WCMP: Weighted Cost Multipathing for Improved Fairness in Data Centers

WCMP: Weighted Cost Multipathing for Improved Fairness in Data Centers
WCMP: Weighted Cost Multipathing for Improved Fairness in Data Centers
Junlan Zhou∗ , Malveeka Tewari†∗ , Min Zhu∗ , Abdul Kabbani∗ ,
Leon Poutievski∗ , Arjun Singh∗ , Amin Vahdat†∗
∗
†
Google Inc.
UC San Diego
{zjl, malveeka, mzhu, akabbani, leonp, arjun, vahdat}@google.com
Abstract
tion downstream among all equal cost paths. The first assumption is violated for non-tree topologies such as HyperCubes and its descendants [1, 15] that require load balancing
across non-equal cost paths. The second assumption is violated when a failure downstream reduces capacity through a
particular next hop or, more simply, when a tree-based topology inherently demonstrates imbalanced striping (defined in
Section 4) when the number of switches at a particular stage
in the topology is not perfectly divisible by the number of
uplinks on a switch at the previous stage.
Thus, for realistic network deployments, the bandwidth
capacity available among “equal cost” next hops is typically
guaranteed to be unequal even in the baseline case where all
flows are of identical length. That is to say, ECMP forwarding leads to imbalanced bandwidth distribution simply from
static topology imbalance rather than from dynamic communication patterns. It is our position that routing protocols
should be able to correct for such imbalance as they typically already collect all the state necessary to do so. Based
on our experience with large-scale data center deployments,
we have found that substantial variation in per-flow bandwidth for flows that otherwise are not subject to prevailing
congestion both reduces application performance and makes
the network more difficult to diagnose and maintain.
This paper presents Weighted Cost Multipathing (WCMP)
to deliver fair per-flow bandwidth allocation based on the
routing protocol’s view of the topology. We present the design and implementation of WCMP in a Software Defined
Network running commodity switches, which distribute traffic among available next hops in proportion to the available
link capacity (not bandwidth) to the destination according
to the dynamically changing network topology. We further present topology connectivity guidelines for improving network throughput. Inserting the necessary weighted
forwarding entries can consume hundreds of entries for a
single destination, aggressively consuming limited on-chip
SRAM/TCAM table entries. Hence, we present algorithms
that trade a small bandwidth oversubscription for substantial
reduction in consumed forwarding table entries. Our results
indicate that even a 5% increase in oversubscription can
significantly reduce the number of forwarding table entries
required. Our algorithms for weight reduction make WCMP
readily deployable in current commodity switches with limited forwarding table entries.
Data Center topologies employ multiple paths among servers
to deliver scalable, cost-effective network capacity. The simplest and the most widely deployed approach for load balancing among these paths, Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP),
hashes flows among the shortest paths toward a destination.
ECMP leverages uniform hashing of balanced flow sizes to
achieve fairness and good load balancing in data centers.
However, we show that ECMP further assumes a balanced,
regular, and fault-free topology, which are invalid assumptions in practice that can lead to substantial performance
degradation and, worse, variation in flow bandwidths even
for same size flows. We present a set of simple algorithms
employing Weighted Cost Multipath (WCMP) to balance
traffic based on the changing network topology. The state
required for WCMP is already disseminated as part of standard routing protocols and it can be implemented in current
switch silicon without any hardware modifications. We show
how to deploy WCMP in a production OpenFlow network
environment and present experimental and simulation results
to show that variation in flow bandwidths can be reduced by
as much as 25× by employing WCMP relative to ECMP.
1.
Introduction
There has been significant recent interest in a range of network topologies for large-scale data centers [2, 15, 20].
These topologies promise scalable, cost-effective bandwidth
to emerging clusters with tens of thousands of servers by
leveraging parallel paths organized across multiple switch
stages. Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) [14, 17] extension to
OSPF is the most popular technique for spreading traffic
among available paths. Recent efforts [3, 16] propose dynamically monitoring global fabric conditions to adjust forwarding rules, potentially on a per-flow basis. While these
efforts promise improved bandwidth efficiency, their additional complexity means that most commercial deployments
still use ECMP forwarding given the simplicity of using
strictly local switch state for packet forwarding.
To date, however, the current routing and forwarding protocols employing ECMP-style forwarding focus on regular,
symmetric, and fault-free instances of tree-based topologies.
At a high-level, these protocols assume that there will be:
(i) large number of equal cost paths to a given destination,
and (ii) equal amount of bandwidth capacity to the destina1
the number of switches in the next stage, to ensure that the
uplinks at a lower stage switch can be striped uniformly
across the switches in the next stage. In large scale data
centers, it is hard to maintain such balanced stripings due to
heterogeneity in switch port counts and frequent switch/link
failures. We discuss the impact of striping asymmetry in
detail in later sections. Here, we motivate how employing
ECMP over topologies with uneven striping results in poor
load balancing and unfair bandwidth distribution.
...
...
hosts
hosts
hosts
hosts
Figure 1: 2-stage Clos network
We present our evaluation of WCMP in an OpenFlow
controlled 10Gb/s data center network testbed for different
kinds of traffic patterns including real data center traffic
traces from [7]. The WCMP weights are meant to deal with
long lived failures (switch/link failures, link flappings etc.)
included in the routing updates, and our ability to scale and
react is only limited by the reactivity of the routing protocol.
Our results show that WCMP reduces the variation in flow
bandwidths by as much as 25× compared to ECMP. WCMP
is complementary to traffic load balancing schemes at higher
layers such as Hedera [3] and MPTCP [28].
2.
6
3
3
12
flows
4
3
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
host
host
host
host
host
host
1.1.3.0/24
1.1.2.0/24
1.1.1.0/24
1.1.3.0/24
1.1.2.0/24
1.1.1.0/24
(a) ECMP Hashing
(b) WCMP Hashing
Figure 2: Multipath flow hashing in an asymmetric topology
Background & Motivation
Consider the 2-stage Clos topology depicted in Figure 2(a). Each link in the topology has the same capacity,
10 Gb/s. Since each S1 switch has four uplinks to connect
to the three S2 switches, it results in asymmetric distribution
of uplinks or imbalanced striping of uplinks across the S2
switches. Assuming ideal ECMP hashing of 12 flows from
the source switch S10 to the destination switch S12 , three
flows each are hashed onto each of the four uplinks at S10 .
