Electronic SystemS | TF-108 | Operator`s manual | Electronic SystemS TF-108 Operator`s manual

Operator’s
M anual
TF-DSQ Probe Calibration
and Deskew Fixture
TF-DSQ Probe Calibration and
Deskew Fixture
Operator's Manual
July, 2009
LeCroy Corporation
700 Chestnut Ridge Road
Chestnut Ridge, NY, 10977-6499
Tel: (845) 578-6020, Fax: (845) 578 5985
Warranty
LeCroy warrants this oscilloscope accessory for normal use and operation within specification for a period of one year
from the date of shipment. Spare parts, replacement parts and repairs are warranted for 90 days.
In exercising its warranty, LeCroy, at its option, will either repair or replace any assembly returned within its warranty
period to the Customer Service Department or an authorized service center. However, this will be done only if the
product is determined by LeCroy’s examination to be defective due to workmanship or materials, and the defect is not
caused by misuse, neglect, accident, abnormal conditions of operation, or damage resulting from attempted repair or
modifications by a non-authorized service facility.
The customer will be responsible for the transportation and insurance charges for the return of products to the service
facility. LeCroy will return all products under warranty with transportation charges prepaid.
This warranty replaces all other warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranty of
merchantability, fitness or adequacy for any particular purposes or use. LeCroy shall not be liable for any special,
incidental, or consequential damages, whether in contract or otherwise.
Internet: www.lecroy.com
© 2009 by LeCroy Corporation. All rights reserved.
LeCroy, ActiveDSO, JitterTrack, WavePro, WaveMaster, WaveSurfer, WaveLink, WaveExpert, Waverunner, and WaveAce
are registered trademarks of LeCroy Corporation. Other product or brand names are trademarks or requested trademarks
of their respective holders. Information in this publication supersedes all earlier versions. Specifications are subject to
change without notice.
Manufactured under an ISO
9000 Registered Quality
Management System.
Visit www.lecroy.com to view
the certificate.
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This electronic product is subject to disposal and recycling
regulations that vary by country and region. Many countries
prohibit the disposal of waste electronic equipment in standard
waste receptacles.
For more information about proper disposal and recycling of your
LeCroy product, please visit www.lecroy.com/recycle.
Operator's Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TF-DSQ Overview .................................................................................... 6
Probe Calibration with the TF-DSQ Fixture.............................................. 6
Probe Calibration Steps with the TF-DSQ Fixture .................................... 7
TF-DSQ Connections ................................................................................ 8
TF-DSQ Fixture Overview ......................................................................... 8
TF-DSQ Fixture Elements ......................................................................... 9
Assembling the TF-DSQ fixture .............................................................. 10
TF-DSQ Oscilloscope Connection ........................................................... 11
Probe Connection to TF-DSQ ................................................................. 12
Probe Calibration .................................................................................. 14
Probe Calibration Menu......................................................................... 14
Accessing the Probe Calibration Menu.................................................. 14
Probe Calibration Menu Description ..................................................... 14
Basic Probe Calibration .......................................................................... 17
Advanced Mode Probe Calibration Menu ............................................. 17
Gain/Offset Only Calibration ................................................................. 17
Deskew Only .......................................................................................... 18
The Advanced Menu .............................................................................. 18
Rise Time Skew Correction .................................................................... 18
Deskew All (or Common Skew) .............................................................. 18
Common Mode Voltage Selection ......................................................... 19
Advanced Probe Calibration .................................................................. 19
Theory of Operation.............................................................................. 19
Deskew Theory of Operation ................................................................. 19
Deskew Risetime Adjustment Theory.................................................... 22
