Introduction to Power Electronics ECEN 4797/5797 Robert W. Erickson

Introduction to Power Electronics ECEN 4797/5797 Robert W. Erickson
Lecture 1: August 27, 2012
Introduction to Power Electronics
ECEN 4797/5797
Robert W. Erickson
University of Colorado, Boulder
Fall 2012
1
Introduction to Power Electronics
ECEN 4797/5797
•• Instructor: Prof. Bob Erickson
––
––
––
––
––
Ofce: ECOT 356
Telephone: (303) 492-7003
Email: [email protected]
Ofce hours: MW 3:00 - 4:00 pm
Telephone ofce hours: M 3:00 - 4:00 pm
•• Course web site:
–– http://ece.colorado.edu/~ecen5797
–– Includes lecture slides, handouts, homework
assignments, links to online lecture les
•• Textbook:
–– Erickson and Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, second edition,
Springer, ISBN 0-7923-7270-0.
•• Prerequisite:
–– A 3-4 semester sequence of undergraduate EE circuits and electronics courses
(at Univ. of Colorado: ECEN 3250) 2
Coursework in Power Electronics
at the University of Colorado
•• Power electronics courses
–– ECEN 4797/5797 (this course): Intro to power electronics (Fall)
–– ECEN 5807 Modeling and Control of Power Electronics Systems (Alt
Spring semesters, including S 13)
–– ECEN 5817 Resonant and Soft-Switching Techniques in Power
Electronics (Alt Spring semesters, including S 14)
–– ECEN 4517/5517 Power Electronics Laboratory (Spring)
•• Professional Certicate in Power Electronics
–– ECEN 5797, 5807, and 5817
•• Formats for this course
–– On-campus, for senior or graduate credit
–– Web-based lectures: recorded with ECHO 360 system, with
viewing through the Flash viewer. For technical help, contact
[email protected] (CAETE)
3
Grading
•• Homework
––
––
––
––
––
Due at beginning of class on date listed on Lecture Schedule web page
Submit online via D2L dropbox; late homework not accepted
Homework counts 50% of grade
You may speak with others about the homework, but turn in your own work
Homework and exam problems of additional depth and complexity for
those earning graduate credit; separately graded •• Exams
––
––
––
––
Midterm exam: one-week take-home exam, 17% of grade
Final exam: ve-day take-home exam, 33% of grade
See course schedule page for dates
See course vitals page for details
4
Desire-2-Learn (D2L) Site
learn.colorado.edu
Log on with your campus IdentiKey
Dropbox for submission of homework and exams
• Scan, save as pdf, then upload to the D2L dropbox
• For on-campus students: a scanner is available within the SRC
• Automatic deadline at beginning of class
A log of your grades for all assignments
• When grading is complete, your grade will appear online
• Running total of your overall course grade
• Grader will post comments and annotations online
Homework solutions
• Posted within D2L after submission deadline
Student discussion forum
• You can post questions and discussions with your classmates
• Normally questions will not be answered by Prof. Erickson
• Posting of homework solutions in the forum is prohibited
5
Off-campus students
• Viewing of lectures
–– Lectures are normally available online by the end of the day of the oncampus lecture
• Assignments
–– Use the D2L site to upload your pdf le: same as for on-campus students
–– Generally, by Friday the lectures will nish covering the material needed for
the homework assignment due the following Friday. So you can work the
homework over the weekend. Professor Erickson will be available for
telephone ofce hours on Monday afternoon, to answer any questions.
–– Check out the D2L student forums
–– Due dates are the same as for the on-campus students
• Educational Ofcers
–– Not needed
• See course vitals page
–– Link to academic calendar for CAETE students, including add/drop
deadlines
6
Key dates
• Drop deadlines
–– September 12: last day to drop the course and receive full tuition refund, with
no W grade appearing on transcript
–– October 10: last day to drop the course without petitioning the Deans ofce
• Tentative exam dates
–– Midterm exam: 1 week take-home exam. Available through D2L on Oct. 19,
due on Oct. 26.
–– Final exam: Four day take-home exam. Available through D2L on Dec. 14,
due on Dec. 18.
• Grades assigned in May appear on your permanent university
transcript
• Campus holidays
–– Labor day: Sept. 3
–– Fall break / Thanksgiving holiday: Nov. 19-23
7
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1.
Introduction to power processing
1.2.
Some applications of power electronics
1.3.
