Lamain A.

Lamain A.
Pilot Tanzania
Introducing computers and Internet in Tanzanian
Secondary Education
A case study
By:
Allard Lamain
Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology
Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management
University of Technology Delft
In collaboration with:
Computer Science Department (CSD)
University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM)
Supervisors:
Prof. Dr. W.Veen
Prof. Dr. G.J. de Vreede
Dr. H. Twaakyondo
Amsterdam 2003
Table of contents
Executive summary ................................................................................................................................4
1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES............................................................................................6
1.1 General background................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Objectives & research questions................................................................................................ 7
1.3 Research design ......................................................................................................................... 9
1.3.1 Case study methodology..................................................................................................9
1.3.2 Data collection ...............................................................................................................10
1.3.3 Data analysis..................................................................................................................12
1.4 Organization of this report....................................................................................................... 14
2. THE WORLD PROGRAM ..............................................................................................................15
2.1 History ..................................................................................................................................... 15
2.2 Achievements .......................................................................................................................... 16
2.3 Approach ................................................................................................................................. 16
2.4 WorLD partnerships ................................................................................................................ 16
3. THE RESEARCH FIELD SETTING...............................................................................................19
3.1 General Information about Tanzania ....................................................................................... 19
3.2 ICT development ..................................................................................................................... 21
3.3 Tanzanian education system.................................................................................................... 22
3.4 Tanzania’s ICT obstacles in Education ................................................................................... 23
4. THE ‘WORLD PILOT’ TANZANIA ..............................................................................................24
4.1 Preparation stage ..................................................................................................................... 24
4.1.1 Computer literacy ..........................................................................................................24
4.1.2 Secondary education method .........................................................................................25
4.1.3 conclusions and implications .........................................................................................26
4.2 Introduction stage .................................................................................................................... 27
4.2.1 WorLD Program stakeholders and opportunities ..........................................................27
4.2.2 The Two ‘WorLD pilot’ Schools...................................................................................31
4.2.3 Participation interest ......................................................................................................32
4.2.4 Computer knowledge of participants.............................................................................33
4.2.5 Description of Sessions..................................................................................................34
4.2.6 conclusions and implications .........................................................................................35
4.3 Running stage .......................................................................................................................... 36
4.3.1 within session analysis: Class attitudes .........................................................................36
4.3.2 cross session analysis: Computer and Internet comprehension .....................................38
4.3.3 cross class analyses........................................................................................................42
4.3.4 Evaluation of the WorLD-pilot sessions........................................................................44
4.3.5 within school analyses: 13 critical issues ......................................................................46
4.3.6 Conclusion .....................................................................................................................51
5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ...........................................................................52
5.1 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 52
5.2 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 56
5.3 Research limitations ................................................................................................................ 57
2
List of tables, charts and figures
Figure 1: research questions and design ......................................................................................... 8
Figure 2: Steps of the WorLD pilot and data collection methods ................................................... 9
Figure 3: Data analysis scheme of the running stage .................................................................... 13
Figure 4: Map of Tanzania ............................................................................................................ 19
Figure 5: Educational structure in Tanzania.................................................................................. 22
Figure 6: cycle of sustainable development causality diagram ..................................................... 28
Figure 7: Computer room StMatthew's Secondary School ........................................................... 31
Figure 8: StMatthew's transportation to CSD................................................................................ 32
Figure 9: students behind beamer.................................................................................................. 35
Figure 10: Janguani Secondary students in computer lab ............................................................. 37
Table 1: Facts about Tanzania ....................................................................................................... 20
Table 2: stakeholders, concerns, actions and opportunities overview........................................... 27
Table 3: Information on schools.................................................................................................... 31
Table 4: information on the 3 classes ............................................................................................ 31
Table 5: main class characteristics ................................................................................................ 36
Table 6: Comprehension difficulty level per class ........................................................................ 38
Table 7: Chat session of a 16-year-old boy ................................................................................... 40
Table 8: Difference in learning and teaching method ................................................................... 42
Chart 1: Telecommunications development Tanzania .................................................................. 21
Chart 2: Attendance of the WorLD pilot ....................................................................................... 37
Chart 3: E-mail account statistics .................................................................................................. 39
Chart 4: Participants Interest on a scale form 0 to 10.................................................................... 41
List of Appendixes
Appendix A: Questionnaires computer knowledge teachers......................................................... 60
Appendix B: THE CLASS SESSIONS LOG ............................................................................... 62
Appendix C: ‘WorLD pilot’ participant computer understanding on a scale from 1 to 10. .......... 64
Appendix D: Sheets of session 1 ................................................................................................... 66
Appendix E: Sheets session 2........................................................................................................ 70
Appendix F: Sheets session 3 ........................................................................................................ 73
Appendix G: Computer, Internet and E-mail Manual for the participants .................................... 74
Appendix H: Sheets session 4 ....................................................................................................... 78
Appendix I: GEO Game example ‘Clues’..................................................................................... 82
Appendix J: GEO Game answer sheet example ............................................................................ 83
Appendix K: e-mail scheme letter from developing countries ...................................................... 84
Appendix L: Post pilot questionnaire for students and teachers.................................................... 85
3
Executive summary
This research presents the findings of a project that "Studied the potential opportunities and
limitations of the WorLD program in two Tanzanian secondary schools”.
The World Links for Development program (WorLD) is a program of the World Bank that connects
and trains teachers and students in developing countries to improve education and employment
opportunities. WorLD has been recognized as one of the most innovative and successful education
programs assisting developing countries in bridging the "digital divide".
This research was carried out in Dar es Salaam and covered a total of six months. A case study
approach was used to investigate “how to introduce the World program in a Tanzanian secondary
school”, with the main objective to identify the critical issues that are to be considered when
introducing the World program in a Tanzanian secondary school. Data collection was multi-method,
involving interviews, class observation, face-to-face feedback during class, questionnaires and
document analyses.
The following became clear:
Computer literacy of the secondary students and teachers proofed to be low especially in the
rural areas.
The current learning and teaching processes are didactic and teacher centered. Students
absorb rather then reflect.
Besides the schools, and the World Bank, the ministry of education, the Tanzanian
government, World Links, local communities and donors are important parties that have to be
taken into account.
Introducing computers and the Internet in Tanzania could provide Tanzania the following
opportunities:
o A cycle of sustainable development
o Economic growth
o Socialization of young people and in targeting youth-at-risk
o The chance to build an own capacity to master and adapt global technologies to local
needs
o To actively take part in the globalization and the rapid technological changes
o Acceleration in urbanization and a greater regional integration
o Domestic structural change and a reduction of aid dependency
Possible negative aspects of the WorLD program:
o Initially favors few schools only, creating digital divide within country itself
o The WorLD program is expensive
o It leaves little room for personalizing the program
o It can mean drastic cultural consequences
o ICT technologies can imply new forms of crime
o Students might be ‘negatively influenced’ when confronted with inappropriate
information found on the Internet.
The participation interest of headmaster and teachers of the participating schools was big.
They fully realized the importance of computers in the developed world, and were very happy
participate in the research.
The participant’s class attitudes when running the pilot exceeded expectations; they showed
respect, had a lot of patience, listened to the instructor and were very motivated.
Interaction of the participants between teacher-students, students-teacher, instructor-teacher,
instructor-student gradually increased as the sessions progressed..
4
The participants had no trouble learning the computer basics; they did have trouble
understanding the physical aspects of the Internet. E-mailing, surfing, MSWord, and chatting
were understood well amongst 50% of the participants.
The overall attitude towards the computer and the Internet of the participants differed per
topic: The Participants clearly showed a lot of interest in e-mailing, but showed less curiosity
towards the history of the computer or learning how to type.
When integrating computers and the Internet into the Tanzanian secondary classroom there is
a shift in teaching and learning methods from teachers centered to students centered, from
learning facts to “learning on how to learn”.
Teaching and learning method adaptation amongst participants was divided. A clear
distinction could be made between adapting students versus non-adapting students.
The language barrier (a lot of what can be found is English) should not be underestimated
when introducing computers and the Internet in Tanzanian secondary schools.
The WorLD pilot was very much appreciated by the participants. The Students, the teachers,
the head of the schools, and even the parents of the students were very enthusiastic about the
WorLD pilot. Both teachers and students clearly indicated that the Pilot had made a
significant impact on their knowledge and their worldviews.
The following critical issues were encountered:
1. Educational paradigm shift
2. Lack of computer education material
3. Lack of National IT policy
4. Lack of reliable electricity
5. Lack of good working computers & technical support
6. Slow to no Internet connection
7. Difficulty completing computer activities within the school's daily schedule
8. Corruption
9. Uncoordinated efforts
10. Teacher shortage
11. Rural VS Urban
12. Internet side effects
13. Financial shortcomings
Finally, a recommendation is made for a more direct, simple, cheaper and structural project for
introducing computers and Internet into the Tanzanian secondary education sector. The project
focuses on basic computer and Internet skills training using the resources available. It is
recommended that such a project is run prior to implementation of the WorLD program, that has the
tendency to become no more then an ordinary computer class, where technology will be used
primarily for computer science projects and for the development of specific computer skills. The
project leaves space for educational adaptation and for adapting global technologies to local needs;
something the WorLD program leaves little room for.
Recommendations are also made for the ministry of culture and education. The current policy
concerning ICT in education is not targeting its goal. The ministry should exercise proactive
leadership and initiate bold steps to implement their articulated vision of ICT in education. Besides
creating a policy the Ministry of education should be actively involved in the implementation, by
attending teacher training session, visiting schools, computer classes, students and teachers, so that it
will be able to evaluate and adapt its ICT policy for secondary education over the years to come.
Questions and comments, please send to: Allard@Lamain.nl
5
1. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
Learning is an overarching issue of any innovation process. As Bengt-Ake Lundvall (1992)
puts it; ...the most fundamental resource in the modern economy is knowledge and,
accordingly, ... the most important process is learning, …learning is predominantly an
interactive and, therefore, a socially embodied process, which cannot be understood without
taking into consideration its institutional and cultural context.
Technologies drastically reformed the education methods over the last years in developed
countries. Students have become information processors; reliable sources of information are
identified, effectively accessed, understood, conceptualized, and communicated to
colleagues1. The students work in teams, and share information across global networks.
These important learning innovations due to a revolution in information and communication
technology (ICT) however have not manifested itself in developing countries, creating a socalled ‘digital divide’.
1.1 General background
Tanzania is working on ‘bridging’ this digital divide; The publication of a ‘Proposal for
Tanzania’s ICT Policy Formulation Framework’ finished in December 2001 by the
eSecretariat2 and the first order draft of the ‘National ICT policy of Tanzania’ published in
may 2002 by the Ministry of Communications and Transport, clearly indicate a booming
elevation of ICT awareness within Tanzania. This raise of awareness has attracted an
astonishing amount of ICT and education related non-profit organizations to Tanzania over
the last years, contributing on bridging the digital divide. Examples of these organizations are
the UNDP3 (Cisco Networking Academy Programme), the IICD4 (Global teenager) and
CICAT5 (Tanzania: Informatics Education and Mathematical Modeling).
The Tanzanian Ministry of Education and Culture has decided to start introducing the
WorLD (World links for development program) program in Tanzania. A program of the
World Bank Institute that focuses on bridging the gap in skills, knowledge, and educational
opportunities between secondary students in industrialized and developing nations, as well as
between rich and poor students within developing countries.
This research presents the findings of a project that "Studied the potential opportunities and
limitations of the WorLD program in two Tanzanian secondary schools”. It aims at
identifying the challenges of implementing the uses of ICT in a developing country’s
education system. Little is known about the obstacles to assessing information and
communication technologies and the diffusion and use of ICTs in developing countries,
particularly in the low-income countries6.
1
Hawkins. Robert. J, Ten Lessons for ICT and Education in the Developing World, 2000
The eSecretariat derives its information from the ethinkTank. The eThinkTank consist of a group of
Tanzanians from various walks of life that discus the ICT situation in Tanzania. For more information see
http://www.Ethinktanktz.org
3
For more information see http://www.undp.org/dpa/frontpagearchive/2002/march/05mar02/
4
http://www.iicd.org/globalteenager/
5
http://www.cicat.tudelft.nl//PenS/index.cfm?PageID=2764
6
UNCSTD (United Nations Commission for Science and Technology Development) 1995
2
6
1.2 Objectives & research questions
Education resources in Tanzania are insufficient, and people are starting to realize that
computers and the Internet could provide the means to improve the quality of education.
Computers and the Internet however are scarcely spread throughout Tanzania and are limited
to major companies, Internet cafes, and some government institutions only. Most Tanzanian
secondary students and teachers have never used a computer. The integration of western
technologies into the Tanzanian education is therefore an interesting but relative unknown
area. This project was carried out to advise and provide information to those planning and
preparing to enter that area; those involved in the integration of ICT in the Tanzanian
Secondary education, in particular the Tanzanian Ministry of Culture and Education and the
World Bank.
In order to obtain the information needed, this project was designed to investigate “how to
introduce the World program in a Tanzanian secondary school”, with the main objective
to identify the critical issues that are to be considered when introducing the World program
in a Tanzanian secondary school. These ‘critical issues’ will serve to clarify the obstacles that
need to be taken when introducing ICT’s in the Tanzanian secondary education sector.
The specific objectives and the research questions derived from the main objective are as
follows:
(i)
To identify the parties involved and to assess their concerns and actions.
What parties are involved, what are their concerns, actions and opportunities?
What is the participation interest of the schools?
What is the participation interest of the teachers?
(ii)
To assess the learning abilities of the participants concerning computers, the
Internet and the projects and to describe the teaching process.
What is the current education and teaching process of the Tanzanian secondary Schools?
What is the difference in teaching and learning methods when implementing the WorLD
pilot?
How do the Participants adapt to the teaching and learning difference?
What is the participant class attitude (attendance, exercises, class participation)?
What is the quality and quantity of interaction with other participants and with the instructor?
How does the World program fit into the education curriculum of the schools participating?
(iii)
To identify the possible opportunities and limitations to be considered when
introducing the World program in Tanzanian secondary schools.
What are the possible opportunities for Tanzania when implementing the WorLD pilot?
What are possible negative aspects when implementing the WorLD program in Tanzania?
What are the educational, organizational, economical and technical constrains?
(iv)
To design an implementation strategy on how to introduce the World program in
the participating schools, educational wise and technical wise.
What is the overall computer literacy of the Tanzanian secondary student, and that of the
participants?
What are the participant’s difficulties when working with computers and the Internet?
What is the participants’ attitude towards technology?
What are the thoughts of the participants on the World Program?
(v)
To provide recommendations for introducing the computers and the Internet in other
Tanzanian secondary schools.
7
The questions stated above can be classified in 3 different categories. Figure 1 shows
what research questions are answered during what stage (The stages are described in the
following paragraph) in order to obtain answers to the main research question being:
What are the critical issues that can be identified during the running of a pilot of the
WorLD program?
Running the WorLD program in Tanzania
What are the critical issues?
Educational
Organizational
Economical
Technical
Preparation stage
Introduction stage
Running stage
What is the overall computer
literacy of the Tanzanian
secondary student?
Who are involved in the
implementation of the
WorLD program? What are
their concerns, actions and
opportunities?
What is the participant class
attitude?
What is the current education
and teaching process of the
Tanzanian secondary
Schools?
What are possible
opportunities for Tanzania
when implementing the
WorLD pilot?
What are possible negative
aspects when implementing
the WorLD pilot in
Tanzania?
What is the participation
interest of the schools?
What is the participation
interest of the teachers?
What is the quality and
quantity of interaction with
other participants and with
the instructor?
What are the participants’
difficulties when working
with computers and the
Internet?
What is the participants’
attitude towards technology?
What are the differences in
teaching and learning
methods when implementing
the WorLD pilot?
How do the participants
adapt to the teaching and
learning difference?
FFFiiiggguuurrreee111:::rrreeessseeeaaarrrccchhhqqquuueeessstttiiiooonnnsssaaannnddddddeeesssiiigggnnn
How does the World program
fit into the education
curriculum of the schools
participating?
What are the thoughts of the
participants on the World
Program?
8
1.3 Research design
This research was carried out in Dar es Salaam, covered a total of six months and consisted
of running a ‘pilot’ of the WorLD program (see chapter 2). Since no preparations were taken
prior to the researcher’s arrival in Dar
es Salaam7, and since the researcher
had little experience with the African
culture and none with Tanzanian
culture the project literally started from
scratch. The researcher had to: “assess
the Tanzanian education system, find
suitable schools, explain the project to
schools, make schedules, design an
education plan, prepare classes, make
handouts and teach” on one hand, and
“do
literature
studies,
create
questionnaires, carry out interviews
and observe” on the other hand.
Due to the size and complexity of the
project, three different stages were
distinguished within the running of the
pilot: the preparation stage, the
introduction stage and the running
stage (see figure 1). The preparation
stage being everything that needs to be
done before a school is approached,
the introduction phase consisting of
approaching the schools to fitting
the program, the running stage FFFiiiggguuurrreee222:::SSSttteeepppsssooofffttthhheeeW
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being the actual ‘teaching’ of the
students and the teachers (students
and teachers are being referred to as; participants). The stages are sequential, meaning that
the second stage needs the first stage and the third stage needs the second stage (see figure 2).
1.3.1 Case study methodology
According to Robson8, case study is an appropriate strategy for answering research questions
which ask how or why and which do not require control over the events. Due to the nature of
this project, a case study approach was used as a guide to this research.
Case study is a method of conducting qualitative research, and while those terms are
sometimes used interchangeably, they are not synonymous. Case study research evolved as a
distinctive approach to scientific inquiry, partly as a reaction to perceived limitations of
quantitative research9.
7
Project initiator and supervisor; Dr. R. Mgaya deceased unexpectedly during the preparation stage in The
Netherlands.
8
Robson, C. Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researchers. London:
Blackwell, 1993.
9
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.); White Plains,
NY: Longman.
9
1.3.2 Data collection
By using a combination of data collection-strategies, different data sources will be available
to validate and crosscheck findings (Patton, 1990)10. Case study data collection was therefore
multi-method, involving interviews, class observation, face-to-face feedback during class,
questionnaires and document analyses. Depending on the stage, one data collection technique
was predominant; the others provided supporting information, as is often the case in case
study methods11.
- Preparation stage:
During the preparation stage a literature study was performed to assess the Tanzanian
education system. Amongst other things, information was sought about the knowledge of
Tanzanian secondary students concerning computers and the Internet. Unfortunately there
was very little information at hand on this specific topic. Short quick interviews were
therefore held with about 30 University students randomly met around campus who had
recently been Secondary School students, and two computer teachers from the Department of
Computer Science. They were asked how much they knew about computers and the Internet
before coming to the UDSM.