DC Calibration Theory ............................................................................ 24
Probing Basics ....................................................................................... 25
Single-Ended and Differential Probe Basics ........................................... 25
Operating Environment ......................................................................... 28
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Safety Precautions ................................................................................ 28
CERTIFICATIONS .................................................................................... 28
CE Declaration of Conformity ................................................................ 28
EMC Directive ........................................................................................ 28
Electromagnetic Emissions: ................................................................... 29
Electromagnetic Immunity: ................................................................... 29
Low-Voltage Directive............................................................................ 29
Index .................................................................................................... 30
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TF-DSQ Overview
Probe Calibration with the TF-DSQ Fixture
The TF-DSQ fixture is used in conjunction with the oscilloscope software to perform probe
deskew and DC calibration. It has the following leading features and specifications:








Deskew to +/- 20 ps typical accuracy
Differential and single-ended drive
75 ps edge
Calibration of DC gain and offset and skew at same probing point
Accounts for risetime variations
Accounts for common-mode voltage
DC gain calibration accounts for probe loading effects
Integrated operation with oscilloscope for fully automatic calibration
WavePro 7 Zi and
WaveMaster 8000
WaveMaster 8 Zi
WavePro 7000 Oscilloscopes and SDA/DDA
Oscilloscopes and SDA/DDA Oscilloscopes
Models, also DDA 5005A,
7 and 8 Zi Models
5005A XXL
Oscilloscope
Connection
ProLink and ProBus
ProBus Only
ProLink Only
Probes
Supported
D610,D620, D600A-AT, D310, D320, and D300A-AT with all probing accessories
AP020, AP033, AP034 HFP1000, 1500, 2500, and 3500, PP005 and PP005A
DC Range
±5 V single-ended, ±10 V differential
DC Accuracy
±(1% + 600 μV)
Edge Risetime
(of Device)
75 ps (typical) < 95 ps (guaranteed)
Edge Amplitude
and Rep Rate
Approximately 800 mV @ 10 MHz
Deskew
Accuracy
±20 ps (typical)
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Probe Calibration Steps with the TF-DSQ Fixture
Probe calibration is accomplished with the TF-DSQ fixture by following the steps in the following
flowchart.
Note: It is recommended that you read the instructions presented here in their entirety to
familiarize yourself with the advanced features of the TF-DSQ fixture prior to use.
The combination of TF-DSQ fixture and oscilloscope software is designed with an important use
model. Connecting probes to the circuit under test can be a difficult procedure. LeCroy's system,
therefore, is designed in a manner that allows you to set up the probe calibration fixture,
calibrate each individual probe once, connect your probes to the circuit, and disconnects the
fixture. Once your probes are in the circuit, there is no need to revisit the fixture until the next
calibration interval.
Familiarize yourself with the following topics:
TF-DSQ fixture overview
TF-DSQ Oscilloscope Connection
Probe Calibration Menu access
Probe connection to fixture
Calibrating probes
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TF-DSQ Connections
TF-DSQ Fixture Overview
The TF-DSQ fixture comes in a soft case containing a CD with .pdf versions of the manuals for
several oscilloscope options, along with the following components:
 The TF-DSQ fixture
 A 50-ohm SMA cable
 ProBus extender complete with BNC to SMA adapter (TF-DSQ-PBE)
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 A ProLink extender
 A BNC to SMA adapter (not pictured)
TF-DSQ Fixture Elements
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Assembling the TF-DSQ fixture
See the fixture overview to identify individual components.
System assembly is accomplished in the following steps:
1. Connect one end of the 50 Ω cable to the desired ProLink or ProBus extender (with
adapter).
2. Connect the other end of the 50 Ω cable to the SMA connector on the TF-DSQ fixture.
3. Connect the ProLink or ProBus CAT 5 cable from the extender to the TF-DSQ fixture.
Note: The 50 Ω connection should be torque tightened with an RF torque wrench and must be
properly tightened.
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TF-DSQ Oscilloscope Connection
The TF-DSQ fixture is connected to either an unused oscilloscope channel or the external AUX IN
input, if one exists. In other words, any oscilloscope channel or oscilloscope input with a ProLink
or ProBus connector.
