
47
°C
4011fb
LTC4011
Electrical
Characteristics
The l indicates specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 12V, BAT = 4.8V, GND = PGND = 0V, unless otherwise noted.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
TMAXC
Maximum Fast Charge Temperature
(Note 8)
VTEMP Decreasing, Fast Charge
MIN
TYP
MAX
l
57
60
63
VTEMP(D)
VTEMP(P)
UNITS
°C
VTEMP Disable Threshold Voltage
l
2.8
3.3
V
Pause Threshold Voltage
l
130
280
mV
l
–10
10
%
RTIMER = 49.9k
l
–20
20
%
mV
Charger Timing
∆tTIMER
Internal Time Base Error
∆tMAX
Programmable Timer Error
PowerPath Control
VFR
INFET Forward Regulation Voltage
DCIN – VCC
l
15
55
100
VOL(INFET)
Output Voltage Low
VCC – INFET, No Load
l
3.75
5.2
7
V
VOH(INFET)
Output Voltage High
VCC – INFET, No Load
l
0
50
mV
tOFF(INFET)
INFET OFF Delay Time
CLOAD = 10nF, INFET to 50%
3
15
µs
435
300
700
600
mV
mV
Status and Chemistry Select
VOL
Output Voltage Low (ILOAD = 10mA)
VCDIV
All Other Status Outputs
l
l
ILKG
Output Leakage Current
All Status Outputs Inactive, VOUT = VCC
l
–10
10
µA
IIH(VCDIV)
Input Current High
VCDIV = VBAT (Shutdown)
l
–1
1
µA
900
mV
VIL
Input Voltage Low
CHEM (NiMH)
l
VIH
Input Voltage High
CHEM (NiCd)
l
2.85
IIL
Input Current Low
CHEM = GND
l
–20
–5
µA
IIH
Input Current High
CHEM = 3.3V
l
–20
20
µA
Note 1: Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. Exposure to any Absolute
Maximum Rating condition for extended periods may affect device
reliability and lifetime.
Note 2: The LTC4011C is guaranteed to meet performance specifications
from 0°C to 70°C. Specifications over the 0°C to 85°C operating
temperature range are assured by design, characterization and correlation
with statistical process controls.
Note 3: Operating junction temperature TJ (in °C) is calculated from
the ambient temperature TA and the total continuous package power
dissipation PD (in watts) by the formula:
TJ = TA + θJA • PD
Refer to the Applications Information section for details. This IC includes
overtemperature protection that is intended to protect the device during
momentary overload conditions. Junction temperature will exceed 125°C
V
when overtemperature protection is active. Continuous operation above
the specified maximum operating junction temperature may result in
device degradation or failure.
Note 4: All current into device pins is positive. All current out of device
pins is negative. All voltages are referenced to GND, unless otherwise
specified.
Note 5: These limits are guaranteed by correlation to wafer level measurements.
Note 6: Output current may be limited by internal power dissipation. Refer
to the Applications Information section for details.
Note 7: Either TGATE VOH may apply for 7.5V < VCC < 9V.
Note 8: These limits apply specifically to the thermistor network shown in
Figure 5 in the Applications Information section with the values specified
for a 10k NTC (β of 3750). Limits are then guaranteed by specific VTEMP
voltage measurements during test.
4011fb
LTC4011
Typical Performance Characteristics
NiCd Charge Cycle at 1C
NiMH Charge Cycle at 0.5C
Automatic Recharge Threshold
Voltage (per Cell)
NiCd Charge Cycle at 2C
Battery Present Threshold Voltage
(per Cell)
Battery Overvoltage Threshold
Voltage (per Cell)
Minimum Fast Charge Threshold
Voltage (per Cell)
–∆V Termination Voltage (per Cell)
4011fb
LTC4011
Typical Performance Characteristics
Programmable Timer Accuracy
Charger Efficiency at IOUT = 2A
Fast Charge Current Output
Regulation
Charge Current Accuracy
Charger Soft-Start
INFET Forward Regulation Voltage
PWM Switching Frequency
Fast Charge Current Line
Regulation
INFET OFF Delay Time
4011fb
LTC4011
Typical Performance Characteristics
PowerPath Switching
PWM Input Bias Current (OFF)
CURRENT (µA)
CURRENT (µA)
Shutdown Quiescent Current
100µs/DIV
Undervoltage Lockout Threshold
Voltage
Thermistor Disable Threshold
Voltage
Shutdown Threshold Voltage
(DCIN – VCC)
Charge Enable Threshold Voltage
(VCC – BAT)
Pause Threshold Voltage
4011fb
LTC4011
Typical Performance Characteristics
INTVDD Voltage
INTVDD Short-Circuit Current
Pin Functions
DCIN (Pin 1): DC Power Sense Input. The LTC4011 senses
voltage on this pin to determine when an external DC
power source is present. This input should be isolated
from VCC by a blocking diode or PowerPath FET. Refer to
the Applications Information section for complete details.
Operating voltage range is GND to 34V.
FAULT (Pin 2): Active-Low Fault Indicator Output. The
LTC4011 indicates various battery and internal fault conditions by connecting this pin to GND. Refer to the Operation
and Applications Information sections for further details.
This output is capable of driving an LED and should be
left floating if not used. FAULT is an open-drain output to
GND with an operating voltage range of GND to VCC.
CHRG (Pin 3): Active-Low Charge Indicator Output. The
LTC4011 indicates it is providing charge to the battery by
connecting this pin to GND. Refer to the Operation and
Applications Information sections for further details. This
output is capable of driving an LED and should be left
floating if not used. CHRG is an open-drain output to GND
with an operating voltage range of GND to VCC.
CHEM (Pin 4): Battery Chemistry Selection Input. This
pin should be wired to GND to select NiMH fast charge
termination parameters. If a voltage greater than 2.85V is
applied to this pin, or it is left floating, NiCd parameters
are used. Refer to the Applications Information section for
further details. Operating voltage range is GND to 3.3V.
GND (Pin 5): Ground. This pin provides a single-point
ground for internal references and other critical analog
circuits.