However, the six flows reaching S20 now have to contend
for capacity on the single downlink to S12 . As such, the six
flows via S20 receive one-sixth of the link capacity, 1.66
Gb/s each, while the remaining six flows receive one-third
of the link capacity, 3.33 Gb/s each, resulting in unfair bandwidth distribution even for identical flows.
Note that the effective bandwidth capacity of the two uplinks to S20 at S10 is only 10 Gb/s, bottlenecked by the single downlink from S20 to S12 . Taking this into consideration, if S10 weighs its uplinks in the ratio 1:1:2:2 for hashing
(as opposed to 1:1:1:1 with ECMP) all flows would reach the
destination switch with the same throughput, one-fourth of
link capacity or 2.5 Gb/s in this example, as shown in Figure
2(b). This observation for weighing different paths according to their effective capacity is the premise for Weighted
Cost Multipathing (WCMP).
The primary objective of this paper is to propose a deployable solution that addresses the ECMP weakness in handling topology asymmetry, thus improving fairness across
flow bandwidths and load balancing in data center networks.
While our results apply equally well to a range of topologies, including direct connect topologies [1, 15, 30], for concreteness we focus on multi-stage, tree-based topologies that
form the basis for current data center deployments [2, 14].
We abstract the data center network fabric as a two-stage
Clos topology, as depicted in Figure 1. Here, each switch in
Stage 1 (S1) stripes its uplinks across all available Stage 2
(S2) switches. Hosts connected to the S1 switches can then
communicate by leveraging the multiple paths through the
different S2 switches. Typically, ECMP extensions to routing protocols such as OSPF [25] distribute traffic equally by
hashing individual flows among the set of available paths.
We show how ECMP alone is insufficient to efficiently leverage the multipaths in data center networks, particularly in
presence of failures and asymmetry. While we focus on a
logical two stage topology for our analysis, our results are
recursively applicable to a topology of arbitrary depth. For
instance, high-radix S1 switches may internally be made up
of a 2-stage topology using lower-degree physical switches;
our proposed routing and load balancing techniques would
apply equally well at multiple levels of the topology.
2.1
3
3
2.2
Bandwidth Fairness
Data center applications such as Web search [5], MapReduce [12], and Memcached [24] operate in a bulk synchronous manner where initiators attempt to exchange data
with a large number of remote hosts. The operation can
only proceed once all of the associated flows complete, with
the application running at the speed of the slowest transfer. Similarly, when there are multiple “bins” of possible
performance between server pairs, performance debugging
Motivating Example
In a multi-stage network, striping refers to the distribution
of uplinks from lower stage switches to the switches in
the successive stage. We define striping in more detail in
Section 4 but want to point out that a uniformly symmetric
or balanced striping requires the number of uplinks at a
lower stage switch be equal to (or an integer multiple of)
2
becomes even more challenging; for instance, distinguishing between network congestion or incast communication
and poor performance resulting from unlucky hashing becomes problematic, motivating fair bandwidth distribution.
Orchestra [8], a system for managing data transfers in large
clusters, demonstrated how fair flow scheduling at the application layer resulted in a 20% speedup of the MapReduce
shuffle phase, motivating the need for fairness in bandwidth
distributions.
2.3
Switch
Link
Nov
99.984
99.932
Dec
99.993
99.968
Jan
99.987
99.955
Table 1: Availability of Switches and Links by Month
2.4
02/12
99.984
99.978
02/19
99.993
99.968
across two main categories: (i) traffic engineering based on
measured traffic demands and (ii) oblivious routing based on
the “hose” model [21]. Our work differs from the previous
work as it addresses unfairness to topology asymmetry and
proposes a readily deployable solution. Further more, efficient WAN load balancing relies on traffic matrices which
change at the scale of several minutes or hours. However,
for data centers highly dynamic traffic matrices, changing at
the scale of few seconds motivate the need for load balancing
solutions with low reaction times.
While ours is not the first work that advocates weighted
traffic distribution, we present a practical, deployable solution for implementing weighted traffic distribution in current hardware. There has been prior work that proposed setting up parallel MPLS-TE tunnels and splitting traffic across
them unequally based on tunnel bandwidths [26]. The load
balancing ratio between the tunnels is approximated by the
number of entries for each tunnel in the hash table. However,
the proposal does not address the concern that replicating
entries can exhaust a large number of forwarding entries. In
this work, we present algorithms that address this challenge
explicitly.
Villamizar [29] proposed unequal splitting of traffic
across the available paths by associating a hash boundary
with each path. An incoming packet is sent out on the path
whose hash boundary is less than the hash of the packet
header. These hash boundaries serve as weights for each
path and are adjusted based on the current demand and updated repeatedly. Implementing hash boundaries requires
switch hardware modification, raising the bar for immediate
deployment. Our contributions include proposing a complete, deployable solution that improves load balancing in
data centers without hardware modification.
In the data center context, there have been many proposals which advocate multipath based topologies [2, 14,
15, 23, 30] to provide higher bandwidth and fault tolerance.
F10, a proposal for building fault resilient data center fabric [23] advocates the use of weighted ECMP for efficient
load balancing in presence of failures. Such network fabrics
can leverage WCMP as a readily deployable solution for improving fairness. These topologies with high degree of multipaths have triggered other efforts [3, 10, 11] that evenly
spread flows over the data center fabric for higher utilization.
Hedera focuses on dynamically allocating elephant flows
to paths via a centralized scheduler by repeatedly polling
the switches for network utilization and/or flow sizes. Mice
flows, however, would still be routed in a static manner using ECMP. Hedera’s centralized measurement and software
control loop limit its responsiveness to mice flows.Hence,
While it is desirable to build regular, symmetrical topologies
in the data centers, it is impractical to do so for the following
reasons.
(1) Heterogeneous Network Components: Imbalanced
striping is inherent to any topology where the number of uplinks on S1 switches is not an integer multiple of the total
number of S2 switches. Building the fabric with heterogeneous switches with different port counts and numbers inherently creates imbalance in the topology. Depending on the
required number of server ports, such imbalance in striping
is typically guaranteed in practice without substantial network overbuild.