Scope Auxiliary Input with ProLink and
BMA Connector
Connection of the TF-DSQ Fixture to the
Oscilloscope Input
We recommend connecting to the AUX IN input, or to an unused oscilloscope channel in the
case of a Serial Data Analyzer with the "A" model suffix (these oscilloscopes replace the external
trigger input with a clock recovery module).
Note: Your kit contains both ProBus and ProLink extenders, so regardless of the AUX IN input
used for your signal (BNC or BMA), your specific connection need is covered.
The TF-DSQ fixture is called out as the probe calibration source on the probe calibration menu.
Seeing this option on the menu verifies proper operation.
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Probe Connection to TF-DSQ
The TF-DSQ provides multiple probe connectors for various kinds of probes. Probes are
connected electrically in either a single-ended or differential arrangement, depending on the
type of probe. Probes are connected mechanically using either the probing pads, or a probing
clip provided for solder-in probing solutions.
Figure 4-1. Probe Connection Points and the Clip
Differential probes are connected with the tip designated V+ mated to the "+" pad on the
fixture, and the tip designated V- to the "-" pad on the fixture. Single-ended probes are
connected with the probe tip connected to the V+ pad only, and the ground lead optionally
connected to ground. Solder-in probes have their appropriate tips held down to the microstrip
transmission line by the clip. Simply push down on the clip with your thumb, insert the probe
connection leads under the clip and release. Make sure that V+ and V- are connected properly.
Figure 4-2. Single-ended Probe Properly Connected to the Fixture
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Figure 4-3. Differential Probe Properly Connected to the Fixture (Browsing Configuration)
Figure 4-4. Differential Probe Properly Connected to the Fixture (Solder-in Configuration)
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Probe Calibration
Probe Calibration Menu
Accessing the Probe Calibration Menu
The probe calibration menu can be accessed from the Vertical drop-down menu or from the
Channel (sometimes referred to as Vertical Adjust) dialog:
Probe Calibration Menu Description
Figure 4-5. The Probe Calibration dialog contains information and controls.
The information on the probe calibration dialog is organized so each row represents the
information for a given channel and each column represents the calibration information or
control for that channel. For each channel, the information and controls provided include:





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The channel number in the colored button icon and the probe type that is installed
A Full Calibration button, which starts the calibration
DC correction information including both gain and offset correction
The skew correction
A Clear button
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Note: The Cal Skew Ref field (and others) shows EXT for External Trigger Input. This may also
be more aptly referred to as AUX for Auxiliary Input. This Probe Calibration dialog field could
also be a channel.
PROBE CHANNEL AND TYPE IDENTIFICATION
This area shows the type of probe connected to the channel. All other information shown in a
given row is associated with that probe.
FULL CALIBRATION BUTTON
This button causes the oscilloscope to automatically perform a full DC and deskew calibration.
See details of probe DC calibration or probe deskew calibration.
PROBE DC INFORMATION
This information shows the gain and offset applied to the probe. If the probe measures a voltage
of V, the new, calibrated voltage is:
Note that the offset is in Volts, and the gain is unitless.
The probe DC calibration information can be entered either manually or as the result of an
automatic calibration. In the case of automatic calibration, it can be part of the full calibration or
it can be a standalone DC calibration executed in advanced mode. When the DC calibration
information is a result of an automatic calibration utilizing the TF-DSQ fixture, the information
shown is the gain and offset utilized for the currently configured channel sensitivity
(volt/division setting; see details of DC calibration). In this case, when the channel sensitivity is
altered, notice that these values change. When the DC calibration information is entered
manually, it clears any automatic results and replaces them globally with the newly entered
values. This means that if new gain and offset numbers are entered manually, these values
apply across all oscilloscope sensitivity settings.
The gain is limited to between 0.8 and 1.2, but the offset is not limited.