VRT (Pin 6): Thermistor Network Termination Output. The
LTC4011 provides 3.3V on this pin to drive an external
thermistor network connected between VRT, VTEMP and
GND. Additional power should not be drawn from this pin
by the host application.
VTEMP (Pin 7): Battery Temperature Input. An external
thermistor network may be connected to VTEMP to provide
temperature-based charge qualification and additional
fast charge termination control. Charging may also be
paused by connecting the VTEMP pin to GND. Refer to
the Operation and Applications Information sections for
complete details on external thermistor networks and
charge control. If this pin is not used it should be wired
to VRT. Operating voltage range is GND to 3.3V.
VCELL (Pin 8): Average Single-Cell Voltage Input. An external voltage divider between BAT and VCDIV is attached to
this pin to monitor the average single-cell voltage of the
battery pack. The LTC4011 uses this information to protect
against catastrophic battery overvoltage and to control
the charging state. Refer to the Applications Information
section for further details on the external divider network.
Operating voltage range is GND to BAT.
4011fb
LTC4011
Pin Functions
VCDIV (Pin 9): Average Cell Voltage Resistor Divider Termination. The LTC4011 connects this pin to GND provided the
charger is not in shutdown. VCDIV is an open-drain output
to GND with an operating voltage range of GND to BAT.
TIMER (Pin 10): Charge Timer Input. A resistor connected
between TIMER and GND programs charge cycle timing
limits. Refer to the Applications Information section for
complete details. Operating voltage range is GND to 1V.
SENSE (Pin 11): Charge Current Sense Input. An external
resistor between this input and BAT is used to program
charge current. Refer to the Applications Information
section for complete details on programming charge
current. Operating voltage ranges from (BAT – 50mV) to
(BAT + 200mV).
BAT (Pin 12): Battery Pack Connection. The LTC4011 uses
the voltage on this pin to control current sourced from
VCC to the battery during charging. Allowable operating
voltage range is GND to VCC.
TOC (Pin 13): Active-Low Top-Off Charge Indicator Output. The LTC4011 indicates the top-off charge state for
NiMH batteries by connecting this pin to GND. Refer to
the Operation and Applications Information sections for
further details. This output is capable of driving an LED
and should be left floating if not used. TOC is an opendrain output to GND with an operating voltage range of
GND to VCC.
INTVDD (Pin 14): Internal 5V Regulator Output. This pin
provides a means of bypassing the internal 5V regulator
used to power the BGATE output driver. Typically, power
should not be drawn from this pin by the application
circuit. Refer to the Application Information section for
additional details.
BGATE (Pin 15): External Synchronous N-channel MOSFET
Gate Control Output. This output provides gate drive to
an optional external NMOS power transistor switch used
for synchronous rectification to increase efficiency in the
step-down DC/DC converter. Operating voltage is GND to
INTVDD. BGATE should be left floating if not used.
PGND (Pin 16): Power Ground. This pin provides a return
for switching currents generated by internal LTC4011 circuits. Externally, PGND and GND should be wired together
using a very low impedance connection. Refer to PCB
Layout Considerations in the Applications Information
section for additional grounding details.
TGATE (Pin 17): External P-channel MOSFET Gate Control
Output. This output provides gate drive to an external PMOS
power transistor switch used in the DC/DC converter. Operating voltage range varies as a function of VCC. Refer to
the Electrical Characteristics table for specific voltages.
VCC (Pin 18): Power Input. External PowerPath control
circuits normally connect either the DC input power supply or the battery to this pin. Refer to the Applications
Information section for further details. Suggested applied
voltage range is GND to 34V.
READY (Pin 19): Active-Low Ready-to-Charge Output.
The LTC4011 connects this pin to GND if proper operating
voltages for charging are present. Refer to the Operation
section for complete details on charge qualification. This
output is capable of driving an LED and should be left
floating if not used. READY is an open-drain output to
GND with an operating voltage range of GND to VCC.
INFET (Pin 20): PowerPath Control Output. For very low
dropout applications, this output may be used to drive
the gate of an input PMOS pass transistor connected
between the DC input (DCIN) and the raw system supply
rail (VCC). INFET is internally clamped about 6V below VCC.
Maximum operating voltage is VCC. INFET should be left
floating if not used.
Exposed Pad (Pin 21): This pin provides enhanced
thermal properties for the TSSOP. It must be soldered
to the PCB copper ground to obtain optimum thermal
performance.
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LTC4011
Block Diagram
1
2
3
4
7
8
FET DIODE
FAULT
READY
CHRG
VCC
UVLO AND
SHUTDOWN
CHEM
5 GND
6
INFET
DCIN
TGATE
THERMISTOR
INTERFACE
PGND
VRT
VTEMP
VCELL
A/D
CONVERTER
CHARGER
STATE
CONTROL
LOGIC
BGATE
PWM
BAT
SENSE
20
19
18
17
16
15
12
11
BATTERY
DETECTOR
9
10
VCDIV
TIMER
INTVDD
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
TOC
CHARGE
TIMER
VOLTAGE
REFERENCE
INTERNAL
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
14
13
4011 BD
4011fb
10
LTC4011
Operation
Figure 1. LTC4011 State Diagram
4011fb
11
LTC4011
Operation
(Refer to Figure 1)
Shutdown State
The LTC4011 remains in micropower shutdown until DCIN
(Pin 1) is driven above VCC (Pin 18). In shutdown all status
and PWM outputs and internally generated terminations
or supply voltages are inactive. Current consumption from
VCC and BAT is reduced to a very low level.
Charge Qualification State
Once DCIN is greater than VCC, the LTC4011 exits
micropower shutdown, enables its own internal supplies,
provides VRT voltage for temperature sensing, and switches
VCDIV to GND to allow measurement of the average singlecell voltage. The IC also verifies that VCC is at or above 4.2V,
VCC is 510mV above BAT and VCELL is between 350mV and
1.95V. If VCELL is below 350mV, no charging will occur, and
if VCELL is above 1.95V, the fault state is entered, which
is described in more detail below. Once adequate voltage
conditions exist for charging, READY is asserted.
