Dalstar | DS-1x-06M03 | User`s manual | Dalstar DS-1x-06M03 User`s manual

6M3P
DS-1x-06M03
2.75 fps 3k x 2k
CCD Camera
User’s Manual and Reference
Doc #: 03-32-10005
Rev: 02
6M3P Camera User’s Manual
2
© 2002 DALSA. All information provided in this manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. No
responsibility is assumed by DALSA for its use. DALSA reserves the right to make changes to this
information without notice. Reproduction of this manual in whole or in part, by any means, is prohibited
without prior permission having been obtained from DALSA.
About DALSA
DALSA is an international high performance semiconductor and electronics company that designs,
develops, manufactures, and markets digital imaging products and solutions, in addition to providing
wafer foundry services. DALSA’s core competencies are in specialized integrated circuit and electronics
technology, and highly engineered semiconductor wafer processing. Products include image sensor
components; electronic digital cameras; and semiconductor wafer foundry services for use in MEMS,
power semiconductors, image sensors and mixed signal CMOS chips.
DALSA is a public company listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol “DSA”. Based in
Waterloo, On. Canada, the company has operations in Bromont, PQ; Colorado Springs, CO; Tucson, AZ;
Eindhoven, NL; Munich, Germany and Tokyo, Japan.
All DALSA products are manufactured using the latest state-of-the-art equipment to ensure product
reliability.
DALSTAR refers to all DALSA area scan products.
For further information not included in this manual, or for information on DALSA’s extensive line of
image sensing products, please contact us.
DALSA Sales Offices
Waterloo
605 McMurray Rd
Waterloo, ON N2V
2E9
Canada
Tel: 519 886 6000
Fax: 519 886 8023
www.dalsa.com
sales@dalsa.com
DALSA
Waterloo
Europe
Asia Pacific
605 McMurray Rd
Waterloo, ON N2V
2E9
Canada
Tel: 519 886 6000
Fax: 519 886 8023
www.dalsa.com
sales@dalsa.com
Breslauer Str. 34
D-82194 Gröbenzell
(Munich)
Germany
Tel: +49 - 8142 –
46770
Fax: +49 - 8142 –
467746
www.dalsa.com
europe@dalsa.com
Space G1 Building, 4F
2-40-2 Ikebukuro
Toshima-ku, Tokyo
171-0014
Japan
+81 3 5960 6353
(phone)
+81 3 5960 6354
(fax)
www.dalsa.com
asia@dalsa.com
DALSA Worldwide Operations
Colorado
Tucson
Europe
Springs
5055 Corporate Plaza
Drive
Colorado Springs, CO
80919
USA
Tel: 719 599 7700
Fax: 719 599 7775
www.dalsa.com
sales@dalsa.com
3450 S. Broadmont Dr.
Suite #128
Tucson, AZ 857135245
USA
Tel: 520 791 7700
Fax: 520 791 7766
http://lifesciences.dals
a.com
sales@dalsa.com
Breslauer Str. 34
D-82194 Gröbenzell
(Munich)
Germany
Tel: +49 - 8142 –
46770
Fax: +49 - 8142 –
467746
www.dalsa.com
europe@dalsa.com
Asia Pacific
Space G1 Building, 4F
2-40-2 Ikebukuro
Toshima-ku, Tokyo
171-0014
Japan
+81 3 5960 6353
(phone)
+81 3 5960 6354
(fax)
www.dalsa.com
asia@dalsa.com
03-32-10005-02
6M3P Camera User’s Manual
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Introduction to the 6M3P Camera ____________________________________________ 5
1.1 Camera Highlights ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 Image Sensor .............................................................................................................................................................. 6
1.3 Camera Performance Specifications............................................................................................................................ 8
Camera Hardware Interface ________________________________________________ 10
2.1 Installation Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 10
2.2 Input/Output ............................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.3 LED Status Indicators .................................................................................................................................................. 11
2.4 Power Input................................................................................................................................................................. 12
2.5 Data Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 13
2.6 Serial Communication................................................................................................................................................. 14
2.7 TTL Trigger Input and Output..................................................................................................................................... 16
2.8 Integration Time ......................................................................................................................................................... 16
2.9 Timing......................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Camera Operation ______________________________________________________ 21
3.1 How to Control the Camera......................................................................................................................................... 21
&Rntrol Register Reference.......................................................................................................................................... 22
3.3 Reading the Camera Type........................................................................................................................................... 23
3.4 Reading the Firmware Revision.................................................................................................................................. 23
3.5 Resetting the Camera.................................................................................................................................................. 23
3.6 Adjusting Gain ............................................................................................................................................................ 24
3.7 Adjusting User Offset .................................................................................................................................................. 24
3.8 Controlling Binning..................................................................................................................................................... 25
3.9 Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate Overview ................................................................................................... 26
3.10 Controlling Integration (Shutter Time)..................................................................................................................... 27
3.11 Controlling Frame Rate............................................................................................................................................. 30
Optical and Mechanical Considerations ________________________________________ 32
4.1 Mechanical Interface ................................................................................................................................................... 32
4.2 Mechanical Tolerances ................................................................................................................................................ 33
4.3 Mounting the Camera ................................................................................................................................................. 33
Cleaning and Maintenance ________________________________________________ 34
5.1 Cleaning...................................................................................................................................................................... 34
DALSA
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5.2 Maintenance................................................................................................................................................................ 36
Troubleshooting ________________________________________________________ 37
Warranty _____________________________________________________________ 38
7.1 Limited One-Year Warranty........................................................................................................................................ 38
Index _______________________________________________________________ 39
DALSA
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1.1 Camera Highlights
Features
•
3072 x 2048 resolution, Full-frame
CCD architecture.
