Cannel Coal in the United States

Cannel Coal in the United States
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
FRANKLIN K. LANE, Secretary
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
GEORGE OTIS SMITH, Director
Bulletin 659
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES
BY
GEORGE H. ASHLEY
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1918
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CONTENTS.
Page.
Object of the report.......................................................
Definition...................:..........................;.....,............
Classification......................................................;.......
Physical properties........................................................
General appearance....................................................
Block structure.......................................................
Bedding, grain, and fracture...........................................
Luster.................................................................
7
8
10
11
11
11
12
13
Streak.................................................................
13
Specific gravity................................................. '......
Composition..............................................................
Physical composition........................................ 1..........
Chemical composition.................................................
Comparison with other coals.......................................
Analyses............................:........................._...
Analyses of cannel coal........................................
Analyses of ash...............................................
Analyses of occluded gas.....................................;..
Igniting point.................................:.......................
Origin....................................................................
Mode of occurrence.........................................................
General features.......................................................
Deposit at Cannelton, Pa..............................................
Deposit at Bostonia, Pa.................................................
Deposit at Chenoa, Ky.................................................
Uses.....................................................................
Heating..............................................................
Gas making...........................................................
Coke making..........................................................
Oil making...........................................................
Distillation for by-products............................................
Cannel-coal mining.........................................................
Pennsylvania.........................................................
Ohio.................................................................
Indiana..............................................................
West Virginia..........................................................
Kentucky............................................................
Production...........................'....._...............................
Value....................................................................
Distribution..............................................................
Pennsylvania.........................................................
Revival of the industry..........................................
Center County..................'...................................
Clearfield County..................................................
Indiana County....................................................
3
13
14
14
15
15
17
17
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
33
34
34
34
35
41
41
44
50
50
50
50
50
51
52
54
56
56
56
56
57
58
4
CONTENTS.
Distribution Continued.
Pennsylvania Continued.
Page.
Westmoreland County.............................................
59
Armstrong County.................................................
59
Allegheny County..................................................
62
Butler County......................................................
62
Beaver County...................................... 1:.............
62
Ohio................o.................................................
63
Mahoning County..................................................
63
Coshocton County ................................."............... . 64
Licking County...................................................
66
Holmes County....................................................
67
Jackson County................................................... ' 67
Scioto County.....................................................
67
Jefferson County ....................................................
67
Indiana. .............................................................
68
Daviess County....................................................
68
Perry County.....................................................
68
Parke County......................................................
69
Illinois...............................................................
69
Michigan..............................................................
69
West Virginia..........................................................
Distribution of the coal.......................................\ ..
Preston County...................................................
Barbour County. . .........................:......................
Upshur County....................................................
Braxton County....................................................
Webster County...............................,..............'......
Nicholas County.............:.. ..................................
Kanawha County.............................:......-..............
Boone County......................................................
Lincoln County................................ '. ..................
Logan County.....................................................
Wayne County....................................................
70
70
70
71
71
73
73
73
74
77
81
82
82
Kentucky..................................................... 1......
Production.......................................................
Greenup County..................................................
Carter County.....................................................
82
82
83
84
Elliott County................................................. '....
Lawrence County.................................................
Johnson County.............:................. v...................
Morgan County.....................................................
Magoffin County....................................................
Wolfe County......................................................
Pike County........................................................
87
87
87
89
93
93
93
Floyd County.. ....................................................
94
Breathitt County...................................................
Jackson County....................................................
95
100
Letcher County. ................................. i................
101
Leslie County......................................................
Perry County.....................................................
Harlan County....................................................
Bell County.......................................................
Knox County.....................................................
102
103
104
108
109
CONTENTS.
5
Distribution Continued.
Kentucky Continued.
Page.
Clay County.........'............................................. Ill
Laurel County..................................................... Ill
Whitley County................................;................... Ill
Hancock County.................................................. 113
Tennessee............................................................
f
Alabama...............................................................
Iowa.................................................................
Missouri..............................................................
Occurrence of the coal............................................
Callaway County..................................................
Cole County...............:......................................
Cooper County...................................................
Crawford County.................................................
Jasper County......................................................
Lincoln County...................................................
Miller County....................................................
Moniteau County..................................................
Morgan County...................................................
Saline County....................................................
Arkansas..............................................................
Texas................................................................
Utah..............:..................... .............................
Index....................................................................
113
114
114
114
114
115
116
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
119
119
121
122
123
ILLUSTEATIONS.
PLATE
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
FIGURE 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Views showing block or cubical structure of cannel coal..........
Views showing fracture of cannel coal...........................
Views showing structure of "curly" or "bird's-eye" cannel coal..
Cannel-coal mining, past and present............................
Map of part of the eastern United States, showing locations of
cannel-coal deposits and position of areas shown on large scale
maps in this report..........................................
Sections of cannel coal in Kanawha County, W. Va..............
Map of part of eastern Kentucky, showing locations of cannelcoal deposits................................................
Map of part of Missouri, showing location of cannel-coal deposits...
Cross sections of cannel-coal basins.............................
Sections of cannel coal in Center, Clearfield, and Indiana counties, Pa.....................................................
Sketch map of cannel-coal area south of New Bethlehem, Armstrong County, Pa...........................................
Sections of cannel coal in Armstrong and Beaver counties, Pa....
Sketch map of cannel-coal basin in Jefferson and Bedford townships, Coshocton County, Ohio...............................
Sections of cannel coal in Ohio.................................
Sections of cannel coal in Indiana...............................
Page.
12
12
14
34
66
78
24
11
32
57
59
60
64
65
68
CONTENTS.
FIGURE 8. Sections of cannel coal in Preston, Barbour, Webster, and Nicholas
counties, W. Va..............................................
9. Map of part of West Virginia, showing locations of cannel-coal
deposits.....................................................
10. Sections of cannel coal in Boone County, W. Va.................
11. Sections of cannel coal on Pond Fork of Little Coal River, Boone
County, W. Va..............................................
12. Sections of cannel coal in Lincoln and Wayne counties, W. Va..
13. Sections of cannel coal in Greenup County, Ky...................
14. Sections of cannel coal in Carter County, Ky....................
15. Sections of cannel coal in Elliott and Johnson counties, Ky.....
16. Sections of cannel coal in Morgan County, Ky.....'...............
17. Sketch map of cannel-coal area around Cannel City, Morgan County,
Ky.........................................................
18. Sections of cannel coal in Magoffin County, Ky...................
19. Sections of cannel coal in Pike and Floyd counties, Ky..........
20. Sections of cannel coal in part of Breathitt County, Ky...........
21. Sections of cannel coal in part of Breathitt County, Ky...........
22. Sections of cannel coal in Letcher County, Ky..................
23. Sections of cannel coal in Leslie and Perry counties, Ky..........
24. Sections of cannel coal on Clover Fork of Cumberland River,
Harlan County, Ky..........................................
25. Sections of cannel coal in Harlan County, Ky...................
104
106
26. Sections of cannel coal in Bell and Knox counties, Ky...........
109
27. Sections of cannel coal in Whitley and Hancock counties, Ky....
112
71
72
76
79
81
83
85
88
90
92
93
94
96
98
101
103
CAMEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
By G. H. ASHLEY.
OBJECT OF THE REPORT.
The recent rapid growth of the chemical industries 'of the United
States, due in part to the shutting off of outside sources of supply,
has brought the country to a point where it can provide for its
own chemical needs and can reasonably expect that its products
may soon enter the world's markets. The rapid extension of the
use of motor-driven vehicles and the urgent demand for a larger
supply of high explosives have led to a greatly increased demand
for the lighter hydrocarbons and for the chemicals that are obtained by the nitration of toluene and phenol, which are derived
by distillation from by-products of the distillation of coal.
One result of this increased activity has been a demand for information about cannel coal, one of the richest substances in hydrocarbons known, though the availability of these hydrocarbons for this
growing chemical industry has yet to be proved. These hydrocarbons are now obtained by the distillation of oil and as by-products in
the .destructive distillation of coal. The primary products of this
distillation of coal are artificial gas and coke or coke alone; the
primary by-products are tar, ammonia, and benzol. The facts that
cannel coal does not yield a coke that may be used for the purpose
for which most coke is now marketed and that its cost has been
about double that of the coals now used for making gas or coke
have heretofore prevented its employment as a source of gas or
coke. The recent increased demand for these by-products, however, is putting them into the class 'of primary products, and if
the demand continues to increase as it has of late new and independent sources of hydrocarbons must be utilized. This fact has
recently led to an increasing number of inquiries of the United
States Geological Survey regarding cannel coal and has led to the
preparation of this report.
The work done on this report has made more evident the already
well-known lack of any general discussion of cannel coal. Cannel
7
8
CANCEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
coal is mentioned incidentally in a great many publications but in
most of them only as a matter of curiosity, and even if it may be
mentioned in the text of a book it has seldom been noted in the index,
so that in reviewing the literature it has been necessary to go over
many books page by page. Most of the longer memoranda on the
cannel coal of this country were made during or just after the period
of great interest in cannel coal, between 1855 and 1860, or just before
the discovery of our great reservoirs of petroleum. At that time it
was the principal source of our oil supply, nearly 60 distilleries being
in operation in the United States in 1860. The discovery of rock
oil naturally knocked the bottom out of the " coal-oil" industry, but
the new growing demand for hydrocarbons may lead to a revival of
the mining of cannel coal. In this connection it is desirable to call
attention to a fact brought out elsewhere in this report that all socalled cannel coals are not equally valuable for producing oil and
gas, notwithstanding the prices at which they may now be selling
for use in grates; two cannel coals may be of equal value for use in
grates and may therefore now bring the same price, but one may have
twice the value of the other for distillation for oil or gas.
The present paper is not intended as an original contribution to the
subject, though the writer has drawn on his own notes in describing
many of the deposits mentioned, particularly those in Pennsylvania,
Indiana, and parts of West Virginia and Kentucky. It consists of
a preliminary review of well-known facts about the character, uses,
and value of cannel coal and brief descriptions of workable deposits
of cannel coal, including cross sections of the beds, and it gives such
analyses of the coal as are available.
DEFINITION.
Cannel coai is a massive, noncaking, tough, clean, block coal of
fine, even, compact grain, dull luster, commonly conchoidal cross fracture, having a typical low fuel ratio, a high percentage of hydrogen, easy ignition, long yellow flame, black to brown greasy streak,
and moderate ash, pulverulent in burning. It is essentially a rock
derived by solidification and partial distillation or oxidation of
water-laid deposits consisting of or containing large quantities of
plant spores and pollen grains and more or less comminuted remains
of low orders of water plants and animals.
In such a deposit of decaying spore and pollen material, containing both vegetal and animal debris to which Pbtonie* has given the
name "sapropel,"-there may be admixed greater or less quantities of
mud or of woody or peaty material. The Jiigh volatile content and
high hydrogen of cannel coal appears to be derived from the spore
, Henry, Die Entstehung der Steinkohle, 5th ed., p. 3, 1910.
DEFINITION.
and pollen- and waxy material and, to an unknown extent, from
animal remains. The greater the admixture of woody or peaty
material derived from the usually adjoining peat marshes, the more
closely the cannel coal resembles chemically the associated bituminous
coals and the smaller the proportionate yield of oil by distillation.
Cannel coals in common with other coals also differ in character
and value because of changes they undergo, first by decomposition
and later by physical and chemical changes due to pressure and heat,
especially to pressure due to the weight of superimposed rocks and
to the horizontal thrusts that have locally folded and otherwise disturbed the earth's crust. The effect of these forces has -been somewhat similar to that of slow distillation, driving off first the moisture, then the higher hydrocarbons, then the heavier hydrocarbons,
and ultimately, if continued, nearly or quite all of the volatile hydrocarbons. It is evident that the deposit will be of greatest value as
a source of oil at that point where the largest percentage of water
and the smallest percentage of volatile hydrocarbons have been
driven off. Such coal may be termed typical cannel. Coals which
have not reached that rank may be called subcannels, and those
which have much passed that point and have thus lost all their
peculiar qualities may be called canneloid coals.
Typical cannel coal is distinguished from bituminous coal by the
following contrasting features :
Bituminous coal.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Laminated.
Bright and dull bands.
Prismatic fracture.
Jointing imperfect.
More or less friable.
Disintegrates by weathering.
Cannel coal.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. Soils the hands.
8. Percentage of fixed carbon higher
than that of volatile matter.
7.
8.
9. Derived from woody or peaty deposits grown in place.
9.
10. Basins commonly extensive.
10.
11. Commonly yields on distillation
less than 10,000 cubic feet of gas
.to the ton.
12. Candlepower of gas commonly less
than 17.
11.
13. Commonly cakes in burning.
13.
14.
14. Coke usually strong.
12.
Massive.
Uniform velvety or satiny luster.
Conchoidal fracture.
Jointing regular and striking.
Tough and elastic.
Weathers slowly; used for foundations of barns, etc.
Does not soil the hands.
Percentage of fixed carbon typically lower than that of volatile
matter (except in lean cannels).
Derived mainly from spores, pollen,
etc., brought in by wind and
water.
Basins rather small; many are
narrow channels.
Commonly yields on distillation
more than 10,000 cubic feet of
gas to the ton.
Candlepower of gas commonly
more than 20.
Does not cake in burning.
Coke pulverulent.
10
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Bituminous coal Continued.
Cannel coal Continued.
15. Yield of oil on distillation commonly less than one barrel to the
ton.
16. Less than 6 per cent hydrogen.
17. Ignites with difficulty.
18. Streak commonly black.
15. Yield of oil on distillation from
one to more than two barrels to
the ton.
16. More than 6 per cent hydrogen.
17. Ignites readily.
18. Streak commonly brown.
CLASSIFICATION.
The subcannel coals may be divided into two ranks, corresponding
to lignite and subbituminous coals, which may be distinguished as
brown and black subcannels.
Cannels may be divided into two or three ranks boghead cannels
having a fuel ratio of 0.5 or less, named from their resemblance to
the famous "boghead" of Scotland; cannels (including boghead),
having a fuel ratio of 1 or less; and semicannels, having a fuel ratio
of more than 1. A fuel ratio of 1 is a convenient point at which to
draw the line between the typical and the lean cannels, but further
research may show that it should be drawn a little higher or a little
lower. This high fuel ratio may be due to dynamo-chemical changes,
which decrease the percentage of volatile hydrocarbons, or to admixture of peaty elements in the original deposits, or to both.
If the fuel ratio of a cannel coal is more than 1 and the pure
coal of the associated bituminous coal contains less than 65 per
cent fixed carbon, the high fuel ratio is probably due to the presence
of peaty elements in the original deposits. As such coals stand between bituminous and cannel coal they are properly called semicannels. On the other hand, low-volatile cannels that are associated with
high-carbon bituminous coals may have been originally either nonpeaty cannels or peaty cannels. A detailed investigation of the constitution of these coals would doubtless reveal significant differences
between these types and future distillation practice may disclose
economic differences in the yield of certain hydrocarbons, for instance. At present, however, for practical purposes they may all be
considered lean cannels or semicannels.
Cannels that are associated with semibituminous, semianthracite,
and anthracite coals and that have so far lost any peculiar advantage over the coals with which they are associated as not to be
separated in mining, marketing, or use may be classified, according
to their nature, as canneloid, semibituminous, semianthracite, or
anthracite.
Cannel coals may therefore be classified, largely in genetic sequence,
as follows:
1. Subcannel coal:
(a) Brown subcannel, of brown coal or lignite rank.
(&) Black subcannel, of subbituminous rank.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
11
2. Cannel coal of bituminous rank:
(a) Boghead cannel (fuel ratio less than 0.5).
(&) Cannel, typical (fuel ratio less than 1).
(c) Lean cannels or seinicannels (fuel ratio more than 1).
3. Canneloid, semibituminous, semianthracite, or anthracite coal.
The grade of a cannel coal varies with the amount of ash or other
impurity it contains. The bodies of water in which the cannels were
laid down were at some places subject to inflows of mud, so that the
deposit at such places might contain from less than 5 per cent to
100 per cent of ash, or might range from a pure cannel coal to a nonbituminous shale. The line between a coal and a shale has never
been sharply drawn, but the suggestion is here made that material
which, when burned, breaks down and yields an ash that goes
through the grate bars and shows no tendency to maintain its original shape is a coal, and that material which on burning yields an
ash that tends to maintain its original shape is a shale. The exact
percentage of ash that should distinguish a coal from a shale can
not yet be given, but until more exact figures are available it is suggested that material that yields less than 33 per cent of ash be considered a coal.
High ash, though it reduces the grade of a cannel coal, does not
necessarily mean that the coal will not yield a large proportion of
hydrocarbons, for many original deposits were not laid down in peat
bogs and so contain little woody material. Such deposits may therefore yield coal that is rich in oil-making elements even though they
may be high in ash. Thus an analysis of Scotch boghead (p. 28)
shows nearly 20 per cent of ash, but more than TO per cent of volatile
hydrocarbons and about 10 per cent of fixed carbon. Some of the
boghead shales of this country will yield from a barrel to more than
two barrels of crude oil per ton of rock. Thus, as David White has
suggested, such coals may be arranged in a series ranging from cannels through boghead cannels and cannel bogheads to bogheads.
The Scotch boghead and other bituminous shales have long been
distilled for oil, and such shales are abundant in this country.
Nearly all the coals described in this report are cannel coals, but
a few analyses of canneloid coals are given for comparison, and a
typical brown subcannel from Arkansas, a black subcannel from
Utah, and a subcannel from Texas are briefly described.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
General appearance. Cannel
geneous, fine-grained coal, much
ness of grain and in fracture.
Block structure. The bed is
many of which extend from the
coal is a nearly dull black, homoof it resembling black flint in finecommonly split by vertical joints,
roof to the floor. These joints are
12
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
nearly everywhere regularly spaced and occur in two sets that run
nearly at right angles to each other. As a result the coal may mine
out in blocks having almost a square cross section and a thickness
ranging from the full thickness of the bed down to a few inches.
The size of the blocks' depends on the distance between the joints.
In some places such joints are several feet apart; and the coal may
be mined out in cubes measuring several feet on an edge. More
commonly it is mined in cubes the size of a man's head or smaller.
(See PL I.) This cubical structure is shown on a small scale in
Plate II, B.
Bedding, grain, and fracture. Cannel coal generally shows no
bedding or horizontal banding but is even grained or massive
throughout. At some places, however, as at Boghead, Ky., blocks
of coal that are greatly weathered may have somewhat the appearance of the charred edges of a burned book and may split along
bedding places into thin sheets, one of which, measured by the
writer, had a thickness of -^ of an inch. In other cannels weathering brings out a wavy structure, possibly the results of ripple
marks on the original deposit. A coal that will weather into thin
sheets may, when unweathered, have the massive appearance and fracture of a piece of nontransparent black flint. The evenness of grain
permits the coal to be carved into desk weights or other objects.
Indeed, the well-known material jet, used for making jewelry, is
only a variety of cannel coal. The cross fracture of cannel coal is
generally conchoidal, like that of glass. (See PI. II, A.)
In some districts the cannel coal is what is known locally as " bird'seye" or "curly." The fracture surfaces of this variety are small
and irregular. (See PL III.) The two varieties may be found
in the same mine, as were two of the specimens shown in Plates II
and III.
Cannel coal that occurs in rocks which have been subjected to folding or which have been under heavy stress lose their characteristic
structure and fracture and may become friable or tender and acquire
a fracture and structure like that of the surrounding bituminous or
anthracite coal, which it then resembles chemically as well as physically, though the two are distinguishable. Thus, at the Lula mine,
near Philipsburg, Center County, within a few miles of the eastern
edge of the bituminous coal field of Pennsylvania, there is a coal
that was evidently originally a cannel, as it still has the typical dull,
satiny luster of cannel, but its fracture is only slightly conchoidal
and that of most of it is similar to the fracture of the associated
bituminous coal, which in that area is long grained. It has also
become friable, and instead of breaking, as usual, into blocks that
split readily with the bedding and only with difficulty across the
U. 6. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
BULLETIN 659
B.
VIEWS SHOWING BLOCK OR CUBICAL STRUCTURE OF COAL.
PLATE I
BULLETIN 659
U. 8. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
VIEWS SHOWING FRACTURE OF CANNEL COAL.
PLATE II
13
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
bedding it may be shattered by a slight blow of the hammer into
slivers or chunks 6 inches to a foot or more long and 2 or 3 inches
through, whose longest, diameter is perpendicular to the bedding
planes; and if such a chunk falls only a few feet to the ground it
is likely to break into pieces, none of which are more than 2 inches
long by half an inch square; and if handled much, most of this coal
will crumble to fine dust. Obviously, this structure is due to the
intense pressure to which the coals and the rocks that contained it
have been subjected. David White has called attention to lenses of
anthracite that still have enough of the features of cannel to indicate
that they were originally true cannel coals, though to-day they are
true anthracite. (See pp. 16,17.)
Luster. Cannel coal has a dull, even velvety sheen, resembling
that of a fine-dressed black leather new harness leather. The
curly variety, if examined at right angles to the bedding, shows a
dead black matrix mottled by dully glistening spots. (See PI. III.)
Some "bird's-eye" cannel has an irregular pitted appearance, as
illustrated by Hendrie.1
Streak. The streak of cannel coal that is, the color of the mark
it makes when rubbed against some other substance is brown to
black. Typically it is an oily brown.
Specific gravity.- The specific gravity of pure cannel coals is less
than the average of bituminous coals that contain the same percentage of ash, and in most cannels that have the same percentage of
ash the larger the percentage of volatile matter the lighter the
coal that is, the less its specific gravity. The following table shows,
first, the change in specific gravity with change of ash where the
fuel ratio remains about the same; second, the change in specific
gravity with change in fuel ratio where the ash remains about the
same.
Relation of specific gravity to percentage of ash in cannel coal.
Locality.
Mouth of Troublesome Creek, Breathitt County, Ky.6
Branch of Horselick Creek, Jackson County, Ky c. . .
Specific
gravity.
1.21
1.265
1.32
1.38
1 30
Long Branch of Martins Fork, Harlem County, Ky. «.
1.43
1.51
Ash.
3.00
7.30
8.76
9.9
11.44
13..2
24.6
Volatile
matter.
Fixed
carbon.
Fuel
ratio.
48.9
47.0
43.6
44.7
40 -t
40.2
34.6
47.0
44.4
45.5
42.9
O
40 o
44.0
39.4
Qft
.94
1.04
QA
1 04
1.09
1.14
o Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull. 11, p. 27,1910.
6 Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, p. 221,1884.
c Idem, p. 273.
<J Newberry, J. S., Ohio Geol. Survey Rept. Progress for 1870, p. 420,1871.
< Peter, Robert, op. cit., p. 265.
1 Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann.
Rept., p. 89, 1894.
14
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Relation of specific gravity to fuel ratio in cannel coal.
Specific
gravity.
Locality.
Nichols Fork of .Frozen Creek, Breathitt County,
Fuel
ratio.
Volatile
matter.
Fixed
carbon.
Ash.
1.14
1.16
0.42
.54
64.1
27.0
32.3
79
7.4
1.18
1.235
1.21
1.291
1.33
.60
.72
1.04
1.34
1.39
58.8
<;i a
46.6
38.2
36.9
35.3
4.7
8.2.
5.00
8.8
7.1
59.7
V7 ^
40.8
51.0
51.2
a Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Rept. 1858-59, p. 114,1861.
b Peter, Robert, op. cit.,"p. 315.
c Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, p. 221,1884.
d Idem, p. 292.
e Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull. 11, p. 27,1910.
/ Idem p. 275.
g Crandall, A. R., Report on the Chirms Branch cannel coal district: Kentucky Geol. Survey Repts.
on eastern coal field, C, p. 6 [200], 1884.
Were a large enough number of determinations made it might be
possible to give, at least approximately, the relative weight-giving
value of ash and fixed carbon. However, enough has been given to
show the basis for the common rule that the lighter the cannel coal
the greater its value.
COMPOSITION.
The composition of cannel coal is determined in three ways by
microscopic examination, by dissolving out its component parts by
pyridine or other solvent, and by destructive distillation or analysis.
PHYSICAL COMPOSITION.
The fundamental differences between typical cannel coal and
typical bituminous coal appear to result from the fact that they were
deposited under different conditions and consequently were composed
of different original substances, which formed different decomposition
products. It is now very generally agreed that most coal is transformed peat. Cannel coal, however, appears to have been formed in
part from decayed spores or pollen and other floating remains of
plants, as well as of remains of minute or slow-moving animals, such
as are commonly found to-day in the bottoms of lakes. In a peat
bog decay is only partial, but in the more open waters of lakes or
lagoons, whether surrounded by bogs or not, decomposition is likely
to affect almost the whole mass of organic matter that settles to the
bottom except the spore cases, or outer coverings of the spores, which
are naturally very resistant, and some few other end products.
These spores appear to have been mainly those of ferns and related
plants, which were abundant during the' Carboniferous period as
well as later, and most of which were much larger and on the whole
far more abundant than those of to-day. Associated with material
U. 8. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
BULLETIN 659
VIEWS SHOWING STRUCTURE OF "CURLY" OR "BIRD'S-EYE" CANNEL COAL,
PLATE III
COMPOSITION.
15
of this type in some deposits of cannel coal, according to Newberry,1 there are abundant remains of fish and other free-swimming animals. Many of the spore cases, though flattened, are well
preserved; others are broken down into a pulp or ooze. According
to Von Giimbel, Bertrand, Renault, and Thiessen 2 cannel coal, when
viewed under the miscroscope in thin sections, consists mainly of spore
cases in different stages of decay, with which are associated a very
minor proportion of other bodies, like particles of resin, resistant seed
coats, fragments of cuticle, and waxy bodies. In view of the difference in resistance to decay between the spore cases and the watergrowing plants, such as algae, it may be doubted whether the presence
of spore cases only should be taken as proof that spores have been the
main source of the carbonaceous material. Associated with this pure
coal matter is a greater or less proportion (10 to almost 100 per cent)
of clay or sand, which forms the ash. As the proportion of shaly
matter increases the coal changes to a bituminous or oil shale and
locally to a nonbituminous shale.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER COALS.
Most cannel coals may be distinguished from other bituminous
coals by the large proportion of high-candlepower volatile matter
that is driven off from them at high temperatures or the large proportion of oil that is driven off at low temperatures and by the
high percentage of hydrogen they yield on ultimate analysis.
Doubtless more fundamental chemical differences would be found
were it possible to determine exactly the chemical combinations
existing in the coals, but no method of doing this completely has
yet been devised. An ordinary analysis of coal may show either the
proportions of the elements it contains or the products that may be
obtained by heating the coal to a certain high temperature the
products differing according to the temperature and pressure applied.
By the usual methods of analysis, bituminous coals will yield
from 45 to 75 per cent of fixed carbon and from 20 to 45 per cent of
volatile matter. The fuel ratio of such coals that is, the ratio of
the fixed carbon to the volatile matter will range from 1 or a
little over for the coals of the Mississippi Valley to 2 or more for the
coals in the eastern Appalachian field.
1 Newberry, J. S., On the mode of formation of cannel coal: Am. Jour. Sci., 2d ser., vol.
23, p. 214, 1857.
2 White, David, and Thiessen, Reinhardt, The origin of coal: Bur. Mines Bull. 38, pp.
248 et seq., 1913.
16
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
In contrast with these figures, typical cannel coals contain from
25 to 45 per cent fixed carbon and from 45 to 70 per cent volatile
matter, or gas, the fuel ratio ranging from 1 down to 0.5 or less.
This difference is shown by comparing the analysis of a sample of
cannel coal with that of a sample of bituminous coal from a different
bench of the same bed.
Analyses of cannel and bituminous coal from the same bed.
[C, cannel coal; B, bituminous coal.]
Volatile
matter.
Fixed carbon.
Fuel ratio.
Ash.
Locality.
Troublesome Creek. Breathitt County, Ky. 6 ...........................
Quicksand Creek. Breathitt County,
Ky.c. .............................
Chenoa, Bell County, Ky. <*. .........
C
B
C
B
C
64.1
35.9
27.0
53.3
7.9
6.5
0.42
1.49
48.2
38.0
44.2
52.0
4.7
4.7
.91
1.37
66.2
51.6
39.6
32.6
29.7
40.4
48.0
62.3
3.6
7.0
10.6
3.4
.44
.77
1.21
1.90
B
C
B
a Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Kept., for 1858-59, p. 114,1861.
b Hodge. J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 27.1910.
« Fobs, F. H., Coals of the region drained by the Quicksand creeks: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 18,
p. 77,1912.
d Ashley, G. H., and Glenn, L. C., Geology and mineral resources of part of Cumberland Gap coal
field Ky.: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 49, p. 95,1906.
Many coals (see p. 12) that have the appearance and some that
have the physical properties of cannel coal do not have the same high
volatile content or low fuel ratio. The cannel coal that is so extensively mined at Cannel City, Ky., for example, has an average content of about 40 per cent of volatile matter and 50 per cent of fixed
carbon, indicating a fuel ratio of about 1.25. Cannel coal mined
at Cannelton, Ind., contains 28 to 35 per cent of volatile matter and
58 to 60 per cent of fixed carbon. 'The cannel coal of Armstrong
County, Pa., contains 30 to 31 per cent of volatile matter and 46 to
49 per cent of fixed carbon.
The low content of volatile matter in Pennsylvania cannels may be
due to the loss of volatile matter by the pressure to which the rocks in
that field have been subjected. This probability is perhaps best
shown by comparing the proportion of volatile matter and fixed
carbon in coal taken from benches of the same bed at points across
the State in a line from west to east. First are given analyses from
the lean or semicannel and bituminous parts of a bed.in Armstrong
County near the center of the western coal field of the State; next
are given analyses from the Blossburg field of Tioga County, where
the coal is of semibituminous rank; then from the Barclay field in
Bradford County, the next county to the east; and last from the semianthracite field of Bernice, Sullivan County.
COMPOSITION.
17
Changes in benches of Pennsylvania coal undergoing loss of volatile matter.
Bituminous or semibituminous
bench.
Canneloid bench.
Location.
VolaFixed Ash.
tile
matter. carbon.
Southeast of New Salem, Armstrong
County o. ..........................
Fall Brook, Tioga County 6. .........
37.8
17.1
15.0
9.0
53.1
66.2
71.3
63.7
6.7
14.9
12.1
24.6
Fuel
ratio.
1:1.40
1:3.86
1:4. 74
1:7.06
VolaFixed Ash.
tile
matter. carbon.
37.9
20.8
17.0
9.6
52.7
70.8
75.9
82.3
6.7
6.5
5.4
5.5
Fuel
ratio.
1:1.39
1:3. 40
1:4.44
1:8.64
o McCreath, A. S., Third report of progress in the laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg: Pennsylvania
Second Geol. Survey Kept. M3, p. 57,1881.
& McCreath, A. S., Second report of progress in the laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg: Pennsylvania
Second Geol. Survey Kept. M2, p. 79,1879.
«Idem, p. 80.
<J Idem, p. 82.
(
David White 1 has recently called attention to the fact that
petroleum does not occur in rocks near a bed of coal containing 65
per cent or more of fixed carbon, having apparently been driven
off by heat and pressure. The fact that the semicannel coals from
Armstrong County lie east of the oil field of Pennsylvania indicates
that the action which restricted the Pennsylvania oil field also made
semicannel of cannel coals. As these semibituminous and semianthracite canneloid coals from Tioga County eastward have so little
in common with the true cannels in commercial use, they are not
further considered in this report.
The semicannel coals of the Mississippi Valley States, such as
those in Kentucky, lie so close to cannel coals high in volatile matter
as to lead to the belief that the two may have had a very different
origin. Thus, at Cannel City, Ky., in a single hill, there are two coal
beds, one a typical cannel containing 52 per cent of volatile matter
and 36 per cent of fixed carbon and the other, which is mined mainly
as cannel, containing only 40 per cent of volatile matter and 50 per
cent of fixed carbon. The cause of this difference has not yet been
determined.
ANALYSES.
ANALYSES OF CANNEL COAL.
The tables which follow give, first, a few recent proximate and
ultimate analyses of cannel coals that were properly sampled; next
a few earlier ultimate analyses; next, for reference, a large number
of earlier proximate analyses, many of which represent averaged
samples, though some have been made from selected coal or hand
1 White, David, Some relations in origin between coal and petroleum: Washington
Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 5, p. 212, 1915.
87775°
-Bull. 659 2
18
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
specimens rather than from the average commercial product. The
ash in most of these analyses is probably lower than in the commercial coal, but the analyses are of value as indicating the richness
of the coal in volatile matter, and the ash, as determined in many
of them, is probably not far from that of the commercial coal.
Practically all the earlier analyses of cannels were made of airdried coal that had been shipped to the laboratory in bags or boxes
rather than in air-tight metal or glass receptacles, such as are commonly used to-day. As all the coals of the Appalachian field, however, carry small percentages of moisture, the air-drying loss in most
of the samples has been very small. Moisture has, however, not been
included in most of the tables.
5
4
3
2
1
No.
of
analysis.
B
B
5306
5308
1
2
3
r
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
7.3
15.7
1.7
2.2
2.3
46.9
50.6
67.6
41.9
49.7
59.9
50.7
51.6
57.0
50.6
51.7
57.9
48.4
49.5
55.5
22.4
24.2
32.3
28.0
33.2
40.0
38.2
38.8
42.9
36.7
37.5
42.0
38.7
39.6
44.4
23.2
25.0
14.3
17.0
9.3
9.4
10.4
10.7
10.4
10.7
Ash.
1.61
1.74
2.32
1.32
1.57
1.89
1.02
1.04
1.15
.99
1.01
1.13
1.20
1.23
1.38
Sulphur.
6.18
5.79
7.73
1.16
1.38
1.66
1.06
1.14
1.52
51-88
56.00
74.75
1.31
1.33
1.47
73.25
74.52
82.31
6.83
6.75
7.46
51.96
61.67
74.32
1.17
1.20
1.34
72.01
73.63
82.45
6.57
6.47
7.25
6.11
5.17
6.23
1.16
1.19
1.33
71.98
73.72
82.59
6.47
6.36
7.13
Hydro- Carbon. Nitrogen.
gen.
16.03
10.25
13.68
25.11
13.19
15.90
8.28
6.89
7.61
8.80
6.99
7.83
8.70
6.76
7.57
1.1
4.5
.4
1.3
1.5
5,733
6,210
8,290
5,280
6,270
7,555
7,950
8,050
8,900
7,640
7,810
8,750
7,650
7,835
8,780
10,360
11,800
14, 920
9,510
11,280
13,600
14,250
14,500
16,010
13, 750
14,060
15, 730
13,770
14,100
15,800
Oxy- Air dry- Calo- British
gen. ing loss. ries. thermal
units.
o Lord, N. W., and others. Analyses of coals: Bur. Mines Bull. 22, pp. 105, 194, 1913.
6 A, Mine sample collected by an inspector of the Geological Survey; B, mine sample collected by a geologist of the Survey.
c 1, Sample as received; 2, dried at temperature of 105° C.; 3, moisture and ash free.
KANE COUNTY, UTAH.
Glendale. 13 miles northwest of, NE. j sec. 26,
T. 39 S., R. 9 \\'., on North Fork Virgin
River, Cannel King prospect, 66-inch bench,
upper 2 feet (subcannel).
Same, lower 3i feet. ...........................
A
A
7132
5437
A.
7133
LaboraCondi- MoisFixed
tory Kind. & tion. c ture. Volatile
matter. carbon.
No.
Lesley (East Point post office), Lesley mine,
Lesley bed, cannel coal.
Flambeau, southeast of, 400 yards up mountain side, Flambeau mine, cannel oed, on
chain pillar (150 feet southeast of opening,
main entry 1, 18-inch cut).
Same, 250 feet southeast of opening, entry 5,
514-inch cut.
JOHNSON COUNTY, KY.
Locality and bed.
Proximate and ultimate analyses of cannel and subcannel coals.a
20
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Additional ultimate analyses of cannel coal.
No. of
analysis.
6.
7
8
g
10
11
Condition.o
Locality.
la
3
la
3
la
la
la
3
la
3
3
.....do..........................
.....do..........................
Haddock, Owsley County, Ky. c.
.....do..........................
Scotch cannel. Nova Scotia « ....
.....do..........................
12
Ash.
Sulphur.
18.6
0.15
14.8
2.4
3.0
.1
.2
Tr.
2.4
12.0
Carbon.
Hydrogen.
1.4
1.6
1.4
9.1
11.2
6.4
7.8
6.1
9.2
5.7
5.9
9.7
11.5
6.08
Nitrogen.
65.3
80.4
68
82.3
76.7
85.4
78.9
81.9
70.5
83.2
79.2
0.7
.8
2.2
2.7
13
3.0
11
3
3
1.1
Oxy- Moisgen. ture.
5.4
6.7
5.3
7.0
7.
2 9
7
12.1
0
5
7.2
1.2
3.2
o la, As received, probably crudely air dried; 3, moisture and ash free.