Normal charging resumes from the previous state when
the sensed temperature returns to a satisfactory range. In
addition, other battery faults are detected during specific
charging states as described below.
Precharge State
If the initial voltage on VCELL is below 900mV, the LTC4011
enters the precharge state and enables the PWM current
source to trickle charge using one-fifth the programmed
charge current. The CHRG status output is active during
precharge. The precharge state duration is limited to
tMAX/12 minutes, where tMAX is the maximum fast charge
period programmed with the TIMER pin. If sufficient VCELL
voltage cannot be developed in this length of time, the fault
state is entered, otherwise fast charge begins.
Fast Charge State
Once charging is fully qualified, precharge begins (unless
the LTC4011 is paused). In that case, the VTEMP pin is
monitored for further control. The charge status indicators
and PWM outputs remain inactive until charging begins.
If adequate average single-cell voltage exists, the LTC4011
enters the fast charge state and begins charging at the
programmed current set by the external current sense
resistor connected between the SENSE and BAT pins.
The CHRG status output is active during fast charge. If
VCELL is initially above 1.325V, voltage-based termination
processing begins immediately. Otherwise –∆V termination
is disabled for a stabilization period of tMAX/12. In that
case, the LTC4011 makes another fault check at tMAX/12,
requiring the average cell voltage to be above 1.22V. This
ensures the battery pack is accepting a fast charge. If
VCELL is not above this voltage threshold, the fault state is
entered. Fast charge state duration is limited to tMAX and
the fault state is entered if this limit is exceeded.
Charge Monitoring
Charge Termination
The LTC4011 continues to monitor important voltage and
temperature parameters during all charging states. If the
DC input is removed, charging stops and the shutdown
state is entered. If VCC drops below 4.25V or VCELL drops
below 350mV, charging stops and the LTC4011 returns
to the charge qualification state. If VCELL exceeds 1.95V,
charging stops and the IC enters the fault state. If an external
thermistor indicates sensed temperature is beyond a range
of 5°C to 60°C, or the internal die temperature exceeds an
internal thermal limit, charging is suspended, the charge
timer is paused and the LTC4011 indicates a fault condition.
Fast charge termination parameters are dependent upon
the battery chemistry selected with the CHEM pin. Voltagebased termination (–∆V) is always active after the initial
voltage stabilization period. If an external thermistor network
is present, chemistry-specific limits for ∆T/∆t (rate of temperature rise) are also used in the termination algorithm.
Temperature-based termination, if enabled, becomes active
as soon as the fast charge state is entered. Successful
charge termination requires a charge rate between C/2 and
2C. Lower rates may not produce the battery voltage and
temperature profile required for charge termination.
If the voltage between VTEMP and GND is below 200mV, the
LTC4011 is paused. If VTEMP is above 200mV but below
2.85V, the LTC4011 verifies that the sensed temperature is
between 5°C and 45°C. If these temperature limits are not
met or if its own die temperature is too high, the LTC4011
will indicate a fault and not allow charging to begin. If VTEMP
is greater than 2.85V, battery temperature related charge
qualification, monitoring and termination are disabled.
4011fb
12
LTC4011
Operation
Top-Off Charge State
If NiMH fast charge termination occurs because the
∆T/∆t limit is exceeded after an initial period of tMAX/12
has expired, the LTC4011 enters the top-off charge state.
Top-off charge is implemented by sourcing one-tenth the
programmed charge current for tMAX/3 minutes to ensure
that 100% charge has been delivered to the battery. The
CHRG and TOC status outputs are active during the top-off
state. If NiCd cells have been selected with the CHEM pin,
the LTC4011 never enters the top-off state.
resume when all temperatures return to acceptable levels.
Refer to the Status Outputs section for more detail.
Insertion and Removal of Batteries
The LTC4011 automatically senses the insertion or removal
of a battery by monitoring the VCELL pin voltage. Should
this voltage fall below 350mV, the IC considers the battery to be absent. Removing and then inserting a battery
causes the LTC4011 to initiate a completely new charge
cycle beginning with charge qualification.
Automatic Recharge State
External Pause Control
Once charging is complete, the automatic recharge state
is entered to address the self-discharge characteristics
of nickel chemistry cells. The charge status outputs are
inactive during automatic recharge, but VCDIV remains
switched to GND to monitor the average cell voltage. If the
VCELL voltage drops below 1.325V without falling below
350mV, the charge timer is reset and a new fast charge
cycle is initiated.
After charging is initiated, the VTEMP pin may be used to
pause operation at any time. When the voltage between
VTEMP and GND drops below 200mV, the charge timer
pauses, fast charge termination algorithms are inhibited
and the PWM outputs are disabled. The status and VCDIV
outputs all remain active. Normal function is fully restored
from the previous state when pause ends.
The internal termination algorithms of the LTC4011 are
adjusted when a fast charge cycle is initiated from automatic recharge, because the battery should be almost fully
charged. Voltage-based termination is enabled immediately
and the NiMH ∆T/∆t limit is fixed at a battery temperature
rise of 1°C/minute.
Fault State
As discussed previously, the LTC4011 enters the fault state
based on detection of invalid battery voltages during various charging phases. The IC also monitors the regulation
of the PWM control loop and will enter the fault state if
this is not within acceptable limits. Once in the fault state,
the battery must be removed or DC input power must be
cycled in order to initiate further charging. In the fault
state, the FAULT output is active, the READY output is
inactive, charging stops and the charge indicator outputs
are inactive. The VCDIV output remains connected to GND
to allow detection of battery removal.
Note that the LTC4011 also uses the FAULT output to indicate that charging is suspended due to invalid battery or
internal die temperatures. However, the IC does not enter
the fault state in these cases and normal operation will
Status Outputs
The LTC4011 open-drain status outputs provide valuable
information about the IC’s operating state and can be
used for a variety of purposes in applications. Table 1
summarizes the state of the four status outputs and the
VCDIV pin as a function of LTC4011 operation. The status
outputs can directly drive current-limited LEDs terminated
to the DC input. The VCDIV column in Table 1is strictly
informational. VCDIV should only be used for the VCELL
resistor divider, as previously discussed.