•
2.75 fps one output at full resolution, 20 MHz data rate
•
True 12-bit digitization
•
High sensitivity with low dark current
•
Progressive scan readout
•
Asynchronous image capture, externally triggerable to within 200 ns.
•
Selectable binning up to 8 x 8
•
Programmable operation via RS232, including gain (1x and 4x) , offset (-2047 to +
2048), frame rate, binning, and triggering.
•
100% fill factor
Description
The 6M3P digital camera provides high-sensitivity 12-bit images with 3k x 2k spatial
resolution at up to 2.75 frames per second (fps). The 6M3P is a Full Frame CCD camera
using a progressive scan CCD to simultaneously achieve outstanding resolution and gray
scale characteristics. A square pixel format and high fill factor provide superior,
quantifiable image quality even at low light levels.
Applications
The 6M3P is an outstanding performer in fast, very high resolution applications. True 12
bit performance provides up to 4096 distinct gray levels—perfect for applications with
large interscene light variations. The low-noise, digitized video signal also makes the
DALSA
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6
camera an excellent choice where low contrast images must be captured in challenging
applications.
1.2 Image Sensor
Figure 1. Image Sensor Block Diagram
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Table 1. Sensor Structure
Sensor
characteristics
DALSA
Optical size
36.864mm (H)x24.576 mm (V)
Chip size
39.148 mm (H)x26.508 mm (V)
Pixel size
12µm x 12µm
Active pixels
3072 (H) x 2048 (V)
Total number of
pixels
3120 (H) x 2060 (V)
Optical black
pixels
Left: 20 Right: 20
Timing pixels
Left: 4 Right: 4
Dummy register
cells
Left: 7 Right: 7
Optical black
lines
Bottom: 6 Top: 6
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Table 2. Sensor Cosmetic Specifications
Type
Allowable
Blemishes
Columns
1
Clusters
6
Pixels
36
Definition of blemishes
Pixel defect
•
Pixel whose signal, at nominal light (illumination at 50% of the linear range), deviates
more than r30% from its neighboring pixels.
•
Pixel whose signal, in dark, deviates more than 6mV from its neighboring pixels
(about 1% of nominal light).
Cluster defect
•
A grouping of pixel defects where within a sub area of 3*3 pixels there are at most 5
present.
Column or row defect
•
A column or row which has more than 12 pixel defects.
•
Column defects must be horizontally separated by 3 columns.
•
Row defects are not allowed.
Test conditions
DALSA
•
Temperature : 35°C
•
Integration Time : 10 ms
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1.3 Camera Performance Specifications
Table 3: 6M3P Camera Performance Specifications
Physical
Characteristics
Units
Resolution
HxV
pixels
3072x2048
Pixel Size
µm
12x12
Pixel Fill Factor
%
100
Size
mm
95x95x142
Mass
kg
0.85
Power Dissipation
W
< 17
Lens Mount
Aperture
F , M72, or M72 color
mount
mm
Regulatory Compliance
Pending
Shock Immunity
Pending
Vibration Immunity
Pending
Operating Ranges
Units
Min.
Max.
Frame Rate
fps
2.75
12.5
Data Rate
MHz
2.5
20
Data Format
LVDS/R
S422
Operating Temp
°C
Responsivity
DN/(nJ/
2
cm )
+15 Input Voltage
V
+14.925
+15.075
+5 Input Voltage
V
+4.975
+5.025
-5 Input Voltage
V
- 4.975
- 5.025
1x
4x
Nominal Gain Range
12 bit
10
45
19@540nm
Calibration
Conditions
Units
Setting
Min.
Max.
Data Rate
MHz
20
20
20
Frame Rate
Hz
2.75
+15 Input Voltage
V
+15
+14.925
+15.075
+5 Input Voltage
V
+5
+4.975
+5.025
-5 Input Voltage
V
- 5
- 4.975
- 5.025
Ambient Temperature
°C
25
Binning
Gain
DALSA
36.9x24.6
1x1
X
1
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DALSA
9
Min.
Typical
Electro-Optical
Specifications
Units
Dynamic Range
dB
Pixel Response NonUniformity
%rms
2
System Noise
DN(rms)
0.9
Max.
70
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2.1 Installation Overview
In order to set up your camera, you should take these initial steps:
This installation
overview assumes you
have not installed any
system components yet.
1. Power down all equipment.
2. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, install the frame grabber (if
applicable). Be sure to observe all static precautions.
3. Install any necessary imaging software.
4. Before connecting power to the camera, test all power supplies. Ensure that all the
correct voltages are present at the camera end of the power cable (the Camera Performance
Specifications earlier in this document list appropriate voltages). Power supplies
must meet the requirements defined in section 2.4 Power Input.
5. Inspect all cables and connectors prior to installation. Do not use damaged cables
or connectors or the camera may be damaged.
6. Connect data, serial interface, and power cables.
7. After connecting cables, apply power to the camera. The POST (power on self test)
LED on the back of the camera should glow green after one second to indicate that
the camera is operating and ready to receive commands.
2.2 Input/Output
The camera provides 12-bit LVDS/RS-422 data and synchronization signals through
the data output connector. Camera functions such as frame rate, integration time,
binning, camera gain and offset are all controllable by the user via RS232 serial port.