6 Peter, Robert, Second chemical' report of the ores, rocks, soils, coals, etc., of Kentucky: Kentucky
Geol. Survey Second Rept., p. 213,1857.
c Idem, p. 255.
d Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and other distilled oDs, 2d ed., p. 23, New
York, BailJiere Bros., 1865.
e Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Second Rept., p. 57,1857.
/ Idem, p. 59.
Analyses of Arkansas Camden coal (typical of brown subcannel).
No.of
analysis.
13
14
15
16
17
18
Analyst.
Locality.
.... .do.". .......................
Sec. 12, -T. 13 S., R. 18 W.b.....
.....do.c........................
Sec. 10, T. 12 S., R. 18W.6.....
VolaSul- Thicktile Fixed
mat- car- Ash. phur. ness of
bon.
bed.
ter.
Condi- Moistions ture.
G. Steiger.
A
...do......
B
...do...... . A
...do......
B
...do......
A
...do......
B
38.7
11.2
38.0
11.0
32.7
9.5
36.9
44.0
37.1
47.9
32.9
46.2
16.9
33.6
79.9
32.8
23.3
29.4
7.5
11.0
5,8
8.2
11 3
14.4
0,5
.7
.4
.5
.4
.6
Inches.
42
42
a A, Analysis of fresh sample; B, analysis of sample after long drying.
6 Taff, 3. A., Preliminary report on the Camden coal field of southwestern Arkansas: U.S. Geol. Survey
Twenty-first Ann. Rept., pt. 2, p. 326,1900.
c Idem, p. 327.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal.
.a
>>
.g
g .
730"
O si
i 1?§ "S*
^ ^
2
"3
tM
cS
Locality.
<§ ft
"Analyst.
'OT ®
jsra
0
Srt-&
"'~'
o
o>
ft
m
ig
(
^ <3
13 "^
"o
^
"3
8o
,0
01
V)
20
5^
S
"^
1
A
ft
3
02
do
Cj ,Q
ae
INDIANA.
DAVIESS COUNTY.
19
20
i
i
Cannelburg o. ............
.....do.ob................
2b McTaggart and
Cowder.
2b E. T. Cox... ......
40
^y. n
\) 26.3 23 1
1.4
42.0
1.0
48.5
6.0
In.
PAEKE COUNTY.
Bethany 6 ...............
21
2b .....do............ ...... 47.0 43.0
4.5 ......
2c .....do............
2.0
6.0
PEKRY COUNTY.
22
23
2
2
Cannelton, middle part &.
Cannelton, Rock Island
mine, c
2c .....do............
43.0
42.0
48.5
45.5
o Ashley, G. H., The coal deposits of Indiana: Indiana Dept. Geology and Nat. Res. Twenty-third Ann.
Rept.,-pp. 988, 989, 1570, 1899.
bCox, E. T., Indiana Geol. Survey Third and Fourth Ann. Repts., p. 187,1872.
cldem, p. 183.
21
COMPOSITION.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
analNo.
ofysis.
&
d£>
*l
p.8
Clas if cation (See
10).
p.
Analyst.
Locality.
i«>>
03
A
Thoficknes
Ficarxbedon.
(D fe
3"
1
Sulphur.
bed.
a
<!
ILLINOIS.
M'LEAN COUNTY.
24
25
.....do.o........- : ........
2b
2b
....................
In.
41.2 30.2 25.7
30.9 30.3 39.6
6
10
LA SALLE COUNTY.
26
mine. »
2b
39.7 33.6 23.3
2c
39.0 39.2
2b
30.8 28.2 36.0 11.0
IOWA.
WEBSTER COUNTY.
Kalo*..... ...............
27
15.8
7.12
GUTHRIE COUNTY.
no
KENTUCKY.
BELL COUNTY.
31
32
fJO
i
2 Chenoa, Bear Creek e.. ..
Straight Creek./
2a
2b
2c
52. 2 25.1
51.6 40.4
1.25 40.9 55.1
17.8 2.9
7.0 .7
2.0
18
45
BEEATHITT COUNTY.
0-36
Troublesome Creek,
2b R. Peter.......... 1.26 47.0 44.4 7.3 1.5
mouth, g
60.6
30.4
0-36
9.0
35
2b Consolidated Gas
1 Troublesome Creek,
Haddix mine.ft
Co., N. Y.
0-36
36
1 Troublesome Creek,
2b B. Peter.......... 1.21 48.9 47.0 3.0 .2
Haddix mine. <
0-36
37
1 .....do................... 2b .....do............. 1.21 46.6 46.8 5.0 .8
, 1
48.2 44.2 4.7 .7
38
2b
Hargismine.y
39
57.0 36.5 5.5
1 Troublesome Creek *..... 2b R. Peter..........
......
40
50.9 36.7 11.7
2 Troublesome Creek,
2b
Noble Branch.*
9p
41
6.2 .6
1.28 43.4 46.9
3
Fugitt Branch.ro T»
42
4
64.6 9Q 9 4.0 .8
2a
bian Exposition, o
43
4 GeorgesBranch;sampler,
2b R. Peter.......... 1.28 52.3 35.5 11.1 1.4 ......
P. N. Moore.p
o Grout, F. F., Cannel coal in northern Illinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 198,1907.
b Keyes, C. R., Coal deposits of Iowa: Iowa Geol. Survey, vol. 2, p. 509,1894.
«Idem, p. 505.
<* Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector- of Mines Tenth Aon. Rept.,
p. 148,1894.
t Crandall, A. R., and Sullivan, G. M., Report on the coal field adjacent to Pineville Gap in Bell and
Knox counties: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 14, p. 20, 1912.
/ Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. for 1854 and 1855, p. 224,1856.
a Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, p. 219,1884.
ft Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept.,
p. 132, 1894.
i Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull. 11, p. 27, 1910.
i Hodge, J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of parts of Letcher, Harlan, Leslie, Perry, and Breathitt
counties, p. 52a, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
* Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. for 1854 and 1855, p. 212,1856.
I Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull, 11, p. 28.1910. '
m Peter, Robert, op. cit., p. 221.
n Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull. 11, p. 45,1910.
o Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 137.
P Peter, Robert, op. cit., p. 220.
34
1
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
22
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
analNo.
ofysis.
.a
1
Analyst.
Locality.
o
Volatile
mat-
Clas if cation (See
10).
p.
ter.
carFixbon.ed
Sulphur.
C n
a?
n
4
IP
fto
03
KENTUCKY Contd.
BREATHITT COUNTY COn.
4
2b R. Peter..........
58.0
34.0
45
Georges Branch; sampler,
C. Hendrie.o 6
4 Georges Branch c ........
33.7
4.4
46
2b Consolidated Gas
Co., N. Y.
2b T. Egleston.......
61.9
4
45.4
40.1
12.8
47
4
54.0
34.4
10.9
41.7
33.3
24.2
44.0
39.9
15.4
R.Peter.......... 1.36 58.8 35.3
4.7
44
48
4Q
50
51
52
GeorgesBranch; sampler,
T. Egleston.d 6
Georges Branch, carload
lot*
5 North Fork Kentucky
River, Wolf Creek.b/
6
bottom.?
Nichols Fork, Frozen
Creek.*
7 .....do.".. ..............
6-9 Quicksand Creek <* . .....
^ 7
2b
2b
1.27
2b
2b
7.4
2b .....do............. 1.36 43.2 33.8 21.4
9.8
44.2 43.4
2b T. Egleston.......
43.1 43.3 11.4
2c R. Peter..........
1.0
1.7
.4
2.5
1.2
4.6
10-12
54
12
2c
48.2
9.5
1.2
1.7
4.9
3.8
1.5
57
14
2c .....do.............
2b R.Peter.......... 1.21 56.7 38.1
68.0 28.2
2a Consolidated Gas
Co., N. Y.
66.2 29.7
2a T. Egleston.......
4.9
58
58a
59
60
61
14 .....do.o P.. ..............
14
20
22 Cockerill Fork r . .........
19
54a
55
56
Stacy Branch of South
Quicksand Creek.d n
T. Egleston.......
39.4
45.6
2a
2a
2c
2b
2b
R. Peter..........
T. Egleston.......
R. Peter.......... 1 27
.....do............ Ti7"
.....do............
66.2
62.4
41.1
50.6
53.8
47.1
29.7
31.4
46.7
36.7
39.5
37
.....
CO
pier, J. R. Proctor./
South Fork Quicksand
Creek, lower mine.d
12 South Fork Quicksand
Creek, upper mine.d
13
..do.' "»..... ...
13
In.
-----
36
10-16
3.6
21
3.6
21
6.0
18
1. 2
11.2
11.3 ...... ......
5.3
CARTER COUNTY.
62
1
63
1
64
66
1
4
5
67
5
Stinson Creek, Tarkiln
Branch.*
Stinson Creek, Stinson
mine.*
Stinson Creek M. .........
Little Sandy River, 6
miles south of Leon.w
.....do...................
Crawford cannel, near
Grayson.z
68
2a R. Peter.......... 1.14 64.1 27.0
7.9
2.8
2a .....do............ 1.20 66.3 28.3
4.8
1.3 ......
57.0 34.5 6.5
2b "".'do!.'!!"".".'" 1.21 qo
c 49 7 W Q
1 AA
2c
7.6
61.1 30.3
2a Dr. Stebbins......
2b
Co., N. Y.
2b R. Peter.........
1.21
58.7
34.5
5.9
57.0
34.5
6.5
7 Q
CLAY COUNTY.
1.2
1.16 44.1 43.7 11.8
5
2b
32.3 35.2 32.0 6.0
15
Beech Creek s. ..........
2c .....do...........
o Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 135.
6 Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 71,1910.
c Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 136.
d Hodge, J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of parts of Letcher, Harlan, Leslie, Perry, and
Breathitt counties, p. 52a, Kentucky Geol. Survey. 1887.
e Crandall. A. R., Coals of the Licking Valley region: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 65,1910.
/ Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. ll,j>p. 65, 71,1910.
g Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Kept., p. 95,1861.
h Crandall, A. R., op. cit., p. 64.
69
70
2
3
< Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, p. 219,1884.
/ Idem, p. 220.
ft Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 96,1861.
' Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 143.
m Fobs, F. H., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 18, p. 35,1912.
n Idem, p. 30.
o Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 142.
P Fobs, F. H., op. cit., p. 77.
q Hodge, J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of the lower North Fork, Middle and South forks
Kentucky River, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
r Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 139.
Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Rept., p. 114,1861.
< Idem, p. 111.
« Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. for 1854 and 1855, p. 201,1856.
v Idem. p. 270.
v> Hendrie, Charles, op. cit.,p. 147.
* Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. for 1854 and 1855, p. 69,1856.
23
COMPOSITION.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
analNo.
ofysis.
,g
,?'£
»f
>
Clas if cation 10).
(See
p.
Locality.
Analyst.
1
o tA
Volmatatil-e
ter.
Thoficknes
carFixbon.ed
Sulphur.
bed.
tdS
0,8
4<
W
KENTUCKY-Contd.
i
GEEENUP COUNTY.
5.7
2.7
7.1
12.4
0.7
.8
3.9
1.5
Breckinridge cannel « /...
2a R.Peter and Tal- 1.21 59.6 27.0 12.1
1.8
76
77
78
1 .....do.ff..... .............
1 .....do.ff A................
1 Breckinridge cannel, av-
2b R.Peter........... 1.31 34.4 32.0 12.1
2a .....do............. 1.33 62.4 28.2 7.9
61.4 30.0 8.0
2a D. D. Owen.......
79
1
80
1
71
72
73
74
2
2
Chinns Branch d .........
75
1
1.30
2t»
2c R.Peter..........
2c .....do............ 1.33
2b .....do............
52.2
40.2
36.9
47.3
40.6
52.4
51.2
38.2
In.
58
54
24
HANCOCK COUNTY.
erage of 4 samples.!/
erage sample. »
bott.
22-28
22-28
22-28
22-28
2a R. Peter..........
59.6
27.0
12.1
1.9
22-28
2a
61.3
30.0
8.0
Tr.
22-28
2o R. Peter.......... 1.51 34.6 39.4 24.6
1.2
38
HARLAN COUNTY.
81
Fork.*
82
3
83
84
85
15
Rfi
14
14
kum.'
John Branch."
.....do.............
21.8
29.6
47.4
5.4
15
2b A. S. McCreath....
2b .....do.............
32.2
2c .....do.............
47.9
42.8
40.6
17.7
20.1
7.9
.8
.5
2.3
33
22
40
Op
17 Q
KA
Q
7.0
1.9
40
i w
41.0
«
1
13.9
1.0
21
2c .....do............. 1.32
43.6
45.5
8.7
3.3
9
2f
41 8
9p
40.2
53.6
2b
2b "N.'w.'Lord" '.'.'... ...... 55.0
2b
51.6
2b .....do.............
49.5
51.7
2b .....do.............
46.0
51.0
11.0
8.8
5.1
6.3
9.4
10.7
10.7
9r»
47.9
JACKSON COUNTY.
9r«
87
southeast or Richmond. o
Branch of Horse Lick o . .
88
4
89
89a
90
91
92
93
94
1
1
4 EastPointr. ............
4
9 Flambeau ...............
9 .....do.*..................
95
96
1
2
JOHNSON COUNTY.
0
<?Q fi
36. 2
38.8
39.6
37.5
.9
.9
.8
.9 ""69
1.0
1.2
1.0
KNOTT COUNTY.
Trace Fork of Soto Creek t
Carr Creek. « »
2c
2b
1.25
44.1
49.4
44.8
6.0
ft Q
.7
.7
o Peter,:
, Robert. Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, p. 167,1884.
6 Norwood. C. J., A report on the reconnaissance of a part of the Breckinridge cannel-coal district: Kentucky Geol. Survey Repts. on western coal field, D, p. 217 [25], 1884.
cOwen D. D. .Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Rept., p. 171,1861.
d Crandall, A. R.,Report on the Chinns Branch cannel-coal district: Kentucky Geol. Survey Repts. on
eastern coal field C, p. 6 [200], 1884.
e Crandall, A. R., Coals of the Licking Valley region: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 65,1910.
/ Peter, Robert, op. clt., p. 83.
g Norwood, C. J., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept., p. 13,1894.
ft Idem, p. 177.
* Idem, p. 14.
i Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and other distilled oils, 2d ed., p. 51, New York,
Bailliere Bros., 1865.
k Peter, Robert, op. cit., p. 265.
l Hodge, J. M.. The upper Cumberland coal field: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 13, p. 51,1912.
m Ashley, G. H., and Glenn, L. C., Geology and mineral resources of part of Cumberland Gap coal
field, Ky.: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 49, p. 201,1906.
»Idem, p. 198.
o Peter. Robert, op. cit., p. 273.
P Crandall, A. R., The coals of the Big Sandy Valley: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 28,1905.
q MacFarlane, Graham. Notes on American cannel coal: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 18, p. 438,1890.
r Crandall, A. R., op. cit., p. 35.
« Lord, N. W., and others, Analyses of coals in the United States: Bur. Mines Bull. 22, pt. 1, p. 105.1913.
t Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull. 11, p. 93.1910.
u Crandall, A. R., Report on the Pound Gap region, p. 29, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
v Hodge, J. M., op. cit., p. 107.
24
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
No.
analofysis.
"3
a
Volmatatil-e
Clas if cation (See
10).
p.
Locality.
1
So
Analyst.
°&
ter.
carFixbon.ed
Sulphur.
gJ
a
to
KENTUCKY Contd.
KNOX COUNTY.
97
3
98
1
Road Fork, 7 miles from
mouth.o
2c
A.M. Peter.......
41.3
46.8
10.5
15
...... 54.9 39.3
2.9
.5
47.1
3.9
.6
In.
41
LAWRENCE COUNTY.
99
Torchlight, T h r e e m i 1 e
Creek. 6
1 .....do.6..................
2b
S. R. Hislop......
LESLIE COUNTY.
100
2
101
102
2
3
103
1
104
.3
105
106
6
Creek.c a
Oldhouse Branch of Beech
Fork.*
Op
R.Peter..........
1 95
47.2
6.9
.6
23
2b
2b
A.M.Peter.......
R.Peter..........
1 ?,?,
44.2
45.1
43.7
6.3
11.0
.7
.6
23
38
2c
LETCHER COUNTY.
Line Fork of Defeated
Creek./
Millstone Branch of Rockhouse Creek, g
Creek.»
A.M. Peter....... 1.43
34.0
39.1
25.8
.5
2b .....do............. 1.30
46.1
40.5
13.0
2.0
A.S.McCreath....
R.Peter.......... 1.30
40.4
39.3
42.0
51.8
16.4
6.9
.4
1.1
2b
42.9
35.4
20.6
.6
1 19
2b
?.h R.Peter..........
2b .....do.............
52.6
45.6
41.1
51 Q
37.5
5.4
9.2
8.2
.6
1.4
14
3fi
2b R.Peter..........
2b .....do.............
2b .....do.............
2c .....do............. i.33
44.0
42.4
41.6
38.8
38.8
33.7
44.7
18.0
15.5
19.5
11.4
1.1
.9
1.5
1.2
36
58
40
26
2b .....do............. 1.23
?,c .....do.............
49.6
40.0
43.2
51.0
5.1
8.4
.9
.5
36
22J
2c
2c
36
10
M'LEAN COUNTY.
Sent in by H. C. Jarvis i. .
107
MAGOFFIN COUNTY.
108
109
110
3
4
MORGAN COUNTY.
111
112
113
114
2
3
115
116
9
8
Rush Creek '.............
Worth Fork, AdkrnsJ....
Elk Fork, Maynheir
mine.' »
Pierat. Maytown ' n .;....
Licking River.o
a Crandall. A. R., and Sullivan, G. M., Report on the coal field adjacent to Pineville Gap in Bell and
Knox counties: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 14, p. 125, 1912.
b Phalen, W. C., Economic geology of the Kenova quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 349, p. 59,1908.
c Hodge, J. M...Preliminary report on the geology of parts of Letcher, Harlan, Leslie, Perry, and Breathitt
counties, p. 48. Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
<J Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey
Bull. 11, p. 196,1910.
« Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 222, 1910.
/ Idem, p. 127.
g Idem, p. 135.
h Hendne, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept., p. 144,
1894.
< Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 146, 1910.
i Stone, G. W., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 115, 1900.
* Idem, p. 114.
' Crandall. A. R., Preliminary report on the geology of Morgan, Johnson, Magoffln, and Floyd counties:
Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [1880].
m Crandall, A. R.. Coals of the Licking Valley region: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10. p. 18,1910.
n Peter. Robert. Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, p. 296,1884.
o Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 14,1910.
25
COMPOSITION-.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
.a
J?
"3
d
£
.a
*§
°£
&
fcb
Clas if cation (See
10).
p.
Locality.
Analyst.
a§
1
4i
s*
as
1"
o
£
Thof
icknes
Ficarxbedon.
Sulphur.
0 >>
s.
bed.
a
o
<!
CO
KENTUCKY Contd.
MOEGAN COUNTY
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
COn.
Brush Fork Caney Creek
(Lykins)o.
Sugar Camp Branch
Caney Creek.o
Old House Branch
Caney Creek.o
6 Spring Branch Caney
Creek (drift ll).o
Johnson Branch Prater
Fork Caney Creek.o
Sugar Camp Branch
Caney Creek (drift l).o
Caney Creek (drillings) o .
7 Benton Branch Yearling
Branch.o
13
2c
R. Peter..........
41.0
45.1
2c .....do............
41.6
2c .....do............
40.8
2c .....do............
In.
25
12.0
0.8
49.1
8.5
1.6
48.8
8.6
.8
40.4
48.8
9
2.7
981
2c .....do............
40.6
50.2
7
1.2
21
2c .....do.............
40.7
51.2
6
.7
2c .....do.............
2b .....do............
37.9
52.3
49.6
36.4
10
10
1.0
.7
59.7
32.3
7.4
OVL
24
22
OWSLEY COUNTY.
South Fork Kentucky
River, 4 miles above
Booneville.6
South Fork Kentucky
River.Merrill mine.c
125
126
127
River-Reynolds mine.d
128
River. «
.....do...................
Haddock, between South
and Middle Fork Kentucky River./
129
130
2b
1.16
2b .....do............
47.6
46.3
5.4
2b .....do............
51 n
34.7
9
V) fi
43.6
3.8
53.3
48.9
43.2
47.0
3.5 "".2
3.0
2b
Co., N. Y.
2b .....do............
2b R.Peter..........
7
PERKY COUNTY.
131
132
1
Lots Creek 0. ............
Middle Fork, below Rush
Branch.*
2c
1.25 44.1 49.4
2c .....do............
44.8 54.4
6.0
16.8
.9
.7
22
10
.6
33
PIKE COUNTY.
133
Bear Fork
Creek. »
Robinson
134
Patterson Creek. Polly
mine, whole bed./
Patterson Creek, Polly
mine, cannel only.*
Patterson Creek, head of i .
2c
1 90 43.4
46.3
8.3
WHITLEY COUNTY.
135
136
137
138
. Halsevm.... .............
2c
R. Peter..........
39.7
55.0
3.0
.8
52
2c
A. S.McCreath....
47.1
52.2
1.2
1.1
31
2c
2c
2c
H. M. Curry......
43.9
43.0
48.0
54.8
48.8
49.5
1.2
7.2
2.5
.6 24-31
28
1.2
Perkins & Co......
a Crandall, A. R., Coals of the Licking Valley region: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 14,1910.
6 Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Kept. A., pt. 1, p. 315, 1884.
« Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Kept., p. 144,
1894.
d Idem, p. 143.
t Idem, p. 145.
/ Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. for 1854 and 1855, p. 355, 1856.
g Hodge, J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of parts of Letcher, Harlan, Leslie, Perry, and
of the lower North Fork, Middle and South forks
i Crandall, A. R., Report on the Pound Gap region, p. 29, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
/ Crandall, A. R., Report on the geology of Whitiey County and a part of Pulaski, p. 38, Kentucky Geol.
Survey, 1889.
* Hendrie, Charles, op. cit., p. 148.
»Idem, p. 147.
m Stone, G. W., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 115,1900.
26
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
S
j?
o
o°
&
Clas if cation (Seep.
10).
o'£>
*!
&8
carFixbon.ed
G)
Analyst.
Locality.
"3
J.
1
Sulphur.
® KJ
52
0 >.
<Q^H
a
4
1
1
CO
J2.§
KENTUCKY Contd.
WOLFE COUNTY.
2b R "Pnf0r
1.43
2b .....do............ 1.38
139
140
41.4
44.5
In.
28,2
32.7
29.1
21.5
0.8
.5
47.0 37.0
T. G. Wormley... 1.29 36.8 43.2
1.3
19.9
1.3
40.5 49.5
28.6 52.7
41.6 41.2
5.6
16.5
15.9
1.5
2.1
1.5
2c .....do............ 1.39 37.3
2c .....do............ 1.29 40.5
2b .....do............ 1.38 44.7
44.6
49.9
42.9
16.3
5.6
9.9
1.7
1.5
2.5
2b
2c
2c
44.5
T. G. Wormley. . . 1.27 37.7
1.29 38.4
41.1
51.7
50.0
12.0
6.2
5.2
1.2
1.2
2b
2b
2c
2c
43.8
43.0
T. G. Wormley... 1.29 36.8
1.43 40.2
43.7 8.6
42.6 11.1
43.2 19.9
44.0 13.2
1.3
1.3
2c
.33.5
45.6
19.1
2.6
60
2c .....do............
40.6
46.2
11.5
?,.o
60
2c
1.20 31.4
59.5
6.0
3.0
?,h
49.2
38.0
10.2
OHIO:
COSHOCTON COUNTY.
141
142
4
4
143
144
145
3
3
3
Bedford cannel, Taylor
mine. c
2b
2c
HOLMES COUNTY.
146
147
148
Millersburg. «
3 Strawbridge mine <;.;....
3
3 .....do...................
149
150
151
7
7
7
152
153
154
155
5
5
5
5
156
1
157
1
2c
2c
2b .....do............ 1.29
36
96
24
JACKSON COUNTY.
LICKING COUNTY.
Flint Ridge c. ...........
MAHONING COUNTY.
top./
bottom. /
STARK COUNTY.
158
TRUMBULL COUNTY.
159
PENNSYLVANIA.
ARMSTRONG COUNTY.
. 2c A. S. McCreath...
30.4 46.1 22.2
.5 0-108
Bostonia.ff
31.6 49.8 17.3
.4
South of New Bethlehem? 2c ....do.............
2c ....do.............
32.6 52.3 13.3 1.0
Cathcart Run, No. 1
mine.A
2c ....do.............
.6
163
37.8 53.1 6.7
7 Little Mudlick Creek, No.
3 mine. ft < i
i Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Kept. A, pt. 1, p. 328,1884.
& Ashley, Q. H., Cannel coal in the United States: Min. World, vol. 23, p. 382, Oct. 7,1905.
160
9
161
162
'"s
c Newberry, J. S., Ohio Geol. Survey Rept. Progress for 1870, p. 420,1871.
<* Idem, p. 33.
e Idem, p. 31.
/ Idem, p. 36.
9 Platt, Franklin, Report of progress in the Clearfleld and JefEerson district: Pennsylvania Second
Geol. Survey Rept. H, p. 240,1875.
ft Platt, W. G., Report of progress in Armstrong County: Pennsylvania Second Geol. Survey Rept. H5,
p. 180,1880.
* Butts, Charles, Economic geology of the Kittanning and Rural Valley quadrangles, Pa.: U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 279, p. 99,1906.
/ McCreath, A. S., Third report of progress on the laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg: Pennsylvania
Second Geol. Survey Rept. M3, p. 57,1881.
27
COMPOSITION".
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
analNo.ysis.
of
.9
J.
Clas if cation (See
10).
p.
*1&s
i
d>>
1
Eb
Analyst.
Locality.
«M
O
3£ 35
a .3£
O <*
U
«
1
PR
Sulphur.
||
a
<!
PENNSYLVANIA Con.
1fi4
1111
BEAVER COUNTY.
.....do.b. ................
2b
OVi
48.0 38.2
58.0 32.2
11.9
7.9
In.
0.5 60-192
.5 60-192
INDIANA COUNTY.
5
1 OfJ
5
A. S. McCreath. . .
23.3
50.3
24.8
.6
99
2c .....do.............
24.4
52.9 21.0
.6
99
2b
49.8 35.0
15.1
.7
0-36
9r>
top.c
center."
TENNESSEE.
CAMPBELL COUNTY.
167a
1
TEXAS.
VTEBB COUNTY.
IftQ
tionCo.. upper bench.*
169
tion Co. , lower bench. «
Cannel Coal Co., upper
bench./
170
171
part of lower bench./
Cannel Coal Co., lower
part of lower bench./
Santa Tomas mine f .....
25 miles northwest of
Santa Tomas./
172
173
174
9>»?
48; 6
36.1
12.9
14
.....do.............
2b? .....do.............
9>i? .....do.............
2b .....do.............
45.6
39.9
11.7
14
49.9
37.5
9.7
30
48.3
33.1
16.5
6
49.3
38.0
10.2
11
2b?
2b?
51.0 39.0
42.6 37.5
7.3
16.5
1.5
.8
Ib
41.9 28.0
14.3
1.3
24
Ib
46.9 22.4
23.2
1.6
42
2b
2c
2b
50.9 35.8
40.6 61.1
49.3 36.1
12.7
6.2
13.8
1.1
.6
1.5
OV»?
UTAH.
upper 2 feet, a
lower Sjfeet.ff
WEST VIRGINIA.
BOONE COUNTY.
177
17Q
11
IflA
10
181
13
Little Coal River. >
44
44
18
51.8 34.3 12.9 1.0
50
2b
Branch, Pond Fork. <
'2b
47.3 40.2 11.7 1.4
Pond Fork below RobinHiteand Patton..
son Fork.*
38
38.16 53.47 7.2 1.7
182
17 Pond Fork A. ............
2c .....do......:.....
a McCreath, A. S., Second report of progress on the laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg: Pennsylvania
Second Geol. Survey Kept. M2, p. 54,1879.
6 Mansfield, I. F., Fire clays, coals, and titles of the cannel-coal tract at Cannelton, BeaverCounty, Pa.,
p. 9,1905.
c Platt, W. G., Report of progress in Indiana County: Pennsylvania Second Geol. Survey Rept. H4,
p. 230,1878.
<J MacFarlane, Graham, Notes on American cannel coal: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 18, p. 438,1890.
« Vaughan, T. W., Reconnaissance in the Rio Grande coal fields of Texas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 164,
p. 64 1900.
/ Idem, p. 65.
g Richardson, G. B., The Harmony, Colob, and Kanab coal fields, southern Utah: U. S. Geol. Survey
Bull. 341, p. 397. 1900.
A Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Boone County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County Repts., p. 575,
1915.
<Idem, p. 324.
/Idem, p. 576.
* White, I. C., Supplementary coal report: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2 (A), p. 399,1908.
......
28
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Proximate analyses of cannel coal Continued.
analNo.
ofysis.
.a
*f
Clas if cation (See
10).
p.
Analyst.
Locality.
ftc3 8
a
1.
o tA
(a*3
Volmatatil-e
g
£>
ter.
!
1h
A
$
1
of
Thicknes
bed.
3
OQ
WEST VIRGINIA Con.
KANAWHA COUNTY.
183
i
184
3
184a
- 185
6
7
186
11
187
1
Mine No. l.»
Villa.6
Co., Wacomah mine,
Paint Creek.d
Little Barrier Creek « . . . .
In.
2c
39.3
46.0 13.9
0-8
2b .....do............
45.3
43.7
10.3
1.5
Op
43.1
41.3
49.5
46.2
7.4
12.1
1.1
.5
53
0-36
17*
2c .....do............
2h
J. B. Krak........
36.56 36.1
26.1
.4
36
2c
HiteandKrak....
23.9 45.3
30
.6
15
2c
Krak and Hite . . .
39.7 54,1
5.3
K .....do............
44.2
49.9
5.0
2c R. Peter..........
2b .....do............
?
?
2b Miller.............
42.4 54.0
42.7 42.1
41.3
i'4Q H
40.9
1.25 56.7 37.2
2.4
12
9 1
6.3
6.0
?
?
2r>
2a
#8.52 25.2
;37.o 60.0
1.27 39.6 57.6
70.1 Ift 1
14.2
3 n
2.7
19 6
2a
1.17 71.1
91 1
PRESTON COUNTY.
Left Fork of Sandy Creek,
Marquies./
LINCOLN COUNTY.
187a
1
187b
2
John Smith mine, near
Jenks.0
1.2
GREAT BRITAIN. .
English cannel coal ft. ....
Scotch cannel coal &......
I*smahago, Scotland ». . .
.....do.*..................
Lesmahago cannel, Scotland.*
land.ro
;44. 6
7.6
1.14
1.5
.7
o Krebs. C. E.. and Teets. D. D., Kanawha County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County Repts., p.
439,1914.
b Idem, p. 453.
c MacFarlane, Graham, Notes on American cannel coal: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 18, p. 483,
1890.
d Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., op. cit., p. 485.
< Idem, p. 421.
/ Hennen, R. J., and Reger, D. B., Preston County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County Repts., p. 364,
1914.
a Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Boone County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County Repts., p. 404,
1915.
ft Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Second Rept., p. 56,1857.
i Idem, p. 58.
i Includes moisture.
* Idem, p. 59.
' Ells, R. W., Joint report on the bituminous or oil shales of New Brunswick; also, on the oil-shale industry of Scotland; pt. 2, Geology, p. 33, Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Branch/1909.
m Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and othar distilled oils, p. 48,1865.
29
COMPOSmON".
ANALYSES OF ASH.
In order to round out the groups of analyses the analyses of the
ash of a number of cannel coals are given in the following table:
Analyses of ash of cannel coals.AluPermina,
oxides
Phos- Sul- Potash centSilica. of iron, Lime. nesia. phoric phuric and age of
and
acid. acid. soda. ash in
mangasample.
nese.
IVJLOrg
Boghead, Carter County, Ky. (lower
Roundbottom, Quicksand Creek,
Breathitt County, Ky. c ............
South mine, near Jackson, Breathitt
County, Ky.d ......................
Breckinridge cannel,
Hancock
County, Ky.< ......................
1.88
1.68
0.27
0.63
2.78
4.2
.55
.30
11.58
2.98
.21
.24
Tr.
1.5
1.98
.41
.20
Tr.
9 40
7.78
.53
.39
0.30
0.29
5.07
.10
.28
15.40
.24
.48
7.87
o
4.90
12.21
a Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Kept., p. Ill, 1861.
& Idem, p. 114.
c Idem, p. 95.
d Idem, p. 96.
« Peter, Robert, Second chemical report of the ores, rocks, soils, coals, etc., of Kentucky: Kentucky
Geol. Survey Second Kept., p. 211,1857.
ANALYSES OF OCCLUDED GAS.
No figures were obtained showing the results of dissolving out
such parts of cannel coal as would be acted on by pyridine or other
solvents. Clarke,1 however, quotes from 'the results of an investigation by Thomas in the extraction of gases in vacuo at 100° from a
number of coals, including some cannels. From his results the following figures have been selected:
Analyses of gases from cannel and other coals.
Methane (CEU).. . ....................
1
2
3
6.44
80.69
4.75
9.05
77.19
7.80
53.94
8.12
5.96
46.06
14.54
100.00
421.3
100. 00
350.6
100.00
16.8
100.00
55.7
4
5
6
7
36.42
18.90
67.47
28.58
.80
62.78
1.02
12.61
1.10
100.00
55.7
100.00
55.9
100.00
147.4
100.00
600.6
84.55 ' 68.75
8
14.72
84.18
2.67
.91
Amount of gas . - .cubic centimeters. .
1,2. Wigan cannel.
3. Scotch cannel, Wilsontown.
4. Scotch cannel, Lesmahago.
5. Cannel shale, Lasswade, near Edinburg.
6." Bituminous coal.
7. Steam coal.
8. Anthracite coal.
The differences here are so striking that they are probably accidental and are due to differences in the time of exposure of the coal
in mines and during its removal to the laboratory.
1 Clarke, F. W., The data of geochemistry, 3d ed.: XI. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 616, p. 758,
1916.
30
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
IGNITING POINT.
The igniting point of cannel coal is given by Lewes 1 as 668° F. or
370° C., as compared with 842° F. or 430° C. for lignite, and 870° F.
or 477° C. for Welsh steam coal. As is well known, the name cannel
comes from candle,'the. early name of the coal, employed because of
the readiness with which a splinter of it ignites and burns "like a
candle."
ORIGIN.
More than 50 years ago Newberry 2 recognized the fact that cannel
coals have the nature of water-laid deposits. According to White
and Thiessen 3 the microscopic study of cannel coals shows that they
include fern spt>res, water weeds, algae, and other material that naturally accumulates in the open water of swamps. The remains of certain water animals fish, mollusks, amphibians, and crustaceans
are in places associated in abundance with cannel coals. Finally, in
many places cannel coal grades over into bituminous shale or ordinary shale. In a cut on the Indiana Southern Kailroad near Burn
City, Daviess County, Ind., a bed of cannel coal, a foot or two thick,
grades upward into coal which is similar in appearance, but which,
on burning, leaves about half its original bulk as ash, and still higher
into material which, though it resembles cannel', is reported by those
who have tested it in a stove to leave a volume of ash greater than
that of the coal put in. Above that bed the black color gradually
turns to gray, and at the top there is only an ordinary gray clay
shale. In some areas cannel coal grades into shale horizontally.
The close relation of cannel to shale is also seen in the high ash
content of many cannels, due to the washing in of mud during the
formation of the coal. Mud washed into an open-water basin tends
to accumulate most abundantly at the point of entrance, and cannel
forming in such a basin may be quite free of ash in one part and be
high in ash in another part.
That the material of cannel coal has been formed by the settling
of floating material and not from plants grown in place is further
indicated by the fact that cannel coal, unlike bituminous coal, which
is generally underlain by a bed of clay containing the roots of plants,
in many if not in most places rests on rocks other than clay.
Again, although bituminous coal usually shows distinct banding,
supposed to be due to changing surface conditions in the coal marsh,
cannel coal is homogeneous, as if the conditions remained constant
during the whole period of its deposition.
1 Lewes, V. B., The carbonization of coal, etc., p. 22, 1912.
2 Newberry, J. S., On the mode of formation of cannel coal: Am. Jour. Sci., 2d ser.,
vol. 23, p. 212, 1857.
3 White, David, and Thiessen, Reinhardt, The origin of coal: Bur. Mines Bull. 38, 1913.
MODE OF OCCURRENCE.
31
Furthermore, Newberry 1 has called attention to the fact that
in lagoons of open water found near modern peat marshes a fine carbonaceous mud accumulates that, when properly dried, resembles
cannel coal in appearance and in many properties.
Many theories have been advanced to account in detail for the
formation of cannel coal. According to the theory here stated, it
was formed at the bottom of open-wa.ter basins or small channels,
most of them in coal-forming swamps (as indicated by the almost
universal association of cannel with bituminous coal), by a steady
accumulation of plant spores, pollen, resins, waxes, and other carbonaceous material. The source of the large percentage of volatile
hydrocarbons, especially ethylene gas, which it yields on distillation,
remains to be determined. Possibly these hydrocarbons were formed
by the decomposition of the inner parts of the spores, having been
held in temporary storage within the tough fine-grained spore cases.