Note: It is important to note that some passive probes, and any user-designed probes, do not
provide proper probe identification information to the oscilloscope. In these cases, the
oscilloscope may not be able to determine the proper attenuation values. In this situation, you
should make sure that the proper attenuation is entered in the channel "Vertical" setup dialog.
Furthermore, the gain entered should be the gain correction applied to the system with the
correctly entered attenuation.
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PROBE DESKEW INFORMATION
The probe deskew information contains the measured skew between the probe in the specified
channel and the reference channel. It can be entered manually or as the result of an automatic
calibration. In the case of automatic calibration, it can be the result of a portion of the full
calibration-1427781181 or it can be the result of a standalone deskew calibration. Even after the
deskew has been performed automatically, the deskew correction can be tweaked manually.
CLEAR
All probe calibrations can be cleared by pressing this button corresponding to a probe.
PROBE CALIBRATION SOURCE
This specifies the signal source used for DC and skew calibrations. When the TF-DSQ fixture is
plugged into an oscilloscope input, the oscilloscope automatically specifies this fixture as the
calibration source.
SKEW REFERENCE
This specifies the channel or external input where the skew reference is supplied. The skew
reference is the absolute time reference to which all deskew measurements are made. When
the TF-DSQ fixture is plugged into an oscilloscope input, the oscilloscope detects this and
automatically shows the front panel connection of the fixture.
RECALL CALIBRATION
Whenever a probe calibration is applied, the oscilloscope saves the information in a file on the
disk. If the oscilloscope must be rebooted for any reason, the probe calibration information is
always cleared, but can be manually recalled by pressing this button.
ADVANCED MODE CHECKBOX
When the Advanced Mode checkbox is unchecked, you have access to the basic probe
calibration menu. The basic probe calibration menu shows you only what is absolutely needed
to perform a simple calibration of the probes. In other words, it shows you the calibration
information and provides the capability to calibrate the probe with a single button press, clear
the calibration information, and manually reload the calibration information following an
oscilloscope reboot. When the advanced mode button is checked, you have access to the
advanced mode probe calibration menu.
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Basic Probe Calibration
The TF-DSQ fixture is used to calibrate probes. Prior to beginning your measurements:
1. Assemble the TF-DSQ fixture
2. Attach the fixture, ideally to the Auxiliary Input or an unused oscilloscope channel
3. Access the Probe Calibration Menu
Now, follow these steps for each probe used:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Connect the probe to the oscilloscope channel
Attach the probe to the TF-DSQ fixture
Press the Full Calibration button in the Probe Calibration Menu.
Wait a few seconds as the probe is calibrated (calibration wizard closes at end of
calibration).
5. When the calibration completes, remove the probe from the TF-DSQ fixture
Now you are ready to probe the circuit and perform your measurements. If power is interrupted
during your measurements, reboot the oscilloscope and manually recall your settings.
Advanced Mode Probe Calibration Menu
The advanced mode is entered by checking the advanced mode box at bottom-right of the basic
probe calibration dialog:
Checking this box allows:
 Calibration of gain/offset only
 Calibration of deskew only
 Access to the advanced menu (shown as a tab behind the Probes Cal dialog)
Gain/Offset Only Calibration
Pressing this button performs only the DC calibration of the probe on the specified channel. See
details of Probe DC Calibration.
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Deskew Only
Pressing this button performs only the deskew calibration of the probe on the specified channel.
See details Probe Deskew Calibration.
The Advanced Menu
The Advanced Menu contains information and functionality useful to the advanced user of the
TF-DSQ fixture. These include:
 Risetime Skew Correction
 Deskew All (or common deskew capability)
 Common mode voltage settings for DC calibration
Rise Time Skew Correction
This field shows the signal risetime and the corresponding skew correction based on the signal
risetime.
When probes are deskewed, the risetime measurement of the edge used for deskewing is
displayed in the Rise Time field corresponding to the probe and probe channel, and an
additional skew correction of zero is applied.