The camera is capable of free running operation or may be triggered externally via the
input TRIGGER IN. TRIGGER OUT allows the synchronization of shutters or
illumination sources in free running or externally triggered modes.
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Figure 2: Camera Inputs/Outputs
2.3 LED Status Indicators
There are four LED’s visible on the rear cover of the camera that indicate the status of the
camera.
Table 4: LED Functions
DALSA
LED
Label
Color
LED “ON”
LED “OFF”
ON
Green
Camera is receiving power
There is no camera power
POST
Green
Camera Power On Self Test successful
Camera failed Power On Self
Test
BIN
Red
Camera is operating in a binning mode
Camera is operating unbinned
(1x1)
MODE
Red
Camera is in an external trigger mode
(uses external signal to trigger image
capture)
Camera is triggering image
capture internally
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2.4 Power Input
Table 5: Power Connector Pinout
Pin
Symbol
1
+5V
2
+5V
3
- 5V
4
+15V
WARNING: It is
5
NC
extremely important that you
apply the appropriate
voltages to your camera.
Incorrect voltages will
damage the camera.
6
NC
7
GND
!
8
GND
9
+5V
10
- 5V
11
+15V
12
NC
13
NC
14
GND
15
GND
1
9
15
8
DB15M
(AMP Part # 747236-4
or equivalent)
The camera has the following input
power requirements.
V
(DC)
r%
Max
Ripple
mV
A
+15
0.5
<5
0.45
+5
0.5
<5
1.4
-5
0.5
<5
0.25
Note: Performance specifications are not
guaranteed if your power supply does not
meet these requirements.
DALSA offers a linear power supply
(with cables) that meets the 6M3P’s
requirements (Universal Power Supply,
part number 24-00001-02, contact DALSA
for more information), but it should not
be considered the only choice. Many high
quality supplies are available from other
vendors. DALSA assumes no
responsibility for the use of these
supplies.
When setting up the camera’s power supplies, follow these guidelines:
x Do not connect or disconnect cable while power is on.
x Do not use the shield on a multi-conductor cable for ground.
x Keep leads as short as possible to reduce voltage drop.
x Use high-quality linear supplies to minimize noise.
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2.5 Data Output
The camera back panel output connector labeled DATA utilizes differential LVDS signals
with pin assignments as follows:
Connector and Pinout
Table 6: DATA Connector Pinout
Pin
Symbol
Pin
Symbol
Pin
Symbol
Pin
Symbol
1
DA0+
16
Reserved
31
NC
46
GND
2
DA0-
17
DA7+
32
NC
47
NC
3
DA1+
18
DA7-
33
NC
48
NC
4
DA1-
19
DA8+
34
NC
49
NC
5
DA2+
20
DA8-
35
NC
50
NC
6
DA2-
21
DA9+
36
NC
51
NC
7
DA3+
22
DA9-
37
NC
52
NC
8
DA3-
23
DA10+
38
NC
53
Reserved
9
DA4+
24
DA10-
39
NC
54
Reserved
10
DA4-
25
DA11+
40
NC
55
VSYNC-
11
DA5+
26
DA11-
41
NC
56
VSYNC+
12
DA5-
27
NC
42
NC
57
HSYNC-
13
DA6+
28
NC
43
NC
58
HSYNC+
14
DA6-
29
NC
44
NC
59
PIXCLK-
15
Reserved
30
NC
45
GND
60
PIXCLK+
16 15
46 45
60
31
30
1
(Molex Part #
70928-2000
or equivalent)
NC = No Connect. These pins are unused.
!
WARNING. Care must be taken when connecting Data cables to the camera to insure proper
connection and to prevent damage to the connector.
Data Signals
Table 7: Data Signal Definition
IMPORTANT:
This camera uses the
TOZZW\Uedge of the pixel
clock to register data.
Signal
Description
D*0+, D*0-
Data bit 0 true and complement--Output. (Least significant
bit)
D*1+, D*1-
Data bit 1 true and complement--Output.
D*2+, D*2-
Data bit 2 true and complement--Output.
D*3-D*10+,- etc.
Etc.
D*11+, D*11-
Data bit 11 true and complement--Output. (Most significant
bit)
Digitized video data is output from the camera as LVDS differential signals using a Molex
60-pin connector on the rear panel (labeled “DATA”). The data is synchronous and is
accompanied by a pixel clock and clocking signals.
DALSA
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Note: Data frequency is dependent on binning mode. Reference section 3.9 – Triggering,
Integration, and Frame Rate Overview.
Data Clocking Signals
Table 8: Clock Signal Descriptions
Signal
Description
PIXCLK+,
PIXCLK-
Pixel clock true and complement. 20MHz (unbinned) -- Output.
Data is valid on the falling edge. Note that data and PIXCLK frequency
is
dependent on binning mode. Reference section 3..9 – Triggering,
Integration, and Frame Rate Overview
HSYNC+,
HSYNC-
Horizontal sync, true and complement--Output.
HSYNC high indicates the camera is outputting a valid line of data. The
number of valid lines in a frame depends on binning mode. Reference
section 3.9 – Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate Overview.
VSYNC+,
VSYNC-
Vertical sync, true and complement--Output.
VSYNC high indicates the camera is outputting a valid frame of data.
2.6 Serial Communication
Connector and Pinout
The serial interface provides control of frame rate, integration time (shuttering), video
gain and offset, pixel binning, external trigger and external integration (for information
on how to control these functions, see “Operating the Camera” later in this document).