(2) Network Failures: Even in the case where the baseline topology is balanced, common case network failures
will result in imbalanced striping. Consider a data center
network consisting of 32 S2 switches with 96-ports each,
48 S1 switches with 128-ports each and 3072 hosts. Each
S1 switch uses 64 ports to connect to the S2 switches, with
two uplinks to each S2 switch. For this small data center,
an average monthly link availability of 99.945 will result in
more than 300 link failures each month, creating asymmetric links between S1 and S2 switches and making the topology imbalanced. If any one of the two downlinks from an
S2 switch to a destination S1 switch fails, the flows hashed
to that particular S2 switch will suffer a 50% reduction in
bandwidth, since the destination S1 switch is now reachable
by only one downlink. Since ECMP fails to account for capacity reductions due to failures while hashing flows, it leads
to unfair bandwidth distribution. This is particularly harmful
for the performance of many data center applications with
scatter and gather traffic patterns that are bottlenecked by the
slowest flow. Tables 1 and 2 show availability measurements
of production data center switches and links (collected by
polling SNMP counters) in support of our claim.
Oct
99.989
99.929
02/05
99.997
99.976
Table 2: Availability of Switches and Links by Week
Reasons for Topology Asymmetry
Switch
Link
01/29
99.996
99.977
Related Work
Load balancing and traffic engineering have been studied
extensively for WAN and Clos networks. Many traffic engineering efforts focus on the wide-area Internet [4, 21, 31, 32]
3
our WCMP algorithms provide baseline short-flow benefits for systems like Hedera, and scale better for large networks with balanced flow sizes (for applications e.g TritonSort/MapReduce).
MPTCP [28], a transport layer solution, proposes creating several sub-flows for each TCP flow. It relies on ECMP
to hash the sub-flows on to different paths and thus provide
better load balancing. In comparison, WCMP hashes flows
across paths according to available capacity based on topology rather than available bandwidth based on communication patterns. We find that for uniform communication patterns, WCMP outperforms MPTCP whereas MPTCP outperforms WCMP in the presence of localized congestion. The
two together perform better than either in isolation as they
work in a complementary fashion: WCMP makes available
additional capacity based on the topology while MPTCP better utilizes the capacity based on dynamic communication
patterns as we show in our evaluation section.
3.
group for weighted distribution of traffic destined to prefix 1.1.1.0/24. Traffic ingressing the switch is first matched
against the Longest Prefix Match (LPM) entries. Upon finding a match, the switch consults the multipath group entry to
determine the egress port. For example, a packet with destination 1.1.1.1 matches the LPM table entry pointing to the
WCMP group with base index of 4 in the multipath table.
The switch determines the offset into the multipath table for
a particular packet by hashing over header fields e.g., IP addresses, UDP/TCP ports, as inputs. The hash modulo the
number of entries for the group added to the group’s base
index determines the table entry with the egress port for the
incoming packet ((15 mod 12) + 4 = 7).
Multipath Table
Packet
Header
Hash
15
Mod
3
12
IP Prefix Multipath
# Entries
Table Index
Weighted Cost Multi Pathing
7
The need for WCMP is motivated by the asymmetric striping in data center topologies. The right striping is indeed
crucial in building a data center that ensures fairness and efficient load balancing. We present our proposals for striping
alternatives in Section 4. In this section, we discuss the current practices, challenges and our approach in designing a
deployable solution for weighted traffic hashing.
3.1
src_ip
dst_ip
src_port
dst_port
1.1.2.0/24
0
4
1.1.1.0/24
4
12
dst_ip=1.1.1.1
LPM Table
4
+
Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Port
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
WCMP
Group
Figure 3: Flow hashing in hardware among the set of available
egress ports
Multipath Forwarding in Switches
Replicating entries for assigning weights can easily exceed the number of table entries in commodity silicon, typically numbering in the small thousands. To overcome this
hardware limitation on table entries, we map the “ideal”
WCMP port weights onto a smaller set of integer weights,
with the optimization goal of balancing consumed multipath
table resources against the impact on flow fairness. In our
switch pipeline example, the egress port numbers 1, 2, 3,
4 in the WCMP group have weights 2, 2, 3, 5 respectively
(weight ratio 1:1:1.5:2.5) and use 12 entries in the multipath
table to provide ideal fairness. If we change these weights to
1, 1, 2, 3 respectively, we reduce the number of table entries
required from 12 to 7 with small changes to the relative ratios between the weights. This reduction is extremely useful
in implementing weighted hashing as this helps in significantly lowering down the requirement for TCAM entries.
This is important because hardware TCAM entries are used
for managing access control rules, maintaining flow counters
for different kinds of traffic and are always a scarce resource
in commodity switches. In the next section, we present algorithms that aim at reducing the WCMP weights with limited
impact on fairness.
Switches implement ECMP based multipath forwarding by
creating multipath groups which represent an array of “equal
cost” egress ports for a destination prefix. Each egress port
corresponds to one of the multiple paths available to reach
the destination. The switch hashes arriving packet headers
to determine the egress port for each packet in a multipath
group. Hashing on specific fields in the packet header ensures that all packets in the same flow follow the same network path, avoiding packet re-ordering.
To implement weighted hashing, we assign weights to
each egress port in a multipath group. We refer to the array
of egress ports with weights as the WCMP group. Each
WCMP group distributes flows among a set of egress ports in
proportion to the weights of each port. The weight assigned
to an egress port is in turn proportional to the capacity
of the path(s) associated with that egress port. Currently,
many commodity switches offer an OpenFlow compatible
interface with their software development kit (SDK) [6, 18].
This allows us to realize weight assignment by replicating a
port entry in the multipath table in proportion to its weight.
Figure 3 shows the packet processing pipeline for multipath forwarding in a commodity switch. The switch’s multipath table contains two groups. The first four entries in
the table store an ECMP group for traffic destined to prefix
1.1.2.0/24. The next 12 entries in the table store a WCMP
3.2
Weight Reduction Algorithms
We begin by formalizing how WCMP egress port weights
affect network performance. Consider a WCMP group G
4
with P member egress ports.We denote the weights for each
member port in G by the tuple (X1 , X2 , ..XP ), and use the
following definitions:
Algorithm 1 ReduceWcmpGroup(G, θmax ). Returns a
smaller group G0 such that ∆(G, G0) ≤ θmax
1:
2:
3:
λG : maximum traffic demand served by WCMP group G
Bi (G): maximum traffic demand served by the ith member
port in G
G[i].weight: weight of ith member port in G (also denoted
by Xi )
G.size: number of table entries used by G (sum of all Xi )
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
Xi
G[i].weight
= λG · PP
(1)
Bi (G) = λG · PP
k=1 G[k].weight
k=1 Xk
Algorithm 2 ChoosePortToUpdate(G, G0). Returns the index of member port whose weight should be incremented to
result in least maximum oversubscription.