For further expansion of knowledge on the Tanzanian secondary education system, a
literature study was conducted on the Tanzanian education culture, primarily focusing on the
teaching methods. Classes were also attended and observed at a secondary school to verify
the readings. Since the researcher was going to teach Tanzanian students him self at a later
point in this project it seemed more than practical. The classes were attended at St
Matthew’s Secondary School (which was later selected for participation).
Dr. JJ Kyaruzi aided in selecting possible schools for participation. He was familiar with
many schools in and around Dar es Salaam. He contacted them by telephone, briefly
explaining my project and asking after their interest.
Also part of the preparation stage was a literature study of Tanzania’s ICT situation, again
primarily focusing on education.
- Introduction stage:
During the Introduction stage, two schools were visited that were selected for possible
participation by the researcher and Mr. JJ Kyaruzi. During a staff meeting the headmaster
and the teachers were explained the project, and interviewed in order to assess their
participation interest. They were also given a written explanation of the research project for
further reflection.
Initially it was the intention to visit more schools in order to broaden the choice, but due to
the limited time span of the project and the fact that the visited schools met the expectations,
the decision was taken to conduct the project with the two schools that were visited so far.
The schools were once again visited to make the final arrangements.
10
11
Patton, M. Q. Qualitative Evaluation Methods. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1990.
Merriam, S. B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education.
10
Teaching the students and teachers computer basics while they have spent many hours
‘surfing the web’ already, or teaching them how to set up an e-mail account while they have
never switched on a computer was of course to be avoided. The preparation stage had shown
that the computer experience strongly differed by school, questionnaires had therefore been
send out to inquire about the computer knowledge and Internet awareness of the participants
as well as their thoughts and expectations on a program such as this one. These
questionnaires were developed with the help of a Tanzanian colleague working at the
Department of Computer Science Mr. H Kimaro.
Making a selection of the students and teachers for participation in the pilot was left to the
schools. The researcher played no role in it and had set no requirements. The school selected
on availability and on a ‘first come first serve’ basis.
In order to create a better representation of the scope of the WorLD program, a literature
study was also conducted during this stage on the main parties involved in a possible
implementation of the WorLD pilot. Their concerns, actions where explored, as well as their
opportunities. Possible negative aspects of such a program where also looked into.
- Running stage:
The running stage was the most substantial part of the pilot. Initially it was the intention to
run the program at the two selected schools. The preparation stage and introduction stage
however, had shown little prospect to do so. After considering all possibilities the least time
consuming and practical alternative was chosen: conducting the classes at the computer lab at
the Department of Computer Science of the UDSM.
For a period of approximately three months, 18 sessions lasting over two hours with three
classes consisting out of a total of 93 participants were conducted. The sessions were
designed, prepared and taught by the researcher, on four occasions assisted by Mr. I Nnafie.
Multiple data collection methods were used during this stage, the most significant one being
observations. Most classes were designed to be project oriented, this created an opportunity
for the researcher to observe as a spectator during the sessions. The researcher used an
observation sheet for each session, observing for motivation, interest, initiatives, participation,
interests and unexpected actions. Since Mr. I Nnafie had assisted four times, he proofread the
observations.
A second data collection method during the running stage was open and short interviews
concerning the sessions; mostly conducted with the teachers, occasionally with a student.
These Interviews were performed immediately after the sessions, digitalized and by chance
proofread by the interviewee for confirmation. The short interviews served as a measurement
for improving the next sessions and to assess the teachers view on how they thought the
session progressed. Teachers and students were asked if they understood well, and what they
would like to learn or understand better.
Since it was the same individual conducting the classes and doing the research, the
opportunity arose to utilize face-to-face feedback from the participants as a helpful data
collection tool. E.g. the reason for some students not comprehending a certain exercise was
asked and worked out into great detail. Explanation methods were then adjusted. This tool
was mainly used to get life feedback during the sessions, which also helped developing the
next session.
11
As creating an e-mail account was part of the program that was developed this tool was used
two ways to collect data: the first one being a check to see how many managed to actually
send an e-mail, the second one by sending Q & A by e-mail. Questions about their view on
technology and their education were asked. As opposed to interviews, the participants were
given time to reflect about the questions asked, the e-mails didn’t have to be send off
immediately. The answers were used to create a view on the participants’ attitude towards
technology.
Finally, questionnaires were handed out to all participants after the completion of all
sessions, for evaluation of the program. The questionnaires were used to gather information
on what the participants liked or disliked about the pilot, what they understood best, and
about their general opinion on the WorLD pilot. Once again, the questionnaires were
developed with help of Mr. H Kimaro. The questionnaires where handed out during the last
session of the pilot, and collected at the schools two weeks later, 64% of the participants
restituted the questionnaire.
1.3.3 Data analysis
The data from the literature studies conducted during the preparation stage was analytically
analyzed and interpreted. A set of assumptions was then made about the computer literacy of
the secondary student, about the Tanzanian education system and the parties involved in the
WorLD program. These assumptions were then compared and reassured with the data from
the interviews and observations. Data from regular Tanzanian class observations was first
analyzed and then compared to the observations made by another researcher. All irrelevant
data (data not contributing to the research questions from the preparation stage) was
temporarily set aside and later analytically analyzed for critical issues.
Data gathered from the closed questions from the questionnaires during the introduction
stage were put into a spreadsheet and statistically analyzed, to learn about the education
method and the computer literacy per selected school. The data from the open questions and
the interviews with headmasters were studied into great depth and helped assess the
participation interests and the WorLD program expectations of the teachers. The two schools
were then cross-analyzed for differences and similarities. Again, all irrelevant data (data not
contributing to the research questions from the introduction stage) was temporarily set aside
and later analytically analyzed for any missed critical issues.
In order to describe the participants’ behavior and learning abilities, data analysis during the
running stage took place as recommended by Eisenhardt12. Starting data analysis with an indepth study of each session, this first step being called "within-case analysis". This entailed
sifting through all the data and observations, discarding whatever was irrelevant and bringing
together what seemed most important of each session. The idea was to allow the most
significant observations to emerge from all data gathered from the class sessions. After
having reduced the data, cross-case analyses of the sessions followed (see figure 3). To
facilitate the cross-session analysis, all sessions were observed and described following the
same format: a brief introduction describing the attendance, a detailed description of the
interaction and participation activities of the students and teachers, a description of their
attitudes in general and towards technology. A description of the participants achievements
and the learning abilities concerning computers, the Internet and the in class student-project,
12
Eisenhardt, K. M., Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 1989
12
and finally a description of any non-anticipated observations that is relevant to the research
was given. As Eisenhardt suggests, such a preliminary analysis is helpful to develop an indepth understanding of each case (session) before moving on to the next level of analysis.
Within session
Cross-class analysis
Cross-School analysis
Explanation building analysis
Session 1
Session 2
Class 1
School 1
Session 3
Class 2
Session 4
Session 5
School 2
Class 3
Session 6
Identifying similarities and differences and retaining similarities to analyze the next step
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The second step of the analysis consisted of a cross-class search for patterns. Using
Eisenhardt (1989) as a base, a methodology was developed to structure this type of analysis:
A cross-class search for patterns was executed along the interaction, attitude and
performance dimension. The classes were then iteratively compared to each other in order to
identify similarities and differences among them, and to get insight on strengths and
weaknesses of the pilot (see Figure 3 for an illustration of the cross-case analysis logic).
The third step of the analysis consists of a cross-school search for patterns that helped
identify any other critical issues concerning the running of the pilot. Cross-school analysis
was also done on the subject of the preparation- and introduction stage in order to identify
comparable parties, their actions, their decisions and their steps.
To obtain even more meaning from the data, a fourth level of analysis was put in place: an
"explanation building" analysis was performed. This mode of analysis consists of explaining
a phenomenon by stipulating a set of possible causal links about it (Yin, 1994).13 Yin
suggests to begin such an analysis by taking the data collected from a first case to build a
logical sequence of events explaining the case outcomes. The hypothesized set of events is
then verified in a second case. If it is confirmed, the researcher proceeds with a third case,
and so on and so forth. If at any point in the process the hypothesized explanation does not
hold, an alternative explanation has to be developed and verified again until one holds with
all the cases. The fourth level of analysis will be performed along the sessions dimension, the
class dimension and the schools dimension.
13
Yin, R. K. Case study research: design and methods (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994.
13
After the fourth level of analysis, the ‘explanation building analysis’ a last data analysis step
was put in place, the so-called ‘post-relevance check’. The data that was not considered
relevant in the first step was reviewed and re-checked for any missed critical issues, and to
ensure no valuable data had gone to waste. The post relevance check was also used as a
validation tool since it strengthened any theories, explanations and findings.
1.4 Organization of this report
WorLD program’s History, achievements, approach and its partners will be portrayed in
chapter two for those unfamiliar with the program. Tanzania will be described in chapter 3
including the education system and the current ICT situation. The quest for information about
the average computer knowledge of the Tanzanian secondary student will be described
hereafter in chapter 4 followed by the current teaching and learning methods. All of
WorLD’s program stakeholders will then be portrayed together with their opportunities and
some possible negative aspects of the WorLD program. The Participating schools will then
be introduced, followed by the teachers’ participation interest, and computer knowledge. The
computers knowledge of the participating students can also be found in this chapter. An
explanation of the sessions of the WorLD pilot is then given, before describing the
participants’ attitudes during these sessions. Their computer learning skills are then analyzed
and described in paragraph 4.3 together with an overview of the differences in teaching and
learning methods and the participants’ adaptation skills concerning this matter. The
participants’ opinions on the WorLD pilot can also be found in this chapter. Before
concluding this chapter a description of the critical issues encountered during the running of
the pilot. Recommendations and a conclusion can be found in chapter 5, the final chapter.
The research questions being discussed can always be found at the left hand side of the page.
14
2. THE WORLD PROGRAM
The World Links for Development (WorLD) program provides a variety of services in
developing countries related to the use of the Internet and communication technologies in
education and for community and youth development. WorLD provides sustainable
solutions for mobilizing the equipment, training, educational resources and school-to-school,
NGO and public- private sector partnerships required to bring students in developing
countries online and into the global community.14
2.1 History
The World Links for Development program (WorLD) began in mid-1997 as a five-year pilot
initiative of Mr. James D. Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank, to help bring the
developing world into the information age through its future leaders — students — and to
build cultural awareness among them in the face of an ever more global economy and
society.
Uganda was the first pilot country for the WorLD program. The project began in 1996 with
the School-to-School Initiative (STSI), focusing primarily on helping students develop basic
computer skills (word processing, spreadsheets, etc.) and secondarily on communication via
the Internet. Integrating ICT into teaching content was not the objective of this project. Under
the pilot, three senior secondary schools in Kampala (about 930 students affected) received
the hardware and software necessary for training (1-2 hours a week) and establishing
connections. In 1998, the project expanded to 10 schools and trained 55 teachers and
administrators. Attempts were made to engage in collaborative distance learning activities
with U.S. schools, but none were fully realized.15 From these humble beginnings as a pilot
activity WorLD has expanded its teacher training and professional development activities to
reach over 175,000 students and teachers in over 26 developing countries including:
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, the
Gambia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Laos, Mauritania, Mozambique, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam, West Bank / Gaza
and Zimbabwe.
To meet continued and growing demand from governments and communities all over the
developing world beyond the pilot phase of the project, a separate non-profit, nongovernment organization (NGO) called "World Links" was spun-out of the World Bank
Institute in 2000 to prepare and to carry out the mandate of the program once the pilot phase
of the project ended in 2002. Working in coordination with the WorLD program in the World
Bank Institute, all teachers training and professional activities of the WorLD program are
handled by the World Links NGO (Non Governmental Organization).16
14
For more information see http://www.worldbank.org/worldlinks/english/
SRI International, Uganda country report, 1999-2000
16
For more information http://www.world-links.org/english
15
15
2.2 Achievements
WorLD has been recognized as one of the most innovative and successful education
programs assisting developing countries in bridging the "digital divide". The program was
recently voted by the World Economic Forum's membership as the #1 educational program
bridging the global digital divide, out of 75 programs evaluated, and was a finalist in the
2001 Stockholm Challenge, sponsored by the King of Sweden, as one of the world's most
innovative information technology programs.17
An independent study assessment of the impact of the WorLD program done by SRI
International18 showed that a large majority of the teachers felt that working on computers in
the WorLD program had an impact on a range of student skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
Teachers also had positive assessments about the impact of computers on increasing
students’ general knowledge and information- reasoning and communication skills.
Participation in the WorLD program had also resulted in the acquisition of new skills and
attitudes in both technology and pedagogy.
Teachers reported that the Program had the greatest impact on their skills to design and
prepare projects for students, learn more about their subject matter, and have students work
in groups. The report also states that the World program improved teachers’ attitudes about
both technology and their own teaching. In addition, approximately half of all WorLD
teachers felt that the Program had increased the amount of collaboration among teachers in
their school on the design of projects for their students. Overall, the program had created new
opportunities for developing countries to participate in and benefit from the global
knowledge-based economy.
2.3 Approach
A country's participation begins with an invitation from its Ministry of Education. Within
each country WorLD works with government, business, and local community groups to
develop an implementation plan. Schools are then selected in accordance with various
criteria, including: existing school and telecommunications infrastructure; opportunities for
long-term self-sustainability, social and economic equity; the interest of the local
communities; and the capacity to innovate. With the help of its partners, World starts by
providing computers, linking classrooms to the Internet, working with local teachers to create
localized learning programs, and fostering peer-to-peer collaboration projects. This strategy
creates school-based computer centers that will evolve as a self-sufficient resource for the
surrounding community.
2.4 WorLD partnerships
WorLD pursues strategic partnerships, both public and private, to bring the maximum level
of technological and educational resources to teachers and students and the lowest cost. Two
of the most important strategic partners are Schools Online and iEARN, the International
Education & Resource Network, which together with World Links comprise the Alliance
for Global Learning.19 Within the alliance each of the partners fulfill a specific role:
17
For more information http://www.challenge.stockholm.se
SRI, Accomplishments and Challenges Monitoring and Evaluation Annual Report, 1999-2000
19
For more information see http://www.global-learning.org/en/index.php3
18
16
Schools Online channels the entrepreneurial energy and engineering talent of the high-tech
industry to develop solutions that meet the needs of schools in the developing world. World
Links provides multi-year teacher development programs that support the integration of
educational technology into the curriculum. I*EARN answers the question "Now what?"
when a classroom has been brought online. The heart of the program is bringing students and
teachers from around the world together through collaborative projects that make a
meaningful difference in the world.
IEARN20 (International Education and Resource Network) is a non profit
organization made up of over 4,000 schools in 92 countries, that
empowers teachers and young people to work together online at very low cost through a
global telecommunications network. IEARN’s objective is for students to develop the habit
of getting involved in community issues thus becoming better equipped for the future.
Since1988, iEARN has pioneered on-line school linkage to enable students to engage in
meaningful educational projects with peers around the corner and throughout the world.
IEARN is:
A safe and structured environment in which you can communicate
A community of teachers and learners
A known audience for writing and reading purposes
An opportunity to apply knowledge in service-learning projects
An inclusive and culturally diverse community
The projects enable students to develop:
Research and critical thinking skills
Experience with new technologies
Cultural awareness
The habit of getting involved in community issues.
Schools online 21: Schools Online is a public benefit organization whose
mission is to help students use the communication and information
resources of the Internet for learning and cross-cultural dialogue. They
accomplish this by providing appropriate technology and Internet access, developing locallydriven and sustainable Internet Learning Centers, facilitating teacher professional
development, cultivating online cross-cultural projects, and sharing our knowledge and
experience. Since 1996, over 5,700 under-served schools in the US and 392 schools in 32
other countries have received equipment and/or support necessary to get online.
World Links22: World Links is a sister organization of the WorLD program,
it connects and trains teachers and kids in developing countries to improve
education and employment opportunities. World Links offers a set of
education technology-related services; these services range from basic school connectivity
solutions to teacher professional development and training programs for both policy-makers
and local communities interested in launching educational technology initiatives.23 The five
20
For more information http://www.iearn.org/
For more information see http://www.schoolsonline.org/
22
For more information see http://www.world-links.org/english/html/about.html
23
World links folder, opening a world of learning… 2002
21
17
main services are connecting schools, teacher training, community learning centers,
monitoring and evaluation and since recently, consulting.
Impacts of the WorLD Links:
- Improved student academic performance
- Increased teacher mastery of subject matter
- Enhanced information- reasoning and communication skills among students
- Development of essential technological skills demanded in the labor market
- Created new opportunities for developing countries to participate in and benefit from the
global knowledge-based economy
18
3. THE RESEARCH FIELD SETTING
3.1 General Information about Tanzania
The United Republic of Tanzania is composed of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar, which merged in 1964 shortly after independence. From
the 1970s up to 1995, Tanzania was a one party state with an
inward looking development strategy and socialist experiments for
rural development, especially in the 1970s. Tanzania covers an
area of 945,000 square km. The largest city and economic power
hub is Dar es Salaam, although officially the government resides in
Dodoma. Swahili
is the national and
official language. English as a second
official language is widely spoken especially
in major cities, to a lesser extend in rural
areas. Arabic is spoken in Zanzibar and
Pemba, to a lesser extent though. Tribal
languages are widely spoken as well. The
main religions are Christianity and Islam.
Minority religions are Buddhism, Hinduism
and traditional religions. The islands of
Zanzibar and Pemba are predominantly
Muslims (98%). Population in Tanzania is
estimated at more than 36 million in 2001
with population growth still at 2.6 percent
per year. Tanzania is one of the least
urbanized countries in Africa. 75 to 80
percent of the population lives in rural areas.
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in
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the world with a per capita gross national income
of US$ 280 (although estimates between $220 and $500 can be found). The economic growth
rate has been around 5 percent during the last years. The main economic activity is
agriculture, which still accounts for almost half of the GDP, but for 80% of the labor force
and 85% of exports. Industry is underdeveloped with a share of only 15% of the GDP and
20% of the labor force. Currently there are two major development statements by the
government. The first is the 1999 Tanzania Development Vision 2025. It sketches the way
for Tanzania to become a middle-income country by 2025. To achieve this objective the
document calls for high quality livelihood, good governance and the rule of law, and a strong
and competitive economy. The second is the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, which
comprises the national guidelines that direct government activities.
19
The table below provides some facts about Tanzania related to international development,
and compares them with similar facts about South Africa and The Netherlands 24.