No study has been made, to the writer's knowledge, of this particular question, though distillation tests have been made on spore dust
mixed with fuller's earth. One test reported by Ells,1 the conditions
of which are not known, yielded 23.8 gallons of crude oil (specific
gravity, 0.93) and 3.3 pounds of sulphate of ammonia per ton.
MODE OF OCCURRENCE.
GENERAL FEATURES.
Too much stress can not be put on the fact that cannel coal occurs
in very small basins. Thousands of dollars have been wasted in expensive preliminary equipment for mining deposits of cannel coal
which proved to contain less than a year's supply. Long railroad
spurs, one as much as 12 miles in length, have been built and expensive plants have been erected on the favorable showing presented by
a single opening. A cannel-coal basin should therefore be prospected
as thoroughly as a gold lode. It should be tested not by drilling
every 10 acres but by drilling every acre. Where the coal lies high
in the hills it may be sufficiently prospected by drillings or openings
100 yards apart. The fact that thick cannel is found at two points
a quarter of a mile apart is no guaranty that it is thick between those
points.
^Newberry, J. S., Ohio Geol. Survey Kept., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 125, 1874.
2 Ells, R. W.( Joint report on the bituminous or oil shales of New Brunswick ; also on
the oil-shale Industry of Scotland; pt. 2, Geology, p. 69, Canada Dept. Mines, Mines
Branch, 1909.
32
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
The mode of occurrence of cannel coal may best be understood
from the description of two or three typical basins. (See fig. 1.)
A
B
FIGUKB 1. Cross section of cannel-coal basins. A, Cross section of cannel-coal bed at
Cannelton, Beaver County, Pa.; B, cross section of cannel-coal basin south of New
Bethlehem, in Armstrong County, Pa.; C, cross section of cannel-coal basin on Bear
Run, Bell County, Ky.; D, cross section of cannel-coal basin through an erosion
channel in lower Carboniferous limestone in Cooper County, Mo.
DEPOSIT AT CANNELTON, PA.
The deposit of cannel coal at Cannelton, Beaver County, Pa., occupies a 600-foot channel whose course suggests that it lies in an abandoned oxbow or horseshoe circumscribing a basin 2 miles long by 1
mile wide. Along the center of the channel the cannel coal has a
thickness of 15 feet or more, and is underlain by 1 foot of bituminous
MODE OF OCCURRENCE.
V
33
coal. About 150 feet from each side of the axis of the channel the
cannel bench has decreased in thickness to 5 feet and the bench of
bituminous coal has in places thickened to 2 feet, the bottom of the
cannel coal apparently grading into the upper foot of bituminous
coal. Within this width of 300 feet the form of the channel is indicated by slight dips toward its axis. Beyond that width the bottom
of the channel rises sharply to 20 to 27 feet above the level of the
center of the channel and both cannel and bituminous coal thin gradually down to nothing. Over the cannel coal in the center of the
channel lies a heavy body of bituminous shale, almost as rich in yield
of oil as the cannel coal itself. (See PI. IV, A.)
The cannel coal here is, as usual, distinctly a block coal, being cut
by nearly vertical joints or "slips," most commonly 4 feet apart,
along which the coal commonly breaks up into blocks about 4 by 4
feet, though in places the joints are as little as 1 foot apart. As
usual in block coal the " face slips " or joints continue unbroken for
long distances, and the "butt slips" break and offset somewhat in
crossing the face slips. Where examined the face slips ran S. 70° E.,
or nearly at right angles to the axis of the basin. In passing from
the axis of the basin to the edges the butt slips may be observed to
lean toward the axis at the top. At one point where measured this
lean amounted to 12°. It was reported by Mr. Mansfield, the owner,
that the face slips maintain a constant direction entirely around the
oval. As the angle between this constant direction of the slips and
the changing direction of the axis of the channel changes in coming
about the oval basin, this leaning disappears but reappears on the
other side of the oval, where the face slips are again at right angles
to the axis of the channel.
DEPOSITS AT BOSTONIA, PA.
The cannel coal in the center of the channel of the coal basin at
Bostonia, Armstrong County, Pa. (see fig. 1, B, and fig. 3, p. 59), has a
thickness of 9 feet and is underlain by 18 inches of bituminous coal.
Coal has been worked from this central axis for a maximum distance of 300 to 400 feet on either side, in which distance the bottom
of the basin rises 8 to 10 feet above the bottom of the channel at its
axis and the coal decreases in thickness to the minimum that can
now be profitably mined. Under more favorable conditions mining
could doubtless be pushed a little farther outward from the central
axis. This channel, which can bet followed for a number of miles
(see p. 60) from a point northwest of Bostonia through the surface
ridge to the southeast and then eastward, is uniform neither in depth
nor width, nor in the character of its coal, which is not everywhere
87775° 1& Bull. 659 3
34
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
cannel. Like most cannel-coal basins it resembles a lagoon rather
than a channel cut by running water.
DEPOSIT AT CHENOA, KT.
The cannel-coal channel at Chenoa, Bell County, Ky., is similar
to the others just described. The coal in the center of the basin is
thick, but within 400 feet on either side it decreases in thickness to
the minimum that can be profitably mined. (See fig. 1, C.)
Cannel-coal basins of somewhat different type occur in Missouri,
where most of the coal lies in basins eroded in the underlying limestone. One basin (fig. 1, D) about 100 feet wide and of undetermined
length, has been followed 500 feet in east and west. The total depth
of the coal is more than TO feet.
Hinds 1 has described these Missouri pockets as follows:
Pockets are in one sense only outliers but may be distinguished by certain
unique features. Briefly stated, they are shale, coal, sandstone, and clay
deposits laid down in sink holes or small depressions and surrounded by walls
of limestone belonging to Mississippian and older formations. They occur in
nearly all parts of the State outside the main Pennsylvanian body and are
especially numerous in Lincoln, Callaway, Cooper, Cole, Morgan, Moniteau, and
southwestern counties. They are round or elliptical in horizontal cross section,
are commonly only a few hundred feet in width, and are in many cases as
deep as they are wide. Many contain as much as 30 to 90 feet of coal, chiefly
of the cannel variety, and have excited much comment. In most cases the
component layers are saucer shaped, dipping inward on all sides from the
surrounding limestone walls as though the entire mass had slipped down a
considerable distance. Fractures and slickensides indicate that part of this
slipping occurred after the consolidation of the materials, though many of the
coal pockets probably sank during deposition, the action of the humic acids
hastening the deepening of the sinks. Sinks that were deepened in this way
while sediments were accumulating were probably slightly above ground-water
level at that time. Deposition in many sinks probably took place after the
drainage outlets at their bases had been choked up as a result of a slight
subsidence of the region in which they lie. Some of the shale and sandstone
deposits may have been formed after the region was invaded by the continental sea, though this is not necessarily the case. Certainly those containing
coal were deposited while the region was free from brackish or salt waters.
It is probable that solution was renewed at the bottoms of the sinks whenever
ground-water level was lowered as a result of post-Pennsylvanian regional movements and that many of the deposits are still sinking.
USES.
HEATING.
High-grade cannel coal is adapted to most of the common uses of
other bituminous coals except the making of coke. As it burns
freely, it was used in the early days in the manufacture of iron. It
1 Hinds, Henry, and Greene, F. C., The stratigraphy of the Pennsylvanian series in Missouri : Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, 2d ser., vol. 13, pp. 41-42, 1915.
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
BULLETIN 659
B.
CANNEL COAL MINING, PAST AND PRESENT.
PLATE IV
USES.
35
is an ideal grate fuel and has long been used for that purpose, for it
mines out in blocks, is clean to handle, and gives a bright, cheerful
blaze, resembling that of a wood fire. It differs from wood, however, in containing only a small percentage of moisture, for wood is
50 per cent water, so that it does not require constant replenishing
and makes a fire that can be left overnight. Where grates are the
principal means of heating houses the special advantages of cannel
coal are readily apparent.
Owing to the large percentage of gas it contains cannel coal ignites
quickly and is useful where a hot fire is needed in a hurry. It has
long been a satisfactory fuel for fire engines and during recent years
has found one of its principal markets in city fire departments.
GAS MAKING.
For many years cannel coal was most largely used for enriching
coal gas. Cannel coal does not make a good coke and is not so cheap
as other bituminous coals, or its large content of gas of high candlepower would undoubtedly cause it to be used for the manufacture of
coal gas to the exclusion of all other coals. The so-called " gas coals "
contain 30 to 40 per cent of volatile matter, whereas the better grade
of cannel coal contains 50 to 60 per cent, and its gas has double the
illuminating power of that in the gas coals. Thus Hocking Valley
coal will yield about 8,000 cubic feet of 14-candlepower gas and
Westmorland coal about 10,000 feet of 15 to 16 candlepower gas
per ton of coal. By contrast, Flint Eidge, Ohio, cannel will yield
9,000 feet of 23-candlepower gas per ton; Kanawha, W. Va., cannel
will yield 10,000 feet of 18 to 19 candlepower; richer cannels will
yield from 13,000 to 15,000 cubic feet of 30 to 40 or even 50 candlepower; and according to McMillin 1 some of the special bituminous
substances will yield as high as 131 candlepower. According to
Stone 2 the candlepower of the gas from some of the better-known
cannel coals is as follows:
Candlepower of gas from cannel coals.
Breckinridge, Ky___ . __..___ _ ______
Georges Branch, Ky_________________________
Chenoa, Ky_____________________________
Boghead, Ky____________________________
Hunnew.ell, Ky___________________________
Pineville, Ky______________________________
Falling Rock, W. Va__________s_____________
Lesmahago, Scotland- ' ___ ___ _______
Boghead, Scotland___ ._____________________
New Battle, Scotland_______,_______________
46. 2
31.1
41.2
38.1
35.1
44. 55
36.1
34. 5
38.2
35.3
1 McMillin, Emerson, The gas coals of Ohio: Ohio Geol. Survey Kept., vol. 5, Economic
geology, pp. 722-749, 1884.
2 Stone, G. W., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Sixteenth Ann. Kept, p. 112, 1900.
36
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
As most cities require gas of a higher candlepower than could be
obtained from bituminous gas coals alone, it has been necessary to
enrich the product by adding to it some gas of higher candlepower,
and for many years cannel coal found its principal 'market for this
purpose. Later, cheaper methods, especially the.addition or substitution of oil-enriched water gas, were widely adopted, and to-day
little or no cannel coal is used for this purpose.
Future demand may again lead to the distillation of cannel coal
at high temperatures in order to obtain certain products or by-products. For that reason, as well as for the purpose of showing its behayior when so treated and the compounds it yields, the following
data have been assembled:
The percentage of " volatile combustible matter " shown by analysis is not a true index of the amount of fixed gas that may be obtained in practice. Thus, by a series of tests, Wormley* obtained
(among other results) from coals yielding 27.T, 30.7, 37.2, 38,0, and
39.2 per cent of volatile matter on analysis, 3.32, 3.51, 3.12, 3.65, and
3.35 cubic feet, respectively, of fixed gas per pound of coal. The
temperature at which gas is made also affects greatly both the quantity and quality of the gas the higher the temperature the greater
the quantity of gas and the lower the candlepower. Experiment has
shown a marked difference in the composition of gas derived from
cannel coal and that derived from the bituminous gas coals, as is
clearly indicated by the difference in the candlepower of the two
gases. This difference consists principally in the smaller percentage
of uncombined hydrogen and the larger percentage of defines,
especially ethylene, in cannel gas.
It is due, no doubt, to the abundance of ethylene that cannel coal
gas has so high an illuminating value. Though unable to find, at the
time of writing, analyses of the volatile matter from cannel coal, the
writer recalls analyses in which the percentage of ethylene, for
example, was several times as high as in gas from bituminous coal
reported in the same table. .Ethylene (C2H4 ) is what is called
an unsaturated hydrocarbon that is, one having the formula CnH2n
rather than the formula CnH2n+2. As a result, in burning, it first
breaks up into methane, or marsh gas (CH4 ), setting free carbon,
which is next heated to incandescence, yielding the light, and then
burned to C02. The significance of the greater percentage of ethylene may be appreciated from the following table given by Lewes: 2
' Wormley, T- G , Report of chemical department: Ohio Geol. Survey Kept. Progress for
1870, pt. 5, p. 410, 1871.
2 Lewes, V. B., The carbonization of coal, p. 286, 1912.
37
USES.
Heating value and candlepower of gases derived,from coal.
British
Candlethermal
power per 5
units,
gross per cubic feet.
cubic foot.
325
1,024
1,870
2.682
1,603
3,718
342
0
5.2
35.0
53.3
70.0
820.0
0
The following table gives the results of tests made to show the
quality of gas produced from a number of cannel coals and, for comparison, the results of similar tests of a few bituminous coals.
Most of the reports quoted do not indicate whether the long or the
short ton is the unit employed, but the long ton (2,240 pounds) is
probably the one used in nearly if not quite all of them. Trustworthy comparisons are afforded only by tests reported by the same
analyst, for there has been no universal standard for such tests and
the results of comparisons between tests made under different conditions are not reliable:
Quantity and quality of gas produced by cannel coals and some gas coals.
Gas per long
ton.
SCOTLAND.
Cubk feet.
13, 201
14,690
13, 155
12, 461
Candlepower.
34.5
42.66
38.2
35.3
Analyst.
Hislop, G. R.
Do.
Do.
Do.
PENNSYLVANIA.
11,200
10.300
. 10, 160
9,500-10,000
15
17
16. 1-8. 3
22.5
16
8,960
11, 782
10.080
15
18.8
24
Washington County, bituminous c . .... 9,880-10.120
Do.
Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory (Ltd.).
Do.
Do.
OHIO.
Flint, Rideo <J. ..........................
.
Prof. Chandler.
Columbus Gas Co.. Ohio.
<» Hcndrio, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Kept., p. 154,
1894.
6 McMillin, Emerson, The gas coals of Ohio: Ohio Geol. Survey Rept., vol. 5, Economic geology, p.
735,1884.
c Taff, J. A., Preliminary report on the Camden coal field of southwestern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey,
Twenty-first Ann. Rept., pt. 2, p. 329,1900.
A McMillin, Emerson, op. cit., p. 733.
e Edwards, W. S., Coals and cokes of West Virginia, pp. 71-72,1892.
38
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Quantity and quality of gas prodiiced by cannel coals and some gas coals Contd.
Gas per long
ton.
Candlepower.
Analyst. .
WEST VIRGINIA.
Oubicfeet.
11, 460
14,200
Do.6...... ..........................
14,000
11,200
14, 780
Do&...... ..........................
13,660
14,210
Grahamite ^. ...........................
13,500
18.7
17
19
64.5
42.7
45.6
36.1
28
Columbus Gas Co.
Cincinnati Gas Co.. Ohio.
Consolidated Gas Co., N. Y.
Manhattan Gas Co., N. Y.
Do.
Do.
Hislop, G. R.
14,630
41.2
Hislop, G. R.
15,805
15,835
14,752
14,260
13,300
15,200
14,130
14,560
12,230
12,540
36.2
44.5
38.1
35.1
31.1
46.2
40.1
22.7
22.1
30.5
13,200
49
11,386
22.3
150.6................................
KENTUCKY.
Pineville:
Wulafordc..... ....................
Poplar Lick bed, Log Mountains ft .....
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Knoxville Gas Co., Term.
Hislop, G. R.
Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory (Ltd.).
NOVA SCOTIA.
A IhorHtA d
ARKANSAS.
Camden lignite i .......................
Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory (Ltd.).
a McMillin, Emerson, op. cit., p. 736.
6 Edwards, W. S., Coals and cokes of West Virginia, pp. 71-72,1892.
c Stone, G. W., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Sixteenth Ann. Rept., p. 112,1900.
d McMillin, Emerson, op. cit., p. 725.
e Hendrie. Charles, op. cit., p. 150.
/ Stone, G-. W., op. cit., p. 114.
g Idem, p. 115.
,
ft Idem. p. 117.
'
»Tafl, J. A., Preliminary report on the Camden coal field of southwestern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey
Twenty-first Ann. Rept., pt. 2, p. 329,1900.
In order that the possible differences in the volumes of gas and
the candlepower^ due to different temperatures of distillation, may
be fully realized in later tables the variation in the volume of gas
and tar and in the composition of the gas resulting from the distillation of coal at different temperatures is given below.
Yield of gas and tar per ton of coal carbonized.®
Temperature of .
distillation.
c.
F.
900
800
700
600
500
400
-
1,652
1,472
1,292
1,112
932
752
Volume
of gas.
Tar.
Cubic feet.
11,000
10,000
9,000
7,750
6,400
5,000
Gallons.
9
12
15
18
21
23
Specific
gravity
of tar.
1.200
1.170
1.140
1.115
1.087
1. 060
» Lewes, V. B., The carbonization of coal, p. 162,1912.
The figures given are stated to be " average results."
39
USES.
Effect of temperature of carbonisation on the percentages of the chief constituents of the gas.a
{
op
»W
*
400
752
500
600
700
\id&
lj 11*
1 ; £?SJ£i
800
1,472
900
1,652
21.2
60.1
6.3
28.3
56.2
5.8
33.8
50.7
5.0
41.6
45.0
4.4
48.2
39.1
3.8
54.5
34.2
3:5
» Lewes, V. B., The carbonization of coal, p. 163, 1912.
The difference in candlepower resulting from different temperatures of distillation was well shown in experiments by L. T. Wright
(quoted by the Encyclopedia Britannica) on four portions of the
same coal heated to different temperatures.
field and candlepower of gas distilled at different temperatures.
Gasper
ton.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Dull reel .........................................................
Hotter. ..........................................................
Hotter. ..........................................................
Bright orange. ...................................................
Cubic feet.
8,250
9, 693
10.821
12,006
Illuminating
power
per 5
Total illuminating
power
cuoic feet per ton.
of gas.
Candles.
20.5
17.8
16.7
15.6
Candles.
33, 950
34,510
36,140
37,460
On this subject see further, for American coals, the work of Porter
and Ovitz x and Parr ancl Francis.2 The results were summarized by
Vignon,3 as follows:
1. Imperfect hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H4, C0H6 ) distill chiefly at
temperatures below 600° and disappear at high temperatures.
2. Methane and carbide are very abundant (60 to 84 per cent) up
to 800° and then decrease rapidly with temperature.
3. Hydrogen comes off in small quantities (2 to 20 per cent) up to
600°, greatly predominates from 800 to 1,000°, and then sometimes
decreases from this temperature up to 1,200°.
4. CO, which ranges from 3 to 11 per cent and averages 6.5 per
cent up to 850°, may exceed 30 per cent above 1,000°. Increasing
temperature increases the quantity of gas; the gas obtained at 1,000°
has low calorific value and, in general, contains considerable CO.
Detailed tests of some of the best Kentucky cannels have been made
by G. R. Hislop, gas engineer of the Paisley Gas Works, Scotland.
1 Porter, H. C., and Ovitz, F. K., The volatile matter of coal: Bur. Mines Bull. 1, 1910.
2 Parr, S. W., and Francis, C. K., The modification of Illinois coal by low-temperature
distillation : Illinois Univ. Eng. Exper. Sta. Bull. 24, 1908.
" Vignon, Leo, Fractional distillation of coal: Jour. Gas Lighting, vol. 121, p. 107, 1913.
2
S
1
QAV
fO
7ft
13.42
12.68
7 R4
12.20
11.18
5.25
1,395.52
98.80
1.20
2.45
5.50
1.384.32
97.70
2.30
5.60
1.75
994.78
92.30
7.70
3.58
13.57
9
2.80
QQ
1,108.35
88.80
11.20
9
74.
18.62
2 "7<\
1 c ci
21.86
1.00
1.75
6.00
"7.63
1.35
15.22
17.30
2 7>;
22.16
0.75
2.00
7.25
6.04
COA (M
11,895.00
406. 55
514. 00
6.20
46' 51"
972.83
81.40
18.60
4.03
26.68
6.30
5.00
3.40
41.24
1.20
1.80
.7.75
9.18
QCQ
12,230.00
422.09
510. 00
6.25
47' 16"
535.84
n ^l
3 fin
6.46
Oft 1O
35.13
1.75
2.50
5.50
12.09
7oe oft
14,630.00
470. 25
745.00
18. 30
78' 45"
Mason
(Mingo)
seam. &
4 00
2.71
20:34
4 43
38.15
1.25
2.50
7.00
ec
1 CQ 7O
Q1 ^ fifl
72' 4"
1 ^ 11
7AA
*41 ^7
H 95
Aft' 4ft''
14,260
483.44
644
.
2
14,752
8.08
.62
qe i 7
47.23
43.58
5.55
.89
7CT
1.215
54 92
1 91
1.175
Greenup
Bell County, Poplar Lick
County.
seam .6
Hunnewell.o Bear Creek.b
'
13.25
1,357.44
96.50
3.50
4.93
5.36
16.30
16.37
2.75
12.32
22.65
0.80
2.20
7.00
6.04
12,520.00
432. 11
512.00
6.50
48' 10"
543.60
Lower
lignite
seam.b
1,043.39
88.46
11.54
i, 945. 09
40.15
1.50
2.00
7.75
14,130.00
46.58
........ 0.75
52.67
1.191
Johnson
County,
Greasy
Creek.c
11.4
937
1,420
31.15
1.0
2.8
13,303
50.00
44.00
1.350
Breathitt
County,
Georges
Creek.c
a Phalen, W. C., Economic geology of the Kenova quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 349, p. 90,1908.
6 Ashley. G. H., and Glenn, L. C.. Geology and mineral resources of part of Cumberland Gap coal field, Ky.: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 49, p. 218,1906.
c Henorie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Insp. Mines Tenth Ann. Kept., p. 136,1894.
Heating power of 1 pound of coke (water from boiling point
Solid products:
Aqueous absorbent capacity of coal (determined by corn-
Liquid products:
Carbon dioxide (COz) in foul gas............ .........do....
Illuminating power of gas. ............. .standard candles. .
Gaseous products:
Gas per ton of coal at 60° F., 30 inches barometer. cubic feet. .
Ash........................................................
Chemical analyses (per cent):
Carter
County,
Boghead .0
Results of tests of Kentucky cannel and bituminous coals.
O
USES.
=
41
The three bituminous coals in the above table are of gas-coal quality, having a percentage of volatile hydrocarbons above 35. Comparison between them and the cannel coals shows that the cannels
yield a higher specific gravity, higher candlepower, and higher value
per cubic foot in sperms. It also shows that the cannels yield more
tar, though'this is in a measure offset by their smaller yield of ammoniacal liquor. The bituminous coals, on the other hand, yield
more and better coke.
Writing in 1893, Hendrie x describes some of the effects of substituting water gas for the gas formerly enriched with cannel coal:
The Consolidated Gas Co. of New York in former years used to use from
25,000 to 30,000 tons of cannel per annum for enriching purposes. They now use
only a few thousand tons. This applies to all the large gas works in this
country. On the other hand, the handling of large quantities of naphtha oil is
attended with great risk and danger, especially in large cities, and a first-class
cannel will always find a ready market at a certain price, and this to a great
extent is governed by the question of transportation. There is a good market in
South America, England, and portions of the Continent. The exhaustion of the
English cannels is rapidly taking place, and Kentucky alone can take their
place in any quantity. Toward the end of 1892 the city of London ceased to
use cannel gas, an event marking an important epoch in the cannel trade. This
was caused by the fact that about the only available cannel in quantity coming
into this mai-ket the Scotch Lesmahagow cost 58 shillings per ton, delivered
In the Thames. Sufficient quantity could not even be obtained at this price,
and as ordinary coal will not yield 16 candlepower gas crude' oil from Russia is
employed to maintain the statutory power. By this means the gas companies
in that city were able to furnish 16 candlepower gas at 3 shillings 1 pence per
1,000 cubic feet, as against 4 shillings 9 pence for cannel gas, a difference which
the public were quick to appreciate and accede to. The large amount of gas
now used for cooking purposes has also tended to lessen the demand for a gas
of high illuminating power.
COKE MAKING.
It is well known that cannel coal will not make good coke. It
belongs to the group of free-burning coals which do not intumesce
or run together into a cake, and the coke made from it is, as a rule,
pulverulent and soft, that made from some beds crumbling at once
to powder. It would seem to be feasible to use this coke in the
production of water gas or producer gas or for burning under
furnaces as dust, but not in metallurgy nor for stove use.
OIL MAKING.
The use of cannel coal of most interest, both in the past and in
the future, however, is in the production of oil and other chemical
by-products. It was this use that led to its widespread mining from
1855 to 1859, when the discovery of petroleum opened the way to its
1 Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels : Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann.
Rept., p. 149, 1894.
42
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
displacement, and it is this use that is apparently again calling
attention to it, the oil now being demanded for conversion into the
lighter hydrocarbons (especially gasoline) for use in portable motors
and the by-product chemicals for the enlarging chemical industry
of the country.
The use of coal for the production of oil is not recent, it having
been employed for the purpose as early as 1760. In Lewis's Materia
Medica, published in that year, mention is made of oils distilled from
black bituminous shales for medical purposes. Even earlier than
that, in 1694, patents were issued, according to Gesner,1 to Eele,
Hancock, and Portlock for making "pitch, tar, and oyle out of a
kind of stone." In 1781 the Earl of Dundonald distilled oil from
coal, and others distilled oils and tars from bituminous schists, so
that at an early date these oils, somewhat purified, were used for
burning in lamps and for lubricating machinery.
Abraham Gesner claims to have been the first to manufacture oil
from coal in the United States, and in 1846 exhibited the use of his
oil in lamps. His patents, known as the " kerosene patents," granted
nine years later, were sold to the North American Kerosene Gaslight Co., which proceeded to make and sell " kerosene oil," as it was
called. This early oil was not so highly refined as kerosene is to-day,
and a disagreeable odor in burning kept down its sale. It came into
common use about 1854. In .the autumn of 1855 work was begun
at Breckinridge, Ky., on an oil distillery, and by April, 1856, 12
retorts were in operation there, producing 600 to 700 gallons daily.
In June, 1856, the Breckinridge Coal & Oil Co. consolidated with
the Breckinridge Cannel Coal Co., and 18 more retorts were added.
The rapid extension in the refining of oil from cannel coal and
other bituminous substances has been described by Baskerville,2 as
follows:
In 1853 the United States Chemical Manufacturing Co. began working coat
tar for the manufacture of lubricating oil at Waltham, Mass., and in 1857 the
Downer Kerosene Oil Co. first made mineral oils from Albert coal mined in
New Brunswick. The large works of Downer, in Boston, were erected at a
cost of half a million dollars; and at Portland, Me., Downer erected a smaller
works for distilling imported coal. About this time the New Bedford Co., of
New Bedford, Mass., commenced the distillation of Boghead coal, imported from
Scotland, but later substituted domestic Breckinridge coal and West Virginia
coal for the imported material.
In 1859 six plants were erected by various companies near Pittsburgh, Pa.,
and one of these (the Lucesco Co.) had a distilling capacity of 6,000 gallons of
crude oil per day. This company had $120,000 invested in its works, and in
1860 ten large revolving retorts were in operation. Sixteen 2,000-gallon stills
1 Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and other distilled oils, 2d ed.,
p. 8, New York, Bailliere Bros., 1865.
2 Baskerville, Charles, Economic possibilities of American oil shales : Bng. and Min.
Jour., vol. 88, p. 151, 1909.
USES.
43
were used in the refinery. Many of the companies in operation worked under
licenses from the Young Co., of Scotland. In 1860 there were fifty-five coal-oil
companies in existence in the United States. These were as follows:
Adair & Veeder, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Hartford Co., Hartford, Conn.
Aladdin Co., Kiskiminitas, Pa.
Himebaugh & Co., Coshocton, Ohio.
Anderson Co., Darlington, Pa.
Kerosene Co., New York, N. Y.
Atlantic Co., New York, N. Y.
Knickerbocker Co., New York, N. Y.
Beloni & Co., New York, N. Y.
Long Island Co., New York, N. Y.
Boston & Portland Co., Boston, Mass.
Lucesco Co., Kiskirninitas, Pa.
Breckiuridge Co., Cloverport, Ky.
New Bedford Co., New Bedford, Mass.
Brooks Co., Zanesville, Ohio.
New York & Wheeling Co., Wheeling,
Carbon Co., New York, N. Y.
W. Va.
Cornell & Co., Canfield, Ohio.
New York Coal Oil Co., New Galilee, Pa.
Covington Co., Covington, Ky.
North American Co.,Kiskiminii;as, Pa.
Cox Co., Zanesville, Ohio.
Orion Co., New York, N. Y.
Dean Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
Page & Co., Boston, Mass.
Downer Co., Boston, Mass.
Palestine Co., Palestine, Pa.
East Cambridge Co., East Cambridge, Peasley Co., Boston, Mass.
Mass.
Phoenix Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Empire State Co., New York, N. Y.
Pictou Co., New York, N. Y.
Enon Valley Co., Enon Valley, Pa.
Pinkham Co., Boston, Mass.
Eureka Co., New York, N. Y.
Preston Co., Virginia [now W. Va.].
Excelsior Co., New York, N. Y.
Ritchie Co., Ritchie County, Va.
Falling Rock Co., Kanawha, Va. [now Robinson Co., Perry County, Ohio.
W. Va.].
Sherwood Co., Canfield, Ohio.
Forest Hill Co., Kanawha, Va. [now Stamford Co., Stamford, Conn.
Stauntou Co., Kauawha, Va. [now W.
W. Va.]. .
Franklin Co., New York, N. Y.
Va.].
Glendon Co., Boston, Mass.
Union Co., Maysville, Ky.
Grasseli Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Western Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Great Kanawha Co., Kanawha, Va. White-Day Co., Monongahela County,
[now W. Va.].
Va. [now W. Va.].
Great Western Co., Newark, Ohio.
Zephyr Co., New York, N. Y.
Greers Co., Kanawha, Va. [now W.
Va.].
Many of the above-mentioned companies were of small capacity, and most of
them were not more than fairly started when the discovery of petroleum
paralyzed the industry. The owners were threatened with considerable loss,
from which they were rescued, however, by converting their oil works into
petroleum refineries, this being accomplished with little outlay of time or
money.
Modern methods of distilling cannel coal would doubtless follow
in the main the methods now used in Scotland and Germany
in the distillation of oil shale, described by Baskerville 1 and by
Ells.2 Baskerville has also described the methods in use in the
United States when cannel coals were formerly distilled for oil.
1 Baskerville, Charles, Economic possibilities of American oil shales: Eng. and Mln.
.Tour., vol. 88, pp. 152-153, 1909.
2 Ells, R. W., Joint report on the bituminous or oil-shales of New Brunswick; also, on
the oil-shale Industry of Scotland ; part 1, Economics, pp. 13-14, Canada Dept. Mines,
Mines Branch, 1910.
44
,CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
About 1860 two types of retorts were in use in the United States and
Canada, viz, the horizontal D-shaped retorts and revolving retorts. The former were made of both iron and clay and were from 30 to 45 inches in
width and 8 to 10 feet in length. A retort 10 feet in length was capable
of distilling three charges of cannel coal of 450 pounds each in 24 hours
at a heat not exceeding 415°. Two or three of these retorts were heated
over one furnace, and often as many as forty discharged into a common
main. The discharge pipes leading from the retorts to the main were about
8 inches in diameter, and they were inserted into the end of the retort opposite the head and the furnace. The main was generally 3 feet in diameter.
The revolving retorts were iron or clay cylinders, 6 feet in diameter
and 8 feet in length, sustained upon an axle at each end, the vapors passing through the axle opposite the furnace. The cylinders were kept in
motion by machinery and made two or three revolutions per minute. One
of these retorts ran six charges of one ton each in 24 hours. In using
this retort a saving of fuel was found, but they were more expensive and
more liable to get out of order. Consequently the horizontal D-shaped retort
was favored.
The largest stills for refining were about 8 feet 6 inches in diameter and 4
feet 6 inches in height. The condensing worms were about 100 feet in length,
with a diameter of 6 inches where they left the necks and 4 inches throughout
the middle parts, tapering down to 2 inches at the tail pipes. The oil was refined as follows: After the water had settled from the oil and had been drawn
off, the crude oil was generally distilled in a common iron still. When the oil
had been " run off" to four-fifths of the whole quantity, steam was let into the
still, and frequently superheated steam was used.
The first distillate was separated into two parts, the first being that which
distilled over from the commencement until the specific gravity reached 0.843.
This oil, which constituted the lamp oil, was placed in an iron cistern and agitated from one to two hours with from 4 to 10 per cent of sulphuric acid, and
then allowed to settle for eight hours. The oil was then washed with 10 to
20 per cent water and afterward with 5 to 10 per cent soda solution (specific
gravity 1.40). After settling for six hours the oil was again washed with
water and run into a still for final rectification. When the specific gravity
reached 0.819 the distillation .was stopped and the residue was transferred to
the heavy oil.
The heavy oil. was that portion of the crude oil which formed the second
part of the first distillate. It was generally distilled off in steam to the end
of the distillation. The heavy oils were purified in much the same manner as the
lighter oils, excepting more acid and stronger alkali solutions were employed.
The paraffin wax was crystallized from the heavy oil by exposing it in tanks in a
cool place. The oil was pressed out from the wax, which was then purified by
acid and alkalies, pressed, and finally cast in molds. Certain alterations of
these general methods of retorting and refining were made in New Brunswick
in 1864-65. Whether they were improvements or not, we are not able to
ascertain.
DISTILLATION FOR BY-PRODUCTS.
The renewed interest in cannel coal is largely based on its supposed
value as a source of what were formerly considered by-products
in the manufacture of artificial gas, but which at present have be-
USES.
45
come of primary importance. The "figures already given indicate
clearly that certain lean or semicannel coals, though suitable for
certain uses (as in household grates), have no advantage over bituminous coals in the production of gas or oil. The figures also
show, however, that the higher-grade cannel coals yield a variable
but always larger percentage of the coal gas, coal oil, and ammoniacal liquor, and it is hoped that some method may be found for obtaining benzol and its derivatives from these by hydrogenation.
Both the quantity and the quality of the products obtained by the
destructive distillation of coal depend on the temperature and pressure and some other factors of the distillation. (See pp. 39 and 48.)
If the temperature of distillation is 1,000° to 1,200° F. or more, a
large volume of gas will be driven off and there will remain a small
quantity of tar, from which the coal-tar products are derived, and a
large quantity of coke, usually equivalent to more than one-half the
weight of the coal. If, however, the temperature of distillation be
kept below 800° F. the quantity of gas will be much reduced, the
quantity of coke possibly a little increased, and a considerable volume of oil given off in place of the coal tar.
Munroe 1 has summarized by classes a few of nearly a thousand
derivatives of the ammoniacal liquor and tar obtained in making
coal gas. From the ammoniacal liquor are obtained ammonium carbonate, sulphide; polysulphide, chloride, cyanide, sulphocyanide,
and other combinations, depending on the process employed. The
coal tar yields the benzene series, including benzene, naphthalene,
fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene; nitrogen-containing compounds, as aniline, the pyridines, the picrolines, quinolines, isoquinolines; sulphur compounds, as thiophene; and hydroxy compounds, as phenols and cresoles.- From these substances are derived
cleansing compounds, paints, and paint removers; dyestuffs, as the
aniline dyes, synthetic alizarine, and indigo; antiseptics and germi-cides, as carbolic acid and the naphtholes; explosives, as picric acid
and trotile; flavoring materials, as methyl, salycilate, and vanilline;
perfumes, as geran oil and artificial musk; febrifuges, as antipyrene
and acetanilid; sweetening principles, as saccharine; photographic
developers, as hydroquinone; etc.
A number of cannel-coal samples obtained by the writer in Pennsylvania were subjected to dry distillation in 1914-15 under the
direction of D. T. Day. A preliminary series of tests were made
by J. A. Dorsey at the Geological Survey, and a second series by
C. R. Bopp at the Bureau of Mines.
1 Munroe, C. E., By-products In gas manufacture: Franklin Inst. Jour., vol. 174, p. 17,
1912.
46
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Dry distillation tests of Pennsylvania cannel coals (191.4-15).°
[By J. A. Dorsey and C. B. Bopp.]
Second test.
First test.
Yield per short ton.
Oil.
Source.
Coal,
used.
Center County:
Clearfleld County:
Indiana County:
Armstrong County:
Pine Run No. 1 ..................
Pine Run No. 3 ..................
Beaver County:
Cannelton, slate. .................
From
sample.
Per
short
ton.
Grains.
100
C. c.
5
Gals.
12.0
100
100
5
5
100
100
100
100
100
100
Coal
used.
Water.
Oil.
Gas.
Ammonia.
6
Gals.