Let G0 denote a new WCMP group reduced from G. It has
the same set of member egress ports as G but with smaller
weights denoted by (Y1 , Y2 , ..YP ). Given a traffic demand
of λG , the fraction of traffic demand to the ith member port,
we compute Bi (G0) by replacing G with G0 in eq. 1. When
Bi (G0) > Bi (G), the ith port of G receives more traffic than
it can serve, becoming oversubscribed. We seek to reduce
the weights in G to obtain G0 while observing a maximum
oversubscription of its member ports, denoted as ∆(G, G0):
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
∆(G, G0) = maxi (Bi (G0)/Bi (G))
PP
G0[i].weight · k=1 G[k].weight
= maxi (
)
PP
G[i].weight · k=1 G0[k].weight
PP
Yi · k=1 Xk
= maxi (
)
PP
Xi · k=1 Yk
(2)
Weight Reduction with an Oversubscription
Limit
Given a WCMP group G with P member ports and a maximum oversubscription limit, denoted by parameter θmax , we
want to find a WCMP group G0 with P member ports where
the member weights (Y1 , Y2 , ..YP ) for G0 are obtained by
solving the following optimization problem.
minimize
P
X
Yi
i=1
subject to ∆(G, G0) ≤ θmax
min oversub = IN F
index = −1
for i = 1 to P do
oversub = (G0[i].weight+1)·G.size
(G0.size+1)·G[i].weight
if min oversub > oversub then
min oversub = oversub
index = i
end if
end for
return index
This is an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) problem in
variables Yi s, known to be NP-complete [9]. Though the optimal solution can be obtained by using well known linear
programming solutions, finding that optimal solution can be
time-intensive, particularly for large topologies. Hence, we
propose an efficient greedy algorithm that gives an approximate solution to the optimization problem in Algorithm 1.
We start by initializing each Yi in G0 to 1. G0 is the
smallest possible WCMP group with the same member ports
as G (Lines 1-3). We then increase the weight of one of
the member ports by 1 by invoking Algorithm 2 and repeat
this process until either: (i) we find weights with maximum
oversubscription less than θmax or, (ii) the size of G0 is equal
to the size of the original group G. In the latter case, we
return the original group G, indicating the algorithm failed
to find a G0 with the specified θmax .
Starting from the WCMP group with the smallest size,
this algorithm greedily searches for the next smaller WCMP
group with the least oversubscription ratio. For a WCMP
group G with P ports and original size W , runtime complexity of the greedy algorithm is O(P · (W − P )). To
compare the results of the greedy algorithm with the optimal solution , we ran Algorithm 1 on more than 30,000 randomly generated WCMP groups and compared the results
with the optimal solution obtained by running the GLPK LP
solver [13]. The greedy solution was sub-optimal for only 34
cases ( 0.1%) and within 1% of optimal in all cases.
While reducing the weights for a WCMP group, we can
optimize for one of two different objectives: (i) maximum
possible reduction in the group size, given a maximum oversubscription limit as the constraint, or (ii) minimizing the
maximum oversubscription with a constraint on the total size
of the group.
3.2.1
for i = 1 to P do
G0[i].weight = 1
end for
while ∆(G, G0) > θmax do
index = ChooseP ortT oU pdate(G, G0)
G0[index].weight = G0[index].weight + 1
if G0.size ≥ G.size then
return G
end if
end while
return G0
(3)
Xi , Yi are +ve integers (1 ≤ i ≤ P )
5
3.2.2
Weight Reduction with a Group Size Limit
Algorithm 3 TableFitting(G, T ). WCMP Weight Reduction
for Table Fitting a single WCMP group G into size T .
Forwarding table entries are a scarce resource and we want
to create a WCMP group that meets the constraint on the
table size. Formally, given a WCMP group G with P member ports and multipath group size T , the weights for WCMP
group G0 can be obtained by solving the following optimization problem:
minimize
subject to
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
∆(G, G0)
P
X
Yi ≤ T
(4)
i=1
Xi , Yi are +ve integers (1 ≤ i ≤ P )
13:
14:
15:
16:
17:
18:
Programming forwarding table entries is a bottleneck for
route updates [11]. Reducing the number of forwarding table
entries has the added benefit of improving routing convergence as it reduces the number of entries to be programmed.
We refer to the above optimization problem as Table Fitting.
This is a Non-linear Integer Optimization problem because
the objective function ∆(G, G0) is a non-linear function of
the variables Yi s, which makes it harder to find an optimal
solution to this problem.We present a greedy algorithm for
the Table Fitting optimization in Algorithm 3.
We begin by initializing G0 to G. Since the final weights
in G0 must be positive integers, ports with unit weight are
counted towards the non reducible size as their weight
cannot be reduced further. If fractional weights were allowed, reducing weights in the same ratio as that between
the size limit T and original size will not result in any oversubscription. However, since weights can only be positive
integers, we round the weights as shown in Lines 14-16 of
Algorithm 3. It is possible that after rounding, the size of the
group exceeds T , since some weights by may be rounded up
to 1. Hence, we repeatedly reduce weights until the size of
the group is less than T . We do not allow zero weights for
egress ports because that may lower the maximum throughput capacity of the original WCMP group. In some cases it
is possible that the size of the reduced group is strictly less
than T , because of rounding down (Line 14). In that case,
we increase the weights of the WCMP group up to the limit
T , in the same manner as in Algorithm 1 to find the set of
weights that offer the minimum ∆(G, G0) (Lines 20-30).
For a WCMP group with size W and P member ports,
the runtime complexity of Algorithm 3 is O(P · (W − T ) +
P 2 ). If high total bandwidth is not a requirement and zero
weights are allowed, we can further optimize this algorithm
by rounding fractional weights to zero and eliminate the
outer while loop, with final runtime complexity as O(P 2 ).