Topic
Tanzania
South África
The Netherlands
Area
(Thousands of km2):
945
1219
41.5
Population (millions):
36.0 (2001)
43 (2001)
15.864
Population under 5
(Thousands)
5974
7342
937
Population under 18
(thousands)
18258
16890
3455
Annual no. of births
(thousands)
1379
899
179
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000
live births)
104
18.9
5
Under 5 mortality rate (per
1,000 live births)
165
63
5
41 (1960), 52.3 (2001)
45.4 (2001)
78.3 (2001)
38 (2001)
35 (2001)
466.45 (2001)
US$280 (2000)
US$9400 (2001)
US$25,140 (2002)
Life expectancy at birth:
Population density (per km2):
Gross national income (per
capita):
Structure of GDP (%–2000):
Agricultural
45
3
3.3
Industry
15
31
26.3
40
66
70.4
Human development index
(HDI) ranking:
140 of 162 countries
(1999)
n.a
th
8 (1999)
Gender-related development
index (GDI) ranking:
th
124 of 146 countries
(1999)
rd
3 (1999)
n.a.
Services
th
Adult literacy rate (%-1999):
Total
Men
Women
75
84
66
n.a.
99
99
99
Population using improved drinking water sources (%-2000):
Total
Urban
Rural
68
90
57
n.a.
100
100
100
TTTaaabbbllleee111:::FFFaaaccctttsssaaabbbooouuutttTTTaaannnzzzaaannniiiaaa
24
UNICEF, The State of the World's Children, 2001
UNDP, Human Development Report, 2001
UNFPA, The State of World Population, 2001
CIA World Fact book, July 1, 2001
20
3.2 ICT development
Tanzania boarded on the development of ICT about five years ago. Initiatives to develop ICT
were being carried out by individual, public and private entities making it difficult to
optimize utilization of national insufficient resources. However, Tanzania did realize some
achievements which created the need for more concerted efforts for the establishment and
development of a fully fledged national ICT Policy that will be responsible for the
coordination of all matters related to ICT in the country. In April 2002, the Government
appointed the Ministry of Communications and Transport (MCT) as a National ICT
Coordinator and a Focal Point for all ICT related issues. MCT presented its first order draft of
the National ICT policy of Tanzania in may 2002. The ICT Policy is a reflection of national
goals, objectives and aspirations as expressed in Vision 2025, setting out digital opportunities
that Tanzania can exploit towards meeting the vision. The National ICT Policy spells out the
priority goals and objectives that will integrate ICT in improving living standards and quality of
life of Tanzanians, creating a more informed society, while leading to their wider participation in
the Global Information Society. The time horizon of this policy is set at five years, with policy
reviews carried out annually.
main lines
cellular
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Telephony- Currently there are 6 fixed
telephone lines per 1000 people in the country
and the number of mobile phone subscribers
stands at 81 per 10,000 inhabitants25 (see chart
1). In contrast, the City of Dar es Salaam has 5
fixed lines and 10 mobile phone subscribers
per 100 people. At this time, there are two
fixed phone line operators, and five Cellular
phone networks in Tanzania: Celtel, Vodacom,
Mobitel, TriTel and Zantel which is restricted
to Zanzibar only.
C
C
m
m
m
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mm
muuunnniiicccaaatttiiiooonnnsssdddeeevvveeelllooopppm
meeennntttTTTaaannnzzzaaannniiiaaa
Internet - The Tanzania Communications Commission (TCC) has licensed six companies to
provide public data communication services including Internet bandwidth. However, there is no
national Internet Exchange Point (IXP), which means that Tanzania’s local traffic is routed via
international routes (i.e. Norway and the United States). Therefore, the limited international
Internet bandwidth is scarce and extremely expensive. There are presently sixteen licensed ISPs
in Tanzania providing between 10,000 and 15,000 dial-up accounts in the country (80% Dar es
Salaam) with many more users via Company and Government LANS and Internet cafés.
Tanzania has the most internet café’s of the sub Saharan countries, with estimates around 1000
Cafés, most of them located in Dar es Salaam.
25
ITU (1998a): World Telecommunication Development Report 1998
National ICT policy of Tanzania, First order draft, May 2002
21
3.3 Tanzanian education system
Education in Tanzania is divided into primary and secondary systems, which together last for
13 years. Primary grades are called standards and secondary grades are called forms. The
language of instruction in primary schools is Swahili; in secondary schools it is English.
Primary education, which lasts for seven years, is free and compulsory. Students must write a
national examination at the end of primary schooling. Many children leave school at this
point and go to work.
Secondary school is not free; students must pay fees to attend. Secondary education is subdivided into Ordinary Level (Forms 1 to 4) and Advanced Level (Forms 5 and 6). The
Ordinary Level will last for four years while Advanced Level will last for two years. Students
who complete Ordinary Level secondary education (they receive the Certificate of Secondary
Education) can go on to the next stage of Advanced Level secondary education, vocational
training, professional training or the labor market, while those who complete Advanced
Level secondary education (they receive the Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education)
join either tertiary and higher education and training institutions or join the labor market (see
figure 5).
26
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Enrolment
There were 4.8 million primary school age children in 1990 and 6.1 million in 1996 and the
number of children enrolled in primary school in 1996 constituted 66% of the total number of
primary school aged children. This is a decline of roughly 4% since 1990. For both years the
percentage of school age boys and girls enrolled is roughly the same. However, as these are
the gross enrollment figures, the number of people enrolled includes those above primary
school age, and therefore there are actually more than 34% of primary school aged children
out of school. The actual amount of primary school age children enrolled in primary school is
48%. 96% of the children enrolled in 1995 reached Grade 2, and 81% reached grade 527.
26
27
VET in Tanzania – The reform experiences 1990 – 1999, p 9
Source UNESCO World Education Report 2000
22
The number of children enrolled in secondary school in 1996 constituted 6% of the total
number of secondary school aged children. There were 3.3 million secondary school age
children in 1990 and 4 million in 1996, and the figures show that 6% of boys, and 5% of girls
were enrolled. Just 0.057% of the population is enrolled in tertiary education.
Figures for 2001 show the official student: teacher ratio to be 1:36 in primary schools and
1:17 in secondary schools. Teachers make up 4.4% of the non-agricultural labor force. 44%
of primary teachers and 26% of secondary teachers are women.28
3.4 Tanzania’s ICT obstacles in Education
From the first order draft of the ‘National ICT policy of Tanzania29’ we can derive the
following major problems concerning ICT in the educational institutions in Tanzania:
There is a major computer shortage in Tanzanian educational institutions. Currently
very few pre-college facilities (Primary and Secondary Schools and Teacher’s Training
Colleges) have computer laboratories. If computers at all present, they are likely to be of
very poor quality or in deteriorating state and very few of them are not likely to be
connected to the Internet. If connected, Internet access bandwidth is limited ranging from
32 kbps to 512 kbps.
There is a major shortage of computer training programs. There is an official Secondary
School Computer Studies Syllabus for Forms I – IV. However, it is obsolete since it was
developed in 1996 and issued in 1997 and only very few students have taken these
courses so far. Furthermore most opportunities for training are limited to urban centers.
Coverage of the network infrastructure is still limited to urban areas and thus lack of the
telecommunications infrastructure in the rural areas remains a basic impediment to the
provision of implementing ICT in secondary education.
28
National ICT Policy of Tanzania, First order draft, May 2002
23
4. THE ‘WORLD PILOT’ TANZANIA
4.1 Preparation stage
In order to bridge the discrepancy between expectations and reality to suit the preparation
needs of the WorLD pilot, the computer literacy of the Tanzanian Secondary student was
assessed. Hereafter, the Tanzanian teaching and learning process of the secondary schools
was explored. The results are described in the paragraphs below.
4.1.1 Computer literacy
“What is the
overall
computer
literacy of the
Tanzanian
secondary
student?”
The main problem encountered during the preparation stage was getting to know the
computer literacy level of the average Tanzanian Secondary School student in order to start
developing a computer course as part of the WorLD Pilot. Before developing such a program
one must know where to start and at what speed to teach. Due to the limited time span, it was
necessary to get a head start in developing such a program.
Information on this issue was scarce, one document was found stating that 2% of all schools
in Tanzania have PC’s on site30. To ensure this, 30 former Secondary School students (now
studying at the UDSM) were interviewed as well as two employees from the Department of
Computer Science that conducted computer classes at an academic level. The students were
asked how much computer knowledge they acquired during their Secondary School years
and if any, where they had obtained this knowledge. The teachers were asked about their
experiences with teaching newly arrived students computer classes.
Interviewing the teachers was quite interesting since they were able to draw an accurate
picture of what their classes looked like:
Mr. Ntelya teachers at CSD said: “Most students in my class knew nothing about computers
at the start of the course. The first couple of lessons were a mess; from students moving the
mouse in the air, to students staring at the monitor the entire
period. Some students are not suitable for working with A recent study done by Mr. I.
Nnafie on Internet cafés in Dar
computers at all. They just won’t touch the keyboard or the es Salaam showed that out of
mouse. The one that are suitable learn quickly once they master 346 Internet users 7.3% of the
users were primary school
the basics”.
Mr. Hashim teacher at CSD said that: “Some students are even students and 55.5% secondary
afraid to touch the computer, they heard it is a very expensive school students out of which
30.2% O-level and 20.3% Apiece of equipment and are scared of doing something incorrect level students.
and ending up paying for it. You have to start by teaching them
that the computer is unbreakable”.
The students interviewed confirmed the teacher’s outcomes; it became clear that only 6 out
of 30 students interviewed had some computer experience. 5 of those 6 students came from
an urban area and 2 of them had experienced the Internet before coming to the UDSM. The
computer experience was obtained at school on mostly donated computers, the Internet
experience at Internet café’s. Bearing in mind the fact that only 0.057% of the Tanzanian
population is enrolled in tertiary education (see research field setting), the students
30
SADC e-Readiness Task Force. 2002. SADC e-Readiness Review and Strategy - Recommendations of the
SADC e-Readiness Task Force
24
interviewed were privileged. Considering the above, it was safe to assume that most
secondary students participating in the WorLD pilot would have no- to very little computer
experience.
4.1.2 Secondary education method
“What is the
current
education
and teaching
process of the
Tanzanian
secondary
Schools?”
Whilst sitting in the back of a couple of classes at St Matthew’s Secondary School,
interesting observations were made concerning their teaching and learning methods. The
class structure consisted of a teacher lecturing and students not contributing a great deal. The
classes counted between 30 and 40 students, and although the teaching language was English
(signs were seen al over school premises saying; “English Only”) the teachers occasionally
jumped to their native language –Swahili- for a quick explanation. Most students had a cahier
in which they copied facts written on the chalkboard by the teacher. The teacher was not
using any reference material, he had clearly been teaching the same thing for many years.
Occasionally he would ask a rhetorical question to keep the students attention: “Wind and
water are the main agents of soil erosion. What are the main agents of soil erosion?” the
students then repeated after him “wind and water”. The students were not given much
opportunity to raise a point in class, and very seldom were they asked if they understood the
topics. The students were absorbing, rather than reflecting.
If the class observations made at StMatthew’s Secondary School are compared with the
observation Makau31 made at six Kenyan schools, the following learning and teaching
processes are identifiable:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In most lessons the approach was didactic and teacher-centered.
Most lessons were focused on providing facts, and very little on “learning how to learn”.
In the majority of the lessons, there was little peer learning.
Virtually no teaching aids, except from the blackboard or textbook, were ever used.
The most common teaching strategies were lectures accompanied by note giving,
question and answer sessions, demonstrations and explanations by the teacher.
6. Many teachers did not set a high premium on evaluating the learning-taking place during
their lessons. There were few instances of homework being given.
7. In most subjects the content was approached in a manner, which isolated the skills and
knowledge from real life. There was little drawing on the experience and environment of
the students.
8. In the majority of lessons students sat totally passively throughout the lesson receiving
the “words of wisdom” from the teacher.
9. There were very few instances of teachers using a sequenced problem-solving approach
to the learning of new concepts or attributes. Students were rarely asked to give their
views or to challenge a problem.
10. Efficient use of the time available to the teacher was rare.
31
B.M. Makau, Computers in Kenya’s secondary Schools, Case study of an innovation in education, 1990
25
4.1.3 conclusions and implications
During the preparation stage the following became clear:
1. The students that where going to participate would probable have very little to no
experience with computers and the Internet. Worst-case scenario being, that most
participants would not even dare to touch the computer.
2. The students and teachers would have to adapt to an entire different teaching and
learning style.
The implications of these findings for the next two stages were as follows:
1. The education material had to be suitable for those not familiar with computers at all.
2. The education material would have to slowly address the educational difference.
3. The students and teachers to be chosen had to show some initiative, and not be
frightened by a computer.
26
4.2 Introduction stage
This paragraph introduces the main stakeholders and the participating schools. An overview
of the teaching topics is also given after having identified the participation interest of the
schools and teachers.
4.2.1 WorLD Program stakeholders and opportunities
The main stakeholders identified by document analysis involved in the WorLD program are
listed in table 2, as well as their identified concerns, actions and their opportunities. The
opportunities are hereafter discussed in greater detail for the Tanzanian government and the
secondary schools.
“Who are
involved in the
implementation
of the WorLD
program? What
are their
concerns,
actions and
opportunities?”
Stakeholder
Tanzanian government
Actions/commitments
-Regulate ICT policy
-Increase investment
in education sector
-Fight corruption
Opportunities
-Economic growth
-Reduction of aid dependency
-HIV/AIDS and malaria reduction
-Own capacity to master and adapt
global technologies to local needs
-Regulate education
policy
-Increase role of
private sector
-Identify suitable
schools
-Improvement of education sector
-Active role in rapid technical
changes
-Increase of Swahili websites
-Bigger base for a national IXP
Provide Tanzania onto a
path of stable,
sustainable, and
equitable growth
Integrate information
technology into the
classroom, expand
distance-learning
opportunities, enhance
cultural understanding
across nations, and build
broad support for
economic and social
development.
Provide/receive proper
education
-Good teaching
environment
-Be prepared for future
-Coordinate efforts
- Manage loans and
credits
- Finance projects
-Provide computers
-Provide connection
-Provide computer
trainers
-Provide technical
support
-Fostering peer-to-peer
collaboration projects
- Create localized
learning programs
-Change teaching and
learning methods
- Change teaching
curriculum
- Reeducate teachers
- Endeavor cultural
change
‘Americanization’
- Continuity in development
assistance
Local communities
Create a healthy living
environment
Endeavor cultural
change
‘Americanization’
Donors/Investors
Create a healthy living
environment
- Donate money,
services, goods
Ministry of education and
culture
World Bank
WorLD Links
Secondary Schools
- Teachers
- Students
Concerns
Reduce poverty and
securing high quality
livelihood, good
governance and the rule
of law, and a strong and
competitive economy
Create equity; improve
quality, access to, costeffectiveness and
internal efficiency in
primary-, secondaryand tertiary education.
TTTaaabbbllleee222:::ssstttaaakkkeeehhhooollldddeeerrrsss,,,cccooonnnccceeerrrnnnsss,,,aaaccctttiiiooonnnsssaaannndddoooppppppooorrrtttuuunnniiitttiiieeesssooovvveeerrrvvviiieeew
w
w
-Expansion
community
-Continuity
of
WorLD
online-
-Acquire computer skills
-Increase of teaching/learning
resources
-No longer isolated
-Increase in learning and teaching
motivation
-Collaboration increase between
schools/teachers/students
-Increase in information- reasoning
and communication skills
-School-based computer centers
-Benefit from the global
knowledge-based economy
- Increase computer literacy
- Increase of PR
- Feel good factor
27
Opportunities: Tanzanian government
Introducing computers and Internet in Tanzania can start a cycle of sustainable
“What are
development within Tanzania (see figure 6). The WorLD program can therefore provide
possible
Tanzania with a variety of opportunities that will not only support development within the
opportunities
of the WorLD education sector; it has potential to eventually drastically improve the Tanzanian living
pilot?”
standard. Implementing the WorLD program means investing in secondary education as
well as investing in integration of ICT into the community. Note however that these
opportunities are mostly created because of the introduction of computers and Internet in
Secondary education in Tanzania. It does not necessarily have to be the WorLD program.
+
Tanzanian
Living
standard
Economic
growth
+
Amount of
job-oriented
skills
+
Improvement
secondary
education
+
Amount of
aid
dependency
+
Amount
drug abuse
+
Increase of
cultural
awareness and
socialization
+
Internet
crime
Base for a
national IXP
+
Amount
of Swahili
websites
Amount of
computers and
Internet
connections in
Tanzania
+
+
Amount of
HIV/Aids
Malaria
+
+
_
+
+
Adapting
global
technologies
to local needs
+
Integration of
ICT into the
community
+
_
Cultural
consequences
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Investing in education
One of the main reasons for investing in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa is
because of its crucial role in economic growth32. Secondary education provides countries
with critical higher-level skills and knowledge needed for economic growth, including
further learning and training of professionals such as technicians, scientists, and
entrepreneurs. Secondly, secondary education plays a crucial role in the socialization of
young people and in targeting youth-at-risk33. The age group in secondary education
demonstrates the greatest capacity to change behavior. Secondary education plays a decisive
role in fostering positive social attitudes, civic values, and in fighting against drug abuse and
diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria. Another major reason for investing in secondary
education is because of the considerable private returns34. It provides the opportunity to
32
Fouché, Ben. "Towards the Development of an Equitable African Information Society." African Development
Review 10 (June/July). 1998.
33
UNAIDS. 2000. HIV/AIDS and the Education Sector. Programme Coordinating Board. 11 April 2000,
Geneva
34
Lewin, Keith and Francoise Caillods. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies
for Sustainable Growth. UNESCO/IIEP, 2001Paris
28
acquire attitudes, skills, and competencies that are unlikely to be developed over the primary
grades. These skills enable youth to develop job-oriented skills, participate fully in their
society, take control of their own lives, and continue learning. A fourth reason is the rapidly
increasing demand for secondary education, a growing number of primary graduates in SubSaharan Africa wish to continue to secondary schools35. Investing means creating more
learning spaces.
