Campbell AM16 Instruction manual

Campbell AM16 Instruction manual
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
AM16/32 Relay Multiplexer
Revision: 9/04
C o p y r i g h t ( c ) 1 9 8 7 - 2 0 0 4
C a m p b e l l S c i e n t i f i c , I n c .
Warranty and Assistance
The AM16/32 RELAY MULTIPLEXER is warranted by CAMPBELL
SCIENTIFIC, INC. to be free from defects in materials and workmanship under
normal use and service for twelve (12) months from date of shipment unless
specified otherwise. Batteries have no warranty. CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC,
INC.'s obligation under this warranty is limited to repairing or replacing (at
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC.'s option) defective products. The customer
shall assume all costs of removing, reinstalling, and shipping defective products
to CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. will
return such products by surface carrier prepaid. This warranty shall not apply
to any CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. products which have been subjected to
modification, misuse, neglect, accidents of nature, or shipping damage. This
warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed or implied, including
warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CAMPBELL
SCIENTIFIC, INC. is not liable for special, indirect, incidental, or
consequential damages.
Products may not be returned without prior authorization. The following
contact information is for US and International customers residing in countries
served by Campbell Scientific, Inc. directly. Affiliate companies handle repairs
for customers within their territories. Please visit www.campbellsci.com to
determine which Campbell Scientific company serves your country. To obtain
a Returned Materials Authorization (RMA), contact CAMPBELL
SCIENTIFIC, INC., phone (435) 753-2342. After an applications engineer
determines the nature of the problem, an RMA number will be issued. Please
write this number clearly on the outside of the shipping container.
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC's shipping address is:
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC.
RMA#_____
815 West 1800 North
Logan, Utah 84321-1784
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. does not accept collect calls.
AM16/32 Relay Multiplexer
Table of Contents
PDF viewers note: These page numbers refer to the printed version of this document. Use
the Adobe Acrobat® bookmarks tab for links to specific sections.
1. Function.......................................................................1
1.1 Typical Applications.................................................................................1
1.2 Compatibility ............................................................................................2
2. Physical Description...................................................2
3. AM16/32 Specifications ..............................................3
4. Operation.....................................................................5
4.1 The Control Terminals..............................................................................5
4.1.1 Reset................................................................................................6
4.1.2 Clock ...............................................................................................6
4.1.3 Ground ............................................................................................7
4.1.4 Power Supply ..................................................................................7
4.2 Measurement Terminals............................................................................8
4.2.1 COM Terminals ..............................................................................9
4.2.2 Sensor Input Terminals ...................................................................9
5. Datalogger Programming .........................................10
5.1 Single Loop Instruction Sequence ..........................................................11
5.2 Multiple Loop Instruction Sequence.......................................................16
5.3 CR5000 and CR1000 Programming .......................................................18
5.3.1 CR5000 Programming ..................................................................19
5.3.2 CR1000 Programming ..................................................................20
5.4 General Programming Considerations ....................................................22
6. Sensor Hook-up and Measurement Examples........22
6.1 Single-Ended Analog Measurement without Sensor Excitation .............22
6.2 Differential Analog Measurement without Sensor Excitation ................23
6.3 Half Bridge Measurements .....................................................................24
6.3.1 Half Bridge Measurement with Completion Resistor at
Datalogger ......................................................................................24
6.3.2 Potentiometer Measurement..........................................................25
6.3.3 Four Wire Half Bridge with Measured Excitation ........................25
6.4 Full Bridge Measurements ......................................................................26
6.5 Full Bridges with Excitation Compensation ...........................................27
i
AM16/32 Relay Multiplexer Table of Contents
6.6 Thermocouple Measurement.................................................................. 28
6.6.1 Measurement Considerations ....................................................... 28
6.6.2 Single-ended Thermocouple Measurement .................................. 30
6.6.3 Differential Thermocouple Measurement..................................... 31
6.7 Mixed Sensor Types............................................................................... 31
6.7.1 Mixed Sensor Example: Soil Moisture Blocks and
Thermocouples............................................................................... 31
7. General Measurement Considerations ....................34
8. Installation.................................................................34
8.1 Mounting Tabs ....................................................................................... 35
8.2 Controlling Humidity ............................................................................. 35
Appendices
A. AM16/32 Improvements over AM416 and AM32 ... A-1
Figures
1. AM16/32 Relay Multiplexer ...................................................................... 3
2. AM16/32 Relay Actuation Time vs. Temperature and Battery Voltage ..... 5
3. AM16/32 to Datalogger Power/Control Hookup ....................................... 6
4. Power and Ground Connections for External Power Supply ..................... 8
5. Typical AM16/32 to Datalogger Signal Hookup (4x16 Mode) ................. 9
6. SCWIN (Short Cut for Windows Program Builder) ................................ 10
7. Example “4X16” Mode Program Loops for CR23X, CR10(X),
21X, and CR7 Dataloggers ............................................................ 14
8. Example “2X32” Mode Program Loops for CR23X, CR10(X),
21X, and CR7 Dataloggers ............................................................ 15
9. Wiring Diagram for Strain Gages and Potentiometers............................. 16
10. Single-ended Measurement without Excitation...................................... 23
11. Differential Measurement without Excitation ........................................ 23
12. Half Bridge (Modified 107 Temperature Probe) Hook-up and
Measurement.................................................................................. 24
13. Potentiometer Hook-up and Measurement............................................. 25
14. Four Wire Half Bridge Hook-up and Measurement............................... 26
15. Full Bridge Measurement....................................................................... 26
16. Full Bridge Measurement with Excitation Compensation ..................... 27
17. Differential Thermocouple Measurement with Reference
Junction at the Datalogger.............................................................. 29
18. Differential Thermocouple Measurement with Reference
Junction at the AM16/32................................................................ 29
19. AM16/32 Aluminum Cover Plate .......................................................... 30
20. Thermocouple and Soil Block Measurement ......................................... 32
21. Mounting Tab Hole Pattern.................................................................... 35
ii
Cautionary Notes
The AM16/32 is not designed to multiplex power. Its intended function is to
switch low level analog signals. Switched currents in excess of 30 mA will
degrade the relay contacts involved, rendering that channel unsuitable for
further low level analog measurement. Customers who need to switch power
are directed to Campbell Scientific’s SDM-CD16AC, A6REL-12, or
A21REL-12 relays.
Changing the setting of the mode switch from “4X16” to “2X32” connects
COM ODD H to COM EVEN H and also COM ODD L to COM EVEN L.
After wiring AM16/32, exercise due care to avoid inadvertently putting excess
voltage on a line or short circuiting a power supply which might damage
datalogger, wiring panel, sensor or multiplexer (not covered under warranty).
iii
This is a blank page.
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
1. Function
The primary function of the AM16/32 Multiplexer is to increase the number of
sensors that can be measured by a CR1000, CR23X, CR10(X), 21X, or CR7
datalogger. The AM16/32 is positioned between the sensors and the
datalogger. The AM16/32 is a replacement for CSI’s AM416 and AM32
models. Mechanical relays in the AM16/32 connect each of the sensor
channels in turn to a common output destined for the datalogger. The user
program advances the multiplexer through the sensor channels making
measurements and storing data.
A slide switch located on the AM16/32’s top panel selects one of two modes of
operation. In “2X32” mode the multiplexer can scan 32 sensor input channels,
each with two lines. In “4X16” mode it can scan 16 input channels with four
lines a piece. The datalogger program is written according to the selected mode
and the sensors to be measured.
The maximum number of sensors that can be multiplexed by an AM16/32
depends primarily on the type(s) of sensors to be scanned. The following
guidelines assume identical sensors:
Up to 32 single-ended or differential analog sensors that do not require
excitation. For example: pyranometers and thermocouples (see Sections 6.1,
6.2, and 6.6).
Up to 32 single-ended sensors that require excitation. Example: some half
bridges (see Section 6.3.1).
Up to 16 single-ended or differential sensors that require excitation. Examples:
full bridges and four-wire half bridge with measured excitation (see Section
6.3.3 and 6.4).
In conjunction with a second AM16/32, up to 16 six-wire full bridges (Section
6.5).
1.1 Typical Applications
The AM16/32 is intended for use in applications where the number of required
sensors exceeds the number of datalogger input channels. Most commonly, the
AM16/32 is used to multiplex analog sensor signals, although it can also be
used to multiplex switched excitations, continuous analog outputs, or even
certain pulse counting measurements (i.e., those that require only intermittent
sampling). It is also possible to multiplex sensors of different, but compatible,
types (e.g., thermocouples and soil moisture blocks, see Section 6.7.1).
1
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
NOTE
For a discussion of single-ended versus differential analog
measurements, please consult the Measurement section of your
datalogger manual.
As purchased, the AM16/32 is intended for use in indoor, non-condensing
environments. An enclosure is required for field or high humidity use. In
applications where one or two multiplexers are deployed, the AM-ENC
(10” X 12”) enclosure is recommended.