Table 1. LTC4011 Status Pins
CHRG
TOC
VCDIV
CHARGER STATE
Off
READY FAULT
Off
Off
Off
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off
On
Ready to Charge
(VTEMP Held Low)
or Automatic Recharge
On
Off
On
Off
On
Precharge or Fast Charge
(May be Paused)
On
Off
On
On
On
NiMH Top-Off Charge
(May be Paused)
On
On
On
Temperature Limits
Exceeded
Off
On
On
Fault State (Latched)
On or Off On or Off
Off
Off
4011fb
13
LTC4011
Operation
PWM Current Source Controller
An integral part of the LTC4011 is the PWM current source
controller. The charger uses a synchronous step-down
architecture to produce high efficiency and limited thermal
dissipation. The nominal operating frequency of 550kHz
allows use of a smaller external filter components. The
TGATE and BGATE outputs have internally clamped voltage swings. They source peak currents tailored to smaller
surface-mount power FETs likely to appear in applications
providing an average charge current of 3A or less. During
the various charging states, the LTC4011 uses the PWM
controller to regulate an average voltage between SENSE
and BAT that ranges from 10mV to 100mV.
A conceptual diagram of the LTC4011 PWM control loop
is shown in Figure 2.
The voltage across the external current programming
resistor RSENSE is averaged by integrating error amplifier
EA. An internal programming current is also pulled from
input resistor R1. The IPROG • R1 product establishes the
desired average voltage drop across RSENSE, and hence,
the average current through RSENSE. The ITH output of
the error amplifier is a scaled control current for the input
VCC
LTC4011
P
17
N
15
11
RSENSE
12
TGATE
Q
PWM CLOCK
S
R
BGATE
SENSE
R3
BAT
R4
R1
R2
CC
–
+
EA
ITH
At the beginning of each oscillator cycle, the PWM clock
sets the SR latch and the external P-channel MOSFET is
switched on (N-channel MOSFET switched off) to refresh
the current carried by the external inductor. The inductor
current and voltage drop across RSENSE begin to rise
linearly. During normal operation, the PFET is turned
off (NFET on) during the cycle by CC when the voltage
difference across RSENSE reaches the peak value set by
the output of EA. The inductor current then ramps down
linearly until the next rising PWM clock edge. This closes
the loop and maintains the desired average charge current
in the external inductor.
Low Dropout Charging
After charging is initiated, the LTC4011 does not require
that VCC remain at least 500mV above BAT because situations exist where low dropout charging might occur. In
one instance, parasitic series resistance may limit PWM
headroom (between VCC and BAT) as 100% charge is
reached. A second case can arise when the DC adapter
selected by the end user is not capable of delivering the
current programmed by RSENSE, causing the output voltage of the adapter to collapse. While in low dropout, the
LTC4011 PWM runs near 100% duty cycle with a frequency
that may not be constant and can be less than 550kHz.
The charge current will drop below the programmed value
to avoid generating audible noise, so the actual charge
delivered to the battery may depend primarily on the
LTC4011 charge timer.
Internal Die Temperature
IPROG
4011 F02
Figure 2. LTC4011 PWM Control Loop
of the PWM comparator CC. The ITH • R3 product sets a
peak current threshold for CC such that the desired average current through RSENSE is maintained. The current
comparator output does this by switching the state of the
SR latch at the appropriate time.
The LTC4011 provides internal overtemperature detection
to protect against electrical overstress, primarily at the
FET driver outputs. If the die temperature rises above this
thermal limit, the LTC4011 stops switching and indicates
a fault as previously discussed.
4011fb
14
LTC4011
Applications Information
External DC Source
Battery Chemistry Selection
The external DC power source should be connected to the
charging system and the VCC pin through either a power
diode or P-channel MOSFET. This prevents catastrophic
system damage in the event of an input short to ground or
reverse-voltage polarity at the DC input. The LTC4011 automatically senses when this input is present. The open-circuit
voltage of the DC source should be between 4.5V and 34V,
depending on the number of cells being charged. In order
to avoid low dropout operation, ensure 100% capacity at
charge termination, and allow reliable detection of battery
insertion, removal or overvoltage, the following equation
can be used to determine the minimum full-load voltage that
should be provided by the external DC power source.
The desired battery chemistry is selected by programming
the CHEM pin to the proper voltage. If it is wired to GND,
a set of parameters specific to charging NiMH cells is
selected. When CHEM is left floating or connected to VRT,
charging is optimized for NiCd cells. The various charging
parameters are detailed in Table 2.
DCIN(MIN) = (n • 2V) + 0.3V
RSENSE is an external resistor connected between the
SENSE and BAT pins. A 1% resistor with a low temperature
coefficient and sufficient power dissipation capability to
avoid self-heating effects is recommended. Charge rate
should be between approximately C/2 and 2C.
where n is the number of series cells in the battery pack.
The LTC4011 will properly charge over a wide range
of DCIN and BAT voltage combinations. Operating the
LTC4011 in low dropout or with DCIN much greater than
BAT will force the PWM frequency to be much less than
550kHz. The LTC4011 disables charging and sets a fault
if a large DCIN to BAT differential would cause generation
of audible noise.
PowerPath Control
Proper PowerPath control is an important consideration
when fast charging nickel cells. This control ensures that
the system load remains powered at all times, but that
normal system operation and associated load transients
do not adversely affect fast charge termination. For high
efficiency and low dropout applications, the LTC4011 can
provide gate drive from the INFET pin directly to an input
P-channel MOSFET.
The battery should also be connected to the raw system
supply by a switch that selects the battery for system
power only if an external DC source is not present. Again,
for applications requiring higher efficiency, a P-channel
MOSFET with its gate driven from the DC input can be used
to perform this switching function (see Figure 8). Gate
voltage clamping may be necessary on an external PMOS
transistor used in this manner at higher input voltages.