Investing in integration of ICT into the community
Besides the opportunities created by investing in education, the integration of computers and
the Internet in the secondary education curriculum, create opportunities to cope with the
increasing importance of ICT in the 21st century. Secondary schools provide an excellent
inlet for the introduction of computers and Internet into the Tanzanian community. The
WorLD program targets secondary schools, therefore providing an opportunity for Tanzania
to build an own capacity to master and adapt global technologies to local needs. By allowing
the ICT’s to grow with the oncoming generation, the computer and Internet will be given
room to develop and adapt within Tanzania’s culture. Once the first WorLD pilot Secondary
students graduate and grow old, a solid computer literacy base will be starting to develop
within Tanzania, allowing the society to actively take part in the globalization and the rapid
technological changes. An increase of Swahili websites and a base for a national IXP can be
created. By targeting urban schools, the WorLD program can also provide the chances
towards acceleration in urbanization and a greater regional integration. Proper education will
no longer be school oriented, students form rural areas can move towards urban areas with
the same or better education then urban students. An increase of computer literacy
disseminated throughout the nation means providing everyone with the same opportunities.
Continuing the WorLD program for a longer period of time can eventually lead towards a
domestic structural change and a reduction of aid dependency. E.g. talking about HIV/Aids
in Tanzania is a taboo, resulting in a poor informed society and a high infection rate. The
Internet can be used as a silent information source, making it possible to break the taboo
amongst newer generations.
Opportunities: schools
The opportunities arising for the Secondary Schools when implementing the WorLD
program are realizable on shorter term, and function as the ‘cradle’ for the Tanzanian
government opportunities as described above. With the introduction of computers and
Internet, the students and teachers will be provided with an inexhaustible source of up to date
teaching materials, including online courses, making the material shortage irrelevant for that
particular school. Motivated students can then speed up their path trough self-learning; they
are given the chance to exploit their interest and curiosities using the Internet. Students will
become less ‘teacher dependable’ when in need of information, laying the future prospects of
a student in his own hands. Both teachers and students will be taken out of isolation and
given the chance to explore and learn about other cultures. Physical and geographical barriers
can be overcome and communication facilitated, ICT’s have the potential to eliminate the
artificial boundaries between schools and the outside world, and promote an environment
that emphasizes collaboration rather than competition. The myriad of Websites can help
teachers develop or improve lesson plans, exchange ideas, obtain information, and find free
animations and simulations to enliven their lessons. Learning time will no longer equal
classroom time; computers and the Internet can be used for projects, motivating the students
to be more involved in the learning process. The introduction of computers and Internet can
35
ADEA.What works and what's new in Education: Africa speaks. 2001 Paris
29
“What are
possible
negative
aspects of
the WorLD
program?”
also revive the teaching profession, shifting the core descriptions from hard-, monotonousand futureless- work, towards a promising, challenging and dynamic environment. Managing
it well, schools connected to the internet can claim their ‘existence’ and use it for e.g.
creating fund raising opportunities by creating a website.
Possible negative aspects of the WorLD program
As shown in table 2, the WorLD program involves many stakeholders, with different
concerns. Looking closely we can detect some aspects that might create tension between
certain stakeholders, uncovering some negative characteristic behind the WorLD program.
- The Ministry of education strives at equity of education throughout the nation. The WorLD
pilot does the exact opposite; it creates an educational gap. It implements their program in
few schools only, favoring few students only.
- The Tanzanian government is poor, and although the program might contribute to
‘economical growth’, there are more possibilities to achieve this. The WorLD program is
expensive.
- The WorLD program has been implemented in many ‘developing There are approximately
countries’ while it is an American formula. This leaves little room for 520 million Internet
personalizing the program and can be seen as the ‘McDonalds’ of the users. 4.1 million are in
ICT introduction Programs. Oddly enough, there is no McDonalds in Africa. 80% of the
language on the Internet
Tanzania, but plenty of Tanzanian equivalents!
is English, but only 10%
- The WorLD program involves many educational steps to take for of the world speaks
students and teachers that are somehow preset, leaving little capacity English.
for them to build an own capacity to master and adapt global
technologies to local needs.
Other then the specific world program’s negative aspects, introducing ICT in the education
sector has a few other negative aspects:
- ICT implies drastic cultural consequences, promoting American English language, culture
and monopolized software packages, endangering cultural and linguistic diversity with a new
form of what was once labeled cultural imperialism.
- Although the Internet functions as an immense online library of information, it is also an
info inferno. The information has to be selected, refined, digested and understood in order to
become useful information and to be transformed into knowledge. Students might be
‘negatively influenced’ when confronted with inappropriate information found on the
Internet.
- ICT technologies also imply new forms of crime. The Internet could provide desperate
people with the mean of activating schemes. E.g. the Internet could be used for sending
mails, luring wealthy people to developing countries with the wrong intentions (see appendix
K for an e-mail example).
30
4.2.2 The Two ‘WorLD pilot’ Schools
The two schools selected during the end of the preparation stage to participate in the WorLD
pilot were, Janguani Secondary School and St Matthew’s Secondary School. These schools
were approached by an employee of the CSD, Mr. Kyaruzi, who was familiar with many
schools in and around Dar es Salaam.
Janguani Secondary School is a girl only
school situated in an urban area in Dar es
Salaam. It has approximately 1500
students. It had a computer room with 6
computers in deteriorating state that are
not connected (see table 3 for further
detail)
St Matthew’s Secondary School is a
mixed boarding school, situated in a more
remote area, about 1 hour drive south of
Dar es Salaam. It too has a computer room
with 7 old 386-Hertz computers of which
3 are not working (figure 7). These FFFiiiggguuurrreee777:::CCCooom
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computers were rarely used due to the
simple fact that nobody knew how to integrate them into the school’s curriculum and that
were old-fashioned.
School information
Janguani Secondary school
St Matthews Secondary School
Computer class
Nr computers
Internet connection
Situated
Enrolment
Yes
6
No
Urban (Dar)
Approximately 1500
Yes
7 (4 not working)
No
Rural (1 hour south of Dar)
Approximately 1200
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Class 1 consisted out of 30 girls and 5 teachers from Janguani Secondary School. Class 2
consisted out of 15 boys and 15 girls and 5 teachers from StMatthew’s Secondary School.
Class 3 out of 21 boys from and 4 teachers from StMatthew’s Secondary school (see table 4
for further details).
Class Information
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
School
Nr students
Nr teachers
Form
Male/female
Nr computer illiterate
Nr having e-mail account
Average age
Janguani
30
5
5 and 6 A- level
All female
12
18 (use internet café)
19.47
StMatthew’s
30
5
2 O- level
15/15
29
1 (uses internet café)
15.2.
StMatthew’s
21
4
2 O-level
All Male
20
1
15.6
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31
4.2.3 Participation interest
In order to assess the computer and Internet awareness and the actual need of a program such
as the WorLD program, the school headmasters and participating teachers were asked about
their reasons for participation. The following paragraph states the findings.
“What is the
participation
interest of the
schools?”
Head of schools:
The headmaster/headmistress of the participating schools fully realized the importance of
computers in the developed world, and were very happy to cooperate with the research. The
fact that they had to provide the transportation to and from the CSD for their participants
created no barrier (see figure 8). For StMatthew’s Secondary School, this meant a total of
two and a half hour drive per session (back and forth). Only one restriction was appointed;
the World pilot was not to interfere with the regular school activities.
Although both headmasters were very happy
to be part of the pilot, the headmaster from
StMatthew’s Secondary School showed
extreme enthusiasm. He was very thankful
this opportunity was given to his school, to
his students and teachers. During a tour on
the school premises with the headmaster it
became clear why he was thankful for this
opportunity. The school is spaciously built in
an extraordinary silent surrounding on the
edge of a green valley. “We just recently had
a telephone line installed, that is the only
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connection with civilization” the headmaster
said while standing on the edge of this valley, “a
valley full of venomous snakes and malaria bearing mosquitoes” he continued. It became
clear that StMatthew’s has very little opportunity to expose itself to computers and the
Internet because of its rural location. Therefore the headmaster favored conducting the pilot
with students from form 4 or below, so that the computer knowledge would stay in school for
a while. This way the knowledge could be passed on to other students.
Teachers
“What is the The participating teachers were well aware of the existence of
participation
interest of the computers and the Internet. Most of them had never worked with a
computer or surfed the Internet their selves, but heard about it from
teachers?”
those that had. They were made very curious, and realized that it
could provide opportunities for them and the students, education
wise or other wise, and were very interested in finally experiencing
it themselves. As one teacher of StMatthew’s Secondary School
put it: “One has to keep pace with development and new
technology, if one has lagged behind a bit one is bound to be an
island of its own and this is proving detrimental to my (our)
development in many ways e.g. acquiring new knowledge,
communication and exposure”. The main reasons the teacher
decided to participate in the WorLD pilot were:
“I think it will make students
be ready to learn new
concepts and realize their
loopholes for they will
automatically compare
themselves with others.
They will learn that if one
doesn’t walk a lot (stagnant)
you may be tempted to think
that your mom is the best
cook, which is
misconceived” Teacher
StMatthew’s Secondary
School
32
To learn the computer basics
To become familiar with the Internet
To check if computers can be useful in their environment
To keep pace with technology development
To become more familiar with this era of science and technology
To get connected with the rest of the world
The teachers were well aware of what the computer and the Internet could mean for the
Tanzanian education, some quotes:
“The students could develop interest in all subjects”
“Reduce learning and teaching tasks”
“Replacing the traditional way of copying notes from the chalkboard”
“Students will be globally connected and face so many challenges herby exciting
them to work hard"
“To get the information necessary for learning and get more detailed information,
which can be obtained effectively”
“Learning and getting information you want in the place you are”
“Learn about other cultures”
“Students used to depend on
“…See what others are doing in their part of the world”
teachers for more then 95
4.2.4 Computer knowledge of participants
%, but with the knowledge of
internet a student can
explore more and more of
what they have learned in
class” Teacher Janguani
Second
Students
In class 1 there were 18 students that had some computer
experience. In class 2 and 3 there was only 1 in each class. This
experience however limited itself in most cases on how to receive and send e-mail at
yahoo.com using the Internet Explorer. Friends had shown them the way to the Internet
café’s and taught them how to e-mail. A combination of factors explains the computerliterate ‘student’ difference between the classes:
a) The students from class 1 were from an Urban Secondary school, as to where class 2
and 3 were from a rural situated school. The amount of Internet café’s is significantly
higher in urban areas.
b) Classes 2 and 3 were from a boarding school as to where class 1 was not. Students
from class 1 went home everyday and in the weekends creating more opportunities to
meet friends and family and going to Internet café’s. Students from class 2 and 3
where limited to the friends and facility’s at and around school.
c) Students from class 1 were considerably older then those from classes 2 and 3, the
average age respectively being 19.47, 15.2 and 15.7.
Conversely, there was a girl from class 1 that was remarkably better with computers than the
rest. Apparently she worked at a radio station in Dar es Salaam, were she worked with
computers and the Internet.
Internet Café
The Internet café plays an important role in the Tanzanian society. There where Internet
cafés in developed countries serve mostly to meet the needs of tourists, in Tanzania it serves
the population, including students. Only those students that have found the way to the
Internet café have some experience, since most schools do not have decent working
computers or an Internet connection. Even tough the Internet café’s are relatively cheap (500
33
shillings an hour, equivalent to approx. 0.50 $) most students cannot afford if, and even if
they can they need someone that is able to introduce them to the Internet. Someone needs to
take them there.
“Most students have never
Teachers
touched a computer, they have just
Out of 14 teachers four said to have some computer seen one buy peeking trough a
experience. They had learned this at the UDSM. Only one window” teacher StMatthew’s
of these teachers had an e-mail account, but doubted if it Secondary School
still worked. He had forgotten how to access it. Three of
the four teachers fulfilled the role as “Computer Science teacher” at their school. Their
experience was limited to the operating systems DOS and the early versions of windows, and
none of them had recently worked with a computer. The remaining 10 teachers had no
computer experience whatsoever.
4.2.5 Description of Sessions
The ‘World pilot’ sessions were given in a computer lab containing 18 Pentium III computers
connected to the Internet, running Windows NT. A beamer was used for the presentation of
the education material (see figure 9). The computer participant ratio was two participants to
one computer. Due to a limited time span, the participants were taught the true basics of
computers and the Internet:
Session 1: Introduction to the computer
(See appendix D for the used sheets)
Hardware: Input devices: Keyboard, mouse
Output devices: Printer, Monitor
Software: Operating system: Windows NT
Computer applications: MSWord, PowerPoint
Session 2: Introduction to the Internet
(See appendix E for the used sheets)
Physical structure of the Internet: Computer Network, WWW, Routers, IP address
Using The Internet: History, opportunities, Applications, Internet explorer, Browser
components, URL’s, Search engines: www.Google.com, www.yahoo.com
Session 3: The GEO game36
(See Appendix H for the used sheets, and appendix J and I for the handout examples)
The Geo game is a geography game where the participants had to match a description of each
location in the game with the name of the corresponding city using 10 given clues (e.g.
latitude, time zones, landforms, points of interest, tourist attractions, state capitals). The game
was originally designed for regular classroom activity using maps, atlases, and other
reference materials. The game however, was slightly altered for the pilot, so that the Internet
could be used as a reference. The main purpose of the game was to increase the awareness of
geographical and cultural diversity, to learn geography terms, to get more familiarized with
the computer and its applications, to learn how to use search engines and to stimulate
cooperative learning. The outcome was checked on the Internet, and the students were put on
a winners list posted on the Internet.
36
For more information: http://www.gsn.org/project/gg/index.cfm
34
Session 4: E-mail
(See appendix F for the used sheets, and appendix G for the used student manual)
What is electronic mail? Creating email account at www.yahoo.com, writing and sending emails.
Session 5: Connecting with the world
No sheets were used during this session, instead was the beamer used for the demonstration
of how to set up a chat session. The students followed the steps. During the session, the
following questions were discussed and/or demonstrated:
How do you connect with others? What is chatting? How do you chat? Chatting procedures,
setting up chat session, chatting.
Session 6: Internet and education
This session was used to give students the
opportunity to open an e-mail account or to
set up a chat session if they had failed to do
so during previous sessions. The other
students were given the chance to explore the
Internet for education purposes, such as
tutorials and quizzes.
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E-learning: Tutorial on the Internet e.g.
www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/education
Learning to learn: finding resources, using
resources
4.2.6 conclusions and implications
During the Introduction stage the following became clear:
1. The computer experience of the two chosen schools were not alike. The school
situated in the urban area had more computer-exposed students than the school in the
rural area.
2. The students of the urban school had more computer experience than the teachers,
because of Internet café’s.
3. The school with the lesser amount of computer experienced teachers and students
showed the most interest.
4. The awareness of the importance of computers and the Internet into the Tanzanian
secondary education was strongly present at both schools.
The implications of these findings for the next stage where as follows:
1. Since the computer literacy level was practically the same, the teachers and students
would be treated no different, and get the same computer education.
2. Although the computer experience level differed per school, the same educational
material would be used, with the option of altering the teaching speed.
3. Since computer and Internet awareness was present, the interest of the students and the
teachers would play a great role in developing/altering the education material and topics.
35
4.3 Running stage
The analysis showed that there was a significant gap between the first session and the last
session of the pilot considering class attitudes and computer comprehension per class that
participated in the WorLD pilot. This next chapter deals with the following questions:
4.3.1 within session analysis: Class attitudes
“What is the
participants
class
attitude?”
The students in all classes were significantly good listeners; they paid a lot of attention to
what was said. They were very eager to learn about computers and did exactly as they were
told. Especially the students from class 2 and 3 were very disciplined. They showed a great
deal of respect and they did not speak while they were spoken to. All participants clearly
realized the ‘WorLD pilot’ was an exceptional opportunity to be familiarized with computers
and the Internet. Table 5 shows the main characteristics of the sessions concerning attitudes
per class, and how these were apparent.
Characteristic
Observation
Discipline
Respect
Motivation to
learn
Thankful
Little feedback
Little interaction
“What is the
quality and
quantity of
interaction
with other
participants
and with the
instructor?”
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Paying attention
Listening to instructor
Patience
Polite
Doing as they are told
Not speaking when spoken to
Observing a lot
Wanting to ‘do good’
Always eager to start
Showing gratitude
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Afraid to ask ‘silly’ questions
Individual minded
Little collaboration
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The students of all three classes were very individual minded during the first couple of
sessions; there was very little interaction between the participants. The interaction amongst
students was very low in all classes. Interaction between teachers and students took place in
class 2 and 3, but none in class 1. In contrast, there was very little interaction between the
teachers from class 2 and 3, and a lot between the teachers from class 1. The way of
interaction can best be explained due to the computer knowledge of the teachers versus that
of the students. In class 1 the teacher could no longer presume a teacher role, since there
were 18 students with more computer knowledge. The teachers therefore acted more as
students. In class 2 and 3, the teachers had just a little more experience because they had
requested private lessons two days before the sessions started, this in order to be prepared
and to be able to assist the students.
As the sessions progressed, there was a noticeable shift in interaction. Due to the hands on
exercises and the Geo- Game the students started to collaborate with each other. In addition,
two students behind one computer also motivated the students to form closer relationships
with one another in working together. Teachers started interacting more with the students
36
once they became aware of how the technology could be integrated into teaching, the Geogame made this particularly clear.
Getting feedback from the
students was not easy in the
beginning. It was difficult
knowing if the students
understood what was just
explained. Students hesitated
to ask questions in class.
According to the teachers the
students were afraid to ask a
‘silly’ question in front of the
class. When asking if they
understood ‘Yes sir’ would
always be the answer, saying
no is considered to be very
rude in Tanzania. Instead of
oral feedback, the feedback FFFiiiggguuurrreee111000:::JJJaaannnggguuuaaannniiiSSSeeecccooonnndddaaarrryyyssstttuuudddeeennntttsssiiinnncccooom
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was obtained looking at body
language; especially the glazy eyes were very helpful. Once the students started to get used
to the instructor, they were a lot less reluctant in asking questions. These questions however
were always asked privately and never ‘in class’.
Attendance per session
120.0
100.0
overall attendance
%
80.0
class 1
60.0
class 2
40.0
class 3
20.0
0.0
1
2
3
4
5
session num ber
6
The attendance per session
per class is shown in chart
2. The graph shows how
only 50 percent of the
participants attended during
the third session. This was
due to the fact that it was
the celebration of the
birthday of the prophet
Mohammed
(Eid
alMoulid). This is an Islamic
holiday; the exact date
depends on the moon and is
known for certain only a view days in advance. It was
therefore hard scheduling the right date in advance.
Other then the ad hoc emerging holiday, the attendance was considerably good. The main
reason for students not attending was because of illness (malaria was often the case). Death
of a close relative (mother) occurred twice. The main reason for teachers not attending was
because of “other duties at school”.
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37
4.3.2 cross session analysis: Computer and Internet comprehension
“What are the
participant’s
difficulties
when working
with
computers
and the
Internet?”