The measured risetime of the signals encountered can be entered into the Rise Time field, and
the oscilloscope automatically calculates and applies a new skew correction value to be utilized
in addition to the deskew amount calculated during the deskew calibration procedure. With this
use, a finer deskew calibration is performed because the risetimes of the signals measured are
accounted for. See details of risetime correction.
Deskew All (or Common Skew)
This is the deskew amount applied to all channels. The time entered in this field is the absolute
time by which all waveforms displayed by the oscilloscope are delayed in time. This value
effectively adjusts the zero time reference of the system. See Probe Deskew Calibration for
details.
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Common Mode Voltage Selection
The TF-DSQ fixture calibrates probes differentially or in single-ended mode depending on the
type of probe. Differential probes allow the common mode voltage component to be applied
during the DC calibration for improved calibration accuracy in situations where probe gain or
offset correction depends on common mode components. See Probe DC Calibration or
Differential and Single-ended Probe Basics for details.
Advanced Probe Calibration
When the Advanced Mode checkbox is checked, you can perform the DC calibration and the
deskew calibration separately by pressing Gain/Offset Only or Deskew Only.
When performing DC calibration, you have the option to apply a common mode component to
the differential DC levels applied to the probe during calibration. See Probe DC Calibration or
Differential and Single-ended Probe Basics for details..
After performing the deskew calibration, you have the option to apply a common skew value to
all channels to adjust the zero time reference of the system.
If you know the risetime of the signals being measured, you can enter the measured risetime of
the signals in the Rise Time field to obtain a further skew correction that accounts for the
risetime. If the risetime entered is less than the risetime measured during the calibration, no
correction is applied; otherwise, the system calculates a correction to account for the signal
risetime. It is important to enter the measured risetime. That is the risetime of the signal that
the oscilloscope measures (or will measure). See details of risetime correction.
Theory of Operation
Deskew Theory of Operation
Deskewing is an adjustment of the times of waveform data points on the screen. Deskewing is
an operation to correct the times that waveforms are displayed on the screen, mainly to
account for propagation delays through probes and cables.
When considering skew, there are two important things to consider:
 The relative skew between two channels
 The absolute skew from the zero time reference (i.e., the trigger point)
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Two channels are properly deskewed relative to each other when the difference between the
deskew values entered for each channel aligns an edge occurring at the same time and applied
to both channels. A channel is properly deskewed in an absolute sense when an edge is applied
to that channel, the oscilloscope is triggered on that edge, and that edge appears such that the
trigger threshold crossing appears at the trigger delay, which is the zero time reference on the
oscilloscope screen.
Probes are deskewed one at a time relative to a reference such that the resulting calibration
deskews each probe relative to every other probe.
The TF-DSQ fixture has a built-in step generator. The edge generated is driven out of a cable into
an oscilloscope channel or external input where the fixture is connected. The edge is
simultaneously driven onto a transmission line containing the probing pads. When a probe is
connected to the probing pads, the edge appears at the fixture connection to the oscilloscope
and on the channel where the probe is connected. Generally, there is a difference in time
between the edges due to propagation delay variations between the fixture cabling and the
probe.
During the deskew procedure, the oscilloscope triggers on the channel or external input used for
the fixture connection and the time from this trigger to the edge on the probe channel being
deskewed is calculated. This time becomes the skew time for the probe. This process is repeated
for all of the other probes being utilized.
During oscilloscope operation, there is a small dilemma. Each probe that is deskewed causes the
waveform to be delayed or advanced due to the deskew time calculated for the channel. This
causes the trigger to be misaligned because the trigger point is where the edge reaches the
internal oscilloscope trigger circuitry, not when the edge appears at the probe tips. The
oscilloscope accounts for this by subtracting the deskew correction for the channel used as the
trigger source from the deskew correction on all channels. In essence, the channel used as the
trigger source has zero deskew correction applied, while the relative deskew difference between
all channels is maintained. This trigger compensation is hidden from the user. If better trigger
alignment is desired or if there is some need to shift all of the waveforms, provide a Deskew All
field value on the Advanced dialog to shift all traces together.