Alternatively, a diode can be used in place of this FET.
Programming Charge Current
Charge current is programmed using the following
equation:
RSENSE =
100mV
IPROG
Inductor Value Selection
For many applications, 10µH represents an optimum value
for the inductor the PWM uses to generate charge current.
For applications with IPROG of 1.5A or greater running
from an external DC source of 15V or less, values between
5µH and 7.5µH can often be selected. For wider operating
conditions the following equation can be used as a guide
for selecting the minimum inductor value.
L > 6.5 • 10–6 • VDCIN • RSENSE, L ≥ 4.7µH
Actual part selection should account for both manufacturing
tolerance and temperature coefficient to ensure this minimum. A good initial selection can be made by multiplying
the calculated minimum by 1.4 and rounding up or down
to the nearest standard inductance value.
Ultimately, there is no substitute for bench evaluation of
the selected inductor in the target application, which can
also be affected by other environmental factors such as
ambient operating temperature. Using inductor values
lower than recommended by the equation shown above
can result in a fault condition at the start of precharge or
top-off charge.
4011fb
15
LTC4011
Applications Information
Table 2. LTC4011 Charging Parameters
STATE
CHEM
PIN
BAT
CHEMISTRY
TIMER
TMIN
TMAX
ICHRG
Both
tMAX/12
5°C
45°C
IPROG/5
PC
FC
TERMINATION CONDITION
Timer Expires
Open
NiCd
tMAX
5°C
60°C
IPROG
–20mV per Cell or 2°C/Minute
GND
NiMH
tMAX
5°C
60°C
IPROG
1.5°C/Minute for First tMAX/12 Minutes if Initial
VCELL < 1.325V
–10mV per Cell or 1°C/Minute After tMAX/12 Minutes
or if Initial VCELL > 1.325V
TOC
GND
NiMH
AR
tMAX/3
Both
5°C
60°C
5°C
45°C
IPROG/10 Timer Expires
0
VCELL < 1.325V
PC: Precharge
FC: Fast Charge (Initial –∆V Termination Hold Off of tMAX/12 Minutes May Apply)
TOC: Top-Off Charge (Only for NiMH ∆T/∆t FC Termination After Initial tMAX/12 Period)
AR: Automatic Recharge (Temperature Limits Apply to State Termination Only)
Table 3. LTC4011 Time Limit Programming Examples
TYPICAL FAST
CHARGE RATE
PRECHARGE LIMIT
(MINUTES)
FAST CHARGE VOLTAGE STABILIZATION
(MINUTES)
FAST CHARGE LIMIT
(HOURS)
TOP-OFF
CHARGE
(MINUTES)
24.9k
2C
3.8
3.8
0.75
15
33.2k
1.5C
5
5
1
20
49.9k
1C
7.5
7.5
1.5
30
66.5k
0.75C
10
10
2
40
100k
C/2
15
15
3
60
RTIMER
Programming Maximum Charge Times
Connecting the appropriate resistor between the TIMER
pin and GND programs the maximum duration of various
charging states. To some degree, the value should reflect
how closely the programmed charge current matches the
1C rate of targeted battery packs. The maximum fast charge
period is determined by the following equation:
Some typical timing values are detailed in Table 3. RTIMER
should not be less than 15k. The actual time limits used
by the LTC4011 have a resolution of approximately ±30
seconds in addition to the tolerances given the Electrical
Characteristics table. If the timer ends without a valid –∆V or
∆T/∆t charge termination, the charger enters the fault state.
The maximum time period is approximately 4.3 hours.
Cell Voltage Network Design
An external resistor network is required to provide the
average single-cell voltage to the VCELL pin of the LTC4011.
16
The proper circuit for multicell packs is shown in Figure 3.
The ratio of R2 to R1 should be a factor of (n – 1), where
n is the number of series cells in the battery pack. The
value of R1 should be between 1k and 100k. This range
limits the sensing error caused by VCELL leakage current
and prevents the ON resistance of the internal NFET between VCDIV and GND from causing a significant error in
the VCELL voltage. The external resistor network is also
used to detect battery insertion and removal. The filter
formed by C1 and the parallel combination of R1 and R2
FOR TWO OR
MORE SERIES CELLS
BAT 12
LTC4011
VCELL
VCDIV
R2
+
8
R1
C1
9
R2 = R1(n – 1)
GND
5
4011 F03
Figure 3. Mulitple Cell Voltage Divider
4011fb
LTC4011
Applications Information
is recommended for rejecting PWM switching noise. The
value of C1 should be chosen to yield a 1st order lowpass
frequency of less than 500Hz. In the case of a single cell,
the external application circuit shown in Figure 4 is recommended to provide the necessary noise filtering and
missing battery detection.
Thermistor Network Design
The network for proper temperature sensing using a
thermistor with a negative temperature coefficient (NTC)
is shown in Figure 5. R3 is only present for thermistors
with an exponential temperature coefficient (β) above
3750. For thermistors with β below 3750, replace R3
with a short.
12
9
8
BAT
VCDIV
1 CELL
10k
10k
T0 = thermistor reference temperature (°K)
33nF
β = exponential temperature coefficient of resistance
4011 F04
Figure 4. Single-Cell Monitor Network
VRT
R3
RT
R2
where:
R0 = thermistor resistance (Ω) at T0
VCELL
R1 R4
51k
VTEMP
6
7
C1
10nF
4011 F05
Figure 5. External NTC Thermistor Network
The LTC4011 is designed to work best with a 5% 10K NTC
thermistor with a β near 3750, such as the Siemens/EPCOS
B57620C103J062. In this case, the values for the external
network are given by:
R1 = 9.76k
R2 = 28k
R3 = 0Ω
However, the LTC4011 will operate with other NTC thermistors having different nominal values or exponential
temperature coefficients. For these thermistors, the design
equations for the resistors in the external network are:
For thermistors with β less than 3750, the equation for R3
yields a negative number. This number should be used to
compute R2, even though R3 is replaced with a short in the
actual application. An additional high temperature charge
qualification error of between 0°C and 5°C may occur when
using thermistors with β lower than 3750. Thermistors
with nominal β less than 3300 should be avoided.