The comprehension difficulty level of the computer basics seemed to be rather low for al
participants (see table 6). The participants had no major problems with the computer basics;
the ‘computer feeling’ grew at a tremendous rate during the first couple of sessions and
logically slowed down during the rest of the sessions when most basic things were mastered.
Overall it can be said that the students had more ‘computer feeling’ then the teachers,
especially the boys. During the first sessions it was noticeable how students learned by
closely observing the instructor, while the teachers preferred exploring the ‘tricks’
themselves. Participants that had some computer experience had a minor advantage in the
sense of not having to create a ‘computer feeling’ from scratch. None of the participants were
afraid of working with the computers, and none started moving the mouse in plain air as was
suggested by some experts. Some small practical (rather humorous) actions were observed in
the beginning, like not knowing what to do when the mouse hit the end of the table, while the
cursor had not reached the end of the screen.
Topic
Computer basics
Windows OS
MSWord
Internet Physical structure
The Internet (surfing)
Search engines
E-mail
Chatting
Typing
(Comprehension) difficulty level
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Low
Low
Low
Low
Medium Low
Low
Medium Low
High
High
Medium
Medium High
Medium
High
High
High
Low
Medium Medium
Medium Medium Medium
Medium High
Medium
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The operating system running on the computers used was Windows NT. Because of the
limited time available the participants were only thought the basics: the concept of windows,
how to open and close these windows (application), the desktop and the toolbar. The
participants had no meaningful difficulties working with Windows. They showed great
initiatives when working with, in fact, it was one of the few times they tough themselves by
trying. The participants were very curious what type of other applications could be found on
the computer. When the application ‘paint’ was found at the end of a session by a boy from
class 2 sitting behind the beamer, he started trying
‘painting’ in front of the entire class. He did rather As natural it is for people that grew up
surrounded by computers, as unnatural it
well and every participant was amused.
may feel to one that has never touched a
computer: ‘double clicking’. The fingers of
Internet physical structure
some students simply did not possess a
None of the participants knew anything about the quick enough reaction to ‘double click’ fast
Physical structure of the Internet, until it was enough.
explained to them during the WorLD pilot. Even
the students from class 1, where 18 students had an e-mail account prior to the attendance of
the WorLD pilot, seemed unfamiliar with the infrastructure of the Internet.
38
Internet (general)
One teacher from class 2 almost missed
Once the participants discovered the proper working his bus back to school because of surfing
of the Internet they were unstoppable. Both teachers the web, he had to run after it shouting;
and students were clued on to the monitor when “Wait for me!”
given the opportunity to surf at free will. At the end of the sessions the students had to be
remembered that the session had finished. During the first sessions the teachers assisted
getting the students to the bus. After the third session this was no longer the case, they were
the last participants to get on the bus. Most sessions of class 2 and 3 lasted for 30 extra
minutes. The web surfing of the participant however was unstructured, for the reason that
they had difficulties distinguishing between links and advertisements.
Search engines
Comprehending the working of a ‘search engine’ had shown to be a major obstacle for all
participants during the WorLD pilot. After a thorough explanation of search engines, the
‘Geo game’ was played as an exercise to learn the how to use them. The game however,
clearly showed that they had difficulties grasping the concept of a search engine. Instead of
searching for specific information extracted from one of the clues given about a city, entire
clues were written down. e.g. Amongst other clues, ‘January weather’ was given as well as
‘main tourist attractions’ to retrieve a city. Instead of writing down ‘statue of liberty’ for
example, ‘clue 3: mostly cloudy and windy with an average temperature of 14 degrees,
sometimes snow’ was written as the search query.
Using a library as a metaphor seemed to be one of the most effective ways of explaining the
concept of a search engine. The books in the library being the computers connected to the
Internet, the librarian being the search engine. “If you like to know something about the lions
in the Serengeti, you can ask the librarian (search engine) which books (websites) talk about
the ‘Serengeti’? The librarian will give you a list (links) of books that contain the word
‘Serengeti’. It is then up to you to find the book which The word ‘sure’ was used many
contains the information you want by reading the times by the students. They used
this word when they did not
summary”.
Using metaphors proofed to be an effective explanation
method, that helped the participants visualize the
structures and procedures. Metaphors are figures of
speech widely used in all disciplines and essentially
involve the transfer of descriptive terms from primary
usage to different, but analogous, situations37.
e-mail
opened account
and wrote e-mail
20%
24%
56%
opened account
but did not write email
did not open
account
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37
understand e.g. when asking a
student if she managed to open an
e-mail account she replied ‘sure’. Not
totally understanding what she
meant, she was asked more clearly:
“Did you open an e-mail account?”
again she replied with “sure”. Then
asking, “did you fail to open an email account?” again “sure” was the
answer.
E-mail
E-mailing is what the participants
liked the most and understood the
best (see chart 4). In class 1 there
were 18 participants already having
an email account, nonetheless more
then 10 of them had forgotten how to
open this account. The e-mail accounts created during the
Ortony, A. (Ed.). (1979). Metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
39
sessions were yahoo.com accounts since they are free of charge and better accessible from
Tanzania then e.g. hotmail.com. As shown in chart 3, 56 % of the participants managed to
open an account and write e-mails. 24% opened an account but did not write any e-mail. 20
% did not succeed in opening an account. Since time was limited, and the participants had to
share the computers, some students may not have had the opportunity to open one. Opening
an account seemed to be time consuming due to multiple reasons: a slow connection and
difficulties filling out the application form on the Internet. Although the application form was
self-explanatory and while they were given a small instructions handout, some of them did
not succeed. They seemed not to read the information on the screen, or that on the handouts;
they had to be explained orally. The reason some students did open an account, but not write
e-mail was simply because they had forgotten their login name or their password. The
yahoo.com password recovery method was not effective for these students, since most of
them used a ‘trial on error’ postal code, or did not remember the birthday they filled in
simply because they did not know when they were born.
Chatting
Due to a slow Internet connection, not every participant was able to chat. Those that did chat
were thrilled being exposed in real time to someone unfamiliar, from a totally different
culture. Not only were the participants surprised, the respondents clearly did not expect to
meet anyone from Tanzania in a chat room. At first the ‘chatting’ was not clearly understood,
but when putting multiple participant in one chat room most of them understood. Those that
did not understand clearly showed little interest and preferred to e-mail. Those that did
understand asked about the meaning of icons seen on the screen. After explaining chatting
could be done with speakers and a microphone or a ‘web cam’ the participants got real
exited. Unfortunately the CSD did not possess the equipment to demonstrate such a chat
session. Table 7 shows an example of a chat session of one of the participants.
A: “Hi”
B: “Hello”
A: “Where are you from?”
B: “From Tanzania”
A: “From Tanzania? You have computers there?”
B: “Yes”
A: “I’m from Sidney Australia”
A: “Are you still there?”
B: “Yes”
A: “Lets talk”
B: “I want to be your friend”
A: “Really? I would like to hear from you. How is life in Tanzania?”
B: “Life for me is not good”
A: “I suggest you come to see Sidney”
B: “Yes, of course I like to come to your country but I don’t have money. Can you send me?”
A: “Yes, of course just give me your details, and how much it will be”
B: “I think it will be 300,000 tsh”
A: “Ok we will talk, I have to go back to work, I’m glad I have a friend in Tanzania.”
B: “ok”
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40
Typing
Most participants had never worked with a keyboard before. The participants had a lot of
trouble locating the keys. Typing exercises were therefore time consuming. Only on one
occasion did this create problems, when chatting. The participants were not quick enough to
respond, which made the other
party depart rather abruptly, or It was hard explaining why the keys were not in
continuously writing: “are you alphabetical order!
still there?”
“What is the
participants’
attitude
towards
technology?”
Overall computer and Internet interest
The overall attitude towards the computer and the Internet of the participants differed per
topic. The Participants clearly
Participants interest
showed a lot of interest in emailing, but showed less curiosity
Computer history
towards the history of the
Windows
computer or learning how to type.
Typing
Chart 4 shows the interest level of
Chatting
the participants. This chart was
Internet physical structure
created from the data gathered
Computer basics
Msword
from the
observations
and
Internet applications
reassured with the data form the
Search engines
questionnaires that where handed
e-mail
out at the end of the pilot. The
chart shows that the participants
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
have a preference for the Internet
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Chhhaaarrrttt444:::P
m000tttooo111000
as opposed to the computer itself. After the
first session – when they learned the basics
of the computer- a “stand alone” computer was no longer interesting as one that was
“connected”. The computer slowly shifted from being unknown technology, towards a tool to
access the Internet and with that a lot of information.
41
4.3.3 cross class analyses
The ‘WorLD pilot’s’ session approach was student centered, taking the focus away from the
textbook and blackboard, and placing the student as the main center of activity, the main
drive and meter of progress. Priority was being given to the educational goal of intellectual
independence with course objectives placing more emphasis on the processes of learning and
less on the course content since “It's easier to learn many other things if you first learn how
to learn38”. Table 8 shows the difference in teaching and learning methods the participants
were exposed to.
“What are the
differences in
teaching and
learning
methods when
implementing
the WorLD
pilot?”
Teaching and learning
methods
Approach
Regular lessons
VS.
‘World pilot’ sessions
Teacher centered
Student centered
Teaching Material
Facts
Individual
Blackboard
Textbook
Pencil
Lectures
Demonstrations
Static
Decided by teacher
Dated
‘Learning how to learn’
Peer learning
Computer
Internet
Beamer
Project based
Student tryout
Dynamic
Determined by feedback
Up to date
Students participation
Passive
Active
Students feedback
Low importance
High importance
Focus
Learning
Teaching aids
Teaching strategies
Subjects
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Having students play a more active role in constructing their knowledge and understanding
appeared to be difficult, but possible. Many students shifted more and more away from their
old ‘fact memorizing’ method towards a self-learning method during the WorLD pilot. The
teachers realized this and reflected upon it: “all the teaching material we have is outdated
and restricted. We tell the students what they have to learn. If a student is interested in a
subject, he is restricted to the books we can find; he has very little room for self-development.
If we had computers and an Internet connection he would be given a chance. He could teach
himself what he wants to learn” a teacher from StMatthew’s Secondary School said after the
fourth session.
“How do the
participants
adapt to the
teaching and
learning
difference?”
As the sessions went on, a distinction could be made between participants that adapted with
more ease to the student centered learning method, and between those that had more trouble
adapting. At this point the all classes should have been split up two ways, but was not
because of organizational implications. The differentiation was very easy made by observing
those that did read the information on the monitor and those that did not. Not reading the
information given on the screen is an impediment to self-education. Not every participant
realized this. The ‘symptoms’ of teaching and learning method-adapting students versus nonadapting students were observed as follows:
38
Ashley Brilliant "Pot-Shot" No. 3412
42
-
The adaptive student reads the information on the screen carefully, the non-adaptive
student does not; he asks the instructor.
The adaptive student is self exploratory, he explores the computer and internet on
his own, the non adapting student wait for orders
The adaptive student collaborates with fellow students, he helps out when a
neighbor student needs help; a non-adapting student does the bare essentials.
The adapting student feels more comfortable working with computers then a nonadaptive student, e.g. he has no trouble restarting it.
The adaptive student shows interest in more then is taught and asks about it, a nonadaptive student ‘waits to be taught’.
The adaptive student is overall more active then a non-adaptive student.
Whether the teaching and learning method adaptation easiness contributes to a high comfort
level with the computer and the Internet or visa versa is unclear. The adaptive students
however developed more computer skills throughout the pilot then the non-adaptive student.
Other factors, such as computer trust and the English language also contributed to the
participant computer skills.
“How does the
World program
fit into the
education
curriculum of
the schools
participating?”
Language barrier
Although the student’s instruction language at school is English, their mother tongue is still
Swahili or another native language. Most of them only started learning English in secondary
school. The difference in language created a learning barrier in all three classes. The
operating system, the applications and the Internet introduced a lot of new English words that
could not be translated. Without direct link to their own language, the students had trouble
visualizing concepts such as ‘links’ or ‘search engines’. During regular classes the teacher
would quickly translate the English word in Swahili when he thought this was necessary.
This explanation ‘tool’ could not be used during the pilot because the words did not exist in
Swahili and the instructor’s knowledge of Swahili was inadequate. The level of English
amongst the participants differed a lot within each class. Those with better knowledge of the
English language were in an advantaged position.
Trusting technology
Due to bad maintenance of the computers used, server problems, dreadful LAN infrastructure
and slow Internet connection the computers regularly malfunctioned or responded differently
then expected. These malfunctions did not contribute to the computer trust of the
participants. Computer trust proofed itself to be of great importance for the motivation of the
participants. When their computer did not respond as it should have responded, the students
felt unlucky and de-motivated. A simple example is the log-on procedure, were the
participants had to enter ‘guest’ in the ‘user’ field, as well as in the ‘password’ field. This
was to be done in ‘small letters’. When a participant was not able to log on, the cause was
most probably a misspelling or the use of capital letters. However, a computer malfunction
was frequently the case; a previous user had been changing the user settings or something
similar. This resulted quickly in the fact that the participants automatically assumed a
computer malfunction when not able to log on at once. They did not trust the computer
anymore to log them on without tribulations.
43
4.3.4 Evaluation of the WorLD-pilot sessions
During the last session of each class, questionnaires where handed out to evaluate the
WorLD pilot. The participants were asked what they liked or did not like about the pilot,
what they had learned, and if they expected to use the new knowledge. The questionnaires
where picked up two weeks later and then analyzed. Appendix L shows a copy of the
questionnaires.
“What are
the thoughts
of the
participants
on the
WorLD
program?”
The WorLD pilot was very much appreciated by the participants. The Students, the teachers,
the head of the schools, and even the parents of the students were very enthusiastic about the
WorLD pilot. StMatthew’s headmaster said that, “The parents of the students were very
happy with such an initiative, and want all their children to participate in such a program”.
The headmaster furthermore indicated that it would mean a lot to him and his school if the
program would be implemented at his school. “It would improve education a lot. The
students told me they liked working with computers and the Internet, and that they have
learned a lot”. When the participants were asked what they had learned during the WorLD
pilot, both teachers and students clearly indicated that the Pilot had made a significant impact
on their knowledge and their worldviews. The following quotes will indicate this:
Students:
- “I have learned how to deal with computers in general, deal with e-mails, search
for information using the Internet, communicate or chat with other people, write
and read information”.
- “The WorLD program can help the students to open up education websites and
learn so many things from outside countries”.
- “I have learned that the computer and Internet is a library of information”.
- “Learning about computers, chatting with people, opening an e-mail account, and
searching for information was easier then I thought”.
Teachers:
- “I will always remember you. You and your Internet have changed my live. I had no
idea you could get the latest news from all over the world on the Internet”.
- “I have learned that a computer is a world library of all disciplines. Therefore
nothing exceeds computer capabilities”.
- “I am conversant with opening an e-mail account, chatting and surfing on my own
thanks to the WorLD pilot study”
All participants revealed that they would certainly use the knowledge obtained in the WorLD
pilot in the near future. 93% of the participants said that they would go to an Internet café
when they would be given the chance (only 21% did this before the pilot). They would go
there mainly to e-mail and to browse. 22% would go to an Internet café to search for specific
information. 94% of the participants answered that they would teach a friend/family member
about computers and the Internet.
The participants clearly think the World program should be implemented in Tanzania. They
think it could contribute to the future development of the country. The following quotes will
clarify the thoughts of the participants concerning the WorLD pilot and the future of
Tanzanian secondary education:
44
Students
- “The WorLD program is one of the best things I have ever experienced in my life so
I wish this program to continue”.
- “I would like to encourage the leader of the program to increase their efforts to
educate Tanzanian people/society about computers”.
- “I would like the WorLD program to continue so that I can learn more about other
things, to meet with other people who participate in the WorLD program”.
Teachers
- “This program should proceed especially in developing counties like Tanzania
because it is cheap and very fast”.
- “With time, the WorLD program will succeed in its vision and expose or connect the
isolated people/parts of the world”.
- “It is very important to learn this program because it facilitates communication
without incurring much expenses, you can get the information from where you are”.
- “The World program can mean a lot to our school as it helps the students to be up
to date with current information through internet services as well as studying
academic information for the betterment of their studies”.
Although the participants were overall very wholehearted about the WorLD pilot, there were
some issues that were experienced to be negative factors. These negative factors were
pointed out by teachers as well as students and experienced by most participants as negative:
- The sharing of computers
- The computer lab was too small
- There were too many students instructed at once
- Internet was often too slow
- Not enough sessions
- Teaching speed was high
- Not enough connection with other students
- Computers were not always working properly
Besides these factors, many participants pointed out that they would have liked the sessions
to last longer. This was clearly noticeable during the running of the sessions; most of them
lasted 30 minutes longer then planned. One teacher said it best when he said: “Time allocated
for studies wasn’t enough given the fact that there were so many things to learn and
discover”.
45
4.3.5 within school analyses: 13 critical issues
“What are
the critical
issues of the
WorLD
program?”
Before beginning to ensure new technologies are seen as ubiquitous and not elitist tools in
the Tanzanian secondary education system, many challenges have to be overcome. The
previous chapters focused on the participants of the WorLD pilot and the educational aspects.
Bridging the digital divide in Tanzania however involves much more then teaching students
and teachers how to work with computers.
Technical, managerial and economical as well as educational issues are just as important for
the realization of a program such as the WorLD program. During the preparations stage,
introduction stage and running stage the researcher encountered expected as well as
unexpected barriers. These barriers are characteristic for Tanzania, and are to be considered
when implementing the WorLD program in Tanzania. Besides the “hands-on” obstacles
encountered during the three stages of the WorLD program, the information that was set
aside -because of irrelevancy to the specific objectives and research questions- was reinstated
and analyzed to serve the main objective off this research (As described in 1.3.3). The next
chapter describes the educational, technical, organizational and economical issues that have
been uncovered during the three stages of the WorLD pilot.
Educational
Critical issue 1: Educational paradigm shift
The WorLD pilot has shown that there is computer awareness amongst the students, the
teachers and the head of schools; computer knowledge is seen as important and valuable
knowledge. However, there is no to very little awareness of the educational change it
involves. Some students proofed to have difficulties adapting to the ‘new learning and
teaching’ method; they were not learning how to learn. Providing the secondary schools, with
computers, software and network facilities is an obvious improvement of the availability of
materials and technical infrastructure, but has little impact on content or on the role of the
actors in the process. Only in conjunction with changes in the role of the teacher and the
student, the content and organization of curricula, and corresponding curriculum materials is
it possible to realize 'new' education, and to incorporate in it the potential for enhancing and
renewing the learning process contained in a new technical infrastructure39.