The remote interface consists of a two-wire (plus ground) full duplex RS-232 compatible
serial link, used for camera configuration, and two back panel SMA coax connectors used
for external trigger input and output
The camera uses an RJ-11 telephone-style connector for
communications, with four conductors installed in a sixposition connector. Note that both four- and sixconductor plugs may be used interchangeably with the
RJ-11 jack.
GND
TXD
RXD
serial
IMPORTANT: Both the PC/AT and the camera are
configured as “DTE” (Data Terminal Equipment)
devices requiring the TXD and RXD lines to be swapped
RJ-11
when interconnecting the two (note that pin 4, normally
View into female jack
the yellow wire, is not used on the RJ-11.) That is, the
6-position with 4 conductors
TXD pin represents DATA OUT and the RXD pin
represents DATA IN on both devices, so that one device’s TXD line must connect to the
other device’s RXD line and vice-versa.
DALSA
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6M3P Camera User’s Manual
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Figure 3: 25 Pin Serial Port Connector to Camera RJ-11 Connector
Figure 4: 9 Pin Serial Port Connector to Camera RJ-11 Connector
Serial Communication Settings
Table 9: Serial Port Configuration
Serial Port Configuration
Baud
9600, fixed
Start bits
1
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
None
The serial interface operates at RS-232 levels with fixed parameters of 9600 baud, 1 start
bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. The interface uses only three wires, for received
data, transmitted data, and ground. In general writing data must start with a write
command byte and be followed by a data byte. Reading a camera register requires only
a single read command byte.
DALSA
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WARNING: Due to initialization sequencing after power-up, no commands should be sent to
the camera for a minimum of 1 second after power up.
The remote interface connector, on the cameras rear
panel, is specified as a low-profile RJ-11 modular
connector. The connector is a 6-position model, but
only the center four positions are populated with
contacts. It will mate with either the 4-position or 6position cable plugs. This type of connector typically
requires special assembly tools; complete cable
assemblies are available from suppliers such as DigiKey:
Serial Cable Source
Digi-Key
701 Brooks Ave. South
Thief River Falls, MN 56701
1-800-344-4539
cable part number:
H2643-14-ND (14 feet)
DALSA provides serial cables in 3 lengths: 10’, 20’ and 50’. Part number CL-31-00004xx (where xx refers to the cable length in feet).
2.7 TTL Trigger Input and Output
Connector
The camera uses an SMA connector (labeled TRIGGER IN) to allow the user to provide a
standard TTL signal to control camera integration and readout. The input is high
impedance (>10K) allowing the user to terminate at the SMA input as needed. The
camera has another SMA connector (TRIGGER OUT) that provides a standard TTL
output which is high whenever the camera is integrating.
Figure 5: Trigger Timing Description
M in. 1 0 µ s
T T L Trig g e r In p u t
175 ns
+ /- 5 0
In te g ra tio n
2.8 Integration Time
The minimum integration time (or shutter time) is 10 Ps. If the camera is not strobed or
externally shuttered, an integration time of 10 Ps will create smeared images. To reduce
smearing, the integration time should be 1.5x to 2x the readout time when not using a
strobe or external shutter.
DALSA
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2.9 Timing
Figure 6: Timing Diagrams
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6M3P Camera User’s Manual
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Figure 7: 2x2 Binning Timing Diagram
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6M3P Camera User’s Manual
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Figure 8: 4x4 Binning Timing Diagram
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Figure 9: 8x8 Binning Timing Diagram
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3.1 How to Control the Camera
The 6M3P’s RS-232-compatible serial interface allows you to control its configuration and
operation, including:
•
Triggering Mode
•
Binning
•
Frame Rate (See also triggering)
•
Integration Time
•
Gain and Offset
Command Protocol Overview
The camera accepts 8-bit command/value pairs via its RJ-11 serial port using RS-232
compatible signals. Camera commands are
Serial Port Configuration
“clock” commands, which apply to the
electronics that drive the image sensor. These
Baud
9600, fixed
include clock generation, frame rate, integration
Start bits
1
time, and binning. Each set of commands
Data bits
8
includes read and write variants. With the
exception of reset commands, all 8-bit write
Stop bits
1
commands must be followed by an 8-bit data
Parity
None
byte. The commands are interpreted as follows:
!
WARNING: Any commands not listed should be considered invalid. Writing to invalid
addresses may overwrite camera calibration information, requiring the camera to be
returned for recalibration.
WARNING: Due to initialization sequencing after power-up, no commands should be sent to
the camera for a minimum of 1 second after power up.
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&Rntrol Register Reference
A number of functions and modes depend on the control register settings. These settings
are detailed in the following sections.
The “Write Control Register” command is used to write a register that controls specific
camera triggering and test functions. This command must be followed by a data byte
with bits defined as shown in the following table.
The “Read Control Register” command allows interrogation of the camera to determine
current configuration of the control register.