The filter formed by R4 and C1 in Figure 5 is optional
but recommended for rejecting PWM switching noise.
Alternatively, R4 may be replaced by a short, and a value
chosen for C1 which will provide adequate filtering from
the Thevenin impedance of the remaining thermistor network. The filter pole frequency, which should be less than
500Hz, will vary more with battery temperature without
R4. External components should be chosen to make the
Thevenin impedance from VTEMP to GND 100kΩ or less,
including R4, if present.
Disabling Thermistor Functions
Temperature sensing is optional in LTC4011 applications.
For low cost systems where temperature sensing may
not be required, the VTEMP pin may simply be wired to
VRT to disable temperature qualification of all charging
4011fb
17
LTC4011
Applications Information
operations. However, this practice is not recommended
for NiMH cells charged well above or below their 1C rate,
because fast charge termination based solely on voltage
inflection may not be adequate to protect the battery from
a severe overcharge. A resistor between 10k and 20k may
be used to connect VTEMP to VRT if the pause function is
still desired.
QBGATE = Gate charge of external N-channel MOSFET
(if used) in coulombs
INTVDD Regulator Output
Sample Applications
If BGATE is left open, the INTVDD pin of the LTC4011 can
be used as an additional source of regulated voltage in the
host system any time READY is active. Switching loads
on INTVDD may reduce the accuracy of internal analog
circuits used to monitor and terminate fast charging.
In addition, DC current drawn from the INTVDD pin can
greatly increase internal power dissipation at elevated VCC
voltages. A minimum ceramic bypass capacitor of 0.1µF
is recommended.
Calculating Average Power Dissipation
The user should ensure that the maximum rated IC junction
temperature is not exceeded under all operating conditions.
The thermal resistance of the LTC4011 package (θJA)
is 38°C/W, provided the exposed metal pad is properly
soldered to the PCB. The actual thermal resistance in the
application will depend on the amount of PCB copper to
which the package is soldered. Feedthrough vias directly
below the package that connect to inner copper layers
are helpful in lowering thermal resistance. The following
formula may be used to estimate the maximum average
power dissipation PD (in watts) of the LTC4011 under
normal operating conditions.
where:
IDD = Average external INTVDD load current, if any
IVRT = Load current drawn by the external thermistor
network from VRT, if any
QTGATE = Gate charge of external P-channel MOSFET
in coulombs
VLED = Maximum external LED forward voltage
RLED = External LED current-limiting resistor used in
the application
n = Number of LEDs driven by the LTC4011
Figures 6 through 9 detail sample charger applications
of various complexities. Combined with the Typical Application on the first page of this data sheet, these Figures
demonstrate some of the proper configurations of the
LTC4011. MOSFET body diodes are shown in these figures
strictly for reference only.
Figure 6 shows a minimum application, which might be
encountered in low cost NiCd fast charge applications.
FET-based PowerPath control allows for maximum input
voltage range from the DC adapter. The LTC4011 uses
–∆V to terminate the fast charge state, as no external
temperature information is available. Nonsynchronous
PWM switching is employed to reduce external component
cost. A single LED indicates charging status.
A 3A NiMH application of medium complexity is shown in
Figure 7. PowerPath control that is completely FET-based
allows for both minimum input voltage overhead and minimum switchover loss when operating from the battery.
P-channel MOSFET Q4 functions as a switch to connect the
battery to the system load whenever the DC input adapter
is removed. If the maximum battery voltage is less than
the maximum rated VGS of Q4, diode D1 and resistor R5
are not required. Otherwise choose the Zener voltage
of D1 to be less than the maximum rated VGS of Q4. R5
provides a bias current of (VBAT – VZENER)/(R5 + 20k) for
D1 when the input adapter is removed. Choose R5 to make
this current, which is drawn from the battery, just large
enough to develop the desired VGS across D1.
Precharge, fast charge and top-off states are indicated by
external LEDs. The VTEMP thermistor network allows the
LTC4011 to accurately terminate fast charge under a variety
of applied charge rates. Use of a synchronous PWM topology improves efficiency and lowers power dissipation.
4011fb
18
LTC4011
Applications Information
FROM
ADAPTER
12V
10µF
INFET
FAULT
CHRG
TOC
READY
10µH
10µF
0.1µF
Figure 6. Minimum 1A LTC4011 Application
FROM
ADAPTER
12V
20µF
FAULT
CHRG
TOC
READY
4.7µH
20µF
0.1µF
0.033µF
0.068µF
Figure 7. 3A NiMH Charger with Full PowerPath Control
A full-featured 2A LTC4011 application is shown in Figure 8.
FET-based PowerPath allows for maximum input voltage
range from the DC adapter. The inherent voltage ratings
of the VCELL, VCDIV, SENSE and BAT pins allow charging
of one to sixteen series nickel cells in this application,
governed only by the VCC overhead limits previously discussed. The application includes all average cell voltage
and battery temperature sensing circuitry required for the
LTC4011 to utilize its full range of charge qualification,
safety monitoring and fast charge termination features.
LED D1 indicates valid DC input voltage and installed
battery, while LEDs D2 and D3 indicate charging. LED D4
indicates fault conditions. The grounded CHEM pin selects
the NiMH charge termination parameter set.
4011fb
19
LTC4011
Applications Information
While the LTC4011 is a complete, standalone solution,
Figure 9 shows that it can also be interfaced to a host
microprocessor. The host MCU can control the charger
directly with an open-drain I/O port connected to the VTEMP
pin, if that port is low leakage and can tolerate at least
2V. The charger state is monitored on the four LTC4011
status outputs. Charging of NiMH batteries is selected in
this example. However, NiCd (CHEM → VRT) parameters
could be chosen as well.