1.2 Compatibility
The AM16/32 is compatible with Campbell’s CR5000, CR1000, CR23X,
CR10(X), 21X, and CR7 dataloggers.
The AM16/32 is compatible with a wide variety of commercially available
sensors. As long as relay contact current maximums are not exceeded (see
Cautionary Notes, page iii), and no more than four lines are switched at a time,
system compatibility for a specific sensor is determined by sensor-datalogger
compatibility.
In CR1000, CR23X, and CR10(X) applications the AM16/32 may be used to
multiplex up to 16 Geokon vibrating wire sensors through one AVW-1
vibrating wire interface.
2. Physical Description
The AM16/32 is housed in a 10.2 cm x 23.9 cm x 4.6 cm (4.0” x 9.4” x 1.8”)
anodized aluminum case (Figure 1). The aluminum case is intended to reduce
temperature gradients across the AM16/32’s terminal strips. An aluminum
cover plate is also included to this end. This is extremely important if
thermocouples are being multiplexed (Section 6.6).
The case can be opened for inspection/cleaning by removing two phillips-head
screws located on the under-side of the case. Mounting tabs are provided so
the AM16/32 can be fastened to a flat surface or an enclosure plate (Section 8).
All connections to the AM16/32 are made on the top panel terminal blocks.
The island of four terminals located near the mode switch are dedicated to the
connecting of datalogger power and control lines (Section 4.1). The four
“ODD” and “EVEN” “COM” terminals on the other side of the mode switch
carry shielded multiplexed sensor signals destined for datalogger analog inputs.
The remaining terminals on the AM16/32 are for sensor and sensor shield
connection (Section 4.2). The sensor inputs are not spark-gap protected. All
terminals accept stripped and tinned lead wires up to 16 AWG or 1.6 mm in
diameter. The datalogger-to-AM16/32 cabling requires a minimum of six and
as many as nine individually insulated wires with shields.
2
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
FIGURE 1. AM16/32 Relay Multiplexer
3. AM16/32 Specifications
Power*:
Unregulated 12 VDC
Minimum Operating Voltage:
from –55C to +40C = 11.3 VDC;
from +40C to +85C = 11.8 VDC
(See Figure 2 for relay actuation times vs.
temperature and supply voltage.)
Current Drain:
Quiescent: < 210 uA
Active: 6 mA typical in “2 x 32” mode
11 mA typical in “4 x 16” mode
Reset*:
A continuous signal between 3.5 VDC and 16 VDC
holds the AM16/32 in an active state (where a clock
pulse can trigger a channel advance). A signal
voltage < 0.9VDC deactivates the AM16/32 (clock
pulse will not trigger a scan advance; AM16/32 is
also reset).
Clock*:
Operational
Temperature:
On the transition from <1.5 V to >3.5 V, a scan
advance is actuated on the leading edge of the clock
signal; clock pulse should be a minimum of 1 ms
wide.
Standard: -25oC to +50oC
Extended: -55oC to +85oC
Operational
Humidity:
0 - 95%, non-condensing
3
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
Dimensions:
Length – 23.9 cm (9.4")
Width - 10.2 cm (4.0")
Depth - 4.6 cm (1.8")
Weight:
1.5 lbs. (approx.), 693 g.
With AM ENC enclosure: 10.0 lbs., 4.54 kg
(approx.)
Mounting Tab
Hole Spacing:
Expandability**
(nominal):
1 inch x 3 inches x 9 inches. Up to 1/8 inch or 3 mm
diameter screws (see Figure 21).
Maximum Cable
Length:
Depends on sensor and scan rate. In general, longer
lead lengths necessitate longer measurement delays.
Refer to datalogger manual for details.
Maximum Switching
Current***:
4 AM16/32s per CR5000
4 AM16/32s per CR1000
4 AM16/32s per CR23X
4 AM16/32s per CR10(X)
4 AM16/32s per 21X
8 AM16/32s per CR7 725 Card
500 mA
Contact Specifications:
Initial contact resistance: <0.1 ohm max.
Initial contact bounce: <1 ms
Contact material: Gold clad silver alloy
Wiper to N.O. contact capacitance: 0.5 pF
7
Typical low-current (<30 mA) life: 5 x 10
operations
Relay Switching
Characteristics
(applying 11.3 – 14
VDC):
Thermal emf: 0.3 uV typical; 0.5 uV maximum
Operate time: <10 ms over temperature and supply
ranges
Break before make guaranteed by design
* Reset, Clock, and +12V inputs are protected by +16V transzorbs.
** Assumes sequential activation of multiplexers and that each datalogger channel is uniquely
dedicated. If your application requires additional multiplexing capability, please consult CSI for
application assistance.
*** Switching currents greater than 30 mA (occasional 50 mA current is acceptable) will degrade
the contact surfaces of the mechanical relays (increase their resistance). This will adversely affect
the suitability of these relays to multiplex low voltage signals. Although a relay used in this
manner no longer qualifies for low voltage measurement, it continues to be useful for switching
currents in excess of 30 mA.
4
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
RELAY ACTUATION TIME (ms)
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
16
15.6
15.2
14.8
14
14.4
13.6
13.2
12.8
12
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.8
10
10.4
9.6
0.0
POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGE
65C
50C
25C
-25C
FIGURE 2. AM16/32 Relay Actuation Time vs.
Temperature and Battery Voltage.
4. Operation
Subsection 4.1 discusses the terminals that control operation of the multiplexer.
These terminals are located at the left-hand side of the multiplexer as shown in
Figure 1. Subsection 4.2 discusses the use of sensor measurement terminals.
4.1. The Control Terminals
The CR5000, CR1000, CR23X, CR10(X), 21X, and CR7 dataloggers connect
to the AM16/32 as shown in Figure 3 (“4x16” mode). Figure 3 depicts control
connections. Measurement connections are discussed in Section 6. The power,
ground, reset, and clock connections remain essentially the same regardless of
datalogger used.
With the CR5000, CR1000, CR23X and CR10(X) the datalogger 12VDC
supply and ground terminals are connected to the AM16/32 12V and ground
terminals. One control port is required for clocking and a second control port
for reset. The MUXPOWER cable (or equivalent) shield is grounded on both
ends as illustrated below.
5
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
CR10X
12V
GND
CLK
RES
MUXPOWER
SHIELD
CR23X
G
CR1000
CR5000
21X
CR7
+12 V
12 V
G
12 V
12 V
12 V
12 V
G
G
G
G
C1-C8
C1-C8
C1-C8
C1-C8
EXCIT 1-4
EXCITATION
C1-C8
C1-C8
C1-C8
C1-C8
C1-C8
725 Card
Control
N
O
FIGURE 3. AM16/32 to Datalogger Power/Control Hookup
With the 21X or CR7 the AM16/32 connects to the 12VDC and “ ”
terminals for power. One control port is used for reset, and one switched
excitation channel is used for clock (on 725 card with CR7). If a switched
excitation port is not available, an additional control port can be used to
provide clock pulses to the multiplexer.
4.1.1 Reset
The reset (“RES”) line is used to activate the AM16/32. A signal in the range
of +3.5 to +16VDC applied to the reset terminal activates the multiplexer.
When this line drops lower than +0.9VDC, the multiplexer enters a quiescent,
low-current-drain state. In the quiescent state the common (“COM”) terminals
are electrically disconnected from all of the sensor input channels. Reset should
always connect to a datalogger control port. Instruction 86 (option code 41 48 to activate, and 51 - 58 to deactivate) is generally used to activate/deactivate
the multiplexer, however, in the case of the 21X or CR7 with older PROMS,
Instruction 20 is commonly used. The CR5000 and CR1000 uses the PortSet
instruction to control the reset line.
4.1.2 Clock
Pulsing the AM16/32 “CLK” line high (“RES” line already high) advances the
channel. When reset first goes high, the common terminals ODD H,
ODD L and EVEN H, EVEN L are disconnected from all sensor input
terminals. With the panel switch in “4X16” mode, when the first clock pulse
arrives the “COM” terminals are switched to connect with sensor input channel
1 (blue lettering) consisting of 1H, 1L, 2H, and 2L. When a second clock pulse
arrives the common lines are switched to connect to channel 2 (3H, 3L, 4H,
4L). The multiplexer advances on the leading edge of the positive going clock
pulse. The voltage level must fall below 1.5 VDC and then rise above 3.5 VDC
to clock the multiplexer. The CLK pulse should be at least 1 ms long. A delay
(typically 10 to 20 ms) is inserted between the beginning of the CLK pulse and
the measurement instruction to ensure sufficient settling time for relay contacts.
6
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
With the 21X and CR7 dataloggers, switched excitation is generally used to
clock the multiplexer (Instruction 22 configured for 5000 mV excitation). If no
switched excitation channel is available, it is possible to clock using control
ports. See Section 5.1 for details.
In the case of the CR5000, CR1000, CR23X, and CR10(X), a control port is
generally used to clock the multiplexer. Instruction 86 with the pulse port
option (command code 71 through 78) generates a 10 ms pulse which works
well.