Table 10: Control Register Bit Definitions
DALSA
Register
Write
Command
Reset
80h
Camera Type
NA
Firmware Rev
Register 1
Read
Command
Bit
Function
Default
7:0
Resets all registers to
default values
NA
C3h
7:0
Read camera type
33h
NA
C5h
7:0
Read firmware revision
NA
82h
C2h
7
Integration Mode
0=Internal
1=External
0
6
Video Gain
0=1x
1=4x
0
5:4
Not Used
0
3
Trigger Mode
0=Internal
1=External
0
2
Not Used
0
1:0
Binning Mode
00=1x1
01=2x2
10=4x4
11=8x8
00
Register 2
84h
C4h
7:0
Pixel Offset MS Byte (Bits
11-4 of 12 bits)
00h
Register 3
88h
C8h
7
Serial Trigger (If
Integrate mode=1)
0
6:4
Not Used
000
3:0
Pixel Offset LS nibble
000
Write
Integration
Time LS
8Ah
NA
7:0
LS byte of 24 bit
integration time
2Bh
Write
Integration
nd
Time 2
8Bh
NA
7:0
2 byte of 24 bit
integration time
FCh
Write
8Ch
NA
7:0
MS byte of 24 bit
00b
nd
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Integration
Time MS
integration time
Write Frame
Rate Time LS
8Dh
NA
7:0
LS byte of 24 bit frame
rate time
Write Frame
nd
Rate Time 2
8Eh
NA
7:0
2 byte of 24 bit frame
rate time
04h
Write Frame
Rate Time MS
8Fh
NA
7:0
MS byte of 24 bit frame
rate time
01h
nd
6Bh
3.3 Reading the Camera Type
This read command returns an 8-bit value unique to the type of camera interrogated. A
6M3P will return a value of 33h when this command is issued. This is useful for
applications that need to function with multiple DALSTAR camera types.
Example: Read the camera type
Command
Value Returned
(6M3P)
Binary
1100 0011
0011 0011
Hex
C3h
33h
3.4 Reading the Firmware Revision
This command returns a byte in which the lower nibble is the revision number for the
clock board firmware and the upper nibble is undefined. The ability to read this value
may assist in customer support issues.
Example: Read the firmware version
Command
Binary
1100 0101
Hex
C5h
3.5 Resetting the Camera
This is the only other “write” command that is not followed by a data byte. This
command resets all clock board registers to their default values (the values used at
power-up).
Table 11: Default values in effect after reset
DALSA
Feature
6M3P Default
Frame Rate (fps)
1
Integration Time (ms)
638
Resolution (pixels)
3072x2048
Video Gain
1x
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Binning Mode
1x1
Pixel Offset
0
Synchronization
INTERNAL
Integration Control
INTERNAL
Data Rate (MHz)
20
Example
Use this command to reset the camera:
Command
Value
Binary
1000 0000
-
Hex
80h
-
3.6 Adjusting Gain
Bit [6] of register 1 is the Video Gain control bit. When this bit=0 the video channel
gain=1x. When this bit =1, the video channel gain=4x.
Example
Use this command to set the gain to 4x:
Command
Value
Binary
1000 0010
*1** ****
Hex
82h
**h
Note: The register containing the Gain bit also controls other configuration data. All bits
must be set appropriately.
3.7 Adjusting User Offset
User offset is adjustable from -2047 to +2048 by a 12 bit value as an MS and LS byte. The
offset data is only written when the most-significant 8 bits are written to register 2.
Therefore, the lower 4 bits should be written first to register 3, followed by the upper 8
bits, which will cause the offset to be applied to the pixel output.
The pixel offset data is written as a 2’s compliment number. Therefore either positive or
negative offsets can be added to the pixel output to enhance the image contrast.
The offset value that is programmed effects the pixel offset by a ratio of about 8 to 5. So,
for that example, if an offset value of a positive 16 is entered to registers 2 and 3 the
resulting pixel data will be adjusted by a positive 10.
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Table 12:Pixel Offset Examples
Programmed Offset
Decimal/2’s
Complement
Register 3
Register 2
Resulting Pixel
Offset
88 (058h)
*8h
05h
55 (37h)
-96 (FA0h – 2’s
*0h
FAh
-60 (-FC4h)
152 (098h)
*8h
09h
95 (5Fh)
-2040 (808h)
*8h
80h
-1275 (-4FBh)
The read user offset commands allow the user to read back this information from the
camera.
Note: Register 3 contains other configuration data. All bits must bet set to the appropriate
values.
Reading Offset from the Camera
To read the offset setting from the camera, use these commands:
Read LSB
Read MSB
Binary
1100 1000
1100 0100
Hex
C8h
C4h
3.8 Controlling Binning
Binning increases the camera’s light sensitivity by decreasing horizontal and vertical
resolution—the charge collected by adjacent pixels is added together.
Figure 10: Example: 2x2 Binning
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control register 1.
Binning mode affects the pixel clock rate, maximum frame rate, and readout time.
Reference section 3.9 – Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate Overview.
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Example: Setting the camera to 2x2 binning mode
Write Binning Register with 2x2 mode
Command
Value
Binary
1000 0010
**** **01
Hex
82h
**h
Note: The register containing the Binning bits also controls other configuration data. All
bits must be set appropriately.
Whenever the camera is in binning mode, the BIN LED on the right side of the rear
cover will light to indicate the binning mode.
3.9 Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate
Overview
Image capture triggering, integration, and frame rate are closely related.
• With electronic shuttering, integration time can be less than 1/frame rate, but it can
never be greater than 1/frame rate.
•
You can program fixed integration and frame rates (or use defaults) and let the
camera “free run.”
•
You can program fixed integration time and supply a (asynchronous) trigger signal
to control frame rate, either by toggling a bit or by supplying a TTL pulse on the SMA
connector. This is referred to as “Programmed Integration/External Trigger Mode.”
•
You can also have the camera integrate as long as an asynchronous TTL pulse is held
high. This pulse will therefore control both integration time and frame rate. This is
also known as “External Integrate Mode.”