FROM
ADAPTER
12V
10µF
D1
D2
D3
D4
INFET
FAULT
CHRG
TOC
READY
6.8µH
10µF
0.1µF
Figure 8. Full-Featured 2A LTC4011 Application
FROM
ADAPTER
24V
10µF
INFET
FAULT
CHRG
TOC
READY
22µH
0.1µF
PAUSE
FROM
MCU
NiMH PACK
WITH 10k NTC
(1Ahr)
Figure 9. LTC4011 with MCU Interface
4011fb
20
LTC4011
Applications Information
Unlike all of the other applications discussed so far, the
battery continues to power the system during charging.
The MCU could be powered directly from the battery or
from any type of post regulator operating from the battery.
In this configuration, the LTC4011 relies expressly on the
ability of the host MCU to know when load transients will
be encountered. The MCU should then pause charging
(and thus –∆V processing) during those events to avoid
premature fast charge termination. If the MPU cannot reliably perform this function, full PowerPath control should
be implemented. In most applications, there should not be
an external load on the battery during charge. Excessive
battery load current variations, such as those generated
by a post-regulating PWM, can generate sufficient voltage
noise to cause the LTC4011 to prematurely terminate a
charge cycle and/or prematurely restart a fast charge. In
this case, it may be necessary to inhibit the LTC4011 after
charging is complete until external gas gauge circuitry
indicates that recharging is necessary. Shutdown power
is applied to the LTC4011 through the body diode of Q2
in this application.
Waveforms
Sample waveforms for a standalone application during
a typical charge cycle are shown in Figure 10. Note that
these waveforms are not to scale and do not represent the
complete range of possible activity. The figure is simply
intended to allow better conceptual understanding and to
highlight the relative behavior of certain signals generated
by the LTC4011 during a typical charge cycle.
Initially, the LTC4011 is in low power shutdown as the
system operates from a heavily discharged battery. A DC
adapter is then connected such that VCC rises above 4.25V
and is 500mV above BAT. The READY output is asserted
when the LTC4011 completes charge qualification.
When the LTC4011 determines charging should begin, it starts a precharge cycle because VCELL is less than 900mV.
As long as the temperature remains within prescribed
limits, the LTC4011 charges (TGATE switching), applying
limited current to the battery with the PWM in order to
bring the average cell voltage to 900mV.
When the precharge state timer expires, the LTC4011
begins fast charge if VCELL is greater than 900mV. The
PWM, charge timer and internal termination control are
suspended if pause is asserted (VTEMP < 200mV), but all
status outputs continue to indicate charging is in progress.
The fast charge state continues until the selected voltage
or temperature termination criteria are met. Figure 10 suggests termination based on ∆T/∆t, which for NiMH would
be an increase greater than 1°C per minute.
Because NiMH charging terminated due to ∆T/∆t and the
fast charge cycle had lasted more than tMAX/12 minutes,
the LTC4011 begins a top-off charge with a current of
IPROG/10. Top-off is an internally timed charge of tMAX/3
minutes with the CHRG and TOC outputs continuously
asserted.
Finally, the LTC4011 enters the automatic recharge state
where the CHRG and TOC outputs are deasserted. The
PWM is disabled but VCDIV remains asserted to monitor
VCELL. The charge timer will be reset and fast charging will
resume if VCELL drops below 1.325V. The LTC4011 enters
shutdown when the DC adapter is removed, minimizing
current draw from the battery in the absence of an input
power source.
While not a part of the sample waveforms of Figure 10,
temperature qualification is an ongoing part of the charging process, if an external thermistor network is detected
by the LTC4011. Should prescribed temperature limits be
exceeded during any particular charging state, charging
would be suspended until the sensed temperature returned
to an acceptable range.
Battery-Controlled Charging
Because of the programming arrangement of the LTC4011,
it may be possible to configure it for battery-controlled
charging. In this case, the battery pack is designed to
provide customized information to an LTC4011-based
charger, allowing a single design to service a wide range
of application batteries. Assume the charger is designed
to provide a maximum charge current of 800mA (RSENSE =
125mΩ). Figure 11 shows a 4-cell NiCd battery pack for
which 800mA represents a 0.75C rate. When connected
to the charger, this pack would provide battery temperature information and correctly configure both fast charge
termination parameters and time limits for the internal
NiCd cells.
4011fb
21
LTC4011
Applications Information
READY
(PAUSE)
CHRG
TOC
Figure 10. Charging Waveforms Example
TIMER
CHEM
VTEMP
10
4
7
NC
66.5k
+
10k
NTC
BATTERY
PACK
1200mAhr
NiCd CELLS
–
CHEM
VTEMP
VCELL
4
7
8
10k
NTC
4011 F11
Figure 11. NiCd Battery Pack with Time Limit Control
A second possibility is to configure an LTC4011-based
charger to accept battery packs with varying numbers of
cells. By including R2 of the average cell voltage divider
network shown in Figure 3, battery-based programming
of the number of series-stacked cells could be realized
without defeating LTC4011 detection of battery insertion
or removal. Figure 12 shows a 2-cell NiMH battery pack
that programs the correct number of series cells when it is
connected to the charger, along with indicating chemistry
and providing temperature information.
Any of these battery pack charge control concepts could be
combined in a variety of ways to service custom application
needs. Charging parallel cells is not recommended.
+
R2
BATTERY
PACK
1500mAhr
NiMH CELLS
–
4011 F12
Figure 12. NiMH Battery Pack Indicating Number of Cells
PCB Layout Considerations
To prevent magnetic and electrical field radiation and
high frequency resonant problems, proper layout of the
components connected to the LTC4011 is essential. Refer
to Figure 13. For maximum efficiency, the switch node
rise and fall times should be minimized. The following
PCB design priority list will help ensure proper topology.
Layout the PCB using this specific order.
1. Input capacitors should be placed as close as possible
to switching FET supply and ground connections with
the shortest copper traces possible. The switching
FETs must be on the same layer of copper as the input
4011fb
22
LTC4011
Applications Information
capacitors. Vias should not be used to make these
connections.
2. Place the LTC4011 close to the switching FET gate
terminals, keeping the connecting traces short to
produce clean drive signals. This rule also applies to IC
supply and ground pins that connect to the switching
FET source pins. The IC can be placed on the opposite
side of the PCB from the switching FETs.