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The following example illustrates this scenario:
Two probes are used in a system. They are connected to channels 2 and 3. The TF-DSQ fixture is
connected to channel 4. When the oscilloscope is triggered on channel 4, you observe the
following edges:
When the probes are deskewed, the relative time between channel 4 (where the TF-DSQ fixture
is connected) and channel 2 is calculated as 30 ps, and -30 ps and is entered in channel two's
skew entry. Similarly, the time between channel 4 and channel 3 is calculated as 40 ps and -40
ps is entered in channel 4's skew entry. When triggering on channel 4, channel 2 is advanced 30
ps in time and channel 3 is advanced 40 ps in time such that all of the edges are aligned with
each other and with the trigger point.
When triggering on channel 2, these times are adjusted by a common 30 ps. So, 30 ps is added
to channel 2 to cause 0 deskew amount, and 30 ps is added to channel 4 to cause -10 ps deskew.
Without this common addition (or delay) of all waveforms by 30 ps, all edges would remain
aligned, but channel 2's trigger position would be off by 30 ps. This explains how the 30 ps
(commonly added to all waveforms) keeps the trigger points aligned.
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Deskew Risetime Adjustment Theory
Two scenarios require adjustment of the deskew values to account for risetime:
1. Two probes are used for relative time measurements, but each probe has a different
risetime.
2. Two probes are used for relative time measurements, but each signal has a different
risetime.
The first case is explained here with obvious analogy to the second case.
Two probes are often utilized for measurements where each probe has a different risetime. This
may occur because you are making a measurement where a reasonably low bandwidth probe
can be used, but you do not have two of same probe, so you end up using a second one with a
higher speed than the first.
When the probes are deskewed, the high-speed edge from the TF-DSQ fixture is utilized. The
deskewed probes might show signals that look like the following when the high-speed edge
supplied by the TF-DSQ fixture is observed:
In the previous picture, the green trace edge is the one actually supplied by the TF-DSQ fixture.
However, because of risetime limitations of the probe and channel, the edges appear as the red
and blue traces. These traces are shown aligned at the 50% crossing point at the end of the
deskew calibration.
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Now, let's assume that these probes are applied to signals with the same risetime, but a
different risetime than the one applied by the deskew fixture:
This example clearly illustrates how the application of signals with the same risetime (but
different risetime than the one applied by the deskew fixture) produces a deskew error, unless
compensated. In the previous figure, the green trace is the actual signal applied to the probes
that has a risetime of twice that employed by the fixture. The red and blue traces represent the
trace acquired through the probes and channel due to this edge. Because of the different
risetime applied, there is a small error.
A possible solution to this would be to vary the risetime of the edge applied to the probe by the
fixture; a very difficult design. Despite this difficulty, a variable risetime solution would require
knowing what the measured risetimes would be ahead of time or to measure the risetimes first.
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The TF-DSQ fixture, in accordance with the philosophy of requiring only one calibration in the
fixture, handles this in a special manner. The user simply enters the measured risetime of the
signals after the probe is connected to the circuit. Since the oscilloscope software saves the
edge acquired during the deskew calibration process, it applies this saved edge to a variable
filter using digital signal processing until the measured risetime is achieved. At that point, the
software calculates the difference in the time of the 50% crossing and calculates an additional
skew correction to be applied. In this manner, the risetime is compensated for in the deskew
calibration without the requirement of re-calibrating.
The previous figure shows the traces realigned as a result of the skew correction applied after
the measured risetime has been entered.