For a given frame rate, the maximum integration time is limited to the frame period less
an overhead factor required for proper operation of the CCD. Maximum integration time
is defined by this equation:
Max Integration Time = (1/Frame Rate) – Readout Time
This equation is valid for all binning modes, free running, external trigger and external
integrate modes.
Note that binning mode impacts the Read Time and limits Integration Time.
!
WARNING: Do not set integration time higher than the limits of the equation above.
Unpredictable operation may result
Table 13: Integration/Frame Rate Limits
DALSA
Binning
Read out
Time (mS)
Max
Frame
Rate
Data
Rate
(MHz)
Integration
Value (µs)
Max Integration
Register
1x1
359.50
2.75
20
327686
050006h
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Binning
Read out
Time (mS)
Max
Frame
Rate
Data
Rate
(MHz)
Integration
Value (µs)
Max Integration
Register
2x2
198.70
5.00
10
180130
02BFA2h
4x4
118.42
8.25
5
109382
01AB46h
8x8
78.25
12.50
2.5
72175
0119EFh
The default shutter time was chosen to give a frame rate of 2.75 fps (see section 3.11
Controlling Frame Rate). Changing the shutter time involves writing to the three shutter
time registers.
3.10 Controlling Integration (Shutter Time)
The 6M3P allows you to control integration (also known as exposure time or shutter time)
in five ways.
•
Programmed Integration/Free Running: (default) The camera free runs with the
internally programmed integration time and frame rate
•
Programmed Integration/SMA Trigger: The camera will integrate for the internally
programmed time when triggered by a TTL high pulse on the SMA connector.
•
Programmed Integration/Serial trigger: The camera will integrate for the internally
programmed time when triggered by high signal on the serial interface.
•
External Integration/SMA Trigger: The camera will integrate as long as the TTL
pulse on the TRIGGER IN SMA connector is high. The integration time is effectively
the input pulse width. In this mode, TRIGGER IN also controls the frame rate.
•
External Integration/Serial Trigger: The camera will integrate as long as the serial bit
is held high. The integration time is effectively the input pulse width. In this mode,
the serial signal also controls the frame rate. Due to variation in the host operating
system, this mode is generally used only for camera setup and functional testing.
The register settings required for each mode are defined in the following table
Table 14: Integration/Trigger Modes
Mode
Register 1
Bit [7]
INTEGRATE
Register 1
Bit [3]
EXT Trigger
Programmed Integration/Free Running
0
0
Programmed Integration/SMA Trigger
0
1
Programmed Integration/Serial Trigger
0
1
External Integration/SMA Trigger
1
1
External Integration/Serial Trigger
1
1
* Indicates bit state not considered
Whenever the Integrate Mode or External Trigger Mode bits are set the MODE LED on
the right side of the rear cover will light to indicate that an externally synchronized mode
is active.
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Free Running (Programmed Integration):
This mode is the camera’s default. The camera speed is controlled by writing a 3-byte
integration time value (in µs) to the three Integration Time registers. These three bytes are
then combined to form a 24 bit integration time. The number represents the integer
number of microseconds the camera will collect light. The number programmed in the
three registers should not be below 10 PS (0000Ah). The camera will run at maximum
speed for the programmed integration time.
The camera’s default integration time value is 638 ms which achieve 1 fps.
Example: Set integration time to 1000ms
1.
Using the command 82h, set bit [7] of the data byte to 0 (Integration Mode =
Internal) and bit [3] of the data byte to 0 (Trigger Mode = Internal).
2.
Use commands 8Ah, 8Bh, 8Ch to set the 24-bit integration time value.
Value
= 1000ms
= 1000000µs
= F4240h
Write Integration LS
Byte
Write Integration
Center Byte
Write Integration MS
Byte
Comma
nd
Value
Command
Value
Command
Value
Binary
1000 1010
0100 0000
1000 1011
0100 0010
1000 1100
0000 1111
Hex
8Ah
40h
8Bh
42h
8Ch
0Fh
Programmed Integration/SMA Trigger
For external SMA controlled triggering with a programmed integration time, a TTL rising
edge on the TRIGGER IN (or SYNC) signal triggers the camera to acquire one frame of
data. Integration begins within 200ns after the rising edge and stops when the
programmed integration time has completed. After that single frame acquisition, the
camera outputs the just acquired frame and “re-arms”, thus waiting for a new External
Trigger signal to trigger a new frame acquisition. The camera is “armed” when the read
out of the acquired frame is completed. No additional rising edges, or triggers, should be
allowed during the image acquisition or frame read out.
When the camera is in External Trigger Mode, the Frame LED will be illuminated on the
camera back to indicate the camera is expecting a signal on the SMA connector or serial
bit [7].
Because this signal is internally OR’ed with the Serial Trigger input, care must be taken to
ensure the serial bit [7] of register 3 is equal to a logic 0 while in SMA Trigger mode.
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Programmed Integration/Serial Trigger
For external serial controlled triggering with a programmed integration time, a TTL rising
edge on bit [7] of serial register 3 triggers the camera to acquire one frame of data.
Integration begins within 200ns after the rising edge and stops when the programmed
integration time has completed. After that single frame acquisition, the camera outputs
the just acquired frame and “re-arms”, thus waiting for a new External Trigger signal to
trigger a new frame acquisition. The camera is “armed” when the read out of the
acquired frame is completed. No additional rising edges, or triggers, should be allowed during
the image acquisition or frame read out.