The CR5000 and CR1000 uses a port from C1 to C8 controlled by PortSet,
Delay, and SubScan/NextSubScan to create the Clock pulses (see program
example in Section 5.3).
If several multiplexers are required, a CR5000, CR1000, CR10(X) or CR23X
control port (C1 to C8) can source sufficient current to drive up to six
AM16/32 CLK or RES inputs wired in parallel.
4.1.3 Ground
The AM16/32 “GND” terminal is connected to datalogger power ground. The
AM16/32 “GND” terminal is also connected to the MUXPOWER cable (or
equivalent) SHIELD and, via that, to datalogger power ground (see Figure 3).
If a separate power supply is used, the AM16/32 ground should also connect to
the separate supply’s ground (Figure 4). An AM16/32 “COM ” terminal
should connect to a datalogger ground terminal (“ ” or “G”) via the
MUXSIGNAL cable (or equivalent) also according to Figure 5 (see 4.2.1).
The datalogger itself must connect to earth ground by one of the methods
described in the Installation and Maintenance Section of your datalogger
operator’s manual.
4.1.4 Power Supply
The AM16/32 requires a continuous 12 VDC power supply for operation. The
multiplexer's current drain is less than 210 microamps in the quiescent state and
is typically 6 to 11 milliamps at 12 VDC when active (see current drain spec).
The power supply is connected to the multiplexer terminals labeled “12V” (+)
and “GND”. Connect the “GND” wire first for safety.
In many applications it is convenient to power the AM16/32 from a datalogger
battery. For more power-intensive applications, an external, rechargeable, 12
VDC, 60 Amp Hr source may be advisable. Lead-acid supplies are
recommended where solar or AC charging sources are available because they
handle well being “topped off” by constant charging. The BPALK alkaline
supply (12 Amp Hr) can be used to power the AM16/32 in applications where
the average system current is low, or where it is convenient to frequently
replace batteries. It is advisable to calculate the total power requirements of a
system and the expected longevity of the power supply based on average
system current drains (e.g. logger, multiplexer, other peripherals and sensors) at
the expected ambient temperatures.
7
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
The average power required to operate an AM16/32 depends on the percentage
of time it is active per time period. For example, if a CR10X makes differential
measurements on 32 thermocouples every minute, the average current drain due
to the AM16/32 would be about ((.030 Sec/chan x 32 chan)/60 Sec) x 6 mA =
0.1 mA. Under the same conditions, a 2 second execution interval rate
increases the average system current drain to about ((.030 Sec/chan x 32
chan)/2 Sec) x 6 mA = 2.9 mA. At a minimum, the power supply must be able
to sustain the system between site visits anticipating the worst environmental
extremes.
If a 21X power supply is used to power the AM16/32, all low-level analog
measurements (thermocouples, pyranometers, thermopiles, etc.) must be made
differentially. Differential measurements are required because slight ground
potentials are created along the 21X analog terminal strip when the 12V supply
is used to power peripherals. This limitation reduces the number of available
analog input channels and may mandate the use of an external supply for the
AM16/32 (Figure 4).
FIGURE 4. Power and Ground Connections for External Power Supply.
Low supply voltage and high ambient temperatures affect the actuation time of
the multiplexer relays (Figure 2). If your program does not allow the relay
contacts sufficient time to close before a measurement is started, the result will
be inaccurate or overranged values.
4.2 Measurement Terminals
Most of the terminals on the AM16/32 are dedicated to the connection of
sensors to the multiplexer (Figure 1). Depending on the panel switch selection
(“4X16” or “2X32” mode), the sensor input terminals are organized into 16
groups (blue letters) of 4 sensor inputs or 32 groups (white letters) of 2 sensor
inputs. The terminals accept solid or tinned, stripped sensor leads. The four
“COM” terminals marked “ODD H, L” and “EVEN H, L” located by the mode
switch provide for attachment of the common signal leads that carry
multiplexed sensor signals to the datalogger.
8
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
4.2.1 COM Terminals
The four terminals dedicated to multiplexer-datalogger connection are located
under the blue “COM” next to the mode switch. The terminals are labeled:
ODD H, ODD L, EVEN H, and EVEN L. In “4X16” mode the AM16/32
maintains the four “COM” terminals electrically isolated from one another. In
“2X32” mode the AM16/32 maintains an internal connection between ODD H
and EVEN H and between ODD L and EVEN L.
Common “ ” terminals are provided next to the COM ODD and COM
EVEN terminals. They bus internally to the other thirty-two “ ” terminals on
the AM16/32 and are connected at all times (i.e., not switched). Their function
is to provide a path to ground for sensor cable shields. A “COM ” terminal
should be wired to datalogger ground via the MUXSIGNAL cable (or
equivalent) shield according to the following table.
MUXSIGNAL
SHIELD
COM
4X16
ODD
EVEN
H L
H L
CR10X
CR23X
CR1000
CR5000
21X
CR7
G
E1-E3
EX1-EX4
SE3
SE3
G
EX1EX3
SE3
VX1-VX4
EXCITATION
2H
2H
SWITCHED
ANALOG OUT
2H
SE2
SE2
SE2
1L
1L
1L
SE1
SE1
SE1
1H
1H
1H
N
O
FIGURE 5. Typical AM16/32 to Datalogger Signal Hookup (4x16 Mode)
4.2.2 Sensor Input Terminals
The terminals for sensor attachment are divided into 16 groups (panel switch
set to “4X16”) or into 32 groups (panel switch set to “2X32”). The groups
consists of four or two Simultaneously Enabled Terminals (SETs). With panel
switch set to “4X16” mode the blue channel numbers apply. The SETs are
numbered starting at 1 (1H, 1L, 2H, 2L) and continuing until SET 16 (31H,
31L, 32H, 32L).
In “4X16” mode the odd numbered terminals (example: 5H, 5L) are relay
switched to the COM ODD terminals while the even terminals (6H, 6L) are
switched to the COM EVEN terminals. When activated by the RES line being
high, as the AM16/32 receives clock pulses from the datalogger, each SET of
four in turn is switched into contact with the four COM terminals. For
example, when the first clock pulse is received from the datalogger, SET 1 (1H,
1L, 2H, 2L) are connected with COM (ODD H, ODD L, EVEN H, EVEN L)
terminals respectively. When the second clock pulse is received, the first SET
is switched out (channel 1 sensor inputs become open circuits) and SET 2 (3H,
3L, 4H, 4L) are connected to the four COM terminals. A given SET will
typically be connected to the common terminals for 20 ms.
9
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
With panel switch set to “2X32” mode the white channel numbers apply. The
SETs are labeled beginning with 1H, 1L and ending with 32H, 32L. In “2X32”
mode when the AM16/32 selects a given channel the “H” sensor terminal is
relay connected to both COM “H” terminals and the “L” sensor terminal is
connected to both COM “L” terminals (COM ODD H connects to COM EVEN
H and COM ODD L connects to COM EVEN L when panel switch is in
“2X32” mode).
5. Datalogger Programming
A good way for the beginner or veteran datalogger programmer to create an
AM16/32 program is to obtain a copy of SCWIN (Short Cut Program Builder
for Windows). It can be downloaded free of charge from the Campbell
Scientific web site (http://www.campbellsci.com). SCWIN can build many
program configurations for various supported sensors providing a quick way to
generate an application program.
FIGURE 6. SCWIN (Short Cut for Windows Program Builder)
10
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
When a number of similar sensors are multiplexed and measured, the
Instructions to clock the AM16/32 and to measure the sensors are placed within
a program loop. For the CR23X, CR10(X), 21X, and CR7 the generalized
structure of a program loop is as follows:
TABLE 2. Single Loop Instruction Sequence
#
1
2
3
4
INSTRUCTION FUNCTION
Set port high to activate AM16/32
Begin loop
Clock AM16/32 & delay
Step loop index
(required in some configurations)
5
6
7
8
9
Measure sensor
Additional processing
End loop
Additional program loops
Set port low to deactivate AM16/32
#1, #9 Activate/deactivate the AM16/32 −The control port connected to reset
(RES) is set high to activate the AM16/32 prior to the advance and measure
sequence and set low following the measurement loop(s). For the CR10X,
CR23X, and CR10, 21X, CR7 dataloggers with OS series PROMs, use
instruction 86 to set and reset the port (for CR10, 21X, and CR7 with earlier
PROMs, use Instruction 20).
#2, #7 Begin and End a Loop − For the CR23X, CR10(X), 21X, and CR7
dataloggers, a loop is defined by Instruction 87 (Begin Loop), and by
Instruction 95 (End). Within Instruction 87, the 2nd parameter (iteration count)
defines the number of times the instructions within the loop are executed before
the program exits the loop.
# 3 Clock and Delay − With the CR23X and CR10(X) the clock line is
connected to a control port. Instruction 86 with the pulse port command (7178) pulses the clock line high for 10 ms. Instruction 22 can be added following
the P86 to delay an additional 10 ms.
