R&S®ZVA Getting Started
R&S® ZVA
Vector Network Analyzers
Getting Started
(;]:èÌ)
Getting Started
Test & Measurement
1145.1090.62 ─ 13
This Getting Started guide describes the following vector network analyzer types:
●
R&S® ZVA8, order no. 1145.1110.08/10 (2 or 4 test ports)
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R&S® ZVA24, order no. 1145.1110.24/26 (2 or 4 test ports, 2 generators)
●
R&S® ZVA24, order no. 1145.1110.28 (4 test ports, 4 generators)
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R&S® ZVA40, order no. 1145.1110.40/42 (2.92 mm, 2 or 4 test ports, 2 generators)
●
R&S® ZVA40, order no. 1145.1110.48 (2.92 mm, 4 test ports, 4 generators)
●
R&S® ZVA40, order no. 1145.1110.43/45 (2.4 mm, 2 or 4 test ports, 2 generators)
●
R&S® ZVA50, order no. 1145.1110.50/52 (2 or 4 test ports)
●
R&S® ZVA67, order no. 1305.7002.02/04 (2 or 4 test ports)
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R&S® ZVA80, order no. 1312.6750.02/03/04. An additional Getting Started guide 1312.6808.62 is
available for these instruments.
●
R&S® ZVA110, order no. 1312.7004.03/04. An additional Getting Started guide 1314.4502.62 is available for these instruments.
The firmware of the instrument makes use of several valuable open source software packages. For information, see the "Open
Source Acknowledgement" on the user documentation CD-ROM (included in delivery).
Rohde & Schwarz would like to thank the open source community for their valuable contribution to embedded computing.
© 2015 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this guide: R&S® ZVAxx is abbreviated as R&S ZVAxx, R&S® ZVA-xxx as R&S
ZVA-xxx
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF supply voltage
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Warning! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Ground
Device fully protected by double (reinforced)
insulation
Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additonal information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution severity 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the AC supply network, or if the power
switch is not suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product
from the AC supply network. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the
connecting cable must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing
disconnection from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 standards that apply
in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 10
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 11
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados Slos llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)S. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 12
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 13
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 14
Certified Quality System
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Dear customer,
Cher client,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf
eines Rohde & Schwarz Produktes entschieden. Sie erhalten
damit ein nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes
Produkt. Es wurde nach den
Regeln unserer Qualitäts- und
Umweltmanagementsysteme
entwickelt, gefertigt und geprüft.
Rohde & Schwarz ist unter anderem nach den Managementsystemen ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. This
product has been manufactured
using the most advanced methods. It was developed, manufactured and tested in compliance
with our quality management
and environmental management systems. Rohde & Schwarz
has been certified, for example, according to the ISO 9001
and ISO 14001 management
systems.
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
Environmental commitment
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un
produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous
disposez donc d’un produit
fabriqué d’après les méthodes
les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les
tests de ce produit ont été effectués selon nos systèmes de
management de qualité et de
management environnemental.
La société Rohde & Schwarz a
été homologuée, entre autres,
conformément aux systèmes
de management ISO 9001 et
ISO 14001.
❙❙ Energie-effiziente,
❙❙ Energy-efficient
RoHS-konforme Produkte
❙❙ Kontinuierliche
Weiterentwicklung nachhaltiger
­Umweltkonzepte
❙❙ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
❙❙ Continuous
Engagement écologique
❙❙ Produits
à efficience
énergétique
❙❙ Amélioration continue de la
durabilité environnementale
❙❙ Système de management
environnemental certifié selon
ISO 14001
1171.0200.11 V 05.01
products
improvement in
environmental sustainability
❙❙ ISO 14001-certified
environmental management
system
ISO-Qualitaets-Zertifikat_1171-0200-11_A4.indd 1
28.09.2012 10:25:08
1171020011
Quality management
and environmental
management
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
[email protected]
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
[email protected]
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
[email protected]
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
cu[email protected]
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
[email protected]
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S® ZVA
Contents
Contents
1 Preparing the Analyzer for Use.............................................................7
1.1
Front Panel Tour........................................................................................................... 7
1.1.1
Display............................................................................................................................ 8
1.1.2
Setup Keys......................................................................................................................9
1.1.3
Navigation Keys............................................................................................................ 10
1.1.4
Data Entry Keys............................................................................................................ 11
1.1.5
Rotary Knob.................................................................................................................. 12
1.1.6
Standby Key..................................................................................................................12
1.1.7
Front Panel Connectors................................................................................................ 12
1.1.8
Additional Hardware Options........................................................................................ 15
1.2
Rear Panel Tour...........................................................................................................15
1.3
Putting the Analyzer into Operation..........................................................................17
1.3.1
Unpacking and Checking the Analyzer......................................................................... 18
1.3.2
Setting up the Analyzer................................................................................................. 18
1.3.3
Bench Top Operation.................................................................................................... 19
1.3.4
Operation in a 19" Rack................................................................................................ 20
1.3.5
EMI Suppression...........................................................................................................20
1.3.6
Connecting the Analyzer to the AC Supply................................................................... 21
1.3.7
Power on and off........................................................................................................... 21
1.3.8
Standby and Ready State............................................................................................. 21
1.3.9
Replacing Fuses........................................................................................................... 22
1.4
Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down.................................................................22
1.5
Windows Operating System.......................................................................................23
1.6
Connecting External Accessories............................................................................. 24
1.7
Connecting to a LAN...................................................................................................25
1.7.1
Physical LAN Connection..............................................................................................25
1.7.2
TCP/IP Configutation.................................................................................................... 25
1.7.3
Test Setups with two LAN Connections........................................................................ 27
1.8
Remote Desktop Connection..................................................................................... 28
1.9
Firmware Update......................................................................................................... 29
2 Getting Started..................................................................................... 30
Getting Started 1145.1090.62 ─ 13
3
R&S® ZVA
Contents
2.1
Performing a Reflection Measurement..................................................................... 30
2.1.1
Instrument Setup for Reflection Measurements............................................................31
2.1.2
Parameter and Sweep Range Selection....................................................................... 32
2.1.3
Instrument Calibration .................................................................................................. 33
2.1.4
Evaluation of Data ........................................................................................................35
2.1.5
Saving and Printing Data ............................................................................................. 36
2.2
Performing a Transmission Measurement............................................................... 37
2.3
Basic Tasks................................................................................................................. 37
2.3.1
Control via Front Panel Keys........................................................................................ 37
2.3.2
Data Entry..................................................................................................................... 39
2.3.3
Scaling Diagrams.......................................................................................................... 41
3 System Overview................................................................................. 45
3.1
Basic Concepts........................................................................................................... 45
3.1.1
Global Resources..........................................................................................................45
3.1.2
Setups........................................................................................................................... 46
3.1.3
Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas.......................................................................... 46
3.1.4
Data Flow...................................................................................................................... 48
3.2
Screen Elements......................................................................................................... 50
3.2.1
Navigation Tools of the Screen..................................................................................... 50
3.2.2
Display Elements in the Diagram Area......................................................................... 55
3.2.3
Dialogs.......................................................................................................................... 63
3.2.4
Display Formats and Diagram Types............................................................................67
3.3
Measured Quantities...................................................................................................75
3.3.1
S-Parameters................................................................................................................ 76
3.3.2
Impedance Parameters.................................................................................................77
3.4
Calibration................................................................................................................... 87
3.4.1
Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits................................................................... 88
3.4.2
Calibration Types.......................................................................................................... 89
3.4.3
Automatic Calibration.................................................................................................... 90
3.4.4
Power Calibration..........................................................................................................93
3.4.5
Offset Parameters......................................................................................................... 93
3.5
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions...................................................................................94
3.5.1
Time Domain (R&S ZVAB-K2)...................................................................................... 95
Getting Started 1145.1090.62 ─ 13
4
R&S® ZVA
Contents
3.5.2
Arbitrary Generator and Receiver Frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4).................................... 95
3.5.3
Arbitrary Gen. and Rec. Frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4)................................................... 95
3.5.4
Mixer Phase Measurement (R&S ZVA-K5)...................................................................96
3.5.5
True Differential Mode (R&S ZVA-K6).......................................................................... 96
3.5.6
Measurements on Pulsed Signals (R&S ZVA-K7)........................................................ 97
3.5.7
Converter Control (R&S ZVA-K8)................................................................................. 97
3.5.8
Mixer Delay w/o LO Access (R&S ZVA-K9)..................................................................97
3.5.9
Long Distance Mixer Delay (R&S ZVA-K10).................................................................98
3.5.10
Internal Pulse Generators (R&S ZVA-K27)...................................................................98
3.5.11
Noise Figure Measurement (R&S ZVAB-K30).............................................................. 98
3.5.12
Frequency Converting Noise Figure Measurement (R&S ZVA-K31)............................ 98
Glossary: Frequently Used Terms......................................................99
Index....................................................................................................105
Getting Started 1145.1090.62 ─ 13
5
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started 1145.1090.62 ─ 13
Contents
6
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
1 Preparing the Analyzer for Use
This chapter gives an overview of the front panel controls and connectors of the network analyzer and gives all information that is necessary to put the instrument into
operation and connect external devices. Notes on reinstallation of the analyzer software appear at the end of the chapter.
Risk of injury and instrument damage
The instrument must be used in an appropriate manner to prevent electric shock, fire,
personal injury, or damage.
●
Do not open the instrument casing.
●
Read and observe the "Basic Safety Instructions" at the beginning of this manual or
on the documentation CD-ROM, in addition to the safety instructions in the following sections. Notice that the data sheet may specify additional operating conditions.
Chapter 2 of this manual provides an introduction to the operation of the analyzer by
means of typical configuration and measurement examples; for a description of the
operating concept and an overview of the instrument’s capabilities refer to chapter 3,
"System Overview", on page 45. For all reference information concerning manual
and remote control of the instrument refer to your analyzer's help system or its printed/
printable version. A more detailed description of the hardware connectors and interfaces is also part of the help system.
1.1 Front Panel Tour
The front panel of the network analyzer consists of the VGA display with the softkey
area (left side), the hardkey area (right side) and the test port area below. Brief explanations on the controls and connectors, the hardkey area and the rear panel can be
found on the next pages.
Getting Started 1145.1090.62 ─ 13
7
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
Fig. 1-1: R&S ZVA front view
1.1.1 Display
The analyzer is equipped with a color display providing all control elements for the
measurements and the diagram areas for the results.
●
Refer to chapter 3.2.1, "Navigation Tools of the Screen", on page 50 to learn how
to use menus, keys and softkeys.
●
Refer to chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram Area", on page 55 to
obtain information about the results in the diagram area.
●
Refer to section "Display Menu" in the help system and learn how to customize the
screen.
●
Refer to the data sheet for the technical specifications of the display.
Screen saver
The screen saver function of the operating system switches off the display if the analyzer receives no command for a certain time. It is switched on again if any front panel
key is pressed. Use the Windows control panel to change the screen saver properties
(press the Windows key in the SUPPORT keypad to access the Start menu).
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Short screen flicker
On instruments equipped with an FMR7 front module controller, you may observe a
short screen flicker when accessing the Windows desktop. The flicker does not occur
while the network analyzer is running; it does not impair the functionality of the instrument.
1.1.2 Setup Keys
The keys in the TRACE, CHANNEL, DISPLAY, SYSTEM and SUPPORT keypads call
up groups of related measurement settings. Each key corresponds to a drop-down
menu or menu command of the graphical user interface.
The TRACE keys give access to all trace settings and the functions to select, modify
and store different traces. In addition the menu provides the marker, search and limit
check functions.
●
MEAS selects the quantity to be measured and displayed.
●
FORMAT defines how the measured data is presented in the graphical display.
●
SCALE defines how the current trace is presented in the diagram selected in the
Format submenu.
●
TRACE SELECT provides functions to handle traces and diagram areas, and
assign traces to channels.
●
LINES defines limits for measured values and activates the limit check.
●
TRACE FUNCT(ions) store traces to the memory and perform mathematical operations on traces.
●
MARKER positions markers on a trace, configures their properties and selects the
format of the numerical readout.
●
SEARCH uses markers to locate specific points on the trace.
●
MARKER FUNCT(ions) define the sweep range, scale the diagram and introduce
an electrical length offset using the active marker.
The CHANNEL keys give access to all channel settings and the functions to activate,
modify and store different channels.
●
START CENTER or STOP SPAN define the sweep range, depending on the
sweep type.
●
POWER BW AVG defines the power of the internal signal source, sets the step
attenuators and the IF bandwidths, and configures the sweep average.
●
SWEEP defines the scope of measurement, including the sweep type, the trigger
conditions and the periodicity of the measurement.
●
MODE opens the Port Configuration dialog to define the properties of the physical
and logical (balanced) test ports.
●
CHAN SELECT provides functions to handle and activate channels.
●
CAL provides all functions that are necessary to perform a system error correction
(calibration).
●
OFFSET provides a selection of length offset parameters to shift the measurement
plane.
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The DISPLAY keys give access to all display settings and to the functions to activate,
modify and arrange different diagram areas.
●
AREA SELECT provides functions to create and delete diagram areas and select
an area as the active area.
●
DISPLAY CONFIG provides functions to arrange traces to diagram areas, arrange
the diagram areas in the active window and configure the screen and the diagram
areas.
The SYSTEM keys give access to the functions to return to a defined instrument state
and select general system settings.
●
PRESET performs a general factory preset or user preset.
●
SYSTEM CONFIG selects general system settings which do not only apply to a
particular setup.
A second group of keys (uncolored) provides standard Windows™ functions to save,
recall or print setups and call up the measurement wizard.
●
SAVE saves an opened setup to a specific file.
●
RECALL recalls an existing setup from a file.
●
PRINT prints a setup.
The SUPPORT keys give access to the functions to reverse operations, retrieve information on the instrument and obtain assistance.
●
UNDO reverses the previous operation.
●
INFO calls up a table providing information about the current setup.
●
HELP calls up the on-line help system.
A second group of keys (uncolored) is used to navigate within the graphical user interface:
●
MENU sets the cursor to the first item (File) in the menu bar of the active application (network analyzer or help system) if no dialog is open. In the network analyzer
(NWA) application, menus are equivalent to softkeys and provide fast access to all
instrument functions. The menus in the help system are required for accessing all
help functions by means of the front panel keys. In NWA dialogs, the MENU key
opens the control menu to move or close the dialog.
●
The Windows key opens the Windows Startup menu from where it is possible to
perform system configurations and call up additional software utilities.
1.1.3 Navigation Keys
The keys in the NAVIGATION keypad are used to navigate within the NWA screen and
the help system, to access and control active elements.
The ⇤ FIELD (= Tab) and ⇥ FIELD (= Shift Tab) keys switch between several active
elements in dialogs and panes, e.g. in order to access:
●
All control elements (e.g. buttons, numerical or text input fields, radio buttons,
checkmarks, combo boxes etc.) in a dialog
●
All links in a Help topic
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The ↑ (cursor up) and ↓ (cursor down) keys are used to:
●
Scroll up and down in lists, e.g. among menu items, in a list of keywords, in the
Help table of contents, or in the Help topic text
●
Increase and decrease numeric input values
↑ (↓) become inactive as soon as the beginning (end) of the list is reached. ↑ (↓) is
equivalent to a rotation of the rotary knob to the right (left).
The ← (cursor left) and → (cursor right) keys are used to:
●
Move the cursor to the left or right within input fields
●
Compress or expand menus or the Help table of contents
●
Move the highlighted item in the menu bar of the active application
OK ENTER is used to:
●
Activate the selected active control element, e.g. a button in a dialog or a link in the
Help
●
Confirm selections and entries made and close dialogs
OK ENTER is equivalent to pressing the rotary knob or the OK ENTER key in the
DATA ENTRY keypad.
The ☑ (= Space) key switches a checkmark control in a dialog on or off.
The CANCEL ESC key is used to:
●
Close dialogs without activating the entries made (equivalent to the "Close" button)
●
Close the Help
CANCEL ESC is equivalent to the CANCEL ESC key in the DATA ENTRY keypad.
1.1.4 Data Entry Keys
The keys in the DATA ENTRY keypad are used to enter numbers, units, and characters.
The data entry keys are only enabled while the cursor is placed on a data input field in
a dialog or in the Help navigation pane.
The keys 0 to 9 enter the corresponding numbers.
The function of the "." and "–" keys depends on the data type of the active input field:
●
In numeric input fields, the keys enter the decimal point and change the sign of the
entered numeric value. Multiple decimal points are not allowed; pressing "–" for a
second time cancels the effect of the first entry.
●
In character input fields, the keys enter a dot and a hyphen, respectively. Both
entries can be repeated as often as desired.
The function of the four unit keys depends on the data type of the active input field; see
chapter 2.3.2, "Data Entry", on page 39.
●
In numeric input fields (e.g. in the numeric entry bar), the G/n, M/μ, k/m or x1 keys
multiply the entered value with factors of 10(-)9, 10(-)6, 10(-)3 or 1 and add the appro-
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Front Panel Tour
priate physical unit. x1 is equivalent to OK ENTER. It confirms the previous entry
and deactivates the input field (closes the numeric entry bar).
●
In character input fields, the G/n, M/μ, k/m keys enter the letters G, M, K, respectively. x1 is equivalent to OK ENTER. It confirms the previous entry and deactivates the input field.
The ESC CANCEL and OK ENTER keys are equivalent to the corresponding keys in
the NAVIGATION keypad.
BACK deletes the last character before the cursor position or the selected character
sequence. If an entire numeric value is selected, BACK moves the cursor in front of the
first digit.
1.1.5 Rotary Knob
The rotary knob increases and decreases numerical values, scrolls within lists, activates controls and confirms entries. Turning or pressing the rotary knob is equivalent to
the action of the ↑ and ↓ keys or the OK ENTER key in the NAVIGATION keypad.
STEP SIZE opens an input box to select the steps (in units of the current physical
parameter) between two consecutive values if the rotary knob is turned to increase or
decrease numeric values. See chapter 3.2.3.3, "Step Size", on page 65.
1.1.6 Standby Key
The standby toggle switch is located in the bottom left corner of the front panel.
The key serves two main purposes:
●
Toggle between standby and ready state.
●
Shut down the instrument.
1.1.7 Front Panel Connectors
The test ports and various additional connectors are located on the front panel of the
analyzer.
1.1.7.1
Test Ports
N-connectors (or smaller ruggedized connectors for microwave analyzer types), numbered 1, 2 ... The test ports serve as outputs for the RF stimulus signal and as inputs
for the measured RF signals from the DUT (response signals).
●
With a single test port, it is possible to generate a stimulus signal and measure the
response signal in reflection.
●
With 2, 3 or 4 test ports, it is possible to perform full two-port, 3-port or 4-port measurements; see chapter 3.3.1, "S-Parameters", on page 76. Note that for most
R&S ZVA models, ports 2k-1 and 2k share a common generator; only for
R&S ZVA24 with 4 ports and 4 generators (order no. 1145.1110.28), R&S ZVA40
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Front Panel Tour
with 4 ports and 4 generators (order no. 1145.1110.48) and R&S ZVA67 all test
ports are equipped with independent sources.
●
Each test port may be complemented by three pairs of additional connectors used
to test high power devices and extend the dynamic range, see chapter 1.1.7.4,
"Direct Generator and Receiver Access", on page 14.