10.7
12
12
6
6
14
10.5
7
7
4,467
4,467
2.39
5.14
10
24
6
20.3
7.7
4,790
5.57
17
14
8
40.8
33.6
19.2
6
6
6
33.6
25.2
31.5
7
9.8
8.4
5.029
5,029
4,311
5.37
5.06
3.68
21
12
50.4
28.8
6
6
37.3
27.3
10.5
9.1
5,268
2,905
2.24
.92
02.
Gals. Cu. ft. Pounds.
11.9 4,071
1.8
o Ashley, G. H., Oil resources of black shales of the eastern United States: U.'S. Geol. Survey Bull. 641,
p. 319,1917.
In the following tests a thousand grains of coal were submitted
to distillation by Peter, the heat being gradually raised to a dull
red. The oil, ammonia, and coke were collected in a train of three
tubulated receivers and the gas in a bell glass.
Tests of 1,000 grains of Kentucky cannels (1856-1859).
[By B. Peter.]
Source.
Breathitt County:
Greenup County:
Carter County:
No. 1 Boghead c..................... ............
Gtis.
Grains.
120
134
Oil.
Cu. in.
860
675
170
153
145
140
182
162
102
670
675
445
370
Grains.
273
Ammoniacal
water.
Gals.
in
Coke.
Grains.
576.7
466
364
36
209
200
189
78
99
111
543
548
555
40
40
52
55
52
384
367
455
589
710
436
411
318
248.5
136
o Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Rept., p. 95,1861.
6 Idem, p. 171.
c Idem, p. 111.
<* Idem, p. 114.
«Idem, p. 216.
/Peter, Kobert, Second chemical report of the ores, rocks, soils, coals, etc., of Kentucky: Kentucky
Geol. Survey Second Rept., p. 217,1857.
Gesner x gives a table showing the production of oil, volatile matter, and coke from a number of cannel and bituminous coals and
1 Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and other distilled oils, 2d ed.,
p. 56, 1865.
47
USES.
^
other bituminous substances, from which the following have "been
selected :
Yield of oil, coke, and volatile matter from cannel and other coals.
Locality.
England:
Volatile
matter.
Coke.
Yield of
crude oil
per ton.
Per cent.
48.36
11
Per cent.
53
Gallons.
35
Scotland:
American:
ErieR.R., Pa.... .............................................
65
29.90
62
49
120
40
96
61.05
30.65
110
61.30
35
50
36
46
41
34
45
42
60
38.55
65
130
47
80
49
71
60
86
74
56
64
70.10
38
51
New Brunswick:
-
82
74
48
Eft
en
64
54
59
66
64
58
40
He also gives the following figures showing the yield of illuminating oil and paraffin oil from Breckinridge and Boghead coal:
Refined products of oils from cannel coals.0
Breckinridge.
Crude oil per ton of coal ...................... ........................ .gallons. .
T»«»I,^J
Boghead.
............................do....
............................do....
130
80
12
120
65
7
Making or equal to marketable oils . . . . .0 ......... .'1 ............. .gallons. .
92
84
Paraffin .................................
19
a Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and other distilled oils, 2d ed., p. 55,1865.
For example, Newcastle, England, cannel coal gives very different
results, according to whether it is distilled for gas or for oil. The
following products are reported by Gesner: x
Products per ton of distillation of Newcastle, England, cannel coal distilled for
ffas and for oil.
Distilled for gas.
s.........................cubic feet.. 7,450
Coal tar............................gallons..
18J
Coke..............................pounds.. 1,200
Products of the coal tar:
- -. Benzole.........................pints-.
3
Coal-tar naphtha........"..... .gallons..
3
Heavy oil, naphthalin, etc..... .do....
9
Distilled for oil.
Gas............................cubicfeet.. 1,400
Crude oil.........................gallons..
68
Coke.............................pounds.. 1,280
Products of the crude oil:
.Eupion.......................gallons..
2
Lamp oil........................ do....
22.5
Heavy oil and paraffin..........do....
24
'
48.5
1 Gesner, Abraham, Practical treatise on coal, petroleum, and other distilled oils, 2d
ed.,-p. 110, 1865.
48
CANKEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
fjesner reports the following series of hydrocarbons as derived
from Breckinridge cannel coal when distilled at an average heat of
780°: 1-, C4H2 (supposed to exist but not condensed); 2, C6H4 ;
3, C8H6 ; 4, C10H8 ; 5, C12H10 ; 6, CUH12 ; 7, C16H14 ; 8, C18H16 ; 9,
C20H18 ; 10, C22H20 ; paraffin (3-9 are stated as "embracing the hydrocarbon oils suitable for lamps when mixed"); specific gravity,
0.819.1 "A coal from Kanawha, Va. [W. Va.], when distilled at a
heat of 900° gave part of a series thus: 1, C8H4 ; 2, C12H8 ; 3, C16H12 ;
4 ^is-^-ieO H "2
*j
The following table by Porter 3 shows the substances derived from
tar at different temperatures:
Fractions of average coal tar and their uses.
Temperature of distillation................
70°-160° C.
160°-230° C.
230°-360° C.
Above 360° C.
First crude separation Light oil .........'. Middle oil (or dead Heavy oil (includ- Pitch.
ing anthracene
by distillation.
oil).
oil).
Percentage in tar...... 3.................. 8.................. 24................. fi5.
Intermediate products Benzene, toluene, Phenol, cresols, Cresols, naphtha- Soft pitch, hard
lene, anthra- . pitch.
by distillation or exetc., naphthaxylene, etc.;
pression.
phenol.
lene, heavy hycene, heavy hydrocarbons.
drocarbons, quinoline bases.
Crude commercial Benzol and solCreosote oil.
Pitch, brlquetting
products.
black.
vent naphtha
Lamp
protective.
for
solvents, Disinfectants. . .... Road oils, impregpaint thinners,
nation of timber.
motor fuel, gas
Roofing tars.
enrichment.
Paving tars.
Intermediate chemical Nitro benzene, Carbolic acid, pic- Anthraquinone
products.
aniline salts,
ric acid, phthaalizarin.
lic acid, naphaniline oil, carthols, naphthybolic acid.
lamines, salicylic acid.
Refined chemical prod- Nitrotoluenes, di- Picric acid, pic- Alizarin dyes.....
ucts.
phenyla mine,
rates, aud otter
and other inni tro-comgredients of ex- .. pounds for explosives; 'naphplosives; aniline
thol dyes and
dyes; hydroquinone, and
colors, artificial
other photoindigo, refined
*
graphic develcarbolic acid.
opers; drugs and
medicines.
Light oil or " benzol" may also be obtained directly from coal gas,
of which it forms about 1 per cent by weight. In 1913 about 4,500,000
gallons of "gas benzol" was made in addition to that used in gas
enriching, and new benzol plants have since largely increased that
production. Probably 3,000,000 to 5,000,000 gallons of light oil was
obtained from tar in the United States in 1913. It has been estimated that if all the " benzol" were recovered from the coal used in
this country for making gas and coke, it would amount to over
100,000,000 gallons.
1 Gesner, Abraham, op. cit., p. 125.
2 Idem. p. 126.
3 Porter, H. C., Coal-tar products, etc.: Bur. Mines Tech. Paper 89, p. 10, 1915.
49
USES.
According to Lewes,1 if coal gas is scrubbed with creosote oil, it
will yield 3 to 4 gallons of crude benzene per ton of coal, containing
20 to 30 per cent of toluol.
Inubishi 2 has estimated that from the total Japanese yield of
60,000 tons of coal tar there should be obtained 230 tons of benzene,
140 tons of toluene, 200 tons of phenol, TOO tons of cresol, 3,400 tons
of refined naphthalene, 8,600 tons of creosote, 7,000 tons of fuel oil,
200 tons of anthracene, and 38,000 tons of pitch.
Experiments in 1915 by the Bureau of Mines gave the following
results:
Coke (per
cent).
48
65
65
70
Ammonia
Tar (gal- (pounds
lons per sulphateof
ton).
per ton).
80
35
18
20
8
5
13
Stripped
oil (gallons per
ton).
5
4
1.5C
2
Charges, 5 to 8 pounds; maximum temperature 700° C. "Stripped oil" derived by steam distillation
from "straw oil" used in washing gas, as in benzol-recovery plant. Aromatics notably absent from lowboiling tar fractions and "stripped oil."
Analysis of gas from "Pluto" cannel (3,750 cubic feet per ton)
showed C02, 4.75 per cent; ethylene and unsaturated hydrocarbons,
8,50; H2, 24.75; CO, 6.40; CnH2n+2 (n=1.35), 54.55; N2, 1.05.
The experiments showed, according to Dr. G. B. Taylor, of the
Bureau of Mines, not only that cannel coal differs from other bituminous coals in the larger volumes of tar or oil and gas it yields,
but that because of the low temperature at which the liquid products
come off they consist mainly of saturated and unsaturated paraffin
hydrocarbons, together with tar acids and but little of the valuable
benzene and toluene. The low-temperature oils are difficult to refine
and as yet have found no ready market. Their possible uses are as
flotation oil and as sources of gasoline and creosote. The difficulty in
refining for gasoline comes in removing the unsaturated bodies,notably paraffins of the ethylene series. Hydrogenation may in the
future obviate this difficulty. Many studies are yet needed of tar
and gas derived from cannel coal at high temperature and of the
results of "cracking" or other subsequent treatment of the lowtemperature distillation products. 3
1 Lewes, V. B., The place of the gas industry in the manufacture of modern explosives:
Gas World, vol. 62, p. 242, 1915.
2 Inubishi, S., Japanese by-product Industry: Gas Age, vol. 35, p. 268, 1915.
3 Rittman, W. F., The Rittman gasoline process: Nat. Petroleum News, vol. 7, pp. 2-4,
1915. Since the above was written the Bureau of Mines has issued a bulletin by Rittman,
Button, and Dean (Bull. 114), describing in detail the Rittman and other processes for the
cracking of oils and the methods of producing the aromatic hydrocarbons used in making
explosives, including a very complete bibliography on these and related subjects.
87775° 1& Bull. 659 i
50
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
CANNEL-COAL, MINING.
PENNSYLVANIA.
The early use of cannel coal is largely merged in that of bituminous coal. According to Mansfield* the cannel coal of Cannelton, Pa.,
appears to have been known to the Indians at least as early as 1750,
and was used~by them in their hunting camp at the mouth of Cannel
Ravine. William and George Foulks, who were for a time held
prisoners by the Indians, seem to have been the first white men to
karn its source. It was certainly known to white men in 1787. The
first mine was opened by William Welch but was burned out in a
raid on horse thieves, who had made the locality a hiding place. It
is of record that the cannel mine was purchased in 1820 by James
Patterson and operated for two years. When the Pennsylvania
& Ohio Canal was projected in 1831, a survey was made for a
"cannel-coal railway" from New Galilee to Newcastle. Though
often the subject of ownership disputes, the cannel coal at this point
appears to have been worked more or less regularly on a small scale.
A railroad was built to the mines in 1855, and from that time mining
continued extensively until 1900. (See PL IV, A, p. 34.)
OHIO.
In Ohio cannel coal was mined in the Flint Ridge region at least
as early as 1830 and 1840. Data as to the discovery of the other
cannel fields in the State were not obtained, but it is believed that
most of them have been known and some of them mined from a very
early date. The fact that oil refineries existed at Coshocton, Canfield, and Zanesville, Ohio, before 1860 is itself evidence that the
neighboring cannel coals were then being mined.
INDIANA.
In 1837 the American Cannel Coal Co., of Cannelton, Perry
County, Ind., was incorporated and began to mine at that point.
Cannel coal mining at Cannelsburg, Daviess County, Ind., was begun
in 1871 by the Buckeye Cannel Coal Co., and has been continued to
the present time.
WEST VIRGINIA.
In West Virginia, according to Edwards,2 cannel coal began to be
exploited on Coal River in the early forties through the activity of
1 Mansfield, I. F., Fireclays, coals, and titles of the cannel-coal tract at Cannelton,
Beaver County, Pa., p. 27, 1905.
2 Edwards, W. S., Coals and cokes of West Virginia, pp. 96-98, 1892.
CANNEL-COAL MINING.
51
W. N. Peyton. Among the companies engaged were the Virginia
Cannel Coal Co., with mines at Peytona, in Boone County; the
Western Mining & Manufacturing Co., with mines at Drawdy Creek
near Peytona; the Cannel Coal Co. of Coal Eiver, with mines at
Manningville on Little Coal River; and the Coal Eiver & Kanawha
Mining & Manufacturing Co., with mines at Briar Creek, in Boone
County. These companies organized the Coal River Navigation
Co., which built eight locks and dams on Coal River and one on
Little Coal River, with an average lift of 10 feet, giving 4 feet of
' water at all seasons. The cannel-coal trade on this river reached a
maximum output of about 200,000 tons a year, the coal going mainly
to markets on the lower Ohio. During the Civil War the mines were
abandoned, the markets closed, and the neglected locks and dams
washed out. After the war the Virginia Cannel Coal Co. was reorganized as the Peytona Cannel Coal Co. The river was redammed,
but after 10 years of financially unsuccessful mining the project was
abandoned until a railroad should be built up the river.
About the time development began on Coal River cannel coal was
discovered on Kanawha River below Smithers Creek by Aaron Stockton, and in the early fifties a refinery was established at Cannelton
to extract oil and paraffin from the Stockton bed. Cannel coal began
to be mined on Paint Creek in 1857 and was used in an oil refinery
established there. Edwards* says that an unsuccessful attempt was
made at Forest Hill to manufacture oil from bituminous shale.
Cannel coal was discovered on Twelvepole Creek at a much later
date,-'and development did not begin until the construction of the
Norfolk & Western Railroad through that district. These last deposits of cannel coal proved to be very small.
According to Newberry 2 cannel coal was also known on Mill Creek
and on Falling Rock Creek before the war and for a time an oil refinery was operated 1£ miles above the mouth of Falling Rock Creek.
KENTUCKY.
Just when cannel-coal mining began in Kentucky was not learned.
Mather,3 writing in 1838, said that a bed of cannel at the mouth of
Troublesome Creek, on Kentucky River, was being regularly mined
and shipped down the river in flat boats, but he made no mention of
mining on Georges Branch or on Quicksand Creek, though it is possible that the coals at those points were being worked at that time or
were opened up soon thereafter. In 1837 the Breckinridge cannel,
which had been known for several years, was being mined and hauled
Edwards, W. S., op. cit., pp. 85-86.
Newberry, T. S., Ohio Geol. Survey Kept., vol. 2, pt. 1, Geology, p. 547, 1874.
3 Mather, W. W., Report on the geological reconnaissance of Kentucky made in 1838,
p. 15, 1839.
52
CANCEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
to Ohio River, where it sold for the use of steamers at 10 cents a
bushel. Trimble,1 writing in 1837, says that it sold- in Louisville at
that time at 15 cents a.bushel. He adds: "The cannel coal of Kentucky River is believed to be superior to any of that species in
America, and is evidently superior to the coal imported under that
name. * * * Many veins of it have been found on the Kentucky
River." Some idea of the extent of the mining of the Breckinridge
cannel may be gained from the fact that, writing in 1855, Owen 2
mentions measuring sections in rooms off the eighth entry.
The coals mentioned were probably the only cannels that were
being mined in Kentucky in 1855. Other cannels were known, however, and were probably mined in Greenup, Carter, Johnson, and
possibly some other counties before 1860.
PRODUCTION.
The figures in the following table, showing the production of
cannel coal in the United States,3 are fairly complete for years since
1902 but not for preceding years. The term " semicannel" in the
table is the term used by the mining companies in their reports and
does not mean the coal so named in this paper (p. 10).
Production of cannel coal in the United States, in long tons.
190 2
1& 2
State.
Cannel.
Indiana..............
Iowa.................
""i,"46i"
Cannel.
Semicannel.
Cannel.
Semicannel.
21, 887
30,000
15,000
63,717
446
1,600
35, 900
19,621
118,616
700
650
19,390
124,701
1,154
14,014
122,049
25.383
2,486
3,007
30, 905
10,000
97 7QS
1906
1905
Ohio.................
Cannel.
32,475
15,612
138, 408
2, 500
150
2, 362
3,819
78, 500
18, 167
' 1904
Semicannel.
25, 920
State.
1903
Semicannel.
Cannel.
15,397
25, 475
13,020
73,083
5,100
3,836
6,160
238,844
14,480
Cannel.
32,350
13,127
80,592
7.521
700
8,588
5,807
22,800
1907
Cannel.
14,722"
38, 455 ....2,200
. 10,800
4,650
97, 586
1,859
30,230
22.718
82,933
4,183
Cannel.
400
14, 772
2,200
13, 681
51,811
166,904
1908
Semicannel.
Semicannel.
Semicannel.
Semicannel.
6,201
865
24,307
64,369
1 Trimble, D., Report of the committee on the coal trade nnd iron interest?, of Kentucky, p. 3 [1837?].
2 Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Kept, for 1854 and 1855, p. 175, 1856.
8 U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resource's.
CANNEL-COAL MINING.
53
Production of cannel coal in the United States, in lony tons Continued.
Ifl 09
State.
19 11
Cannel.
Semicannel. ' Cannel.
22,676
21,672
67, 869
5,936
33,778
90,275
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania........ 51,347
Tennessee. ........... ' 'ii9,"844' "i2"i,"666'
Semicannel.
11,875
5,683
39, 879
8,048
14, 250 ..........
IB 12
Cannel.
7,373
Semicaunel.
8,344
88,292
86,377
' 3,583
4,039
68,091
12,500 ' "206," 585"
28,848
19 13
Cannel.
5,628
90,124
3,931
5,994
58,174
6,703
10,303
Semicannel.
86, 26::!
The following mines have recently been operating on cannel coal.
Those marked with a * were not reported as operated in 1916.
Indiana:
Mutual Coal Co., Cannelsburg; Mutual mine.*
Iowa:
Webster County Craig & Dawson Coal Co., Port Dodge; Cannel No. 2 mine.
Kentucky: .
Bell County Federal Coal Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.; Wallsend, Chenoa.
Carter County Eastern Kentucky Railway Co., Riverton ; Boglieacl mines.*
Floyd County Puritan Cannel Coal Co., Prestonburg.
Greenup County Eastern Kentucky Railway Co., Riverton; Hunnewell
mine.*
Harlan County Cumberland Cannel Coal Co., Welch, W. Va.; No. 1 mine.
Johnson County
East Kentucky Coal Co., East Point.*
Ayers & Laug, Detroit, Mien.
Greasy Creek Coal Co., Thealka.
Whitehouse Cannel Coal Co:, Myrtle.*'
Knox County North Jellico Coal Co.. Lewisville; Olive Hill mine.
Morgan County
American Consolidated Cannel Coal Co., Loveland; No. 1 mine.* .
Bigstaff Cannel Coal Co., Cannel City; Bigstaff mine.*
Cauey Cannel Coal Co., Paris; Caney mine.*
Gish Cannel Coal Co., Central City; White Oak mine.
Kentucky Block Cannel Coal Co., Cannel City; No. 1 and Brushy mine.
Lee Cannel Coal Co., Clearfleld; Lee No. 1 mine.
Mayflower Cannel Coal Co., Lancaster; Eureka mine.*
Charter Coal Co., Frankfort; Nos. 1 and 2 mines.
Orley Hanley, White Oak; Little mine.
Whitley County Halsey Red Ash Coal Co., Halsey; Anderson and Vanderpool mines.
Missouri:
Callaway County W. C. Weeks.
Cole County S. & A. Bandelier, Elston.*
Moniteau County
Monarch Coal & Mining Co., Excelsior.*
Rohrbach-Rowlin Mining Co.*
Newkjrk Mining Co.*
Morgan County Hubbard & Moore,*
54
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Ohio:
Coshocton County
Dailey Cannel Coal Co., Mohawk Village; Dailey mine.*
Ohio Block Cannel Coal Co., Toledo; Flambo mine.
Ohio Cannel Coal Co., Coshocton; Ohio mine.
Mahoning County American Fire Clay Co:, Cleveland.
Pennsylvania:
Butler County Butts Cannel Coal Co., Deegan.
Center County Lula Coal Mining Co., Philipsburg; Lula mine.
C1earfielcl County
A. Stolz, Houtzdale; Katherine mine.
Hurley, Wilson & Law, Houtzdale; Keystone mine.*
A. B. Lansberry, Woodland; Mines Nos. 2 and 3.
Woodland Cannel Coal Co., Woodland; Cannel Crest.
Washington Jury, Woodland.
Indiana County Altoona Coal Co.
Armstrong County
Fairmont Coal Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; Mines Nos*. 8 and 9, Bostonia.
Pine Run Coal Co., New Bethlehem; Brooks No. 1 and Cooke.
Westmoreland County W. E. Brown & Co., Ligonier; Darlington mine.
Tennessee:
Campbell County Jellico Cannel Coal Co., Massillon, Ohio; Hermitage
mine.*
Texas:
Webb County
Santo Tomas Coal Co., Santo Tomas.
Caunel Coal Co., Dolores.
West Virginia:
Booue County Peytona Block Coal Co., Peytona; Cannel mine.
Kanawha County
Paint Creek Collieries Co., Scranton, Pa.; Wacomah mine.*
- Mill Creek Cannel Mining Co., Cleveland, Ohio; Mill Creek.
Weirwick Caunel Coal Co., Weir.*
Wayne County Wells Branch Coal Co., Wells Branch.
VALUE.
The natural question arising in the mind of anyone thinking of
buying cannel coal is why it is so expensive. Doubtless the principal
reason is the well-known law of supply and demand. The total
supply of cannel coal is very small, and the coal is distributed in
small basins or pockets, hardly any of which would pay for the installation of a modern mining plant of any size, even at present
prices of cannel coal. Most of the deposits are not closely adjacent
to railroad transportation and are not extensive enough in themselves
to warrant building a spur of any length. Further, the demand for
use in grates, the principal demand in recent years, has been for coal
in blocks, so that the fine coal necessarily made in mining has not
found a market. If the distillation of cannel coal for oil and other
by-products is resumed all the coal will find a market, but the
increased demand is as likely to raise the general price as to lower
it. In many of the basins, by careful hand mining, the Avhole
\
55
VALUE.
product may be gotten out in block form. In others the wastage,
because of the restricted demand of the market, may be as high as
one-half. The whole product (including the slack) of coals rich in
gas, or those having 50 to 60 per cent of volatile matter and a correspondingly high candlepower, will always find a readier market,
while the drier cannels and semicannels will find a more restricted
market for the blocks only and will therefore have a correspondingly
larger percentage of waste.
The labor cost of cannel coal, f. o; b. cars at the mine, should
not, as a rule, be more than $1 per ton of total product.1 If only
one-half of the product can be marketed the marketed coal must
bear the cost, or, say, $2 per ton. Where the mines have no railroad connection the cost of hauling to the railroad must be added to
the other costs of mining. In some fields containing the richer cannels the miners are paid high prices for mining. At one place
visited by the writer the miners were receiving $2.50 a ton, besides
being given a bench of bituminous coal associated with the cannel.
The mine, however, was a small one, and the miner not only mined
his coal but pushed it out to the tipple and attended to all the handling it received until it was placed on the cars. As the cannel being
mined was very rich and brought a high price, well above the
average of other cannels, the owner could doubtless well afford the
price he paid. In other places the methods of mining and of transportation are very expensive, involving, for instance, the frequent
handling of the coal by hand, as large bricks might be handled.
(See PI. I, p. 12.)
The selling price of cannel at the mines is usually about double
that of bituminous coal in the same district. Thus, in 1904 true
cannel coal in Kentucky was bringing from $1.97 to $2.49 at the mines
as against 80 cents to $1.50 for bituminous coals. Cannel coal in the
Clearfield district of Pennsylvania was bringing $1.80 to $2 as compared to 89 cents to $1 for bituminous coals of the same district.
Ohio cannels brought $3.25 as compared with $1.20 to $1.80 for
bituminous coals in the same district. West Virginia cannel brought
$2.23 as against 80 cents to $1.32 for bituminous coals.
Most of the mine inspector's reports for Kentucky give the selling
price of cannel coal at the mine. The following table gives the selling prices of cannel and bituminous coals for selected years:
Selling prices per ton of cannel and bituminous coals in Kentucky.
Year.
1903
$2.40
1.05
1904
.
S2.03
.98
1905
$2.44
.97
Under pre-war conditions.
1906
1907
82. 40 S2. 60-3. 25
1.05
1.00
1911
$2.51
.98
56
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
According to the Coal Trade Journal for 1910, American carmel
coals sold in New York that year at $13 to $14 a ton and imported
cannels at $16 to $17 a ton. Prices in Chicago and other places
having a shorter freight haul were correspondingly lower.
DISTRIBUTION.
PENNSYLVANIA.
REVIVAL OF THE INDUSTRY..
Cannel coal has long been mined (see p. 50) in Pennsylvania at
Cannelton, in Beaver County, and at different times in Armstrong,
Indiana, and Clearfield counties. (See PI. V.) In 1914 the writer
made a special trip through the Pennsylvania coal field, visiting or
revisiting nearly or quite all of the cannel-coal mines then operating
in the State. At that time he was surprised to find that several of
the old mines had been reopened and were being operated extensively
and that one country mine, formerly visited, was being opened up
on a commercial scale, involving the building of a narrow-gage tram
road several miles long. The special purpose of the writer's trip
was to obtain specimens for testing for the production of oil. (See
pp. 45-46.) In the following pages most of the deposits described
are, or have been, or give promise of becoming commercial propositions. All the cannel coal in Pennsylvania, except that in Beaver
County and one or two other places, appears to be semicannel..
CENTER COUNTY.
PJiilipsburg. A bench of semicannel or canneloid coal occurs in
the B bed, where mined by the Lula Coal Mining Co. about a mile
southwest of Philipsburg (location 2 1 ). When visited, it was estimated that at least 100 acres, and possibly several times that area,
under the wide creek bottoms was underlain by about 4 feet of cannel
lying between two benches of bituminous coal. The cannel is 4 feet
thick in part of the mine, but to the southeast it pinches down to 5
inches or less. To the north and west it runs out under the broad
creek bottoms and is reported to have been struck in a well on the
west side of the valley. .Where it is thick the upper bench of bituminous coal (27 inches thick) is undercut and the cannel is raised.
Where it is thin the whole bed .is undercut by electrical machines.
(See fig. 2, section 1.) The cannel gives an abundant white ash,
ranging probably from 15 to 20 per cent. (See also pp. 12, 13.)
1 Location numbers for Pennsylvania appear on Plate V.
BULLETIN 659 PLATE V
0. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
I
J
.r /0TVdefl«.
v
N
N
S Y L
_ __ _ _Cumberlana_.^-| -
]- ~
I
Parkersburg
WEST
/
V/I
WASHINGTON^?
V
I
H
G
AN1MPO
I
PLATE VII #
MAP OF PART OF THE EASTERN
UNITED STATES, SHOWING LOCATION OF CANNEL-COAL DEPOSITS AND POSITION OF AREAS SHOWN ON
THIS REPORT.
Nu-mbered localities separate deposits not included in large-scale maps but descri-bed in text.
Separate series of numbers for each State.
LARGE-SCALE MAPS IN
57
DISTRIBUTION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
CLEARFIELD COUNTY.
Moshannon Creek. A small basin of cannel coal occurs on Moshannon Creek (location 1) just above the mouth of Whiteside Run,
a few miles southeast of Houtzdale. It has been mined at the KathIndiana County_____
Altoona
Mear Deckers Point Coa^Co.
Jhin
Average
Maximum
9
Center
County'
NCSP
Philipsburg
Lulamine
Ft. in.
Clearfield County
South of Houtzdale
Stolz mines
North of Woodland
Keystone
mine
Jury
mine
La ns berry
mine
.Ft. in.
Ft. in.
Ft. in.
Ft. in.
V
115 0
,Ft. in.
Ft. in.
Ft. in.
4 4 HI I 0
LEGEND
Cannel
coal
Bituminous
coal
Bone
Black shale
Clay
Shale
Sandstone
FIGCJRE 2. Sections of cannel coal in Center, Clearfield, and Indiana counties, Pa.
erine mine of A. Stolz and at the Keystone mine of Hurly. Wilson &
Law. The cannel portion of the bed has a maximum thickness of 4
feet and is associated with 2£ feet or less of bituminous coal. The
extent of the bed is not known, but the variability of cannel beds at
58
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
points not far distant indicates that it is probably not over a few
hundred acres. (See fig. 2, sections 2-4.)
Woodland. Cannel coal was formerly mined in the hills immediately north of Woodland and is still being mined 1£ miles north of
that town (locations 3 and 4). In the hills two beds formerly mined
were known as the red-ash cannel and the white-ash cannel (correlated as the C' or Upper Kittanning and the C or Middle Kittanning
coals). The coal reached a maximum of 4 feet just north of the east
end of town. Whether this basin extends northward to the area in
which mining is now toeing done is not known. Probably it does not,
though considerable cannel may lie between the two points.
One and one-half miles north of Woodland cannel coal is being
mined by A. B. Lansberry and, for wagon trade, by Washington
Jury. The Lansberry mine is connected by tram with the New York
Central Railroad near the tunnel 5 miles below Clearfield, on Susquehanna River. Several openings have been made on the coal,
which shows about 4 feet of cannel, associated with a small amount
of bituminous coal. (See fig. 2, sections 5, 6.) In this cannel, as in
that at Lula, the fracture is not typical but resembles that of the
bituminous coals of the region.
INDIANA COUNTY.
Richmond. Rather thick beds of cannel coal have been opened
at several places south of Richmond (location 5), a station south of
Punxsutawney on the Indiana branch of the Buffalo, Rochester &
Pittsburgh Railway.
At one opening the Altoona Coal Co. was, in 1914, making preparations to ship cannel coal commercially. The bed, which is correlated
as the C' or Upper Kittanning, consists of 3 feet or less of bituminous coal overlain by from 1 to 15 feet of cannel. The cannel part of
the bed is thought to occupy a narrow north-south basin extending
southward from this point toward Deckers Point, where it has been
mined on a small scale on the George Barr place. It has the appearance of a true cannel, but chemically it is a low-volatile cannel
or semicannel, showing only 23 to 24 per cent of volatile matter in
contrast with 30 per cent in the underlying bituminous coal. At the
Barr opening the cannel portion of the bed is only 15 inches thick,
and at the old Lowry mine, later opened up by the Altoona Coal
Co., it was seen to change from 9 feet to 1 foot in a very short
distance.1 (See fig. 2, sections 7-9; and analyses 166, 167, p. 27.)
1 Platt, W. O., Report of progress in Indiana County: Pennsylvania Second G,eol. Survey Kept. H4, pp. 228-231, 1878.
DISTRIBUTION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
59
WESTMOKELAND COUNTY.
The Pittsburgh coal bed carries a little cannel coal in many places
in Westmorland County, and at many more is overlain by cannel
shale. Stevenson * says that in Burrwell Township, 2 miles west of
McLaughlin (locality 12), the top bench of the Pittsburgh coal
carries 4 to 10 inches of cannel.
3 MILES
FIGURE 3. Sketch map of area of cannel coal south of New Bethlehem, Armstrong
County, Pa.
ARMSTRONG COUNTY.
South of New Bethlehem. In 1914 most of the cannel coal mined
in Pennsylvania came from a small district south of New Bethlehem
(locations 6-9) on the low-grade division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Cannel coal was mined by the Fairmont Coal Co. at Bostonia
(location 9), If miles south of New Bethlehem, and by the Pine Run
Coal Co. on Cathcart Run, and on Little Mudlick Creek. (See fig. 3.)
The coal being mined is the C' or Upper Kittanning. The cannel
coal appears to lie in a narrow basin, whose axis extends northwestward across the head of a small ravine emptying into Redbank Creek
just below New Bethlehem. In the Bostonia mine the maximum
1 Stevenson, J. J., Pennsylvania Second Geol. Survey Kept. K2, p. 369, 1877.
60
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
minable width of the basin is about 800 feet. In the center there is
9 feet of cannel over 18 inches of bituminous coal. The channel,
here nearly straight, had in 1914 been mined out for 2,000 feet to
the northwest and 5,300
feet to the southeast of the
^Armstrong County
Beaver County
Bostonia
Pine Run mines
Cannelton
ravine crossing nearly halfmine
"No!"flo^
In basin Edge of mine
way through the divide be11
.Ft. in.
tween the mine and Cathcart Run. (See fig. 4, secFt. in.
tion 11.)
The cannel reaches Cath,Ft. in.
cart Run about .a mile from
the mouth and is being
i o mined on the east side at
12
mine No. 1 of the Pine
Ft. in
13
Ft in.
Run Coal Co. (location 8).
From there the channel
o o
to
runs eastward, reaching.
z o
|0 0
Little Mudlick Creek, nearly
to
I 3 0
2 miles from the mouth..
In 1914 cannel coal was
|0 0
being mined at No. 3 mine
to
5 0
|I5 0
of the Pine Run Coal Co.
, aver.
7 6
(location 7), and a new
4- 0
mine
was being opened a
to
| 8 0
short
distance
to the south.
aver.
16 0
The same bed has been
opened up again east of
Charleston on the Jacob
Schiech farm (location 6).
At the Pine Run No. 1
I 6
I 0
mine, on Cathcart Run, the
cannel coal (analysis 162,
p. 26) is in two benches,
LEGEND
the upper from less than
3 feet to more than 5 feet
Cannel coal . Bituminous coal Cannel shale
thick and the lower from 6
FIGURE 4. Sections of cannel coal In Armstrong
, opr,<isepao
o 7i fppt
ieet
and Beaver counties, Pa.
rated by 12 to 20 inches
of " mixed " coal, all underlain by 2 feet or more of bituminous
coal. The mixed coal bench has 6 inches of bituminous coal at
the bottom and the rest is " curly " canhel, with possibly streaks of
bituminous. Both the cannel and bituminous coal here are irregular,
for as the cannel thins the bituminous coal thickens, reaching 5 feet
at the back of the mine.
P
J_
J
il-
-
---J1___,L
DISTRIBUTION IN PENNSYLVANIA.
61
At the Pine Bun No. 3 mine the cannel is 4 to 8 feet thick (averaging about 6 feet) and is overlain in most places by bituminous coal
of a maximum thickness of 2 feet. In places a little bituminous coal
is found under the cannel. The cannel runs out in entries to the north
but holds its thickness in those to the east. The new opening, a short
distance to the south, appears to be in a branch of the channel from
the south, for the cannel thins to the east but holds up to 7 feet
southward. At all of these mines a considerable portion of the
mined coal, though possibly suitable for making oil, does not meet
the trade demand which calls for a smooth even block. Even the
amount of oil in these cannels is small, as shown by the tests and
analyses. (See fig. 4, sections 11-13, and analyses 160-163, p. 26.)
The channel is nearly straight at the Bostonia mine, but to the
. southeast it appears to become crooked and irregular and probably
divides into branches. Whether the several channels so far located
connect and form parts of the same channel or system of channels is
not certain. Search has not yet revealed cannel coal on the west
side of Pine Run or Little Mudlick Creek. The cannel-coal channels
found appear to belong to the same system.
The cannel coal lies in a channel distinctly depressed in the middle.
(See p. 32.) The coal bed is much broken up by slips or cracks filled
with clay, sandstone, or sulphur. Some of^these are nearly vertical
and some are irregular, ranging in width from next to nothing to 16
feet. These clay slips interfere greatly with mining the coal into dimension blocks (as they would be called in the stone industry); and
as the trade demands mainly coal in that form it has been necessary
to "gob" or store outside about half of the product of the mine.
Tn some places these clay " veins " have been pierced by drillings,
making it appear that the coal bed was absent at that point.
Somerville. Near Somerville, in the nortlwest corner of Armstrong County (location 10), the Upper Kittarming is locally 2 to 12
feet thick, comprising 2 to 5 feet of bituminous coal underlain by a
maximum of 1 feet of low-grade cannel. It has been mined at the
Ganner mine. The coal here occurs, as in many other places, in
narrow, irregular depressions or concavities. Beyond the limits of
the depression the bed is locally scarcely more than a streak in the
rocks. Its occurrence at the Ganner mine is described by Platt' as
follows:
A good exhibition of its cannel-slate feature may be had at the Ganner mine
in the ravine of Holder Run, at which place the bed is 2 feet thick at the out. crop, increasing within a short distance to 5 feet of bituminous coal of a fairly
good quality. The floor of the seam then rapidly descends at an angle of 10°
1 Platt, W. G., Report of progress in Armstrong County: Pennsylvania Second Geol.
Survey Kept. H5, p. 222, 1880.
62
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
to a depth of 7 feet, the roof mainly remaining horizontal. The interval between
is gradually occupied by a mass of impure caunel slate of a dull luster and
having conchoidal fracture.
ALLEGHENY COUNTY.
In Allegheny County the Pittsburgh bed carries at its top 2 feet of
impure cannel at the Brewer bank and the Upper Freeport coal a
similar thickness around Hiteston, both in West Deer Township.1
The Elk Lick coal carries 6 to 12 inches of cannel at several places, as
in Reserve and McClure townships and on Duff Run, in Franklin
Township.2 Near Allegheny City the Elk Lick coal is represented by.