When using a 21X or CR7, the clock line may be connected to either an
excitation or control port. Connection to an excitation port is preferred because
only one instruction (22) is required to send the clock pulse. Instruction 22
should be configured to provide a 10ms delay with 5000 mV of excitation. A
control port can be used to clock the AM16/32 if an excitation port is not
available. The 21X and CR7 instruction sequence required to clock with a
control port is: Instruction 20 (set port high), Instruction 22 (delay 20 ms
without excitation), followed by Instruction 20 (set port low).
# 4 Step Loop Index – With the CR23X, CR10(X), 21X or CR7, the Step Loop
Index instruction “90” is used when a measurement instruction within a loop
has more than one repetition. This instruction allows 2 - 4 sensors per SET to
be measured by 2 – 4 analog input channels. The Step Loop Index instruction
sends each measurement value to a sequentially assigned input location without
overwriting any other current iteration value. Without this instruction, the input
location within the loop will advance by only one location per loop iteration
even though the measurement instruction’s Input Location is indexed.
11
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
Example: 2 sensors per SET, 6 sensors total; two reps specified in
measurement instruction; two measurement values assigned to indexed input
locations (--); P90 step of 2. Loop count of three.
First pass:
Second pass:
Third pass:
Input locations
1 2 3 4
1 2
3 4
5
6
5
6
sensor
numbers
Removing the step loop instruction from the program, the following situation
results:
First pass:
Second pass:
Third pass:
Input Locations
1 2 3 4 5
1 2
3 4
5 6
6
sensor
numbers
Without P90 the measurement values for the 2nd and 4th sensors will be
overwritten in their input locations. The 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 6th measurement
values will reside in the first 4 input locations.
Step Loop Instruction “90” is available in the CR23X, CR10(X), CR7, and 21X
(with 3rd PROM). For 21X dataloggers without 3rd PROM (i.e., no Instruction
90), a separate measurement instruction (with one rep) is required for each
sensor measured within the loop. The input location parameter within both
measurement instructions is indexed.
For example: 2 sensors per SET; one rep in each of two measurement
instructions; two measurement values assigned to indexed input locations (--),
one begins with input location 1, the other with input location 4; no P90. A
total of six sensors to be measured; loop count is three.
First pass:
Second pass:
Third pass:
Input locations
1 2 3 4
1
2
3
5
5
6
4
6
sensor
numbers
A potential drawback of this technique is that sequential sensors (i.e., those
input to the same SET) will not have sequential input locations.
#5 Measure - Enter the instruction needed to measure the sensor(s) (see Section
6, Sensor Hook-Up & Measurement Examples). The input location parameter
of a measurement instruction is indexed if a (--) appears to the right of the input
location. Index an input location by pressing "C" after keying the location or
by pressing F4 in Edlog while cursor is on the input location parameter.
Indexing causes the input location to be incremented by 1 with each pass
through the loop. This allows the measurement value to be stored in sequential
input locations. Instruction 90, as explained above, allows the indexed input
location to be incremented in integer steps greater than 1.
12
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
NOTE
If more than the datalogger’s default number of input locations
are required, then additional input locations must be assigned
using the datalogger *A mode. Consult your datalogger manual
for details.
#6 Optional Processing - Additional processing is sometimes required to
convert the reading to the desired units. It may be more efficient if this
processing is done outside the measurement loop. A second loop can be used
for processing, if necessary.
13
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
GENERALIZED “4X16” MODE PROGRAM LOOPS FOR THE CR23X, CR10(X), 21X, and CR7
21X SAMPLE PROGRAM
CR7 SAMPLE PROGRAM
CR10X, CR23X SAMPLE PGM
*
*
*
1
01:
60
Table 1
Programs
Sec.
Execution
Interval
1
01:
60
Table 1
Programs
Sec.
Execution
Interval
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
01:
P20
Set Port
01:
1
Set high
02:
1
Port
Number
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
01:
P20
Set Port
01:
1
Set high
02:
1
EX Card
03:
1
Port No.
BEGIN MEASUREMENT
LOOP
02:
P87
Beginning
of Loop
01:
0
Delay
02: 16
Loop Count
BEGIN MEASUREMENT
LOOP
02:
P87
Beginning
of Loop
01:
0
Delay
02: 16
Loop Count
CLOCK PULSE AND DELAY
03:
P22
Excitation
with Delay
01:
1
EX Chan
02:
1
Delay w/EX
(units=.01
sec)
03:
1
Delay after
EX (units=
.01 sec)
04: 5000
mV
Excitation
CLOCK PULSE AND DELAY
03:
P22
Excitation
with Delay
01:
1
EX Card
02:
2
EX Chan
03:
1
Delay w/EX
(units=.01
sec)
04:
1
Delay after
EX (units =
.01 sec)
05: 5000
mV
Excitation
04: USER SPECIFIED
MEASUREMENT
INSTRUCTION
END MEASUREMENT
LOOP
05:
P95
End
DEACTIVATE
MULTIPLEXER
06:
P20
Set Port
01:
0
Set low
02:
1
Port
Number
04: USER SPECIFIED
MEASUREMENT
INSTRUCTION
END MEASUREMENT
LOOP
05:
P95
End
DEACTIVATE
MULTIPLEXER
06:
P20
Set Port
01:
0
Set low
02:
1
EX Card
03:
1
Port No.
1
01:
60
Table 1
Programs
Sec.
Execution
Interval
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
01:
P86
Do
01: 41
Set high
Port 1
BEGIN MEASUREMENT
LOOP
02:
P87
Beginning
of Loop
01:
0
Delay
02: 16
Loop Count
CLOCK PULSE
03:
P86
Do
01: 72
Pulse Port
2
DELAY
P22
01:
02:
03:
04:
1
0
1
0
Excitation
with Delay
EX Chan
Delay w/EX
Delay after EX
mV
Excitation
04: USER SPECIFIED
MEASUREMENT
INSTRUCTION
END MEASUREMENT
LOOP
05:
P95
End
DEACTIVATE
MULTIPLEXER
06:
P86
Do
01: 51
Set low
Port 1
FIGURE 7. Example “4X16” Mode Program Loops for CR23X, CR10(X), 21X and CR7 Loggers
14
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
EXAMPLE “2X32” MODE PROGRAMS - GENERALIZED PROGRAM LOOPS FOR THE
CR23X, 21X, CR10(X), AND CR7.
21X SAMPLE PROGRAM
*
1
Table 1
Programs
01:
60
Sec.
Execution
Interval
CR7 SAMPLE PROGRAM
*
1
Table 1
Programs
01:
60
Sec.
Execution
Interval
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
01:
P20
Set Port
01:
1
Set high
02:
1
Port
Number
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
01:
P20
Set Port
01:
1
Set high
02:
1
EX Card
03:
1
Port No.
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
01:
P86
Do
01: 41
Set high
Port 1
BEGIN MEASUREMENT
LOOP
02:
P87
Beginning
of Loop
01:
0
Delay
02: 32
Loop Count
BEGIN MEASUREMENT
LOOP
02:
P87
Beginning
of Loop
01:
0
Delay
02: 32
Loop Count
BEGIN MEASUREMENT
LOOP
02:
P87
Beginning
of Loop
01:
0
Delay
02: 32
Loop Count
CLOCK PULSE/DELAY
03:
P22
Excitation
with delay
01:
1
EX Chan
02:
1
Delay w/EX
(units=
.01 sec)
03:
1
Delay after
EX (units=
.01 sec)
04: 5000
mV
Excitation
CLOCK PULSE/DELAY
03:
P22
Excitation
with delay
01:
1
EX Chan
02:
2
EX Chan
03:
1
Delay w/EX
(units=
.01 sec)
04:
1
Delay after
EX (units =
.01 sec)
05: 5000
mV
Excitation
CLOCK PULSE
03:
P86
Do
72
Pulse Port 2
04: USER SPECIFIED
MEASUREMENT
INSTRUCTION
05: USER SPECIFIED
MEASUREMENT
INSTRUCTION
END MEASUREMENT
LOOP
05:
P95
End
END MEASUREMENT
LOOP
06:
P95
End
DEACTIVATE
MULTIPLEXER
06:
P20
Set Port
01:
0
Set low
02:
1
EX Card
03:
1
Port No.
DEACTIVATE
MULTIPLEXER
07:
P86
Do
01: 51
Set low
Port 1
04: USER SPECIFIED
MEASUREMENT
INSTRUCTION
END MEASUREMENT
LOOP
05:
P95
End
DEACTIVATE
MULTIPLEXER
06:
P20
Set Port
01:
0
Set low
02:
1
Port
Number
CR10(X), CR23X SAMPLE
PROGRAM
*
1
Table 1
Programs
01:
60
Sec.