Maximum input levels
The maximum input levels at all test ports according to the front panel labeling or the
data sheet must not be exceeded.
In addition, the maximum input voltages of the other input connectors at the front and
rear panel must not be exceeded.
The three LEDs above each test port indicate the connector state:
●
The amber LED is on while the connector is used as a source port.
●
The green LED is on while the connector is used as a bidirectional (source and
receive) port.
●
The blue LED is on while the connector is used as a receive port.
It is recommended to use a torque wrench when screwing RF cables on the test port
connectors. Standard IEEE 287 specifies a torque of (1.5 ± 0.2) Nm for N connectors,
(0.9 ± 0.1) Nm for the microwave connector types.
1.1.7.2
USB Connectors
Double Universal Serial Bus connector of type A (master USB), used to connect e.g a
keyboard, mouse or other pointing devices, the Calibration Unit (accessory R&S ZVZ5x), a printer or an external storage device (USB stick, CD-ROM drive etc.).
To control external devices (e.g. power meters, generators) via USB connector, a VISA
installation on the network analyzer is required. Use the USB-to-IEC/IEEE Adapter
(option R&S ZVAB-B44) to control devices equipped with a GPIB interface.
The length of passive connecting USB cables should not exceed 1 m. The maximum
current per USB port is 500 mA. See also chapter 1.3.5, "EMI Suppression",
on page 20.
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Front Panel Tour
R&S ZVAB-B44 on network analyzers with FMR7/6 and FMR9
The driver software of the USB-to-IEC/IEEE Adapter (option R&S ZVAB-B44) must be
installed on the network analyzer. On analyzers equipped with an FMR7/6 or FMR9
front module controller, this installation disables GPIB control from an external PC. A
reinstallation of the NWA firmware (e.g. in repair mode) will resolve the problem; see
chapter 1.9, "Firmware Update", on page 29.
1.1.7.3
Ground Connector
Connector providing the ground of the analyzer's supply voltage.
Electrostatic discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) may cause damage to the electronic components of the
DUT and the analyzer. Use the wrist strap and cord supplied with the instrument to
connect yourself to the GND connector.
1.1.7.4
Direct Generator and Receiver Access
Option R&S ZVA<n>-B16, Direct Generator/Receiver Access, provides 3 pairs of SMA
connectors (or smaller connectors, for microwave analyzers) for each test port. <n>
corresponds to the network analyzer type. For detailed ordering information refer to the
product brochure. See also section "Converter Control" in the help system of your network analyzer.
The connectors give direct access to various RF input and output signals. They can be
used to insert external components (e.g. external signal separating devices, power
amplifiers, a ZVAX extension unit etc.) into the signal path in order to develop custom
measurements, e.g. to test high power devices and extend the dynamic range. If no
external components are connected, each OUT/IN loop should be closed using a
jumper.
●
The SOURCE OUT signal comes from the internal RF signal source. The
SOURCE IN signal goes to the test port. A power amplifier can be inserted
between SOURCE OUT and SOURCE IN in order to boost the test port power.
●
The REF OUT signal comes from the coupler and provides the reference signal.
The REF IN signal goes to the receiver input for the reference signal.
●
The MEAS OUT signal comes from the coupler and provides the received (measured) signal. The MEAS IN signal goes to the receiver input for the measured signal.
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Rear Panel Tour
Input signals
The maximum RF input levels at all SMA inputs according to the front panel labeling or
the data sheet must not be exceeded.
In addition, it is important that the signal fed in at the SMA inputs contains no DC offset, as this may impair the measurements and even cause damage to the instrument.
1.1.8 Additional Hardware Options
The following hardware options can be mounted on the right of the NAVIGATION and
SUPPORT keypads:
●
Option R&S ZVA-B18, Removable Hard Disk, replaces the internal hard disk by a
removable compact flash card. The compact flash card can be inserted at the front
panel of the instrument. To ensure failure-free operation, avoid placing external
cables close to the compact flash card.
●
Option R&S ZVA-B8, Converter Control, provides output connectors to control the
output power of a frequency converter with external attenuators, R&S ZVA-ZxxxE.
This option is available for R&S ZVA network analyzers with an upper frequency
limit of 20 GHz or higher (R&S ZVA 24, R&S ZVA40 ...). For information on measurements with external attenuators, refer to the network analyzer's help system
and to the Getting Started guide R&S ZVA-ZxxxE, stock no. 1307.7197.62.
Contact your R&S service representative, if you wish to obtain and install one of the
additional hardware options.
1.2 Rear Panel Tour
This section gives an overview of the rear panel controls and connectors of the network analyzer.
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Rear Panel Tour
Fig. 1-2: R&S ZVA rear view
The rear connectors are described in detail in the annex "Hardware Interfaces" in the
help system.
●
The PORT BIAS panel contains inputs for an external DC voltage (bias) to be
applied to the test ports. A separate input is provided for each test port. Each
PORT BIAS input is protected by an exchangeable fuse.
●
IEC Bus is the GPIB bus connector (according to standard IEEE 488 / IEC 625).
●
AUX is an auxiliary connector, to be wired as needed. AUX is not fitted on standard
instruments.
●
LAN 1 and LAN 2 are two equivalent connectors to connect the analyzer to a Local
Area Network.
●
USB is a double Universal Serial Bus connector of type A (master USB), used to
connect a keyboard, mouse or other pointing device.
●
DC MEAS comprises two inputs for DC measurements, specified for different voltage ranges.
●
10 MHz REF serves as an input or output for the 10 MHz reference clock signal.
●
MONITOR is a sub-Min-D connector used to connect an external VGA monitor.
●
CASCADE is a 8-pin RJ-45 connector used as output and input connectors for
pulse generator signals. The CASCADE connector is located between the MONITOR and the USER CONTROL connectors.
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Putting the Analyzer into Operation
●
USER CONTROL is a D-sub connector used as an input and output for low-voltage
(3.3 V) TTL control signals.
●
EXT. TRIGGER is an input for a low-voltage (3.3 V) TTL external trigger signal.
Input levels, EMC
The maximum input levels and voltages of the input connectors at the front and rear
panel must not be exceeded.
The EXT TRIGGER input connector and pin 2 of the USER CONTROL connector must
never be used simultaneously as inputs for external trigger signals.
Use double shielded cables at the BNC rear panel connectors (10 MHz REF, PORT
BIAS, EXT. TRIGGER) and match signals with 50 Ω in order to comply with EMC
directives!
1.3 Putting the Analyzer into Operation
This section describes the basic steps to be taken when setting up the analyzer for the
first time.
Risk of injury and instrument damage
The instrument must be used in an appropriate manner to prevent electric shock, fire,
personal injury, or damage.
●
Do not open the instrument casing.
●
Read and observe the "Basic Safety Instructions" at the beginning of this manual or
on the documentation CD-ROM, in addition to the safety instructions in the following sections. Notice that the data sheet may specify additional operating conditions.
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Putting the Analyzer into Operation
Risk of instrument damage during operation
An unsuitable operating site or test setup can cause damage to the instrument and to
connected devices. Ensure the following operating conditions before you switch on the
instrument:
●
All fan openings are unobstructed and the airflow perforations are unimpeded. The
minimum distance from the wall is 10 cm.
●
The instrument is dry and shows no sign of condensation.
●
The instrument is positioned as described in the following sections.
●
The ambient temperature does not exceed the range specified in the data sheet.
●
Signal levels at the input connectors are all within the specified ranges.
●
Signal outputs are correctly connected and are not overloaded.
1.3.1 Unpacking and Checking the Analyzer
To remove the instrument from its packaging and check the equipment for completeness proceed as follows:
1. Pull off the polyethylene protection pads from the instrument's rear feet and then
carefully remove the pads from the instrument handles at the front.
2. Pull off the corrugated cardboard cover that protects the rear of the instrument.
3. Carefully unthread the corrugated cardboard cover at the front that protects the
instrument handles and remove it.
4. Check the equipment for completeness using the delivery note and the accessory
lists for the various items.
5. Check the instrument for any damage. If there is damage, immediately contact the
carrier who delivered the instrument.
Retain the original packing material. If the instrument needs to be transported or shipped at a later date, you can use the material to prevent control elements and connectors from being damaged.
1.3.2 Setting up the Analyzer
The network analyzer is designed for use under laboratory conditions, either on a
bench top or in a rack. The general ambient conditions required at the operating site
are as follows:
●
The ambient temperature must be in the ranges specified for operation and for
compliance with specifications (see data sheet).
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Putting the Analyzer into Operation
●
All fan openings including the rear panel perforations must be unobstructed. The
distance to the wall should be at least 10 cm.
Electrostatic discharge
To avoid damage of electronic components of the DUT and the analyzer, the operating
site must be protected against electrostatic discharge (ESD). ESD is most likely to
occur when you connect or disconnect a DUT or test fixture to the analyzer's test ports.
To prevent ESD damage use the wrist strap and grounding cord supplied with the
instrument and connect yourself to the GND connector at the front panel.
1.3.3 Bench Top Operation
If the analyzer is operated on a bench top, the surface should be flat. The instrument
can be used in horizontal position, standing on its feet, or with the support feet on the
bottom extended.
Danger of injury
The feet may fold in if they are not folded out completely or if the instrument is shifted.
The feet may break if they are overloaded. Fold the feet completely in or completely
out to ensure stability of the instrument and personal safety. To avoid injuries, never
shift the instrument when its feet are folded out.
The overall load (the instrument's own weight plus that of the instruments stacked on
top of it) on the folded-out feet must not exceed 500 N.
Place the instrument on a stable surface. Secure the instruments stacked on top of it
against slipping (e.g. by locking their feet on the top front frame). When the instrument
is standing on its folded-out feet, do not work under the instrument and do not put anything under it, otherwise injuries or material damage could occur.
The instrument can be used in each of the positions shown here.
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Putting the Analyzer into Operation
1.3.4 Operation in a 19" Rack
Using the adapter R&S ZZA-611 (order number 1096.3302.00) the instrument can be
mounted in 19" racks according to the mounting instructions supplied with the rack
adapter.
Avoid overheating
●
Allow for sufficient air supply in the rack.
●
Make sure that there is sufficient space between the ventilation holes and the rack
casing.
1.3.5 EMI Suppression
To suppress generated Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), operate the instrument
only while it is closed, with all shielding covers fitted. Note the EMC classification in the
data sheet.
Use appropriate shielded cables to ensure successful control of electromagnetic radiation during operation, especially for the following connector types:
●
BNC rear panel connectors (10 MHz REF, EXT. TRIGGER): Use double shielded
cables and terminate open cable ends with 50 Ω.
●
USER CONTROL: Use only well shielded cables or disconnect the input pins of the
USER CONTROL connector in order to avoid spurious input signals which may
cause undesirable events. This is of particular importance for the external trigger
input (pin no. 2) if the EXT TRIGGER input is used.
●
USB: Use double-shielded USB cables and ensure that external USB devices comply with EMC regulations.
●
GPIB (IEEE/IEC 625): Use a shielded GPIB cable.
●
LAN: Use CAT6 or CAT7 cables.
●
Test ports: For instruments with 3.5 mm and smaller connector types (2.92 mm, 2.4
mm ...), use double-shielded measurement cables.
The use of external accessories for the network analyzers may introduce additional
connector, cable, and cable length requirements. Refer to the relevant documentation.
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Putting the Analyzer into Operation
1.3.6 Connecting the Analyzer to the AC Supply
The network analyzer is automatically adapted to the AC supply voltage supplied. The
supply voltage must be in the range 100 V to 240 V; 50 Hz to 60 Hz. The mains connector is located at the bottom left corner of the rear panel.
► Connect the network analyzer to the AC power source using the AC power cable
delivered with the instrument.
The maximum power consumption of the analyzer is 450 W. The typical power consumption is listed in the "Specifications".
The network analyzer is protected by two fuses as specified on the label on the power
supply. The fuses are located on an AC Fuse Board (order no. 1145.3906.02) which
must be replaced to change the fuses. Replacing the AC Fuse Board requires opening
the instrument and is described in the service manual.
1.3.7 Power on and off
The mains connector is located at the bottom left corner of the rear panel.
► To turn the power on or off, press the AC power switch to position I (On) or 0 (Off).
After power-on, the analyzer is in standby or ready state, (see chapter 1.3.8, "Standby
and Ready State", on page 21) depending on the state of the STANDBY toggle
switch at the front panel when the instrument was switched off for the last time.
The AC power switch can be permanently on. Switching off is required only if the
instrument must be completely removed from the AC power supply.
1.3.8 Standby and Ready State
The STANDBY toggle switch is located in the bottom left corner of the front panel.
► After switching on the AC power (see chapter 1.3.7, "Power on and off",
on page 21) press the STANDBY key briefly to switch the analyzer from the
standby to ready state or vice versa.
●
In standby state, the right, amber LED is on. The standby power only supplies the
power switch circuits and the optional oven quartz (OCXO, 10 MHz reference oscillator, option R&S ZVAB-B4, order no. 1164.1757.02). In this state it is safe to
switch off the AC power and disconnect the instrument from the power supply.
●
In ready state, the left, green LED is on. The analyzer is ready for operation. All
modules are power-supplied and the analyzer initiates its startup procedure.
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Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down
Shock hazard
The instrument is still power-supplied while it is in standby mode.
1.3.9 Replacing Fuses
The DC inputs PORT BIAS at the rear panel are each protected by a fuse IEC 127 - F
250 L (250 mA quick acting).
► To replace the fuses open the fuse holder by slightly turning the lid counterclockwise.
Replacement fuses are provided with the instrument.
1.4 Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down
To start the analyzer, proceed as follows:
1. Make sure that the instrument is connected to the AC power supply and the power
switch on the rear panel is in position I (On).
2. If necessary, press the STANDBY toggle switch on the front panel to switch the
instrument to ready state (the green LED is on).
In ready state, the analyzer automatically performs a system check, boots the Windows® operating system and then starts the network analyzer (NWA) application. If the
last analyzer session was terminated regularly, the NWA application uses the last
setup with all instrument settings.
To shut down the analyzer, proceed as follows:
1. Press the STANDBY key to save the current setup, close the NWA application,
shut down Windows® and set the instrument to standby state. Of course you can
also perform this procedure step by step like in any Windows session.
2. If desired, set the AC power switch to position 0 (Off).
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Windows Operating System
Risk of data loss
It is strongly recommended to switch the analyzer to standby state before disconnecting it from the AC supply. If you set the power switch to 0 while the NWA application is
still running, you will lose the current settings. Moreover, loss of program data can not
be excluded if the application is terminated improperly.
Minimizing the NWA application
With a minimized NWA application, you can access your analyzer's Windows® desktop
or run other applications. To start the NWA application with a minimized window on a
continuing basis, right-click the NWA shortcut icon on the desktop and open the "Properties" dialog. In the "Shortcut" tab, select "Run: Minimized".
After a software update the NWA application is started with a maximized window
again. Moreover, if a second NWA application is started after a first, minimized application, this will cause the first application to come to the foreground.
1.5 Windows Operating System
The analyzer is equipped with a Windows XP or Windows 7 operating system that has
been configured according to the instrument's features and needs.
Support for Windows 7 was added with FW version 3.50 and requires the analyzer to
be equipped with the new CPU board FMR11.
Upgrade kits from FMR6/7/9 to FMR11 with Windows 7 are available as option
R&S ZVA-U116. Note however that FMR11 is not supported with Windows XP.
Changes in the system configuration can be necessary in order to:
●
Customize the properties of the external accessories connected to the analyzer,
e.g. the screen resolution of a connected monitor
●
Establish a LAN connection
●
Call up additional software tools
Modifications of the operating system
The operating system is adapted to the network analyzer. To avoid impairment of
instrument functions, only change the settings described in this manual. Existing software must be modified only with update software released by Rohde & Schwarz. Likewise, only programs authorized by Rohde & Schwarz for use on the instrument must
be executed.
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Connecting External Accessories
The "Start" menu of the operating system is accessed by pressing the Windows key in
the SUPPORT keypad. All necessary settings can be accessed from the "Start" menu,
in particular from the Control Panel.
1.6 Connecting External Accessories
The equivalent USB ports on the front and rear panel of the analyzer can be used to
connect a variety of accessories:
●
A mouse simplifies operation of the instrument using the controls and dialogs of
the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
●
A keyboard simplifies the entry of data; the default input language is English – US.
●
A printer generates hard copies of the screen contents. When printing a copy
("File – Print"), the analyzer checks whether a printer is connected and turned on
and whether the appropriate printer driver is installed.
If required, printer driver installation is initiated using the Windows "Add Printer"
wizard. The wizard is self-explanatory. A printer driver needs to be installed only
once, even though the printer may be temporarily removed from the analyzer.
It is safe to connect or disconnect mouse, keyboard or printer during the measurement.
A standard VGA monitor or LCD display can be connected to the 15-pole Sub-Min-D
MONITOR connector on the rear panel of the analyzer.
It displays the magnified Graphical User Interface (GUI) with all diagram areas. If
desired, click "Display – Config/View – Hardkey Bar" to add the "Hardkey Bar" (front
panel key bar) to the analyzer screen.
Safety aspects
The monitor must be connected while the instrument is switched off (or in standby
mode). Otherwise correct operation can not be guaranteed.
Typically mouse, keyboard and monitor are plug & play devices, i.e. they are automatically detected by the operating system. If necessary, use standard Windows techniques (such as the "Add Printer " wizard or the device properties pages accessible via
Windows Control Panel) to install missing or enhanced device drivers and to configure
connected devices.
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Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Connecting to a LAN
1.7 Connecting to a LAN
A LAN connection is used to integrate the analyzer into a home/company network. This
offers several applications, e.g.:
●
Transfer data between a controller and the analyzer, e.g. in order run a remote
control program.
●
Control the measurement from a remote computer using the Remote Desktop
application.
●
Use external network devices (e.g. printers).
Virus protection
An efficient virus protection is a prerequisite for secure operation in the network. Never
connect your analyzer to an unprotected network because this may cause damage to
the instrument software.
1.7.1 Physical LAN Connection
A LAN cable can be connected to one of the LAN connectors on the rear panel of the
analyzer. To establish a LAN connection proceed as follows:
1. Refer to section TCP/IP Configutation and learn how to avoid connection errors.
2. Connect a CAT6 or CAT7 RJ-45 (LAN, Ethernet) cable to one of the LAN ports.
The LAN ports of the analyzer are auto-crossover Ethernet ports. You can connect
them to a network that is equipped with Ethernet hardware (hub, switch, router), but
you can also set up a direct connection to a computer or another test instrument. For
both connection types, you can use either crossover or standard straight-through
Ethernet cables.
1.7.2 TCP/IP Configutation
Depending on the network capacities, the TCP/IP configuration for the analyzer can be
obtained in different ways.
●
If the network supports dynamic TCP/IP configuration using the Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP), the configuration can be assigned automatically.
●
If the network does not support DHCP, or if the analyzer is set to use manual
TCP/IP configuration, the configuration must be entered manually.
The active TCP/IP configuration is displayed in the "Instrument Information" section of
the"Info > Setup Info" dialog.
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Connecting to a LAN
By default, the analyzer is configured to use dynamic TCP/IP configuration. This
means that it is safe to establish a physical connection to the LAN without any previous
analyzer configuration.