Critical issue 2: Lack of computer education material
When preparing the sessions for the WorLD pilot, little functional computer education
material was found within Tanzania. The only official Tanzanian computer syllabus was
developed in 1996 and issued in 1997, thus useless for the pilot. There were some sheets to be
found used in computer courses given at the UDSM, however these were of little value to the
WorLD pilot. These sheets would e.g. describe all the functions of MSWord into great detail
or explain how to install a printer. No ‘student centered’ material was found, material that
would teach the students were to find the information needed to install a printer, or the tricks
in MSWord. Neither world Links, nor the World Bank had made any educational material
available on their website or by other means. The course was therefore self-developed,
containing many projects and exercises focusing on ‘learning how to learn’. The objective
39
Plomp, The learning process depicted as a result of activities and conditions for learning, 1999
46
was to give the participants useful knowledge instead of ‘facts’ they would probably forget.
The education material and projects were developed with the help of ‘IEARN’.
Critical issue 3: Lack of National IT policy
The National ICT policy of Tanzania may 2002 states the current ICT situation in the
education sector but very little about possible solution towards the shortcomings stated. The
national policy does not provide solutions or insight in the future plans of the government.
The lack of ICT framework keeps the schools and organization in the dark and disstimulates
them to take immediate action towards active steps in providing computers and connection in
secondary schools.
Technical
Critical issue 4: Lack of reliable electricity
Of the 18 sessions scheduled for the ‘WorLD Pilot’ two had to be rescheduled because of
power failure. Power failure is very common in Tanzania. A power failure can last from 5
minutes up to 24 hours. The duration is not known in advance which makes planning
difficult. The computers at the CSD had UPS’s (un- interrupted power supply, a sort of
battery or short term power source) but were insufficient powerful for the running of a
session. If they were, the heat in the lab would be unbearable due to a non-working airconditioning and the warmth generated by the computers.
The major power plant Tanesco (Tanzania Energy supply company ltd.) is responsible for
generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Tanzania. The main source of
generation is hydropower but also have some thermo generation in the form of gas turbines
and diesel engines, which are all running on liquid fuel. Before 1992, Tanesco used to enjoy
the monopoly being the only supplier of electricity in the country. But in 1992 the monopoly
was lifted, so other people could come in, install their own generation facilities, sell power
either directly to consumers, or to Tanesco. From 1992 until 1997 the company coped with a
major energy supply40, but has created a better image since then. Tanesco is still the
dominant supplier of electricity in the country. During the running of the pilot, the
government was busy restructuring and privatizing Tanesco. The privatization of the firm is
expected to take off after finalizing the ‘disbanding’ exercise that will see Tanesco curved up
into three independent sections. The sections, generation, transmission and distribution will
be created in order to attract investors because they are expected to be more efficient and
competitive. The total privatization of Tanesco is set to start with distribution first, which
should be completed in the next three years.
Besides the lack of reliable energy, it is expensive. Due to poor management, lack of capital
and technology, high operational costs, power tariffs in Tanzania are comparatively the
highest in the region, despite the recent review41. Electricity in Tanzania is seen as a luxury
commodity rather than a ‘basic need’ item. Only 10 per cent of Tanzania population
currently access electricity42. Supplying rural schools with electricity that cannot be met by
grid extensions alone, will require other forms of electricity supply, for instance; isolated
40
Mr. Baruany Elijah A.T. Luhanga, Managing Director Tanesco
Fred Lugano, Utility sector set for major improvement, The Investor #2 July, 2002
42
Daily News, Power bills defaulters face Tanesco wrath, June 12, 2002
41
47
systems based on hydropower, diesel engines or solar systems. Tanzania’s future plans are
aimed at increasing the access of the population to electricity and general improvements of
power supply availability and quality43.
Critical issue 5: Lack of good working computers & technical support
There is a shortage of computers in Tanzanian secondary education. In fact there is a
shortage of practically everything in Tanzanian secondary education. Starting from chairs
and tables to books and pens, especially amongst rural schools. The WorLD pilot was run in
the computer lab at the CSD for the reason that the participating schools had a lack of good
working computers. Providing Tanzanian secondary schools with computers is merely harder
then providing them with pens. Just 9 years ago (from 1974-1993) importing computers to
Tanzania was prohibited, today it is free. Companies in developed countries are practically
searching for charity projects to ‘donate’ their ‘old’ computers when renewing theirs44.
However, this could turn Tanzania in a dumping ground for outdated computers that are no
longer in use in the developed world. Computers contain hundreds of toxic substances, with
lead, mercury, and cadmium topping the list. Just about every piece of equipment is a culprit,
from monitor glass to circuit breakers and the outer plastics. And if the machines end up in
landfills, those chemicals can end up in your groundwater, air, and soil. Without the proper
maintenance the donated machines would render themselves useless within a short time span.
The computers at St Matthew’s secondary school were never maintained: “To expensive and
not worth it” as the headmaster put it. Indeed, it’s hard bridging a digital divide with outdated
computers. The computers in the computer lab at the CSD also suffered from a myriad of
hardware and software problems. Dusts, heat, humid, electrical peaks, viruses, all contributed
to an extreme wear and tear of these machines.
Maintaining computers in Tanzania is problematic. All-time computer technicians in
Tanzania are scarce and expensive. When one would be hired and trained he would not stay.
He would be lured away to more lucrative jobs elsewhere, leaving the school to start
elsewhere. Scarcity of spare parts for computers is another major problem for the whole
country. Many vendors concentrate on importing computer units but not spare parts or other
accessories.
.
Critical issue 6: slow to no Internet connection
The Internet connection at CSD was cheerless to say the least. Data speed above 1 Kb/s was
almost never achieved during the WorLD program. A transfer rate of 100 B/s was not
unusual. The Bandwidth made available by the ISP is shared with many organizations,
businesses and individuals making high-speed connection possible only during a power
cutoff when using an UPS.
Getting every computer connected before/during the sessions of the pilot proofed difficult,
due to bad maintenance of the pc’s and the LAN. IP addresses had to be re-configured or the
server electrical plug had to be re-plugged after someone had incidentally stumbled over it
without noticing. Many problems could have been avoided if the computers would have been
properly maintained, and the room kept neat.
43
44
Mohammed Saleh, Tanzania Electricity Supply Industry trends, ESI Africa 2 2002
For more information: www.computer-aid.org
48
Most Internet café’s are connected with the Internet trough a wireless local loop. Reliable
fixed line connectivity is still mostly limited to only urban areas in Tanzania. StMatthew’s
recently had a fixed line installed, but was highly unreliable. It would be very difficult and
highly inefficient establishing a connection over that fixed line.
Organizational
Critical issue 7: Difficulty completing computer activities within the school's daily
schedule
The two schools participating in the WorLD pilot had a busy and tight schedule. Especially
the teachers had little free time. Since the pilot was only periodic it was seen as an extra
curricular activity. It was not always easy aligning their schedule, to the schedule of the
computer lab at the CSD. Busting in with an ICT program will require major curriculum
adaptations within the schools. The schools schedules, teaching methods and subjects have
been the same for many years. Adaptation is therefore not evident and will require time.
Critical issue 8: Corruption
Like in many other countries corruption is a major problem in Tanzania. The difficulty of
getting basic needs has lead to the introduction of permits, which has practically fuelled
corruption in the country45. It has now almost become the normal way of life. The amount of
corruption can drastically hinder organizing the setting up of the WorLD program. An
introduction of the WorLD program involves allocating money for computers electricity,
buildings, Internet, education etc. It involves getting authorization of different institutions,
dealing with many people and collecting many stamps. All authorities are potential
corruption zones that need a long breath of patience when endeavoring. The government has
put in place a number of institutions charged with the responsibility of fighting corruption in
the country so far. Among such institutions is the Anti Corruption Bureau (PCB) and the
Ethics Commission headed by William Maina, a retired High Court Judge. These measures
will hopefully have a high positive effect and spare the WorLD program the menace.
Critical Issue 9: uncoordinated efforts
There is a reasonable amount of organizations aiding to bridge the digital divide.
Development aid has a considerable importance for the economy. The aid comes from many
different sources that do not co-ordinate their efforts, nor is the government able to do that
efficiently. Besides The WorLD program, there is VI@frica targeting the secondary
education, IICD, and many more. VI@frica is developing a computer lab that will be used
for education for the schools pupils as well as for external classes for surrounding schools,
courses for the local community and government. IICD has a Global Teenager Support
Center that has been set up in the outskirts of Dar es Salaam. None of these organizations
with practically the same objective seem to actively cooperate. Ironically, since their aim is
to set up secondary school collaboration projects.
45
Gitau Warig, East and East-Central Africa, 2001
49
Critical issue 10: Teacher shortage
There is a shortage of teachers throughout Tanzania. According to a UNESCO-ILO46 study,
there can be as many as 100 students to one teacher in some schools. During the running of
the WorLD pilot, the younger teachers were very interested in the ‘job sites’. They wanted to
learn how to find and apply for jobs with use of the Internet. They had little intentions in
working as teachers much longer. If the opportunity towards another job arose, they would
take it. The Internet could provide these opportunities, and with lure the teachers away,
leaving schools with a bigger demand for teachers.
Critical issue 11: Rural VS Urban
Part of this research was initially set out to focus on the difference between boys and girls
and their way of interaction with computers and the Internet. This difference however
seemed to be marginal. The difference in school however has shown to be of greater
importance. The barriers for implementing the WorLD program in a rural school, lay a lot
higher then that of an urban School. A rural school is:
- Less attractive for teachers to work
- Harder to connect to the Internet
- Harder to supply with electricity
- Isolated from the news
- Usually more dusty
- Likely to be far away from an Internet café
- Economically less stable
- Harder to reach and therefore
• More difficult to supply with computers
• More difficult to procure with maintenance
• More difficult to supply with healthcare (e.g. when teachers get
ill)
The need for the WorLD program is greater in rural schools than in urban schools due to
some of these barriers. More urban schools students have been acquainted with computers
and have easier access to the Internet trough Internet cafes. The WorLD program could
make rural schools more attractive for teachers to work and create opportunity for the school
to improve economically and become less isolated. Selecting schools will not be an easy task.
Critical issue 12: Internet side effects
Outside Tanzania’s major cities, one is still a long way from the western-style eruption of the
information age. Introducing Internet in secondary schools in Tanzania means exposing the
next generation to more then the positive aspects:
English-language materials overwhelmingly dominate the web that could lead to
“Americanization of the culture”. The students participating in the WorLD pilot
were very interested in music and movies. E.g. Cristina Aguillera sites were visited.
Internet comes with Porn. Porn is illegal in Tanzania and 50% of the students are
Muslim. No participant of the pilot was seen watching porn, in Internet café’s
however, it is one of the main attractions.
46
Siniscalco Maria Teresa, A statistical profile of the teaching profession, 2002
50
Chat rooms are not regulated. Students can be manipulated and misused by a person
with the wrong intentions. During the WorLD pilot the students chatted in ‘education’
related chat rooms. One teacher however unintentionally ended up in a ‘gay’ chat
room.
Critical issue 13: financial shortcomings
‘Money is what makes the WorLD program go round’ and unfortunately there is not a lot of
it, especially in Tanzania there is not. The WorLD pilot was not funded at all. The schools
provided their own transportation, and the computer lab of the UDSM was used. Other then
that, no money was spent. This shows that resourcefulness and willingness can to a certain
extend replace money. If money had been provided, the education could have been improved.
Extra trainers, more computers and more educational material could have been provided. On
the other hand, the students and the teachers have never learned so much with so little
spending.
4.3.6 Conclusion
They critical issues described create a perpetual paradox: In order to overcome the barriers
formed by the critical issues, the country needs to leap towards development; the barriers
however restrain this needed development. In other words: a program such as the WorLD
program could (in the long run) help overcome many of the critical issues. The critical issues
however intensify the difficulty of implementation of such a program. The cycle seems
almost impenetrable, and is comparable to the chicken egg dilemma. What should be solved
first? The critical issues, so that ICT’s can be introduced properly, or should ICT’s be
introduced first, so that the critical issues can be overcome? The next chapter provides
recommendations concerning the introduction of ICT’s in Tanzanian secondary education,
and a possible solution towards breaking the cycle.
51
5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Recommendations
Although the WorLD program provides the opportunity to start a cycle of sustainable
development, the path from opportunity to effectiveness is neither easy nor predetermined. In
estimating an educational project’s potential for success, decision makers should take into
account four characteristics: desirability, feasibility, affordability, and sustainability.47 This
recommendation paragraph describes how these four characteristics relate to the WorLD
program.
Desirability
The World pilot illustrated that the introduction of computer and Internet into Tanzanian
secondary education is desirable amongst secondary school headmasters, teachers, students
and even the parents of the students. The WorLD pilot responded to identifiable needs of
both Janguani Secondary School, and St Matthews’ Secondary School. They showed a lot of
support, and were both willing to invest time and money (transportation costs). Computers
and the Internet however can be introduced in different ways and suit multiple goals, some
ways and goals are more desirable than others. The following recommendation can be made
towards desirability:
Leave room for pedagogical adaptation
The WorLD program strongly focuses on integrating computers and the Internet in
the education curriculum, requiring an immediate major change in the teaching and
learning method, leaving very little room for adaptation. The WorLD pilot however
strongly pointed out that the demand for basic computer and Internet skill training is
much higher. By initially offering a more basic computer course and slowly moving
towards the needs of the students and teachers, more room for adapting to the
pedagogical changes involved would be given.
Adapt global technologies to local needs
The WorLD program is an American formula and involves many educational steps
that are stipulated, leaving little room for the students and teachers to build an own
capacity to master and adapt global technologies to their needs. By offering a
customized program that can continuously be altered to the needs of the Tanzanian
teachers and students, they are given the opportunity to appropriately adapt the
technology to their needs.
Feasibility
A feasible project is one that may be accomplished within an established time frame,
available personnel, and budget. The WorLD program will have to endeavor all the critical
issues that were encountered during the running of the pilot. These issues are time, budget,
and people consuming, taking the focus away from the students towards the sustainable cycle
discussed at the end of chapter 4. The WorLD program therefore also risks being discarded
47
Haddad, W. (1994). The Dynamics of Education Policymaking: Case Studies of Burkina Faso, Jordan, Peru,
and Thailand. EDI Development Policy Case Series, Analytical Case Studies, No. 10. Washington: The World
Bank.
52
as a failure, when, due to the critical issues, it was not given an opportunity to succeed. The
following recommendations toward feasibility are made:
Think broad, not deep
The WorLD program targets a small portion of the secondary schools within
Tanzania and implements big. It intents to create a global learning community from
scratch, actually steering the schools in a direction, leaving little room for the
students, teachers and community to find their own purposes with new technologies.
Cellular phones have found their use within Tanzania; the market is growing
tremendously, while it is a very poor country and while there has never been such a
thing as a ‘cellular program’? Why not target a big portion of the secondary schools,
and implement small? The WorLD pilot has proofed that one person has given over
hundred people a knowledge base for working and learning with computers and the
Internet with very little resources in 6 months time. The integration of computers and
the Internet could be taking place more simultaneously, creating an even spread of
computer literates, facilitating the technological adaptation within Tanzania.
Act now
The WorLD program involves a complex and long implementation scheme that will
take a long time. A short-term introduction project that is based on simplicity could
bridge the timeframe between now and the actual implementation of the WorLD pilot
(see the proposed project).
Affordability
The concept of affordability is relative to the benefits expected from the project in relation to
its costs. The WorLD program intents to equip the schools selected for the project. This
means providing reliable electricity, a suitable computer room, software, hardware, and an
Internet connection. The costs that are going to be made are relatively high, taking the
amount of secondary student reached into account. The costs might still be relatively to the
benefits, however the money might be used more efficiently, reaching more students
Start with what is available
Schools do not need to be equipped (in the beginning). Existing computer labs can be
used instead, as was the case during the running of the WorLD pilot, which took
place in computer lab of the CSD of UDSM. Deals can be made with Internet café’s,
which usually have, up to date, in good condition working computers that are linked
to the Internet continuously. Doing this strongly alters the WorLD program’s
objectives, but it’s cheaper and quickly employed. It also takes of the pressure in
selecting the right school. It can even be used as a test phase, before truly installing
the computers and connections.
Sustainability
The WorLD program involves many stakeholders, making the program complex and more
vulnerable for failure. If e.g. a party does not hold up his end of the bargain, the program will
be delayed or even terminated. If there is a failure of the provision of sustainability in a
particular school, the previous efforts are gone to waist. When implementing a ‘smaller
version’ of the WorLD program the sustainability part is of lesser importance.
53
Recommended implementation strategy for introducing computer and the Internet in
the Tanzanian Secondary education sector:
For a quick launch of the Introduction of ICT’s into Tanzanian secondary schools that takes
desirability, feasibility, affordability, and sustainability in account, it is advisable to start with
what is available. Computers in Tanzania might be scarce, but they are present. Internet
café’s, learning institutions, companies, and governmental institutions are in possession of
computers that are connected to the Internet. These can be found and used.
By locating all computers that are suitable to be used by Secondary School Students, a simple
and straightforward (sponsored) project that includes students with computer knowledge can
be put into place. This project does not substitute the WorLD program, but is best run prior to
the WorLD program. These students (teach-students) can be e.g. Tanzanian University
students or foreign University students conducting the project as an internship or for personal
experience. Each Teach-student can be assigned to a certain district, where he carries out the
following phases:
1. Locating the computers suitable for secondary students within the teach-students’
district. The availability of Internet café’s shouldn’t be problematic when offering a
financial contribution. Internet café’s in Tanzania are not expensive (Tsh 500 per
hour per computer = 0.50 Euro).
2. Locating all secondary schools in a certain range of the suitable and available
computers. If there are more schools than the University can handle, multiple teachstudents can work in one district. If the amount of secondary schools exceeds the
computer availability, schools can be chosen according different criteria such as
proximity or transportation ease.
3. Approaching the located schools, and present the project. The WorLD pilot
showed that schools are keen on computer education, and are enthusiastic to
cooperate.
4. Finding means of transportation for the school if they do not have transportation.
Most schools in Tanzania have their own transportation, and if they do not, it should
not be hard to provide it cheaply.
5. Schedule the classes, and create an itinerary for a selection of the school students.
6. Teach the classes. The educational material needed can be put on a central website
that can be accessed by the teach-student and used at will. The web page can also be
use to discuss problems encountered by the US’s and call in for help by a colleague in
a surrounding district. The website can even be used to attract students/sponsors to
learn about the project and to subscribe for the project.