Execution
Interval
DELAY
04:
P22
01:
02:
1
0
03:
1
04:
0
Excitation
with Delay
EX Chan
Delay w/EX
(units=.01 sec)
Delay after EX
(units=.01 sec)
mV Excitation
FIGURE 8. Example “2X32” Mode Program Loops for CR23X, CR10(X), 21X and CR7 Loggers
15
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
CR23X
AM16/32 IN "4X16" MODE
MUX POWER SHIELD
GND
SETS 1-10
12V
H1
G
GND
L1
C1
RES
H2
C2
CLK
L2
12V
SETS 11-16
EX 1
COM H1
H1
SE 1
COM L1
L1
SE 2
COM H2
H2
COM L2
L2
MUXSIGNAL
SHIELD
COM
FIGURE 9. Wiring Diagram for Strain Gages and Potentiometers
#8 Additional Loops - Additional loops may be used if sensors that
require different measurement instructions are connected to the same
multiplexer. In this instance, like sensors are assigned to sequential
input SETS. Each group of sensors is measured in a separate loop
(steps 2 through 7, Table 2). Each loop contains clock and
measurement instructions, and all loops must reside between the
instructions that activate and deactivate the AM16/32 (Steps 1 and 9).
The instruction sequence for control of an AM16/32 is given on the
following page. The program format is a product of Edlog a
datalogger program editor contained in CSI's PC208W Datalogger
Support Software.
5.2 Multiple Loop Instruction Sequence
As shown above, the programs for operation of the AM16/32 are
essentially the same for all CSI dataloggers. To measure sensors of
different types, different measurement instructions may be used within
successive program loops. In the following example, each loop is
terminated with Instruction 95, and the multiplexer is not reset
between loops. The example demonstrates the measurement of two
dissimilar sensor types (i.e. strain gages and potentiometers).
The program and accompanying wiring diagram are intended as
examples only; users will find it necessary to modify both for specific
applications.
16
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
*1 Table 1 Programs
1: 60
Sec. Execution Interval
ACTIVATES MULTIPLEXER
1: Do (P86)
1: 41
Set high Port 1
BEGINS STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENT LOOP
2: Beginning of Loop (P87)
1: 0
Delay
2: 10
Loop Count
CLOCK PULSE
3: Do (P86)
1: 72
Pulse Port 2
DELAY
4: Excitation with Delay (P22)
1: 1
EX Chan
2: 0
Delay w/EX (units=.01sec)
3: 1
Delay after EX (units=.01sec)
4: 0
mV Excitation
FULL BRIDGE MEASUREMENT INSTRUCTION
5: Full Bridge (P6)
1: 1
Rep
2: 3
50 mV slow Range
3: 1
IN Chan
4: 1
Excite all reps w/Enchain 1
5: 5000
mV Excitation
6: 1-Loc [:STRAIN #1]
7: 1
Mult
8: 0
Offset
END OF STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENT LOOP
6: End (P95)
BEGINNING OF POTENTIOMETER MEASUREMENT LOOP
7: Beginning of Loop (P87)
1: 0
Delay
2: 6
Loop Count
8: Step Loop Index (Extended) (P90)
1: 2
Step
CLOCK PULSE
9: Do (P86)
1: 72
Pulse Port 2
17
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
DELAY
10: Excitation with Delay (P22)
1: 1
EX Chan
2: 0
Delay w/EX (units=.01sec)
3: 1
Delay after EX (units=.01sec)
4: 0
mV Excitation
POT. MEASUREMENT INSTRUCTION
11: Excite,Delay,Volt(SE) (P4)
1: 2
Reps
2: 5
5000 mV slow Range
3: 1
IN Chan
4: 2
Excite all reps w/EXchan 2
5: 1
Delay (units .01sec)
6: 5000
mV Excitation
7: 11-Loc [:POT #1 ]
8: 1
Mult
9: 0
Offset
END POT. MEASUREMENT LOOP
12: End (P95)
DISABLES MULTIPLEXER
13: Do (P86)
1: 40
Reset Low Port 1
14: End Table 1 (P95)
INPUT LOCATION LABELS:
1:STRAIN #1 13:POT #3
2:STRAIN #2 14:POT #4
3:STRAIN #3 15:POT #5
4:STRAIN #4 16:POT #6
5:STRAIN #5 17:POT #7
6:STRAIN #6 18:POT #8
7:STRAIN #7 19:POT #9
8:STRAIN #8 20:POT #10
9:STRAIN #9 21:POT #11
10:STRAIN#1022:POT #12
11:POT #1
23:_________
12:POT #2
24:_________
5.3 CR5000 and CR1000 Programming
The CR5000 and CR1000 are programmed with CRBasic; for details
see the CR5000 or CR1000 manual. While the instructions look
different than those used to program the older CR10X, CR23X, etc.,
they perform similar functions. One difference that needs to be
pointed out is that with CRBasic measurement results are stored in a
variable array, not numbered input locations. In the older loggers the
destination location is “indexed” so that each pass through the
measurement loop the result is stored in a higher numbered location.
In CRBasic the program must specifically increment an index variable
and use that variable to determine where each measurement is stored.
18
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
GENERALIZED CR5000/CR1000 PROGRAMMING SEQUENCE:
ACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER/RESET INDEX
Portset (1 ,1)
'Set C1 high to Enable Multiplexer
I=0
BEGIN MEASUREMENT LOOP
SubScan(0,sec,16)
CLOCK PULSE AND DELAY
Portset (2,1 ) ‘Set port 2 high
Delay (0,20,mSec)
Portset (2,0) ‘Set port 2 low
INCREMENT INDEX AND MEASURE
I=I+1
'User specified measurement instruction
‘Storing results in Variable(I)
END MEASUREMENT LOOP
NextSubScan
DEACTIVATE MULTIPLEXER
Portset (1 ,0)
'Set C1 Low to disable Multiplexer
In addition to precision voltage excitation, the CR5000 has
programmable current excitation. Current excitation allows a
resistance measurement on a four-wire sensor (e.g., a PRT) such as
shown in Figure 14 using only a single differential channel and no
fixed resistor; the excitation return goes directly to ground. With the
current excitation the resistance of the relays and lead wire do not
affect the measurement.
5.3.1 CR5000 Programming
The following CR5000 example program uses the AM16/32 to
measure 16 100 ohm Platinum Resistance Thermometers connected in
the 4x16 configuration. The program also measures 6 copper
constantan thermocouples.
CR5000
C1
C2
IX1
IXR
7H
7L
AM16/32
Control/Common Sensor Terminals
Reset
Odd H
Clock
Odd L
COM Odd H
Even H
COM Odd L
Even L
COM Even H
COM Even L
PRT(4 Wires)
Excitation
Excitation Return
Sense wire excitation side
Sense wire return side
19
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
'CR5000 Example Program to measure 16 100 ohm Platinum Resistance Thermometers ‘connected to an
AM16/32 multiplexer used in the 4x16 configuration. The program also ‘measures 6 copper constantan
'thermocouples.
'The Thermocouples are connected to differential channels 1-6.
'Declare Variables:
Public TRef, TCTemp(6), PRTResist(16), PRTTemp(16)
Dim I 'Counter for setting Array element to correct value for mux measurement
'Declare Output Table for 15 minute averages:
DataTable (Avg15Min,1,-1)
DataInterval (0,5,Min,10)
Average (1,TRef,IEEE4,0)
Average (6,TCTemp(),IEEE4,0)
Average (16,PRTTemp(),IEEE4,0)
EndTable
BeginProg
Scan (60,Sec,3,0)
PanelTemp (TRef,250)
TCDiff (TCTemp(),6,mV20C ,1,TypeT,TRef,True ,0,250,1.0,0)
Portset (1 ,1) 'Set C1 high to Enable Multiplexer
I=0
SubScan(0,sec,16)
'Pulse C2 (Set High, Delay, Set Low) to clock multiplexer
Portset (2,1 )
Delay (0,20,mSec)
Portset (2,0)
I=I+1
'The Resistance measurement measures the PRT resistance:
Resistance (PRTResist(I),1,mV50,7,Ix1,1,500,True ,True ,0,250,0.01,0)
'With a multiplier of 0.01 (1/100) the value returned is R/Ro (Resist/Resist @ 0 deg)
'the required input for the PRT temperature calculation instruction.
NextSubScan
Portset (1 ,0) 'Set C1 Low to disable Multiplexer
‘Calculate the Temperature from R/Ro:
PRT (PRTTemp(1),16,PRTResist(1),1.0,0)
CallTable Avg15Min‘Call the DataTable
NextScan
EndProg
5.3.2 CR1000 Programming
The following CR1000 program uses the AM16/32 to measure 48
CS616 probes connected in the 4x16 configuration. The program also
measures datalogger battery voltage and temperature.
20
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
Wiring for CR1000 Program Example
AM16/32 (4x16)
CS616*
Control/Common Sensor Terminals
C4
RES
Odd H
CS616#1_Green
C5
CLK
Odd L
CS616#2_Green
12 V
12 V
Gnd
#1,2,3_Blk & Clear
Gnd
Gnd
Even H
CS616#3_Green
1H
COM Odd H
Even L
#1,2,3_Orange
1L
COM Odd L
Gnd
Gnd
2H
COM Even H
C6
COM Even L
*Three sensors to each set of AM16/32 terminals.