Manual TCP/IP configuration
If your network does not support DHCP, or if you choose to disable dynamic TCP/IP
configuration, you must enter a valid TCP/IP configuration before connecting the analyzer to the LAN. Contact your network administrator, because connection errors can
affect the entire network.
For more information refer to the Windows "Help and Support Center".
To disable dynamic TCP/IP configuration and enter the TCP/IP address information
manually proceed as follows:
1. Obtain the IP address and subnet mask for the analyzer and the IP address for the
local default gateway from your network administrator. If needed, also obtain the
name of your DNS domain and the IP addresses of the DNS and WINS servers on
your network. If you use both LAN connectors, you need two different sets of
address information.
2. Press the Windows key to access the Start Menu and from there open the Control
Panel.
3. For each LAN interface to be configured, enter the IPv4 protocol stack configuration provided by your network administrator, e.g.
Windows XP: "Control Panel – Network Connections – Local Area Connection Status – Local Area Connection Properties – Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties"
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Connecting to a LAN
Windows 7: "Control Panel – Network and Internet – Network and Sharing Center –
Change adapter settings – Change Settings of this conection – Internet Protocol
version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties"
LXI compliance
Analyzers running under Windows XP (SP 2 or higher) comply with LXI class C, which
enables remote access to an instrument's LAN settings; see "LXI Configuration" in your
analyzer's help system.
1.7.3 Test Setups with two LAN Connections
The two LAN connectors on the rear panel of the analyzer are equivalent. With one
LAN connector used to establish a connection to a home/company network, the other
one can be used to connect an additional instrument, e.g. an additional analyzer or signal generator.
Defining the network topology: Router vs. network client
With two LAN connections, it is possible to use the analyzer in two alternative ways:
●
As a client participating in two independent networks, one comprising the home
network including the analyzer, the second consisting of the additional test instrument plus the analyzer.
●
As a data router between the additional test instrument and the home network.
This configuration means that the analyzer and the additional test instrument are
integrated into a single network.
The network topology is defined in Windows' "Advanced TCP/IP Settings" dialog:
"Windows XP Control Panel – Network Connections – Local Area Connection Status –
Local Area Connection Properties – Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties – Advanced"
"Windows 7 Control Panel – Network and Internet – Network and Sharing Center –
Change adapter settings – Change Settings of this conection – Internet Protocol version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties – Advanced"
Both instruments must have independent IP addresses; see chapter 1.7.2, "TCP/IP
Configutation", on page 25. Contact your LAN administrator for details.
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Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Remote Desktop Connection
Avoid parallel connections
Never use both LAN connectors to connect the analyzer in parallel to the same network as this will result in connection errors.
1.8 Remote Desktop Connection
Remote Desktop is a Windows® application which can be used to access and control
the analyzer from a remote computer through a LAN connection. While the measurement is running, the analyzer screen contents are displayed on the remote computer,
and Remote Desktop provides access to all of the applications, files, and network
resources of the analyzer.
On analyzers running Windows 7, by default remote connections are enabled using a
local group policy and remote access is granted to users instrument and administrator.
To enable remote connections to an instrument running Windows XP, proceed as follows:
1. As described above, connect the analyzer to the LAN and configure the LAN
TCP/IP interface (see chapter 1.7, "Connecting to a LAN", on page 25).
Memorize the analyzer's IP address ("Info – Setup Info – Instrument Information" at
the NWA GUI).
2. At the analyzer, press the Windows button to access the start menu and open the
Control Panel.
3. Allow remote desktop connections ("Control Panel – System – Properties –
Remote tab – Allow users to connect remotely to this computer")
To set up the connection, run the Remote Desktop Connection application at the
remote Windows PC and connect to the analyzer's IP address.
Password protection
The analyzer uses a user name and password as credentials for remote access. In the
factory configuration, the user name is "instrument"; the password is "894129". To protect the analyzer from unauthorized access, it is recommended to change the factory
setting.
On network analyzers equipped with a Windows XP version earlier than 5.1 Service
Pack 3, "instrument" is preset for both the user name and the password. The Windows
XP version appears in the "Info" dialog ("Info > Setup Info > Instrument Information") or
in the "System Properties" dialog of Windows XP's control panel ("Start Settings >
Control Panel > System > General").
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Firmware Update
For detailed information about Remote Desktop refer to the Windows® Help.
1.9 Firmware Update
Upgrade versions of the analyzer firmware are supplied as single setup files *.msi. To
perform a firmware update,
1. Copy the setup file to any storage medium accessible from the analyzer. This may
be the internal hard disk, an external storage medium (USB memory stick, CDROM with external drive) or a network connection (LAN, GPIB bus).
2. Double-click the setup file (or use the front panel keys to select and start the setup
file; see chapter 2.3.2.1, "Using Front Panel Keys", on page 39) and follow the
instructions of the setup wizard.
Setup files can be stored and installed again. The default drive letter of the internal
hard disk is "C". External storage devices are automatically mapped to the next free
drive letters "D", "E" etc.
Factory calibration
A firmware update does not affect the factory calibration.
External accessories
Calibration units and extension Units must be disconnected during a firmware update.
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Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
2 Getting Started
The following chapter presents a sample session with a R&S ZVA network analyzer
using an external monitor and the Graphical User Interface and explains how to solve
basic tasks that you will frequently encounter when working with the instrument.
Safety considerations
Before starting any measurement on your network analyzer, please note the instructions given in Preparing the Analyzer for Use.
In the System Overview chapter below you will find detailed information on customizing
the instrument and the display according to your personal preferences. For a systematic explanation of all menus, functions and parameters and background information
refer to the "GUI Reference" chapter in the help system.
Use the "S-Parameter Wizard" in the "System" menu to perform a standard S-parameter measurement in a straightforward way. The wizard provides a series of dialogs
where you can select the test setup, screen configuration and measurement parameters, configure the essential channel settings and perform a guided calibration.
Measurement stages in the wizard
The different dialogs of the S-parameter wizard correspond to the typical stages of any
measurement:
1. Select the test setup
2. Select the measurement parameters and the diagram areas
3. Define the sweep range
4. Adjust the receiver and source settings (measurement bandwidth, source power)
5. Perform a calibration
In the following we assume that you are familiar with standard Windows dialogs and
mouse operation. Refer to chapter 2.3.1, "Control via Front Panel Keys", on page 37
and chapter 2.3.2, "Data Entry", on page 39 to learn how to access instrument functions and control dialogs without a mouse and keyboard.
2.1 Performing a Reflection Measurement
In a reflection measurement, the analyzer transmits a stimulus signal to the input port
of the device under test (DUT) and measures the reflected wave. A number of trace
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Performing a Reflection Measurement
formats allow you to express and display the results. depending on what you want to
learn from the data. Only one analyzer test port is required for reflection measurements.
In the following example, the analyzer is set up for a reflection measurement, a frequency sweep range and measurement parameter is selected, the instrument is calibrated and the result is evaluated using various formats.
2.1.1 Instrument Setup for Reflection Measurements
In order to prepare a reflection measurement, you have to connect your DUT (which for
simplicity we assume to have an appropriate connector, e.g. a male N 50 Ω connector)
to one of the (equivalent) analyzer test ports. Besides, it is recommended to preset the
instrument in order to set it to a definite, known state.
1. Proceed as described in chapter 1.4, "Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down",
on page 22 to switch on the instrument and start the NWA application.
2. Connect the input port of your DUT to test port 1 of the network analyzer.
3. Press the PRESET key in the SYSTEM keypad to perform a factory preset of the
analyzer.
The analyzer is now set to its default state. The default measured quantity is the transmission S-parameter S21. This quantity is zero in the current test setup, so the trace
shows the noise level.
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Press the TRACE SELECT key in the TRACE keypad and use the softkeys in the
"Trace Select" menu if you wish to create a new trace or a new diagram area.
2.1.2 Parameter and Sweep Range Selection
After preset the display shows a diagram with a dB Mag scale. The sweep range (scale
of the horizontal axis) is equal to the maximum frequency range of the analyzer, and
the S-parameter S21 is selected as a measurement parameter.
To obtain information about the reflection characteristics of your DUT you have to
select an appropriate measurement parameter and specify the sweep range.
1. In the CHANNEL keypad, press START CENTER and enter the lowest frequency
you want to measure in the "Start Frequency" numeric entry bar (e.g. 5 GHz).
Note: If you use the DATA ENTRY keys at the front panel for data entry, simply
type 5 and terminate the entry with the G/n key. Refer to section "Data Entry" to
learn more about entering numeric values and characters.
2. Press STOP SPAN and enter the highest frequency you want to measure in the
"Stop Frequency" numeric entry bar (e.g. 5.5 GHz).
3. In the TRACE keypad, press MEAS and select the forward reflection coefficient S11
as a measurement parameter.
4. In the TRACE keypad, press SCALE and activate the "Autoscale" function. The
analyzer adjusts the scale of the diagram to fit in the entire S11 trace, leaving an
appropriate display margin.
Tip: Refer to chapter 2.3.3, "Scaling Diagrams", on page 41 to learn more about
the different methods and tools for diagram scaling.
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Performing a Reflection Measurement
2.1.3 Instrument Calibration
The analyzer provides a wide range of sophisticated calibration methods for all types of
measurements. Which calibration method is selected depends on the expected system
errors, the accuracy requirements of the measurement, on the test setup and on the
types of calibration standards available.
In the following we assume that the calibration kit R&S ZV-Z21 contains an appropriate
male short standard with known physical properties. With a single short standard, it is
possible to perform a normalization, compensating for a frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in the signal path.
Due to the analyzer's calibration wizard, calibration is a straightforward, menu-guided
process.
1. Unscrew the DUT and connect the male short standard from calibration kit R&S
ZV-Z21.
2. In the CHANNEL keypad, press CAL to open the calibration menu.
3. Activate "Start Cal – One Port P1 – Normalization (Short)" to open the calibration
wizard for the selected calibration type.
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Performing a Reflection Measurement
4. In the first dialog of the wizard, select the calibration kit (here: "ZV-Z21") and the
test port connector (here: N 50 Ω (f), corresponding to a male calibration standard),
and click "Next".
The next dialog of the calibration wizard shows that only a single calibration standard needs to be measured.
5. Click the box "Short (m)..." to initiate the measurement of the connected short
standard.
The analyzer performs a calibration sweep and displays a message box with a progress bar. After completing the sweep the analyzer generates a short sound and a
green checkmark appears in the checkbox.
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Performing a Reflection Measurement
6. Click "Apply" to close the wizard, calculate and store the system error correction
data and apply them to the current measurement.
7. Remove the short standard and connect the DUT again.
2.1.4 Evaluation of Data
The analyzer provides various tools to optimize the display and analyze the measurement data. For instance, you can use markers determine the maximum of the reflection
coefficient, and change the display format to obtain information about the phase shift of
the reflected wave and the impedance of your DUT.
1. In the TRACE keypad, press MARKER. This places "Marker 1" to its default position (center of the sweep range).
A marker symbol (triangle) appears on the trace. The stimulus value (frequency)
and response value (magnitude of the reflection coefficient converted to a dB
value) at the marker position is displayed in the marker info field in the upper right
corner of the diagram.
2. Press MARKER FUNCT and activate "Min Search".
The marker jumps to the absolute minimum of the curve in the entire sweep range.
The marker info field shows the coordinates of the new marker position.
3. In the TRACE keypad, press FORMAT and select the "Phase" of the reflection
coefficient to be displayed.
The phase is shown in a Cartesian diagram with a default vertical scale of 225 deg
to +225 deg. The marker info field shows the frequency and phase at the marker
position.
4. Still in the FORMAT menu, select "Smith".
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Performing a Reflection Measurement
The Smith chart shows lines of constant real and imaginary part of the impedance
in the reflection coefficient plane.
Tip: Refer to section chapter 3.2.4, "Display Formats and Diagram Types",
on page 67 to learn more about the diagram properties.
2.1.5 Saving and Printing Data
The analyzer provides standard functions for saving measurement settings and for
printing the results. You can use these functions as if you were working on a standard
PC. Moreover you can export your trace data to an ASCII file and reuse it in a later
session or in an external application.
Data transfer is made easier if external accessories are connected to the analyzer or if
the instrument is integrated into a LAN. Refer to Connecting External Accessories and
chapter 1.7, "Connecting to a LAN", on page 25 to obtain information about the necessary steps.
1. Press TRACE FUNCT and activate "Import/Export – Data Export".
2. In the "Export Data" dialog opened, select a file location, format and name and activate "Save".
The active trace data is written to an ASCII file.
3. Press PRINT in the SYSTEM keypad and select "Print Now" to create a hardcopy
of your diagram.
4. Select "Print to File..." or "Print to Clipboard" to copy the diagram to a file or an
external application.
5. Press SAVE in the SYSTEM keypad.
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Getting Started
Performing a Transmission Measurement
6. In the "Save As" dialog opened, select a file location, format and name and activate
"Save".
The active setup is stored to a file and can be reused in a later session.
Proceed as described in chapter 1.4, "Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down",
on page 22 to shut down your analyzer.
2.2 Performing a Transmission Measurement
A transmission measurement involves the same steps as a reflection measurement.
Note the following differences:
●
The test setup for transmission measurements involves two or more DUT and analyzer ports. For a two-port transmission measurement, you can connect the input of
your DUT to port 1 of the analyzer, the output to port 2. After a preset, the analyzer
will measure the forward transmission S-parameter S21.
●
The analyzer provides special calibration types for transmission measurements.
Use the calibration wizard and select an appropriate type. A TOSM calibration will
correct the system errors for all transmission and reflection S-parameters.
●
The S-parameter wizard ("System – Measurement Wizard – S-parameter" wizard)
will guide you through the essential steps of a standard transmission measurement.
2.3 Basic Tasks
The following sections describe how to solve basic tasks that you will frequently
encounter when working with the instrument. In particular you can learn how to access
instrument functions and control dialogs without a mouse and keyboard.
2.3.1 Control via Front Panel Keys
Although a mouse and external keyboard simplify the operation of the instrument, you
can access all essential functions using the keys on the front panel. The following
examples are intended to make you familiar with front panel key operation.
To access a particular menu command ...
1. Press the MENU key in the SUPPORT keypad to access the menu bar and open
the "File" menu.
2. Use the keys in the NAVIGATION keypad or the rotary knob to navigate between
and within the menus.
●
Use the "Cursor Left" and "Cursor Right" keys to change between the different
menus in the menu bar. When the first option in a pull-down menu is a sub-
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Getting Started
Basic Tasks
menu, the submenu will be opened first before proceeding to the next option in
the menu bar.
●
Use the "Cursor Up" and "Cursor Down" keys and the rotary knob (if rotated) to
scroll up and down in a menu.
●
OK ENTER and the rotary knob (if pressed) expand a submenu, open a dialog,
or initiate an action, depending on the selected command type.
CANCEL ESC compresses the current submenu and moves the cursor one
menu level up or closes the active dialog, depending on the selected softkey
type.
●
3. As soon as you reach the desired menu command (which must not be one opening
a submenu) press OK ENTER or press the rotary knob to initiate an action or open
a dialog.
After command execution or after closing the dialog, the menu bar is deactivated
and the cursor returns to the diagram/softkey area.
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To make a selection in a dialog...
1. Press a softkey with three dots to open a dialog.
2. Use the keys in the NAVIGATION keypad and the rotary knob to access the controls in the dialog.
●
3. ●
Press "Left Field" or "Right Field" to switch between the control elements in a
dialog.
Press the cursor keys or turn the rotary knob to switch between several entries
in a list of alternative or independent settings.
4. Use the DATA ENTRY keys or the rotary knob to enter characters and numbers.
For more details refer to section "Data Entry" below.
5. Press OK ENTER, CANCEL ESC or press the rotary knob to close the active dialog.
2.3.2 Data Entry
The analyzer provides dialogs with various types of input fields where you can enter
numeric values and character data. Data entry with a mouse and an external keyboard
is a standard procedure known from other Windows applications. However, there are
various alternative ways to enter data.
2.3.2.1
Using Front Panel Keys
If no mouse and no external keyboard is connected to the analyzer, you can use the
keys in the DATA ENTRY keypad to enter numbers, units, and characters.
To enter a numeric value
1. Place the cursor into a numeric data input field in a dialog or in the numeric entry
bar.
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Basic Tasks
2. Press the DATA ENTRY keys.
●
●
●
Use 0 to 9 to enter the corresponding numbers.
Use . and - to enter a decimal point or change the sign of the value.
Use . G/n, M/μ, k/m, or x1 to multiply the entered value with factors of 10(-)9,
10(-)6, 10(-)3 or 1 and add the appropriate physical unit.
To enter a character string
1. Place the cursor into a character data input field in a dialog.
2. Press the DATA ENTRY keys as if you were writing a short message on your
mobile phone.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Press 0 to 9 once to enter the corresponding numbers.
Press the keys repeatedly to select one of the other characters assigned to the
key.
Wait 2 seconds to confirm an entry.
Use . or to enter a dot or a hyphen.
Use the sign key to change from upper case to lower case and vice versa.
Use G/n, M/μ, or k/m to enter the letters G, M or K (case-insensitive).
Use the BACK key to correct wrong entries, deleting the character to the left of
the current cursor position.
Press OK ENTER to complete an entry.
Press ESC CANCEL to close the popup dialog, discarding the entries made.
3. To enter letters other than G, M or K, you can also use one of the following methods:
●
●
●
2.3.2.2
Turn the rotary knob until the desired letter appears in the character input field.
If the active input field has a symbol, then use the analyzer's on-screen keyboard.
Otherwise, use a mouse and Windows XP's on-screen keyboard.
Using the Analyzer's On-Screen Keyboard
The on-screen keyboard allows you to enter characters, in particular letters, without an
external keyboard. It is available for all character input fields which have a symbol.
Operation with front panel keys
1. Place the cursor into a character data input field in a dialog or in the numeric entry
bar.
2. Press OK or the
board.
key in the NAVIGATION keypad to open the on-screen key-
3. Use the cursor keys in the NAVIGATION keypad or turn the rotary knob to move
the cursor to a character.
4. Press OK ENTER or the rotary knob to select the character for the input string.
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Basic Tasks
5. After completing the input string use the
key to move to the OK button.
6. Press OK ENTER or the rotary knob to apply your selection and close the keyboard.
Operation with a mouse
1. Click the
symbol to open the on-screen keyboard.
2. Click a sequence of characters and OK to apply your selection and close the keyboard.
2.3.2.3
Using the Windows® On-Screen Keyboard
The Windows On-Screen Keyboard allows you to enter characters, in particular letters,
even if an input field cannot call up the analyzer's own on-screen keyboard. Examples
of such fields are the input fields in the "Index" and "Search" tabs of the Help system. A
mouse is required for using the On-Screen Keyboard.
To call up the on-screen keyboard,
1. Press the Windows key in the SUPPORT keypad to access Windows and open the
start menu.
2. Select "All Programs – Accessories – Accessibility (Win XP) | Ease of Access (Win
7) – On-Screen Keyboard".
The "System – External Tools" submenu contains a shortcut to the Windows on-screen
keyboard. Simply click "Mouse Keyboard.lnk" to open the keyboard.