After a certain period of time, the teach-students can be substituted by a new teachstudent or even a secondary school teacher or student that has followed the course.
WorLD program
Proposed project
54
Benefits when running the proposed program prior to the WorLD program
-
-
The recommended project can be implemented faster then the WorLD program.
When implementing the WorLD program all critical issues have to be overcome,
consuming time and money.
The recommended project starts with basic computer and Internet skills training,
leaving room for pedagogical adaptation.
The recommended project is a “hands-on” project that can be object to change
without major consequences, leaving room to adapt the technologies to local needs.
The recommended project is much cheaper then the WorLD program because it
draws on existing resources and creates a win-win situation for the University
students and the schools
The recommended project consists out of multiple little projects carried out by
different people, making it less vulnerable for total failure, contributing to
sustainability. The WorLD program is one big coordinated and linked project, subject
to total success, or total failure.
The computer maintenance is outsourced and trainers easier expendable
When using the project described as a base for WorLD program, there will be more
information and know-how concerning the implementation of ICT’s in to Tanzanian
secondary education, increasing the chance of success.
The project described has the potential to quickly increase the computer literacy rate amongst
secondary students, and create a direction for a formulation of an ICT policy that will fit the
Tanzanian culture.
ICT policy recommendations
The role of the ministry of education and culture is critical. It is up top them to articulate a
vision for the use of ICT in education and linking it with national goals and standards to
really highlight the importance of technology in education in Tanzania. The current policy
concerning ICT in education is not targeting its goal. Instead of pointing out the tribulations
within ICT the ministry should exercise proactive leadership and initiate bold steps to
implement their articulated vision of ICT in education. The policy should include:
•
•
•
•
•
Maximize access to current hardware, software, and the Internet
Create a plan for the location of all connected computers
Facilitate programs for attracting University students to teach secondary students and
teachers
Promote involvement of the private and public sector of Tanzania in secondary
education and technology.
Build a communication structure between all stakeholders including other ICT
educational aid programs in Tanzania, secondary schools, universities, the Ministry of
Education, the Institute of Education, possible sponsors, and others
Besides creating a policy the Ministry of education should be actively involved in the
implementation, by attending teacher training session, visiting schools, computer classes,
students and teachers, so that it will be able to evaluate and adapt its ICT policy for
secondary education over the years to come. By involving itself in the dynamic education
process it will be able to stimulate and encourage support from all stakeholders contributing
to the secondary educational system.
55
5.2 Conclusions
The WorLD pilot in Tanzania has had remarkable impact on both teachers and students,
particularly with regard to attitudes toward technology and the development of new
technological skills. The schools, the teachers and the students have proven to be more then
ready for the introduction of computers and the Internet at their school. They are aware of the
fast rising technological world and are eager to be part of it.
A first step
The WorLD pilot has been a first step towards the introduction of a challenging but
promising program. Challenging because of the considerable change in education it brings
and because of the nature of the country, its culture and its customs. Promising because of the
opportunities it could create for the students, the community and Tanzania. Implementing
the WorLD program can be made as challenging as one aspires, depending on the scale, the
choice of school and its position.
Critical factors not the students or teachers
The WorLD pilot has shown that it was not the schools, the headmasters, the teachers or the
students being the critical factors, but the current ICT policy concerning secondary education
and Tanzania’s financial situation. The schools, headmasters, teachers and students have
proven to be willing and capable computer learners. They will certainly seize the opportunity
and make the best out the program when chosen to participate. They have proven to be
resourceful and enthusiastic towards the introduction of computers and the Internet into their
schools.
WorLD pilot vs. WorLD program
The success of the WorLD pilot does not guarantee the success of the WorLD program in
Tanzania. The WorLD pilot made use of existing resources, was carried out by one person,
and was adapted to the needs of the Tanzanian students. This made it cheap, quick, personal,
the critical issues were bypassed and many students and teachers were reached. The WorLD
program is more complex, expensive, deals with many stakeholders and will have to deal
with all critical issues. The WorLD program therefore needs to scale down and prioritize
their objectives, commencing with focusing on providing basic computer and Internet
training for secondary students, with the recourses available.
Implementing the WorLD program
When implementing the WorLD program as is, the obstacles to be overcome could lead to a
distortion of the objectives to be met. Using the computer and the Internet as a learning aid
by connecting the students with other WorLD program participants to collaborate in projects,
are long terms goals that will have to endure a lot of challenges. These challenges are
unknown, but could differ from technological shortfalls, such as deficient hardware and
software and poor Internet connectivity and power cut offs to organizational, educational and
economical disturbances. Due to these barriers the WorLD programs achievements could
eventually differ from its actual objectives; instead of becoming a collaborative distancelearning program, it will grow to be a computer education course were little integration into
the curriculum takes place, and the connectivity aspect has taken forms of minor importance.
While very expensive, the WorLD program has tendencies to become no more then an
ordinary computer class, where technology will be used primarily for computer science
projects and for the development of specific computer skills. If it grows to become this,
cheaper, and more culture minded options could have been taken.
56
Relocation of the divide
Although the WorLD program is a step towards the right direction for the secondary
education sector in Tanzania, it targets only few schools, leaving many schools in the dark.
Instead of ‘bridging the digital divide’ it is relocating the divide, now placing it within the
country itself. It will create an in equilibrium within the secondary education sector resulting
in a knowledge partition amongst students. While creating better futures for those students
participating in the pilot, it is diminishing the chances of those students not participating. The
answer therefore lies in the implementation of a direct simple and structured plan, using
available recourses, that focuses the needs of the Tanzanian secondary education sector,
while reaching many students. The WorLD program can be put into place when the students
have adapted to the educational change and have accepted the new technologies within their
culture.
5.3 Research limitations
Due to the nature of this research, the time span and the environment, this research was
subject to several limitations. These limitations have been taken into account by the
researcher (were possible) to the best of his abilities, but could still have affected the
accuracy of the findings. One significant limitation was of a somewhat contradicting nature,
for the reason that it was due to the friendliness and helpfulness of the participants.
Compared to western society, the Tanzanian people could be described as being extreme
friendly. Saying ‘no’, or delivering criticism is considered to be very rude in Tanzania,
making it difficult to get objective answers or feedback from them. As described in
paragraph 4.3.1, the participants avoided being rude to the researcher at all cost (e.g. by
simply answering with ‘sure’) deforming the outgoing impression from a possible ‘negative’
one, into a ‘positive’ one (comparable to eating the food your guest has prepared and stating
it to be delicious, while not finding it tasteful). All answers given by the participants were
therefore not taken literally, but toned down slightly (e.g. ‘great’ was interpreted as ‘good’,
and ‘good’ as ‘average’). The look in their eyes as well as body language also played an
important role in interpreting feedback. Nevertheless, it can be said that getting
straightforward answers or feedback was problematic.
Besides friendliness, the researcher was limited by time and labor force, limiting him in its
research population. Although the research was carried out amongst 14 teachers and 81
students of two schools, this still represents a small portion of all school/students/teachers in
Tanzania. Most outcomes of this research are therefore valid for these schools only, and do
not represent other schools or students. It is therefore recommended doing similar research in
schools in different district e.g. Dodoma or Arusha.
57
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ADEA.What works and what's new in Education: Africa speaks. 2001, Paris
B.M. Makau, Computers in Kenya’s secondary Schools, Case study of an innovation in
education, 1990
CIA, World Fact book, July 1, 2001
Daily News, Power bills defaulters face Tanesco wrath, June 12, 2002
Eisenhardt, K. M., Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management
Review, 1989
Fouché, Ben. "Towards the Development of an Equitable African Information Society." African
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Fred Lugano, Utility sector set for major improvement, The Investor #2 July, 2002
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.);
White Plains, NY: Longman.
Gitau Warig, East and East-Central Africa, 2001
Haddad, W. The Dynamics of Education Policymaking: Case Studies of Burkina Faso, Jordan,
Peru, and Thailand. EDI Development Policy Case Series, Analytical Case Studies, No. 10.
Washington: The World Bank. 1994
Hawkins. Robert. J, Ten Lessons for ICT and Education in the Developing World, 2000
ITU, World Telecommunication Development Report,1998
Lewin, Keith and Francoise Caillods. Financing Secondary Education in Developing
Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth. UNESCO/IIEP, 2001, Paris
Merriam, S. B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education.
Mohammed Saleh, Tanzania Electricity Supply Industry trends, ESI Africa 2, 2002
Mr. Baruany Elijah A.T. Luhanga, Managing Director Tanesco
National ICT policy of Tanzania, First order draft, May 2002
Ortony, A. (Ed.), Metaphor and thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1979
Patton, M. Q., Qualitative Evaluation Methods, (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1990.
Plomp, The learning process depicted as a result of activities and conditions for learning, 1999
Robson, C. Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and PractitionerResearchers, London: Blackwell, 1993.
SADC e-Readiness Task Force, SADC e-Readiness Review and Strategy - Recommendations of
the SADC e-Readiness Task Force, 2002
Siniscalco Maria Teresa, A statistical profile of the teaching profession, 2002
Source UNESCO, World Education Report, 2000
58
SRI International, Uganda country report, 1999-2000
SRI, Accomplishments and Challenges Monitoring and Evaluation Annual Report, 1999-2000
UNAIDS. 2000. HIV/AIDS and the Education Sector. Programme Coordinating Board. 11
April 2000, Geneva
UNCSTD (United Nations Commission for Science and Technology Development) 1995
UNDP, Human Development Report, 2001
UNFPA, The State of World Population, 2001
UNICEF, The State of the World's Children, 2001
VET in Tanzania , The reform experiences 1990 – 1999, p 9
WorLD Links folder, opening a world of learning…, 2002
Yin, R. K. Case study research: design and methods (2nd ed), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage,
1994.
WEBSITES:
http://www.challenge.stockholm.se
http://www.cicat.tudelft.nl//PenS/index.cfm?PageID=2764
http://www.computer-aid.org
http://www.Ethinktanktz.org
http://www.global-learning.org/en/index.php3
http://www.gsn.org/project/gg/index.cfm
http://www.iearn.org/
http://www.iicd.org/globalteenager/
http://www.schoolsonline.org/
http://www.undp.org/dpa/frontpagearchive/2002/march/05mar02/
http://www.worldbank.org/worldlinks/english/
http://www.world-links.org/English
59
Appendix A: Questionnaires computer knowledge teachers
Teachers: St Matthew’s Secondary School
School information:
Is there a computer class in your school? Yes/ no
How many computers are there? …
Of which…. Not working and …. working
Is there an Internet connection in your school? Yes/ No
Personal information:
Name:
Age:
Years teaching:
Subject:
What is your qualification:
Computer knowledge Questions:
Do you have computer experience? Yes/ No
If yes, where did you obtain this knowledge? ………………….
Do you own a computer? Yes/ No
When was the last time you’ve worked with a computer? ………..
Please check the box that applies best for each operating system:
Are you familiar
with?
Never heard of
Heard of but
never worked
with
A little
experience
Experienced
Very experienced
A little
experienced
Experienced
Very experienced
Windows 3.11
Windows 95/98
Windows NT/ Me/
Xp
Dos
Macintosh
Unix
Linux
Please check the box that applies best for the software:
Are you familiar
with?
Never heard of
Heard of but
never worked
with
Word
Excel
Power point
Paint
60
Internet knowledge
Please check the box that applies best for the following
Are you familiar
with?
Never heard of
Heard of but
never worked
with
A little
experienced
Experienced
Very experienced
The internet
e-mail
outlook
Internet explorer
Do you have an e-mail account? Yes/ No
If yes where do you read it? ………..
Project based learning
( Project-based learning (PBL) is a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teachercentered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and integrated with real
world issues and practices. PBL provides opportunities for students to pursue their own interests and questions and make decisions about
how they will find answers and solve problems..)
Are you familiar with the concept of Project based learning? Yes / No
Do you conduct classes using the project based learning method? Yes/ No
Open questions
In short could you describe why you decided to participate in this Pilot?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
In short, could you describe your opinion about what computers and the Internet can mean for the secondary education in
Tanzania?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
How do you think this pilot will affect the students? What do you expect them to learn?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
What do you expect to learn from this pilot?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thank you!
61
Appendix B: THE CLASS SESSIONS LOG
Day
1
Wednesday
8 may, 2002
Friday
10 may, 2002
Saturday
11 may, 2002
Friday
17 may, 2002
Saturday
18 may, 2002
Tuesday 21
May, 2002
Friday
24 may, 2002
Saturday
25 may, 2002
18:00 – 20:00
Class 2
N.A.
12:00 – 14:00
16:00- 17:30
11:00 – 13:00
Class 1
Class 2
Class 2
1
1
2
30 students/ 3 teachers
30 students/ 4 teachers
28 students/ 4 teachers
17
12:00 – 14:00
Class 1
2
30 students/ 3 teachers
17
11:00 – 13:00
Class 2
3
27 students/ 5 teachers
15
18:00 – 20:30
Class 2
N.A.
12:00 – 14:00
Class1
3
16 students/ 1 teacher
16
National Holliday
11:00 – 13:00
Class 2
4
27 students/ 4 teachers
18
Assistant: Mr. I Nnafie
Wednesday
16:00 – 18:00
Class 3
(1)
Cancelled
12:00 – 14:00
Class 1
(4)
Cancelled
0
No electricity at CSD
11:00 – 13:00
Class 2
5
21 students/ 5 teachers
16
Malaria/ Word Cup
16:00 – 18:00
Class 3
1
17 students/ 4 teachers
16
Students stayed in school
for exam preparation
12:00 – 14:00
Class 1
4
28 students/ 2 teachers
17
Very slow internet
connection
Students stayed in school
for exam preparation
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Session
Nr.
Attendance
Nr
computers
working
(Out of 18)
N.A.
Nr
Time
Class
PILOT TZ
2 Teachers
2 teachers
16
N.A.
11
12
13
Friday
31 may, 2002
Saturday
1 June, 2002
Monday
3 June, 2002
Tuesday
Teacher update
2 students with Malaria
3 students with Malaria
Teacher update
School had
transportation problem.
29 may, 2002
10
Remarks
4 June 4, 2002
14
Wednesday
16:00 – 18:00
Class 3
2
21 students / 4 teachers
15
15
5 June, 2002
Friday
7 June 4, 2002
12:00 – 14:00
Class 1
5
28 students / 1 teacher
15
62
16
17
18
19
20
21
Saturday
8 June, 2002
Wednesday
12 June, 2002
Saturday
15 June, 2002
Tuesday
25 June, 2002
Friday
28 June, 2002
Wednesday
3 July, 2002
11:00 – 13:00
Class 2
(6)
Cancelled
0
16:00 – 18:00
Class 3
3
20 students/ 2 teachers
15
11:00 – 13:00
Class 2
(6)
16:00 – 18:00
Class 3
4
20 students/ 3 teachers
17
16:00 – 18:00
Class 2
6
29 students/ 4 teachers
17
16:00- 18:00
Class 3
5
20 students/ 4 teachers
17
Cancelled
N.A.
No electricity at CSD
Miss-communication
63
Appendix C: ‘WorLD pilot’ participant computer understanding on a scale
from 1 to 10.
Keyboard Understanding
Using the navigation arrows to move
through the words and lines
Using the 'shift' button and 'caps lock'
for capital letters
Using the delete and backspace
buttons to correct mistakes
Using the keyboard to type words and
sentences
Understanding the function of the
cursor
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
Mouse understanding
Double-clicking an object
Using the right mouse button
Being able to “click and drag”; move an
object
selecting an object with the mouse
Understanding of the mouse pointer and
navigation over the screen
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
Operating system and application understanding
Scrolling through a document which
consists of more than one page
Being able to maximise, minimise,
move and close a screen
Using several screens on top of each
other (the windows)
Being able to start a program, use it and
close it
Understanding the desktop including
toolbars, menus and icons
Understanding of Icons, Buttons,
toolbars and their function
loging on
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
Internet understanding
Understanding of 'links'
Understanding of Chatting
Understanding of E-mail
Understanding of Internet physical
structure
Understanding of search engines (e.g.
www.google.com)
Understanding of the Internet browser
(e.g. Explorer)
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
65
Appendix D: Sheets of session 1
What does this mean for you?
•You will learn about computers
•You will learn about the Internet
•You will learn about the world by
doing projects using the Internet!
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Program steps
•
•
•
•
•
•
Computer introduction
Software introduction
Internet introduction
Creating mail account
Project introduction
Get connected!
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Hardware
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
What is a computer?
• Computer is divided into two parts:
– Hardware: The physical components of a computer
together with devices that perform the input and output
– Software: A set of computer instructions performed
by the computer
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Software
• Input Devices:
– Allows getting data into the computer.
simple examples of input devices are
keyboard and mouse
• Output devices
• Hardware can not work without
software, it needs software to think,
reason or perform.
– Shows the result after processing data or
information
• Examples are screen, printer and
speaker
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
66
Type of computer software
• Operating system: This is the most important software
in the computer. It controls all other applications
• Software applications: Software created for a
specific purpose e.g.
– Msword for creating documents
– PowerPoint for creating
presentations
Windows
• The computers in front of you use the
operating system:
Windows NT
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Windows NT
Exercise! Log on
• Uses windows
• These can be piled on top of each other
Windows allows you to run multiple
applications at one time!
• When a computer is used by multiple
people, you need to log on.
• Logging on procedures:
• Press Ctrl - Alt - Del simultaneously
• Username:temp
• Password:temp
• Press enter
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Getting Started
With Windows
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Desktop
Icons
Toolbar
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Start button
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
67
Learn by doing!
Exercise! Open the
Take the mouse and move the cursor up and down by
moving the mouse over the table!
cursor
calculator
Steps:
-go to: start
mouse
-Press left mouse button
-Go to: programs
-Go to: accessories
-Go to: calculator
-Press left mouse button
-This is what you get
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Now calculate!
• 3452 x 23.4 = ?
• 456/678 = ?
Answers
80776.8
0.6726
Start button
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Exercise! Open Word
MSWord
• Word is a software application that allows
you to:
– Read documents
– Write documents
– Change documents
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
•
•
•
•
Go to : start
Go to: programs
Go to: Microsoft word
Click left mouse button!
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
68
Typing in word!
Example:
•
•
•
•
•
Exercise Type the following:
Name: {put your name here}
Age: {put your age here}
Form: {state what from you’re in}
Computer experience: {describe your computer
experience}
• Motivation: {describe what you think computers
can mean for the secondary education}
•
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
Copyright 2002 by A. Lamain
Computer Science Department
69
Appendix E: Sheets session 2
The Internet is a vast network of computers
from all over the world communicating with
each other.