1 to 2 feet of cannel or cannel shale, and at Bakerstown the Bakerstown coal carries 6 to 12 inches of cannel at its base.3
BUTLER COUNTY.
A little cannel coal has been found at several places in Butler
County. On Breakneck Creek, in Adams Township, 4 to 6 inches
of cannel lies at the top of the Upper Freeport.4 A thin bed of cannel lies at the top of the Bakersneld coal near the head of the south
branch of Glade Creek, in Middlesex Township, and another lies at
the horizon of the Mahoning coal in Forward Township.5 In
Jackson Township along Breakneck Creek 6 the Lower Freeport
carries a foot or more of cannel. In Lancaster Township on Yellow
Creek 7 a coal thought to be below the Lower Freeport carries 1
foot of cannel and 3 feet 4 inches of bituminous coal that has a
semicannel structure.
BEAVER COUNTY.
The famous Cannelton bed in the northwest corner of Beaver
County, north of Cannelton (location 11), appears to occupy an old
channel. It consists of three parts, a bench of bituminous coal 6 to
12 inches thick at the bottom overlain by 6 to 12 or more feet of
cannel coal, which grades upward, into a rich cannel shale, in places
6 feet in thickness. The bituminous coal at the bottom is interlaminated with streaks of cannel. The channel has a width of about 600
feet. For a width of 300 feet in the center the coal maintains a
1 White, I. C., Report of progress in the Beaver River district: Pennsylvania Second
Geol. Survey Rept. Q, pp. 148, 150, 1878.
2 Idem, p. 173.
3 Idem, pp. 28, 32.
4 Idem, p. 75.
6 Idem, pp. 78, 106.
6 Idem, pp. 114-115.
7 Idem, p. 121.
DISTEIBUTION IN OHIO.
63
good thickness, averaging 7 or 8 feet and ranging up to double that.
At the edges of the 300-foot channel the coal averaged 6 feet, but
outside of that the sides of the channel rose abruptly to a height in
places 20 feet above the bottom of the basin and the coal thinned
against the sides and almost or quite pinched out at the top. Mining
has shown that the cannel follows an oval course, with a maximum
diameter of 2 miles and a minimum diameter of 1 mile. (See fig. 4,
sections 14,15, and analyses 164, 165, p. 27.)
In .South Beaver Township the Darlington coal is overlain by 10
to 15 inches of cannel, grading into 4 to 5 feet of cannel shale.1 In
Industry Township the Kittanning coal carries in places as much as
14 inches of cannel at its base.2 In Economy Township the shale
just above the Upper Freeport coal locally takes on the appearance
of cannel. Opposite Beaver Falls (location 18) a local bed of
cannel in the Freeport sandstone reaches a thickness of 5 feet but
has a length of only a few rods.3 In North Sewickley Township the
Brush Creek coal becomes at one point a bed of cannel reported as 5
feet thick and fairly good, and at another point, on a tributary of
Brush Creek (location 17), carries 4 feet of good cannel overlain by
1 foot of shaly cannel and underlain by 1 foot of bituminous coal.4
In Marion Township the Darlington coal is overlain by 2 feet of
cannel or cannel shale on Brush Creek.5 In Pulasld Township on
Trough Eun the Lower Freeport is locally impure cannel coal 3 feet
thick.0 North of that in New Sewickley Township the Darlington
coal carries 6 inches of cannel on Cow Run.7
OHIO.
Much cannel coal occurs in Coshocton, Jackson, Licking, and
Mahoning counties, Ohio (PI. V, p. 56), but none of it runs as high
as 50 per cent in volatile hydrocarbons. (See analyses 141, 142,
149-157, p. 26.)
MAHONING COUNTY.
The most important bed in Mahoning County is the No. 4 or
" cannel seam," which, according to Newberry,8 contains 6 feet of
cannel of good quality. In the southwest corner of Canfield Township, on the Wetmore place, it is 5 feet thick (location 1 n ), nearly all
1 White, I. C., Pennsylvania Soeoncl Gcol. Survey Kept. Q, p. 238, 1878.
- Idem, p. 260.
;1 Idem, pp. 50, 202.
4 Idem, pp. 36, 213.
5 Idem, p. 215.
«Idem, p. 200.
7 Idem, p. 186.
8 Newberry, J. S., Ohio Geol. Survey Kept, vol. 3, pt. l,.pp. 795, 796, 806-810, 1878.
"For Ohio the locations are numbered by counties. (See PI. V, p. 56.)
64
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
cannel. On the Irving farm near by it comprises only 6 inches of
cannel over 2 feet of bituminous coal. In Springfield and Beaver
townships it has been opened at many points and shows "in some
places, 6 feet thick of cannel, in others 3 feet thick, half cannel and
half cubical coal, and in still others 3 feet thick with 6 inches of
cannel on top. Where of cannel it contains on the average about 15
per cent of ash."
Approximate scale
iMile ,
FIGURE 5. Sketch map of cannel-coal basin in Jefferson and Bedford townships, -Coshocton County, Ohio. (After Orton.)
The sections suggest that the cannel of workable thickness is in
very small pockets. The Canfield cannel lies immediately below the
" ferriferous or Vanport limestone."
^
COSHOCTON COUNTY.
In Bedford and Jefferson townships (location 4), Coshocton
County, the coal known as Bedford cannel lies at the Upper Mercer
DIS1
65
.UT10N IN OHIO.
horizon; total area is 12,000 to 13,000 acres, of which it is estimated
that nearly 1,500 acres in three distinct basins will yield coal over
2 feet thick. In its best exposures the coal is 6 feet thick; and in
several openings it comprises 5 feet or more of cannel overlain by
Coshocton
County
Givens mine
Moore
mines
Mowrie
bank
Licking
County
Sharpless
mine
19
Ft.in.
20
Ft.in.
24
3 4
.Ft. in.
^m , o
Strawbridge
mine
Ft. in.
18
"17 -
Holmes
County
Flint
Ridge'
Wilcox£
Osburn
opening
21
Jackson
County
Ftin.
teg
^B 3 0 ^M 3 0
Ft. in
7 0
to
9 0
23
E*. in.
6 0
^H 6 0
5 0
5 0
t 0
M
I
to
3
|2 6
JMWK f^XL
LEGEND
_
(Cannel
\coal
iBituminous
' coal
Bone
Black shale
Clay/
Shale
Limestone]
FIGURE 6. Sections of cannel coal In Ohio.
3 feet of bituminous coal. Nearer the boundaries the cannel thins
and changes into an impure bone coal or a rich, block shale. The
area of the field and the location of the sections is shown on figure 5.1
1 0rton, Edward, Oblo Geol. Survey Eept., vol. 5, Economic geology, p. 846 (map),
1884.
87775° 18 Bull. 659 6
66
CANNEL COAL IN THE .UNITED STATES.
\_j
The following notes are condensed from a description of the
field by Orton 1 published in 1884. Coal over 2 feet thick is confined to three areas. In one, which lies south of Mohawk, the
cannel as exposed at the Givens mine is 6 feet thick but has less
luster and a less conchoidal fracture than that in the other areas.
(See fig. 6, section 17.)
Another tract a mile east of Mohawk has been opened on the
Moore Bros, places, where the cannel is 6 feet thick overlain by 1
foot of bituminous coal. The coal mines without powder, in blocks
large and durable enough to be used locally for horse blocks, stepping stones, and the like. East of the Moore mines the coal thins
down, but east of Flint Run bottoms it thickens again. At the
Mowrie and Lyman banks it is 5 feet thick. At the Mowrie bank
it is unusually hard and firm and is exclusively close grained
and curly; the joint structure is so little developed as to make the
use of powder necessary in mining. At the Sharpless mine the
coal is highly conchoidal. The analysis given on page 26 represents the run of mine at this opening, including the whole bed.
The coal is said to reach a thickness of 9 feet in the Wilcox & Osburn
opening. (See fig. 6, sections 17-21, and analyses 141, 142, p. 26.)
LICKING COUNTY.
The Flint Ridge cannel comes from Hopewell Township, in Licking County (location 5), where it has a thickness of 3 to 4 feet
or less and is estimated to cover about 1,000 acres. This cannel
has long been famous, probably in large part because before the
discovery of oil in Pennsylvania it was distilled for oil in an extensive plant.
The coal is at the horizon of the Lower Mercer. Orton,2 writing
in 1884, estimated that only about 10 acres of coal had been mined
out, notwithstanding the fact that it has been mined for 50 years.
In the mine the cannel bench averaged about 3£ feet in thickness,
being nowhere less than 3 feet and rising about 4 feet only in the
main swamps. At that time the coal was being mined by bearing in at the top and then shooting the coal up with powder. The
miner could get only 2 tons a day by hard work, for which he
received a dollar a ton. The coal sold at the mouth of the mine
for $1.80. If hauled to the railroad for shipping, the cost was
increased by about a dollar. The cannel is described as curly and
of excellent appearance, though high in ash. A shaft one-fourth
of a mile east of the mine found 3 feet of good cannel. Two
1 Orton, Edward, Ohio Geol. Survey Kept., vol. 5, Economic geology, pp. 845 et seq..
1884.
2 Jdem, p. 908.
DISTRIBUTION IN OHIO.
67
miles to the east the cannel had a thickness of 2 feet 8 inches; 1
mile to the southeast 2 feet; and 2 miles to the southeast only 8
inches. (See fig. 6, section 22, and analyses 152-155, p. 26.)
JACKSON COUNTY.
In Milton Township, Jackson County (location 7), the Tionesta
seam near the top of the Pottsville supplies some cannel of fair
quality. (See analyses 149-151, p. 26.) The cannel portion ranges
from 15 to 30 inches in thickness. It is overlain by 6 inches of shaly
cannel and that in turn by 6 inches of bituminous coal. (See fig. 6,
section 23.) Its extent has not been determined.1
HOLMES COUNTY.
In Holmes County both the Upper and Lower Mercer coals carry
some cannel.2 In Killbuck Township (location 3) cannel from the
Upper Mercer is locally 7 to 9 feet thick (fig. 6, section 24). That
from the Lower Mercer ranges from 2 feet thick to 2 feet 6 inches
in several places. (See analyses 143-148, p. 26.)
SCIOTO COUNTY.
The Upper Mercer coal shows up to 20 inches of cannel at one or
two points in Scioto County. The great coal of the Hocking Valley
field (location 6) usually shows a few inches of bone coal 10 to 18
inches from the top. Locally this changes to cannel and in a fewplaces reaches a maximum thickness of 10 inches and is of excellent
quality. At Pioneer station a mine, the Webster, has 16 to 20 inches
of cannel coal. A little cannel has been shipped from the Cook mine.3
JEFFERSON COUNTY.
One of the most interesting occurrences of cannel in the State is at
the Diamond mine (location 2), in Jefferson County. The coal here
comprises 3 to 9 feet of bituminous coal, the greater thickness occuring in the " swamps," where lower benches come in. Beneath this,
covering about an acre or two, is a bed of cannel 5 inches in maximum thickness. From this small bed Newberry has collected more
than 50 species of fishes and reptiles, strong testimony to the water
origin of cannel coal.4
1 Orton, Edward, Ohio Geol. Survey Rept, vol. 5, Economic geology, p. 1032, 1884.
2 Idem, p. 825.
3 Idem, p. 1039.
* Idem, p. 212.
68
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
INDIANA.
Thin beds of cannel coal are found in several of the counties of
this State, usually as benches on or in a bituminous coal bed. (See
PL V, p. 56.)
DAVIESS COUNTY.
One basin of cannel coal of commercial thickness and extent occurs
at Cannelsburg, Daviess County (location 2 1 ).
The bed ranges in thickness from 6 feet to 2 feet 6 inches, an average being about 4 feet 8
Daviess County
Perry County
inches, of which the top 3
Gannelburg
Cannelton
feet
2 inches is cannel. (See
25
.Ft. in
fig. 7, sections 25-27.) The
difference in thickness is
mainly
due to variation in
26
29
Ft. in. 27
Ft.
in.v
the
cannel,
which lies in pockFt in,
ets in the bituminous coal,
28
Ft in.
to which it adheres closely.
Properly sampled analyses
(19 and 20, p. 20) of this
3 Z
coal show 49.08 per cent of
volatile matter, 26.35 per cent
of fixed carbon, and 23.10
per cent of ash. Analyses
of selected samples show 6
per cent or less of ash.
Mining has shown this cannel coal to extend for at
LEGEND
least a mile south of Cannel|
H|
JH1
burg, and drillings indicate
Bituminous
Bone
shale
that the bed as a whole is of
coal
FIGURE 7. Sections of cannel coal In Indiana. workable thickness over the
better part of 6 square miles,though whether the cannel has that extent is not known. An opening
2 miles south of Cannelburg showed only 6 inches of cannel. This
coal is Coal III of the State series, being, like so many cannel-bearing
coals, near the bottom of the coal series.2
PERRY COUNTY.
At Cannelton (location 1), in Perry County, on Ohio River, a
coal has long been mined that might well be classed as a semicannel.
1 Locality numbers for Indiana appear on Plate V, p. 56.
2 Cox, B. T., Indiana Geol. Survey Third and Fourth Ann. Repts., pp. 25 et seq., 1872.
Ashley, G. H., Indiana Dept. Geology and Nat. Res. Twenty-third Ann. Rept., pp. 90 et
seq., 1899.
DISTRIBUTION IN MICHIGAN".
69
It is dense and hard and breaks in any direction with conchoidal fracture. Analyses 22 and 23 (p. 20) show that it contains 42 per cent of
A^o'latile matter, 45 per cent of fixed carbon, and 6 per cent of ash.
It lies in dish-shaped basins, thinning out entirely on the rise and
thickening to 4 feet in the basins.1 (See fig. 7, sections 28-29.)
PARKE COUNTY.
Above the narrows of Sugar Creek, in the northeast corner of
Parke County, cannel coal outcrops on what was the Newlin place,
2 miles north of Bethany (location 3). An analysis (21) is given
on page 20. Two blocks of cannel of nearly half a ton each are
reported as having been taken to Indianapolis from here, but when
visited by the writer in 1897 only 6 inches of cannel coal could be
found.2
ILLINOIS.
Cannel coal is found in Illinois in very small quantities only; as
a rule it is found in lenses in association with bituminous coal. Two
occurrences in northern Illinois have recently been described by
Grout.3 At Colfax, McLean County, in the Colfax Cooperative
Coal Co.'s mine, a 6-inch bed of cannel coal underlies the bituminous
coal. On one side of the shaft lenses of cannel coal having a maximum thickness of 10 inches lie above the bituminous coal but have
a horizontal extent of only about 100 feet. At La Salle cannel coal
occurs in thin, irregular lenses on top of the coal in the Matheissen
& Hegeler mine in about a third of the territory opened. (See
analyses 24, 25, p. 21.)
MICHIGAN.
Lane 4 has reported of the Michigan coals that they "seem to
lean generally toward cannel coal." It is a common condition in
Michigan to find 3 to 8 inches of bone coal, cannel coal, or slaty coal
above the main bed. On Rifle River, sec. 3, T. 19 N., R. 4 E., are 10
feet of black shale and cannel coal. The analysis shows 35 per cent
of volatile matter, 45 per cent fixed carbon, and 11.8 per cent of ash.
The thickness of the " cannel" is not stated.5 Cannel coal occurs on
top of the Saginaw bed at St. Charles and elsewhere.
1 Cox, E. T., Indiana .Geol. Survey Third and Fourth Ann. Repts., pp. 95 et seq., 1872.
Ashley, G. H., The coal deposits of Indiana : Indiana Dept. Geology and Nat. Res. Twentythird Ann. Rept, pp. 1256 et seq., 1899.
3 Idem, p. 320.
3 Grout, F. F., Cannel coal in northern Illinois : Illinois State Geol. Survey Bull. 4,
p. 198, 1907.
4 Lane, A. C., Coal of Michigan: Michigan Geol. Survey, vol. 8, pt. 2, p. 19, 1902.
c Idem, pp. 91, 94, 105.
70
CANNEL COAL IN" THE UNITED STATES.
WEST VIRGINIA.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE COAL.
The prominent part played by West Virginia (then Virginia) in
the cannel-coal industry of early days has already been noted. During the last 30 years commercial cannel-coal mining has been confined to six areas. (See PI. V, p. 56, and fig. 9, p. 72.) Cannel-coal
mining continued at the Wacomah mines on Paint Creek until the
late eighties, the mines being abandoned before 1890. In mining
at this point, however, the Lackawanna Coal & Lumber Co. still
separates out the 15^-inch bench of cannel coal and sells it at double
the price of the splint coal.1 Cannel-coal mining continued at
Cannelton until after 1900. The cannel-coal basin on Falling Rock
Creek was reopened by the Falling Rock Cannel Coal Co., in the
early nineties and was operated until 1910. In recent years mining
has been by the Wierwick Cannel Co. Later mining began again at
Mill Creek, at first by the Mill Creek Cannel Coal Co., which in 1910
changed to the Villa Cannel Coal Co., and subsequently to the Mill
Creek Cannel Mining Co. During the nineties some cannel-coal
mining was done in Wayne County by the Wells Branch Co.
Recently, according to mine inspectors' reports, cannel-coal mining
has been revived at Peytona by the Peytona Block Coal Co. The
section, as measured at this mine and as reported in the recent de-tailed report on Boone County, however, shows no cannel coal but 2
feet 9 inches of splint coal underlying 10 inches of block coal, from
which it is separated by a 2-inch parting.2 It is possible, however,
that benches of cannel coal are separated out and marketed. The
Sewall coal in the New River field very commonly carries a few
inches of cannel coal or " cannelly " coal.
PRESTON COUNTY.
Cannel coal is reported to be carried by the Bakerstown coal at
many points in the valley of Sandy Creek, in Preston County, probably at the horizon of the Lower Kittanning coal.3 The Bakerstown
coal also carries a little cannel at the C. N. Matlick place, threetenths of a mile southwest of Marquess (section 30), where 15 inches
of cannel overlies 9 inches of bituminous coal.4
1 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Kanawha County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 485, 1914.
2 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Boone County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 262, 1915.
3 White, I. C., The Appalachian coal field: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2, p. 297,
1903.
4 Hennen, R. J.. and Reger, D. B., Preston County : West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 139, 1914.
DISTRIBUTION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
71
BARBOUJR COUNTY..
Three feet of cannel coal (fig. 8, section 31) is reported at the
Lower Kittanning horizon at Moatsville, on Valley River (location
4 *), just below the mouth of Teter Creek.2
Preston
County
Barbour
County
Webster
County
Marquess Moatsvilie
Nicholas
County
Elk
River
Cranberry Mouth of Rich Fork Lower Cabin
River
Anthony
of PO we 11. Run of
/Smile above Creek near Creek
Anthony
32
mouth
Birch River
Creek
Ft. in.
Bryant Branch
near Summersville
____^____.^
33
Ft. in
37
36
,
ft- in.
Ft. in.
38
.Ft. in.
I
- in.
ft. \t\
35
,Ft. in.
9
Z
Ft. in
Cannel coal
Bituminous coal
Bone
Shale
FIGURE 8. Sections of cannel coal in Preston, Barbour, Webster, and Nicholas counties,
W. Va.
UPSHUR COUNTY.
" Cannel slate " is reported from several places in Upshur County.
Whether these beds will yield oil on distillation may be doubted on
account of their easterly position in the coal field; they may, however, be noted for further investigation. The upper 2 feet of a coal
bed at the crossing of the Coal & Coke Railway and Buckannon
River (location 4) is described as "cannel slate." 3 Still farther
east (location 5) on the same railroad, 2| miles from the crossing of
Mill Fork River,4 is several feet of cannel shale.
1 Location numbers for Pseston, Barbour, and Braxton counties, W. Va., appear on
Plate V (p. 56).
" White, I. C., The Appalachian coal field : West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2, p. 297,
1903.
. 3 White, I. C., Supplementary conl report: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2(A),
p. 486, 1908.
4 Idem, p. 518.
20
30 Miles
FIGDEB 9. Map of part of West Virginia showing position of cannel-coal deposits.
i
d
wH
t-3
e
DISTRIBUTION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
73
BRAXTON COUNTY.
At the falls of the Little Kanawha, in Braxton County (location
3), are reported two beds of cannel shale, each 2 feet thick, separated
by 5 feet of shale. Whether these are low enough in ash to be used
for oil production is not known.1 Twenty inches of " cannel slate "
occurs at the top of the Stockton coal at the forks of Wolf Creek,
3 miles above the mouth, near the James Wyatt place.2
WEBSTER COUNTY.
Two feet of impure cannel coal capping a thick bed of bituminous
coal (fig. 8, section 32) is found in Webster County (see fig. 9) at
the head of Coal Spring Hollow (location I 3 ), from which a small
branch flows to Elk River one-fourth of a mile above the mouth of
Big Run, 6 miles below Webster Springs.4 A very similar section
of cannel is found at the head of Stroud Creek (location 2), 5 miles
north of Camden, on Gauley River, and has been observed on Laurel
Creek and Elk River.5 Fourteen inches of shaly cannel occurs in the
Eagle coal on Grassy Run, a branch of the right fork of Holly
River.0
NICHOLAS COUNTY.
Two feet of cannel coal over 30 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 8,
section 33) occurs on the south side of Cranberry River 1£ miles
above the mouth (location 7). The top of the coal grades into the
black shale of the roof.
An extensive pocket of cannel appears to lie south of Birch River
between Powell Creek and Poplar Creek. At the mouth of Anthony
Creek, 1£ miles above Birch River post office and 400 feet above the
valley (location 1), on the Scott place, is a 3-foot bed of cannel
(fig. 8, section 34). Farther south a bed of cannel coal, at possibly
this same horizon, is reported as 4 feet thick (fig. 8, section 36) on
lower Cabin Fork of Anthony Creek (location 3). It appears to
run through the ridge to the west, showing 20 inches of cannel
(fig. 8, section 35) on Rich Fork of Powell Creek (location 2). In
1 White, I. C., The Appalachian coal field : West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2, p. 449,
1903.
2 White, I. C., Supplementary coal report: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2 (A),
p. 483, 1908.
3 Location numbers for Webster, Nicholas, Kanawha, Boone, Lincoln, Logan, and
Wayne counties, W. Va., appear on fig. 9; a fresh set is begun for each cannel-bearing
county.
4 White, I. C., The Appalachian coal field: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2, p. 365,
1903.
5 Idem, p. 367.
"White, I. C., Supplementary coal report: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2 (A),
p. 343, 1908.
74
CANCEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
the ridge east of Anthony Creek the sa-ine bed is reported on the
John Dodrill place on Poplar Creek as 3 feet thi'ck with some can'nel
(location 4). Two miles southwest of Summersville' on Brant Eun
is a bed of coal showing at one place (location 5) 20^ inches of shaly
cannel above 30 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 8, section 37) and at
another place, half a mile nearer Summersville (location 6),-9|- inches
of cannel over 37 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 8, section 38).
KANAWHA COUNTY.
Queen Shoals. A layer of cannel coal is found in rolls, and only
in rolls, at the Queen Shoals Co.'s No. 1 mine (location I)-.1 An
analysis (183) is given on page 28.
Falling Rock. Falling Rock (location 2) has long been the seat
of cannel-coal mining (p. 51). Before the war a little distillery
1£ miles above the mouth of Falling Rock Creek was operated with
cannel coal mined near by. Mining has gradually extended up the
creek, and recently reached 6 miles or more from the mouth. Where
mined in recent years the bed, known as the No. 5 block, consists of
two benches of 8 and 20 inches, separated by 5 inches of shale. (PI.
VI, section 39.) The coal in the mine is reported to average from 2
to 2£ feet and to reach a maximum of 6 feet.2
Villa. Cannel-coal mining has been in progress an Mill Creek
since some time before the war. The Villa Coal Mining Co. is now
operating at Villa (location 3), where the No. 5 block coal bed has a
total thickness of 4 feet 7 inches, of which the top 2 feet 2 inches
and the bottom 11 inches are glossy block cannel. The 1 foot 4
inches just above the shale partings is a bird's-eye cannel. (PI. VI,
section 40.) An analysis (184, p: 28) of the coal here shows 10 per
cent of ash and 45 per cent of volatile matter.3 A section (PI. VI,
section 41) half a mile southeast of Villa (location 4) shows 3 feet
of cannel separated from 2 feet of bituminous coal by 7 feet of
sandstone.4
Pond Gap. A mile southeast of Pond Gap, on Bell Creek (location 5), is a 2-foot bed of cannel (PI. VI, section 42) on the G. W.
Ramsay place. Ten feet lower is a 4-foot bed of bituminous coal.
Mammoth. I. C. White 5 measured a section of No. 5 block coal
on the left fork of Kelly Creek above Mammoth (location 13) and
1 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Kanawha County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 439, 1914.
2 Idem, p. 441.
3 Idem, p. 428.
4 Idem, p. 189. See also White, I. C., Supplementary coal report: West Virginia Gcol.
Survey, vol. 2 (A), p. 547, 1908.
5 White, I. C., op. cit., p. 543.
U. 8. QEOUOQICAL SURVEY
BULLETIN 659
Southeast
Falling Mill Creek
Rock villamine
of
villa
BellCreeK
Cannelton
Wacomah
J^mile
East of West of west of
Standard Detroit Marmet
Little
Brier
Creek
PLATE VI
Brounland
No.5 block Stockton or Lewis bed
.Ft. in.
47
LEGEND
Cannelcoal
Bituminous coal
Bone
Cannel shale
Black shale
SECTIONS OF CANNEL COAL IN
Clay
Shale
Sandstone
KANAWHA COUNTY, W. VA.
Clay and shale
DISTRIBUTION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
75
found it to contain 18 inches of shaly cannel over C inches of cannel
shale below 39 inches of bituminous coal. A little' south of this,
about 2 miles above the mouth of Fivemile Branch of Kelly Creek
(location 14), a bed containing 22 inches of fair cannel coal and 23
inches of bituminous coal has been opened.1
Cannelton. Mining by the Cannelton Coal Co. was begun at an
early date at Cannelton (location 6) and was continued until comparatively recent days. Cannel coal occurs here in both the No. 5
block (PL VI, section 43), which comes just above the Kanawha
black flint (the key rock of the district), and in the Stockton coal
(PL VI, sections 44, 45), which comes just below the black flint.
According to sections by Edwards 2 the higher bed contained 40
inches of cannel overlain by 5 inches of bituminous coal, and the
lower bed contained 3 feet of cannel overlain by nearly 3 feet of
bituminous coal. The top of the bed was only 10 inches below the
base of the black flint. (See analysis 184a, p. 28.)
Wacomah. Wacomah (location 7) was long the site of extensive
cannel-coal mining by the Kanawha Coal Co., and the cannel-coal
bench is still being separated by the Lackawanna Coal & Lumber Co.
(p. 70), which is operating at this point on the Coalburg bed. (See
PL VI, sections 46, 47.) An analysis (185, p. 28) of the cannel shows
12 per cent of ash and 41 per cent of volatile matter.3
Standard. At the opening of the Coalburg bed in the hill just
east of Standard (location 8) there are 30 inches of cannel in a bed
6 feet 4 inches thick (PL VI, section 48).4
Detroit. Still farther up Paint Creek, in the ridge just west of
Detroit station (location 9), the Coalberg bed (PL VI, section 49)
carries 26 inches of cannel coal.4 The occurrence of cannel coal at
this same horizon over so wide an area suggests the possibility that
a large basin may be found on Paint Creek.
Marmet. The Coalburg bed is also a cannel coal at the G. W. &
N. A. Peel opening half a mile west of Marmet (location 10; PL VI,
section 50), where it contains 3 feet 7 inches of coal separated into
two benches by 2 feet 5 inches of shale.5
Lens Creek. According to Lyman 6 several of the beds on Lens
Creek (locations 13 and 14) carry cannel. The so-called "slate
vein " carries 14 inches of cannel in .a 3 foot 5 inch bed in Church
Hollow, south of the mouth of the creek.0 The " Factory cannel1 White, I. C., op. cit., p. 544.
2 Edwards, W. S., Coals and cokes of West Virginia, pp. 48, 49, 1892.
3 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Kanawha County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 485, 1914.
* Idem, p. 236.
n Idem, p. 476.
0 Lyman, B. S., Some coal-measure sections near Peytona, W. Va.: Am. Philos. Soc.
Proc., vol. 33, pp. 282-309, maps, 1894.
76
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
coal bed " is the one formerly worked at the old oil factory on Left
Fork, where the section showed 2 feet 5 inches of cannel (only 1 foot
6 inches of which was good coal), overlain by 9£ inches of black
clay and by 6 inches of bituminous coal. The same bed was opened
again beside Nuby's house on Left Fork, where it showed 3 inches
of poor cannel. Other sections of this coal bed gave only a few inches
of cannel, the rest being good bituminous coal. Another bed, probably corresponding to the upper cannel at Peytona, is described as
" a laminated cannel coal with thin seams of bituminous coal";
though having the analysis of a bituminous coal it mines out in
large blocks like a cannel and is said to burn like a cannel.
DISTBIBUTION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
77
Brounland. At the Courtney & Brown opening near Brounland
(locations 11 and 12), the Stockton-Lewiston bed has a thickness
(PL VI, section 52) of 12 feet of coal with thin partings and carries
19 inches of impure cannel.1 At the Burrville Keefer place, on
Little "Barrier" (Brier?) Creek (PL VI, section 51), 3 feet of
high-ash cannel (analysis 186, p. 28) overlies 30 inches of bituminous
coal.2 An old opening 60 feet above the No. 5 block coal shows
cannel coal.
BOONE COUNTY.
The cannel-coal industry was extensively developed in Boone
County in early days (p. 51). The center of the development was
at Peytona, two of the mines being at that point, though a recent
detailed report on this county 3 makes no mention of any cannel coal
in the immediate area. A number of coal companies have been organized in this county for mining cannel coal.
Fork Creek. A number of prospect openings have been made by
the Fork Creek Coal Co. on Fork Creek (location 1), where the
No. 5 block bed ranges from less than 2 to more than 6 feet. In one
of these openings the bed is cannel, having a thickness of 4£ feet
(fig. 10, section 53). This opening is opposite the mouth of Jimmy
Fork, 3.8 miles south of Brounland.4
RoundJbottom. A number of openings on the Henshaw coal were
recently made by the Boone & Kanawha Land & Mining Co. on
Eoundbottom (location 2) and adjoining creeks. One of these, on
the left fork of Roundbottom, shows (fig. 10, section 54) 30 inches of
cannel coal.5
Sterling. An opening loy the Hickory Ash Coal Co. (fig. 10,
section 55) on Indian Creek near Sterling (location 3) has developed
2 feet of cannel coal.0
Peytona. Information as to the old cannel-coal mines about
Peytona was obtained from Lyman's report.7 There were in this
region two principal cannel-bearing beds known as the main cannel
and the upper cannel. The upper bed measured 21 to 31 inches of
smooth cannel at the Peytona mines. On Abshire Branch of Indian
Creek, half a mile southeast of the Peytona mines, it carried 23
inches of cannel. Two hundred yards up the same branch in another
1 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Kanawha County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 456, 1914.
3 Idem, p. 421.
3 Krebs, C. B., and Teets, D. D., Boone County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., 1915.
4 Idem, p. 212.
6 Idem, p. 340.
6 Idem, p. 435.
7 Lyman, B. S., Some coal-measure sections near Peytona, W. Va.: Am. Phllos. Soc.
Proc., vol. 33, pp. 282-309, 1894.
78
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
opening it showed only 15 inches of cannel. Back of John McCarty's
house on Droddys Creek, in an opening made in June, 1872, it contained 38f inches of cannel. Above the blacksmith shop on the same
creek it showed only 10£ inches of coal, nearly all bituminous.
The main cannel bed, which was worked from about 1852, carried
20 to 41 inches of cannel, and as much as 17-| inches in places at the
bottom was curly, underlain here and there by bituminous coal with
a, maximum thickness of 8 inches. An opening on the river front
three-fourths of a mile northeast of the mines showed only a few
inches of cannel. In the Abshire Hollow, half a mile southeast of
the mines, the bed comprises two benches of cannel, 3 inches and 10
inches thick, separated by 11 inches of bituminous coal. Tests of the
Peytona cannel by the Manhattan Gaslight Co. of New York in 1869
gave a standard yield of 10,000 feet of 41-candlepower gas per long
ton of coal, with a maximum yield of 13,200 cubic feet. The coal
contained 49 per cent of volatile matter, 41 per cent of fixed carbon,
and 13 per cent of ash.
Rock Greek. A mile east of Rock Creek station (location 4) on
Rock Creek, on the Samuel Cabell place, 16 inches of cannel coal
associated with 30 inches of splint coal (fig. 10, section 56) is found.
This bed appears to be part of an extensive basin of cannel that extends up Rock Creek above Foster and southward through the ridge
toward Madison.1 On the Jackson Darlow place on the north side of
Rock Creek below the mouth of Hubbard Fork (location 5) the cannel is reported to be 2 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 8 inches thick, overlain
with 9 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 10, section 57).2 On the
Samuel Carpenter place, northwest of Foster (location 6) this same
coal, the Alma (fig. 10, section 58), carries 30 inches of cannel under
17 inches of splint coal.3 Just north of Foster, on the William
Holstein place (location 7), the cannel bed is 22 inches thick (fig. 70,
section 59) and overlies 12 inches of splint coal.3 On the J. A.
Catley place (location 8), on the east side of Hubbard Fork of Rock
Creek (fig. 10, section 60), the cannel is 22 inches thick and the
splint 7 inches.
Madison. Northeast of Madison (location 11) the Rock Creek
cannel bed is 18 inches thick and the splint the same, separated by 1
foot of shale.4
Mud River. At the Floyd Nelson mine, at the head of Mud River,
2 miles southwest of Turtle Creek (location 9), there is a fine showing of cannel coal. (See fig. 10, section 61.) Two analyses (177,
1 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Boone County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 322, 1915.
2 Idem, p. 405. White, I. C., Supplementary coal report: West Virginia Geol. Survey,
vol. 2(A), p. 598, 1908.
3 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., op. cit., p. 405.
*Idem., p. 406.
79
DISTRIBUTION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
178, p. 27) 1 are so different as to suggest that one or the other sample
was mixed with some other coal.
Boone County
Pond Fork of Little Coal River
Workman Below
Branch mouth of
Robinson
West Fork
Old Camp
Branch
Near
%>milebelow
Pond PO.
Pond
Julian
65
3 2
64
Ft. in.
Ft. in.
66
Ft. in.
67
Ft. in.
63
Ft. in.
Ft. in.
LEGEND
Cannel coal
Bituminous coal
m
Clay
Shale
FIGURE 31. Sections of cannel coal on Pond Fork of Little Coal River, Boone County,
W. Va.
Turtle Creek. The 'Alma coal carries cannel on either side of
Turtle Creek at the J. C. Ballard openings. On the south side,
1 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., op. clt., pp. 323-824, 575.
80
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
four-fifths of a mile southwest of Danville (location 10), 2 feet of.
cannel occurs (fig. 10, section 62), and on the north side of the creek
on the same land (location 19) 15 inches of cannel was seen. The
floor, however, was not reached in either section.1
Workman Branch. Cannel coal has. been noted 3 miles east of
Madison on Workman Branch of Pond Fork (location 12), at the
Bedford et al. opening (fig. 11, section 63). This is the Hernshaw
coal and carries 50 inches of cannel. An analysis (180, p. 27) shows
12 per cent of ash and 51 per cent of volatile matter. This bed has
not been opened at other points in this area, so its extent is not
known. The coal was at one time hauled by wagon to Madison and
there loaded on the cars for shipment.2
Pond Fork below Robinson. About 5 miles above Madison on
Pond Fork, half a mile below the mouth of Robinson Creek, on the
W. P. Crafts place (location 13), there is a good cannel coal, 3 feet
to 3 feet 8 inches thick (fig. 11, section 64). It appears to be the
Williamson coal and it has long been mined for local use. An analysis
(181, p. 27) shows about 12 per cent of ash and 47 per cent of
volatile matter.3
West Fork. On the west side of West Fork of Pond Fork at
the mouth of James Creek, half a mile south of Chap post office
(location 14), 22 inches of cannel (fig. 11, section 65) is found in
the Winifrede coal on the land of E. J. Berwynd.4
Old Camp Branch. The same bed shows 2 feet of cannel associated with 30 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 11, section 66) on the
Wharton estate on Old Camp Branch (location 15), half a mile above
the mouth.5
Pond post office. On lands of the Wharton estate (location 16)
just east of Pond 6 post office the cannel thickens to 30 inches (fig.
11, section 67). This bench of cannel is over 3 feet thick (fig. 11,
section 68) on the east side of a small branch of Pond Fork (location
17), half a mile above the mouth of Old Camp Branch and nearly a
mile northwest of Pond.4 (See section 68.) An analysis (182) is
given on page 27.
Julian. Two feet of cannel coal (fig. 11, section 69) are reported
at Julian on Little Coal River just south of the county line (location 18).7
iKrebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Boone County: West Virginia Geol. Survey County
Repts., p. 407, 1915.