2.3.3 Scaling Diagrams
The analyzer provides several alternative tools for setting the sweep range and customizing the diagrams. Pick the method that is most convenient for you.
2.3.3.1
Setting the Sweep Range
The sweep range for all channels is displayed in the channel list across the bottom of
the diagram area:
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Basic Tasks
To change the sweep range, use one of the following methods:
2.3.3.2
●
Press the START CENTER or STOP SPAN keys in the CHANNEL keypad.
●
Right-click the start or stop value in the channel list and select "Start", "Stop", "Center", "Span" from the context menu.
●
Select "Start", "Stop", "Center", "Span" from the "Channel Stimulus" menu.
●
Use the marker functions (MARKER FUNCT key).
Reference Value and Position
The analyzer provides three parameters for changing the scale of the vertical
(response) axis:
●
Changing the "Reference Value" or "Reference Position" shifts the trace in vertical
direction and adjusts the labels of the vertical axis. "Reference Value" also works
for radial diagrams.
●
Changing the "Scale/Div." modifies the value of the vertical or radial diagram divisions and thus the entire range of response values displayed.
The "Scale/Div." and the "Reference Value" is indicated in the scale section of the
trace list.
To change one of the parameters use one of the following methods:
2.3.3.3
●
Press the SCALE key in the TRACE keypad.
●
Right-click the scale section in the trace list and select the parameters from the
context menu.
●
Select the parameters from the "Trace Scale" menu.
●
Use the marker functions (MARKER FUNCT key).
Autoscale
The "Autoscale" function adjusts the scale divisions and the reference value so that the
entire trace fits into the diagram area. To access "Autoscale", use one of the following
methods:
●
Press the SCALE key in the TRACE keypad.
●
Right-click the scale section in the trace list and select "Autoscale" from the context
menu.
●
Select "Autoscale" from the "Trace – Scale" menu.
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Basic Tasks
2.3.3.4
Circular Diagrams
The radial scale of a circular ("Polar", "Smith" or "Inverted Smith") diagram can be
changed with a single linear parameter, the "Reference Value". The reference value
defines the radius of the outer circumference.
●
Increasing the "Reference Value" scales down the polar diagram.
●
Decreasing the "Reference Value" magnifies the polar diagram.
The "Reference Value" is indicated in the scale section of the trace list.
To change the "Reference Value" use one of the following methods:
●
Press the SCALE key in the TRACE keypad
●
Right-click the scale section in the trace list and select the parameter from the context menu.
●
Select the parameter from the "Trace – Scale" menu.
●
Use the marker functions.
The "Autoscale" function also works for polar diagrams.
2.3.3.5
Using Marker Functions
Marker functions are a convenient tool for scaling (in particular: magnifying) diagrams
without entering explicit numeric values. You simply place a marker to a trace point
and use the marker values to change the sweep range or move the trace relative to the
vertical axis. A mouse makes it easier to activate (click) or move (drag and drop) markers.
To set the sweep range use one of the following methods:
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Basic Tasks
Define "Start" and "Stop" values
1. Create two normal markers, e.g. the markers Mkr 1 and Mkr 2, and place them to
the desired start and stop values of the sweep range.
2. Activate "M 1" and click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Start = Marker".
3. Activate "M 2" and click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Stop = Marker".
Use a definite "Span"
1. Create a marker and set it to delta mode.
The analyzer automatically creates a reference marker in addition to the delta
marker.
2. Place the reference marker to the desired start value of the sweep range.
3. Set the value of the delta marker equal to the desired (positive or negative) span.
4. Activate the delta marker and click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Span = Marker".
To move the trace relative to the vertical axis proceed as follows:
1. Create a normal marker, e.g. the marker "M 1", and place it to a particular trace
point. E.g. you can use the marker "Search" functions to locate a maximum or minimum on the trace.
2. Click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Max = Marker" to move the trace towards the upper
diagram edge, leaving the values of the vertical divisions ("Scale Div.") and the
overall vertical scale unchanged. Analogously, click "Min = Marker" to move the
trace towards the lower diagram edge, or click "Ref Value = Marker" to move the
trace towards the "Reference Value".
2.3.3.6
Enlarging the Diagram Area
The analyzer provides different tools for customizing the contents and size of the diagram areas:
●
"Maximize" allows you to enlarge the active diagram area to occupy the whole window. A double-click on any point in the diagram area is equivalent to the "Maximize" function.
●
The "Title", the "Softkey Labels", the "Status Bar" and the "Hardkey Bar" are
optional display elements which you can hide in order to gain space for the diagram.
●
Use the context menu of the diagram area, the keys in the DISPLAY keypad bar or
the "Display" menu to access the scaling functions above.
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Basic Concepts
3 System Overview
The following chapter provides an overview of the analyzer's capabilities and their use.
This includes a description of the basic concepts that the analyzer uses to organize,
process and display measurement data, of the screen contents, possible measured
quantities, calibration methods and typical test setups.
For a systematic explanation of all menus, functions and parameters and background
information refer to the reference description on the graphical user interface (GUI Reference) in your analyzer's help system.
3.1 Basic Concepts
The analyzer provides a variety of functions to perform a particular measurement and
to customize and optimize the evaluation of results. To ensure that the instrument
resources are easily accessible and that user-defined configurations can be conveniently implemented, stored and reused the instrument uses a hierarchy of structures:
●
Global resources can be used for all measurements, irrespective of the current
measurement session or setup.
●
A setup comprises a set of diagram areas with all displayed information that can be
stored to a setup file.
●
The diagram areas show traces which are assigned to channels. See chapter 3.1.3, "Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas", on page 46.
3.1.1 Global Resources
The analyzer provides global settings that are mostly hardware-related and can be
used for all measurements, irrespective of the current measurement session or setup.
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The settings are stored in independent files and do not enter into any of the setup files.
The following settings correspond to global resources:
●
Calibration kits
●
Connector types
●
Cal pool data including system error correction and power correction data
●
Color schemes
The data related to global resources are not affected by a "Preset" of the analyzer.
However, it is possible to delete or reset global resource data using the "Resets" tab in
the "System Config" dialog.
3.1.2 Setups
A setup comprises a set of diagram areas with all displayed information that can be
stored to a NWA setup file (*.zvx) and reused. Each setup is displayed in an independent window. The setup file contains the following information:
●
General settings related to the setup
●
The trace settings for all traces in the diagram areas
●
The channel settings for all channels associated to the traces
●
The display settings for each diagram area
The "File" menu is used to organize setups.
In the "System – External Tools" submenu, you can find demo setups *.vbs for various measurement scenarios. You can modify the demo setups and store them to a
*.zvx file for later use. Moreover the "S-Parameter Wizard" provides predefined, optimized setup s for many measurements.
3.1.3 Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas
The analyzer arranges, displays or stores the measured data in traces which are
assigned to channels and displayed in diagram areas. To understand the menu structure of the instrument and quickly find the appropriate settings, it is important to understand the exact meaning of the three terms.
●
A trace is a set of data points that can be displayed together in a diagram area.
The trace settings specify the mathematical operations used in order to obtain
traces from the measured or stored data and to display them.
●
A channel contains hardware-related settings to specify how the network analyzer
collects data.
●
A diagram area is a rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagram areas belonging to the same setup are arranged in a common window. The
settings for diagram areas are described in chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the
Diagram Area", on page 55.
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A diagram area can contain a practically unlimited number of traces, assigned to different channels. Diagram areas and channels are completely independent from each
other.
3.1.3.1
Trace Settings
The trace settings specify the mathematical operations used in order to obtain traces
from the measured or stored data. They can be divided into several main groups:
●
Selection of the measured quantity (S-parameters, wave quantities, ratios, impedances,...)
●
Conversion into the appropriate display format and selection of the diagram type
●
Scaling of the diagram and selection of the traces associated to the same channel
●
Readout and search of particular values on the trace by means of markers
●
Limit check
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings. They complement the definitions of the
"Channel" menu. Each trace is assigned to a channel. The channel settings apply to all
traces assigned to the channel.
If a trace is selected in order to apply the trace settings, it becomes the active trace. In
manual control there is always exactly one active trace, irrespective of the number of
channels and traces defined. The active channel contains the active trace. In remote
control, each channel contains an active trace; refer to the relevant sections in your
analyzer's help system.
3.1.3.2
Channel Settings
A channel contains hardware-related settings to specify how the network analyzer collects data. The channel settings can be divided into three main groups:
●
Control of the measurement process ("Sweep", "Trigger", "Average")
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●
Description of the test setup ("Power" of the internal source, IF filter "Bandwidth"
and "Step Attenuators", "Port Configuration")
●
Correction data ("Calibration", "Offset")
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings.
After changing the channel settings or selecting another measured quantity, the analyzer needs some time to initialize the new sweep. This preparation period increases
with the number of points and the number of partial measurements involved. It is
visualized by a "Preparing Sweep" symbol in the status bar: All analyzer settings can
still be changed during sweep initialization. If necessary, the analyzer terminates the
current initialization and starts a new preparation period. During the first sweep after a
change of the channel settings, an additional red asterisk symbol appears in the status
bar:
All analyzer settings can still be changed during sweep initialization. If necessary, the
analyzer terminates the current initialization and starts a new preparation period. During the first sweep after a change of the channel settings, an additional red asterisk
symbol appears in the status bar:
3.1.4 Data Flow
The analyzer processes the raw measurement data in a sequence of stages in order to
obtain the displayed trace. The following diagram gives an overview.
The diagram consists of an upper and a lower part, corresponding to the data processing stages for the entire channel and for the individual traces. All stages in the diagram
are configurable. Note that the channel data flow for S-parameters (and quantities
derived from S-parameters such as impedances, admittances, stability factors etc.) differs from the channel data flow for wave quantities (and derived quantities such as
ratios, PAE etc.).
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3.2 Screen Elements
This section describes the operating concept of the network analyzer, including the
alternative navigation tools for mouse and hardkey operation, the trace settings, markers and diagram areas. For a description of the different quantities measured by the
analyzer refer to chapter 3.3, "Measured Quantities", on page 75.
3.2.1 Navigation Tools of the Screen
The main window of the analyzer provides all control elements for the measurements
and contains the diagram areas for the results. There are several alternative ways to
access an instrument function:
●
Using the menus and submenus of the menu bar (provides all settings)
●
Using the softkeys of the softkey bar (alternative to the previous method)
●
Using the hardkey bar (preselection of the most important menus)
For further reference:
●
Refer to chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram Area", on page 55 to
obtain information about the results in the diagram area.
●
Refer to section "Display Menu" in the reference chapter of your analyzer's Help
system and learn how to customize the screen.
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3.2.1.1
Menu Bar
All analyzer functions are arranged in drop-down menus. The menu bar is located
across the top of the diagram area:
Menus can be controlled in different ways:
●
With a mouse, like the menus in any Windows application. A left mouse click
expands a menu or submenu. If a menu command has no submenu assigned, a
left mouse click opens a dialog or directly activates the menu command.
●
Using the front panel keys.
●
With a combination of the previous methods, using the hardkey bar (front panel key
bar, activated via Display – Config./View).
The active menu is the menu containing the last executed command. If the softkey bar
or hardkey bar is displayed ("Display – Config./View – Softkey Labels: On"), then the
active menu is indicated on top of the softkey/hardkey bar.
When you select a command in a new menu the softkey bar is updated to reflect the
new active menu with all commands. You can continue operation using the softkeys.
Overview of menu functions
3.2.1.2
●
The "Control"
●
The "File" menu provides standard Windows functions to create, save, recall or
print setups, to copy the current screen and to shut down the application.
●
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings and the functions to create, select,
modify and store different traces. In addition the menu provides the marker, search
and limit check functions.
●
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings and the functions to create,
select, modify and store different channels.
●
The "Display" menu provides all display settings and the functions to create, select,
modify and arrange different diagram areas.
●
The "System" menu provides functions to reverse operations, return to a defined
instrument state, retrieve information on the instrument and access service functions. Besides, it configures the remote control operation, starts the "Measurement
Wizard" and provides print options.
●
The "Window" menu provides standard Windows functions to arrange different windows on the screen.
●
The "Info" menu provides information and selftest options for service purposes and
troubleshooting.
●
The "Help" menu provides assistance with the network analyzer and its operation.
menu provide standard Windows functions to control windows.
Menu Structure
All menus show an analogous structure.
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3.2.1.3
●
A menu command with a right arrow expands a submenu with further related settings.
Example: "Measure" expands a submenu to select the quantity to be measured
and displayed.
●
A menu command with three dots appended calls up a dialog providing several
related settings.
Example: "More S-Parameters..." opens a dialog to select S-parameters for multiport measurements or mixed mode S-parameters.
●
A menu command with no arrow or dots directly initiates an action.
Example: "S21" selects the forward transmission coefficient S21 as measured
quantity.
●
A dot preceding the menu command indicates the current selection in a list of alternative settings.
Example: In the figure above, S21 is selected as measured quantity.
Softkey Bar
The softkey bar displays the commands of the active menu so that they can be activated by hitting the associated keys on the front panel.
It consists of three elements:
●
Heading
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The heading shows the two lowest level menu commands in the current branch of
the menu tree. The lowest-level command appears on a shaded background.
●
Function softkeys
Up to 8 softkeys, each corresponding to a command of the active menu. The function of the softkeys and their labels are strictly equivalent to the corresponding
menu commands.
– A large dot in the lower right corner indicates the current selection in a list of
alternative settings.
●
–
Three dots indicate that the softkey calls up a dialog providing several related
settings.
–
A right arrow indicates a submenu with further related settings.
–
A softkey with no arrow or dots directly initiates an action.
Navigation softkey (optional)
Softkey no. 8 or softkeys no. 7 and no. 8 are reserved for navigation:
– More ½ and More 2/2 toggle between two groups of softkeys which belong to
the same menu. The softkeys are provided whenever the active menu contains
more than 7 commands.
–
Menu Up activates the higher-level menu and is provided in all menus except
the top-level one listing the main menus in the menu bar.
The softkey bar is automatically updated when the active menu is changed.
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You can hide the softkey bar and gain screen space for the diagram areas if you use a
mouse to control the analyzer ("Display – Config./View"). All settings are accessible
from the menus listed in the menu bar across the top of the screen.
Moreover, you don't have to display the softkey bar permanently in order to make use
of its functionality. Hitting any of the keys associated to the softkey bar will make it visible for a period of time sufficient to select the next instrument function.
3.2.1.4
Hardkey Bar
The hardkey bar (front panel key bar, "Display – Config./View") represents the most
commonly used front panel keys of the analyzer. Clicking a key symbol executes the
action of the corresponding key.
The hardkey bar corresponds to the TRACE, CHANNEL, DISPLAY and SYSTEM keypads:
The hardkey bar provides access to the basic groups of settings with a single mouse
click. It is particularly useful if the analyzer is controlled from an external monitor or
Remote Desktop. Alternatively the settings are accessible from the menus of the menu
bar or from the softkey bar.
The hardkey bar is hidden by default to gain screen space for the diagram areas.
3.2.1.5
Status Bar
The status bar (Display – Config./View) shows
●
the statistics for the sweep average (if sweep average is on)
●
an "Ext Ref" section if the analyzer is configured to use an External Reference
clock
●
the progress of the sweep
●
the LXI status (if LXI is enabled)
●
the error log opener icon (if the error log is non-empty) and
●
the control mode of the analyzer (LOCAL or REMOTE)
If LXI is enabled, a green LXI status symbol indicates that a LAN connection has been
established; a red symbol indicates that no LAN cable is connected.
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During sweep initialization, the progress bar for the sweep is replaced by a
symbol. During the first sweep after a change of the channel settings, an
additional red asterisk symbol appears:
You can hide the status bar and gain screen space for the diagram areas.
3.2.2 Display Elements in the Diagram Area
The central part of the screen is occupied by one or several diagram areas.
A "diagram area" is a rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagram
areas are arranged in windows; they are independent of trace and channel settings. A
diagram area can contain a practically unlimited number of traces, assigned to different
channels (overlay mode).
Diagram areas are controlled and configured by means of the functions in the "Display"
menu and the following additional settings:
●
The settings in the "Window" menu arrange several windows containing one or
more diagram areas within the entire screen. Each window corresponds to a setup.
Only one setup can be active at a time, and only the traces of the active setup are
updated by the current measurements.
●
Various settings to assign traces to diagram areas are provided in the "Trace –
Traces" submenu.
Diagram areas may contain:
●
Measurement results, in particular the traces and marker values
●
An indication of the basic channel and trace settings
●
Context menus providing settings related to the current screen
●
Error messages
The examples in this section have been taken from Cartesian diagrams. All other diagram types provide the same display elements.
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3.2.2.1
Title
Across the top of the diagram area, an optional title describes the contents of the area.
Different areas within a setup are distinguished by area numbers in the upper right corner.
Use the context menu or the functions in the "Display" menu to display, hide or change
the title and to add and customize diagram areas.
3.2.2.2
Traces
A trace is a set of data points displayed together in the diagram area. The individual
data points are connected so that each trace forms a continuous line.
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The trace can be complemented by the following display elements, plotted with the
same color:
●
Reference value (for all traces): The reference value is indicated with a triangle at
the right edge of the diagram and a dashed, horizontal line. The value and position
of the triangle can be changed in order to modify the diagram scale and shift the
trace vertically.
●
Measured quantity (for the active trace): The measured quantity is indicated in the
left upper corner of the diagram.
A trace can be either a data trace, a memory trace, or a mathematical trace; see
"Trace Types" on page 57.
A right mouse click on any point of the diagram area (except the marker info field and
the measured quantity info) opens a context menu:
The settings correspond to the most common commands in the "Display – Area Select"
and "Display – Config View" menus.
Trace Types
The analyzer uses traces to display the current measurement result in a diagram area
but is also capable of storing traces to the memory, recalling stored traces, and defining mathematical relations between different traces. There are three basic trace types:
●
Data traces show the current measurement data and are continuously updated as
the measurement goes on. Data traces are dynamic traces.
●
Memory traces are generated by storing the data trace to the memory. They represent the state of the data trace at the moment when it was stored. Memory traces
are static traces which can be stored to a file and recalled.
●
Mathematical traces are calculated according to a mathematical relation between
constants and the data or memory traces of the active setup. A mathematical trace
that is based on the active data trace is dynamic.
It is possible to generate an unlimited number of memory traces from a data trace and
display them together. Markers and marker functions are available for all trace types.
The trace type of each trace in a diagram area is indicated in the trace list. You can
also make each trace "Invisible" without deleting it.
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Trace List and Trace Settings
The main properties of all traces assigned to the diagram area are displayed in the
trace list in the upper left corner.
Each line in the trace list describes a single trace. The active trace is highlighted. The
lines are divided into several sections with the following contents (from left to right):
●
The trace name appears in the first section. The default names for new traces are
Trc<n> where <n> is a current number. A "Mem..." preceding the trace name indicates a memory trace. Right-click the section and call the "Trace Manager" from
the context menu to change the trace name.
●
The measured quantity (e.g. an S-parameter or a ratio) appears on a colored
background. The measured quantity of the active trace is also displayed in the diagram area below the trace list.
●
The format section shows how the measured data is presented in the graphical
display ("Trace – Format").