3. Place the inductor input as close as possible to the
drain of the switching FETs. Minimize the surface area
of the switch node. Make the trace width the minimum
needed to support the programmed charge current.
Use no copper fills or pours. Avoid running the connection on multiple copper layers in parallel. Minimize
capacitance from the switch node to any other trace
or plane.
4. Place the charge current sense resistor immediately
adjacent to the inductor output, and orient it such that
current sense traces to the LTC4011 are short. These
feedback traces need to be run together as a single pair
with the smallest spacing possible on any given layer
on which they are routed. Locate any filter component
on these traces next to the LTC4011, and not at the
sense resistor location.
5. Place output capacitors adjacent to the sense resisitor
output and ground.
6. Output capacitor ground connections must feed into
the same copper that connects to the input capacitor
ground before tying back into system ground.
7. Connection of switching ground to system ground,
or any internal ground plane should be single-point.
If the system has an internal system ground plane, a
good way to do this is to cluster vias into a single star
point to make the connection.
8. Route analog ground as a trace tied back to the LTC4011
GND pin before connecting to any other ground. Avoid
using the system ground plane. A useful CAD technique
is to make analog ground a separate ground net and
use a 0Ω resistor to connect analog ground to system
ground.
9. A good rule of thumb for via count in a given high
current path is to use 0.5A per via. Be consistent when
applying this rule.
10.If possible, place all the parts listed above on the same
PCB layer.
11.Copper fills or pours are good for all power connections except as noted above in Rule 3. Copper planes
on multiple layers can also be used in parallel. This
helps with thermal management and lowers trace inductance, which further improves EMI performance.
12.For best current programming accuracy, provide a
Kelvin connection from RSENSE to SENSE and BAT.
See Figure 14 for an example.
13.It is important to minimize parasitic capacitance on the
TIMER, SENSE and BAT pins. The traces connecting
these pins to their respective resistors should be as
short as possible.
SWITCH NODE
L1
VBAT
VIN
CIN
HIGH
FREQUENCY
CIRCULATING
PATH
D1
COUT
DIRECTION OF CHARGING CURRENT
RSENSE
BAT
4011 F14
SWITCHING GROUND
Figure 13. High Speed Switching Path
4011 F13
SENSE
BAT
Figure 14. Kelvin Sensing of Charge Current
4011fb
23
LTC4011
Package Description
FE Package
20-Lead Plastic TSSOP (4.4mm)
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1663)
Exposed Pad Variation CB
6.40 – 6.60*
(.252 – .260)
3.86
(.152)
3.86
(.152)
20 1918 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
6.60 ±0.10
2.74
(.108)
4.50 ±0.10
6.40
2.74 (.252)
(.108) BSC
SEE NOTE 4
0.45 ±0.05
1.05 ±0.10
0.65 BSC
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD LAYOUT
4.30 – 4.50*
(.169 – .177)
0.09 – 0.20
(.0035 – .0079)
0.25
REF
0.50 – 0.75
(.020 – .030)
NOTE:
1. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETERS
MILLIMETERS
2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN
(INCHES)
3. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
1.20
(.047)
MAX
0° – 8°
0.65
(.0256)
BSC
0.195 – 0.30
(.0077 – .0118)
TYP
0.05 – 0.15
(.002 – .006)
FE20 (CB) TSSOP 0204
4. RECOMMENDED MINIMUM PCB METAL SIZE
FOR EXPOSED PAD ATTACHMENT
*DIMENSIONS DO NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH. MOLD FLASH
SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.150mm (.006") PER SIDE
4011fb
24
LTC4011
Revision History
(Revision history begins at Rev B)
REV
DATE
DESCRIPTION
PAGE NUMBER
B
01/10
Changes to Typical Application
1
Updated Order Information Section
2
Changes to Electrical Characteristics
2, 3, 4
Changes to Operation Section
12, 13, 14
Changes to Applications Information
15, 16, 19,
21, 22
Changes to Figures 6, 7, 8, 9
19, 20
4011fb
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
25
LTC4011
Related Parts
PART NUMBER
DESCRIPTION
COMMENTS
LT 1510
Constant-Voltage/Constant-Current Battery Charger
Up to 1.5A Charge Current for Li-Ion, NiCd and NiMH Batteries
LT1511
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NiMH and NiCd Batteries
LT1513
SEPIC Constant- or Programmable-Current/Constant-
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Charger Input Voltage May be Higher, Equal to or Lower than Battery
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®
LTC1960
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11-Bit V-DAC, 0.8% Voltage Accuracy, 10-Bit I-DAC, 5% Current Accuracy
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Complete NiMH/NiCd Charger in a Small 16-Pin Package, Constant-Current
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LTC4060
Standalone Linear NiMH/NiCd Fast Charger
Complete NiMH/NiCd Charger in a Small Leaded or Leadless 16-Pin
Package, No Sense Resistor or Blocking Diode Required
LTC4100
Smart Battery Charger Controller
Level 2 Charger Operates with or without MCU Host, SMBus Rev. 1.1
Compliant
LTC4150
Coulomb Counter/Battery Gas Gauge
High Side Sense of Charge Quantity and Polarity in a 10-Pin MSOP
LTC4411
2.6A Low Loss Ideal Diode
No External MOSFET, Automatic Switching Between DC Sources, Simplified, 140mΩ On Resistance, ThinSOT™ Package
LTC4412/
LTC4412HV
Low Loss PowerPath Controllers
Very Low Loss Replacement for Power Supply ORing Diodes Using
Minimal External Components, 3V ≤ VIN ≤ 28V, (3V ≤ VIN ≤ 36V for HV)
LTC4413
Dual 2.6A, 2.5V to 5.5V, Ideal Diodes
Low Loss Replacement for ORing Diodes, 100mΩ On Resistance
ThinSOT is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation.
4011fb
26 Linear Technology Corporation
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900 ● FAX: (408) 434-0507
●
www.linear.com
LT 0110 REV B • PRINTED IN USA
 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2005
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