When the camera is in External Trigger Mode, the Frame LED will be illuminated on the
camera back to indicate the camera is expecting a signal on the SMA connector or serial
bit [7].
Because this signal is internally OR’ed with the TRIGGER IN Sync input, care must be
taken to ensure the TRIGGER IN signal is equal to a logic 0 while in Serial Trigger mode.
External Integration/SMA Trigger
When in External Integrate/SMA mode, a TTL rising edge on the TRIGGER IN (or
SYNC) signal triggers the camera to acquire one frame of data. Integration begins within
200ns after the rising edge and stops within 550 ns after the falling edge. After that single
frame acquisition, the camera outputs the just acquired frame and “re-arms”, thus
waiting for a new External Trigger signal to trigger a new frame acquisition. The camera
is “armed” when the read out of the acquired frame is completed. No additional rising
edges, or triggers, should be allowed during the image acquisition or frame read out. This means
in this mode TRIGGER IN necessarily controls both integration and frame rate.
When the camera is in External Trigger Mode, the Frame LED will be illuminated on the
camera back to indicate the camera is expecting a signal on the SMA connector or serial
bit [7].
Because this signal is internally OR’ed with the Serial Trigger input, care must be taken to
ensure the serial bit [7] of register 3 is equal to a logic 0 while in SMA Trigger mode.
External Integration/Serial Trigger
When in External Integration/Serial mode, a TTL rising edge on serial bit [7] of register 3
triggers the camera to acquire one frame of data. Due to variation in the host operating
system, this mode is generally used only for camera setup and functional testing.
Integration begins within 200ns after the rising edge and stops within 550 ns after the
falling edge. After that single frame acquisition, the camera outputs the just acquired
frame and “re-arms”, thus waiting for a new External Trigger signal to trigger a new
frame acquisition. The camera is “armed” when the read out of the acquired frame is
completed. No additional rising edges, or triggers, should be allowed during the image
acquisition or frame read out.
This means in this mode TRIGGER IN necessarily controls both integration and frame
rate.
When the camera is in External Trigger Mode, the Frame LED will be illuminated on the
camera back to indicate the camera is expecting a signal on the SMA connector or serial
bit [7].
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Because this signal is internally OR’ed with the TRIGGER IN Sync input, care must be
taken to ensure the TRIGGER IN signal is equal to a logic 0 while in Serial Trigger mode.
3.11 Controlling Frame Rate
The 6M3P allows you to control frame rate in three ways.
•
Free Running (Programmed Frame Rate): (default) The camera free runs with the
internally programmed frame rate time and integration time.
•
External Trigger/Internal Integration: The camera frame rate will be controlled by
the TTL pulse on the TRIGGER IN SMA connector. The camera will integrate for the
programmed integration time. (Reference section 3.10 Controlling Integration Mode)
•
External Integration: The camera frame rate will be controlled by the TTL pulse on
the TRIGGER IN SMA connector. The camera will integrate for as long as the pulse is
held high. In this mode, TRIGGER IN also controls integration. (Reference section 3.10
Controlling Integration Mode)
Free Running (Programmed Fame Rate)
This mode is the camera’s default. To specify programmed frame rate, you must set bit [7]
of register 1 to 0 (Integrate Mode = Internal), and bit [3] of register 1 to 0 (Trigger Mode =
Internal). Next, write the 3-byte frame rate value (in µs or 1/Frame Rate) to the three
Frame Rate registers. These three bytes are then combined to form a 24 bit frame rate
time. The number represents the integer number of microseconds between frames. The
number programmed in the three registers should not be below 10 PS (0000Ah), nor
above the calculated value noted in section 3.9 Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate
Overview.
Example: Set the Frame Rate to 2.5 fps
1.
Reference section 3.9 Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate Overview to ensure
the desired frame rate can be supported for the selected binning and integration
modes.
2.
Using the command 82h, set bit [7] of the data byte to 0 (Integration Mode =
Internal) and bit [3] of the data byte to 0 (Trigger Mode = Internal).
NOTE: All bits within the register are written at one time. Ensure the correct value
for all bits are used when changing camera modes.
3.
Use commands 8Dh, 8Eh, 8Fh to set the 24-bit Frame Rate time value.
Value
= 1/2.5s
= 400000µs
= 61A80h
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Write Frame Rate LS
Byte
Write Frame Rate
Center Byte
Write Frame Rate MS
Byte
Command
Value
Command
Value
Command
Value
Binary
1000 1101
1000 0000
1000 1110
0001 1010
1000 1111
0000 0110
Hex
8Dh
80h
8Eh
1Ah
8Fh
06h
External Trigger/Programmed Integration
This is the same as External Integrate/SMA Trigger Mode. Reference to section 3.10
Controlling Integration Mode.
([DPSOH6HWWKH)UDPH5DWHWRISV
1.
Reference section 3.9 Triggering, Integration, and Frame Rate Overview to ensure
the desired frame rate can be supported for the selected binning and integration
modes.
2.
Using the command 82h, set bit [7] of the data byte to 0 (Integration Mode =
Internal) and bit [3] of the data byte to 1 (Trigger Mode = External).
NOTE: All bits within the register are written at one time. Ensure the correct value
for all bits are used when changing camera modes.
3.
Set the desired integration time per section 3.10 – Controlling Integration.
4.
Each TTL rising edge on the SMA connector will initiate a new frame of data,
using the programmed integration time. To achieve 2.5 fps, a TTL pulse must be
sent to the camera every 400 ms (1/2.5).