●
The next sections show the value of the vertical or radial diagram divisions ("Scale
Div.") and the reference value ("Ref").
●
The channel section shows the channel that each trace is assigned to. It is omitted
if the all traces in the diagram area are assigned to the same channel.
●
The type section indicates "Invisible" if a trace is hidden. Otherwise it indicates
– "Math", if the trace is a mathematical trace
–
"GAT", if a time gate is active for the trace
–
"ALC", if the drive port is under automatic level control
Right-click the trace name and click "Show Data" or "Show Mem" from the context
menu to display and hide data and memory traces. Use the "Trace Funct(ions)" to
define mathematical traces.
Right-click any of the sections in the trace list (except the type section) to open a context menu and access the most common tasks related to the section.
A right mouse click on the trace name, the measured quantity, and the format and
scale section of the trace list opens the following context menus, respectively:
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The settings correspond to the most common commands in the "Trace – Trace Select",
"Trace – Trace Funct", "Trace – Meas", "Trace – Format" and "Trace – Scale" menus.
A red label "Cal Off !" appears behind the trace list if the system error correction no
longer applies to one or more traces.
3.2.2.3
Markers
Markers are tools for selecting points on the trace and for numerical readout of measured data. The analyzer provides three different basic marker types.
●
A (normal) marker ("Mkr 1, Mkr 2, ...") determines the coordinates of a measurement point on the trace. Up to 10 different normal markers can be assigned to a
trace.
●
A reference marker ("Ref") defines the reference value for all delta markers.
●
A delta marker ("Δ") indicates the coordinates relative to the reference marker.
●
The stimulus value of a discrete marker always coincides with a sweep point so
that the marker does not show interpolated measurement values.
The markers 1 to 4 are also used for bandfilter search mode. The examples below
show a bandpass search and a bandstop search, respectively.
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●
"Mkr 1" indicates the maximum (minimum) of the peak.
●
"Mkr 2" and "Mkr 3" indicate the lower and upper band edge where the trace value
has decreased (increased) by a definite "Level" value.
●
"Mkr 4" indicates the center of the peak, calculated as the arithmetic mean value of
the LBE and UBE positions.
The "Paste Marker List" allows you to select marker values as numeric entries; see
chapter 3.2.3.4, "Paste Marker List", on page 66.
Marker Info Field
The coordinates of all markers defined in a diagram area are displayed in the info field,
which by default is located in the upper right corner.
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The list contains the following information:
●
"Mkr 1, Mkr 2, ..." denote the marker numbers. Markers are displayed with the
same color as the associated trace.
●
The marker coordinates are expressed in one of the marker formats selected via
"Marker – Format". The formats of the markers assigned to a trace are independent
of each other and of the trace format settings.
●
The active marker has a dot placed in front of the marker line.
●
A "Δ" sign placed in front of the marker line indicates that the marker is in delta
mode.
Customizing the marker info field
To change the position, appearance or contents of the marker info field use one of the
following methods:
●
Double-click the info field to open the "Mkr Properties" dialog with extended settings for all markers of the active trace. Select the options in the "Show Info" panel
to customize the information in the info field ("Active Trace Only", "Stimulus Info
Off").
●
Right-click the info field to open a context menu providing frequently used marker
settings.
●
To change the position of the marker info field, select "Movable Marker" Info from
the context menu. Drag-and-drop the info field to any position in the active diagram
area.
●
To change the format of the active marker, select "Mkr Format".
●
To express the coordinates of the active marker relative to the reference marker,
activate the Delta Mode.
For more information: Show Info Table
In addition to the marker info field, the analyzer provides an info table with extended
marker information.
The table is hidden by default. To display the table double-click the marker info field to
open the "Marker Properties" dialog.
A right mouse click on the marker info field opens a context menu:
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"Movable Marker Info" allows the marker info field to be placed to any position in the
diagram area. The remaining settings correspond to the most common commands in
the "Trace – Marker" and "Trace – Search" menus.
3.2.2.4
Channel Settings
The main properties of all channels assigned to the traces in the diagram area are displayed in the channel list below the diagram.
Each line in the channel list describes a single channel. The channel of the active trace
is highlighted. The lines are divided into several sections with the following contents
(from left to right):
Each line in the channel list describes a single channel. The channel of the active trace
is highlighted. The lines are divided into several sections with the following contents
(from left to right):
●
The channel name appears in the first section. The default names for new channels are Ch<n> where <n> is a current number. Right-click the section and call the
"Channel Manager" from the context menu to change the channel name.
●
The measurement mode identifier section (optional) indicates a special test
mode of the channel, e.g. the measurement of a 2nd harmonic ("H2"), a 3rd harmonic ("H3"), or the mixer mode ("Mix") or an arbitrary frequency conversion mode
("Arb").
●
The stimulus axis section shows the frequency or power stimulus axis currently
selected in the "Channel Mode > Port Configuration > Stimulus" dialog. "fb"
denotes the channel base frequency; "Pb" the channel base power; "P 1" the port 1
source frequency or power, "Gen 1" an external generator source frequency or
power, "Rec" the receiver frequency (all ports).
This information is particularly valuable if different port frequencies and powers are
specified (with option R&S ZVA-K4).
●
Start indicates the lowest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the lowest frequency
measured), corresponding to the left edge of the Cartesian diagram.
●
The color legend shows the display color of all traces assigned to the channel.
The colors are different, so the number of colors is equal to the numbers of traces
assigned to the channel.
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●
The value behind the color legend shows the constant stimulus value, which is
either the power of the internal signal source (for frequency sweeps and time
sweeps) or the CW frequency (for power sweeps). "fb" denotes the channel base
frequency; "Pb" the channel base power.
●
Stop indicates the highest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the highest frequency
measured), corresponding to the right edge of the Cartesian diagram.
Right-click any of the sections in the trace list (except the color legend) to open a context menu and access the most common tasks related to the section.
A right mouse click on the channel name, the sweep range, and the additional parameter section of the channel list opens the following context menus, respectively:
The settings correspond to the most common commands in the "Channel – Channel
Select", "Channel – Stimulus" and "Channel – Power Bandwidth Average" menus.
3.2.2.5
Context Menus
To provide access to the most common tasks and speed up the operation, the analyzer
offers context menus (right-click menus) for the following display elements:
●
Diagram area
●
Marker info field
●
Trace list (separate context menus for trace name section, measured quantity section, format section, scale section, and channel section)
●
Channel list (separate context menus for channel name section, sweep range section, additional parameter section)
Working with context menus requires a mouse. Click inside the display element that
you want to work with using the right mouse button.
Except from some particular screen configurations, anything you can do from a context
menu you can also do from the menu bar or using front panel keys and softkeys. Use
whatever method is most convenient for you.
3.2.3 Dialogs
Dialogs provide groups of related settings and allow to make selections and enter data
in an organized way. All softkeys with three dots behind their labeling (as in "Marker
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Properties...") call up a dialog. The dialogs of the analyzer have an analogous structure
and a number of common control elements.
The "Dialog Transparency" function in the "System Config" menu varies the transparency of all dialogs. With an appropriate setting, you can control the dialogs and at the
same time view the underlying traces and display elements.
We assume that you are familiar with standard Windows dialogs and mouse operation.
Refer to chapter 2.3.1, "Control via Front Panel Keys", on page 37 to learn how to control dialogs without a mouse and keyboard.
3.2.3.1
Immediate vs. Confirmed Settings
In some dialogs, the settings take effect immediately so that the effect on the measurement is observable while the dialog is still open. This is especially convenient when a
numeric value is incremented or decremented, e.g. via the rotary knob.
In most dialogs, however, it is possible to cancel an erroneous input before it takes
effect. The settings in such dialogs must be confirmed explicitly.
The two types of dialogs are easy to distinguish:
●
Dialogs with immediate settings provide a "Close" button but no "OK" button.
Example: "Step Size" dialog.
●
Dialogs with confirmed settings provide both an "OK" button and a "Cancel" button.
Example: On-screen keyboard.
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You can also cancel an immediate setting using "System – Undo"!.
3.2.3.2
On-Screen Keyboard
A keyboard
keyboard.
symbol next to a character input field opens the analyzer's on-screen
The on-screen keyboard contains two sets of characters plus the following additional
controls:
●
"Shift" changes between the two character sets containing lower case letters/
numbers and upper case letters/special characters, respectively.
●
"<= BS" deletes the current string in the alphanumeric input field.
●
"OK" applies the current selection and closes the keyboard. The current string is
written into the input field of the calling dialog. See also chapter 3.2.3.1, "Immediate vs. Confirmed Settings", on page 64.
●
"Cancel" discards the current selection and closes the keyboard. The input field of
the calling dialog is left unchanged.
The on-screen keyboard allows you to enter characters, in particular letters, without an
external keyboard. To enter numbers and units, you can also use the DATA ENTRY
keys on the front panel of the instrument.
3.2.3.3
Step Size
A step
symbol next to a numeric input field opens the "Step Size" dialog to define an
increment for data variation using the "Cursor Up/Down" buttons in the dialogs or the
rotary knob.
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The input value for the step size takes effect immediately; see chapter 3.2.3.1, "Immediate vs. Confirmed Settings", on page 64. "Auto" activates the default step size for the
current input parameter.
3.2.3.4
Paste Marker List
A pull-down list symbol next to a numeric input field opens a list of all current stimulus
and response marker values of the active trace. Any of the marker values can be
selected as a numeric entry. If the physical unit of the selected marker value is inconsistent (mismatch of stimulus and response values) then the numeric value is used
without the unit.
The response values in the paste marker list are not updated as the analyzer continues
measuring, so they may differ from the values in the marker info field.
To open the paste marker list you can also click on the input field and use the space
bar of your keyboard or the checkmark key in the NAVIGATION keypad at the front
panel of the analyzer.
3.2.3.5
Numeric Entry Bar
Single numeric values can be entered using the input field of the numeric entry bar.
The numeric entry bar appears just below the menu bar as soon as a function implying
a single numeric entry is activated. In contrast to dialogs, it does not hide any of the
display elements in the diagram area.
The numeric entry bar contains the name of the calling function, a numeric input field
including the "Cursor Up/Down" buttons for data variation and a step symbol , and a
"Close" button. Besides it is closed automatically as soon as an active display element
in the diagram area is clicked or a new menu command is activated.
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3.2.4 Display Formats and Diagram Types
A display format defines how the set of (complex) measurement points is converted
and displayed in a diagram. The display formats in the "Trace – Format" menu use the
following basic diagram types:
●
Cartesian (rectangular) diagrams are used for all display formats involving a conversion of the measurement data into a real (scalar) quantity, i.e. for "dB Mag",
"Phase", "Delay", "SWR", "Lin Mag", "Real", "Imag" and "Unwrapped Phase".
●
Polar diagrams are used for the display format "Polar" and show a complex quantity as a vector in a single trace.
●
Smith charts are used for the display format "Smith". They show a complex quantity like polar diagrams but with grid lines of constant real and imaginary part of the
impedance.
●
Inverted Smith charts are used for the display format "Inverted Smith". They show
a complex quantity like polar diagrams but with grid lines of constant real and
imaginary part of the admittance.
The analyzer allows arbitrary combinations of display formats and measured quantities
("Trace – Measure"). Nevertheless, in order to extract useful information from the data,
it is important to select a display format which is appropriate to the analysis of a particular measured quantity; see chapter 3.2.4.6, "Measured Quantities and Display Formats", on page 75.
3.2.4.1
Cartesian Diagrams
Cartesian diagrams are rectangular diagrams used to display a scalar quantity as a
function of the stimulus variable (frequency / power / time).
●
The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis (x-axis), scaled linearly
(sweep types "Lin Frequency", "Power", "Time", "CW Mode") or logarithmically
(sweep type "Log Frequency").
●
The measured data (response values) appears on the vertical axis (y-axis). The
scale of the y-axis is linear with equidistant grid lines although the y-axis values
may be obtained from the measured data by non-linear conversions.
The following examples show the same trace in Cartesian diagrams with linear and
logarithmic x-axis scaling.
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3.2.4.2
Conversion of Complex into Real Quantities
The results in the "Trace – Measure" menu can be divided into two groups:
●
"S-Parameters", "Ratios", "Wave Quantities", "Impedances", "Admittances", "ZParameters", and "Y-Parameters" are complex.
●
"Stability Factors" and "DC Input" values (voltages, PAE) are real.
The following table shows how the response values in the different Cartesian diagrams
are calculated from the complex measurement values z = x + jy (where x, y, z are functions of the sweep variable). The formulas also hold for real results, which are treated
as complex values with zero imaginary part (y = 0).
Trace Format
Description
Formula
dB Mag
Magnitude of z in dB
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
dB Mag(z) = 20 * log|z| dB
Lin Mag
Magnitude of z, unconverted
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
Phase
Phase of z
φ (z) = arctan (y/x)
Real
Real part of z
Re(z) = x
Imag
Imaginary part of z
Im(z) = y
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Trace Format
Description
Formula
SWR
(Voltage) Standing Wave Ratio
SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 – |z|)
Delay
Group delay, neg. derivative of the
phase response
– d φ (z) / dΩ (Ω = 2π * f)
An extended range of formats and conversion formulas is available for markers. To
convert any point on a trace, create a marker and select the appropriate marker format.
Marker and trace formats can be selected independently.
3.2.4.3
Polar Diagrams
Polar diagrams show the measured data (response values) in the complex plane with a
horizontal real axis and a vertical imaginary axis. The grid lines correspond to points of
equal magnitude and phase.
●
The magnitude of the response values corresponds to their distance from the center. Values with the same magnitude are located on circles.
●
The phase of the response values is given by the angle from the positive horizontal
axis. Values with the same phase are on straight lines originating at the center.
The following example shows a polar diagram with a marker used to display a pair of
stimulus and response values.
Example: Reflection coefficients in polar diagrams
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient (S11, S22 etc.), then the center of the polar diagram corresponds to a perfect load Z0 at the input test port of the
DUT (no reflection, matched input), whereas the outer circumference (|Sii| = 1) represents a totally reflected signal.
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Examples for definite magnitudes and phase angles:
3.2.4.4
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Z = infinity, I = 0) is
one, its phase is zero.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Z = 0, U = 0) is one, its
phase is –180 deg.
Smith Chart
The Smith chart is a circular diagram that maps the complex reflection coefficients Sii
to normalized impedance values. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling of the
diagram is not linear. The grid lines correspond to points of constant resistance and
reactance.
●
Points with the same resistance are located on circles.
●
Points with the same reactance produce arcs.
The following example shows a Smith chart with a marker used to display the stimulus
value, the complex impedance Z = R + j X and the equivalent inductance L.
A comparison of the Smith chart, the inverted Smith chart and the polar diagram
reveals many similarities between the two representations. In fact the shape of a trace
does not change at all if the display format is switched from "Polar" to "Smith" or "Inverted Smith" – the analyzer simply replaces the underlying grid and the default marker
format.
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Smith chart construction
In a Smith chart, the impedance plane is reshaped so that the area with positive resistance is mapped into a unit circle.
The basic properties of the Smith chart follow from this construction:
●
The central horizontal axis corresponds to zero reactance (real impedance). The
center of the diagram represents Z/Z0 = 1 which is the reference impedance of the
system (zero reflection). At the left and right intersection points between the horizontal axis and the outer circle, the impedance is zero (short) and infinity (open).
●
The outer circle corresponds to zero resistance (purely imaginary impedance).
Points outside the outer circle indicate an active component.
●
The upper and lower half of the diagram correspond to positive (inductive) and
negative (capacitive) reactive components of the impedance, respectively.
Example: Reflection coefficients in the Smith chart
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient Γ (e.g. S11, S22), then the
unit Smith chart can be used to read the normalized impedance of the DUT. The coordinates in the normalized impedance plane and in the reflection coefficient plane are
related as follows (see also: definition of matched-circuit (converted) impedances):
Z / Z0 = (1 + Γ) / (1 – Γ)
From this equation it is easy to relate the real and imaginary components of the complex resistance to the real and imaginary parts of Γ:
R  Re( Z / Z 0 ) 
1  Re( ) 2  Im() 2
,
1  Re()2  Im() 2
X  Im( Z / Z 0 ) 
2  Im( )
1  Re()2  Im( ) 2
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According to the two equations above, the graphical representation in a Smith chart
has the following properties:
●
Real reflection coefficients are mapped to real impedances (resistances).
●
The center of the Γ plane (Γ = 0) is mapped to the reference impedance Z0,
whereas the circle with |Γ| = 1 is mapped to the imaginary axis of the Z plane.
●
The circles for the points of equal resistance are centered on the real axis and
intersect at Z = infinity. The arcs for the points of equal reactance also belong to
circles intersecting at Z = infinity (open circuit point (1, 0)), centered on a straight
vertical line.
Examples for special points in the Smith chart:
3.2.4.5
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Z = infinity, I = 0) is
one, its phase is zero.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Z = 0, U = 0) is one, its
phase is –180 deg.
Inverted Smith Chart
The inverted Smith chart is a circular diagram that maps the complex reflection coefficients S"ii" to normalized admittance values. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling of the diagram is not linear. The grid lines correspond to points of constant conductance and susceptance.
●
Points with the same conductance are located on circles.
●
Points with the same susceptance produce arcs.
The following example shows an inverted Smith chart with a marker used to display the
stimulus value, the complex admittance Y = G + j B and the equivalent inductance L.
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A comparison of the inverted Smith chart with the Smith chart and the polar diagram
reveals many similarities between the different representations. In fact the shape of a
trace does not change at all if the display format is switched from "Polar" to "Inverted
Smith" or "Smith" – the analyzer simply replaces the underlying grid and the default
marker format.
Inverted Smith chart construction
The inverted Smith chart is point-symmetric to the Smith chart:
The basic properties of the inverted Smith chart follow from this construction:
●
The central horizontal axis corresponds to zero susceptance (real admittance). The
center of the diagram represents Y/Y0 = 1, where Y0 is the reference admittance of
the system (zero reflection). At the left and right intersection points between the
horizontal axis and the outer circle, the admittance is infinity (short) and zero
(open).
●
The outer circle corresponds to zero conductance (purely imaginary admittance).
Points outside the outer circle indicate an active component.
●
The upper and lower half of the diagram correspond to negative (inductive) and
positive (capacitive) susceptive components of the admittance, respectively.
Example: Reflection coefficients in the inverted Smith chart
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient G (e.g. S11, S22), then the
unit inverted Smith chart can be used to read the normalized admittance of the DUT.
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The coordinates in the normalized admittance plane and in the reflection coefficient
plane are related as follows (see also: definition of matched-circuit (converted) admittances):
Y / Y0 = (1 - Γ) / (1 + Γ)
From this equation it is easy to relate the real and imaginary components of the complex admittance to the real and imaginary parts of Γ:
G  Re(Y / Y0 ) 
1  Re( ) 2  Im( ) 2
1  Re( )2  Im( ) 2
B  Im(Y / Y0 ) 
 2  Im()
,
1  Re()2  Im() 2
According to the two equations above, the graphical representation in an inverted
Smith chart has the following properties:
●
Real reflection coefficients are mapped to real admittances (conductances).
●
The center of the Γ plane (Γ = 0) is mapped to the reference admittance Y0,
whereas the circle with |Γ| = 1 is mapped to the imaginary axis of the Y plane.