Elements of power electronics
Summary of the course
7
1.1 Introduction to Power Processing
Power
input
Switching
converter
Power
output
Control
input
Dc-dc conversion:
Ac-dc rectication:
Dc-ac inversion:
Change and control voltage magnitude
Possibly control dc voltage, ac current
Produce sinusoid of controllable
magnitude and frequency
Ac-ac cycloconversion: Change and control voltage magnitude
and frequency
8
Control is invariably required
Power
input
Switching
converter
Power
output
Control
input
feedforward
feedback
Controller
reference
9
High efciency is essential
1
=
Pout
Pin
0.8
1 –– 1
Ploss = Pin –– Pout = Pout 0.6
High efciency leads to low
power loss within converter
Small size and reliable operation
is then feasible
Efciency is a good measure of
converter performance
0.4
0.2
0
0.5
1
Ploss / Pout
10
A high-efciency converter
Pin
Converter
Pout
A goal of current converter technology is to construct converters of small
size and weight, which process substantial power at high efciency
11
1.5
+
––
Devices available to the circuit designer
DT
Resistors
Capacitors
Magnetics
T
s
s
Linearmode
Switched-mode
Semiconductor devices
12
+
––
Devices available to the circuit designer
DT
Resistors
Capacitors
Magnetics
Signal processing: avoid magnetics
13
T
s
s
Linearmode
Switched-mode
Semiconductor devices
+
––
Devices available to the circuit designer
DT
Resistors
Capacitors
Magnetics
T
s
s
Linearmode
Switched-mode
Semiconductor devices
Power processing: avoid lossy elements
14
Power loss in an ideal switch
+
Switch closed: v(t) = 0
Switch open:
i(t) = 0
In either event: p(t) = v(t) i(t) = 0
Ideal switch consumes zero power
15
v(t)
––
i(t)
A simple dc-dc converter example
I
10A
+
Vg
100V
Dc-dc
converter
+
––
R
5
V
50V
––
Input source: 100V
Output load: 50V, 10A, 500W
How can this converter be realized?
16
Dissipative realization
Resistive voltage divider
I
10A
+
Vg
100V
+
––
+
50V ––
Ploss = 500W
R
5
V
50V
––
Pout = 500W
Pin = 1000W
17
Dissipative realization
Series pass regulator: transistor operates in
active region
+
I
10A
50V ––
+
Vg
100V
linear amplifier
and base driver
+
––
––
+
Vref
R
5
V
50V
Ploss 500W
––
Pout = 500W
Pin 1000W
18
Use of a SPDT switch
I
10 A
1
+
+
Vg
100 V
2
+
––
vs(t)
R
––
vs(t)
––
Vg
Vs = DVg
switch
position:
DTs
0
(1 –– D) Ts
t
1
2
1
19
v(t)
50 V
The switch changes the dc voltage level
vs(t)
Vg
Vs = DVg
switch
position:
DTs
0
(1 –– D) Ts
t
1
2
1
D = switch duty cycle
0 D 1
Ts = switching period
fs = switching frequency
= 1 / Ts
DC component of vs(t) = average value:
Vs = 1
Ts
Ts
vs(t) dt = DVg
0
20
Addition of low pass lter
Addition of (ideally lossless) L-C low-pass lter, for
removal of switching harmonics:
i(t)
1
+
Vg
100 V
+
––
+
L
2
vs(t)
C
R
––
Pin 500 W
v(t)
––
Ploss small
Pout = 500 W
••
Choose lter cutoff frequency f0 much smaller than switching
frequency fs
••
This circuit is known as the ““buck converter””
21
Addition of control system
for regulation of output voltage
Power
input
Switching converter
Load
+
+
––
v
H(s)
––
Transistor
gate driver
Error
signal
ve
Pulse-width vc G (s)
c
modulator
Compensator
(t)
dTs Ts
––+
vg
i
Hv
Reference
vref
input
t
22
The boost converter
2
+
L
Vg
1
+
––
C
R
V
––
5Vg
4Vg
V
3Vg
2Vg
Vg
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
D
23
0.8
1
Sensor
gain
A single-phase inverter
1
+
––
Vg
vs(t)
+
2
––
+
v(t)
––
2
1
load
““H-bridge””
vs(t)
t
Modulate switch
duty cycles to
obtain sinusoidal
low-frequency
component
24
1.2 Several applications of power electronics
Power levels encountered in high-efciency converters
•• less than 1 W in battery-operated portable equipment
•• tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts in power supplies for
computers or ofce equipment
•• kW to MW in variable-speed motor drives
•• 1000 MW in rectiers and inverters for utility dc transmission
lines
25
A laptop computer power supply system
Inverter
iac(t)
Charger
Buck
converter
PWM
Rectifier
vac(t)
Display
backlighting
ac line input
85––265 Vrms
Boost
converter
Lithium
battery
Microprocessor
Power
management
Disk
drive
26
Power system of an earth-orbiting spacecraft
Dissipative
shunt regulator
+
Solar
array
vbus
––
Battery
charge/discharge
controllers
Dc-dc
converter
Dc-dc
converter
Payload
Payload
Batteries
27
An electric vehicle power and drive system
ac machine
Inverter
ac machine
Inverter
control bus
battery
P
system
controller
+
3øac line
50/60 Hz
Battery
charger
DC-DC
converter
vb
––
Low-voltage
dc bus
Inverter
Inverter
ac machine
ac machine
Vehicle
electronics
Variable-frequency
Variable-voltage ac
28
A standalone photovoltaic power system
The system constructed in ECEN 4517/5517 Power
Electronics and Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory
29
1.3 Elements of power electronics
Power electronics incorporates concepts from the elds of
analog circuits
electronic devices
control systems
power systems
magnetics
electric machines
numerical simulation
30
Part I. Converters in equilibrium
Inductor waveforms
vL(t)
Averaged equivalent circuit
RL
t
–– V
1
iL(t)
2
0
D' : 1
+
Vg –– V
L
Vg
+
––
R
––
iL
Predicted efciency
100%
–– V
L
DTs
V
I
1
iL(DTs)
I
iL(0)
D' RD
D'Ts
DTs
switch
position:
D' VD
D Ron
+
––
Vg –– V
0.002
90%
0.01
Ts
80%
t
0.02
70%
0.05
60%
50%
RL/R = 0.1
40%
Discontinuous conduction mode
30%
Transformer isolation
10%
20%
0%
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
D
31
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Switch realization: semiconductor devices
The IGBT
collector
Switching loss
iA(t)
transistor
waveforms
Qr
Vg
gate
iL
vA(t)
0
0
emitter
t
Emitter
diode
waveforms
Gate
iL
iB(t)
vB(t)
0
0
t
n
p
n
n
n-
p
area
––Qr
n
––Vg
minority carrier
injection
tr
p
pA(t)
= vA iA
area
~QrVg
Collector
area
~iLVgtr
t0
t1 t2
32
Part I. Converters in equilibrium
2. Principles of steady state converter analysis
3. Steady-state equivalent circuit modeling, losses, and efciency
4. Switch realization
5. The discontinuous conduction mode
6. Converter circuits
33
t
Part II. Converter dynamics and control
Closed-loop converter system
Power
input
Averaging the waveforms
Switching converter
Load
gate
drive
+
vg(t) +
––
v(t)
R
feedback
connection
––
(t)
compensator
pulse-width vc
Gc(s)
modulator
dTs Ts
v
averaged waveform <v(t)>T
s
with ripple neglected
voltage
reference vref
vc(t)
(t)
actual waveform v(t)
including ripple
––+
transistor
gate driver
t
t
t
t
Controller
L
Small-signal
averaged
equivalent circuit
vg(t)
+
––
Vg –– V d(t)
+
––
1:D
I d(t)
D' : 1
+
I d(t)
C
v(t)
––
34
Part II. Converter dynamics and control
7.
Ac modeling
8.
Converter transfer functions
9.
Controller design
10.
Input lter design
11.
Ac and dc equivalent circuit modeling of the discontinuous
conduction mode
12.
Current-programmed control
35
R
Part III. Magnetics
n1 : n2
transformer
design
iM(t)
i1(t)
i2(t)
the
proximity
effect
LM
R1
R2
current
density
J
Rk
4226
0.1
2616
2616
2213
2213
1811
0.08
0.06
1811
0.04
Bmax (T)
Pot core size
3622
0.02
0
25kHz
50kHz
100kHz
200kHz
250kHz
400kHz
500kHz
1000kHz
Switching frequency
36
Part III. Magnetics
13.
Basic magnetics theory
14.
Inductor design
15.
Transformer design
2i
––i
layer
1
transformer
size vs.
switching
frequency
––2i
layer
2
ik(t)
: nk
3i
layer
3
37
i
d
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