DC Calibration Theory
DC calibration involves the calculation of two constants to be applied to waveforms to correct
for voltage measurement inaccuracy. The two constants are the gain (applied multiplicatively)
and the offset ( applied additively). It is important to distinguish the gain and offset correction
from the channel gain determined by the sensitivity control (volts/division selection) or the
offset control. The sensitivity and offset controls change the absolute gain and offset of the
front end amplifier, but cannot correct for inaccuracy. This is also true with the vertical gain and
offset controls in zooms. The way to visualize this is to place a cursor at a point on a waveform
and read the voltage. Adjusting volts/div or offset, or adjusting the gain or offset of a zoom,
affects the size of the waveform on the screen, but does not affect the voltage measured at the
cursor position.
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The gain and offset correction applied during DC calibration affects the voltage measured
according to the following formula:
where V is the voltage measured prior to calibration.
Probes are calibrated for each fixed gain setting of the oscilloscope, meaning they are calibrated
at 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 mV and 1V per division. A unique gain and offset calculation is made
for each range.
The calibration of the probe is performed utilizing 5 DC levels. The DC levels are applied such
that the voltages ideally appear on the oscilloscope screen at -3, -1.5, 0, 1.5 and 3 vertical
divisions. The best fit line is calculated, and the appropriate gain and offset that would make the
line fit the actual voltages applied is also calculated. The gain and offset for each range is the
gain and offset correction displayed in the gain and offset fields.
In all cases, the DC levels applied to the probe are measured by an ADC on the fixture placed
near the probing points. In this way, the absolute voltage at the probe tips is precisely known
and any DC probe loading effects are taken into account.
In the case of single-ended probes, the DC levels applied to the V+ probing pad are the same as
the voltages that appear at the appropriate grid locations on the oscilloscope screen.
Differential probes are handled slightly different. In their case, the voltage applied to the V+ tip
is the voltage specified in the Common mode voltage field, plus half the voltage desired on the
oscilloscope screen. The voltage applied to the V- tip is the common mode voltage minus half
the voltage desired. In this way, the probe experiences the specified common mode voltage,
and the differential voltage measured by the probe is calibrated for common mode voltage
effects.
Probing Basics
Single-Ended and Differential Probe Basics
Single-Ended and Differential probe discussions are a sometimes confusing subject. There are
aspects of operation that must be known in order to understand their calibration.
Single-Ended
A single-ended probe exposes a probing tip and a ground connection lead. Typically, the ground
lead is connected to the outer conductor in a coaxial cable, which is connected directly to the
oscilloscope's ground. The probing point is typically connected to the center conductor.
Typically, the ground connection represents an essentially zero-ohm connection to oscilloscope
ground, and the probe tip is a specified impedance to that ground. Other than probes, a 50-ohm
cable is often used for single-ended measurements.
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In this case, the outer conductor connects the oscilloscope's ground to the circuit's ground, and
the cable is terminated with 50 ohms at the oscilloscope, such that the conductor looks like 50
ohms looking into it at all frequencies.
In the case of single-ended measurements, the oscilloscope is measuring the difference
between the probe tip and ground. Since ground is considered to be zero volts, one can say that
the voltage measured at the probe tip is the absolute voltage.
Differential
A differential probe, in contrast, exposes two probing tips with an optional ground connection
lead. Often, the ground connection lead is left unconnected (more on this later). Each of the
probe tips are connected to two different signals in a circuit. The probe measures only the
difference between the two probing points with no actual notion of the absolute voltages
present. In practice, differential probes have limitations not only on the difference allowed
between the two probing tips, but also the absolute voltage allowed. This absolute voltage is
referenced to the oscilloscope's ground. For this reason, the probe ground lead is sometimes
connected to ground in the circuit to make oscilloscope ground and circuit ground the same.
This is often done only when the circuit is floating, which means that the circuit's ground is free
to move to any voltage, depending on its ground connections.
Despite the differential probe only measuring the difference between the voltages at its probe
tips, its accuracy is sometimes affected by the absolute voltages present.