●
The circles for the points of equal conductance are centered on the real axis and
intersect at Y = infinity. The arcs for the points of equal susceptance also belong to
circles intersecting at Y = infinity (short circuit point (–1, 0)), centered on a straight
vertical line.
Examples for special points in the inverted Smith chart:
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Y = infinity, U = 0) is
one, its phase is –180 deg.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Y = 0, I = 0) is one, its
phase is zero.
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3.2.4.6
Measured Quantities and Display Formats
The analyzer allows any combination of a display format and a measured quantity. The
following rules can help to avoid inappropriate formats and find the format that is ideally suited to the measurement task.
●
All formats are suitable for the analysis of reflection coefficients Sii. The formats
"SWR", "Smith" and "Inverted Smith" lose their original meaning (standing wave
ratio, normalized impedance or admittance) if they are used for transmission Sparameters, ratios and other quantities.
●
The complex "Impedances", "Admittances", "Z-parameters", and "Y-parameters"
are generally displayed in one of the Cartesian diagrams with linear vertical axis
scale or in a polar diagram.
●
The real "Stability Factors", "DC Inputs", and the "PAE" is generally displayed in a
linear Cartesian diagram ("Lin Mag" or "Real"). In complex formats, real numbers
represent complex numbers with zero imaginary part.
The following table gives an overview of recommended display formats.
Complex dimensionless quantities:
S-parameters and ratios
Complex quantities with dimensions: Real quantities:
Wave quantities, Z-parameters, Yparameters, impedances, admittances
Stability Factors, DC Input
½, PAE
Lin Mag
ON
ON (default for Z-parameters, Y-parameters, impedances, admittances)
ON (default)
dB Mag
ON (default)
ON (default for wave quantities)
–
Phase
ON
ON
–
Real
ON
ON
ON
Imag
ON
ON
–
Unwrapped Phase
ON
ON
–
Smith
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
Polar
ON
–
–
Inverted Smith
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
SWR
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
Delay
ON (transmission coefficients Sij)
–
–
The default formats are activated automatically when the measured quantity is
changed.
3.3 Measured Quantities
This section gives an overview of the measurement results of the network analyzer and
the meaning of the different measured quantities. All quantities can be selected in the
"Trace – Meas" submenu.
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The definitions in this and the following sections apply to general n-port DUTs. An analyzer with a smaller number of test ports provides a subset of the n-port quantities.
3.3.1 S-Parameters
S-parameters are the basic measured quantities of a network analyzer. They describe
how the DUT modifies a signal that is transmitted or reflected in forward or reverse
direction. For a 2-port measurement the signal flow is as follows.
The figure above is sufficient for the definition of S-parameters but does not necessarily show the complete signal flow. In fact, if the source and load ports are not ideally
matched, part of the transmitted waves are reflected off the receiver ports so that an
additional a2 contribution occurs in forward measurements, an a1 contribution occurs in
reverse measurements. The 7-term calibration types Txx take these additional contributions into account.
The scattering matrix links the incident waves a1, a2 to the outgoing waves b1, b2
according to the following linear equation:
b1  S11
b   S
 2   21
S12   a1 

S22  a 2 
Meaning of 2-port S-parameters
The four 2-port S-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
S11 is the input reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities
b1/a1, measured at PORT 1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 =
0).
●
S21 is the forward transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b2/a1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S12 is the reverse transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b1 (reverse measurement with matched input, b1,rev in the figure above and a1 =
0) to a2.
●
S22 is the output reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b2
(reverse measurement with matched input, b2,rev in the figure above and a1 = 0) to
a2, measured at PORT 2.
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Meaning of squared amplitudes
The squared amplitudes of the incident and outgoing waves and of the matrix elements
have a simple meaning:
Table 3-1: Squared S-parameters
3.3.1.1
|a1|2
Available incident power at the input of a two-port (= the power provided by a generator with a source impedance equal to the reference impedance Z0)
|a2|2
Available incident power at the output
|b1|2
Reflected power at the input of a two-port
|b2|2
Reflected power at the output
10*log|S11|2 (= 20*log|S11|)
Reflection loss at the input
10*log|S22|2
Reflection loss at the output
10*log|S21|2
Insertion loss at the input
10*log|S12|2
Insertion loss at the output
Multiport S-Parameters
The multiport S-parameters extend the standard 2-port S-parameters to a larger number of incoming and outgoing waves. For a 4-port DUT,
b1 S11
  
b2   S21
b  S
 3   31
b4  S41
S
S
S
S
12
22
32
42
S
S
S
S
13
23
33
43
S
S
S
S
  a1
  
24  a2 

 a 
34
  3
 a4 
44 
14
where ai denotes the incident and bi the outgoing wave at DUT port i = 1 to 4, and the
S-parameters are expressed as Sij (i,j = 1 to 4).
The parameters conisdered so far are referred to as single-ended S-parameters. The
S-parameter description can also be used to describe different propagation modes of
the waves at the output and input ports. This results in so-called mixed mode S-parameters. The analyzer measures either single-ended or mixed mode S-parameters.
3.3.2 Impedance Parameters
An impedance is the complex ratio between a voltage and a current. The analyzer provides two independent sets of impedance parameters:
●
Converted impedances (each impedance parameter is obtained from a single Sparameter)
●
Z-parameters (complete description of the n-port DUT)
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3.3.2.1
Converted Impedances
The converted impedance parameters describe the input impedances of a DUT with
fully matched outputs. In the figures below the indices I and j number the analyzer/DUT
ports, Z0i is the reference impedance at the DUT port I.
The analyzer converts a single measured S-parameter to determine the corresponding
converted impedance. As a result, converted Z-parameters cannot completely describe
general n-port DUTs:
●
A reflection parameter Zii completely describes a one-port DUT. For n-port DUTs
(n>1) the reflection parameters Zii describe the input impedances at ports I (I = 1 to
n) under the condition that each of the other ports is terminated with its reference
impedance (matched-circuit parameters).
●
A two-port transmission parameter Zij (i ≠ j) can describe a pure serial impedance
between the two ports.
Relation with S-parameters
The converted impedances Zii are calculated from the reflection S-parameters Sii
according to:
Z ii  Z 0i
1  S ii
1  S ii
The transmission parameters are calculated according to:
Z ij  2 
Z 0i  Z 0 j
S ij
 Z 0i  Z 0 j , i  j ,
The converted admittances are defined as the inverse of the impedances.
Examples:
●
Z11 is the input impedance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the
reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit impedance measured in a forward reflection measurement).
●
The extension of the impedances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is
analogous to S-parameters. Zdd44 is the differential mode input impedance at port 4
of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0.
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You can also read the converted impedances in a reflection coefficient measurement
from the Smith chart.
3.3.2.2
Z-Parameters
The Z-parameters describe the impedances of a DUT with open output ports (I = 0).
The analyzer provides the full set of Z-parameters including the transfer impedances
(i.e. the complete nxn Z-matrix for an n port DUT).
This means that Z-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Yparameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
3.3.2.3
2-Port Z-Parameters
In analogy to S-parameters, Z-parameters are expressed as Zij, where i denotes the
measured and j the stimulated port.
The Z-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be expressed
with two linear equations:
V1  Z11 I1  Z12 I 2
V2  Z 21 I1  Z 22 I 2
Meaning of Z-parameters
The four 2-port open-circuit Z-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
Z11 is the input impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the current I1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
●
Z21 is the forward transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the
current I1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
●
Z12 is the reverse transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the
current I2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
●
Z22 is the output impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the current I2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
Z-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or
several modes of propagation.
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3.3.2.4
Admittance Parameters
An admittance is the complex ratio between a current and a voltage. The analyzer provides two independent sets of admittance parameters:
3.3.2.5
●
Converted admittances (each admittance parameter is obtained from a single Sparameter)
●
Y-parameters (complete description of the n-port DUT)
Converted Admittances
The converted admittance parameters describe the input admittances of a DUT with
fully matched outputs. The converted admittances are the inverse of the converted
impedances.
The analyzer converts a single measured S-parameter to determine the corresponding
converted admittance. As a result, converted Y-parameters cannot completely describe
general n-port DUTs:
●
A reflection parameter Yii completely describes a one-port DUT. For n-port DUTs
(n>1) the reflection parameters Yii describe the input admittances at ports I (I = 1 to
n) under the condition that each of the other ports is terminated with its reference
impedance (matched-circuit parameters).
●
A two-port transmission parameter Yij (I ≠ j) can describe a pure serial impedance
between the two ports.
Relation with S-parameters
The converted admittances Yii are calculated from the reflection S-parameters Sii
according to:
Yii 
1 1  Sii
 1 / Z ii
Z 0i 1  Sii
The transmission parameters are calculated according to:
Yij 
Sij
2  Z 0i  Z 0 j  Sij  Z 0i  Z 0 j 
 1 / Z ij , i  j ,
i, j  1, ..., 99
Examples:
●
Y11 is the input admittance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the
reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit admittance measured in a forward reflection measurement).
●
The extension of the admittances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is
analogous to S-parameters. Ydd44 is the differential mode input admittance at port 4
of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0.
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You can also read the converted admittances in a reflection coefficient measurement
from the inverted Smith chart.
3.3.2.6
Y-Parameters
The Y-parameters describe the admittances of a DUT with output ports terminated in a
short circuit (V = 0). The analyzer provides the full set of Y-parameters including the
transfer admittances (i.e. the complete n x n Y-matrix for an n port DUT).
This means that Y-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Zparameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
3.3.2.7
2-Port Y-Parameters
In analogy to S-parameters, Y-parameters are expressed as Y<out>< in>, where <out>
and <in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT. In analogy to Z-parameters, the Y-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be
expressed with two linear equations:
I1  Y11V1  Y12V2
I 2  Y21V1  Y22V2
Meaning of Y-parameters
The four 2-port Y-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
Y11 is the input admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the voltage V1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit,
V2 = 0).
●
Y21 is the forward transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the
voltage V1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit, V2 = 0).
●
Y12 is the reverse transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the
voltage V2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit, V1 = 0).
●
Y22 is the output admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the voltage V2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit,
V1 = 0).
Y-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or
several modes of propagation.
3.3.2.8
Wave Quantities and Ratios
The elements of the S-, Z- and Y-matrices represent fixed ratios of complex wave
amplitudes. As long as the assumption of linearity holds, the S-, Z- and Y-parameters
are independent of the source power.
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Measured Quantities
The network analyzer provides two additional sets of measurement parameters which
have a unambiguous meaning even if the DUT is measured outside its linear range:
●
"Wave Quantities" provide the power of any of the transmitted or received waves.
●
"Ratios" provide the complex ratio of any combination of transmitted or received
wave quantities.
In contrast to S-, Z- and Y-parameters, wave quantities and ratios are not system-error
corrected. A power calibration can be applied to wave quantities and ratios.
With option R&S ZVA-K6, "True Differential Mode", the analyzer can also determine
balanced wave quantities and ratios.
3.3.2.9
Wave Quantities
A wave quantity measurement provides the power of any of the transmitted or received
waves. The power can be displayed in voltage units (e.g. "V" or "dBmV") or equivalent
power units (e.g. "W" or "dBm").
Examples for using wave quantities
The wave quantities provide the power at the different receive ports of the analyzer.
This is different from an S-parameter measurement, where the absolute power of a linear device is cancelled. Wave quantities are therefore suitable for the following measurement tasks:
●
Analysis of non-linearities of the DUT.
●
Use of the analyzer as a selective power meter.
To increase the accuracy or correct a possible attenuation in the input signal path,
it is recommended to perform a power calibration.
The notation for wave quantities includes the direction and the test port number. Additionally, the source port must be specified. The letter a indicates a transmitted wave, b
a received wave.
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Measured Quantities
Examples:
3.3.2.10
●
a1 Src Port 1 is the outgoing wave at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter measurement, this wave is fed to the input port (port 1) of the DUT (forward measurement).
●
b1 Src Port 1 is the incoming wave at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter measurement, this is the reflected wave at port 1 of the DUT (forward measurement).
Ratios
A ratio measurement provides the complex ratio of any combination of transmitted or
received wave amplitudes. Ratios complement the S-parameter measurements, where
only ratios of the form bI/aj (ratio of the incoming wave to the outgoing wave at the test
ports I and j of the DUT) are considered.
Examples for using ratios
A measurement of ratios is particularly suitable for the following test scenarios:
●
The test setup or some of its components (e.g. active components or non-reciprocal devices) do not allow a system error correction so that a complete S-parameter
measurement is not possible.
●
The test setup contains frequency-converting components so that the transmitted
and the received waves are at different frequencies.
●
A ratio of two arbitrary waves that is not an element of the S-matrix (e.g. a ratio of
the form aI/aj) is needed.
The notation for ratios includes the two waves with their directions and test port numbers. Additionally, the source port must be specified. In analogy to wave quantities, the
letter a indicates an outgoing wave, b an incoming wave.
Examples:
3.3.2.11
●
b2/a1 Src Port 1 is the ratio of the outgoing wave b2 at port 2 and the incident wave
a1 at port 1; this corresponds to the S-parameter S21 (forward transmission coefficient).
●
b1/a1 Src Port 1 is the ratio of the wave quantities b1 and a1, measured at PORT 1;
this corresponds to the S-parameter S11 (input reflection coefficient).
Unbalance-Balance Conversion
Unbalance-balance conversion is the simulation of one or more unbalance-balance
transformers (baluns) integrated in the measurement circuit in order to convert the
DUT ports from an unbalanced state into a balanced state and virtually separate the
differential and common mode signals. The analyzer measures the unbalanced state
but converts the results and calculates mixed mode parameters, e.g. mixed mode Sparameters. No physical transformer is needed.
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Measured Quantities
With option R&S ZVA-K6, True Differential Mode, the analyzer can generate balanced
waves at arbitrary reference planes in the test setup and determine balanced results
such as S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios. The true differential mode also provides two additional sweep types, the "amplitude imbalance" and "phase imbalance"
sweeps. What is said below is valid for both the simulated balanced mode and the true
differential mode.
To perform balanced measurements, a pair of physical analyzer ports is combined to
form a logical port. The balanced port of the DUT is directly connected to the analyzer
ports
Unbalance-balance conversion avoids the disadvantages of real transformers:
3.3.2.12
●
There is no need to fabricate test fixtures with integrated baluns for each type of
DUT.
●
The measurement is not impaired by the non-ideal characteristics of the balun (e.g.
error tolerances, limited frequency range).
●
Calibration can be performed at the DUT's ports. If necessary (e.g. to compensate
for the effect of a test fixture), it is possible to shift the calibration plane using
length offset parameters.
●
Differential and common mode parameters can be evaluated with a single test
setup.
Balanced Port Configurations
Defining a logical ports requires two physical analyzer ports. The ports of an analyzer
are equivalent and can be freely combined. Moreover, it is possible to assign arbitrary,
independent reference impedance values to each unbalanced port and to the differential and common mode of each logical port. The following types of balanced devices
can be measured with 2-port, 3-port and 4-port analyzers:
2-port analyzers: Reflection measurements on 1 balanced port
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Measured Quantities
Balanced port:
Bal.
port
Log.
NWA
port
DUT
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
3-port analyzers: Reflection and transmission measurements on 1 balanced port
Balanced port:
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
Balanced port:
Log.
NWA
port
Bal.
port
Bal.
port
Log.
NWA
port
DUT
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
4-port analyzers: Reflection and transmission measurements on 1 or 2 balanced ports
Single-ended
(unbalanced) ports
Zref1 = Zconnector1
Balanced port:
Single
ended
ports
Zref2 = Zconnector2
Bal.
port
Log.
NWA
port
DUT
Balanced port:
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
Balanced port:
Log.
NWA
port
Bal.
port
Bal.
port
DUT
Log.
NWA
port
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
A balanced port configuration is defined by simply selecting the pairs of physical ports
that are combined to form balanced ports and defining the two reference impedances
for the differential and common mode at each balanced port. All this is done in a single
dialog; refer to the help system for details and measurement examples. The most commonly used balanced port configurations and impedances are predefined and can be
selected in the "Measurement Wizard".
Depending on the test setup, the analyzer provides different types of mixed mode
parameters; refer to the following sections for details.
3.3.2.13
Mixed Mode Parameters
Mixed mode parameters are an extension of normal mode parameters (e.g. S-parameters, impedances and admittances) for balanced measurements. The analyzer can
measure mixed mode parameters as soon as a balanced port configuration is selected.
Mixed mode parameters are used to distinguish the following three port modes:
●
s: Single-ended (for unbalanced ports)
●
d: Differential mode (for balanced ports)
●
c: Common mode (for balanced ports)
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Measured Quantities
The notation of a general S-parameter is S<mout><min><out><in>, where <mout> and <min>
denote the output and input port modes, <out> and <in> denote the output and input
port numbers.
Meaning of 2-port mixed mode S-parameters
The mixed mode 2-port S-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
S<mout><min>11 is the mixed mode input reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of
the wave quantities b1 (mode mout) to a1 (mode min), measured at PORT 1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S<mout><min>21 is the mixed mode forward transmission coefficient, defined as the
ratio of the wave quantities b2 (mode mout) to a1 (mode min) (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S<mout><min>12 is the mixed mode reverse transmission coefficient, defined as the
ratio of the wave quantities b1 (mode mout) (reverse measurement with matched
input, b1' in the figure above and a1 = 0) to a2 (mode min).
●
S<mout><min>22 is the mixed mode output reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of
the wave quantities b2 (mode mout) (reverse measurement with matched input, b2'
in the figure above and a1 = 0) to a2 (mode min), measured at PORT 2.
If <mout> is different from <min>, the S-parameters are called mode conversion factors.
3.3.2.14
Mixed Mode Parameters for Different Test Setups
Which types of mixed mode parameter are available depends on the measured device
and the port configuration of the analyzer. The following examples of mixed more
parameters can all be obtained with a 4-port analyzer.
1. DUT with only single-ended ports: No balanced port definition necessary, the analyzer provides single-ended multiport parameters.
2. DUT with one balanced port: Only reflection and mode conversion measurements
with differential and common mode parameters.
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Calibration
3. 3. DUT with one balanced and one single-ended port.
4. 4. DUT with two balanced ports or one balanced and two single-ended ports. Both
device types are fully characterized by 4x4 mixed mode S-matrices.
3.4 Calibration
Calibration or "system error correction" is the process of eliminating systematic, reproducible errors from the measurement results. The process involves the following
stages:
1. A set of calibration standards is selected and measured over the required sweep
range. For many calibration types the magnitude and phase response of each calibration standard (i.e. its S-parameters if no system errors occur) must be known
within the entire sweep range. In some calibration procedures (TRL, TNA, TRM),
part of the characteristics of the standards can be auto-determined due to implicit
redundancy (self-calibration).
2. The analyzer compares the measurement data of the standards with their known,
ideal response. The difference is used to calculate the system errors using a particular error model (calibration type) and derive a set of system error correction data.
3. The system error correction data is used to correct the measurement results of a
DUT that is measured instead of the standards.
Calibration is always channel-specific because it depends on the hardware settings, in
particular on the sweep range. The means that a system error correction data set is
stored with the calibrated channel.