3.2.3
19:
20:
21:
22:
23:
24:
25:
26:
27:
28:
29:
30:
31:
G0 = G
while G0.size > T do
non reducible size = 0
for i = 1 to P do
if G0[i].weight = 1 then
non reducible size+ = G0[i].weight
end if
end for
if non reducible size = P then
break
end if
reducible size)
reduction ratio = (T −non G.size
for i = 1 to P do
G0[i].weight = b(G[i].weight · reduction ratio)c
if G0[i].weight = 0 then
G0[i].weight = 1
end if
end for
end while
remaining size = T − G0.size
min oversub = ∆(G, G0)
G00 = G0
for k = 1 to remaining size do
index = ChooseP ortT oU pdate(G, G0)
G0[index].weight = G0[index].weight + 1
if min oversub > ∆(G, G0) then
G00 = G0
min oversub = ∆(G, G0)
end if
end for
return G00
However, for reducing weights given a limit on the total
table size for H, the exact size limit for individual WCMP
groups is not known. One alternative is to set the size limit
for each group in H in proportion to the ratio between the
total size limit for H and the original size of H and then
run Algorithm 3 independently on each group in H. While
this approach ensures that groups in H fit the table size S,
it does not strive to find the minimum ∆(G, G0) of member
groups that could be achieved by changing the individual
size constraints on each WCMP group in H. For that, we
present Algorithm 4 that achieves weight reduction for a
set of WCMP groups by linearly searching for the lowest
maximum oversubscription limit.
Algorithm 4 shows the pseudo code for weight reduction across groups in H. We begin with a small threshold
for the maximum oversubscription θc , and use it with Algorithm 1 to find smaller WCMP groups for each of the
member groups in H. We sort the groups in H in descending order of their size and begin by reducing weights for
the largest group in H. We repeatedly increase the oversubscription threshold (by a step size ν) for further reduction
Weight Reduction for Multiple WCMP Groups
For reducing weights given a maximum oversubscription
limit for a group for WCMP groups H, we can simply run
Algorithm 1 independently for each WCMP group in H.
6
The striping is imbalanced when N cannot be divided
by K. In particular, one S1 switch may be connected to an
S2 switch with more uplinks than another S1 switch.While
a naı̈ve approach to build fully balanced topologies is to
remove the additional uplinks at a switch, this will lower
the maximum throughput between pairs of switches that can
be connected symmetrically to the upper stage switches.
For example in Figure 4(b), even though S10 and S12 are
asymmetrically connected to the S2 switches, switches S10
and S11 are connected symmetrically and can achieve higher
throughput as compared to the case where the extra links
were removed to build a fully symmetrical topology.
of WCMP groups until their aggregate size in the multipath
table drops below S. Since the algorithm progresses in step
size of ν, there is a trade-off between the accuracy of the
oversubscription limit and the efficiency of the algorithm,
which can be adjusted as desired by changing the value of ν.
Algorithm 4 TableFitting(H, S). WCMP Weight Reduction
for Table Fitting a set of WCMP groups H into size S.
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
4.
θc = 1.002 // θc : enforced oversubscription
ν = 0.001 // ν: step size for increasing the θc
// Sort the groups in H in descending order of size.
H0 = H
while T otalSize({H0}) > S do
for i = 1 ... N umGroups({H}) do
H0[i] = ReduceW cmpGroup(H[i], θc )
if T otalSize({H0}) ≤ S then
return
end if
end for
θc + = ν
end while
return H0
host
host
host
host
host
host
host
(a) Rotation Striping
host
Striping
host
host
host
(b) Group Striping
Striping refers to the distribution of uplinks from lower stage
switches to the switches in the successive stage in a multistage topology. The striping is crucial in determining the
effective capacity for different paths and hence the relative
weights for the different ports in a WCMP group. While
weight reduction algorithms reduce weights for a WCMP
group, the striping determines the original weights in a
WCMP group. Balanced stripings are desirable in data center networks so as to deliver uniform and maximum possible
throughput among all communicating switch pairs. However, maintaining balanced striping is impractical due to its
strict requirement that the number of upper links in a switch
must be an integer multiple of the number of upper layer
switches. It is practically unsustainable due to frequent node
and link failures. In this section, we attempt to identify the
design goals for topology striping and propose striping alternatives that illustrate trade-offs between different goals.
4.1
host
Figure 4: Striping Alternatives
In order to be as close to balanced striping, we distribute
the set of N uplinks from an S1 switch among S2 switches
N
as evenly as possible. We first assign b K
c uplinks to each of
N
c) uplinks at
the K S2 switches and the remaining N - K.(b K
N
the S1 switch are distributed across a set of N - K.(b K
c) S2
switches. This strategy ensures that each S1 switch is connected to an S2 switch with at most 1 extra uplink as compared to other S1 switches connected to the same S2 switch.
Formally we can represent this striping strategy using a connectivity matrix R, where each element Rjk is the number
N
of uplinks connecting S1j to S2k . Let p = b K
c, then
Rjk = p or p + 1,
(5)
The maximum achievable throughput may vary among
different pairs of S1 switches based on the striping. The
highest throughput between a pair of switches is achieved
when each S1 switch has an equal number of uplinks to all
S2 switches. The maximum achievable throughput between
a pair of switches is lower when the pair have asymmetric
striping to the S2 switches. Based on this observation, we
derived two alternative striping options: (i) Rotation Striping and (ii) Group Striping, which illustrate the trade-off
between improving the mean throughput versus improving
the maximum achievable throughput across the different S1
switch pairs.
Striping Alternatives
We use the 2-stage network topology depicted in Figure
1 in describing striping alternatives. The class of 2-stage
Clos networks is characterized by the following parameters,
assuming all physical links have unit capacity:
K: Number of stage-2 (S2) switches.
D: Number of downlinks per S2 switch.
L: Number of stage-1 (S1) switches.
N : Number of uplinks per S1 switch.
7
πp : the number of S2 switches connected to an S1 switch
with p downlinks.
Figure 4(a) depicts a 2-stage Clos topology with 6 S1
switches and 6 S2 switches using rotation striping. For any
pair of S1 switches, there is at least one oversubscribed S2
switch connected asymmetrically to the two S1 switches.
Thus the maximum possible throughput for traffic between
these switches is less than their total uplink bandwidth, even
without competing traffic. The rotation striping can be generated by connecting a switch S1i with a contiguous set of
πp S2 switches with p uplinks each starting from S2i(mod)K ,
and the remaining πp+1 S2 switches with p + 1 uplinks.The
derivations of πp and πp+1 are shown below.
πp+1 : the number of S2 switches connected to an S1 switch
with p + 1 downlinks.