CR1000
CR1000 Program Example
‘Declare Public & Dim Variables
Public batt_volt
Public Panel_temp
Public Period(48)
Public VWC(48)
Public Flag(1)
Dim I
‘Declare Constants
‘CS616 Default Calibration Constants
const a0= -0.0663
const a1= -0.0063
const a2= 0.0007
‘Flag logic constants
const high = true
const low = false
‘Define Data Tables
DataTable (Dat30min,1,-1)
DataInterval (0,30,Min,10)
Minimum (1,batt_volt,FP2,0,False)
Average (1,Panel_temp,FP2,0)
Sample (48,Period(),FP2)
Sample (48,VWC(),FP2)
EndTable
‘Main Program
BeginProg
Scan (5,Sec,0,0)
‘scan instructions every 5 sec
Battery (Batt_volt)
PanelTemp (Panel_temp,250)
‘
‘Set flag 1 High every 30 min (Note: User can manually set flag 1 high/low)
If IfTime (0,30,min)Then flag (1)=high ‘+++++++++++++++++++++++++
If Flag(1)=high Then
‘measure 48ea CS616 probes on AM16/32 in (4x16) mode
PortSet (4,1) ‘Set Mux Reset line High
‘
21
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
I-1
‘set sub scan loop counter
SubScan (0,mSec,16)
PulsePort (5,10000)
‘Clock Mux
CS616 (Period(I),3,1,6,3,1.0,0)‘measure 3ea CS616 probes
I=I+3
NextSubScan
‘
For I=1 to 48
‘convert CS616 period to Volumetric Water Content
VWC(I)=a0 + a1*Period(I) + a2*Period(I)^2
Next
‘
PortSet (4,0)
‘Set Mux Reset line Low
flag(1)= low
EndIf
‘+++++++++++++++++++++++++++
‘
CallTable Dat30min
‘Call Output Tables
NextScan
EndProg
5.4 General Programming Considerations
The excitation voltage, integration time, and delay time associated
with measuring the signal, and the speed at which the channels are
advanced can be varied within the datalogger program. In general,
longer delay times are necessary when sensors and datalogger are
separated by longer lead lengths. Consult your datalogger manual for
additional information on these topics.
6. Sensor Hook-up and Measurement Examples
This section covers sensor-to-AM16/32 connections as well as
AM16/32-to-datalogger connections. The following are examples
only, and should not be construed as the only way to make a particular
measurement. See the Measurement Section of your datalogger
manual for more information on basic bridge measurements. Most of
the following examples do not depict datalogger-to-AM16/32 control
connections (Section 4.1), but their presence is implied and required.
Campbell Scientific recommends that only sensor shield (drain) wires
be connected to AM16/32 shield terminals labeled (“ ”).
6.1 Single-Ended Analog Measurement without Sensor
Excitation
Sensor to AM16/32 wiring - one single-ended sensor not requiring
excitation can be connected to an input SET with panel mode switch
set to “2X32”.
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - The COM signal line is input to a
single-ended analog input channel. The COM signal-ground line is
tied to “ ” at the CR23X, 21X, or CR7, and to “AG” at the
CR10(X). Up to 32 single-ended sensors can be measured by one
single-ended datalogger channel in this manner.
22
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
Low level single-ended measurements are not
recommended in 21X applications where the 21X's
internal 12VDC supply is used to power the multiplexer
or other peripherals (see Section 4.1.4).
NOTE
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
H
CR23X/
CR10(X)
CR10(X) CR1000/CR5000
CR23X/CR5000
H
"2 X 32" Mode
H
AG
MUXSIGNAL
G
SHIELD
COM ODD H
ODD H
(+) SENSOR
COM ODD L
ODD L
(-)
SENSOR SHIELD
COM
AM16/32
FIGURE 10. Single-ended Measurement without Excitation
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
CR23X/
CR10(X)
CR10(X) CR1000/CR5000
CR23X/CR5000
"4 X 16" Mode
H
H
H
COM ODD H
ODD H
(+) SENSOR
L
L
L
COM ODD L
ODD L
(-)
G
MUXSIGNAL
SHIELD
SENSOR SHIELD
COM
AM16/32
FIGURE 11. Differential Measurement without Excitation
6.2 Differential Analog Measurement without Sensor
Excitation
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring - Up to two differential sensors that don't
require excitation may be connected to one input SET with panel
switch set to “4X16” mode. Sensor shields are connected to the input
“ ” terminals.
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - The two pairs of COM terminals
(ODD H, ODD L and EVEN H, EVEN L) are connected to two pairs
of differential analog inputs at the datalogger. Observe H to H and L
to L from sensor to multiplexer to analog input. In “4X16” mode up to
32 differential sensors can be measured by two differential datalogger
channels in this way.
With panel switch set to “2X32” mode, one differential input can
measure up to 32 differential sensors in SETs of two with appropriate
programming.
23
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
6.3 Half Bridge Measurements
Measurements of this type may be subdivided into three categories
based on completion resistance and the presence or absence of
measured excitation. If the sensor's completion resistor(s) are installed
at the datalogger panel (example: a CSI 107 probe modified for
multiplexer use), then three probes per SET may be excited and
measured in “4X16” mode (Figure 12). However, if the circuit is
completed within the sensor (e.g. potentiometers), then excitation,
wiper signal, and ground must be multiplexed. Because excitation and
ground may be multiplexed in common, up to two sensors per SET
may be measured (Figure 13). If measured excitation is required (i.e.
four wire half-bridge), then only one sensor per SET of four may be
measured (Figure 14).
6.3.1 Half Bridge Measurement with Completion Resistor at
Datalogger
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring - up to three half bridges may be
connected to one input SET in “4X16” mode, provided that the
sensors’ three completion resistors are located at the datalogger
(Figure 12).
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - Signal lines from the multiplexer
COM terminals tie to three consecutive single-ended analog input
channels. Three precision completion resistors connect from analog
input channels to analog ground in CR10(X) or to “ ” in the
CR23X, 21X or CR7.
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
CR23X/
CR1000/
CR23X/
CR5000
CR10(X)
CR10(X) CR5000
E
E
E/VX
H
H
L
H
"4 X 16" Mode
COM H (ODD)
ODD H
H
COM L
ODD L
L
L
COM H (EVEN)
EVEN H
H
H
COM L
EVEN L
AG
G
MUXSIGNAL
SHIELD
COM
SHIELD
SENSOR SHIELDS
FIGURE 12. Half Bridge (Modified 107 Temperature Probe) Hook-up and Measurement.
24
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
CR23X/
21X
CR1000/
CR23X/
21x
CR7
CR7 CR10(X)
CR10(X) CR5000
CR5000
E
E
E/VX
H
H
L
L
"4 X 16" Mode
COM H (ODD)
ODD H
H
COM L
ODD L
L
COM H (EVEN)
EVEN H
COM L
EVEN L
AG
G
MUXSIGNAL
SHIELD
COM
SHIELD
SENSOR SHIELDS
FIGURE 13. Potentiometer Hook-up and Measurement
6.3.2 Potentiometer Measurement
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring – if panel switch is set to ”4X16” mode,
up to two potentiometers may be connected to one input SET.
Excitation and ground leads may be common; signal leads must be
routed separately (Figure 13).
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - Signal lines from two COM
terminals are connected to two consecutive single-ended analog input
channels. One COM terminal is connected to a datalogger switched
excitation channel, and the remaining COM line connects to
datalogger ground. Up to 32 potentiometers may be measured by two
single-ended datalogger channels.
6.3.3 Four Wire Half Bridge (Measured Excitation Current)
Sensor to Multiplexer Wiring - one sensor per input SET. The panel
switch is set to “4X16” mode.
Multiplexer to Datalogger Wiring - One COM line is tied to a
datalogger excitation channel, and two COM lines to a differential
analog input. The remaining COM line is connected to the H side of a
datalogger differential channel along with a fixed resistor. The other
side of the resistor connects to the L side of the differential channel
and to ground (Figure 14). Up to 16 four wire half-bridges may be
measured by two differential datalogger channels in this manner.
25
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
CR23X/
CR1000/
CR23X/
CR10(X) CR5000
"4 X 16" Mode
CR10(X) CR5000
E
E
E/VX
H
H
L
L
COM H (ODD)
ODD H
H
COM L
ODD L
L
COM H (EVEN)
EVEN H
COM L
EVEN L
AG
H
H
H
L
L
L
G
COM
SHIELD
SENSOR SHIELDS
FIGURE 14. Four Wire Half Bridge Hook-up and Measurement
The CR5000 also has current excitation channels which allow a
resistance measurement. Because the excitation current is known, it is
not necessary to measure the voltage across a fixed resistor to
determine the current as in Figure 14. See Section 5.3 for an example.