2 Idem, pp. 341-342.
3 Idem, p. 374.
4 Idem, p. 309.
8 Idem, p. 304.
8 Idem, p. 305.
7 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Cabell, Wayne, and Lincoln counties': West Virginia
Geol. Survey County Repts., p. 14.6, 1913.
81
DISTRIBUTION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
LINCOLN COUNTY.
Laurel Fork of Mud River. The No. 5 block 1 coal opened at the
John Smith place on Laurel Fork of Mud River (location 1) near
Jenks post office, where it contains 18 inches of semicannel coal overlying 28 inches of block coal (fig. 12, section 70).
Mud River. The No. 5 block coal opened on the Hiram Seites
place on Mud River 4£ miles from Midkiff (location 2), near Jenks,2
Wayne County
Lincoln pounty
'Laurel ForKMud
of Mud River
River
71
Cove Creek
r
/
Near Cave (Cove Gap?)
i
.
74
Ft in
.Ft.in.
Wells Branch
and
Lower Sandlick
Branch of Moses
__Creek
/
"
s
72
Ft. in
70
Ft. in.
Ft, in
3 2
3 8
LEGEND
Cannel coal
Bituminous coal
Bone
Shale
Sandstone
FIGURE 12. Sections of cannel coal in Lincoln and Wayne counties, W. Va.
shows 22 inches of semicannel under 38 inches of block coal (fig. 11,
section 71). An analysis (187b) is given on page 28.
Stinson Branch. On Stinson Branch of the Left Mud, the lower
Stockton coal carries 27 inches of cannel near Ed Simpson's (location 3).3
Big Ugly. Four feet of cannel coal is reported on the land of
J. C. Chapman, in the hills adjoining Big Ugly Creek (location 5),
in the southeastern part of this county.4
1 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., Cabell, Wayne, and Lincoln counties: West Virginia
Geol. Survey County Repts., p. 190, 1913.
2 Idem, p. 191.
3 White, I. C., Supplementary coal report: West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2(A),
p. 481, 1908.
4 Idem, p. 482.
87775° 18 Bull. 659 6
82
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
LOGAN COUNTY.
Holden. The Stockton bed near Holden, 4 miles above Logan
(location 1), carries 3 feet of bony cannel in a total thickness of 12
feet 6 inches. Immediately above the cannel is 10 inches of bituminous coal and just below it is 2 feet of shale, underlain by 27 inches
of coal.1
WAYNE COUNTY.
Cove Creek. The No. 5 block coal contains 30 inches of cannel
coal (fig. 12, section 72) at the Lucian Wylie opening on Cove Creek.3
I. C. .White 3 describes a section (fig. 12, section 73) near Cave (Cove
Gap) post office in which the cannel portion of the bed is 16 inches
thick and bony. Across the stream, however, this changes to 3 feet of
good cannel (fig. 12, section 74).
From this point a narrow belt of cannel extends in a western direction
nearly across Wayne County, being found on all of the main branches of
Twelvepole. It is possibly identical with the Moses Fork cannel of Kentucky
[West Virginia]. The belt varies much in width, but it is frequently 2 to 3
miles wide. While the cannel is sometimes absent, yet it is fairly persistent
and seldom less than 20 inches in thickness, being generally of good quality,
comparing favorably with the cannel from the Stockton coal horizon opposite
Montgomery on the Great Kanawha.
The recent detailed report on Wayne County 4 fails to mention or
to give sections of such a belt of cannel except on Lower Sandlick
Branch of Moses Creek (location 2), where 14 inches of cannel was
measured. The cannel at this point was at one time mined by the
Wells Branch Coal Co., the mine being located at Wells Branch but
extending through the ridge to Moses Branch. Later the mine was
sold to the Bradley Cannel Coal Co., which continued its development. The Bradley Cannel Coal Co. also opened another mine on
the Stockton coal, which lies 100 feet lower and which at that point
proved to be nearly all cannel (fig. 12, sections 75, 76).
KENTUCKY.
PRODUCTION.
Kentucky is the premier cannel-coal State of the Union. It has
not only been the principal source of cannel in the past but it probably still contains the largest deposits of urimined cannel in the
United States except those in Webb County, Tex. (See PL VII.)
1 White, I. C., op. cit., p. 475.
2 Krebs, C. B., and Teets, D. D., Cabell, Wayne, and Lincoln counties : West Virginia
Geol. Survey County Repts., p. 218, 1913.
3 White, I. C., The Appalachian coal field : West Virginia Geol. Survey, vol. 2, p. 543,
1903.
4 Krebs, C. E., and Teets, D. D., op. cit., pp. 253-254.
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
IBBrACKl
D^ i
f)
t\r'
BULLETIN 659 PLATE VII
I
Washington- }
' -AI A
S
'v
O) N
WEST
VIRGINI
MAP OF
EASTERN KENTUCKY
Deposits referred to in text
(Separate series of numbers for each county)
Base from U. S. Geological Survey
map of Kentucky. Comniled by
A. F. Hassan
3L .5U «vE,
Coa] data com pj! ecj by G, H. Ashley
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
83
Nearly if not quite every county along the eastern border of the
State has deposits of workable size, and some high-grade cannel has
come from the western coal field. The following table shows the
sources of the production during recent years:
Cannel coal produced in Kentucky, 1901-1910, in short tons.
1901
Bell.................
Whitlev
ili K1V J ..........
1902
1903
1904
1905
1,136
7,348 6,293 6,022
255
648
n OflQ 11,309 8,341 2,780 5,306
14,153 15,171
5,662 7,500 7,201
3,067 32, 353 46,314 52, 492 73,603
<\\<\
1 CQQ
9 '<nfi
5,869 4,237
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1,298
39
830
2,742
7,941
59,485
6,324
68,447
36,287 67,056 72, 856 68,400 88,416 64,971 73, 938 70,413 70,998
76, 108
2,384
10,577
50, 051
1 <KQ
19, 446
51,800
252
GPEENUP COUNTY.
Himnewell. Hunnewell (location 1) has long been a source of
supply for cannel coal, which is mined from the ridge south of the
station and east of Cane Creek. The coal
Greenup County
is No. 3 of the Kentucky section or Lower
Hunnewell
Stinson of recent reports. The bed consists
77
78
Ft. in.
Ft.fn.
of three benches, of which the top and
Shale
bottom are bituminous, each less than a
I
foot thick, separated by a parting of bone Bituminous
coal
or clay from the middle bench of cannel
6 p-r-£
Bone
coal, which, as now exposed, has a thickness of only 14 to 16 inches (fig. 13, secCannel
I z
I 3
tions 77, 78). It is reported, however, to
coal
have had a thickness of 3 to 4 feet in the
Clay m
old workings. An analysis (71) is given
on page 23. This coal was examined by
Hislop, of the Paisley (Scotland) Gas FIGURE 13. Sections of
Works (p. 40). As described by him, it is cannel coal in Greenup
County, Ky.
black, with considerable luster and yellowish-brown streak. The fracture is slaty, coarse, and partly semiscaliform, with numerous impressions of stigmarias. The cross fracture inclines to conchoidal, with deposits of calcium carbonate, clay,
and iron bisulphide (pyrite) under natural partings (joint planes).
It is massive, compact, and very cohesive. On the fire it does not
intumesce. The color of the ash is pale brown; it is well defined in
stratification and is of very uniform composition and density.1 Apparently the main body of cannel here has been removed, but a good
acreage of thinner-bedded coal, like that shown in the columnar sec1 Phalen, W. C., Economic geology of the Kenova quadrangle, Ky., Ohio, and W. Va.:
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 349, p. 90, 1908.
84
CAETNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
lions, may still remain; or prospecting may reveal other minable
bodies.1
Chinns Branch. In the Kentucky Geological Survey report for
1858-59 an analysis of coal from Chinns Branch (location 2) is accompanied by the following description: 2
Coal labeled " cannel coal sent by Col. L. G. Bradford, of Augusta; obtained
from a bed about 4 feet 10 inches thick on the farm formerly owned by Levin
Shreve, of Louisville, known as Fulton Forge, 3 miles above Greenupsburg and
1 mile from Ohio River, Greenup County, Ky. In large blocks not soiling the
fingers cleaving in regular layers with no fibrous coal between them; of a
jet-black color. In small portion more slaty with pyritous impressions of vegetable remains. Over the spirit lamp it softened and agglutinated somewhat
but did not swell much.
(See analyses 72-74, p. 23, and report of tests, p. 14.)
The development of this tract of cannel coal was begun by the
Maysville Manufacturing & Mining Co., in 1859, but the discovery
of rock petroleum the same year broke up the enterprise. The cannel
coal was described in a later report (with map) by Crandall,3 as
follows:
The cannel coal of workable thickness appears to be limited in this region to
an area oblong in outline, having its axis along the line from the old Fulton
mines near the landing to a point on Indian Run, in the East Fork Valley. =
How far beyond Indian Run and how wide the area of cannel coal of workable
thickness is has not been fully determined, but it may reasonably be estimated
at from 1,500 to 2,000 acres. Several hundred acres of this area, belonging to
the Fulton tract, have already been worked out, as also several narrow points
in the valley of Chinns Branch, on the Caroline tract; but the great body of
coal, covering a considerable portion of the latter tract, remains to be mined.
The best information obtainable as to the thickness on the old Fulton tract
gives it an average of about 3 feet. Further up, on Chinns Branch, the bed
has reached a thickness of 4$ feet. On Indian Run it is about 2 feet but
superior to the thicker part for gas making. Like all cannel coals it will
probably be found variable in thickness and quality in the working of the bed.
On Indian Run the bed is accompanied by common bituminous coal, 1 foot on
top and 6 to 8 inches below, making the whole.bed about the same in thickness
as the average on Chinns Branch, where the whole thickness is cannel.
CARTER COUNTY.
Boghead. The Boghead coal is found on Upper and Lower
Stinson creeks (location 1), 2 to 3 miles east of Grayson, the county
seat, between Boghead (Afton post office) and Stinson. The coal has
long been noted because of its extreme richness in oil, yielding under
test 100 to 110 gallons of oil to the ton.4 The cannel occurs in two
1 Crandall, A. R., Coals of the Licking Valley region : Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull.
10, p. 65, 1910.
2 Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Rept, p. 171, 1861.
3 Crandall, A. R., Report on the Chinns Branch cannel-coal district: Kentucky Geol.
Survey Repts. on the eastern coal field, C, pp. 5-6 [293-294], 1884.
* Owen, D. D., op. clt., pp. 111-114.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
85
beds, Nos. 3 and 4 of the Kentucky section, or the Upper and Lower
Stinson of recent reports. 1 The upper of the two coals is generally
workable in this region but is mainly a splint and bituminous coal.
>» in
T3
0,
c 10
c
in C
c
p
u'
t
*
E <u
E
^T
H
In the Boghead area it contains an important bench of cannel coal
which has been worked on Lower Stinson Creek by the Kentucky
Cannel Coal Co. (fig. 14, sections 79-85). The old Lexington and
1 Phalen, W. C., Economic geology of the Kenova quadrangle, Ky., Ohio, and W. Va. :
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 349, pp. 85-92, 1908.
86
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
Carter Coal Mining Go. is said to have worked out a considerable
territory southeast of the present workings.
The Lower Stinson coal, 30 feet below the Upper Stinson, is generally workable about Boghead. As at Hunnewell it is in three
benches but is extremely variable, as is shown by the sections given.
This coal is described by Hislop* as
black and possesses a yellowish-brown streak and high luster. The fracture is
slaty, coarse, and dull with impressions of stigmaria, while in the cross fracture
it is conchoidal, with cuttings of fire clay on the natural partings [joint planes
presumably]. It is very compact and cohesive. On the fire it partially and
slightly intumesces. The color of the ash is brown. It is well defined in stratification and is of very uniform density.
Where weathered this coal splits into very thin leaves, some of
which, measured by the writer, averaged about -^ of an inch in
thickness. Analyses (62-64) are given on page 22.
The Boghead cannel has been studied microscopically by David
White.2
Robin Run. The Lower Stinson coal has been opened at many
places in the hills about Robin Run (location 3), 2 miles southeast
of Grayson.3 and at some of them cannel coal was found suggesting
a possibly workable extension of the Boghead area (fig. 14, sections
86,87).
Everman Creek. What is probably a lower coal, opened on Barrett and Everman creeks (location 4), contains some1 cannel (fig. 14,
section 88) in two benches.4
Hilton Branch. On* Hiltbn Branch of Little Fork of Little
Sandy River (location 2), a few miles southwest of Willard, the
Upper Stinson or No. 4 coal is in part cannel (with a reported thickness of 3 feet), overlain by a foot of bituminous coal. It has been
found on the Elijah Sturgill and William Corey places, on the
latter of which the cannel part of the bed has a maximum thickness
of 29 inches (fig. 14, section 89). The cannel coal was not seen
north or south of Hilton Branch.
Little Fork of Little Sandy River. According to Hendrie 5
One of the most valuable deposits in this county, however, is found 4 miles
northeast of Willard Station * * * and 6 miles southwest of Leon Station,
* * * lying on the waters of the Little Fork of the Little Sandy River.
The cannel blocks vary in thickness from 10 to 32 inches. An average section,
1 Phalen, W. C., op. cit, pp. 89-90.
'
2 White, David, and Thiessen, Reinhardt, The origin of coal: Bur. Mines Bull. 38,
pp. 252-253, 1913. Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Fourth Kept., pp. Ill, 114, 1861.
Phalen, W. C., op. cit., pp. 85-92.
8 Phalen, W. C., op. cit., pp. 87-89.
4 Idem, pp. 88-89.
5 Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann.
Bept, p. 146, 1894.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
*
87
taken from an average of 21 measurements, shows a bed section as follows:
Bituminous coal, 1 foot 2 inches; cannel coal, 1 foot 4 inches. [See fig. 14,
section 90.]
The quality of this coal is shown by the analysis (No. 67, p. 22).
ELLIOTT COUNTY.
Ison Creek. In the area between the Little Sandy and Little
Fork the No. 6 bed or Winslow coal carries some cannel. In the
ridge between Ison and Creechs creeks (location 2) it has been opened
at several places. On the Andrew Stevens land, on the Creechs
Creek side, it shows 40 inches of cannel over 3 inches of splint coal.1
Similar showings occur on the Ison Creek side on the Thomas Caldwell and Isom Ison land. One section, measured by the writer, at
the head of Ison Creek showed 32 inches of cannel.2 (See fig. 15,
sections 91, 92.)
Bruin Greek. Two miles north of the last locality, on Greasy
Run between Bruin Creek and the left fork of Brush Creek (location 1), the Winslow bed (fig. 15, section 93) shows 24 to 30 inches
of cannel.3 The coal here appears to contain considerable ash.
Sarah. At Sarah a 12-inch bench of cannel coal lies at drainage
.level, 8 inches below the top of a 28-inch bed of bituminous coal.
(See PL I, A.)
LAWRENCE COUNTY.
Torchlight. In the Torchlight area (location 1) is the bed known
as the " little cannel," the name being derived from a bed of cannel
3 to 6 inches thick in the middle of the coal. The " little cannel" has
been opened near the head of Threemile Creek and at one time was
mined and shipped over the Chatteroi Railroad. It is of interest because of this and of the further fact that specimens were sent to the
World's Columbian Exposition, where an analysis (98, p. 24) was
made. (See also analysis 99.) The bed has also been tested by
Hislop, who reports " this is an excellent cannel coal." 4
.JOHNSON COUNTY.
Whitehouse. Cannel coal has long been mined at Whitehouse 5
(location 1). The cannel bed is 18 to 20 inches thick and underlies
18 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 15, section 94). Analyses (89,
89a) are given on page 23.
1 Crandall, A. R., Coals of the Licking Valley region : Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10,
p. 74, 1910.
2 Phalen, W. C., op. clt., pp. 102-103.
3 Crandall, A. R., op. cit., p. 75.
4 Phalen, W. C., op. cit., p. 59.
6 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 28, 1905.
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
88
Georges Creek. Cannel coal on Georges Creek (location 6), Johnson County, is referred to by Crandall.1
-C-*
O 0)
(U <U
Sparks Branch. On Sparks Branch (location 1) of Right Fork
of Greasy Creek 2 the Whitehouse coal shows 2 feet, of slaty cannel
(fig. 15, section 95).
1 Crandall, A. R., Preliminary report on the geology of Morgan, Johnson, Magoffln,
and Ployd counties: Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [329], [1880].
3 Crandall, A. E., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 34, 1905.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
89
Twomile Creek. Cannel coal has been mined * on Twomile Creek
(location 3) by the Sandy River Coal Co. and carried by tramroad to
the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway at Ward. The bed snows 18 to 23
inches of good cannel (analysis 90, p. 23), overlain by 20 to 22
inches-of bituminous coal (fig. 15, section 96).
Lesley (East Point post office}. The Whitehouse bed has been
mined in a high ridge at Lesley (location 4). (See fig. 15, section
97.) This coal has been described by David White 2 as follows:
At the mine of the East Kentucky Coal Co. at Lesley the coal measures 5 feet
9 inches at the point where the sample exhibited at the Jamestown Exposition
was mined. The basal layer, about 2$ inches in thickness, is a very pure coal,
partly bituminous and speckled, showing that the more typical cannel-forming
conditions did not obtain until some time after the beginning of coal formation
at this point. Above this basal bed the cannel continues to the top, save an
interruption by 4 inches of stratified and somewhat laminated coal about 2J
feet above the base. The roof is a rather gritty gray shale, with water-worn
stems and more or less comminuted, transported plant dfibris, all somewhat
macerated.
The cannel is black, tough, and somewhat slabby, splitting up into
uneven slabs 1£ to 5 or 6 inches in thickness and distinctly conchoidal
in the oblique or vertical fractures. Occasional cuticles, mostly from
stigmarias, are seen on the rather glassy and wavy bedding planes.
Two analyses (91, 92), the latter quoted from Lord, are given on
page 23.
Miscellaneous occurrences. Crandall 3 mentions cannel coal on
Toms Creek (location 7 ?), on Lick Branch, on Daniel Creek (location 8), and on Jenny Creek (location 5 ?). 'The Lick Branch cannel
is given as 27 inches thick (fig. 15, section 98) and, as shown by the
analysis, is a semicannel; that on Daniel Creek is 22 inches thick
(fig. 15, section 99), and that on Jenny Creek is 24 inches thick (fig.
15, section 100).
Flambeau. At the Flambeau mine (location 9) the cannel coal
has a thickness of 1 foot 6 inches to more than 4 feet 3 inches and
overlies 4 to 6 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 15, sections 101, 102).
The cannel is described as clean, carrying no impurities. Lord 4
gives the analyses (93 and 94) quoted on page 23.
MORGAN COUNTY.
For many years Morgan County has been the principal source of
cannel coal in the United States. Kentucky (pp. 52-53) has long
produced nearly as much cannel coal as all the other States combined,
1 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 4, pp. 34-35, 1905.
2 White, David, and Thiessen, Reinhardt, The origin of coal: Bur. Mines Bull. 38,
pp. 44, 253-256, 1913.
3 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [329], [1880].
* Lord, N. W., and others, Analyses of coals in the United States: Bur. Mines Bull.
22, pts. 1 and 2, pp. 104, 540, 1913.
90
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
and Morgan County has produced more cannel coal than all of the
other counties of the State combined. Most of this coal is found near
the south edge of the county in the district around Cannel City.
3;
_g
en
c
. A large body of cannel appears to lie between the
head of North Fork of Licking River and Elk Fork (locations 1, 25
and 3). It has been mined commercially by the North Fork Cannel
DISTRIBUTION IF KENTUCKY.
91
Coal Co. at Wrigley. It has been exposed at the head of the main
fork (location 1), on Mordecai Creek (location 2), on Rush Creek
(location 3), on Smith Branch, and on part of Lick Creek, and it
may extend from Rush Creek through the ridge to the head of
Straight Creek. Its thickness on main North Fork ranges from 29
to 39 inches or more (fig. 16, section 103). On Lick Creek its thickness is about 20 inches and at Mordecai Creek from 30 to 31 inches
(fig. 16, section 104). Rush Creek openings show a greater thickness
(fig. 16, section 105), ranging from 34 inches at the lower forks to 46
inches or more a half mile up the ravine on the right side.1 Other
measurements on Mordecai Creek give up to 36 inches and on Rush
Creek up to 58 inches.2
Smith Branch. The cannel coal has been opened 3 on Smith
Branch of Open Fork of Paint Creek (location 4), half a mile above
the mouth, showing 18 inches of cannel overlain by 20 inches of
splint coal (fig. 16, section 106).
West Liberty. Cannel coal, 18 to 24 inches thick (fig. 16, section
107), has been mined for local supply at West Liberty on the Cox
and Cecil places in the ridge between Licking River and Caney
Creek 4 (location 10).
Spaws Creek. On Spaws Creek (location 11), which enters Licking River just above West Liberty, a bed of cannel is reported by
Crandall 5 to be 18 inches thick.
May town. Three feet of cannel coal (fig. 16, section 108) is
reported by Crandall 5 to have been found on the Pierat place, east
of Maytown (Blackwater of the older maps) (location 9). An
analysis (115) is given on page 24.
Cannel City. Cannel City (locations 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, and 13) is the
center of what is probably the most extensive cannel-coal mining
in the United States, and the area of the coal (fig. 17) is the most
extensive yet developed in the State.
The coal, which is a semicannel, as shown by the analyses (116124, pp. 24-25), has been mined commercially by the Kentucky Block
Cannel Coal Co. and the Watson Cannel Coal Co., of Cannel City,
the Gish Cannel Coal Co., of Piedmont, and the Bigstaff Cannel
Coal Co., of Bigstaff. Crandall 6 gives sections of the coal as follows
(see fig. 16):
Caney Creek, drift 3, above the mouth of Prater Fork, coal 44
inches, of which 22£ inches is cannel (section 109). Brushy Fork
1 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, pp. 6-8, 1910.
3 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [329], [1880].
8 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 12, 1910.
4 Idem, p. 15.
B Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [329], [1880].
0 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, pp. 13-14, 1910. '
92
CANNEL COAL IF THE UNITED STATES.
of Caney Creek, Isaac Lykins place, coal 42f inches, of which 25
inches is cannel (section 110). Sugarcamp Branch of Brushy Fork
of Caney Creek, coal 45 inches, of which 25£ inches is cannel (section 111). Old House Branch of Caney Creek, Will Ferguson place,
coal 44£ inches, of which 24 inches is cannel (section 112). Drift 11,
on Spring Branch of Caney Creek, coal 57 inches, of which 28f
Approximate scale
I Mile
FIGURE 17. Sketch map of cannel-coal area around Cannel City, Morgan County, Ky.
(After Crandall, Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 12.)
inches is cannel (section 113). Johnson Branch of Prater Fork of
Caney Creek, north side, coal 43£ inches, of which 21 inches is cannel
(section 114). The analyses (116-121, pp. 24^25) show these coals to
have about 40 to 41 per cent of volatile matter and 48 to 51 per cent
of fixed carbon.
About 200 feet above the main coal is an upper bed measuring
28 inches, of which 22 inches is a true cannel (section 115). (See
93
DISTRIBUTION" IN KENTUCKY.
analysis 124, p. 25.) This upper coal, however, is limited to comparatively small pockets on the head of the right fork of White Oak
Creek and Brushy Fork of Caney Creek and to an undeveloped area
on the Frozen Creek side.1
MAGOFFIN COUNTY.
Colvin mine. Cannel coal reported to be 3 feet in thickness (fig.
18, section 117) has been opened on the Colvin place (location 1), on
Licking River just above the mouth of Johnson Creek.2 An analysis
(No. 110) is given on page 24.
Salyersville. Near Salyersville (locality 3) a cannel-coal bed containing 14 inches of cannel coal (analysis 109, p. 24) lies below 18
inches of bituminous coal, the two being
Magoffm County
separated by a parting (fig, 18, section 118) .3
'coivin
Lykins.- Eighteen inches of cannel coal
U7 F1
is reported on Licking River in this county,
at the Lykins place, the exact location of Bitu £,°us|
which is not known.8
Shale
WOLFE COUNTY.
Stillwater Creek. Cannel coal (analyses
139, 140, p. 26) is mentioned as found on
the John Murphy place on Stillwater Creek
(location I).4
Cannel
coal
PIKE COUNTY.
Brushy Fork. Near the top of the ridge
y
-D
i. /T>
i. -o i Fl(JURE 18. Sections of
between Ihompson Branch of Brushy Fork
cannel coal in Magoffin
(location 1) and Upper Branch of John
County, Ky.
Creek a coal bed 52 inches thick contains 16 to 17 inches of cannel
coal (fig. 19, section 121). On Left Fork of Brushy Fork what is
probably the same bed (fig. 19, section 122) contains 27 inches of
cannel coal.5
Little Brushy Branch. A little cannel coal^fig. 19, section 123) is
reported on Little Brushy Branch of John Creek (location 2), as
shown in the section.6
Money Branch of Turkey Creek. Cannel coal exists on Money
Branch of Turkey Creek (location 3), being 17^ inches thick on the
left fork and 22 inches thick on the right fork. (See fig. 19, sections
119,120.) On the left fork the cannel bench is separated by 4 inches
1 Crandall, A.
2 Idem, p. 18.
3 Crandall, A.
* Crandall, A.
0 Crandall, A.
0 Idem, p. 48.
R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, pp. 13-14, 1910.
R., Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [329], [1880].
R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 58, 1910.
R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 87, 1905.
94
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
of black shale and coal from a bench of semicannel 2 feet thick,
which has a 2^-inch parting near the middle. On the right fork the
lower bench is all bituminous coal, 21 inches thick.1
FLOYD COUNTY.
Abbott Creek. :Crandall 2 reports 26 inches of cannel coal on
Abbott Creek (location 1). (See fig. 19, section 124.)
1 Hoeing, J. B., Kentucky Geol, Survey, 4th ser., vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 230, 1913.
2 Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey, 2d ser., vol. 6, pt. 5, p. 15 [329], [1880].
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
95
Rock Fork of Right Fork of Beaver Creek. Cannel coal has
been opened at a number of places on Rock Fork (location 2 ?). At
the mouth of this fork an opening shows 19 inches of cannel (fig. 19,
section 128), overlain by 35 inches of bituminous coal. On the B.
Howard place one opening shows 12 inches of cannel under 3 feet of
bituminous coal and another shows 29 inches of bituminous coal
between an upper bench of cannel 10 inches thick and a lower bench
14 inches thick. (See fig. 19, sections 126, 127.) On the R. Webb
place the same bed (fig. 19, section 125) carries IT inches of cannel
under 39 inches of bituminous coal.1
Stone Goal Branch of Right Fork of Beaver Creek. The Van
Lear coal carries from 10 to IT inches of cannel near the mouth of
Stone Coal Branch (location 3). At the mouth 10 inches of cannel
underlies 44 inches of bituminous coal. (See fig. 19, section 129.)
On the G. Alien land a similar thickness of cannel overlies 34 inches
of bituminous coal. (See fig. 19, section 130.) On A. Hayes land,
above Stone Coal Branch, IT inches of cannel underlies 34 inches of
bituminous coal.2 (See fig. 19, section 131.)
Prestoriburg. Owen 3 noted a cannel coal opposite Prestonburg
(locations 4, 5) 98 feet above the river. He reports seeing cannel
both above and below town, the thickness ranging from 2 feet
8 inches to 3 feet 4 inches.
BREATHITT COUNTY.
Nichols Fork of Frozen Creek. Cannel coal has been noted at
many points along the hillsides near the head of Frozen Creek
(location T). Its thickness has not been determined, but blocks
found on the hillside indicate a thickness of at least 2 feet. Two
varieties of cannel were noted in this region; one is " hard and very
uniform, rather coarse grained structure, showing perfect conchoidal
fracture, and -abounding in brilliantly polished surfaces or slickensides "; the other " shows a partially laminated structure, irregular
fracture, and is of a less homogeneous nature and not nearly so
handsome, but it proves on analyses to be one of the best cannel coals
of this whole region. It is commonly called the 'curly cannel'
owing to its peculiar structure." 4 Analyses (50, 51) are given on
page 22.
Jackson. One of the highest-grade cannel coals of the State has
been found within a mile of Jackson on the Joe Little place (location 13). Unfortunately the bed is thin, containing only from 10
1 Hoeing, J. B., Kentucky Geol. Survey, 4th ser., vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 146-147, 1913.
" Idem, p. 147.
3 Owen, D. D., Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. for 1854 and 1855, p. 208, 1856.
4 Crandall, A. R., Coals of the Licking Valley region : Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10.
p. 58, 1910.
96
CANFEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
to 16 inches of cannel and underlying only a very few acres (fig. 20,
section 132). It has a
bright, slick, satiny appearance and, on being burned, goes entirely into fine
red ash. This is the richest and purest cannel coal that the writer 1 has found
in Kentucky, and it is probably unsurpassed anywhere. Sad to relate, a close
and careful investigation of the pocket and adjoining hills reveals the existence
j;
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of only about 3 acres of this remarkable coal, another commentary upon the disappointment to which a searcher for this elusive mineral is subjected.
According to an analysis (56, p. 22) by the Consolidated Gas Co.
of New York this coal contains 68 per cent of volatile matter and
only 28 per cent of fixed carbon and 3.8 per cent of ash.2 Analyses
of Jackson coal (55, 56) are given on page 22.
1 Hendrie, Charles, Some Kentucky cannels: Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann.
Kept, p. 143, 1894.
2 Fobs, F. H.. Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 18. p. 35, 1912.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
97
Quicksand Greek. About a mile above the mouth of Quicksand
Creek (locations 6 and 9) there is a bed of cannel coal 25 to 26 inches
thick, including 8 inches of bituminous coal at the top. From this
point the coal extends along the right side of Quicksand Creek
for about 3 miles, the cannel part of the bed ranging from 15 to 23
inches and the bituminous from 8 to 11 inches. ( See fig. 20, section
133.) The coal, which is a fine cannel (analysis 49, p. 22), was
shipped to market many years ago by barges. The cannel is rather
restricted in area, but it has been found on Smith Branch of South
Quicksand Creek, where the lower layer is a semicannel.1
Fulgate Fork.-^A. pocket of cannel coal (fig. 20, section 134) on
Fulgate Fork of South Quicksand Creek (location 10) shows 22
inches of cannel, with bituminous coal both above and below.2
Leatherwood Branch. Both the Wilson Fork and Whitesburg
coals carry cannel on Leatherwood Branch of South Quicksand
Creek (location 11). The Wilson Fork bed (fig. 20, section 136)
shows 21 inches of cannel overlain by 11 inches of shale and 24
inches of bituminous coal and the Whitesburg coal (fig. 20, section
135) contains 15 inches of cannel in one bench and 5 inches associated with bituminous coal in another.8
Stacy Branch. Two beds carry cannel on Stacy Branch (location 14), which enters South Quicksand Creek less than one-fourth
of a mile above Leatherwood. The Wilson Fork bed shows 21
inches of cannel in exactly the same section (fig. 20, section 137) as
that on Leatherwood Branch. The next coal above shows 14 inches
of cannel over 9 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 20, section 138).
The Wilson Fork cannel here is of very high grade, as shown by
the analyses (57, 58, 58a, p. 22). It is "bright and slick in appearance, ignites readily with a match, and is of excellent quality." The
Dictator Cannel Coal Co. is working it at this point.4 Half a mile
farther up Stacy Branch another opening on this bed shows 12£
inches of cannel overlain by 20 inches. of bituminous coal.5
/South Quicksand Creek. Cannel coal appears abundantly along
South Quicksand Creek (location 12) above the mouth of Leatherwood Branch. The following sections show the character of the
Wilson Fork coal: Three-fourths of a mile above the mouth of
Leatherwood Creek, coal 23 inches, shale 7-| inches, cannel coal (at
bottom) 20 inches (fig. 20, section 139) ; on the opposite side of the
creek, in a small branch, coal 24 inches, shale 9 inches, cannel 13
iCrandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 59, 191\ Fobs, F. H., Kentucky
Geol. Survey Bull. 18, p. 37, 1912,
< .
2 Fobs, P. H., op. cit, p. 24.
8 Idem, p. 28.
* Idem, pp. 30-32.
5 Hendrle, Charles, Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Kept., pp. 140-141, 1894.
87775° 18 Bull. 659
7
98
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
inches (fig. 20, section 140); on Wilson Fugate Branch, still higher
up South Quicksand Creek, coal (mainly splint) 24 inches, shale 12
inches, cannel coal 20 inches (fig. 20, section 141).
The Haddix bed on Wilson Fugate Branch shows 11 inches of
cannel on the John Clemmons farm, where the Whitesburg coal con-
P
tains two 6-inch benches, and the Wilson Fork bed, 20 feet higher,
1 foot of cannel. This pocket appears to contain, all told, about
300 acres of workable cannel of very high grade.1
Twomile Fork. The Haddix coal has been opened on Twomile
Fork (location 16), about 4 miles above the mouth of Leatherwood,
at the Alfred Fugate place (fig. 21, section 142), where it shows 14
inches of cannel in a 5-foot bed of coal.2
1 Hendrie, Charles, Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept., p. 142, 1894.
2 Idem, p. 30.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
99
Troublesome Creek. Cannel coal was formerly mined at the
mouth of Troublesome Creek at the Haddix mine* (location 1) and
boated down Kentucky Eiver. At the main opening 21 inches of
cannel is overlain by 12 inches of bony cannel and 14.inches of
bituminous coal.1 One section (fig. 21, section 143) gave 36 inches
of cannel under 10 inches of bituminous coal.2 Other measurements
on this bed in this neighborhood show the variableness of cannel
coal. An entry driven 300 yards through the hill to Rye Cove
Branch ran out of coal, and another opening on the same bed 100
yards away showed 28 inches of cannel with 6 inches of bituminous
above (fig. 21, section 144). A little higher up the branch the coal
is 20 inches thick and all bituminous. On the opposite side of Eye
Cove the same bed shows 18 inches of bituminous coal and no cannel. Another opening farther down on the same side showed 37
inches of clean, hard, bituminous coal with no cannel; but several
hundred yards farther down, an opening shows 35 inches of cannel
under 10 inches of bituminous coal. This pocket has been estimated
to contain about 50 acres of cannel.3 Analyses (34r-39) are given on
page 21.
Nolle Branch. On Noble Branch of Troublesome Creek (location 2) a bed, which may be the Haddix, shows 23 inches of cannel
under 12 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 21, section 145). This cannel, which occurs on the Sewell and Little place, is of good quality,
as shown by the analysis (40, p. 21 ).4
Fugitt Branch. On Troublesome Creek, at the mouth of Fugitt
Branch, on the Roberts place (location 3), is a thick bed (fig. 21,
section 146) containing 22 inches of cannel, which, as shown by the
analysis (41, p. 21), approaches semicannel in character. It is
described as " a pure-looking coal with but little fibrous coal, and
no apparent pyrites. Sample somewhat mixed in character. Some
pieces of cannel coal, others splint coal, others apparently shaly."5
Georges Branch. Five miles south of the mouth of Troublesome
Creek is the Georges Branch deposit (location 4), one of the most important in the State. The coal regularly and persistently outcrops
about 140 feet above drainage for 1£ miles up the creek. This coal
had been shipped down the river for many years before a railroad
was built into this section. On the Georges Branch Cannel Coal Co.'s
land, half a mile from the mouth of the stream, the coal shows 18
inches of cannel, overlain by 8 inches of splint and 12 inches of
bituminous coal (fig. 21, section 147). The cannel fyed is a "beauti1 Hendrle, Charles, op. cit., p. 132.
2 Hodge, J. M., Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 26, 1910.
3 Hendrie, Charles, Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept., p. 132, 1894.
* Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, pp.-28-29, 1910.
5 Idem, pp. 45-46.
100
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
ful, clean, bright cannel coal, tough and elastic." On the Stone Coal
Fork of Georges Branch a section showed cannel 18£ inches and coal
17 inches.1 One mile up Georges Branch there was measured a cannel coal, 17 inches; splint coal, 17 inches; bituminous coal, 3 inches.
Apparently Georges Branch runs through the center of the basin, the
cannel coal having a nearly regular thickness of 14 to 20 inches. A
mile to the south, on the river, the coal is thin and has passed into
a slaty cannel; and on the north side of Wolf Creek, the next stream
to the south, the coal is a thin semicannel. The basin has been estimated to contain 375 acres of cannel coal. Analyses (43-47) are
given on pages 21-22.2
Wolf Creek. On the south side of Wolf Creek (location 5) the
cannel is 23 to 27 inches thick (fig. 20, section 148). By its appearance and analysis, however, it here approaches semicannel.3 (See
analysis 48, p. 22.)
Miscellaneous occurrences. Many deposits showing a foot or less
of cannel occur throughout Breathitt County. Sections of two of
these deposits between Lost Creek and North Fork and of one west
of North Fork are given in figure 21 section 149, on Mill Branch
(location 18); section 150, at John Littles Branch (location 19) ; and
section 151, on Lick Branch (location 17). At all these places, as at
others, the coal is so resistant that blocks of it accumulate in quantities that give the impression of a greater bed than exists.4
JACKSON COUNTY.