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
17:
18:
19:
20:
21:
22:
23:
24:
25:
Ωp+1 = D − L · p
Ωp = L − Ωp+1
Ω = min(Ωp+1 , Ωp )
π = min(πp , πp+1 )
if Ω = 0 then
Q=1
else
L
c − d L%Ω
Q = bΩ
Ω e
end if
if Ω = Ωp+1 then
Rlk = p for ∀ l < L, k < K
else
Rlk = p + 1 for ∀ l < L, k < K
end if
for i = 0 to Q − 1 do
for l = i · Ω to i · Ω + Ω − 1 do
for k = i · π to i · π + π − 1 do
if Ω = Ωp+1 then
Rlk = p + 1
else
Rlk = p
end if
end for
end for
end for
4.2
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
N −K ·p
πp
=
K − πp+1 = K · (p + 1) − N
(6)
Link Weight Assignment
WCMP is a generic solution that makes no assumption about
the underlying topology for assigning and reducing weights
for links. For arbitrary topologies, the link weights can be
computed by running max-flow min-cut algorithms of polynomial complexity and creating WCMP groups per sourcedestination pair. The weight reduction algorithm proposed in
the section 3 would similarly reduce the number of table entries in such settings. With its efficient algorithms for weight
assignment and weight reduction, WCMP can react quickly
to changes in the topology due to inherent heterogeneity or
failures and reprogram updated WCMP groups in just a few
milliseconds.
In the topology shown in Figure 1, for any switch S1s ,
its traffic flows destined to a remote switch S1d can be distributed among its N uplinks. Given: i) the varying effective capacities and ii) delivering uniform throughput among
flows as the driving objective, more flows should be scheduled to uplinks with higher capacity than those with lower
capacities. Therefore, when installing a WCMP group on
S1s to balance its traffic to S1d among its N uplinks, we
set the weight of each uplink proportional to its effective cap
.
pacity which is either 1 or p+1
Algorithm 6 Generating group striping - Phase II
1:
2:
3:
4:
=
Figure 4(b) depicts the group striping for the same topology. Three pairs of S1 switches have identical uplink distributions and can achieve maximum possible throughput, 80
Gb/s. However, compared to the rotation striping, there are
also more S1 switch pairs with reduced maximum achievable throughput, 60 Gb/s. Rotation striping reduces the variance of network capacity while group striping improves the
probability of achieving ideal capacity among S1 switches.
The algorithm for generating the group striping runs in
two phases as shown in Algorithm 5 and 6. We first create
Q (Q = 3 in Figure 4(b)) sets of S1 switches such that S1
switches within each set can achieve maximum throughput
for a destination S1 switch in the same set. In the second
phase, the algorithm generates the striping for the remainder
of S1 switches. Each of these S1 switches have a unique
connection pattern to the S2 switches.
Algorithm 5 Generating group striping - Phase I
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
πp+1
shif t = 0
for l = Q · Ω to L − 1 do
for of f set = 0 to π − 1 do
k = π · Q + ((of f set + shif t)%(K − Q · π));
if Ω = Ωp+1 then
Rlk = p + 1
else
Rlk = p
end if
end for
shif t+ = N/D;
end for
5.
System Architecture
We base our architecture and implementation for supporting
WCMP around the Onix OpenFlow Controller[22] as shown
in Figure 5. The Network Controller is the central entity
that computes the routes between switches (hosts) and the
8
Upon start-up, the Path Calculator queries the NIB for
the initial topology and computes the routes and next hops.
The Forwarding Manager converts the computed routes and
next hops to flow rules and WCMP groups. Once the weights
are computed, it invokes weight reduction algorithm for different switches in parallel and installs the weights into the
switches. As illustrated in Figure 5, the Path Calculator further receives topology change events from the NIB (link up
/down events), and recomputes next hops upon such events
as link/switch failure or topology expansion. The updated
next hops are then converted to updated WCMP groups to
be installed on individual switches. The Path Calculator and
the Forwarding Manager components together consist of 3K
lines of C++. We use previously developed Onix and OpenFlow extensions for multipath support (OpenFlow 1.1 specification supports multipath groups).
Figure 5: WCMP Software Architecture
weights for distributing the traffic among these routes based
on the latest view of network topology. It also manages the
forwarding table entries in the switches. We assume a reliable control channel between the network controller and
the switches, e.g., a dedicated physical or logical control
network. We implement the Network Controller functionality through three components: Network Information Base
(NIB), Path Calculator and Forwarding Manager.
NIB: This component discovers the network topology by
subscribing to adjacency updates from switches. Switch updates include discovered neighbors and the list of healthy
links connected to each neighbor. The NIB component interacts with the switches to determine the current network
topology graph and provides this information to the path
calculator. The NIB component also caches switch’s flows
and WCMP group tables and is responsible for propagating changes to these tables to switches in case of topology
changes due to failures or planned changes. In our implementation, all communication between NIB and switches is
done using the OpenFlow protocol[27]. An OpenFlow agent
running on each switch receives forwarding updates and accordingly programs the hardware forwarding tables.
Path Calculator: This component uses the network
topology graph provided by the NIB and computes the available paths and their corresponding weights for traffic distribution between any pair of S1 switches. The component is
also responsible for all other routes, e.g., direct routes to
hosts connected to an S1 switch.
Forwarding Manager: This component manages the
flow and WCMP tables. It converts the routes computed
by the path calculator into flow rules, and next hops into
WCMP groups to be installed at the switches. Since there
are only limited hardware entries at each switch, this component also computes reduced weights for links such that
WCMP performance with reduced weights is within tolerable bounds of the performance for the weights computed by
the path calculator component. This optimization could also
be implemented on the switch side.
6.
Failure Handling
WCMP relies on the underlying routing protocol to be notified of switch/link failures and change the weights based
on the updates. As such, WCMP is limited by the reaction
time of the underlying protocol to react to changes in the
topology.When a link failure is reported, the only additional
overhead for WCMP is in recomputing the weights and programming the TCAM entries with the updated weights in
the forwarding table. Since our weight reduction algorithms
scale quadratically with number of ports in a group and are
very fast for switches with port counts upto 96 ports, this
overhead is extremely small.
Our simulations indicate that the weight computation and
reduction algorithms can recompute weights in under 10
milliseconds for topologies with 100,000 servers when notified of a topology update. However, failures like link flapping may indeed result in unnecessary computations. In that
case, WCMP will disable the port from the multipath group
in order to avoid unnecessary weight computations. We also
note that while a series of failures may result in recomputing
(and reducing) weights for WCMP groups at a large number
of switches, in general most failures will only require updating weights for only a small number of WCMP groups at
few switches. The cost of updating weights is incurred only
rarely but once the right weights are installed it results in
significantly improving the fairness for both short and large
flows in the network.