The analyzer provides a wide range of sophisticated calibration methods for all types of
measurements. Which calibration method is selected depends on the expected system
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Calibration
errors, the accuracy requirements of the measurement, on the test setup and on the
types of calibration standards available.
Due to the analyzer's calibration wizard, calibration is a straightforward, menu-guided
process. Moreover, it is possible to perform the entire calibration process automatically
using a Calibration Unit (accessories R&S ZV-Z5x).
The system error correction data determined in a calibration procedure are stored on
the analyzer. You can read these correction data using the remote control command
[SENSe<Ch>:]CORRection:CDATa. You can also replace the correction data of the
analyzer by your own correction data sets.
A red label "Cal Off !" appears behind the trace list if the system error correction no
longer applies to one or more traces:
This may happen for one of the following reasons:
●
The sweep range is outside the calibrated frequency range.
●
The channel calibration is not sufficient for the measured quantity (e.g. a one-port
calibration has been performed, but the measured quantity is a transmission
parameter).
●
The system error correction has been switched off deliberately ("Correction Off").
●
The analyzer provides other labels to indicate the status of the current calibration;
refer to the Help system for details.
3.4.1 Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits
A calibration kit is a set of physical calibration standards for a particular connector type.
The magnitude and phase response of the calibration standards (i.e. their S-parameters) must be known or predictable within a given frequency range.
The standards are grouped into several types (Open, Through, Match,...) corresponding to the different input quantities for the analyzer's error models. The standard type
also determines the equivalent circuit model used to describe its properties. The circuit
model depends on several parameters that are stored in the cal kit file associated with
the calibration kit.
As an alternative to using circuit models, it is possible to describe the standards by
means of S-parameter tables stored in a file.
The analyzer provides a large number of predefined cal kits but can also import cal kit
files and create new kits:
●
A selection of predefined kits is available for all connector types. The parameters of
these kits are displayed in the "Add/Modify Standards" dialog, however, it is not
possible to change or delete the kits.
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Calibration
●
Imported and user-defined kits can be changed in the "Calibration Kits" dialog and
its various sub-dialogs.
Calibration kits and connector types are global resources; the parameters are stored
independently and are available irrespective of the current setup.
3.4.2 Calibration Types
The analyzer provides a wide range of calibration types for one, two or more ports. The
calibration types differ in the number and types of standards used, the error terms, i.e.
the type of systematic errors corrected and the general accuracy. The following table
gives an overview.
Table 3-2: Overview of calibration types
Calibration Type
Standards
Parameters
Error Terms
General Accuracy
Application
Reflection Normalization
Open or Short
S11
Reflection tracking
Low to medium
Reflection measurements on any port.
Transmission Normalization
Through
Transmission tracking
Medium
Transmission measurements in any
direction and
between any combination of ports.
Full One-Port
Open, Short and
Match1)
S11
Reflection tracking,
High
(or S22, ...)
Source match
Reflection measurements on any port.
Medium to high
Unidirectional transmission measurements in any direction and between
any combination of
ports.
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2 or more
ports; classical 12term error correction model.
High, implicit verification
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2 or more
ports.
(or S22, ...)
S12, S21
(or S13,...)
Directivity,
One-Path Two-Port
Open, Short and
Match1) (at source
port),
S11, S21
Reflection tracking,
(or S22,...)
Source match,
Directivity,
Through2)
TOSM (2 or more
ports) or UOSM
Open, Short,
Match1) at all ports,
Transmission tracking
All
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Through2) between
all directed port
pairs
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking,
TOM (2 or more
ports)
Open and Match at
all ports,
All
Through between
all directed port
pairs
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
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Calibration
Calibration Type
Standards
Parameters
Error Terms
General Accuracy
Application
TRM (2 or more
ports)
Reflect (equal at all
ports) and Match at
all ports,
All
Reflection tracking,
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2 or ports,
especially in test fixtures.
High, high directivity
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2 or more
ports, especially for
planar circuits. Limited bandwidth.
Source match,
Directivity,
Through between
all directed port
pairs
TRL (2 or more
ports)
Reflect at all ports,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
All
Through and Line 1
[+ Line 2, Line 3
(optional)] between
all directed port
pairs, in combination with TRM
(optional)
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
NIST Multiline TRL
(2 or more ports)
Reflect at all ports,
Through and one or
more Line standards (number not
limited) between all
directed port pairs
All
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Directivity, Load
match, Transmission tracking
High, high directivity In general higher
accuracy than TRL
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2 or more
ports, especially for
planar circuits.
Bandwidth limited at
low frequencies.
TNA (2 or more
ports)
Through, Attenuation, Symmetric
network
All
Reflection tracking,
High, lowest
requirements on
standards
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2 or more
ports, especially for
planar circuits.
Source match,
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
1) Or any other 3 known one-port standards. To be used in a guided calibration, the
known standards must be declared to be open, short, and match irrespective of their
properties.
2) Or any other known two-port standard. See remark above.
The calibration type must be selected in accordance with the test setup. Select the calibration type for which you can obtain or design the most accurate standards and for
which you can measure the required parameters with best accuracy.
3.4.3 Automatic Calibration
A Calibration Unit is an integrated solution for automatic system error correction of vector network analyzers. For analyzers of the R&S ZVAB family, Rohde & Schwarz provides different types of calibration units:
●
The 2- and 4-port calibration units R&S ZV-Z51, R&S ZV-Z52, R&S ZV-Z53, R&S
ZV-Z54, and R&S ZV-Z55 are especially suited for R&S ZVA and R&S ZVB vector
network analyzers.
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Calibration
●
Within their respective frequency ranges, you may also use one of the calibration
units R&S ZN-Z51 (2 or 4 ports) or R&S ZN-Z151 (2 ports)
Calibration unit
Recommended for
Frequency range
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
R&S ZV-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8, R&S ZVA8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
4
1164.0515.30
R&S ZV-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8, R&S ZVA8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
type N (f)
4
1164.0515.70
R&S ZV-Z52
R&S ZVB14, R&S
ZVB20, R&S
ZVA24
10 MHz to 24 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
4
1164.0521.30
R&S ZV-Z52
R&S ZVB14
100 kHz to 18 GHz
type N (f)
4
1164.0521.70
R&S ZV-Z53
R&S ZVB14, R&S
ZVB20, R&S
ZVA24
300 kHz to 24 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
2
1164.0473.32
R&S ZV-Z53
R&S ZVB14
300 kHz to 18 GHz
type N (f)
2
1164.0473.72
R&S ZV-Z54
R&S ZVA40
10 MHz to 40 GHz
2.92 mm (f)
2
1164.0467.92
R&S ZV-Z55
R&S ZVA50
10 MHz to 50 GHz
2.4 mm (f)
2
1164.0480.42
R&S ZN-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
4
1319.5507.34
R&S ZN-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
2
1319.5507.32
R&S ZN-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
type N (f)
4
1319.5507.74
R&S ZN-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
type N (f)
2
1319.5507.72
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Calibration
Calibration unit
Recommended for
Frequency range
R&S ZN-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
The R&S ZN-Z51 allows a free/mixed port configuration with possible connector types
N (m/f), 3.5 mm (m/f) and 7/16 (m/f).
custom configuration
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
With an N(f)-type CalU serving as base unit, for each available port an alternative connector type N(m), 3.5 mm (m/f) or 7/16 (m/f) can be selected. For N(f)-type models
alternative connectors can be also be retrofitted, but the calibration unit has to be sent
to service for that and has to be characterized again. See the data sheet for ordering
information.
The frequency range for 7/16 connector ports is limited to 100 kHz to 7.5 GHz.
R&S ZN-Z151
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
type N (f)
2
1317.9134.72
R&S ZN-Z151
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
SMA (f)
2
1317.9134.32
R&S ZN-Z153
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
SMA (f)
4
1319.6178.34
The multiport calibration units R&S ZV-Z58, R&S ZV-Z59, R&S ZN-Z152 and R&S ZNZ154 are especially suited for R&S ZVT vector network analyzers.
Calibration unit
Recommended for
Frequency range
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
R&S ZV-Z58
R&S ZVT8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
type N
8
1164.0638.78
R&S ZV-Z58
R&S ZVT8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
3.5 mm
8
1164.0638.78
R&S ZV-Z59
R&S ZVT20
10 MHz to 20 GHz
3.5 mm
6
1164.0450.36
R&S ZN-Z152
R&S ZVT8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
SMA (f)
6
1319.6003.36
R&S ZN-Z153
R&S ZVT8
100 kHz to 8.5 GHz
SMA (f)
4
1319.6178.34
The units contain calibration standards that are electronically switched when a calibration is performed. The calibration kit data for the internal standards are also stored in
the calibration unit, so that the analyzer can calculate the error terms and apply the calibration without any further input.
Advantages of automatic calibration
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Calibration
Automatic calibration is generally faster and more secure than manual calibration,
because:
●
There is no need to connect several standards manually. The number of connections to be performed quickly increases with the number of ports; see "TOSM Calibration".
●
Invalid calibrations due to operator errors (e.g. wrong standards or improper connections) are almost excluded.
●
No need to handle calibration kit data.
●
The internal standards don't wear out because they are switched electronically.
Automatic calibration is less flexible than manual calibration:
●
Some calibration types (TOM, TRM, TRL, TNA) are not available.
●
Automatic calibration cannot be performed for segmented frequency sweeps.
Please observe the safety instructions in the "Technical Information" provided with the
calibration unit to avoid any damage to the unit and the network analyzer. Safety-related aspects of the connection and operation of the units are also reported in the sections below.
3.4.4 Power Calibration
The purpose of a power calibration is to ensure accurate source power levels and
power readings at a particular position (reference plane) in the test setup. Power calibration is essentially different from the system error correction described in the previous sections. For best accuracy, a power calibration should be performed in addition to
a system error correction.
In general, a power calibration involves two stages:
1. Source power calibration: An external power meter is connected to the reference
plane. The analyzer modifies its source power until the power meter reading corresponds to the desired source power value.
2. Receiver power calibration: The analyzer uses the calibrated source signal to
adjust the power reading at the receiver port.
The analyzer provides power calibration wizards for various measurement modes.
3.4.5 Offset Parameters
Offset parameters complement the system error correction and power calibration, compensating for the known length and loss of a (non-dispersive and perfectly matched)
transmission line between the calibrated reference plane and the DUT. The analyzer
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Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
can also auto-determine length and loss parameters, assuming that the actual values
should minimize the group delay and loss across the sweep range.
3.5 Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
The network analyzer can be upgraded with a number of hardware and software
options, providing enhanced flexibility and an extended measurement functionality. The
available options are listed in the "Info – Option Info" dialog. The R&S ZVA options listed below are described in detail in the reference chapters of the help system. For a
complete list of options, accessories, and extras refer to the product brochure of your
analyzer.
Table 3-3: R&S ZVA options
Option
Option Name
Functionality
RS& ZVAB-K2
Time Domain
Transformation of the trace to time domain in order to analyze
responses, transformation back to the frequency domain.
R&S ZVA-K4
Arbitrary gen. and rec. frequencies, includes scalar Mixer and
Harmonics measurements
Measurements at arbitrary (not necessarily equal) generator
and receiver frequencies; scalar measurements on external RF
mixers, harmonic distortion measurements, intermodulation distortion measurements.
R&S ZVA-K5
Mixer Phase Measurement (Vector
Mixer Measurement)
Measurement of the parameters of an external mixer including
phase, e.g. the complex conversion loss or reflection coefficients.
R&S ZVA-K6
True Differential Mode
Generation of true differential and common mode stimuli at arbitrary reference planes in the test setup and measurement of the
mixed-mode S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios. Alternatively: Defined coherence mode, provides several source signals with defined phase and amplitude relation.
R&S ZVA-K7
Measurements on Pulsed Signals
Pulsed measurements in analogy to a time sweep (i.e. at constant receiver frequency), but with a much higher sampling rate
of 12.5/ns.
R&S ZVA-K8
Converter Control
Measurements at frequencies beyond the analyzer's operating
range.
R&S ZVA-K9
Mixer Delay w/o LO Access
Measurement of the absolute or relative group delay of a mixer.
R&S ZVA-K10
Long Distance Mixer Delay
Mixer delay measurement with two different network analyzers,
one providing the source ports, the other the receive port.
R&S ZVA-K17
5 MHz Receiver Bandwidth
Provides up to 5 MHz IF bandwidth, thus providing shorter measurement times for frequency, time, or CW sweeps; enhanced
performance for point-in-pulse measurements.
R&S ZVA-K27
Internal Pulse Generators
Provides two pulsed control signals to control pulsed measurements.
R&S ZVAB-K30
Noise Figure Measurement
Provides the noise figure of a DUT which operates in its linear
range.
R&S ZVA-K31
Freq. Conv. Noise Figure
Provides the noise figure of a frequency-converting DUT which
operates in its linear range.
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Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
Option
Option Name
Functionality
R&S ZVAB-B4
Oven Quartz (OCXO)
The R&S ZVA can optionally be equipped with a 10 MHz ovencontrolled crystal oscillator (OCXO) to enhance the frequency
accuracy of the internal generators.
R&S ZVAB-B14
Universal Interface
Provides digital control signals for an external part handler.
R&S ZVA<frequency>-B16
Direct Generator/Receiver Access
Give direct access to various RF input and output signals, e.g.
to insert external components into the signal path or develop
custom measurements.
R&S ZVA<frequency>-B2x
Generator Step Attenuators for
port x = 1,2,3,4
Control the source power, e.g. to protect sensitive DUTs from
excess input levels.
R&S ZVA<frequency>-B3x
Receiver Step Attenuators for port
x = 1,2,3,4
Control the received power, e.g. to avoid damage to the analyzer.
The following sections provide a short introduction to the software options.
3.5.1 Time Domain (R&S ZVAB-K2)
The network analyzer measures and displays complex S-parameters and other quantities as a function of the frequency. The measurement results can be filtered and mathematically transformed in order to obtain the time domain representation, which often
gives a clearer insight into the characteristics of the DUT.
Time domain transforms can be calculated in band pass or low pass mode. For the latter the analyzer offers the impulse and step response as two alternative transformation
types. A wide selection of windows can be used to optimize the time domain response
and suppress sidelobes due to the finite sweep range. Moreover, it is possible to eliminate unwanted responses by means of a time gate and transform the gated result back
into the frequency domain.
3.5.2 Arbitrary Generator and Receiver Frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4)
Measurements at arbitrary (not necessarily equal) generator and receiver frequencies
provide a wealth of applications, e.g. intermodulation measurements vs. frequency and
power, hot S-parameter measurements.
For intermodulation distortion measurements, the analyzer provides a measurement
and calibration wizard. Intermodulation products and intercept points of order 3, 5, 7, 9
can be measured at the input and at the output of the DUT.
The frequency conversion option also includes mixer and harmonics measurements.
3.5.3 Arbitrary Gen. and Rec. Frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4)
RF mixers convert an RF signal at one frequency into a signal at another frequency.
The frequency that is to be shifted is applied at the RF input and the frequency shifting
signal (from a local oscillator, LO) is applied to the RF mixer's LO port, resulting in an
output signal at the mixer's Intermediate Frequency (IF) port.
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System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
For a given RF signal, an ideal mixer would produce only two IF outputs: one at the
frequency sum of the RF and LO (IF = RF + LO), and another at the frequency difference between the RF and LO (IF = |RF – LO|). Filtering can be used to select one of
these IF outputs and reject the unwanted one.
In the scalar mixer mode the analyzer provides the following functionality:
●
Configuration of the RF and LO signals and measurement of the generated IF signal.
●
Power calibration of the signal sources and of the IF receiver.
●
The mixer mode can be used also to test important performance parameters of RF
mixers such as frequency ranges, conversion loss, compression, and isolation.
Harmonics are signals at an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The fundamental is the first harmonic, the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the fundamental. The production of harmonic frequencies by an electronic system when a signal
is applied at the input is known as harmonic distortion.
The purpose of the harmonics measurement is to measure the harmonic distortion of a
DUT. To this end the source remains at the fundamental frequency whereas the
receiver is set to n times the fundamental frequency. Two different types of results are
provided:
●
In the direct measurement, the nth harmonic of the stimulus signal is measured.
●
In the relative measurement, the nth harmonic of the stimulus signal is divided by
1st harmonic (fundamental) received from the DUT. The result corresponds to the
nth harmonic distortion factor.
3.5.4 Mixer Phase Measurement (R&S ZVA-K5)
Measurement of the parameters of an external mixer including phase, e.g. the complex
conversion loss or reflection coefficients. In contrast to scalar mixer measurements
(with option R&S ZVA-K4), mixer phase (or vector mixer) measurements provide magnitude and phase information, including group delay, about the mixer under test (MUT).
To assess the phase information, the IF signal at the mixer output is converted back to
the original RF frequency using a second MEAS mixer. A third REF mixer ensures that
the reference wave is converted back to the RF frequency.
3.5.5 True Differential Mode (R&S ZVA-K6)
Differential transmission lines and circuits are widely used, because their characteristics give them a lower susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. Linear balanced
devices can be tested with sufficient accuracy using the virtual differential mode, where
the vector network analyzer generates unbalanced stimulus signals and uses a mathematical transformation to convert unbalanced wave quantities into balanced S-parameters. A different behavior is expected for nonlinear balanced devices, where the transmission characteristics of the DUT may depend on how closely the stimulus signal
matches real operating conditions.
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System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
In "True Differential Mode", the vector network analyzer generates true differential and
common mode stimuli at arbitrary reference planes in the test setup and determines
mixed-mode S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios. The true differential mode also
provides two additional sweep types, the amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance
sweeps.
As an alternative to true differential mode, the Defined Coherence Mode provides several source signals with defined phase and amplitude relation.
3.5.6 Measurements on Pulsed Signals (R&S ZVA-K7)
Measurements on pulsed RF signals are required in many areas of RF and microwave
technology. Pulsed signals are used in mobile phone applications and radar systems,
and amplifiers are typically designed for pulsed rather than continuous wave (CW) conditions.
The analyzer performs pulsed measurements in analogy to a time sweep (i.e. at constant receiver frequency), but with a much higher sampling rate of 12.5/ns. The raw I/Q
amplitudes are written into a ring buffer and processed at the end of each sweep. The
buffer size allows for a maximum recording time (sweep time) of 3 ms. Due to the high
sampling rate and the large IF bandwidths available, it is possible to obtain profiles for
pulse widths from approx. 200 ns to the maximum recording time. Of course it is also
possible to measure a sequence of pulses up to the maximum recording time.
3.5.7 Converter Control (R&S ZVA-K8)
Measurements at frequencies beyond the analyzer's operating range (mm-wave measurements) are achieved by combining a frequency-converting measurement with an
external test set (frequency converter). The frequency converters use frequency multipliers to transform the RF source signal from one of the network analyzer ports into a
high-frequency stimulus signal. A dual directional coupler separates the reference and
measurement channels from the waveguide test port. A second signal (Local Oscillator, LO) is used for down-conversion of the reference and measurement channels. The
LO signal can be provided either by a second analyzer port or by an external generator. The down-converted signals are fed to the REF IN and MEAS IN input connectors
of the analyzer port providing the RF source signal.
Option R&S ZVA-K8 also comprises option ZVA-K4, Frequency Conversion.