Cannel coal has been found at several points in Jackson County.
In the valley of Grassy Creek (location 1), in the northeast corner
of the county, 14 inches of cannel coal occur on the William Bowles
place. Cannel coal is also found on Pond Creek (location 2), not
far from the Settle store, Annville (?).5
Among the coals analyzed by the Kentucky Geological Survey
are two (87, 88, p. 23) from this county, one of.which is described
as follows: " Cannel coal from Tom Cole's bank, 17 miles southeast of Richmond (location 3), represented to be 21 inches cannel
and 21 inches bituminous coal. * * * Rather dull looking cannel
coal, splitting with difficulty into layers with not enough fibrous coal
to soil the fingers and with no apparent pyrites." The other coal
is described as follows: "Cannel coal from T. J. Ballard's place,
1 Hendrie, Charles, /Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Kept., p. 134, 1894.
2 Hendrie, Charles, idem. Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, pp. 70-71,
1910. Crandall, A. R., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 10, p. 65, 1910.
3 Hendrie, Charles, op. cit, pp. 134-135. Hodge, J. M., op. cit, pp. 72-73.
4 Hodge. J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of the lower North Fork, Middle and
South forks, Kentucky River, p. 90, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
6 Miller, A. M., Coals of the lower measures along the western border of the eastern
coal field: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 12, pp. -75-76, 1910.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
101
branch of Horselick, 26 miles from Richmond (location 4). * * *
Specimen from the outcrop. * * * Resembles the preceding,
has a bird's-eye structure in parts." 1
LETCHER COUNTY.
Mill Branch of Backhouse Creek. On the J. Q. Bentley place, at
the mouth of Mill Branch (location 6), and again at the mouth of
Letcher County
""Mill
Millstone
C^P
Branch
Branch
Branch
Smoot
CreeK
Defeated
Creeh
Line
ForK
154
Ft. in
153
Ft in.
157
5 0
;Ft. in.
152
155
,Ft. in.
.Ft. in.
6
156
6 .... ft. in.
3 0
Z 0?
LEGEND
Cannel 'Bituminous
coal
coal
Bone,
Clay
Shale
Sandstone
FIGURE 21. Sections of cannel coal In Letcher County, Ky.
Potters Fork, the Elkhorn coal carries 10 inches of semicannel coal
under 34 inches of bituminous coal 2 (fig. 22, section 152, and
analysis 106, p. 24).
Millstone Branch of Rockhouse Creek. The " fire-clay " or Dean
coal on Millstone Branch (location 3) carries at its base 18 inches
1 Peter, Robert, Chemical analyses: Kentucky Geol. Survey Rept. A, pt. 1, pp. 272-273,
1884.
" Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 145, 1910.
102
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
of cannel without partings, described as a fine-looking coal 1 (fig. 22,
section 153, analysis 104, p. 24).
*
Gamp Branch of Rockhouse Creek. On Camp Branch, on the
J. N. Collins place (location 4), the cannel at the base of the Dean
coal is 2 feet thick 2 (fig. 22).
Smoot Creek. Near the mouth of Smoot Creek (location 5) the
Whitesburg is a cannel coal 18 inches to 3 feet thick (fig. 22, section 155 ).3
Defeated Creek. The Dean coal is mostly cannel on Defeated
Creek (locations 1 and 2). Where it goes under the creek it measures
3 feet of solid cannel under a massive sandstone (fig. 22, section 156).
On the Ira Hall place, 2 miles above the mouth, it is 25 inches thick,
including 3 inches of shale 7 inches from the top.4 (See analysis
105, p. 24.)
On Line Fork, 2 miles above the mouth of Defeated Creek, on'the
Joseph Cornett place (location 1), the bed shows 43 inches of highash cannel (analysis 103, p. 24), grading into bituminous shale at
the top (fig. 22, section 157). It is described as "a bright, rather
pure looking cannel." 5
LESLIE COUNTY.
Cutshin Creek. Six miles above Paul Creek, on Coon Creek
(location 1), the Dean or " fire-clay " coal carries 32 inches of cannel
under 6 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 23, section 158). Hodge B
says this bed "though rare as cannel on the Middle Fork (of Kentucky Eiver) is quite common as such on the North Fork, and the
rider has cannel to the southwest on Greasy Creek and elsewhere."
Laurel Fork. Three miles up Laurel Fork and one-eighth of a
mile to the left up Wolfpen Branch and 50 feet above it, on the Arch
Cornett place (location 3), is 23 inches of cannel, with 28 inches of
bituminous above and 16 inches of bituminous below (fig. 23, section
159). One analysis given (100, p. 24) is of the cannel bed; another
(101) is of the cannel bed and the 6-inch bed of bituminous coal
immediately below.7
Beech Fork. On Oldhouse Branch of Beech Fork of Middle
Fork of Kentucky River (location 2), the rider of the "fire-clay"
coal is a cannel 38 inches thick (fig. 23, section 160, and analysis 102,
p.. 24).8
^J:/
1 Hodge, J. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 11, p. 135, 1910.
2 Idem, p. 137.
R T^nw*
~
1 Kf\
3 Idem, p.
150.
4 Idem, p. 126.
5 Idem, p. 127.
6 Idem, p. 195.
7 Idem, p. 196.
8 Idem, p. 222.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
103
PERRY COUNTY.
Lots Creek. On Lots Creek, near Grigsby (location 1), 21 inches
of cannel underlies 23 inches' of bituminous coal (fig. 23, section
162) in what seems to be a fair-sized pocket. An analysis (131) is
given on page 25.
Lost Creels. On Lost Creek (location 2) two coals (Nos. 4 and
5) carry cannels. The cannel with coal No. 4 is generally thin;
that with No. 5 is 10 to 22 inches thick, with a considerable thickLeslie County
Cutshin
Creek
Perry County
Oldhouse
Branch
159
Will arc!
Branch
Lost
Creek
tbersole
Branch
.Ft.in
161
Ft.in.
162
I 6
158
Lots
Creek
160
.Ft.in.
164
Ft.in
163
Ft.in.
6
Ft.in
Ft in.
2 Z
i n?
3 a
LEGEND
Cannel
coal
Bituminous
coal
Cannel
shale
Clay
Shale
.Sandstone
FIGURE 23. Sections of cannel coal in Leslie and Perry counties, Ky.
ness of bituminous coal above (fig. 23, section 163), but the cannel
is not of first-class quality.1
Ebersole Branch. On Ebersole Branch of North Fork of Kentucky River (location. 3), 11 inches of cannel underlies 35 inches of
bituminous coal (fig. 23, section 164).2
Squabble Branch. The same bed shows some cannel on Squabble
Branch of Middle Fork of Kentucky River (location 4). Blocks of
cannel at an old opening a mile from the mouth of the creek indicate
the presence of some good cannel coal.2
1 Hendrie, Charles, Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept, p. 143, 1894.
2 Hodge, J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of the lower North Fork, Middle and
South forks, Kentucky River, p. 83, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
104
CANNEL COAL fN THE UNITED STATES.
North Fork of Kentucky River. Eight inches of cannel coal occur
on the Elijah Davidson place, 3 miles above the mouth of Grapevine
Creek. On the Samuel Whittaker place (locality 5), on Willard
Branch, the same bed contains 22 inches of cannel. (See fig. 23,
section 161.)
;
__________________Harlan County
______________'
_____Clover Fork of Cumberland River____________
26%milesup Fugitt
Little
Sharps Branch of
Hensley Martin Smith's
CloverFork ' Creek
Black Mt.
YocurnCreek
Branch
place
elev.25^o''elev.i635'"
. -
166
Ft.in.
169
Ff.in.
. 171
170
. ,.in.
.Ft.in.
.Ft.in.
Ft.in.
LEGEND
Cannel
coal
Bituminous
coal
Bone
Black shale
Shale
Sandstone
FIGURE 24. Sections of cannel coal on Clover Fork of Cumberland River, Harlan
County, Ky.
Middle Fork. On Middle Fork of Kentucky River (location 6) a
mile below the mouth of Rush Creek 10 inches of cannel coal inclosed
in 24 inches of bituminous coal is found.1 An analysis (132) is given
on page 25.
HARLAN COUNTY.
Jack Bailey Branch. On the Wright Short place, 26f miles above
the mouth of Clover Fork, at the mouth of Jack Bailey Branch (loca1 Hodge, J, M., op. cit., p.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
105
tion 6), is found 30 inches of cannel (fig. 24, section 165) in the
Kelioka coal (Keokee of State reports). The basin seems to be very
small, for 150 yards away an opening shows only 11 inches of cannel
and 24 inches of bituminous coal.1
Fugitt Creek, About one-fourth of a mile up Fugitt Creek (location 5), about 750 feet above sea level, a bed (fig. 24, section 166)
contains 28 inches of cannel of doubtful quality and 20 inches of
cannel-like shale associated with some bituminous coal and much
shale.2
Little Black Mountaiyi. On Little Black Mountain, below the
mouth of Fugitt (location 4), t'he Kelioka coal (fig. 24, section 167)
is only 19 inches thick but is all cannel.3
Sharps Branch. On Sharps Branch, 3f miles above the mouth
of Yokum Creek, in Horse Hollow of the Left Fork (location 3),
3.1 inches of cannel coal lies about 2,540 feet above sea level. Farther
down the same branch, at about 1,635 feet, 15 inches of cannel shale
is underlain by 25 inches of bituminous coal. At another opening
near by the shaly cannel is 33 inches in thickness. The upper bed on
Bailey Creek is also partly cannel.4 (See fig. 24, sections 168, 169.
and analysis 82, p. 23.)
Hensley Branch. The Kelioka bed is a cannel coal on Hensley
Branch (location 1) 2 miles above the mouth of Clover Fork. It is
here 39 inches thick (fig. 24, section 170), the upper part, however,
grading over into a cannel shale.5
Glover Fork. On the Martin Smith place, 1£ miles above the
mouth of Hensley Branch (location 2), the Kelioka bed (fig. 24, section 171) carries 23 inches of cannel separated by 5 inches of shale
from 13 inches of bituminous coal.6
Lick Branch of Poor Fork. On Lick Branch (location 7) the
Kelioka bed shows 28 inches of cannel of good appearance, light
weight, and good fracture, overlain by 33 inches of cannel shale
(fig. 25, section 172). It is said that a piece of this cannel, about 6
to 8 inches cube, when broken open was found to contain in the
middle a lump of pure splint coal 1 by 2 by 3 inches.7
Johns Branch of Catron Creek. On Johns Branch, on the Myra
Osburn place (location 15), 40 feet above the Harlan coal 30 inches
of cannel is overlain by 22 inches of bituminous coal. Other measurements on Johns Branch have shown 2 feet 9 inches of cannel overlain
1 Hodge, .T. M., The upper Cumberland coal field: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 13,
p. 108, 1912.
2 Idem, p. 82.
3 Idem, p. 80.
4 Idem,
6 Idem,
"Idem,
7 Idem,
pp. 51-52.
p. 38.
p. 39.
p. 152.
106
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
by 21 inches of bituminous coal'. (See fig. 25, section 173, and
analysis 83, p. 23.)
An analysis (84, p. 23) is of a sample described as taken " 8
miles from Mount Pleasant (Harlan) at the head of Catron Creek
of Martin Fork. Sample from 22-inch seam in bed containing three
seams, two of stone coal, severally 18 inches and 6 inches thick, sep___________________Harfar\ County_______
Lick Branch JohnsBranch Opposite
Terrys Cumberland Walhns Cumberland
of
of
mouth of
Fork
River
Creek J
Rjver^
Poor Fork CatronCreekJohnsBranch '
174
Ft.in.
Wallirvs
Creek .
176
Ft. in.
172
Ft.in.
173
Ft.in.
Ft.in.
2 9
Ft.in.
LEGEND
Cannel coal Bituminous coal
Bone
Cannel shale
Clay
Shale
FIGURE 25. Sections of cannel coal in Harlan County, Ky.
arated by 2 inches of shale parting; 120 feet above drainage; a dull
gray-black cannel coal, irregularly laminated." 1
Catron Creek. Opposite the mouth of Johns-Branch on the Washington Hensley place (location 14) is a good showing of cannel coal.
The bed comprises, from the top down, 2 feet to 2 feet 7 inches of
bituminous coal, 1 to 2 inches of clay, 22 to 26 inches of cannel (the
lower part of which is a good cannel with conchoidal fracture), 8
inches of clay, and 12 to 16 inches of cannel. (See fig. 25, section
174.) Two analyses (83, 86, p. 23), which include both benches of
1 Ashley, G. H., and Glenn, L. C., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 49, pp. 200-201,1906.
DISTBIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
107
cannels, show that these coals, though low in ash, are also low in
volatile matter.1
Martin Fork near Hurst. Cannel coal is reported to lie 50 feet
above the Harlan coal at the Stephen Place mine on Martin Fork,
near Hurst (location 13). As this is on the opposite side of the ridge
from the cannel coal at the same horizon on Johns Branch, it is
possible that there is a fair-sized area of cannel coal in this district.
Wallins Creek. What has been called the Terrys. Fork coal carries cannel over a good-sized area near the mouth of Wallins Creek.
It is typically exposed on Terrys Fork near the mouth (location 8),
where it shows a thiclmess of 24 inches of cannel over 24 inches of
bituminous coal, on the Adrian Howard place (fig. 25, section 175).
Over the ridge to the northeast on Cumberland River, oppt>site the mouth of Watts Creek (location 16), the same bed shows
24 inches of shaly cannel over 30 inches of bituminous coal (fig. 24,
section 176). Around the divide between Terrys Fork and Wallins
Creek on the Wallins Creek side, on Mrs. L. Howard's place (location 9), what is apparently the same bed shows 30 inches of cannel
coal overlying 14 inches of shale and 24 inches of bituminous coal.
A little farther up Wallins Creek this coal has been opened up, or
faced up, at several points (location 17), showing about 25 inches
of cannel coal (fig. 25, section 177). Below the mouth of Wallins Creek, on the trail passing over the ridge to Jesse Creek (location 10), the same bed contains 32 inches of cannel above 18 inches
of bituminous coal (fig. 25, section 178). On the D. F. Noe place
on Wallins Creek (location 12) 27 inches of cannel is reported to
overlie 3| inches of shale and 6£ inches of bituminous coal (fig. 25,
section 179). This same coal shows 10 inches of cannel on the Banner
Fork of Wallins Creek and 4 inches of cannel on Camp Branch.2
BELL COUNTY.
Pineville. Cannel coal has been mined on Stewarts Branch near
Pineville (locations 1 and 3) by the Breckenridge & Pineville Syndicate (Ltd.), later the Wallsend Coal & Coke Co., and at present
The Federal Coal Co. The cannel bed is what is locally called
the McGuire bed, overlying the Dean coal. An analysis (31) is
given on page 21. The occurrence of the coal has been described by
Crandall as follows: 3
The McGuire cannel seam, or the Upper Dean coal, at the 762-foot level on
Stewart Branch is continuous over a large part of this region, rising to the
1 Ashley, G. H., and Glenn, L. C., op. cit, pp. 196-198.
2 Idem, p. 153.
3 Crandall, A. R., and Sullivan, G. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 14, pp. 106-107,
1912.
108
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
crest of the hills near the head of the Pogue Branch. The cannel portion of
the bed is not so constant a feature either in thickness or in quality as to give
value to this coal seam. On the right fork of Stewart Branch, as faced up
for examination but not driven to solid coal; the whole thickness was 59 inches,
of which the bottom bench of cannel coal was 17 inches. A greater thickness
has been reported near the head of Millers Branch. But at the head of the left
prong of Stewart Branch and at a point to the westward Mr. Thurston measured 38 inches of common coal and 18 inches of cannel, and 39 inches and 13,
respectively. This bed makes a horizon which has. recurring local areas of
cannel coal in connection with ordinary soft coal; it extends over a large field
in greater or less thickness, with here and there pockets of cannel coal added
to its bed section or taking the place of some of its layers, as the case may be;
but it has only at wide intervals bodies of cannel which separately may be
made the basis of a mining industry.
Where the coal was mined the cannel bench showed (fig. 26, section 180) a thickness of 18 inches overlain by 34 inches and more of
bituminous coal.1 In the mine inspector's report for 1899 2 it is
stated that "there is an almost inexhaustible supply of the Pineville
cannel"; and again that "the No. 2 mine is in a vein 50 inches
thick, of which 12 inches at the top is cannel." In describing this
property the chief engineer of the company says: " This seam is
about 4 feet thick and carries a cannel seam from 8 to 24 inches
thick " (fig. 26, section 181) .3
Chenoa. On Bear Creek branch of Clear Creek (location 2) is a
body of cannel coal that was mined extensively from 1893 to 1899.
The cannel here as usual proved to be in a basin in which the width
of workable coal was only 600 feet. This was followed down the
dip for about 4,000 feet at constantly increasing cost until 1899,
when the burning of the tipple led to the abandonment of the mine.
The dip of this basin is steep, being about 8° for the first 400 or 500
feet and 5° for the next 400 or 500, beyond which it gradually
decreases to 2° or less. When operations ceased plans were on foot
for making a new opening by a slope in order to reach the coal near
the present face. This coal shows a total section of over 7 feet in the
center of the basin, thinning out to the edges. The upper part is
bituminous and the lower part cannel. One section, reported by
A. E. Crandall,4 gave 34 inches of bituminous coal at the top separated by 1 inch of charcoal from 52 inches of cannel coal at the bottom. The section measured near the ventilating furnace, however,
showed the bed much broken up, the cannel appearing in two
benches, the upper of 7 inches and the lower of 14 inches, the whole
bed having a thickness of 97 inches. As a rule, however, there is
here a single block of bituminous coal above a shale parting which
1 Norwood, C. J., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept., p. 119, 1894.
2 Stone, G. W., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Sixteenth Ann. Kept, pp 112, 140, 1900.
3 Norwood, C. J., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Ann, Repts. for 1905, 1906, p. 169,
[1907?].
* Ashley, G. H., and Glenn, L. C., op. cit., p. 94.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
109
may resemble cannel at the top or bottom. The thickness of the
cannel-coal bench ranges from about 55 inches in the center of the
basin to 30 inches at the sides where mining stopped. It may be
assumed that this basin, or channel, extends eastward or southeastward through the ridge. (See fig. 26, sections 182, 183, and analysis
32, p. 21.) 1
to
i
TB *
8
H
c O
U fa
KNOX COUNTY.
Cannel coal in Knox County, so far as described, appears to be confined to the valley of Stinking Creek and to one exposure on Bull
Creek. All of the following areas, except the last, are on tributaries
of Stinking Creek.
Moore Creek. On the left fork of Moore Creek (location 6) 10 to
22 inches of cannel (fig. 26, section 184) has been found in a bed
1 Ashley, G. H., and Glenn, L. C., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 49, pp. 94-95, 1906.
110
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
thought to be above the Dean and probably at the horizon of the
McGuire coal, which is cannel bearing in Bell County.1
Mills Branch. At the Anderson Mills entry on Mills Branch, 280
feet above the creek (location 4), the cannel bed has a thickness of
45 inches (fig. 26. section 185), including 5 inches at the top, which
is partly splint. The coal appears to be limited to a pocket in the
ridge between Mills Branch and Dickey Branch to the north.2
Lower Road Fork. The McGuire bed is cannel bearing at the
Williamson place at the mouth of Lower Koad Fork (locations 2
and 7). The cannel is 15 inches thick overlain by 15 inches of
bituminous coal (fig. 26, section 186). At the Walker farm, 1£ miles
up the creek, the cannel carries a 1-inch clay parting 5 inches from
the top and a bituminous bench 22 inches thick (fig. 26, section 187).
The coal is here about 400 feet above the creek. This bed has been
widely recognized toward the heads of the forks of the main Stinking
Creek, though the cannel part of the bed is commonly thin or absent.
Upper Road Fork. Toward the head of Upper Road Fork (location 3) the McGuire coal attains a workable thickness. Thus at
David Price's place, 7 miles above the mouth of the fork, the cannel
coal is 41 inches thick (fig. 26, section 188), but from here it thins in
every direction. The workable portion is limited to the ridge between the main fork and Spring Branch. An analysis (97) is given
on page 24.2
Middle Fork. Near the mouth of Middle Fork, about 650 feet
above the creek (location 5), on the J. M. Bingham place 13 inches
of cannel coal overlies 24 inches of bituminous coal and underlies 3
inches of bituminous coal. On the Big Creek side of this same ridge
and a mile away this bed shows 12 inches of cannel over 24 inches of
bituminous coal at the Acy Messers opening. It is readily traced
along Big Branch by the outcropping cannel.3 On Brown Branch
of Middle Fork a few openings have been made to this coal, showing
about the same thickness as at the Walker opening (location 5) on
the-opposite side of the ridge. On the Jeff Hammond.Fork of Middle Fork the cannel coal is 6 to 8 inches thick. On Tom and Wash
branches of Salt Gum Branch of Middle Fork the cannel is from 9
to 11 inches thick and is overlain by 5 inches of cannel shale.
Big Creek (main branch?). On Broughton Branch at the B. D.
Alien mine (location 1) the cannel bed reaches a maximum of 34
inches (fig. 26, section 189), but decreases in thickness in a short
distance. Other cuts in this neighborhood failed to develop pockets
of promise. On the Buckeye and Acorn branches of "Big Creek,
which head against the head of Salt Gum' Fork of Middle Fork, the
1 Crandall, A. R., and Sullivan, G. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 14, p. 127, 1912.
2 Idem, p. 125.
8 Idem, p. 128.
DISTRIBUTION IN KENTUCKY.
.111
cannel bed carries. 13 inches of cannel. It is 9 inches thick near the
Isaac Taylor place, 4 miles from the head in a bed 14£ inches thick,
and 8 inches thick 3£ miles below the head.1
Bull Creek. On the T. Jones place, 2 miles up Bull Creek of
Colon Fork of Goose Creek 15 inches of cannel is reported.2 Near
the mouth of Bull Creek (location 8), on the Harpers land, the cannel is 26 inches thick but is very shaly.
CLAY COUNTY.
The bed of cannel coal found on Middle Fork of Stinking Creek in
Knox County has been opened also on the headwaters of Kentucky
River (location 1) in Clay County.3
A table of analyses published by Hodge 4 includes two of cannel
coal from Clay County, one of which (analysis 69, p. 22) is described
as from J. T. Smith's place on Tom's Branch (cannel 5 inches), and
the other (analysis TO, p. 22) from the J. M. Jones place (location 2),
Beech Creek, Clay County (cannel 15 inches).
&
LAUREL COUNTY.
Cannel coal 4 feet 2 inches thick is reported to have been opened
on Cane Creek about 2£ miles north of the Chris Hale place in
Laurel County. At another opening on Indian Camp Branch of
Craigs Creek apparently the same bed, coming immediately under
the cap rock of the plateau in this area, has been opened and shows
36 inches of cannel overlying 8 inches of sandy shale and coal and 6
inches of bituminous coal.
WHITLEY COUNTY.
Character of the coal. P&xt of Whitley County is underlain by
a coal having a peculiar pitted fracture, to which the name bird's-eye
is given. The bed, which is now thought to be the same as the
Jellicoe, ranges from a rich pure cannel to a semicannel or splint
coal and to a black coal. The bird's-eye fracture persists through the
several changes, though it does not everywhere persist through the
whole thickness of the bed. None of the analyses at hand indicates
that any of this coal is a high-volatile cannel, though such cannel
may exist in the region. The peculiar fracture is most striking at
right angles to the bedding.5 As shown on the map (PI. VII, p. 82)
iCrandall, A. R., and Sullivan, G. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 14, p. 127, 1912.
a Hodge, J. M., Preliminary report on the geology of the lower North Fork, Middle and
South forks, Kentucky River, p. 74, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1887.
3 Crandall, A. R., and Sullivan, G. M., op. cit., p. 128.
* Hodge, J. M., op. cit. p. 96.
6 Crandall, A. R., Report on the geology of Whitley County, etc., plate opposite p. 37,
Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1889 [date of map].
112
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
the cannel and semicannel condition of this bed centers mainly in the
Patterson Creek region but is found also on Big and Little Caney
and Mud and Polar creeks. Though not a rich coal for the manufacture of oil, it is free burning and is adequate for many of the uses
of cannel.
Patterson Creek. Near the head of Patterson Creek (fig. 27,
section 190) 52 inches of block coal shows at the Polly mine (locations 1, 3, 5, and 6), of which 31 at the base is bird's-eye. On
Bennett Fork of Patterson Creek (location 3, section 193) the bed is
from 48 to 50 inches thick and is a semicannel. On the Lawson tract
the bed shows 11 inches of bird's-eye at the base, then 13 inches of
Whitley County
Head of
Patterson
Creek
Lawson
tract
Hancock County
Bennett
Fork
Little
Caney
Creek
180
193
191
192
Halsey,
Caney
. Creek
Ft.in.
Minimum
Breck in ridge
Average Maximum
Ft.in.
Ft. in.
6
LEGEND
Cannel coat'
Bituminous coal
FIGDKB 27. Sections of cannel coal in Whitley and IJancock counties, Ky.
cannel, then 11 inches of bituminous coal x (.fig. 27, section 191, and
analyses 134, 136, p. 25). This bed is a cannel coal on Mud Creek
also (locality 4).
Little Caney. At the head of Little Caney (location 2) the bed
carries 28 inches of cannel and 6 inches of bituminous coal.2 (See
fig. 27, section 192, and analysis 137, p. 25.)
Halsey. At Halsey on Caney Creek (location 7) the Jellicoe and
Birdseye Coal Co had, in 1893, made a number of openings on the
bird's-eye coal. At the Halsey mine the coal (analysis 138, p. 25) con1 Hendrie, Charles, Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Rept, p. 147, 1894.
2 Crandall, A. R., op. cit, p. 38. Miller, A. M., Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 12, p. 69,
1910.
DISTRIBUTION IN TENNESSEE.
113
tained (fig. 27, section 194) 2 feet or a little more of bird's-eye and
semicannel, and 6 to 9 inches of bituminous coal.1
HANCOCK COUNTY.
The famous Breckinridge cannel coal, probably the best known of
the Kentucky cannels and the oftenest mentioned of American cannels, lies in Hancock County just over the boundary from Breckinridge County.
The extent of the cannel coal is not known. Mining was carried
on in a ridge between Tarr Fork and Panther Creek, the mines being
on the Tarr Fork side. It has been generally assumed that the
cannel-coal field is exhausted. Norwood,2 after examining the area
in 1875, concluded that a large body of cannel coal, possibly 4,000
acres, still remained. Mining was resumed and it is possible that
Avhen it finally ceased all the coal at that time minable had been
removed. The cannel bed lies at the base of the coal-bearing rocks
and was from 22 to 38 inches thick, locally reaching 46 inches. The
average is given as about 2£ feet or a little over. (See fig. 27, sections 195-197, and analyses 75-80, p. 23.)
Miscellaneous localities. In other parts of the western field of
Kentucky coals Nos. 1, 5, and 11 locally carry workable thicknesses
of cannel. Usually these are mined along with the bituminous coal,
which they accompany, no attempt being made to find separate
markets for the cannel portion of the bed. Near Dekoven coal No.
11 carries 14 to 15 inches of cannel overlying a small amount of
bituminous coal. Cannel has been noted associated with this bed in
Muhlenberg and Union counties, though it is usually of poor
quality. Coal No. 5 also contains cannel at Dekoven, where a 25inch bench lies between two 6-inch benches of'bituminous.
TENNESSEE.
In Tennessee cannel coal is mined only south of Jellico, about 2
miles from Newcomb, in Campbell County, where for some years it has
been mined by the Jellico Cannel Coal Co. The bed has an average
thickness of 30 to 36 inches and lies about 1,800 feet above sea level.
Benches of cannel coal of small lateral extent occur at Bon Air and
Whitwell and at a few other places in the State.
1 Norwood, C? J., Kentucky Inspector of Mines Tenth Ann. Kept, pp. 128, 177, 1894.
2 Norwood, C. J., Report of a reconnaissance of a part of the Breckinridge cannel-coal
district: Kentucky Geol. Survey Repts. Progress, vol. 4, new ser., p. 352, 1878; Western
coal field, p. 206, Kentucky Geol. Survey, 1884.
87775° 18 Bull. 659 8
114
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
ALABAMA.
In the Cahaba coal field of Alabama, west of Montev.allo and
northwest of Briarfield, an area of overturned rocks includes several coal beds.1 One of these, "the cannel seam," occurs on Little
Mayberry Creek and is described by Squire as 3 to 3£ feet thick and
partly bony. Squire adds that the bed is overturned and dips 56°.
In the same chapter Squire gives an analysis of the " B " bed, showing 56.1 per cent of volatile matter, 37.4 per cent of fixed carbon,
and 3.1 per cent of ash, but does not make clear whether this is the
" cannel seam." Its resemblance to a cannel-coal analysis and the
contrast with other analyses of coals iri that area suggest that it
may be.
IOWA.
Cannel coal is found in Iowa only near Fort Dodge and in a few
other localities. The bed in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, which occurs
near the base of the coal-bearing rocks, extends over a moderately
large area along the river and appears to be rather more regular than
the bituminous beds just above it, some of which are very pockety,
varying several feet in thickness in less than 100 yards. North of
Fort Dodge the cannel seam is 20 to 30 inches thick. Three mines
have recently operated near Kalo. At the Johnson mine the cannel
occurs as a 16-inch bed separated by 3 inches of shale over an underlying bench of bituminous coal 22 inches thick; at the Irvine mine
at Kalo the coal is 28 inches to 3 feet thick; at the Craig & Dawson
mine the cannel is about 3£ feet thick.2 The coal is overlain by shale
and underlain by shale or clay at all of these places. On Holaday
Creek, near Coalville, the seam consists of 4 to 9 inches of cannel
above 1 to 3 feet of bituminous coal.3
At the Tann mine, in Guthrie County, in the NE. | SE. £ sec. 22,
T. 79 N., E. 30 W.,4 there is 22 inches of cannel which is just on the
border line between cannel and bituminous, showing about equal percentages of volatile matter and fixed carbon or a fuel ratio very close
to 1. The ash ranges from 15 to 36 per cent in the analyses at hand
and the sulphur from 7 to 11 per cent. The high sulphur content
would be sufficient to prevent the use of this coal for some purposes.
MISSOURI.
OCCURRENCE OF THE COAL.
In a broad area southeast of the main coal field of Missouri there
are pockets of " Coal Measure " rocks, many of which contain beds
1 Squire, Joseph, Report on the Cahaba coal field, pp. 97-100, Alabama Geol. Survey,
1890.
2 Keyes, C. R., Coal deposits of Iowa: Iowa Geol. Survey, vol. 2, pp. 204, 205, 1894.
3 Idem, pp. 40, 42, 43.
4 Idem, p. 247.
BULLETIN 659
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
t ) V
^
JIVCoEaytofc
PLATE VIII
V
39 <^«y^^teg Jj-V
^~>
Basefrom U. S. Geological Survey
mao of Missouri. Compiled by
4, F. Hassan
Deposits referred to in text
(Separate series of numbers for euck county)
MAP OF PART OF MISSOURI
-/,
,»ra*£^
*
Coal data compiled by G. H. Ashley
SHOWING LOCATION OF CANNEL COAL DEPOSITS
Basins that contain coal-bearing rocks (possibly cannel
coal)jfrom Hindsfe"Coal deposits of Missouri"
DISTRIBUTION IN MISSOURI.
115
of cannel coal. (See PI. VIII.) Most of these pockets appear to be
in old sink holes, dissolved out of the limestones, though some are in
narrow valleys. Such pockets occur in 35 counties. The coal in
many places is remarkably thick, some deposits measuring more
than 50 feet and one shaft having penetrated nearly 90 feet. Though
these coals have not been analyzed, they are described as commonly
high in ash and high in volatile matter. Many of these pockets, like
the cannel basins in Kentucky and elsewhere, have been the basis for
unprofitable investment and probably more money has been spent
on them than has been made out of them. Most of the basins to
be described are circular or oval and not more than a few hundred
feet in diameter. An aggregate of 500,000 tons in a single pocket
is exceptionally large, most of them being very much smaller. In
some places seams and bands of lead or zinc ore add to the value
of the pocket, and in others small deposits of flint clay and plastic
clay occur with the coal and may be mined with it at a profit. Cannel
coal occurs in such pockets in Benton, Boone, Callaway, Cedar, Cole,
Cooper, Clark, Crawford, Camden, Dade, Douglas, Dent, Jasper,
Lewis, Lincoln, Marion, Miller, Moniteau, Montgomery, Morgan,
Pike, St. Charles, St. Clair, St. Louis, "Saline, Warren, and other
counties. Recent mining appears to have been confined to Moniteau,
Cole, Monroe, and Morgan counties. Further description will be
confined to such deposits as have been worked in recent years or are
now being worked.
CALLAWAY' COUNTY.
Many pockets, some of remarkable thickness, occur in the southern
and eastern parts of Callaway County, but not one of them contains
more than a small amount of coal. One of them, near Hams Prairie,
in the NE. £ sec. 16, T. 46' N., K. 9 W., is worked by W. C. Weeks.
The coal is 5 to 12*feet thick, the lower part cannel and the upper
part bituminous. Hinds 1 says:
Callaway County has long been noted for its. pockets of thick coal, and much
money has been wasted by those who have attempted to mine them on a large
scale. Although many are remarkably thick, containing as much as 80 feet of
coal, most of them are very small in lateral dimensions and do not contain
more than sufficient coal fpr purely local use. These pockets occur in all parts
of the county, but are exposed only outside the area covered by the main body
of the Pennsylvanian ("Coal Measures"). They are especially well known in
the rough country near the Missouri River, where many were mined during
early days to supply fuel for the boats then so numerous on the river. Many
old workings may be observed near Hibernia and Mokane, and exaggerated
statements as to the amounts of coal in those districts are still current.
1 Hinds, Henry, The coal deposits of Missouri: Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines,
2d ser., vol. 11, p. 114 [1912].
116
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
COLE COUNTY.
Many coal pockets have been found in Cole County, especially
near Centertown and Elston, and some mining has been done there.
Probably, however, more money has been spent in prospecting for
coal in this county than has been made by mining. Many of the
pockets were described by Broadhead,1 chiefly those north of Centertown. The most recent mining at this point on cannel coal is
said to have been on the Leonard farm, 2 miles north of Centertown
(location 1 2 ), where a pocket 200 feet in diameter, carrying 14 feet
of cannel above 4 feet of bituminous coal, was worked for three years
from a 30-foot shaft. On the Bryant place 2 miles northeast of
Centertown (location 2) are 20 to 30 feet of cannel, which were
formerly stripped.3 Cannel coal was being mined in 1911, if not
at present, at the S. & A. Bandelier mine, L| miles due south of
Elston (location 3). The coal is in a pocket 250 feet wide from east
to west and somewhat longer from north to south.3
Section at the S. <£ A. Bandelier coal pocket, Cole County, Ho.
Feet.
Clay_________________________'_________
Bone ________________________________
Coal, bituminous___ _____ _______________
Shale, "slaty"___________________________1__
Cannel coal, bottom not reached_________________:_
20
4
6
10
59
The coal lies nearly flat in the center of the deposit, but the bedding turns up to 80° at the edges as though held back in the settling
of the material of the pocket at some time subsequent to its laying
down. Between the coal and rocks in the pocket and the outside
walls a layer of clay, like that commonly found in fault planes, made
the pocket a natural reservoir, so that when the mine was opened
6,000 barrels of water had to be pumped out, after which no further
difficulty of that kind was encountered. The cannel is very clean,
with a little pyrite and zinc blende near the outer edge of the pocket.
It splits easily with the bedding, but has no other regular fracture.
Eighty-six feet of coal under 12 feet of soil is reported, as shown by
a drilling on the Stehlein farm not far from this mine.
Near Hickory Hill (location 4) the Dustless Coal Co. opened a
mine after constructing a T-mile spur from ^enley. The prospect
shaft is reported to have cut 82 feet 9 inches of cannel coal, bearing
galena and zinc blende. When visited by Hinds 4 in 1911, 8 feet of
cannel were exposed in a pit at the shaft mouth.
1 Broadhead, G. C., Cole County : Missouri Geol. Survey Rept. for 1873-74, pp. 322-338,
1874.
2 Locations in Missouri are numbered by counties. (See PI. IX.)
3 Hinds, Henry, The coal deposits of Missouri: Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines,
2d ser., vol. 11, p. 158 [1912].
4 Idem, p. 159.
DISTRIBUTION IN MISSOURI.
117
COOPER COUNTY.
Nearly all of the townships of Cooper County contain cannel and
bituminous coal in pockets, in some of which the coal is 30 or more
feet thick.
CRAWFORD COUNTY.