7.
Evaluation
We evaluate WCMP using a prototype implementation and
simulations. The prototype cluster network consists of six
non-blocking 10Gb/s S1 switches interconnected by six nonblocking 10Gb/s S2 switches and 30 hosts with 10G NICs.
Each host is running Linux kernel version 2.6.34 with ECN
enabled in the TCP/IP stack. Our switches support OpenFlow and ECN, marking packets at 160KB for port buffer
occupancy.
9
Oversubscribed
S2
1
1
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.4
CDF
1
CDF
CDF
Figure 6: Testbed topologies (with Group striping) with increasing imbalance for one-to-one traffic pattern
0.4
K = 6, N = 6
K = 6, N = 7
K = 6, N = 8
K = 6, N = 9
0.2
0
0
50
0.2
0
100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Flow Bandwidth (in Mbps)
(a) ECMP Fairness (1-to-1 traffic)
0.4
K = 6, N = 6
K = 6, N = 7
K = 6, N = 8
K = 6, N = 9
0
50
100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Flow Bandwidth (in Mbps)
(b) WCMP Fairness (1-to-1 traffic)
0.2
ECMP(all-to-all)
WCMP(all-to-all)
0
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Flow Bandwidth (in Mbps)
(c) ECMP, WCMP Fairness Comparison (all-to-all
traffic)
Figure 7: Comparing ECMP, WCMP performance on Clos topologies with different imbalance, different traffic patterns
We evaluate TCP performance with ECMP and WCMP
hashing for topologies with different degrees of imbalance
and for different traffic patterns including real data center traffic patterns from [7]. We extended the htsim simulator [19] for MPTCP to support WCMP hashing and evaluate WCMP benefits relative to MPTCP. We also measure the
effectiveness of our weight reduction algorithms and the impact of weight reduction on flow bandwidth fairness. Overall, our results show:
We manually rewire the topology using our group striping
algorithm into the three topologies shown in Figure 6 and
generate traffic between asymmetrically connected switches
S10 and S15 . Each of the nine hosts connected to source
switch S10 transmit data over four parallel TCP connections
to a unique host on destination switch S15 over long flows.
We plot the CDF for the flow bandwidths in Figure 7.
Figure 7(b) shows that WCMP effectively load balances
the traffic such that all flows receive almost the same bandwidth despite the striping imbalance. Bandwidth variance for
ECMP on the other hand increases with the striping imbalance as shown in Figure 7(a). We make the following observations from these CDFs: (1) For ECMP, the number of
slower flows in the network increases with the striping imbalance in the topology. More importantly, for imbalanced
topologies, the minimum ECMP throughput is significantly
smaller than the minimum WCMP throughput, which can
lead to poor performance for applications bottlenecked by
the slowest flow. (2) the variation in the flow bandwidth increases with the imbalance in the topology. WCMP reduces
the variation in flow bandwidth by 25× for the topology
where K=6, N=9. High variations in flow bandwidth make
it harder to identify the right bottlenecks and also limit application performance by introducing unnecessary skew.
• WCMP always outperforms ECMP, reducing the varia-
tion in the flow bandwidths by as much as 25×.
• WCMP complements MPTCP performance and reduces
variation in flow bandwidth by 3× relative to the baseline
case of TCP with ECMP.
• The weight reduction algorithm can reduce the required
WCMP table size by more than half with negligible oversubscription overhead.
7.1
TCP Performance
We begin by evaluating TCP performance with ECMP and
WCMP for different topologies and for different traffic patterns: one-to-one, all-to-all and real data center traffic.
One-to-one Traffic: We first compare the impact of
striping imbalance on TCP flow bandwidth distribution for
ECMP and WCMP hashing. To vary the striping imbalance,
we increase the number of oversubscribed S2 switches, to
which a pair of S1 switches is asymmetrically connected.
All-to-all Traffic: We next compare ECMP and WCMP
hashing for all-to-all communication for the topology shown
in Figure 8(a) and present the results in Figure 7(c). Each
host communicates with hosts on all the remote switches
10
Std. Dev. in flow
completion time (in ms)
K=4, N=7
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1000
10000
100000
1e+06
1e+07
Flow size (in bytes)
(a) Testbed topology for all-to-all and real data center
traffic from [7]
Std. Dev. in flow
completion time (in ms)
(a) ECMP Fairness
K = 8, L = 8, N = 12, D = 12
12000
10000
WCMP
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
1000
10000
100000
1e+06
1e+07
Flow size (in bytes)
(b) Simulated topology using htsim
(b) WCMP Fairness
Figure 8: Evaluation topologies
Figure 9: Comparing ECMP and WCMP performance for data
center traffic measured by Benson et. al. [7]
over long flows. Again, the load balancing is more effective
for WCMP than for ECMP. This graph provides empirical
evidence that the weighted hashing of flows provides fairer
bandwidth distribution relative to ECMP even when the traffic is spread across the entire topology. In this case, WCMP
lowered variation in flow bandwidth by 4× and improved
minimum bandwidth by 2×.
a remote switch. We consider two scenarios (i) all flows
start/stop at the same time, (on-off data center traffic pattern
Figure 10(a)), (ii) flows start at different times, subjected to
varying level of congestion in the network (Figure 10(b)).
We evaluate all 4 possible combinations of TCP, MPTCP
(with 8-subflows per TCP flow) with ECMP and WCMP.
The results in Figure 10(a) and 10(b) show that MPTCP
with WCMP clearly outperforms all other combinations. It
improves the minimum flow bandwidth by more than 25%
and reduces the variance in flow bandwidth by up to 3× over
MPTCP with ECMP. While WCMP with TCP outperforms
ECMP with TCP for the on-off communication pattern, it
has to leverage MPTCP for significant improvement for the
skewed traffic patterns. This is because MPTCP can dynamically adjusts the traffic rates of subflows to avoid hot spots
while WCMP is useful for addressing the bandwidth variation due to structural imbalance in the topology.
Real Data Center Traffic: We also compare ECMP and
WCMP hashing for mapreduce style real data center traffic as measured by Benson et. al. [7]. We generate traffic
between randomly selected inter-switch source-destination
pairs for topology shown in Figure 8(a). The flow sizes and
flow inter-arrival times have a lognormal distribution as described in [7].
Figure 9 shows the standard deviation (std. dev.) in the
completion time of flows as a function of the flow size.