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
E
CR23X/
CR1000/
CR23X/
CR10(X)
CR10(X) CR5000
CR5000
E
E/VX
AG
"4 X 16" Mode
COM H (ODD)
ODD H
COM L
ODD L
H
H
H
COM H (EVEN)
EVEN H
L
L
L
COM L
EVEN L
G
COM
SHIELD
SENSOR SHIELDS
FIGURE 15. Full Bridge Measurement
6.4 Full Bridge Measurements
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring – With panel switch set to “4X16” mode,
excitation, ground, and the two signal leads may be connected to one
input SET (Figure 15).
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - COM terminals are connected to a
datalogger excitation channel, a differential analog input channel, and
an analog ground. Up to sixteen full bridges may be multiplexed
through the AM16/32.
26
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
A problem with making full bridge measurements with this
configuration is that the resistance of the lead wire and multiplexer
relays can cause a voltage drop, reducing the excitation at the bridge.
The following section describes a configuration that compensates for
this by measuring the excitation at the bridge.
6.5 Full Bridges with Excitation Compensation
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring – With panel switch set to ”4X16” mode
you are 2 lines short for a six wire measurement. One solution is to
multiplex the four signal wires through the AM16/32, but bypass the
AM16/32 with excitation and ground wires. This means that the
sensors will be excited in parallel which causes a higher current drain,
possibly enough to exceed the current available from the datalogger's
excitation channel. Alternatively, the excitation and ground leads can
be multiplexed through an additional AM16/32 allowing the sensors to
be excited one at a time (Figure 16). In this case the 12V, GND, CLK,
and RES lines of the second multiplexer are wired in parallel with
those of the first, effectively widening the multiplexer to “8X16”.
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - Four leads from the COM ODD,
EVEN terminals connect to two sequential differential analog channels
in the datalogger. Excitation and ground are multiplexed by the
second AM16/32. Both multiplexers can be reset and clocked by the
same control ports and/or excitation channels to simplify
programming.
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
CR23X/
CR1000/
CR23X/
CR10(X)
CR5000
CR10(X) CR5000
AG
E
E
E/VX
"4 X 16" Mode
COM H (ODD)
ODD H
COM L
ODD L
"4 X 16" Mode
H
H
H
COM H (ODD)
ODD H
L
L
L
COM L
ODD L
H
H
H
COM H (EVEN)
EVEN H
L
L
L
COM L
EVEN L
G
COM
SENSOR SHIELDS
FIGURE 16. Full Bridge Measurement with Excitation Compensation
27
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
6.6 Thermocouple Measurement
The datalogger manuals contain thorough discussions of thermocouple
measurement and error analysis. These topics will not be covered
here.
6.6.1 Measurement Considerations
Reference Junction - As shown in Figure 17 and 18, two reference
junction configurations are possible: 1) reference located at the
datalogger or 2) reference at the AM16/32.
Datalogger Reference - The CR1000, CR23X, 21X and the CR7 723T Analog Input card with RTD have built-in temperature references.
The 10TCRT Thermocouple Reference (not standard with CR10(X)
purchase), is installed on the wiring panel between the two analog
input terminal strips.
When the reference junction is located at the datalogger, the signal
wires between the data-logger and the AM16/32 must be of the same
wire type as the thermocouple (Figure 17). The "polarity" of the
thermocouple wires must be maintained on each side of the
multiplexer (e.g. if constantan wire is input to an L terminal, then a
constantan wire should run between the multiplexer's COM ODD L
terminal and the datalogger measurement terminal). Figures 17 and 18
depict type T thermocouple applications, but other thermocouple types
(e.g. E, J, and K) may also be measured and linearized by the
dataloggers.
If thermocouples are measured with respect to the datalogger reference
(i.e. the signal wires between datalogger and AM16/32 are made of
thermocouple wire), then it is not recommended that one make
measurements of any other sensor type through the AM16/32. Two
problems would arise due to the properties of thermocouple wire:
An extraneous thermocouple voltage would be added to the nonthermocouple signal at the junction of dissimilar metals (e.g. the
multiplexer COM terminals). The magnitude of this signal would vary
with the temperature difference between the datalogger and the
AM16/32.
Some thermocouple wires have a greater resistance than copper, which
adds resistance to the non-thermocouple sensor circuit. For example,
constantan is approximately 26 times more resistive than copper.
28
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
21x
CR7
21X
CR7
CR23X/
CR23X/
CR10(X) CR1000/
CR5000
CR10(X) CR5000
H
H
H
L
L
L
H
H
H
L
L
L
"4 X 16" Mode
CU
CO
CU
CO
COM ODD H
ODD H
COM ODD L
ODD L
COM EVEN H
EVEN H
COM EVEN L
EVEN L
CO
CU
CO
SENSOR SHIELDS
COM
G
CU
FIGURE 17. Differential Thermocouple Measurement with Reference Junction at the
Datalogger.
CR23X/
21X
21x
CR7
CR7
CR23X/
CR1000/
CR10(X)
CR5000
CR10(X) CR5000
"4 X 16" Mode
H
H
H
CU
L
L
L
CU
E
E
E/VX
H
H
H
ODD H
COM ODD L
ODD L
CU
CO
107
AG
H
H
H
CU
L
L
L
CU
G
COM ODD H
COM EVEN H
EVEN H
COM EVEN L
EVEN L
COM
CU
CO
SENSOR SHIELDS
FIGURE 18. Differential Thermocouple Measurement with Reference Junction at the AM16/32.
If a mix of TCs and other sensor types are multiplexed through the
AM16/32, it is generally best to locate the reference junction on the
AM16/32, as shown in Figure 18.
AM16/32 Reference - An external reference, usually a thermistor, can
be located at the AM16/32, as shown in Figure 18. This approach
requires an additional single-ended datalogger input to measure the
reference. Position the reference next to the COM terminals and,
when practical, measure the thermocouples on SETs that are in close
proximity to the COM terminals in order to minimize thermal
gradients.
Thermal Gradients - Thermal gradients between the AM16/32's sensor
input terminals and COM terminals can cause errors in thermocouple
readings. For example, with type T thermocouples, a one degree
gradient between the input terminals and the COM terminals will
29
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
result in an approximate one degree measurement error. Installing the
aluminum cover plate (included with AM16/32) helps to minimize
gradients. For best results the AM16/32 should be shielded and
insulated from all radiant and conducted thermal sources. When an
enclosure is used, gradients resulting from heat conducted along the
thermocouple wire can be minimized by coiling some wire inside the
enclosure. This technique allows heat to largely dissipate before it
reaches the terminals. If the AM16/32 is housed in a field enclosure,
the enclosure should be shielded from solar radiation.
FIGURE 19. AM16/32 Aluminum Cover Plate
6.6.2 Single-ended Thermocouple Measurement
In single-ended thermocouple measurements, the following
precautions must be taken to ensure accurate measurement:
Only shielded thermocouple wire should be used; the sensor shields
should be tied to multiplexer input shield (“ ”) terminals.
Exposed ends of thermocouples measuring soil temperature should be
electrically insulated to prevent differences in ground potential among
the thermocouples from causing errors in the measured temperatures.
AM16/32 panel switch set to “4X16” mode.
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring - up to three thermocouples per SET; the
high side of each thermocouple is input into terminals ODD H,
ODD L, and EVEN H. The low sides of each thermocouple are
multiplexed in common through terminal EVEN L.
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - If the reference junction is at the
datalogger, then the wire that connects the COM ODD H, COM ODD
L, and COM EVEN H terminals to the datalogger should be of the
30
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
same composition as the high side of the thermocouples. Also, the
wire that connects COM EVEN L to datalogger ground should be of
the same composition as the low side of the thermocouples.
If the reference junction is at the AM16/32 (CSI 107 thermistor, RTD,
etc.), then copper wire should be used to connect COM terminals to
the datalogger.
6.6.3 Differential Thermocouple Measurement
AM16/32 panel switch set to “4X16” mode.
Sensor to Multiplexer wiring - up to two thermocouples per input
SET.
Multiplexer to Datalogger wiring - The wire types here can be
handled in one of two ways. If a reference junction (107 thermistor, or
RTD, etc.) is at the AM16/32, then two pairs of copper wires may be
run between the COM terminals of the multiplexer and two differential
input channels.
If the reference junction is at the datalogger, then two pairs of
thermocouple wire should be run between the COM terminals of the
multiplexer and the two differential input channels (observe TC wire
polarity).
6.7 Mixed Sensor Types
In applications where sensor types are mixed, multiple hook-up
configurations and programming sequences are possible. Please
consult CSI for application assistance if you need to multiplex
markedly different sensor types in your application.
6.7.1 Mixed Sensor Example: Soil Moisture Blocks and
Thermocouples
AM16/32 panel switch set to “4X16” mode.
In this example, 16 thermocouples and 16 soil moisture blocks will be
multiplexed through the AM16/32. One thermocouple and one soil
moisture block are input into each SET.