Many small pockets of coal occur in Crawford County between
Sligo and Keysville in T. 36 N., R. 4 W. There are pockets in the
west half of sec. 19 (location 1) reported by Winslow as 40 feet
thick; in the NE. J SE. £ sec. 21 (location 2); in the NE. \ NW. J
sec. 29 (location 3); and in the NE. \ sec. 30 (location 4). None
of them are believed to be of much value.
JASPER COUNTY.
Smith and Siebenthal 1 report: " In many of the hollows and sink
holes eroded in the surface of the Boone and filled by Cherokee, coal
pockets were found, the thickness of coal accumulated being in places
very great. The coal is commonly cannel." Most of the described
deposits are only a few feet in diameter and 2 to 8 feet thick.2
LINCOLN COUNTY.
Coal pockets of great thickness occur in Lincoln County. Several
of them on the headwaters of Coon Creek have attracted much attention in the past and have been mined a little.3
MILLER COUNTY.
Several pockets of cannel coal have been encountered in wells in
Miller County, but none has yet been mined. In T. 41 N., E. 16 W.,
3 feet, of cannel at a depth of 19 feet is reported from the SE. £
sec. 2 (location 1); 3 feet in the well at the schoolhouse in the center
of sec. 11 (location 2); 12 to 14 feet at a depth of 8 feet on the
Joseph Garden place in the south center of the NW. | NE. £ sec. 3
(location 3); and a bed at 48 feet in the well near the center of sec.
11. In the same township cannel coal is exposed in the stream banks
in the SW. £ NW. | sec. 3 (location.4) and in the bed of a small
stream in the center of the W. £ SW. £ sec. 2, where a 40-foot shaft
is all in cannel coal except 1£ feet of carbonaceous shale.4
1 Smith, W. S. T., and Siebenthal, C. E., U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas, Joplin district
folio (No. 148), pp. 19-20, 1907.
2 Hinds, Henry, Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, 2d ser., vol. 11, p. 215 [1912].
3 Idem, p. 253.
4 Ball, S. H.. and Smith, A. F., Geology of Miller County : Missouri Bur. Geology and
Mines, 2d ser., vol. 1, p. 103, 1903.
118
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
MONITEAU COUNTY.
All of the coal in Moniteau County occurs in pockets, of which at
least three are being mined.
The Monarch Coal & Mining Co, is mining cannel in sec. 15, T. 43
N., R. 16 W. (location 1), by stripping and by drifts. The stripped
pit shows 30 feet of cannel coal, overlain by 5 feet of poor bituminous
coal. A 90-foot shaft at the east end of the open cut is in cannel,
and a tunnel driven 140 feet south from the foot of the shaft is
reported to be all in cannel. In the open cut the coal dips 45°, but
at the end of the tunnel or drift it lies flat. The pocket is about 400
feet long by 150 to 200 feet wide, and the cannel is estimated to be
45 feet thick where the dips are absent. The total contents of this
pocket do not appear to be over 75,000 tons.
At the Newkirk mine, in the NW. £ SE. £ sec. 12, T. 44 N., R,
17 W. (location 2), the shaft is 1.10 feet deep. Coal was struck at 45
feet and continued for 65 feet to the bottom of the shaft. Drifts
have been cut to the north and the south, and from them 30 feet
of coal has been mined. The coal pitches toward the center from
all sides and is well jointed and slickensided and of fair quality,
though high in ash. The deposit is estimated to be about 285 feet
long by 100 feet wide.
Two shafts have been sunk by C. P. Keller in the NE. £ sec. 22,
T. 43 N., R. 16 W. (location 3).' One of them struck 6 feet of bituminous coal at 20 feet and 7£ feet of (cannel?) coal 24 feet lower.
The Rohrback & Rowlin Mining Co. sunk a 50-foot shaft in the
S. $ SE. £ sec. 23, T. 45 N., R. 15 W., disclosing 10 to 15 feet of
cannel coal over 10 feet of poor bituminous coal and under 10 feet
of bituminous shale. The coal is said to slack badly and to have a
high percentage of ash. The pocket measured about 125 by 80 feet.1
MORGAN COUNTY.
The pockets in Morgan County have been worked to some extent
and have figured in a number of real estate deals involving considerable areas of land. The Stover mine shows an interesting example
of a pocket of bituminous coal 70 feet thick. The Hubbard & Moore
mine in the SW. £ SW. i sec. 22, T. 43 N., R. 18 W. (location 1), is
working a very irregular deposit about 20 feet thick, of which the
upper 15 feet is cannel and the lower 5 feet bituminous coal. Black
shale occurs both above and below the coal. Where obtained the coal
dips 32° to 33° but flattens out in a short distance. In the NW. £
SE. I sec. 5, T. 42 N., R. 17 W. (location 2), is a 12 to 15 foot bed
1 Van Horn, F. B., The geology of Moniteau County : Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines,
2d ser., vol. 3, pp. 65-68, 78-79, 1905. Hinds, Henry, Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines,
2<J ser., vol. 11, pp. 307-308 [1912].
DISTRIBUTION IN ARKANSAS.
119
of coal, of which the upper half, or a little more, is cannel. Mining
has been carried on in a small way at many places in the county.1
In a pocket being worked for coal and clay by the Ouachita Coal &
Clay Products Co. in the SW. £ SW. £ sec. 22, T. 43 N., E. 18 W..
(location 3), there is exposed 15 feet of alternating layers of bituminous and cannel coal. Pockets of cannel that have been worked
out are 1£ miles east of Versailles at the Martin mine (location 4) in
the SW. i SE. | sec. 5, T. 42 N., R. 17 W.; at the McClure bank
(location 5) a mile north of Martins; and at the Price bank (location 6) half a mile north of the McClure bank.2
SALINE COUNTY.
A pocket of bituminous and cannel coal 22 feet thick was formerly
worked at Napton, Saline County.
ARKANSAS.
Extending northwestward from Camden, Ouachita County, Ark.,
is a small area of typical brown subcannel, which has been tested for
oil and gas production with very favorable results (pp. 38, 47). The
coal bed has been traced from about 2 miles northwest of Camden for
13 miles to the northwest and has been opened and mined in a small
way at a number of places. Among these openings, in which the
coal ranges from 3 to 6 feet in thickness, are the following: Brown
mines, east side of sec. 12, T. 13 S., R. 18 W., coal 3 to 3^ feet;
Williams mine, north side of sec. 11, T. 13 S., R. 18 W., coal 3£ feet;
Demsey mine, NE. i SW. i sec. 25, T. 12 S., R. 18 W., coal 3 feet;
tAvo drifts near center of sec. 14, T. 12 S., R. 18 W., to which a 3-mile
railroad spur was built, coal reported 5 to 6 feet; mine in NE. £
sec. 12, T. 12 S., R, 18 W., opened before 1860, coal 3 feet 6 inches
to 6 feet; mines in sees. 7 and 19, T. 12 S., R. 17 W., coal 3 to 3£ feet;
Bratt shaft,, sec. 2, T. 13 S., R. 18 W., 3 feet of coal at 40 feet.8
Physically the Camden coal, as it comes from the mine,4 is
brownish black and compact and has a generally uniform even texture and
structure. Occasionally fragments of lignite with clearly marked woody structure may be seen. It has an uneven conchoidal fracture. It is soft but not
friable, that is, it may be easily mined with the pick and may be cut with a
knife as readily as compact dry clay, but will not crumble between the fingers.
When cut or scratched with a knife it shows a shiny or oily streak. Upon being
exposed to dry air the coal contracts and cracks both along the bedding and at
right angles to it so that fragments may be broken by the hand, but the mass
does not fall to pieces. The coal is then blacker and harder than when fresh
1 Marbut, C. F., The geology of Morgan County: Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, 2d
ser., vol. 7, pp. 79-86 [1908].
2 Hinds, Henry, Missouri Bur. Geology and Mines, 2d ser., vol. 11, p. 318 [1912].
3 Taff, J. A., Preliminary report on the Camden coal field of southwestern Arkansas:
U. S.,Geol. Survey Twenty-first Ann. Kept, pt. 2, pp. 323-324, 1900.
4 Idem, p. 325.
120
OANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
and the streak or powder is more nearly black. On being exposed for a short
time to the repeated action of rain, dew, and snow, however, it will disintegrate
into small particles.
From this-description the coal is evidently of lignite rank, but
so far as tested.it appears to give a higher candlepower gas than other
lignites. Chemically, as shown by the analyses (Nos. 13-18, p. 20),
it contains from 32 to 38 per cent of water when fresh. In dry air
the moisture will be reduced to 9 to 11 per cent, but this will be
reincreased to 20 to 22^ per cent if the coal is submitted to saturated
air. The volatile matter in the fresh coal is 32 to 36 per cent and
44 to 46 per cent in the air-dried coal; and the fixed carbon in the
fresh coal is 17 to 23 per cent 'and 29 to 33 per cent in the air-dried
coal. The ash remains from 7.5 to 11 per cent in the fresh coal and
the sulphur 0.5 per cent or less in the fresh material.
This coal was tested by the Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory (Ltd.).
The average result of 10 tests, at a temperature of 1,800° to 2,000°
F. was a yield of 11,386 cubic feet of 22.3 candlepower gas. How this
compares with other coals is shown in the table on pages 37-38.
David White,1 who visited the field, describes as follows the two
stills that were in operation:
The commercial untilization of the lignite from the Camden field is somewhat
unique, for although it is employed to a limited extent for local steam-boiler
fuel and on the locomotives of the branch railroads coming to the sawmills and
mines about Lester, the principal use of the coal appears to be for its distillation products. The best massive brown lignite, essentially " amorphous "
and free from bedding, is that most sought for distillation. Such lignite is said
to yield as high as 38 gallons of oil per ton, though the average oil production
from the lignite as it is mined and distilled approximates 25 gallons per ton.
Occasionally lignite which yields as low as 10 gallons per ton is dug at some of
the mines in the field. At the time of the field examinations of the fuel by the
writer the methods of distillation were still in an experimental stage. A small
distillery or " oil mill" was in operation at the town of Camden and another
one near Lester. The former had seven horizontal retorts, whereas the latter
had only five in an inclined position and farther above the grate. The Lester
mill had a capacity of two tons in 24 hours. For three or four hours the lignite
in the retort was subjected to a temperature of about .400° F., after which
it was advanced for a time to a temperature of about 700°, and finally to
1,200° or 1,300° F., eight or nine hours being required for the complete rua
Some of the oil is given off at a temperature of about 400° F., different oils
being yielded at different temperatures, those distilling later at the higher temperatures being regarded as best. Likewise, the higher temperatures appear to
yield by-products more tarlike and differing in other respects. The brown
canneloid is said to yield a lighter-colored oil.
The distillates are said to be used in the rubber industry, in soap making,
in paints, and in various proprietary preparations. The residual cinder can
hardly be called coke, although often on withdrawing the charge there appears
to be a recondensation at the back end of the retort which results in small
pieces of completely fused coke, silvery in luster and stalactytic in sculpture,
1 White. David, and Thiessen, Reinhardt, Bur. Mines Bull. 38, p. 18, 1913.
DISTRIBUTION IN TEXAS.
121
though spongy and friable. The higher-grade carbon or cinder derived from
the more typical canneloid lignite, after having been ground at the mill, has
been shipped to one of the eastern cities, where it was experimentally tried
in the manufacture of paint. The small pieces of wood and stem are occasionally found with structure preserved as charcoal among the lumps of lignitic
cinder.
TEXAS.1
Probably the largest deposit of cannel coal in the United States
is in Webb County, Tex., a few miles above Laredo, near the Rio
Grande. The coal occurs in Eocene rocks, apparently in beds such
as commonly contain soft brown friable lignites, but it is a hard,
lustrous, black coal, the beds yielding 75 per cent or more of lump
coal by ordinary methods of mining. The coal stands shipping and
storing like an ordinary bituminous coal. It differs physically from
typical cannel coal in having a brighter luster, in being less massive,
and in breaking down under the weather more readily than the
Carboniferous cannels, although possibly not more readily than the
average bituminous coal. Of the two beds now mined, the lower is
more like cannel. In the mine the coal shows one prominent cleavage
(N. 30° E.) closely spaced.
There are two principal beds, about 90 feet apart, and several
minor beds, all of the same general character except as the percentage
of ash makes some of them bony coals. The upper or Santo Tomas
bed has been traced in workable thickness 25 miles or more along the
river front. It is 24 to 34 inches thick, this measurement including
commonly 2 to 4 inches of bone or shale in the middle, and is underlain by 2 to 14 inches of bone. The lower or San Pedro bed is 22 to 24
inches thick at Dolores, is thin or absent at Santo Tomas, and is reported to be 4 feet thick at the mouth of Llave Creek, Both coals
have poor roofs, commonly of clay, and clay floors, inclined to creep,
drawbacks that add materially to the cost of mining.
Three mines are now in operation, the Santo Tomas, of the Santo
Tomas Coal Co., and the Darwin and Dolores mines of the Cannel
Coal Co. These mines are at towns bearing the names of the mines,
23 to 26 miles above Laredo, with which they are connected by the
Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railway.
The upper coal crops out above the bottoms of the Rio Grande
for many miles up the river from Dolores. The beds dip about 2°
NE. This dip carries the coal beds to a depth of several hundred
feet under the high bluff that stands a short distance back from the
river. One fault of 3 to 4 feet throw breaks the upper bed at the
Dolores mines but does not break the lower'bed. At the Santo Tomas
1 This section -was rewritten Aug. 16, 1917, and inserted in page proof after the author
had returned from the Laredo coal field, which he studied in detail. This field will be
described more fully in a forthcoming report of the United States Geological Survey.
122
CANNEL COAL IN THE UNITED STATES.
mine there are areas where the coal is much broken by fault slips, the
thickness of the bed commonly changing abruptly on the two sides
of these breaks. These slips, taken in connection with the abundant
slickensides in the roof clay, have led the writer to infer that this
area has been subject to slight earth pressure and movement, and
that because of the large proportion of clay in the section,, this
pressure, instead of being taken up by massive beds of sandstone, as
it commonly is in Carboniferous rocks, was resisted mainly by the
coal beds, which were thus raised to the rank of bituminous coals.
The dry atmosphere of the region may have reduced the content of
moisture in the coal, which is rather dry. Ten recent analyses of the
Santo Tomas coal, made in connection with its purchase by the
Government for use at Fort Macintosh, show that it contains 4.45 per
cent of moisture as received, and that the dry coal contains 42.5 per
cent of volatile matter, 36.8 per cent of fixed carbon^ 20.58 per cent
of ash, and 2.87 per cent of sulphur, and has a heat value of 10,889
British thermal units as received, or 14,349 British thermal units
moisture and ash free.
Tests of this coal for its content of oil gave 52.2 gallons per ton,
or 20.2 per cent by weight, with a specific gravity of 0.938 at 60° F.
This area would therefore seem to be a favorable place for establishing a distillation plant, because of the large quantity of coal
already found. The coal is now used on seven railroads the Artesian Belt; San Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf; Rio Grande & Eagle
Pass; International & Great Northern; Abilene & Southern; Coahuila and Zacatecas; and Mexican Government lines. It is shipped
to Austin, San Antonio,.Corpus Christi, and other places as a domestic fuel and is the principal steam coal of the surrounding region.
UTAH.
A bed of black subcannel (?) coal of subbituminous (?) rank,
opened in the valley of North Fork of Virgin River in the Colob
coal field at the Cannel King prospect, may be described as typical.
The bed, whose extent is not known, contains 5 feet 6 inches of cannel
overlain by 2 feet 6 inches of bituminous coal. The opening is in
sec. 26, T. 39 S., R. 9 W.1 The associated coal here is subbituminous,
and the cannel has a slightly earthy appearance; otherwise it is a
typical cannel coal in appearance and characteristics.2 The analysis
likewise indicates a typical cannel coal: The upper 2 feet carry 44.9
per cent of volatile matter, 28 per cent of fixed carbon, and 14.3 per
cent of ash; and the lower 3£ feet carry 46.9 per cent of volatile
matter, 22.4 per cent of fixed carbon, and 23.2 per cent of ash.
1 Richardson, G. B., The Harmony, Colob, and Kanab coal fields, southern Utah : U. S.
Geol. Survey Bull. 341, p. 394, 1900.
2 White, David, and Thiessen, Reinhardt, Bur. Mines Bull. 38, p. 244-245, 1913.
INDEX.
A.
Page.
Abbott Creek, Ky., cannel coal on
94
Alabama, cannel coal in________
114
cannel coal in, production of__
52
Allegheny County, Pa., cannel coal
in ____ _____ ___
62
Ammoniacal liquor, derivatives from.
45
Analyses of cannel coals_______ 17-29
Arkansas, cannel coal in____ 119-121
cannel coal in, analyses of_
20
gas from
_
_
38
Armstrong County, Pa., cannel coals
in ________ 33-34,59-62
cannel coals in, analyses of-; . 26
distillation tests of____ . 46
Aromatic hydrocarbons, not formed
at low temperatures_
49
Ash, analyses of____________
29
percentage of _____.____
13
Page.
Bopp, C. R., distillation tests by
46
Bostonia, Pa., deposits at________ 33-34
Braxton County, W. Va., cannel coal
in ____________._
73
Breathitt County, Ky., cannel coals
in __l_________ 95-100
cannel coals in, analyses of
21-22
distillation tests of-____
46
Breckenridge, Ky., distilling of oil
at______________
42
Brounland, W. Va., cnnnel coal near.
77
Bruin Creeek, Ky., cannel coal on
87
Brushy Fork, Ky., cannel coal on___
93
Bull Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
111
Bureau of Mines, distillation experiments by _ _ _
49
Butler County, Pa., cannel coal in
62
By-products, production of--__ 44-49
C.
Barbour County, W. Va., cannel coal
in ___ ______ ___
71
Barrett Creek, W. Va., cannel coal on_
86
Baskerville, Charles, cited____ 42-43,44
Beaver County, Pa., cannel coals in_ 32-33,
62-63
cannel coals in, analyses of
27
distillation tests of_____
46
distillation products of__
47
Bedding, absence of, in cannel coal12
Beech Pork, Ky., cannel coal on__
102
Bell County. Ky., cannel coals in__
34,
107-109
cannel coals in, analyses of_
21
Benzene, production of_ _
48, 49
Benzol, production of_________
48
Big Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_ 110-111
Big Ugly Creek, W. Va., cannel coal
on ____________
81
" Bird's-eye " cannel coal, luster of
13
'structure of, plate showing
14
Bituminous coal, comparison of, with
cannel coal _____ 9-10,15rl7
distillation test of_.______
46
quantity and quality of gas
from ____________ 37-38
Block structure of cannel coal, plate
showing
_ __
12
Boghead, Scotland, coal from, analyses of ___________
20
Boghead, Ky., cannel coal near
84-86
Boghead coal, classification of___ 10-11
Boone County, W. Va., cannel coals
in _____________ 77-80
cannel coals in, analyses of
27
Callaway County, Mo., cannel coal
in______________
1.1.5
Camden, Ark., coal, analyses of _
20
character of ___________ 119-120
distillation of__________ 120-121
distillation products from___
47
Camp Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
102
Campbell County, Tenn., caunel coal
in ______________
113
cannel coal from, analysis of_
27
Cannel City, Ky., cannel coal near__ 91-93
Canneloid coal, classification of_'_ 10-11
definition of____________
9
Cannelton, Pa., cannel coal at___ 32-33,
50,62-63
Cannelton, W. Va., cannel coal at
75
Carter County, W. Va., cannel coals
in ______________ 84-87
cannel coals in, analyses of__
22
distillation tests of____
46
Catron Creek, Ky., deposits on___ 106-107
Center County, Pa., cannel coal hi_
56
cannel coal in, distillation tests
of 1___________
46
Centertown, Mo., cannel coal near
116
Chemical composition of cannel coal- 15-29
Chemicals, demand for__ ____
7
Chenoa, Ky., cannel coal at _ 34,108-109
Chinns Branch, Ky., cannel coal on
84
Classification of cannel coals___ 10-11
Clay County, Ky., cannel coals in
111
cannel coals in, analyses of__
22
Clearfield County, Pa., cannel coals
in-_____________ 57-58
cannel coals in, distillation tests
of______________
46
123
124
INDEX.
Page.
Olover Fork, Ky., cannel coal on__
105
Coal oil, companies making in I86043
source of____ -____i_____
8
See also Oil.
Coke from cannel coal, quality of
41
yield of _____________
47
Cole County, Mo., cannel coal in116
Coon Creek, Ky., cannel coal on__
102
Cooper County, Mo., cannel coal in_
117
Coshocton County, Ohio, cannel coals
in _____________ 64-66
cannel coals in, analyses of
26
distillation products of____
47
Cove Creek, W. Va., cannel coal on_
82
Crandall, A. R., cited_________
84
and Sullivan, Q. M., cited__ 107-108
cited ___________107-108
Crawford County, Mo., cannel coal
in _____________
117
" Curly " cannel coal, structure of,
plate showing
__
14
Cutshin Creek, Ky., cannel coal near.
102
D.
Daviess County, Ind., cannel coals
in _____________
68
cannel coals in, analyses of__
20
Defeated Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
102
Definition of cannel coal
8
Detroit, W. Va., cannel coal at__
75
Distillation of cannel coals, products
of ______________46-49
Dorsey, J. A., distillation tests by
46
Downer Kerosene Oil Co., operations
of ___'_______
42
E.
East Point, Ky., cannel coal at
89
Ebersole Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
103
Elliott County, Ky., cannel coal in_
87
England. See Great Britain.
Entrances to mines, early and recent,
plate showing
34
Ethylene, value of, in coal gas
36-37
Everman Creek, W. Va., cannel coal
on ____________86
F.
Falling Rock, W. Va., cannel coal at74
Flambeau, Ky., cannel coal at
89
Floyd County, Ky., cannel coal in_ 94-95
Folding, effect of
12
Fork Creek, W. Va., cannel coal on_
77
Fossils in cannel coal
30
Fracture of cannel coal.:-,
12
plate showing
12
Frozen Creek, Ky., cannel coal on
95
Fuel ratio, classification by
10
definition of- _
15
relation of, to specific gravity 13-14
Fugitt Branch, Ky., cannel coal on__
99
Fugitt Creek, Ky., cannel coal on
105
Fulgate Fork, Ky., cannel coal on
97
GPage.
Gas, effect of temperature of carbonization on ______
39
from cannel coals, candlepower
of____________ 35,37-38
making of_____________ 35-41
yield of_________ 9,36,37-38,47
from gas coals, quantity and
quality of__________ 37-38
occluded, analyses of______
29
yield of, per ton of coal carbonized_____________
38
Gases, hydrocarbon, heating value
and candlepower of
37
Georges Branch, Ky., cannel coal
on______________ 99-100
Georges Creek, Ky., cannel coal on
88
Gesner, Abraham, cited________ 46-47
kerosene, made by_________
42
Grain, even, in cannel"coal_____
12
Great Britain, coals from, analyses
of^______________ 20,28
coals from, distillation products
of ______________ 37, 47
Greene, F. C., and Hinds, Henry,
cited____________
34
Greenup County, Ky., cannel coals in 83-84
cannel coals in, analyses of___
23
distillation tests of________
46
Guthrie County, Iowa, cannel coal
in, analysis of_______
21
H.
Halsey, Ky., cannel coal at _ 112-113
Hancock County, Ky., cannel coal in
113
cannel coal in, analyses of___ 20, 23
distillation tests of _____ 46, 47
Harlan County, Ky., cannel coals
in_____________ 104-108
cannel coals in, analyses Of___
23
Heating, value of cannel coal for__ 34-35
Hendrie, Charles, cited____41, 86-87,96
Hensley Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
105
Hilton Branch, W. Va., cannel coal x
on______________
86
Hinds, Henry, cited___________
115
and Greene, F. C., cited____
34
Hislop, George R., cited________
86
Holden, W. Va., cannel coal near__
82
Holmes County, Ohio, cannel coals
in_______________
67}
cannel coals in, analyses of_:_
26
Hunnewell, Ky., cannel coal at
83-84
Hydrocarbons, list of, from Breckinridge coal
48
process for cracking _____
49
sources of ____________
7
I.
Igniting point____________
Illinois, cannel coals in_______
cannel coals in, analyses of_
30
69
21
INDEX.
Indiana, cannel coals in_______
cannel coals in, analyses of
mining of__ __ ___
production of________
Indiana County, Pa., cannel coals
in______________
cannel coals in, analyses of____
distillation tests of __
Iowa, cannel coals in __ ___
cannel coals in, analyses of
production of_______Ison Creek, Ky., cannel coal on __
Page.
68-69
20
50,53
52-53
58
27
46
114
21
52-53
87
J.
Jack Bailey Branch, cannel coal
on ____________ 104>-105
Jackson, Ky., cannel coal near___ 95-96
Jackson County, Ky., cannel coals
In____________ 100-101
cannel coals in, analyses of__
23
Jackson County, Ohio, cannel coals
in______________
6T
cannel coals in, analyses of____
26
Japan, coal-tar products in
__
49
Jasper County, Mo., cannel coal in_
117
Jefferson County, Ohio, cannel coal
in______________
67
Johns Branch, Ky., cannel coal
on____________ 105-106
Johnson County, Ky., cannel coals
in______________ 87-89
cannel coals in, analyses of_ 19, 23
Julian, W. Va., cannel coal at__
80
K.
Kanawha County, W. Va., cannel
coals in__________ 74-77
cannel coals in, analyses of __
28
distillation products of___
47
sections of, plate showing74
Kane County, Utah", cannel coals
from, analyses of __ 19, 27
Kentucky, bituminous coals in, tests
of ______________ 40-41
bituminous coals in, gas from
38
cannel coals in________1_ 82-113
analyses of _______ 19,21-26
distillation tests of____
46
gas from___ ___ __
38
mining of_________ 51-52,53
production of ____ 52-53,82-83
eastern, map of, showing locations of cannel-coal deposits __ ______
82
Kentucky River, Middle Fork of, deposit on _ __ ___
104
North Fork of, deposit on__
104
Kerosene, first oil known as_ __
42
Knott County, Ky;, cannel coals in,
analyses of _______
23
Knox County, Ky., cannel coal in_ 109-111
cannel coal in, analyses of__
24
L.
La Salle County, 111., cannel coal
from, analysis of____
21
125
Page.
Laurel County, Ky., cannel coal in
111
Laurel Fork, Ky,, cannel coal on_
102
Laurel Fork, W. Va., cannel coal on_
81
Lawrence County, Ky., cannel coal
in ______________
87
cannel ccal in, analyses of__
24
Leatherwood Branch, Ky., cannel
coal on __________
97
Lens Creek, W. Va., cannel coal on_ 75-76
Lesley, Ky., cannel coal at _
89
Leslie County, Ky., cannel coals in_
102
cannel coals in, analyses of__
24
Letcher County, Ky., cannel coals
in ____________ 101-102
cannel coals in, analyses of___
24
Lick Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
105
Lick Creek, Ky., cannel coal on__
91
Licking County, Ohio, cannel coals in_ 66-67
cannel coals in, analyses of__
20
Licking Eiver, Ky., cannel coal on
93
Lincoln County, Mo., cannel coal in_
117
Lincoln County, W. Va., cannel coals
in ____ 1 ____________
81
cannel coals in, analyses of___
28
Little Black Mountain, Ky., cannel
coal on___ ______
105
Little Brushy Branch, Ky., cannel
coal on
__
93
Little Caney Creek, cannel coal on_
112
Little Fork of Little Sandy River,
Ky., cannel coal on_____ 86-87
Logan County, W. Va., cannel coal
in ______________
82
Lost Creek, Ky., cannel coal on
103
Lots Creek, Ky., cannel coal on___
103
Lower Road Fork, Ky., cannel coal on_ 110
Lula mine, near Philipsburg, Pa., alteration of coal in____
12
Luster of cannel coal_________
13
M.
McLean County, 111., cannel coals in_
69
cannel coals in, analyses of__
21
McLean County, Ky., cannel coal In,
analysis of
_
24
Madison, W. Va., cannel coal near
78
Magoffln County, Ky., cannel .coals in_
93
cannel coals in, analyses of__
24
Mahoning County, Ohio, cannel coal
in
_ _____ 63-64
cannel coals in, analyses of__
26
Mammoth, W. Va., cannel coal near_ 74-75
Marmet, W. Va., cannel coal at
75
Martin Fork, Ky., cannel coal In__
107
Maytown, Ky., cannel coal near__
91
Michigan, cannel coal in_______
69
Middle Fork, Ky., cannel coal on__
110
Mill Branch, Ky., cannel coal on__
101
Miller County, Mo., cannel coal in_
117
Mills Branch, Ky., cannel coal on__
110
Millstone Branch, Ky., cannel coal
on
______ 101-102
Mining of cannel coal, cost of____
55
history of _________._____ 50-54
past and present, plate showing.
34
126
INDEX.
Page.
Missouri, cannel coal in
114-119
cannel coal in, production of _ 52-53
' map of part of, "showing locations of cannel-coal deposits____________-114
Mode of occurrence of cannel coal 31-34
Moore Creek, Ky., cannel coal on 109-110
Money Branch, cannel coal on
93 94
Moniteau County, Mo., cannel coal
in ______________
118
Montana, cannel coal in, production
of ______________
52
Mordecai Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
91
Morgan County, Ky., cannel coals in_ 89-93
cannel coals in, analyses of
24-25
Morgan County, Mo., cannel coal in
118-119
Moshannon Creek, Pa., cannel coal on
57-58
Mud River, W. Va., cannel coal on
78-79, 81
N.
Nature of cannel coal___
8, 9-10
New Bedford, Mass., oil distilled at_
42
New Bethlehem, Pa., cannel coal
south of__________ 59-61
New Brunswick, albertite from, distillation products of__
47
Nicholas County, W. Va., cannel
coal in________ _ 73-74
Nichols Fork, Ky., cannel coal on
95.
Noble Branch, Ky., cannel coal on__
99
North Fork of Licking River, Ky.,
cannel coal near-__' _ 90-91
Nova Scotia, albertite from, gas from_
38
cannel coal from, analyses of
20
0.
Ohio, cannel coals in_______ _ 63-67
cannel coals in, analyses of
26
gas from_
_
37
mining of_________ 50, 53-54
production of___
_ 52 54
Oil, substitution of, for cannel coal
41
crude, difficulty of refining- _
49
yield of, from cannel coals_ 10, 47
illuminating, yield of, from cannel coals_______ _
47
paraffin, yield of, from cannel
coals _
_
47
See also Coal oil.
Oil-making from cannel coal, history of___________ 41-44
process of_____________
44
Old Camp Branch, W. Va., cannel
coal on __
_
80
Origin of cannel coal__ 8-9,14-15, 30-31
Orton, Edward, cited_________
66
Onachita County, Ark., cnnnel coal
in _____________ 119-121
Owen, D. D., cited__________
84
Page.
Owsley County, Ky., cannel coals in,
analyses of
20, 25
cannel coals in, distillation test
of______________
46
P.
Paraffin wax, process of making
44
yield of, from cannel coals__
47
Parke County, Ind., cannel coal in_
69
cannel coal in, analysis of___
20
Patterson Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
112
Pennsylvania, cannel coals in____ 56-63
cannel coals in, analyses of__ 26-27
distillation tests of_____
46
gas from. ___ ____
37
mining of __________ 50,54
production of ______ 52-53, 54
gas coals in, gas from_____
37
Perry County, Ind., cannel coals in_ 68-69
cannel coals' in, analyses of__
20
distillation products of__
47
Perry County, Ky., cannel coal in_ 103-104
cannel coal in, analyses of__
25
Peter, Robert, distillation tests by
46
Peytoua, W. Va., cannel coal near_ 77-78
Philipsburg, Pa., cannel coal in__
56
Physical properties of cannel coal_ 11-15
Pike County, Ky., cannel coal in___ 93-94
cannel coal in, analyses of___
25
Pineville, Ky., cannel coal near_ 107 108
Pittsburgh, Pa., oil distilled at__ 42-43
Platt, W. G., cited__________ 61-62
Pond Fork, W. Va., cannel coal on
80
Pond Gap, W. Va., canucl coal at_
74
Pond post office, W. Va., cannel coal
near ____________
80
Preston County, W. Va., cannel coal
in ______________
70
cannel coal in, analyses of__
28
Prestonburg, Ky., cannel coal neur_
95
Prices of cannel coal_________ 55-56
Production of cannel coal
__ 52-54
Prospecting for cannel coal_____
31
Q.
Queen Shoals, W. Va., cannel coal
at______________
Quicksand Creek, Ky., cannel coal
on ______ _____
74
97
R.
Richmond, Pa., cannel coal near _
Rittman, W. F., cracking process devised by _ ____
Robin Run, W. Va., cannel coal near.
Rock Creek, W. Va., cannel coal on_
Rock Fork, Ky., cannel coal on
Roundbottom, W. Va., cannel coal
near_____________
Rush Creek, Ky., cannel coal on _
58
49
86
78
95
77
91
127
INDEX.
s,
Saline County, Mo., cannel coal in
119
Salyersvllle, Ky., cannel coal near_
93
Sarah, Ky., cannel coal at_
87
Scioto County, Ohio, cannel coal in_
67
Scotland. See Great Britain.
Sections of cannel coal in Kanawha
County, W. Va., plate
showing ___
74
Semicannel coal, distribution of_~_
56
Shale, grading of cannel coal into__
30
Shale and coal, differences between
11
Sharps Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
105
Smith Branch, Ky., cannel coal on__
91
Smoot Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
102
Somerville, Pa., cannel coal near_ 61-62
South Quicksand Creek, Ky., cannel
coal on_____________ 97-98
Sparks Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
88
Spaws Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
91
Specific gravity of cannel coal___ 13-14
Squabble Branch, Ky., cannel coal on_
103
Stacy Branch, Ky., cannel coal onl_
97
Standard, W. Va., cannel coal at
75
Stark County, Ohio, cannel coal from,
analysis of_________
20
Sterling, W. Va., cannel coal near
77
Stillwater Creek, cannel coal on___
93
Stinson Branch, W. Va., cannel coal
on_____________
81
Stone Coal Branch, Ky., cannel coal .
on______________
95
Streak of cannel coal
13
Stress, effect of, on cannel coal12
Structure, block, of cannel coal
11 12
block, of cannel coal, plate showing ___
12
Structure of " curly" or " bird'seye " cannel coal, plate
showing14
Subcannel coals, analyses of
19, 20
classification of _ _
10-11
definition of __________
9
See also Analyses of cannel coals.
Sullivan, G. M., and Crandall, A. R.,
cited___________ 107-108
Page.
Twomile Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
89
Twomile Fork, Ky., cannel coal on_
98
Turtle Creek, W. Va., cannel coal on_ 79-80
U.
'United States, eastern, map of, showing locations of cannelcoal deposits_______
36
Upper Road Fork, Ky., cannel coal
on_____________
110
Upshur County, W. Va., cannel coal
in______________
71
Uses of cannel coal-__ ______ 34-49
Utah, cannel coals in _ ___ __
122
cannel coals in, analyses of __ 19, 27
Value of cannel coal . ______ 54-56
Villa, W. Va., cannel coal at____
74
Volatile matter, yield of, from cannel coals. ________
47
W.
Wacoinah, W. Va., cannel coal at_
75
Wallins Creek, Ky., cannel coal on_
107
Wayne County, W. Va., cannel coal
in______________
82
Webb County, Texas, cannel coals
from, analyses of____
27
Webster County, Iowa, cannel coal
, from, analysis of
21
Webster County, W. Va., cannel coal
in______________
73
West Fork of Pond Fork, W. Va.,
cannel coal on_____
80
West Liberty, Ky., cannel coal at__
91
West Virginia, cannel coals in____ 70-82
cannel coals in, analyses of_ 27-28
gas from_________
38
mining of________ 50-51,54
production of______ 52-53, 54
gas coals in, gas from_____
38
Westmorland County, Pa., cannel
coal in _______ ___
59
White, David, cited______ 89,120-121
White, I. C., cited___________
82
Whitehouse, Ky., cannel coal at_
87
Whitley County, Ky., cannel coals
in____________ 111-113
cannel coals in, analyses of
25
Wilson Fork, Ky., cannel coal on
97
Wilson Fugate Branch, Ky., cannel
coal on_ _ _
98
Wolf Creek, Ky., cannel coal on
100
Wolfe County, Ky., cannel coals iu_
93
cannel coals in, analyses of__
26
Woodland, Pa., cannel coal at__
58
Workman Branch, W. Va., cannel
coal on__________
80
T.
Taff, J. A., cited ______ 119-120
Tar, products derived from_
45, 48
yield of, from cannel coals__r
47
per ton of coal carbonized38
Taylor, G. B., cited_______
49
Tennessee, cannel coal in
:
113
cannel coal in, analyses of.
27
production of_
53, 54
Texas, cannel coal in__ _____ 121-122
cannel coal in, analyses of
27
production of_
.
52, 54
Torchlight, Ky., cannel coal near
87
Trimble, D., cited_______-__
52
Troublesome Creek, Ky., cannel coal
on___________ ^_
99
Trumbull County, Ohio, cannel coal
in, analysis of
20
y.
Youghiogheny, Pa., coal, distillation test of_ _ _
o
40
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