Though both ECMP and WCMP are quite effective for small
flows, for flow sizes greater than 1MB, the variation in the
flow completion times is much more for ECMP compared
to WCMP, even for flows of the same size. Moreover, this
variation increases as the flow size increases.In summary,
for real data center traffic, WCMP reduced the std. dev.
in bandwidth by 5× on average and, more importantly,
13× at 95%-ile relative to ECMP while average bandwidth
improved by 20%.
7.2
ECMP
7.3
Weight Reduction Effectiveness
Next, we evaluate the effectiveness of our weight reduction
algorithms. We analyze two topologies, with the number of
S1 uplinks (N) equal to 96 and number of S2 downlinks
(D) as 32 and other where N = 192 and D = 64. We vary
the number of S1 switches from 5 to 19 and compute the
maximum number of table entries required at an S1 switch.
We run Algorithm 1 to reduce this number with different
oversubscription limits (1.05 and 1.1) and show the results
in Figure 11. Without any weight reduction, the maximum
number of multipath table entries at the switch is >10k for
the case where S1 switches have 192 uplinks, while the size
of TCAM/SRAM on commodity switches is usually only
4K. The reduction algorithm reduces the required multipath
table entries by more than 25% while incurring only 1.05
oversubscription (Figure 11(b)). It can further fit the entire
set of WCMP groups to the table of size 4K at the maximum
MPTCP Performance
We extended the packet level MPTCP simulator, htsim to
support WCMP hashing and evaluate its impact on MPTCP
performance. The simulated topology consists of eight 24port S1 switches (12 uplinks and 12 downlinks) and eight
12-port S2 switches (K=8, L=8, N=12, D=12) as shown in
Figure 8(b). Each S1 switch is also connected to 12 hosts.
We use 1000 byte packets, 1 Gb/s links, 100KB buffers and
100µs as per-hop delay. We use a permutation traffic matrix,
where each host sends data to a randomly chosen host on
11
Multipath Table Entries Used
1
0.8
CDF
0.6
0.4
MPTCP + WCMP
MPTCP + ECMP
TCP + WCMP
TCP + ECMP
0.2
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
Flow Bandwidth (in Mbps)
No oversub
Max Oversub=1.05
Max Oversub=1.1
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
300
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Number of S1 switches (L)
(a) N = 96, D = 32
(a) htsim ON-OFF traffic
1
Multipath Table Entries Used
14000
0.8
CDF
0.6
0.4
MPTCP + WCMP
MPTCP + ECMP
TCP + WCMP
TCP + ECMP
0.2
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
Flow Bandwidth (in Mbps)
No oversub
Max Oversub=1.05
Max Oversub=1.1
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
300
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Number of S1 switches (L)
(b) N = 192, D = 64
(b) htsim skewed traffic
Figure 11: Table entries before and after running Algorithm 1 for
reducing WCMP groups at the switch requiring maximum table entries
Figure 10: Evaluating MPTCP performance with WCMP
oversubscription of only 1.1. We also ran the LP solver for
reducing the size of the WCMP groups at the S1 switch requiring maximum table entries. In all cases, the results from
our weight reduction algorithm were same as the optimal result. Figure 11 further shows that without the reduction algorithm, the maximum number of table entries grows by almost
3× when the switch port counts were doubled. The reduction algorithm significantly slows such growth with limited
impact on the fairness.
7.4
ating weight reduction impact on fairness. We instantiate a
topology with 19 S1 switches with 96 uplinks each, 57 S2
switches with 32 downlinks each and 1824 hosts using htsim (K=57, L=19, N=96, D=32). With group striping for this
topology, we have two groups of six S1 switches, and each
S1 switch in a group has identical striping to the S2 switches.
The remaining seven S1 switches are asymmetrically connected to all the other S1 switches. We run Algorithm 1 with
different oversubscription limits to create WCMP groups
with reduced weights. We generate traffic using a random
permutation traffic matrix, where each host sends data to another host on a remote switch with long flows. Figure 12
shows the results of this experiment. With a oversubscription
limit of 1.05, we achieve a 70% reduction in the maximum
number of multipath table entries required (Figure 11(a))
with very little impact on the fairness. As we increase the
oversubscription limit to 1.1, the fairness reduces further, but
WCMP still outperforms ECMP.
Weight Reduction Impact on Fairness
1
CDF
0.8
0.6
0.4
WCMP(Ideal)
WCMP(1.05)
WCMP(1.1)
ECMP
0.2
0
0
10000
20000
30000
8.
40000
Flow Bandwidth (in Kbps)
Conclusion
Existing techniques for statically distributing traffic across
data center networks evenly hash flows across all paths to a
particular destination. We show how this approach can lead
to significant bandwidth unfairness when the topology is inherently imbalanced or when intermittent failures exacerbate
imbalance. We present WCMP for weighted flow hashing
across the available next-hops to the destination and show
Figure 12: Impact of weight reduction on fairness
Our weight reduction algorithms trade-off achieving ideal
fairness in order to create WCMP groups of smaller size.
Since our evaluation testbed was small and did not require
weight reduction, we simulate a large topology for evalu12
how to deploy our techniques on existing commodity silicon.
Our performance evaluation on an OpenFlow-controlled network testbed shows that WCMP can substantially reduce the
performance difference among flows compared to ECMP,
with the potential to improve application performance and
network diagnosis; and complements dynamic solutions like
MPTCP for better load balancing.
[13] Gnu Linear Programming Kit. http://www.gnu.org/
software/glpk.
[14] A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim,
P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta. VL2: A
Scalable and Flexible Data Center Network. In Proc. of ACM
SIGCOMM, August 2009.
[15] C. Guo, G. Lu, D. Li, H. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Shi, C. Tian,
Y. Zhang, and S. Lu. BCube: A High Performance, Servercentric Network Architecture for Modular Data Centers. In
Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, August 2009.
Acknowledgments
We thank our anonymous reviewers and our shepherd,
Hitesh Ballani, for their feedback and helpful comments.
We also thank the authors of [28] for sharing their htsim
implementation with us.
[16] B. Heller, S. Seetharaman, P. Mahadevan, Y. Yiakoumis,
P. Sharma, S. Banerjee, and N. McKeown. ElasticTree: Saving
Energy In Data Center Networks. In Proc. of Usenix NSDI,
April 2010.
[17] C. Hopps. Analysis of an Equal-Cost Multi-Path Algorithm.
RFC 2992, IETF, November 2000.
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