The Internet
Computers in Tanzania
What is the Internet?
Computers
in the US
Network A
Computers in Europe
Network B
Router
Network C
Router
Network F
Router
Network D
Network E
Computers in Australia
Computers in Asia
Internet browser
What do you need for Internet
•
•
•
•
Internet explorer
ICON
Computer
Browser
Connection
electricity
Double click
Icon with left
mouse button
Internet Explorer components
Page Title
Location
field
minimize
Toolbar
close
History
Shows visited
pages in past
toolbar
Browser
window
scrollbar
status bar
Back
Stop
Home
returns you
back to the most
recently
displayed page
Ends a page from
loading
Returns to
the home
page
Forward
Refresh
returns you ahead
to a previously
displayed page
Reloads the
current page
Mail
Print
allows you to
print the
current Web
page
Search
Allows you to
search the web
Favorites
Shows list of
bookmarks
70
Surfing the Web
URL
•URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
–a unique global address that identifies a specific
document on the Web
–each URL contains the following three components
protocol://domain name/pathname
–all URL’s for Web sites begin with the protocol
http://
www stands for World Wide Web
• www. … . Com (commercial)
• www. … . Tz (country = Tanzania)
• www. … . Org (organization)
•example URL: http://www.dar-es-salaam.com/
Search engines
Examples of search engines
A program that searches documents
for specified keywords and returns
a list of the documents where the
keywords were found
www.google.com
www.hotbot.com
Exercise!!
This is What you get!
Open the Internet explorer
And go to the web page of Google.
url: google = www.google.com
71
When using ‘Tanzania’ as search
word, this is what we get
Most used and best one
Put your
keyword
here
These are
links to
web pages
A link
Exercise!!
• Answer the following questions (using the
Internet as the information resource)
When clicking on a link, you will be directed to that web page!
• What is the population of Dar es Salaam?
• What is population of Tanzania?
Tanzania Tourist Board Official Website
... This is the Official Website for the Tanzania Tourist Board. ... Just released is the
Cadogan guide to Tanzania and Zanzibar Buy the Cadogan Guide from Amazon ...
www.tanzania-web.com/home2.htm - 9k - Cached - Similar pages
Under the link you see a short description what
The web page is about!
Search Exercise!
Answers!
• Population Dar es salaam =
Estimates between 2.3 and 3 million
• Population Tanzania = approximately
36 million
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the capital of City of:
Romania ?
Sweden ?
Luxembourg ?
Belarus ?
Netherlands ?
Serbia/Montenegro (Yugoslavia) ?
Georgia ?
Moldova ?
Liechtenstein ?
Netherlands ?
Andorra ?
Bosnia-Herzegovina ?
United Kingdom ?
Ireland ?
Monaco ?
72
Appendix F: Sheets session 3
Create an account
Create an E-mail account
Instructions are handed out
See instructions to create an account
E-mail to Allard
• Address: alamain@cs.udsm.ac.tz
• Your e-mail should contain the following:
• Those that have an account already should
help those that do not have an account yet!
• Advisable to open a Yahoo account.
• When created account send an email to me!
When creating an account
• Remember your personal ID and password!
– Answer to the question:
We should have computers and Internet in our
school because:
– Ask me a question about computers and or
internet (I will answer them or discuss them in
class next time)
73
Appendix G: Computer, Internet and E-mail Manual for the participants
Computer en Internet manual
by Allard Lamain ©2002
This computer and Internet manual is intended to get new computer users on the Internet as
quickly as possible, since the Internet can be used to answer any question you might have. You
can educate yourself by using the Internet. Crucial in this case is to know how to browse the
Internet, by knowing the computer basics, and to know how to get the Information you want, by
using search engines. So instead of asking a person (your friend, your teacher, your parents)
about something (computers/biology/history/geography and so on) you can use the Internet.
The Internet is the biggest information resource on the planet.
"Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know
where we can find information upon It." - Samuel Johnson
What is a computer?
Computer is divided into two parts: Hardware and Software
•
Hardware: The physical components of a computer together with devices
that perform the input and output
o Input Devices: Allows getting data into the computer.
Simple examples of input devices are keyboard and mouse
o Output devices: Shows the result after processing data or information
Examples are screen, printer and speaker
•
Input
devices
Output
Software: A set of computer instructions performed by the computer
devices
o Operating system: This is the most important software in the computer. It controls all
other applications
o Software applications: Software created for a specific purpose e.g.
Operating system Windows
MsWord for creating documents
PowerPoint for creating presentations
Applications
Internet Explorer for accessing the Internet
For more information on computers you can go to http://www.webopedia.com/
Or http://www.computeruser.com/resources/dictionary/dictionary.html
74
The Internet
“The Internet is a vast network of computers from all over the world communicating with each other”
Australia
A
Asia
routers
B
C
E
Netherlands
D
Tanzania
What do you need for Internet?
•Computer
•Browser
•Connection
•Electricity
Browser
For accessing the Internet you need a browser. This is an application specifically designed for surfing
the web. Internet Explorer or Netscape are the two most used browsers. Double click on the
Internet explorer ICON with the left mouse button to open the application.
Put page address here
e.g. www.google.com
Put your search KEY
word(s) here
Search Engines
Since the Internet is so huge, we need a way to search through it to find what we are looking for. We
use search engines to perform this task. Search engines are merely programs that scan through the
massive number of web pages that are "out there", looking for some particular topic you have
specified. Some common search engines are Yahoo, Webcrawler, Infoseek, Lycos, google and Excite.
You can access these search engines by going to their web pages. Most used and best search engine is
www.google.com
“A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the
documents where the keywords were found”
LINKS
After having searched the browser will present a list with links that direct you to the
WebPages containing your search word. Example, when you search for “Tanzania” you will
75
get this. Each link is blue. When you put the curser on a link, it will change to the shape of
hand. Double click left mouse button to go to that page.
These are links to
web pages. Under
the link you find a
short description of
the page
What can you use the Internet for?
Browsing for Information
- Topic related information
- Jobs
- Prices of products/services
- Music
- Movies
- Pictures
- People
- News
E-mailing
- Keeping contact with friend
- Apply for jobs
- Send pictures
- Send e-cards
Chatting
- With strangers
- With friends
- By script
- By voice
- By video
Publishing (Homepages)
- Stories
- Photos
- Movies
- Music
Business
- Selling/buying things
- Advertising
- Teleconferencing
Much, much more…
Discover it yourself!
E-mail
Before you can send or receive e-mail, you need to create an “e-mail account”. This can be
done at many sites that offer a “free e-mail account”. You will wind these sites by searching
using the key words “free e-mail” using any of the search engines. Popular free e-mail sites
are www.hotmail.com and www.yahoo.com.
76
Signing up for e-mail account example:
Step 1: Go to www.yahoo.com
Step 2: press on the Link “check mail”
To create account, or to read your mail
if you already have an account
Step 3:
Sign in here if
you have an
account with
your ID and
password
Click here if
you want to
create account
Step 4:
Click here
to sign up
for free
e-mail
account
Click “inbox”
to read your
mail, or
“compose” to
write a mail to
your friends
family etc..
Step 5:
Fill in your
information
and press
submit at
the end of
page
Note: Remember your ID and Password
This allows you to log on and read/write mail from
anywhere on this planet.
Note: If you do not use your e-mail account for 90 days
Your account will be closed by Yahoo. But you can always sign up for a new one!
Where do you go from here?
Do you want to know more? Find it on the Internet. Examples:
If you want to know something about the history of computers you type in the search word
“history of computers”.
If you want to know more about the operating systems windows, search for “windows
manual” or “working with windows”.
If you just want to browse, but don’t know where to start you can go to a start page:
www.startpage.com
For questions, see the Internet or mail me:
Allard@Lamain.nl
77
Appendix H: Sheets session 4
What is the Geo Game?
• geography internet game
– Use the Internet as a resource
• Competition
– Your school against other schools
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Why this game?
•
•
•
•
Learn about other places on this planet
Learn about geographical terms
Learn how to search the Internet effectively
Increase awareness of geographical and
cultural diversity
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Clue 1. URL
How to play the Game
•
You are given 10 clues about a place
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
City URL:
Latitude:
Time Zone:
Population:
January Weather:
January Temperatures:
January Clothing:
Land Forms: .
Tourist Attractions:
Famous For:
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Clue 2. Latitude
Does the city have a URL?
URL= Unified resource locator
Means: does this city have a web page?
Example: www.dar-es-salaam.com
Dar es Salaam = 6.51 ° south
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
78
Clue 3. Time zone
• Standard time zone:
GMT = Greenwich Mean Time
Clue 4. population
• Population of the city, to get an idea of how
big the city is.
– Example: population Dar es Salaam is
2.3 million
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Clue 5. January weather
Clue 6. January temperature
Clue 7. January clothing
Example
• January Weather: Wet and Cold with the
average winter precipitation is 3.7 inches
per month
• January Temperatures:(Average High, Low)
• high: 43 degrees F, low: 30 degrees F
• January Clothing:Jackets, sweaters, and rain
gear
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Clue 9. Tourist Attractions
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Clue 8. Land Forms
• Land forms describe the form of the land
– Like; rivers, plains, hills, mountains,
desert, lakes etc..
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Clue 10. Famous For
• Why do tourist go to that city?
• What is the city famous for?
• Example Dar es Salaam
– Proximity to wildlife national parks
• Bagamoyo, Saadani, Mikumi
• Example Dar es Salaam
– Julius k. Nyerere
– TINGATINGA
– Wood Carvings
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
79
Use these clue’s
• Browse the Internet for these clues and
find the city belonging to these clue’s !
• Locate the city, and pinpoint it on the map!
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Each pair will get a paper
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
So how to go about?
- step 1: Go to website of search engine
- step 2: Fill in search criteria
- step 3: Find a matching city
- step 4: pinpoint the location on the map (back of paper)
- step 5: fill in clue number
- step 6: repeat step 1 trough 6 until all clue’s
on your paper are finished
Final step: go to your fellow
Students, to fill in the entire list!
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Backside of paper
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
At the end
• Everyone should have a full list
• Everyone’s list should be the same
• Then we fill it in on the Internet, to see
if we won or not!!!!
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
80
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
Allard Lamain 'WorlD' pilot
Copyright 2002 CSD UDSM
81
Appendix I: GEO Game example ‘Clues’
Clue Number 1
City URL: This City has a Web Page
Latitude: 51 degrees 12 minutes North
Time Zone: GMT +1 hours
Population: 125,000
January Weather: The winter is cold, rainy and windy. Sometimes we get a lot of snow.
January Temperatures: (Average High, Low)
high: 35 degrees F, low: 22 degrees F
January Clothing: We wear pullovers, lined coats and firm boots.
Land Forms: The prominent landforms are many hills and some mountain ridges.
Tourist Attractions: Burg Castle, Muengsten Bridge, Roentgen Museum
Famous For: Tool-making, Peter Hasenklever, founder of the N.Y. chamber of comerce, Konrad Roentgen,
inventor of the X-ray
Clue Number 2
City URL: This City has a Web Page
Latitude: 34 degrees 58 minutes North
Time Zone: GMT +9 hours
Population: 2,700,000
January Weather: Snowy and cold
January Temperatures: (Average High, Low) high: 20 degrees Celcius, low: 8 degrees Celcius
January Clothing: Snow jackets, mufflers and wool pants
Land Forms: canals
Tourist Attractions: Tokyo Tower, Mt. Fuji, The Ginza
Famous For: automobile industry, Sony, Mountains
Clue Number 3
City URL: This City has a Web Page
Latitude:37 dgrees 49 minutes south
Time Zone: GMT +12 hours
Population: 3,248,811
January Weather: Rainfall avg 50 mm. Snow on nearby mountain range. Heavy frosts and fog over bay. cold
winds some warm days
January Temperatures: (Average High, Low)
high: 14 degrees Celsius, low: 2 degrees Celsius
January Clothing: Heavy warm clothes; jeans, jackets, jumpers, scarves, hats, gloves
Land Forms: mountain range to NE/ E, large bay to S, rivers
Tourist Attractions: Australian Open Golf and tennis, Australian Grand Prix, Street trams, Victorian Arts
Center, National Gallery, Phillip Island Fairy penguin reserve. Royal Botanical gardens
Famous For: John Batman, Matthew Flinders, Fairy penguin colony, street trams, international arts
festival, Australian sports and nightclub capital
82
Appendix J: GEO Game answer sheet example
City, State, Country
Clue
Number
Amsterdam, North-Holland, Netherlands
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA
Birmingham, West Midlands, England
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Caledon, Ontario, Canada
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Canberra, ACT, Australia
Genoa, Liguria, Italy
Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Kirksville, Missouri, USA
Madang, Madang, Papua New Guinea
Shelley, Idaho, USA
Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Sydney , NSW, Australia
Tarakan, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia
Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Wake Island, Wake Island, USA
Waldheim, Saskatchewan, Canada
Yigo, Guam, USA
Team: Janguani Secondary School
Name student:
Age:
Name student:
Age:
Name student:
Age:
83
Appendix K: e-mail scheme letter from developing countries
ROM:Titus Mbeki
3/5 RIDER HAGGARD
CLOSE, JO, BORG
SOUTH AFRICA.
Tel/fax;{874}-762864168
PHONE#:(874)-762864167,
RE: TRANSFER OF ($ 126,000.000.00 USD)
ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY SIX MILLION DOLLARS
Dear sir,
In order to transfer out (USD 126 MILLION) One hundred and twenty six million United States
Dollars from DEVELOPMENT BANK FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA [DBSA]. I wish to ask you to quietly look
for a reliable and honest person who will be capable and fit to provide either an existing
bank account or to set up a new Bank a/c immediately to receive this money, even an empty a/c
can also serve for this purpose. But if you can help me I will apprecite it.
I am Mr Titus Mbeki,the Auditor General of Development Bank For Southern Africa, during the
course of our auditing I discovered a floating fund in an account opened in the bank in 1990
and since 1993 nobody has operated on this account again, after going through some old files,
from the records I discovered that the owner of the account died without an heir
hence the money is floating and if I do not remit this money out urgently it will be
forfeited for nothing. The owner of this account is Mr. Allan P. Seaman, a
foreigner, and an industrialist, and he died, since 1993 and no other person knows about this
account or any thing concerning it, the account has no other beneficiary and my investigation
proved to me as well that Allan P. Seaman until his death was the manager
Diamond Safari [pty]. SA.
We will start the first transfer with Twenty Six Million [$26,000.000] upon successful
transaction without any disappoint from your side, we shall re-apply for the payment of the
remaining rest amount to your account,
I am only contacting you as a foreigner because this money cannot be approved to a local
person here, but can only be approved to any foreigner with valid
information about Mr. Allan P. Seaman who is a foreigner too.
However, I am revealing this to you with believe in God that you will never let me down when
the money enters your A/C.
Send also your private telephone and fax number including the full details of the account to
be used for the deposit
I need your full understanding and co-operation to make this work fine because the management
of the Bank is ready to approve this payment to any foreigner who has correct information of
this account, which I will give to you, upon your positive response. Two of us
will fly to your country at least two days ahead of the money going into the account.
I will use my position and influence to obtain all legal approvals for onward transfer of
this money to your account with appropriate clearance from the relevant ministries and
foreign exchange departments for easy and smooth transfer of the fund into your
account without question.
At the conclusion of this business, you will be given 35% of the total amount, 60% will be
for me, while 5% will be for expenses both parties might have incurred during the process of
transferring this money.
I am looking forward to hear from you.
Yours truly
Titus Mbeki
84
Appendix L: Post pilot questionnaire for students and teachers
Post
1
2
3
4
5
I am a
Pilot questions
student
Teacher
from
Today's Date:
Janguani Secondary School
St Matthew's Secondary School
Age (students only)
Were you able to attend all sessions?
Yes
No
How many sessions did you not attend?
What were the reasons for NOT attending?
Computer Understanding questions:
Understanding the function of the cursor
11
12
13
14
15
Understanding of the mouse pointer and navigation over the screen
od
go
ve
ry
d
go
o
ra
ge
av
e
r
po
o
no
n
Keyboard
6
7
8
9
10
e
Please rate your understanding level of the following:
Using the keyboard to type words and sentences
Using the delete and backspace buttons to correct mistakes
Using the 'shift' button and 'caps lock' for capital letters
od
go
ve
ry
d
go
o
ra
ge
av
e
r
po
o
no
n
Mouse
e
Using the navigation arrows to move through the words and lines
selecting an object with the mouse
Being able to “click and drag”; move an object
Using the right mouse button
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
loging on
23
24
25
26
27
28
Understanding of the Internet browser (e.g. Explorer)
od
go
ve
ry
d
go
o
ra
ge
av
e
r
po
o
no
n
Opperating system and applications
e
Double-clicking an object
Understanding of Icons, Buttons, toolbars and their function
Understanding the desktop including toolbars, menus and icons
Being able to start a program, use it and close it
Using several screens on top of each other (the windows)
Being able to maximise, minimise, move and close a screen
od
go
ve
ry
d
go
o
ra
ge
av
e
r
po
o
no
n
Internet Questions
e
Scrolling through a document which consists of more than one page
Understanding of search engines (e.g. www.google.com)
Understanding of Internet physical structure
Understanding of E-mail
Understanding of Chatting
Understanding of 'links'
29 Did you have an e-mail account before the pilot?
Yes
No
Please indicate whether and where the World pilot fell short of, exactly met, or exceeded your expectations:
fell short of
-3
-2
exactly met expactations
-1
0
1
2
exceeded expectations
3
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Computer Lab
Internet connection
Nr of sessions
Time per session
Teaching quality
Teaching speed
Subjects
39
40
41
42
43
Do you have any interest in computers in general or for your (future) career?
Do you think you will be using the knowledge obtained in the WorLD pilot in the near futu
Do you think you will go to internet café's more often?
To do what?
E-mail
chat
Surf
search for specific info
Other
Do you think you will teach your friends/ familly about computers/ the Internet?
World Pilot questions:
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
44 What did you like the most about the WorLD pilot? (please name at least three points)
45 What did you NOT like about the WorLD pilot? (please name at least three points)
46 Please rate your level of interest for the following (1 meaning no interest at all, 7 being very interested and that you would
like to learn more about this topi
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Computer history
Computer basics
Typing
Windows
Msword
Internet physical structure
Internet applications
Search engines
e-mail
Chatting
Other
47 What do you think the WorLD program can mean for your school?
48 What are your general thoughts on the WorLD program?
49 Please describe in a few words what you have learned!
50 I am
male
female
Thank you very much!
Allard Lamain
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