3.5.8 Mixer Delay w/o LO Access (R&S ZVA-K9)
Measurement of a mixer's absolute or relative group delay. The mixer delay measurement is an extension of the scalar mixer measurement: The network analyzer generates a two-tone RF signal as a mixer input signal and measures the converted IF signal at the mixer output. The mixer delay is derived from the relative phases of the twotone signals at the mixer input and the mixer output.
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System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
Compared to conventional measurement methods, the mixer delay measurement
offers several additional advantages.
●
No external mixers are needed.
●
A network analyzer with standard functionality is sufficient.
●
Easy calibration using a calibration mixer.
3.5.9 Long Distance Mixer Delay (R&S ZVA-K10)
The mixer delay measurement can be performed with two different R&S ZVA or R&S
ZVT network analyzers, one providing the source ports, the other the receive port. The
two instruments can communicate with each other via LAN using LXI event messages.
This can be advantageous e.g. for measurements on DUTs with large dimensions
where the connection to a single instrument would require very long RF cables.
3.5.10 Internal Pulse Generators (R&S ZVA-K27)
Provides two independent control signals at the CASCADE output connector on the
rear panel of the network analyzer. The signals can be used to control an R&S ZVAXxx
Extension Unit equipped with a pulse modulator option.
3.5.11 Noise Figure Measurement (R&S ZVAB-K30)
Provides the noise figure of a DUT which operates in its linear range. The noise figure
of a device is the ratio of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to the input SNR, provided that a thermal noise signal is fed to the input. It is a measure of the degradation of
the SNR caused by the device.
The method of measurement offers several advantages:
●
No additional noise source is required.
●
The result can be obtained in a single sweep.
●
The test setup is as simple as for a basic transmission measurement: The DUT
must be connected only once. Moreover, it is possible to perform S-parameter
measurements in parallel to the noise figure measurement.
3.5.12 Frequency Converting Noise Figure Measurement (R&S ZVA-K31)
Provides the noise figure of a frequency-converting DUT, e.g. a mixer or a system of
two mixer stages. The measurement is performed in analogy to noise figure measurements on non-frequency-converting DUTs.
Mixer noise figure measurements also require options R&S ZVAB-K30 and R&S ZVAK4.
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Glossary: Frequently Used Terms
Glossary: Frequently Used Terms
A
Active channel: Channel belonging to the active trace. The active channel is highlighted in the channel list below the diagram. The active channel is not relevant in remote
control where each channel can contain an active trace.
Active marker: Marker that can be changed using the settings of the Marker menu
(Delta Mode, Ref. Mkr -> Mkr, Mkr Format). The active marker is also used for the
Marker Functions. It appears in the diagram with an enlarged marker symbol and font
size and with a dot placed in front of the marker line in the info field.
Active menu: The menu containing the last executed command. If the softkey bar is
displayed (Display - Config./View - Softkey Labels on), then the active menu is indicated on top of the softkey bar.
Active trace (manual control): Trace that is selected to apply the settings in the
Trace menu. The active trace is highlighted in the trace list of the active diagram area.
It can be different from the active trace in remote control.
Active trace (remote control): One trace of each channel that has been selected as
the active trace (CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SELect <trace name>). Many
commands (e.g. TRACE...) act on the active trace. It can be different from the active
trace in manual control.
C
Cal pool: The cal pool is a collection of correction data sets (cal groups) that the analyzer stores in a common directory. Cal groups in the pool can beapplied to different
channels and setups.
Calibration: The process of removing systematic errors from the measurement (system error correction). See also TOSM, TOM, TRM, TRL, TNA...
Calibration kit: Set of physical calibration standards for a particular connector family.
Calibration standard: Physical device that has a known or predictable magnitude and
phase response within a given frequency range. Calibration standards are grouped into
several types (open, through, match,...) corresponding to the different input quantities
for the analyzer's error models.
Calibration unit: Integrated solution for automatic calibration of 1 to 4 ports (accessory R&S ZV-Zxx). The unit contains calibration standards that are electronically
switched when a calibration is performed.
Channel: A channel contains hardware-related settings to specify how the network
analyzer collects data. Each channel is stored in an independent data set. The channel
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Glossary: Frequently Used Terms
settings complement the definitions of the Trace menu; they apply to all traces
assigned to the channel.
Compression point: The x-dB compression point of an S-parameter or ratio is the
stimulus signal level where the magnitude of the measured quantity has dropped by x
dB compared to its value at small stimulus signal levels (small-signal value).
Confirmation dialog box: Standard dialog box that pops up to display an error message or a warning. The current action can be either continued (OK) or cancelled (Cancel) on closing the dialog box.
Crosstalk: The occurrence of a signal at the receive port of the analyzer which did not
travel through the test setup and the DUT but leaks through other internal paths.
Crosstalk causes an isolation error in the measurement which can be corrected by
means of a calibration.
CW frequency: Continuous Wave frequency; fixed stimulus frequency used in Power,
CW Time and CW Mode sweeps.
D
Data trace: Trace filled with measurement data and updated after each sweep
(dynamic trace).
Diagram area: Rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagram
areas are arranged in windows; they are independent of trace and channel settings.
Directivity error: Measurement error caused by a coupler or bridge in the analyzer's
source port causing part of the generated signal to leak through the forward path into
the receive path instead of being transmitted towards the DUT. The directivity error can
be corrected by means of a full one port calibration or one of the two-port calibration
methods (except normalization).
Discrete marker: The stimulus value of a discrete marker always coincides with a
sweep point so that the marker does not show interpolated measurement values.
E
Excursion: Difference between the response values at a local maximum (minimum) of
the trace and at the two closest local minima (maxima) to the left and to the right.
F
Forward: A measurement on a two-port DUT is said to be in forward direction if the
source signal (stimulus) is applied to port 1 of the DUT.
H
Harmonic: Integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The fundamental is the first
harmonic, the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the fundamental.
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Glossary: Frequently Used Terms
Harmonic distortion: The production of harmonic frequencies (harmonics) by an electronic system when a signal is applied at the input.
Harmonic grid: A set of equidistant frequency points fi (i = 1...n) with spacing Delta(f)
and the additional condition that f1 = Delta(f). A harmonic grid is required for low pass
time domain transforms.
I
Intercept point: Fictitious lower-tone DUT input/output level where the intermodulation
suppression (-->) for a given intermodulation product reaches 0 dB
Intermodulation measurement: Measurement where the DUT is supplied with two
RF signals of equal power but different frequencies termed the upper and lower tone.
The analyzer measures the frequency-converting behavior of the DUT (--> intermodulation product).
Intermodulation product: Special type of emissions of a nonlinear DUT that is supplied with a two-tone RF signal (--> intermodulation measurement). The intermodulation products occur at frequencies which correspond to sums and differences of the
upper and lower tone frequencies and their integer multiples.
Intermodulation suppression: The ratio of the power of an --> intermoulation product
to the power of the lower tone fundamental wave.
Isolation error: Measurement error caused by a crosstalk between the source and
receive port of the analyzer.
L
Limit check: Comparison of the measurement results with the limit lines and display of
a pass/fail indication. An acoustic warning can be generated in addition if a limit is
exceeded.
Limit line: A limit line is a set of data to specify the allowed range for some or all
points of a trace. Typically, limit lines are used to check whether a DUT conforms to
the rated specifications (conformance testing).
Load match error: Measurement error caused by a mismatch of the analyzer's
receive (load) port causing part of the signal transmitted through the DUT to be reflected off the receive port so that it is not measured there. The load match error can be
corrected by means of a two-port calibration (except normalization).
M
Marker: Tool for selecting points on the trace and for numerical readout of measured
data. A marker is displayed with a symbol (a triangle, a crossbar or a line) on the trace;
its coordinates are shown in the marker info field.
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Glossary: Frequently Used Terms
Mathematical trace: Trace that is calculated according to a mathematical expression,
e.g. the one defined in the Define Math dialog. The expression is a mathematical relation between constants and the data or memory traces of the active setup.
Measurement point: Result of the measurement at a specified stimulus value (frequency/power/time).
Measurement result: Set of all measurement points acquired in a measurement (e.g.
a sweep). The measurement result is displayed in a diagram area and forms a trace.
Memory trace: Trace that is associated to a data trace and stored in the memory.
Data traces and the associated memory traces share the same channel and scale settings. Alternatively, memory traces can be imported from a file.
Mixer: Device that converts an RF signal at one frequency into a signal at another frequency. The frequency that is to be shifted is applied at the RF input and the frequency
shifting signal (from a local oscillator, LO) is applied to the RF mixer's LO port, resulting
in an output signal at the mixer's Intermediate Frequency (IF) port.
N
NWA: (Vector) Network Analyzer, in particular the R&S ZVA.
P
Partial measurement: Measurement at a specified stimulus value maintaining definite
hardware settings. Depending on the measurement type, several partial measurements may be needed to obtain a measurement point. A full n-port S-parameter measurement requires n partial measurements with n different drive ports.
Peak: Local maximum or local minimum (dip) on the trace. In the Trace - Search
menu, it is possible to define a minimum excursion that both types of peaks must have
to be considered valid.
Power calibration: Correction method that eliminates frequency response errors in
the signal path and in the receiver and ensures accurate power levels and readings;
see source power calibration and receiver power calibration.
R
Receiver power calibration: Correction method that the power readings at a specified
input port of the analyzer agree with the source power level calibrated at an arbitrary
reference plane. Typically, the reference plane is at the input of the receiver so that the
calibration eliminates frequency response errors in the calibrated receiver.
Reflection tracking error: Frequency-dependent variation of the ratio of the reflected
wave to the reference wave at a test port when an ideal reflection coefficient (= 1) is
measured. The reflection tracking error can be corrected by means of a reflection normalization or one of the more sophisticated calibration methods.
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Reverse: A measurement on a two-port DUT is said to be in reverse direction if the
source signal (stimulus) is applied to port 2 of the DUT.
S
Setup: A setup comprises a set of diagram areas with all displayed information that
can be stored to a NWA setup file (*.zvx). Each setup is displayed in an independent
window.
Source match error: Measurement error caused by a mismatch of the analyzer's
source port causing part of the signal reflected off the DUT to be reflected again off the
source port so that it is not measured there. The source match error can be corrected
by means of a full one-port calibration or a two-port calibration (except normalization).
Source power calibration: Correction method that ensures accurate power levels of
the generated wave at an arbitrary reference plane in the measurement path. The
source power calibration eliminates frequency response errors in the signal path
between the source and the reference plane.
Stimulus value: Value of the sweep variable (frequency/power/time/point number)
where a measurement is taken. Also termed sweep point.
Sweep: Series of consecutive measurements taken at a specified sequence of stimulus values = series of consecutive measurement points.
Sweep point: Value of the sweep variable (stimulus value: frequency/power/time)
where a measurement is taken.
Sweep range: Continuous range of the sweep variable (frequency/power/time) containing the sweep points where the analyzer takes measurements. In a Segmented
Frequency sweep the sweep range can be composed of several parameter ranges or
single points.
Sweep segment: Continuous frequency range or single frequency point where the
analyzer measures at specified instrument settings (generator power, IF bandwidth
etc.). In the Segmented Frequency sweep type the entire sweep range can be composed of several sweep segments.
T
TNA: A calibration type using a Through, a symmetric Network and an Attenuation
standard. The properties of the Network and the Attenuation don't have to be known
exactly. Like TRL and TRM, TNA is especially useful for DUTs in planar line technology.
TOM: A calibration type using three fully known standards (Through, Open, Match),
recommended for 2-port measurements on coaxial systems.
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Glossary: Frequently Used Terms
Topology: Assignment of the physical ports of the NWA to the logical ports used for
the measurement of mixed mode S-parameters (balance-unbalance conversion).
TOSM: A calibration type using a Through plus the one-port standards Open, Short,
Match, to be connected to each calibrated port. Classical 12-term error model, also
referred to as SOLT. See also UOSM.
TRL: A calibration type using the two-port standards Through and Line, which are both
assumed to be ideally matched. Beyond that, the through must be lossless, and its
length must be exactly known. Especially useful for DUTs in planar line technology.
TRM: A calibration type which requires a low-reflection, low-loss Through standard
with an electrical length that may be different from zero, a Reflect, and a Match. Especially useful for DUTs in test fixtures.
TSM: A calibration type using three fully known standards (Through, Short, Match),
recommended for 2-port measurements on coaxial systems.
U
UOSM: A variant of TOSM calibration using an unknown but reciprocal Through standard. Especially for port combinations with different connector types.
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Index
Index
Symbols
F
10 MHz REF ...................................................................... 16
Factory calibration ............................................................. 29
Firmware update ............................................................... 29
Freq. conv. noise figure (R&S ZVA-K31) .......................... 98
Front panel .......................................................................... 7
Front panel keys ................................................................ 37
Fuses ................................................................................ 22
A
AC Supply ......................................................................... 21
Accessories (connect) ....................................................... 24
Admittance ........................................................................ 80
Arbitrary gen. and rec. frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4) ........... 95
Arbitrary generator and receiver frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4)
.......................................................................................... 95
Automatic calibration ......................................................... 90
Autoscale .......................................................................... 42
AUX ................................................................................... 16
B
Balanced port .................................................................... 84
Basic instrument concepts ................................................ 45
Basic tasks ........................................................................ 37
Bench Top Operation ........................................................ 19
C
Calibration ......................................................................... 87
Calibration kit .................................................................... 88
Calibration standard .......................................................... 88
Calibration types ............................................................... 89
Calibration unit .................................................................. 90
Cartesian diagram ............................................................. 67
CASCADE ......................................................................... 16
Channel ............................................................................. 46
CHANNEL ........................................................................... 9
Channel settings ............................................................... 62
Circular diagrams .............................................................. 43
Common mode ............................................................ 83, 85
Context menu .................................................................... 63
Converter Control .............................................................. 15
Converter control (R&S ZVA-K8) ...................................... 97
G
Getting Started .................................................................. 30
Global resource ................................................................. 45
Ground connector ............................................................. 14
H
Hardkey bar ....................................................................... 54
I
IEC Bus ............................................................................. 16
Impedance ........................................................................ 77
Instrument calibration ........................................................ 33
Instrument Setup ......................................................... 18, 31
Internal pulse generators (R&S ZVA-K27) ........................ 98
Inverted Smith chart .......................................................... 72
IP address setting ............................................................. 25
L
LAN 1, LAN 2 .................................................................... 16
LAN connection ................................................................. 25
double ......................................................................... 27
LAN interface configuration ............................................... 25
Long distance mixer delay (R&S ZVA-K10) ...................... 98
M
Data entry .......................................................................... 39
DATA ENTRY ................................................................... 11
Data flow ........................................................................... 48
DC MEAS .......................................................................... 16
Diagram area .............................................................. 44, 46
Dialog ................................................................................ 63
Differential mode ......................................................... 83, 85
Direct generator and receiver access ............................... 14
Display ................................................................................ 8
DISPLAY ........................................................................... 10
Display elements ............................................................... 55
Display formats ................................................................. 67
Make a Selection in a Dialog ............................................. 39
Marker ............................................................................... 59
Marker functions ................................................................ 43
Marker info field ................................................................. 60
MEAS OUT ....................................................................... 14
Measured quantities .......................................................... 75
Measurements on pulsed signals (R&S ZVA-K7) ............. 97
Menu bar ........................................................................... 51
Menus ............................................................................... 51
Minimize application .......................................................... 23
Mixed mode parameters ................................................... 85
Mixer delay w/o LO access (R&S ZVA-K9) ....................... 97
Mixer phase measurement (R&S ZVA-K5) ....................... 96
Mode conversion factor ..................................................... 85
Monitor .............................................................................. 16
Mounting in a 19" Rack ..................................................... 20
E
N
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) ........................................... 14
EMI Suppression ............................................................... 20
Evaluation of data ............................................................. 35
EXT TRIGGER .................................................................. 16
NAVIGATION .................................................................... 10
Navigation tools .................................................................50
Noise figure measurement (R&S ZVAB-K30) ................... 98
Numeric entry bar .............................................................. 66
D
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O
Offset parameters ............................................................. 93
On-screen keyboard .......................................................... 40
Windows XP ............................................................... 41
Options (overview) ............................................................ 94
P
Password .......................................................................... 25
Paste marker list ............................................................... 66
Polar diagram .................................................................... 69
PORT BIAS ....................................................................... 16
Power calibration ............................................................... 93
Power on and off ............................................................... 21
Preparing for use ................................................................. 7
Printing data ...................................................................... 36
Putting into Operation ....................................................... 17
R
R&S ZV-Zxx ...................................................................... 90
R&S ZVA-B8 ..................................................................... 15
R&S ZVA-B18 ................................................................... 15
R&S ZVA-K4 ..................................................................... 95
R&S ZVA-K5 ..................................................................... 96
R&S ZVA-K6 ..................................................................... 96
R&S ZVA-K7 ..................................................................... 97
R&S ZVA-K8 ..................................................................... 97
R&S ZVA-K9 ..................................................................... 97
R&S ZVA-K10 ................................................................... 98
R&S ZVA-K27 ................................................................... 98
R&S ZVA-K31 ................................................................... 98
R&S ZVA/B/C<n>-B16 ...................................................... 14
R&S ZVAB-K2 ................................................................... 95
R&S ZVAB-K30 ................................................................. 98
Ratio .................................................................................. 83
Rear panel ......................................................................... 15
Receiver power calibration ................................................ 93
REF OUT .......................................................................... 14
Reference position ............................................................ 42
Reference value ................................................................ 42
Reflection measurement ................................................... 30
Remote desktop ................................................................ 28
Removable Hard Disk ....................................................... 15
Rotary knob ....................................................................... 12
Index
Step size ........................................................................... 65
SUPPORT ......................................................................... 10
Sweep range selection ...................................................... 32
Sweep range setting ......................................................... 41
SYSTEM ........................................................................... 10
T
Test port ............................................................................ 12
Time domain (R&S ZVAB-K2) ........................................... 95
Title bar ............................................................................. 56
Trace ........................................................................... 46, 56
TRACE ................................................................................ 9
Trace list ............................................................................ 58
Transmission measurement .............................................. 37
True differential mode (R&S ZVAB-K6) ............................ 96
U
Unbalance-balance conversion ......................................... 83
Unpacking ......................................................................... 18
USB connectors ................................................................ 13
USER CONTROL .............................................................. 16
V
Virtual differential mode .................................................... 83
Virus protection ................................................................. 25
W
Wave quantity ................................................................... 82
Windows ............................................................................ 23
Wizard ............................................................................... 30
Y
Y-parameter ...................................................................... 81
Z
Z-parameter ...................................................................... 79
S
S-parameter ...................................................................... 76
multiport ...................................................................... 77
S-parameter wizard ........................................................... 30
Saving data ....................................................................... 36
Scaling diagrams ............................................................... 41
Screen elements ............................................................... 50
Screen saver ....................................................................... 8
Setup ................................................................................. 46
Setup keys .......................................................................... 9
Single-ended mode ..................................................... 83, 85
Smith chart ........................................................................ 70
Softkey bar ........................................................................ 52
SOURCE OUT .................................................................. 14
Source power calibration ................................................... 93
Standby and ready state ................................................... 21
Standby key ...................................................................... 12
Startup and shutdown ....................................................... 22
Status bar .......................................................................... 54
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