External Trigger/Serial Connector
This is the same as External Integrate/External Trigger Mode. Refer to section 3.10
Controlling Integration Mode.
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4.1 Mechanical Interface
An M72-Fmount adapter
is available from DALSA.
Contact DALSA sales for
more information.
DALSA
Figure 11: Camera Dimensions
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4.2 Mechanical Tolerances
Table 15: Mechanical Tolerances
Additional Dimensions
Center of sensor with respect to lens
mount
"
Planarity of lens flange to sensor
"
Rotation of sensor
ƒ
4.3 Mounting the Camera
The 6M3P can be mounted via the3/8” deep, 1/4”-20 threaded tripod mount located on
the bottom of the camera.
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5.1 Cleaning
Electrostatic Discharge and the CCD Sensor
Charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors are metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)
devices and are susceptible to damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD). Although
many sensor pins have ESD protection circuitry, the ESD protection circuitry in CCDs is
typically not as effective as those found in standard CMOS circuits.
Electrostatic charge introduced to the sensor window surface can induce charge buildup
on the underside of the window that cannot be readily dissipated by the dry nitrogen gas
in the sensor package cavity. When charge buildup occurs, surface gated photodiodes
(SGPDs) may exhibit higher image lag. Some SGPD sensors may also exhibit a highly
non-uniform response when affected by charge build-up, with some pixels displaying a
much higher response when the sensor is exposed to uniform illumination. The charge
normally dissipates within 24 hours and the sensor returns to normal operation.
Preventing ESD Damage
To prevent ESD damage, DALSA advises you to take the following handling precautions.
1. Ground yourself prior to handling CCDs.
2. Ensure that your ground and your workbench are also properly grounded. Install
conductive mats if your ground or workbench is non-conductive.
3. Use bare hands or non-chargeable cotton gloves to handle CCDs. NOTE: Rubber
fingercots can introduce electrostatic charge if the rubber comes in contact with the
sensor window.
4. Handle the CCD from the edge of the ceramic package and avoid touching the sensor
pins.
5. Do not touch the window, especially in the region over the imaging area.
DALSA
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6M3P Camera User’s Manual
35
6. Ground all tools and mechanical components that come in contact with the CCD.
7. DALSA recommends that CCDs be handled under ionized air to prevent static
charge buildup.
8. Always store the devises in conductive foam. Alternatively, clamps can be used to
short all the CCD pins together before storing.
The above ESD precautions need to be followed at all times, even when there is no
evidence of CCD damage. The rate which electrostatic charge dissipates depends on
numerous environmental conditions and an improper handling procedure that does not
appear to be damaging the CCDs immediately may cause damage with a change in
environmental conditions.
Protecting Against Dust, Oil, and Scratches
The CCD window is part of the optical path and should be handled like other optical
components, with extreme care.
Dust can obscure pixels, producing dark patches on the sensor response. Dust is most
visible when the illumination is collimated. The dark patches shift position as the angle
of illumination changes. Dust is normally not visible when the sensor is positioned at the
exit port of an integrating sphere, where the illumination is diffuse.
Dust can normally be removed by blowing the window surface using clean, dry,
compressed air, unless the dust particles are being held by an electrostatic charge, in
which case either an ionized blower or wet cleaning is necessary.
Oil is usually introduced during handling. Touching the surface of the window
barehanded will leave oily residues. Using rubber fingercots and rubber gloves can
prevent contamination. However, the friction between rubber and the window may
produce electrostatic charge that may damage the sensor. To avoid ESD damage and to
avoid introducing oily residues, only hold the sensor from the edges of the ceramic
package and avoid touching the sensor pins and the window.
Scratches can be caused by improper handling, cleaning or storage of the sensor.
Vacuum picking tools should not come in contact with the window surface. CCDs should
not be stored in containers where they are not properly secured and can slide against the
container.
Scratches diffract incident illumination. When exposed to uniform illumination, a sensor
with a scratched window will normally have brighter pixels adjacent to darker pixels. The
location of these pixels will change with the angle of illumination.
Cleaning the Sensor Window
DALSA
1.
Use clean, dry, compressed air to blow off loose particles. This step alone is usually
sufficient to clean the sensor window.
2.
If further cleaning is required, use a lens wiper moistened with alcohol.
3.
We recommend using lint free, ESD safe cloth wipers that do not contain particles
that can scratch the window.
4.
Wipe the window carefully and slowly.
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36
5.2 Maintenance
There are no user serviceable parts on this camera. Please contact DALSA service.
DALSA
03-32-10005-02
6M3P Camera User’s Manual
37
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7.1 Limited One-Year Warranty
What We Do
This product is warranted by DALSA for one year from date of original purchase. Please
refer to your Purchase Order Confirmation for details.
What is Not Covered
This warranty does not apply if the product has been damaged by accident or misuse, or
as a result of service or modification by other than DALSA, or by hardware, software,
interfacing or peripherals not provided by DALSA. DALSA shall have no obligation to
modify or update products once manufactured. This warranty does not apply to DALSA
Software Products.
Note: if the camera has a non-standard cover glass (e.g. taped) the warranty is void on the
CCD.
How to Obtain Service for Your Equipment
If you want to return your product for repair, contact DALSA Customer Service in order
to obtain a Return Goods Authorization form. Repair cannot begin until the form is
issued, completed, and returned to DALSA
DALSA Technical Support
Phone: 519 886 6000
Fax: 519 886 8023
email: support@DALSA.com
DALSA
03-32-10005-02
6M3P Camera User’s Manual
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