Differential signaling is used commonly for high-speed signals. In a differential system, two wires
are used to transmit the signal. Often, the signals are the direct opposite of each other, with
both swinging across zero volts. Frequently, these signals have a common offset or bias applied
to them. In this case, the common offset applied to each signal is called the common mode
signal component, and the difference between each signal is called the differential mode signal
component. Typically, the differential signal is the actual information signal being transmitted,
with the common mode signal being present for other physical reasons, such as the biasing of
an ECL gate. An ideal differential probe receives only the differential mode signal. Practical
probes reject the common mode signal to a large extent. The ability of a differential probe to
reject the common mode signal is stipulated by the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
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TF-DSQ-OM-E RevC
TF-DSQ Probe Calibration and Deskew Fixture
Despite differential probes measuring differentially, they can be used to measure common
mode signals. In this case, the V- tip is connected to ground, and the probe continues to
measure the difference between the tips. This is a useful configuration for identifying ground
problems.
The voltages in differential systems can be described by the following diagram and equations:
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Operator's Manual
Operating Environment
Before using your accessory, ensure that its operating environment will be maintained within
these parameters:
 Temperature: 5 to 40 °C.
 Humidity: ≤ 80% RH (non-condensing).
 Altitude: 2000 meters Max.
Safety Precautions
CAUTION
Avoid personal injury or damage to your accessory or any equipment connected to it by
reviewing and complying with the following safety precautions:
 Use only as intended. The accessory is intended to be used only with the compatible
LeCroy instruments. Use of the accessory and/or the equipment it is connected to in a
manner other than specified may impair the protection mechanisms.
 Connect and disconnect properly. Avoid damage through excessive bending.
 Do not use in wet/damp or explosive atmospheres.
 For indoor use only. The accessory is intended for indoor use and should be operated in a
clean, dry, environment.
 Do not operate with suspected failures. Do not use the product if any part is damaged.
All maintenance should be referred to qualified service personnel.
 Keep product surfaces clean and dry.
CERTIFICATIONS
CE Compliant
CE Declaration of Conformity
The accessory meets requirements of EMC Directive 2004/108/EC for Electromagnetic
Compatibility and Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC for Product Safety.
EMC Directive
 EN 61326-1:2006
 EMC requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory
use.
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TF-DSQ-OM-E RevC
TF-DSQ Probe Calibration and Deskew Fixture
Electromagnetic Emissions:
 EN 55011/A2:2002, Radiated and conducted emissions (Class A)*
Electromagnetic Immunity:
 EN 61000-4-2:2001 Electrostatic Discharge.
(4 kV contact, 8 kV air, 4 kV vertical/horizontal coupling planes)
 EN 61000-4-3:2006 RF Radiated Electromagnetic Field.
(3 V/m, 80-1000 MHz; 3 V/m, 1400 MHz - 2 GHz; 1 V/m, 2 GHz - 2.7 GHz)
* This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user may be required to take appropriate measures.
Low-Voltage Directive
EN 61010-031:2002
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use.
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Operator's Manual
Index
deskew risetime adjustment, 21
C
differential & single-ended probes, 24
gain & offset, 23
calibration: probe, 13
high-speed edge, 21
P
probe calibration, 13
overview, 7
probe calibration menu, 13
probe connection, 11
probe DC information, 14
T
TF-DSQ, 5
probe deskew information, 15
recall calibration, 15
absolute skew, 19
relative skew, 19
advanced probe calibration, 18
rise time skew correction, 17
assembly, 9
scope connection, 10
basic probe calibration, 16
skew reference, 15
common mode, 18
specifications, 5
DC calibration theory, 23
step generator, 19
DC levels, 24
trigger alignment, 19
deskew all, 17
30
TF-DSQ Overview, 5
TF-DSQ-OM-E RevA
Thank you for purchasing a
TF-DSQ Probe Calibration
and Deskew Fixture.
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