31
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
AM16/32
CR10(X)
G
MUXPOWER
SHIELD
GND
12V
12V
G
GND
C1
RES
C2
CLK
1H
COM
COM
1L
SETS 1-16
ODD H
ODD L
ODD H
ODD L
EX 1
107
2L
SETS 1-16
AG
1K 0.1%
EX 2
COM
EVEN H
EVEN H
COM
EVEN L
EVEN L
2H
AG
G
MUXSIGNAL
SHIELD
COM
FIGURE 20. Thermocouple and Soil Block Measurement
EXAMPLE PROGRAM - THERMOCOUPLE AND SOIL
BLOCK MEASUREMENT
(PROGRAM IS FOR CR10(X) - 33 LOCATIONS ALLOCATED TO
INPUT STORAGE)
*1
1:
60
Table 1 Programs
Sec. Execution Interval
REFERENCE TEMPERATURE FOR THERMOCOUPLES
1: Temp 107 Probe (P11)
1: 1
Rep
2: 4
IN Chan
3: 1
Excite all reps w/EXchan 1
4: 1
Loc [:REFTEMP ]
5: 1
Mult
6: 0
Offset
ENABLES MULTIPLEXER
2: Do (P86)
1: 41
Set high Port 1
BEGINS MEASUREMENT LOOP
3: Beginning of Loop (P87)
1: 0
Delay
2: 16
Loop Count
32
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
CLOCK PULSE
4: Do (P86)
1: 72
Pulse Port 2
5: Excitation with Delay (P22)
1: 1
EX Chan
2: 2
Delay w/EX (units=.01 sec)
3: 0
Delay after EX (units=.01 sec)
4: 1
mV Excitation
5: 0
MEASURES 1 THERMOCOUPLE PER LOOP
6: Thermocouple Temp (DIFF) (P14)
1: 1
Rep
2: 1
2.5 mV slow Range
3: 1
IN Chan
4: 1
Type T (Copper-Constantan)
5: 1
Ref Temp Loc REFTEMP
6: 2-Loc [:TC #1 ]
7: 1
Mult
8: 0
Offset
MEASURES 1 SOIL MOISTURE BLOCK PER LOOP
7: AC Half Bridge (P5)
1: 1
Rep
2: 14
250 mV fast Range
3: 3
IN Chan
4: 2
Excite all reps w/EXchan 2
5: 250
mV Excitation
6: 18-Loc [:SOIL M #1]
7: 1
Mult
8: 0
Offset
ENDS MEASUREMENT LOOP
8: End (P95)
DISABLES MULTIPLEXER
9: Do (P86)
1: 51
Set low Port 1
CALCULATES BRIDGE TRANSFORM ON SOIL MOISTURE BLOCKS
10: BR Transform Rf[X/(1-X)] (P59)
1: 16
Reps
2: 18
Loc [:SOIL M #1]
3: 1
Multiplier (Rf)
11: End Table 1 (P)
INPUT LOCATION LABELS:
1:REFTEMP
2:TC #1
3:TC #2
4:TC #3
5:TC #4
19:SOIL M #2
20:SOIL M #3
21:SOIL M #4
22:SOIL M #5
23:SOIL M #6
33
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
6:TC #5
24:SOIL M #7
7:TC #6
25:SOIL M #8
8:TC #7
26:SOIL M #9
9:TC #8
27:SOIL M#10
10:TC #9
28:SOIL M#11
11:TC #10
29:SOIL M#12
12:TC #11
30:SOIL M#13
13:TC #12
31:SOIL M#14
14:TC #13
32:SOIL M#15
15:TC #14
33:SOIL M#16
16:TC #15
34:_________
17:TC #16
35:_________
18:SOIL M #1 36:_________
7. General Measurement Considerations
Long lead lengths – Longer sensor-to-AM16/32 leads result in greater
induced and capacitively coupled voltages (cross-talk) between cable
wires. To minimize capacitive effects CSI recommends the use of
cabling having Teflon, polyethylene, or polypropylene insulation
around individual conductors. You should not use cables with PVC
insulation around individual conductors (PVC cable jacket is
acceptable). It may also be necessary to program a delay within the
measurement instruction allowing time for lead wire capacitances to
discharge after advancing a channel, before the measurement is made.
Please consult the theory of operation section of your datalogger
manual for more information.
Earth Ground – An AM16/32 connection to earth ground is made via
the datalogger. The lead wire that connects the datalogger power
ground to the AM16/32 power ground (“GND”) establishes this
connection. The Installation/Maintenance Section of your datalogger
manual contains more information on grounding procedures.
Completion resistors - In some applications it is advantageous to place
completion resistors at the datalogger terminal strips. Certain sensors
specific to the use of multiplexers are available from CSI. Examples
include soil moisture probes and thermistor probes. Please consult
CSI for ordering and pricing information.
Contact degradation - Once excitation in excess of 30 mA has been
multiplexed, that channel’s relay contacts have been rendered
unsuitable for further low voltage measurement. To prevent undue
degradation, it is advisable to reserve certain channels for sensor
excitation and employ other channels for sensor signals.
8. Installation
The standard AM16/32 may be operated in an indoor, non-condensing
environment. If condensing humidity is present or if the possibility
exists that the multiplexer might be exposed to liquids, a waterresistant enclosure is required.
34
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
Several enclosures are available for purchase through CSI (models
AM-ENC, ENC 12/14, and ENC 16/18). They offer a degree of
protection against dust, spraying water, oil, falling dirt, or dripping,
noncorrosive liquids. These enclosures contain a mounting plate with
1-inch hole grid suitable for mounting the AM16/32. The enclosures
have a cable bushing (AM-ENC has two) to accommodate the sensor
lines. These standard enclosures are rain-tight, but not water-proof.
The enclosure lids are gasketed. The screws on the outside of the
enclosure should be tightened to form a restrictive seal. In high
humidity environments, user supplied foam, putty, or similar material
helps to reduce the passage of moisture into the enclosure via cable
conduits.
8.1 Mounting Tabs
The AM16/32 has mounting tabs allowing attachment by four screws.
See Figure 21 dimensions.
1 in
2.54 cm
AM16/32
3 in
7.62 cm
9.4 in
23.9 cm
FIGURE 21. Mounting Tab Hole Pattern
U-bolts are provided with enclosure to attach to a 1.25 inch (32 mm)
diameter pipe. An enclosure may also be lag-bolted to a wall or other
flat surface.
8.2 Controlling Humidity
The multiplexer is susceptible to corrosion in high relative humidity.
Desiccant packs are available from CSI and should be used inside the
enclosure to remove water vapor.
CAUTION
Air movement should not be restricted through an
enclosure containing batteries that may produce
explosive or noxious gases (e.g., lead-acid
batteries).
35
AM16/32 Relay Analog Multiplexer
This is a blank page.
36
Appendix A. AM16/32 Improvements
The AM16/32 provides the panel switch option of operating in one of two
modes.
•
“4X16” mode - Sixteen channels of four simultaneously enabled terminals
(SETs).
•
“2X32” mode - Thirty-two channels of two SETs.
The AM16/32 is designed to do a “break before make” meaning that it
advances channels with no momentary connection of the present channel’s
sensor inputs with the next channel’s sensor inputs.
The AM16/32 is smaller than the AM416 and AM32 allowing placement of
two multiplexers inside a single AM ENC enclosure.
The AM16/32 includes an aluminum cover plate which reduces thermal
gradients if used for thermocouple measurement. The cover also helps protect
terminals from dust and improves wiring layout and appearance.
A-1
This is a blank page.
This is a blank page.
Campbell Scientific Companies
Campbell Scientific, Inc. (CSI)
815 West 1800 North
Logan, Utah 84321
UNITED STATES
www.campbellsci.com
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific Africa Pty. Ltd. (CSAf)
PO Box 2450
Somerset West 7129
SOUTH AFRICA
www.csafrica.co.za
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific Australia Pty. Ltd. (CSA)
PO Box 444
Thuringowa Central
QLD 4812 AUSTRALIA
www.campbellsci.com.au
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific do Brazil Ltda. (CSB)
Rua Luisa Crapsi Orsi, 15 Butantã
CEP: 005543-000 São Paulo SP BRAZIL
www.campbellsci.com.br
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific Canada Corp. (CSC)
11564 - 149th Street NW
Edmonton, Alberta T5M 1W7
CANADA
www.campbellsci.ca
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific Ltd. (CSL)
Campbell Park
80 Hathern Road
Shepshed, Loughborough LE12 9GX
UNITED KINGDOM
www.campbellsci.co.uk
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific Ltd. (France)
Miniparc du Verger - Bat. H
1, rue de Terre Neuve - Les Ulis
91967 COURTABOEUF CEDEX
FRANCE
www.campbellsci.fr
[email protected]
Campbell Scientific Spain, S. L.
Psg. Font 14, local 8
08013 Barcelona
SPAIN
www.campbellsci.es
[email protected]
Please visit www.campbellsci.com to obtain contact information for your local US or International representative.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement