BerPolarforsch1993120

by D. Dethleff, D, Nurnberg, E. Reimnitz,

M Saarso and Y.P, Savchenko

edition to

z

Josef

L

by D. Nürnber E. Groth

elentsy"

Ber.

Polarforsch. 1

ISSN

01 76

-

5027

Dirk Dethleff, GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences, Wischhofstr. 1-3,

D-2300 Kiel 14, F.R.G.

Elke Groth, GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences, Wischhofstr. 1-3,

D-2300 Kiel 14, F.R.G.

Erk Reimnitz, United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, MS 999,

Menlo Park, California 94025, U.S.A.

Mart Saarso, Tallinn Technical University, Järvevan tee 5, 200001 Tallinn, Estonia

Yevgeny P. Savchenko, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringstreet 38,

199397 St. Petersburg, Russia.

East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition '92:

The Laptev Sea

.

Transpolar Sediment Flux

by D

.

Dethleff. D

.

Nürnberg E

.

Reimnitz. M

.

Saarso

and

Y.P.

Savchenko

INTRODUCTION

.................................................................................................

AREA OF INVESTIGATION

RESEARCH PROGRAM

...............................................................................

....................................................................................

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

7

.......................................................................

8

4.1 The Laptev Sea: Sediment source for the Transpolar Drift?

.............

8

4.2 The Laptev Sea Polynya

RESULTS

..........................................................................

.............................................................................................................

5.1 Meteorological data

13

..................................................................................

5.2 Flaw lead and sea ice observations

5.2.1 The flaw lead

...............................................................................

5.2.2 Extent of fast ice

......................................................

13

16

16

...........................................................................

.........................................

5.2.3 Freshwater ice, fast ice and drift ice

5.2.4 Ice thicknesses

5.3 Sea ice sediments

18

............................................................................

......................................................................................

5.3.1 Occurrence for sediments in the Arctic ice cover

..................

21

5.3.2 Potential of eolian sediment transport

5.3.3 Sediment load

.....................................

.............................................................................

5.3.4 Particle flux within the water column

.......................................

5.4 Anthropo-chemical pollutants in the Laptev Sea

................................

27

DISCUSSION

......................................................................................................

6.1 Effect of atmospheric circulation On ice generation and drift

6.2 Sediment entrainment

6.4 Freshwater influence on suspension freezing processes

CONCLUSIONS

.................................................................................................

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

..............................................................................

6.3 Indications for different source areas

.............

.................

28

28

29

.....................................................

32

33

..................................................................................

....................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

Expedition to Novaja Zemlja and Franz Josef Land with

RV

"Dalnie Zelentsy"

by D

.

Nürnber and E

.

Groth

1

2

.

INTRODUCTION

...............................................................................................

.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

3 . RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

4 . COURSE OF EXPEDITION

49

....................................................................

.............................................................................

.............................................................................

5

.

METHODS

.........................................................................................................

5.1 Sediment sampling equipment and procedures

5.2 Water sampling

......................................................................................

5.3 Sedimentological investigations

.............................

52

53

........................................................

6

.

PRELIMINARY RESULTS

...............................................................................

5 3

6.1

Sedimentology

......................................................................................

5 3

Radioactive pollution

............................................................................

5 4

7

8

9

.

6.2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

...............................................................................

.

REFERENCES

..................................................................................................

.

APPENDIX

55

.........................................................................................................

East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition '92:

The Laptev Sea

-

Its Significance for Arctic Sea-Ice Formation and

Transpolar Sediment Flux

by D. Dethleff, D. Nurnberg, E. Reimnitz, M. Saarso and Y.P. Savchenko

1 .

INTRODUCTION

The Arctic sea ice cover has a large impact on the global climatic evolution

(CLARK

1990;

UNTERSTEINER

1990). Extension, composition and thickness of the sea ice, its relation to Open sea areas and the drift pattern extensively influence gas and temperature exchange between ocean and atmosphere, and thus, the global thermal balance, oceanic circulation and ecology of marine biota

(AAGAARD et al. 1985;

CLARK

1990). Due to its exposed location, the large seasonal changes in areal extent

(12-13

Mill. km* in winter versus Ca. 6-7 Mill. km2 in summer), and the small mean thickness (ca. 3 m), the Arctic sea ice cover is thought to react very sensitively even to small environmental changes

(GIERLOFF-EMDEN

1982).

on4

Fig.

1: Ice drifi in the Arctic Ocean, generalized after GORDIENKO & LAKTIONOV (1969). Shelf regions shallower than 30 rn, where sediment entrainrnent most likeiy occurs, are stippled.

3

The atmosphere and the oceanic circulation transport heat to polar regions, where the energy surplus is compensated by the negative balance between insolation and albedo.

Numerous recent studies have shown that large ice areas of the general Arctic

Ocean circulation pattern transport significant loads of marine sediments originating from surrounding shallow shelf regions (Fig. 1). The importance of sedimentary inclusions in the sea ice, when laterally widely dispersed, on albedo

(LEDLEY THOMSON 1986) and subsequently, on ablation processes is still not known sufficiently. Sedimentological investigations suggest that the material transported b y drifting sea ice contributes high amounts to deep sea sedimentation during the present interglacial Stage. Many observations indicate that the sediment load indeed influences albedo and ablation processes. For paleoceanographic reconstructions, the role of sea ice sediments on the deep sea sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean has to be estimated. To identify a tracer in the deep sea record indicating sea ice cover would thus be of considerable importance.

Under the framework of the BMFT-project "Global Change: The Arctic sea ice

- its geological and climatological significance at present and during the past", attempts were made to systematically sample, map and characterize Arctic sea ice incorporations. This includes the quantitative analysis of the lithogeneous, biogeneous and anthropo-chemical components contained in sea ice and icebergs. An estimate of how much sea-ice rafted material contributes to the sedimentation in Arctic regions has been made based on the documentation of the regional distribution pattern and on the assessment on the annual variations in sediment content. This work should eventually lead us to spatially and temporally reconstruct the Arctic sea ice cover during the geological past. Source areas of sea ice and consequently, the processes by which sedimentary material and anthropo-chemical tracers are incorporated there and by which they are redistributed during alternating meltinglfreezing cycles, are of main interest for the identification of transport paths, ice drift Patterns and depositional Centers of ice-rafted sediments.

Areas of investigation of the East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition

(E.S.A.R.E.'92) have been the Lena Delta and broad shelf areas in the Laptev

Sea, since this area is supposed to be one of the main sea ice producing areas where huge amounts of sediments may be incorporated and subsequently transported into the Transpolar Drift. The expedition, which was organized by the

Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) at St. Petersburg (CIS) in close cooperation with GEOMAR, took place from March 28, 1992 to May 1, 1992. The

5 participants are from GEOMAR, AWI, AARI, the United States Geological

Survey (U.S.G.S., Menlo Park, California, USA), and Tallinn Technical University

(T.T.U., Tallinn, Estonia). Logistics were exclusively provided by AARI.

The E.S.A.R.E.'92 expedition to the Arctic sea ice source areas is the consequent continuation of sea ice and sea water sampling, after central parts of the Transpolar Drift (Arctic Ocean and Barents Sea) and main ablation areas of sea ice sediments (Fram Strait, Greenland Sea) have already been systematically sampled during RV 'Polarstern' cruises ARK IV, V, VI, VII and Vlll.

The existing large data Set of "dirty ice" has now been expanded by approximately 100 Snow samples, 40 ice cores, 20 bottom sediment samples and approximately 40 water samples for chemical investigations. All together,

approximately 400 sea ice surface samples and 250 ice cores have been collected during the last years either directly from ship or

by

helicopter Support

(Fig. 2). The sedimentological, anthropo-geo-chemical and biological investigation of the samples is still going on. A

U.S.G.S.

companion project is studying ice rafting in the North American Arctic Beaufort Gyre (Fig. 1). Collected sediments and sediment loads are compared with those at GEOMAR.

Fig.

2:

Bathymetric chart of the Arctic Ocean showing sea ice sample locations

2 .

AREA OF INVESTIGATION

Scientific field work during the E.S.A.R.E.'92 winter expedition to Siberia focussed on shelf areas of the Laptev Sea and the River Lena Delta (73-79ON and 122-14I0E). Several Lena River and pro delta sites were sampled from the first base camp at Tiksi (12.000 inhabitants), which is located in the eastern Lena

River delta. Inner shelf sampling locations, often more than 150 km apart from each other, were reached by helicopter. Fig. 3 shows the geographical positions of 18 sampling sites along an approximately 1000 km SW-NE trending profile.

Fig. 3: Location map. The extent of fast ice and fresh-water ice in the study area as obsewed during April field work is indicated.

The scientific camp was moved from Tiksi to Kotelnyy Island (New Siberian

Islands) (Fig. 3) in the northeastern Laptev Sea after 9 days of field work in the delta area. Accommodation during the ongoing 10 days was provided in the

Radionavigational Station Kotelnyy of the Russian Ministry for Marine

Transport". From this base camp, the outer Laptev Sea and Central Arctic Ocean

(eastern Amundsen Basin) sampling sites were again reached by helicopter.

Bennett Island, an additional field location that attracted international interest in the past decade because of large atmospheric plumes Seen On satellite images, was also a target of intensive sampling. Speculations and investigations about the unique phenomenon considered nuclear explosions, breakdown of gas hydrates and release of methane, volcanic eruptions (KIENLE et al. 1983) and meteorological backgrounds (KERR 1992) as possible causes.

3 . RESEARCH PROGRAM

Sampling of "dirty ice" for sedimentological, biological and anthropo-geo- chemical investigations was performed along a profile starting on the Lena River southwest of Tiksi, covering the Lena Delta area, and reaching the Transpolar

Drift at Ca. 79' N and 140'

W

(Fig. 3, Table 1, appendix). Approximately 60 ice cores with a total length of ca. 120 m and 60 Snow surface samples were obtained On 18 stations, which were reached mainly by helicopter Support. At least one 10 cm diarneter ice core covering the whole ice column was retrieved at each station (Table 2, appendix).

In addition to the ice cores, Snow surface samples on the sea ice were taken.

Observations On surface characteristics, including thickness of snow Cover, relief and floe size were performed routinely. Preliminary investigations On the sediment concentrations in ice cores and surface samples, on the grain size distribution and on qualitative sediment composition have been carried out during field work. Sediment concentrations were determined by vacuum filtering the samples and calculating the weight of sediment per liter of melt water. In order to derive an estimate of the ice floe sediment load, 6-7 ice chunks being representative for the entire ice column were cut from the core and averaged subsequently. The sedirnent load in Snow was averaged from three 1-1 samples taken at regular intervals along a line up-wind of contaminating activities on the ice. The sand content was derived by wet sieving of sea ice sediment samples.

Further investigations On the sea-ice and snow will include diatom and delta

180-analyses being carried out at the

Alfred-Wegener-Institute

for Polar and

Marine Research (Bremerhaven, F.R.G.) and the Lamont Doherty Geological

Observatory (Palisades, New York, USA).

The sampling of anthropo-geo-chernical pollutants in ocean surface water (1 to 2 m depth) was one of the rnain objectives during the field work. Analysis will be carried out jointly with scientists from the Department of Marine Chemistry,

Institute for Marine Research, University of Kiel (IfM). Certain Patterns of sea water and Arctic sea ice pollution are supposed to indicate recent sea ice formation and drift processes in the East Siberian shelf regions and the Central

Arctic Ocean. The application of a sea water pumping system especially designed for low temperature operations allowed to obtain Ca. 200 l water samples at 5 sarnpling sites by continuous pumping for about 6 hours (Table 2).

The system was installed inside an insolated aluminum box with internal heat sources, which protected against temperatures as low as -30 'C. This unit was set up inside of a tent, and powered by a generator placed some 20 m distant.

Filtrates and enrichments of water column organo-chemical pollutants (PCBs etc.) concentrated by this sampling method will enable us to investigate anthropogenic pollution and compare the data to chemical analyses performed by colleagues at AARI. Numerous water sarnples, in addition, were obtained for heavy metal and delta

1 8 0 analyses.

To give an estimate of bottom sediment resuspension which is important for suspension freezing, a sediment trap experiment was carried out in the Laptev

Sea flaw lead. A HYDRO-BIOS sediment trap was deployed with collecting area of 0.143 m* to 10 m depth (water depth about 28 m) from fast ice edge West of

Belkovskiy Island (Ref. No. 12, Fig. 3). The duration of the sediment trap exposure was 54 hours. Surface and bottom water temperatures were measured and water samples were taken for performing salinity determination.

Shelf surface sediments were sampled to a water depth of maximum 64

m.

Both a gravity corer (total weight: 50 kg; diameter: 10 cm) constructed by GEOMAR and technicians from the Sonderforschungsbereich (SFB) 313, University of Kiel for use through tiny ice-holes and a small grab sampler were employed. Half liter to one liter volumes of seafloor surface sediments and cores of 10-15 cm length were taken at several sampling sites. Due to cold temperatures (water and air) several gravity corer employments failed. Dumping into the ocean water the supercooled unit (-30 'C) was immediately covered by an ice skin. The parallel sampling of seafloor and sea-ice sediments will probably elucidate entrainment processes. Samples will subsequently be investigated sedimentologically, biologically and anthropo-geochemically. In order to get more information of potential sediment source areas, rock samples were obtained at several land locations.

Parts of the sediment samples mentioned above were prepared for laser grain size analysis to be carried out in the laboratories of "State Oceanographic

Institute" (Moscow, Russia, CIS). Grain size distribution in sea ice and bottom surface sediments are supposed to help explain possible entrainment processes of sediment into sea ice.

Ice observations were made during daily field work and during helicopter flights.

Visual impressions were documented graphically, photographically and by video techniques. Additionally, four satellite images showing Laptev Sea ice conditions were provided by Russian scientists.

4 . BACKGROUND INFORMATION

4 . 1 The Laptev Sea: Sediment source for the Transpolar Drift?

The shelf edge in the Laptev Sea lies between 50 and 60 m water depths

Besides the East Siberian shelf, the area of investigation therefore is the most extensive shallow shelf region bordering the Arctic Basin. According to

TOMIRDIARO (1975), these wide Siberian shelves are the result of thaw subsidence from the melting of excess ice in the section, a consequence of exposure to low air temperatures during the last glaciation.

Besides several large submarine valleys, which HOLMES

&

CREAGER (1974) interpret as submerged extensions of the major rivers in the region, details of the bathymetry have not been released by Russia because of security reasons. Fig.

4 shows an irregular Pattern of major shoals with about 10 m relief, some of them reaching close to the sea surface or even breaking the surface. On the Arctic

shelf of North America, such shoals are related to the yearly formation of large grounded pressure ridges (stamukhi) or are even caused by these (REIMNITZ &

KEMPEMA 1984). The widespread occurrence of small (1-3 m), furrow-like relief forms are thought to be caused by submarine melting of ice wedges and other

1985), and therefore also are thermokarst formations. REIMNITZ & BARNES (1 987 b), however, have argued that more likely these relief forms here, as of northern

Alaska, are due to the frequent plowing of dragging ice keels, and that the various actions of sea ice have much more influence On the formation of Arctic shelves than thermal processes. Grainsize analyses of a few samples from the area show that silty clays to clayey silts dominate, but also show the occurrence of manganese crusts on pebbles and of manganese nodules (HOLMES

&

shelf. HOLMES & C R E A G E R (1974) concluded that modern ice rafting is unimportant in the Laptev Sea.

Fig. 4:

Bathyrnetry in rneters of the target area, prepared after a rnap by the

Geological Society of

Arnerica

(1 986).

A remarkable landform in the Laptev Sea is the large Lena Delta (Fig. 3), suggesting active deposition by the mighty river. Surprisingly, however, the delta shoreline is generally retreating, and the delta therefore is a relict form (for about 15 million tonslyr, as compared for example to the 100 million tons of the

&

MEADE 1983), is a partial explanation of the puzzle. But the remaining areal extent of the delta, presumably formed during the Holocene or even during the period since sea level reached its present elevation (about

5,000yrs BP), points to important changes that affected the relationship between continental supply and destructive marine forces during post glacial time.

For 9 months of the year, from early October to July 10 or 20, the Laptev Sea is covered by ice (Fig. 5). It reaches a thickness of about 2 m. The river ice breaks up between June 1 to 10, over a month before the sea ice (Fig. 5). Ships with 10- m draft can navigate in the Lena River. If such great channel depths, when compared to the ice thickness, are connected with the sea, this should allow for sub-ice discharge of spring flood waters. But the literature contains many references of river-water erosion in the coastal Zone and deposition of eroded sediments and molluscs on top of the sea ice (e.g. FUCHS

&

WHITTARD 1930;

&

CREAGER

A

satellite image of June 11 (BARNETT 1991) shows that the fast ice along the eastern delta front remains intact while the river channeis are ice-free. Evidence for river overflow discharging high amounts of sediment onto the ice, however, is not shown on this image. The so commonly mentioned loading of sediment onto sea ice by Siberian rivers therefore must be questioned, at least for the Lena River. Spring flood waters may actually discharge below the sea ice.

-

40 oÂ

30

=:

5

20

5

C

10

Jan.

Feb. Mar.

Apr. May. Jun. Jul.

Aug.

Sept.

Okt.

Nov. Dez.

200

80

60

40

20

0

180

160

140

N

5

120

q0

100

-

Fig. 5:

Cornparison of seasonal

Lena

River discharge variations (frorn

CATTLE

1985) and East

Siberian and Laptev

Seas ice cover (frorn

MYSAK

& MANAK 1989).

Detailed observations about the relationship between river break-up and the sea-ice cover, or even descriptions of the sea ice cover, such as extent of fast ice or location and size of pressure ridge Systems, have not been published.

Nevertheless, the ice produced in the Laptev Sea is thought to play an important role for the ice budget of the entire Arctic Ocean (COLONY 1985).

ZAKHAROV (1966) calculated ice-production rates in an important, recurring flaw lead of the Laptev Sea. As defined by him, a flaw lead is an expanse of Open water and young ice up to 70 cm thick immediately beyond the edge of the fast ice. But its configuration, location, and size remained unknown. The lack of suitable satellite Images to study polynyas in the central Siberian region probably explains why a recent study of Siberian shelf polynyas (MARTIN et al.1989) did not mention that of the Laptev Sea.

KINDLE (1924) thoroughly reviewed early observations of sediment inclusions in

Arctic ice and their causes. Recent publications show that sea ice can contain loads of over 1,000 tonslkm* over extensive shelf regions, far exceeding the and other findings, some of the earlier presented entrainment mechanisms, such as bottom adfreezing and slumping from coastal bluffs onto ice, are no longer stressed as important. The Alaskan rivers are not important for long range sediment transport by sea ice, but the suggested loading by the large, and very different Siberian Rivers remains to be investigated specifically. Studies in the

North American Arctic show that wind transport of sedirnent from land to sea is press a). PFIRMAN et al. (1 989 a) reviewed the possibility of eolian transport from

Siberia onto ice as an explanation for the widespread occurrence of fine sediments in the Transpolar Drift. This question is one which we hope can be answered from new data presented here.

Numerous recent publications have shown that fine grained, dispersed, shallow marine sediment inclusions in sea ice are much more important for ice rafting in the Arctic Basin than all other types of inclusions (i.e. REIMNITZ et al. 1987a; entrainment process responsible for such inclusions is called

suspension

freezing

(REIMNITZ underwater ice. In this process, frazil and anchor ice crystals enclose individual sediment particles and float them to the surface. The requirements for the mechanism are sub-freezing air temperatures coupled with strong winds, Open, shallow waters (depth <30 m), and

turbulente.

Under such conditions, the water temperature drops slightly below its freezing point and triggers the mechanism. It probably is most effective where supercooled waters reach to the seafloor freezing is recognized by the occurrence of rather evenly dispersed fine such ice. This mode of sediment occurrence rules out most other entrainment mechanisms.

Based On these considerations, the principal sedirnent source regions for ice rafted sediment in the Arctic Ocean are outlined in Fig. 1. Ice volume export from the Laptev Sea is much larger than from the still wider shelf of the East Siberian that imply the Laptev Sea as an important source for sediments sampled in sea

4 . 2 The Laptev Sea polynya

The winter ice Cover of the Laptev Sea is characterized by the occurrence of an approximately 1800

km

long, narrow Zone of Open water (polynya) on the mid- shelf (Fig. 6). Width of Open water varies between 800 m and 4-5

km.

Including slush ice, nilas and young ice up to 70 cm thickness, Segments of much more than 15 km width are common (Fig. 20).

Flaw leads (and Arctic polynyas in a special sense) during winter are areas of intensive ice formation, salinity increase, convection, and large heat loss into the

atmosphere and some distinctive features of meteorological conditions.

Springtime is characterized by high accumulation of heat and rapid melting of sea ice

(ZAKHAROV

1966).

SMITH et al. (1990) distinguish between "latent heat" and "sensible heat" polynyas. Surfaces of "latent heat" polynyas are kept Open by continuous loss of latent heat during ice formation. The second mechanism is marked by a flux of sufficient quantities of oceanic heat entering a polynya area, thereby preventing the water surface from freezing. This could occur, for example, in an area of upwelling.

Fig.

6 :

NOAA-12 satellite irnages of the study area on A) January 13, B) February 12, C) March 15, and D) April

7, 1992, show the configuration of the fast ice edge, bordered by a very dark belt of

Open water (polynya) and extrernely thin ice (nilas).

Wind drift and oceanic currents that carry away recently formed ice, however, are

SMITH et al. 1990). Meteorological regimes along the entire Laptev

Ses

coastal area and in the inner shelf region are dominated by mostly offshore winds across the fast ice edge. The long extended Laptev Sea polynya could not be maintained in case of one uniform wind direction for the entire region. Recording of data for each Laptev Sea coastal segment and the inner shelf area would be very helpful for an overview concerning connection between meteorology and ice dynamics. In the framework of E.S.A.R.E.'92, meteorological data recorded every three hours at "Kotelnyy Polar Station, Hydrometeorological Survey of

Russia" were copied. Further data for the entire year are requested via AAR1 from the "Central Meteorological Data Bank" in Moscow.

5 .

R E S U L T S

5 . 1

Meteorological data

Wind velocity and air temperature are important for ice formation and sediment entrainment in the eastern Arctic shelf region. Direction and velocity of strong winds affect ice drift and help maintain the flaw lead (polynya).

Recorded meteorological data from Kotelnyy (Fig. 7) show three principal wind directions for the period of our field work (NE, SE and NW; Fig. 8). Nearly 51% of the time, the wind blew from the northeastern quadrant (0-90'). This occurred during three different periods: April 1-3, 7-9 and 17-23 (Fig. 7). About 50% of these measurements show wind speeds above 6 m/s. The average speed for the three periods is 6 mls, maxima of 10-16 m/s occurred several times (13% of measurements). High percentages (67%) of wind directions were observed between 31' and 60' (Fig. 8) being nearly representative for all three single periods.

Southeastern wind directions (91'-180'; Fig. 8) dominate in 24% of the measurements and mainly occurred during the periods from April 9-1 1 and 13-

16. Mean wind speed for both periods is 9.8 m/s. Relatively high wind speeds

(10-18 mls) were observed in nearly 50% of measurements. Speeds over 6 m/s were shown in 79% of the data. Graphs for these strong wind events recorded during relatively short time periods (9-24 hrs) partially show parabolic shape

(Fig. 9). High percentages (66%) of wind directions between 120' and 150' representative for both periods were recorded (Fig.8, dark grey area).

A third principal April wind direction lies between 270' and 360° and therefore is directed onshore in Kotelnyy region (Fig. 8). Only 16% of the readings, taken from April 3-7, fall into this category. The computed mean wind speed for the period was 5.5 rnls, with a short period culminating at 10 m/s and higher.

Relatively high percentages (57%; Fig. 8) of wind directions between 300' and

330' were recorded during one 24 hr period from 10.00 hrs on April 5 to 10.00 hrs on April 6, with maximum speeds of 7-10 m/s and a mean wind speed of 8.1 rnls.

I

w h d dir. t-

Fig. 7:

Wind speed, direction and ternperature data copied frorn "Kotelnyy Polar Station,

1-7,

b)

April 7-13, 1992; C)

April 13-19, 1992; and d) April 19-23, 1992 (Data were recorded every three hours). Arrows: rnain wind directions during periods of sirnilar wind (one quadrant). Stars: deviations frorn the general wind direction.

As mentioned above, air temperatures also are important for ice production and sediment entrainment by suspension freezing. Temperatures during the period of recording were always below low as

-

10°C mostly below

-

18OC, and often dropped as

-

30°C The lowest temperatures occurred during relatively calm periods

(Fig. 7). Temperatures often slightly increased during strong wind periods from different directions.

0/360Â

270' 90'

180'

Fig. 8:

Main wind directions for the study area and the period of investigation based on data frorn

Fig. 7. Light grey area shows percentages of entire quadrant wind directions, dark grey area shows high percentages of wind directions in a certain range of degree (e. g. 60Â to 90'; light grey area taken as 100 %).

Fig. 9: Graph of strong wind event recorded during a relatively short time period (9-10 hrs, April

14-15) shows a parabolic shape. A significant air ternperature increase can be observed.

5 . 2

Flaw lead and sea ice observations

5.2.1 The flaw lead

The recurring flaw lead, which separates drifting and fast ice and was studied by

6, recorded at Tiksi. AAR1 ice charts for the time covered by these images show nilas to grey ice, or Open water to young ice with a maximum thickness of 15 Cm, in a rather continuous, 10- to 25-km wide band. During our flights we observed the flaw lead, sometimes only from afar, on different dates and in different areas, extending from the Lena Delta northward beyond the New Siberian Islands.

Clouds and a dark fog bank usually revealed the lead from a distance. Wind- parallel streaks of frazil drifting outward from the fast ice edge (Fig. 10) were forming On windy days.

At most crossings of the fast ice edge, and in places were we flew along the edge for some tens of kilometers, we noted a lack of pressure ridges. At some sites a

30

m

to 2 km wide belt of 20 to 50 cm thick, smooth ice was attached to 1.5 m thick fast ice. All indications in the areas Seen were that onshore pressure has rarely, if ever occurred during the winter, and that outward drift of new ice had dominated. At two crossings of the fast ice edge the lead was closed on the days observed. One was near the northeastern coast of Kotelnyy Island, facing the long-term westward ice drift direction. Here a system of pressure ridges had formed. The other was north of Ref. No. 10 (Fig. 3), aiong a pronounced bulge in the fast-ice edge. Here a massive pressure-ridge System, with a shearline on the north side, was plotted by GPS navigation exactly on a charted shoal with a crest at 6.6 m below sea level. Ice drift on that particular day was southerly, against the fast-ice edge oriented E/W along this segment of the fast-ice bulge.

.;

Fig.

10: Light, wind parallel streaks of frazil ice driiting outward frorn the fast ice edge (lefi side).

Photograph is taken frorn ca. 150 rn altitude. Length of fast ice edge is approxirnately 3 km.

5.2.2 Extent of fast ice

The development and extent of fast ice are important for sediment entrainment into ice and and its transport. The fast ice becomes firmly interlocked with the coast and attached to the bottom in shallow regions. As it grows thicker and stronger, the fast ice area expands, and rather effectively inhibits further sediment entrainment and movement within its reaches. Only eolian sediment transport onto the fast ice could potentially continue. Beyond the fast ice edge, the ice is moved mainly by wind.

Sequential ice maps prepared by AAR1 colleagues from interpretations of satellite images (Fig. 1 I ) , allow tracking the development of the fast ice Cover

(Fig. 12). This latter figure shows that in late November, 1991, the fast ice only covered a

10-km wide Zone reaching from shore seaward to approximately the

10 m isobath. Only in the area of 145'

E,

where the 10-m isobath lies far from shore, the fast ice Zone had

a

width of 90 km. In mid December (not shown), much of this wide belt of former fast ice had been removed, but elsewhere its extent was rather similar to that of November.

Laptev Sea Polynya

20.

-

24.03.1992

reconstructed from satellite images

Fig. 11: Ice rnap prepared from interpretation of N O M satellite irnages by M R l scientists (March

20-24, 1992).

1 7

In January, February, and March, the fast ice extended out to near the 20 m- isobath, and included as continuous sheet the New Siberian Islands. Locally the configuration of the fast ice edge during these three months seemed to be influenced by shoals. The northern edge of the pronounced bulge in the fast ice boundary during February and March, half-way between the Lena Delta and

Kotelnyy, was in the vicinity of the small shoal mentioned earlier.

November22-26, 1991

-.---

January 16-20, 1992

----

February 23-28, 1992

Fig.

12: The edge of fast ice prepared frorn interpretations of satellite irnages by

AAR1

scientists.

During the period frorn January through March the outer boundary fluctuated, indicating occasional break-aways due to offshore winds and subsequent accretion of new ice.

5.2.3

Freshwater ice, fast ice and drift ice

The fast ice region included no multi-year ice, demonstrating that the sea was completely ice free during the previous fall. Over large regions the fast ice was rather featureless, lacking pressure ridges and hummock fields. Ten to 40 cm

Snow Cover On this ice precluded observations of any sediment during flights, except for an occasional small ridge exposing broken ice. Most of such ridges looked clean. The smooth fast ice also was found to be clean at most sampling sites. There was, however, a region of turbid ice rubble 10 miles West of

Kotelnyy. A similar turbid rubble field was sampled at Ref. No. 10 (Fig. 3), and others occurred over a 70 km-distance to the south .thereof. At the above sampling site the ice slabs typically were 80 cm thick, the upper 30 cm of which was turbid.

For a distance of over 100 km from shore, the eastern pro-delta was covered by characteristic, slick, freshwater ice largely bare of Snow, as plotted in Fig. 3. In accordance with the known eastward water flow from the river, such ice was not observed on the northern pro-delta. At Ref. No. 3 (Fig. 3) we sampled the ice in a small, 4.5 m deep coastal lagoon from which the drinking water for the Tiksi military base is pumped. The very transparent freshwater ice of this lagoon contained large amounts of spotty sedimentary inclusions as much as 10 cm in diameter. At about 40 cm depth, a striking layer of gas bubbles 1 to 10 cm in diameter was observed.

All young, thin, drifting ice of probable origin at over 20 m depths within or seaward of the polynya, appeared clean. The ice from Ref. No. 14 northward

(Fig. 3) included some multi-year ice, which probably originated in the East

Siberian Sea and not the Laptev Sea. At Ref. Nos. 16 and 17 we observed and sampled turbid ice. The lack of surface sediment concentrations on individual slabs of turbid ice sampled indicates it had not yet experienced a melt season, and therefore was first-year ice. Patches of such dirty ice were Seen from the air starting at 77'30' N, and in increasing amounts northward thereof.

On a direct flight line from Kotelnyy to Bennett Island we found the lead closed several kilometers NE of the main island Kotelnyy (Fig. 3). At this point we observed a 500 m wide, NW-SE-trending system of pressure and shear-ridges several meters high. Openings in the rather smooth ice several kilometers beyond these ridges revealed that the ice here was mobile, arid the system of pressure ridges therefore marked the fast-ice edge. The distribution of Open water and compressed ice around Bennett Island itself suggested westward ice drift at the time. From the landing site on a beach near the

NE

tip of the island we walked 50 m northward into a rubble field of ice blocks 80-100 cm thick. Fifty percent of the ice contained turbid layers 40 to 70 cm thick. In several cases we noted layers of concentrated sediment over turbid ice, indicating that the ice had been subjected to a melt season and therefore was more than one year old. Repetition of identical sequences of turbid ice overlain by a sediment-rich layer in the Cross section of a rubble pile revealed that a 90 cm thick floe with surficial sediment concentrations was "rafted" by compressional forces after the first melt season (Fig. 13).

Flying northward from Bennett Island for 3 km at less than 100

m

altitude we noticed the widespread occurrence of patchy turbid ice in the westward drift.

From 400 m altitude we had not recognized such turbid ice on the outbound flight. With the knowledge gained directly on the ice and flying low off Bennett

Island, however, we were able to recognize locally turbid ice in very recent, snow-free pressure ridges over the entire distance between Bennett and

Kotelnyy Islands.

Fig. 13: A

90 crn thick ice flow with surficial sedirnent concentrations was "rafted" by cornpressional forces.

5.2.4 Ice thicknesses

At all ice-coring sites except for that in the Lena River channel ( Ref. No. 2), the ice floes have been penetrated tota.lly by ice drilling, providing exact ice thickness data. We purposely avoided areas disturbed by pressure ridges, and cored exclusively on flat surfaces. Ice thicknesses in the area of investigation ranged between roughly 0.80 m and 2.37 m (Fig. 14). Except for a few data points, it is possible to establish a geographical trend in ice thicknesses. The fast ice region is characterized by thicknesses from Ca. 1.5 m to 2.0 m. This agrees with the ice chart by AAR1 for the month of March, 1992, which shows ice thicknesses of 1.95

m

in the Lena Delta area, and of 1.43 to 1.68 m in the region West of Kotelnyy

Island.

According to and 2.5 m in exceptionally cold winters. Within a distance of 1-3 km from the landward polynya edge, thicknesses decrease to 0.9 to 0.8

8), thinning to values of Ca. 0.1

m

(Ref. Nos. 6 and

-

0.2 m within 10 m from the fast-ice edge and

Open water. From the polynya seawards, ice thicknesses increase progressively.

At Ref. No. 11, ice thickness amounts 0.98 m, whereas the northernmost sample location (Ref. No. 17) situated within the Transpolar Drift regime already shows an ice thickness of 2.15 m.

An exception from this general ice-thickness distribution pattern occurs at Ref.

No. 10, where we sampled the already mentioned rubble field of turbid ice. The ice of the freshwater-reservoir at Ref. No. 3 was 2.15 m, and that of the Lena

River was over 1.3 m thick.

Fig. 14:

Bathymetric chart with ice thicknesses indicated by nurnbers.

The location of the polynya is marked by a black line.

5 . 3 Sea ice sediments

5.3.1 Occurrence of sediments in the Arctic ice cover covered by particulate matter. Most important mechanisms bringing sediment into the sea ice are summarized in DREWRY (1986), THIEDE et al. (1987) and

REIMNITZ & SAARSO (1991). Field observations during the E.S.A.R.E. '92 expedition reveal that sediment accumulations in the Laptev Sea ice differ from those in the Central Arctic Ocean.

In the Central Arctic Ocean, discolored patches of 10-20 m diameter with diffusely distributed sediment particles in the upper 3 cm of sea ice prevail. Such patches can cover as much as 50 % of the total sea ice surface. In addition, single sediment surface layers directly below the Snow cover and multiple layers

(10-15 cm thick) within the interior of the ice floes occur. Besides, sediment accumulations within cryoconite holes and sparse sediment accumulations On

ridge surfaces have been observed. The latter are mostly restricted to one side of the ridge implying recent eolian transport. The type of sediment accumulations indicate severe redistribution of sediment particles within the multi-year ice due to several freezing and melting cycles.

In contrast, sediment in Laptev Sea ice is distributed diffusely over a broader

1989) could be found especially in a region of ice rubble 10 miles west of

Kotelnyy

,

around Ref. No. 10 (Fig. 3), and over a distance of 70 km to the south thereof. Some of the slabs contained delicately structured sediment inclusions

(we called them "puff balls"), 5-10 cm in diameter, with sediment and fibrous organic matter, which are strongly suggestive of entrainment by anchor ice (Fig.

15). Evidence for sediment incorporation due to suspension freezing in the polynya, however, could not be observed during April, 1992. Though frazil was generated in the polynya waters and drifted away in bands parallel to the wind direction, the freshly formed slush ice from the air appeared to be free of particulate matter. Layers of sediment enrichment or dark patches of surficial sediment concentrations as in the Central Arctic were not observed, implying that redistributional processes had not been active yet. While the mode of sediment inclusions in the Laptev Sea proper indicated a young age for the ice, that sampled updrift at Bennett Island was older.

The very transparent freshwater ice sampled in the Tiksi drinking-water reservoir contained very many of the delicately structured sediment inclusions already described above. Surrounded by clean ice, these types of sediment inclusion

Patterns suggest entrainment through anchor ice. High concentrations of similar sediment inclusions were also Seen in the ice Cover of the Lena River itself (Ref.

No. 2, Fig. 3). From the air such ice could be traced for long distances throughout the delta area. Fine to very coarse terrigenous material frozen into the river ice near beaches has been observed, however, is assessed to play only a minor role in the sedimentary budget of the Lena River.

Fig.

15: Image of delicate sedimentary structures entrained by anchor ice. Scale in centimeters.

5.3.2 Potential for eolian sediment transport

Aerial observations were made to determine visually whether the movement of drifting snow also incorporates sediments from exposed land surfaces. The observations were carried out both from the aircraft at 3000 m altitude on the flights between St. Petersburg and the Lena Delta, and from the helicopter at altitudes between 100 to 400 m in the study area. The dominating wind direction sometimes can be detected from the tails of snow originating from larger surface obstacles such as ice hummocks or rock outcrops, and bare surfaces larger than

10 to 30 m also can be recognized from the air. Off northern Alaska, kilometer- long tongues of discolored snow originating from exposed crests of barrier islands have been studied (REIMNITZ &

MAURER

1979). Such tails are also connected with sand dunes. Even Landsat Images of the Prudhoe Bay oil field show such tails off plowed roads or drilling pads (unpublished observations).

Similar findings are not available for Siberian coastal regions. Light conditions to observe such discolorations commonly were excellent during our flights, and exposed ground surfaces were Seen even in coastal areas. Signs of eolian sediment displacements, however, were not percepted.

The ice cover of the Lena River itself in the vicinity of Ref. No. 2 (Fig. 3) was an exception. Surrounded by mountains, and affected by 25 knot orographic winds on the day of our study, very noticeable discoloration was observed from an altitude of 100 m along the west bank. Freshwater ice has a very smooth surface compared to sea ice. On this slick surface snow has difficulties to accrete, and therefore large bare spots exist. Sand grains and even pebbles were found in local Snow patches on the ice. When placed on slick surfaces, the wind easily propelled such clasts across the ice. The rather steep banks along the shores, on which gravity can move clasts onto the ice, and the slickness of the ice, may explain the occurrence of coarse sediment On the river.

The snow cover in proximity of a windward shore (Ref. Nos. 3, 12, and 13 in Fig.

3) was studied at three additional sites. Only at Ref. No. 13, where patches of bare ground occurred, we noticed excrements of lemings and plant material at a distance of about 30 m from the land surface. Sediment concentrations measured in the snow on sea ice 100 m downwind from land show as much as

34 mgll (Table 3 , appendix). This is not abnormally high, as shown next.

5.3.3 Sediment load

The sediment load (sediment in mg per liter meltwater) in snow samples frorn the area investigated is generally low and ranges between approximately 0.01 and

200 mgll (Fig. 16, Table 3). Since these sediment particles occur in fresh snow, they were probably incorporated by eolian transport. A few exceptionally high values between Ca. 100 and 200 mgll were measured

in

Lena River Snow samples (Ref. No. 2), which are mainly due to increased eolian transport (strong orographic winds) and local surface topography. The sediment load of the remaining snow samples never exceeded Ca. 50 mgll. In this respect, Snow from fast ice does not differ systematically from that of drift ice samples.

The sediment load in ice cores (Table 4 appendix; Fig. 17) is generally higher than in snow samples. Values range between approximately 0.09 mgll and Ca.

3800 mgll. The spatial distribution reveals that highest sediment concentrations

occur in the northernmost ice cores, which are situated in the Transpolar Drift.

Here, values range from ca. 29 mgll to 800 mgll. Maximum sediment concentrations of as much as ca. 3800 mgll were measured north of Bennett

Island.

Fig. 16:

Sediment load (mgll) in rnelted Snow, averaged frorn three sarnples per site. The edge of the polynya is rnarked by a black line.

In contrast, ice cores retrieved from the fast ice area have sediment concentrations of only ca. 2.5 to 27 mgll. Exceptionally high values of Ca. 47 mgll and 262 mgll were measured in the main Lena outflow, where they are due to high fluvial sediments loads, and at Ref. No. 10 south of the polynya, respectively. Causes for the latter are still unclear to us.

Sediment concentrations found in ice of the Laptev Sea are generally lower than those in sea ice from the Central Arctic Ocean. Here, near-surface concentration values range as high as Ca. 57,000 mgll, indicating that sediments were already concentrated by one or several melting and freezing cycles.

The preliminary grain size analysis carried out by estimation from smear slides shows the dominance of clay and silt fractions (Table 5 appendix, Fig. 18). Sea ice sediments are either silty clays or clayey silts. These observations are systematically gathered "dirty ice

" in the Central Arctic Ocean.

Fig. 17: Sediment concentrations (mgll) in melted ice cores. The location of the polynya is marked by a black line. Data represent mean values calculated from as many as 7 representative ice pieces per core.

The coarse grain fraction (>63 pm) in sea ice sediments discovered during

E.S.A.R.E. '92 expedition is almost negligible. The concentrations of sand fraction range between 0-36 % of total sample (Table 6 appendix, Fig. 19). In the drift ice and fast ice areas, the sand fraction in turbid ice occurs only in trace amounts or is missing. At Ref. No. 10 however, exceptional high sand portions of up to 36.3 % are present. In contrast to sea ice, the sediments in Lena River ice are dominated by the coarse fraction. Portions of 77.3

-

98.6 % of total sediment have been observed, the causes of which will be discussed below.

The low sand content of sediment in the ice of the Laptev Sea suggests a low energy level during sediment entrainment, perhaps from a suspended state. We believe that entrainment by frazil scavenging from the water column may

be

responsible for most of the ice-rafted sediment collected. These findings are consistent with the fine grain sizes reported by

WOLLENBURG

(1991) and

NÃœRNBER

(1992) for sediments collected from dirty ice in the Central Arctic

Ocean.

Sand

Fig. 18: Grain size investigations of ice sediment sarnples. Sediments are mainly silty clays or clayey silts. Sand is scarce, and found rnainly in river ice.

Fig.

19:

Coarse fraction

(>63

prn) in sea ice sediment samples indicated by hatched bars. Tr. is trace arnounts. The longest bar represents Ca. 98% sand fraction. Several bars per Station simply indicate the variation in sand content.

A

systematic component analysis has not been performed yet. However, a brief visual investigation of smear slides (Table 5) reveals quartz, feldspar, rock fragments, mica, clay and heavy minerals to be the dominant terrigeneous sediment components. Biogeneous particles >63

pm

are rare being exclusively ostracods and shells. Plant remains could only be observed in ice samples from

the Lena River (Fig. 3, Ref. No. 2) and from anchor ice samples at Ref. No. 10. In contrast to ice samples from the Central Arctic, where diatoms have offen been

Laptev Sea ice samples are nearly void of diatoms. During the time of sampling, no fluid phases were found in the sea ice due to low air temperatures, prohibiting any diatom growth. Diatom growth was exclusively restricted to the bottom sides of ice floes. At Ref. Nos. 6, 8, 11, 14, and 15 bottom sides of floes were brownish colored indicating the beginning diatom growth in Arctic spring.

5.3.4

Particle flux within the water column

Samples collected in traps during E.S.A.R.E. '92 and the preceding expedition

(AMEIS) to the Same area in 1991 are still in process. Particle flux values within the water column therefore are not yet available, but preliminary comparisons indicate an order of magnitude higher flux in 1991. Both traps were deployed 10 m below the sea surface at the edge of the fast ice, the first one NW of Kotelnyy, where the water depth is 17.5 m, the second one at Ref. No. 12 (Fig. 3), where the water depth

is

28 m. The much higher particle flux at the shallow site in the flaw lead Supports the belief of polynya of the southern Laptev Sea does not exceed 22 m. As knowledge of entrainment by suspension freezing in the seasonally shifting polynya is crucial for this study, the need for further work On particle flux and convection depths is obvious.

In

situ

water column temperature measurements showed surface values of -0.65' C and near bottom values (27

m)

of -0.55' C.

5 . 4

Anthropo-chemical pollutants i n the Laptev Sea

Results of anthropo-chemical pollutant studies are not available yet, but those of the 1990 AAR1 research program are shown in Table 7. Compared to the Baltic

Sea, one of the most polluted bodies of world ocean waters, the AAR1 investigations show relatively high concentrations of PCB, HCH, DDT group

(DDT, DDD, DDE) and PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) in Siberian shelf water masses and the ice cover.

Table 7 : Mean annual concentrations of pollutants in Siberian shelf areas

(MELNIKOV

& VLASOV

1990)

P o l l u t a n t s

PCBs

HCH

DDT

PHC

Concentrations

Sea Water

Sea

1 .OO ng/l

1.66 ng/l

Ice

2.00 ngll

1.18 ngll

0.46 ng/I

15.5 pg/I

0.41 ngll

16.2 pgll

River discharge and waste waters of coastal industrial settlements are primary contributors of chemical pollutants into Arctic shelf water and sea ice cover.

Extensive yearly sea ice export from the Laptev Sea to the Central Arctic Ocean thus could be responsible for a widespread distribution of chemical pollutants.

Concentration and distribution patterns of anthropo-chemical pollutants are believed to record recent ice formation and drift processes in the entire Eastern

Arctic Ocean (Siberian shelf area, Central Arctic Ocean, ablation areas). Re- identification of anthropo-chemical ice inclusions in the entire Arctic Ocean is supposed to give references to Arctic sea ice drift patterns and will be a focal point of further investigations.

6 .

D I S C U S S I O N

The ice regime of the Laptev Sea is very different from that of the Beaufort Sea, where most past studies of sediment entrainment, load, and transport by sea ice rotating Beaufort Gyre, and winter winds that blow obliquely onshore, result in ice convergence, pressure, and formation of the stamukhi Zone characterized by massive grounded pressure ridges at 20 to 40 m water depth. Except for a short, recurring polynya in deep water off the MacKenzie, there normally is no Open water on the shelf during winter. Sediment entrainment therefore occurs with the last, Open and shallow water of the summer. The Laptev Sea, on the other hand, is an area of ice divergence, emphasized by an 1800-km long, recurring flaw lead along the fast ice edge. This edge is not stabilized by large, grounded pressure ridges. The flaw lead therefore is a highly dynamic feature, in which mid-winter sediment entrainment by suspension freezing might be expected to occur under suitable weather conditions.

6 . 1

Effect of atmospheric circulation On ice generation and drift

Kotelnyy meteorological data show a close relation to local ice formation and ice dynamics in the Laptev Sea polynya. Due to wind speeds mostly exceeding 6 mls and temperatures almost constantly below -15

'C,

continuous ice formation occurred during the field period in April. Depending on predominating local wind directions, recently formed ice is carried away from or towards the fast ice edge.

Northeastern winds drive ice nearly vertically towards the fast ice edge north off

Kotelnyy Island. Here, the flaw lead was observed closed during helicopter flights on April 23 after a 6 day period (April 17 to April 22) of strong northeastern wind. The Open water area west off Kotelnyy Island at the Same time is characterized by transport of young ice nearly parallel to the fast ice edge and against the northern edge of the bulge further to the south. This was observed on an April 22 flight across the windward edge of the fast ice bulge north of Ref. No.

10, where the drift had closed the lead and compressed the ice into ridges.

During a 4 day period of northwestern wind in early April (3 to 7), and before our arrival in the area, the polynya evidently was closed west of Kotelnyy Island. A

Landsat image recorded on April 9 (Fig. 20) shows this. It was taken after two days of strong northeastern wind (April 7 to 9 ) , which re-opened the formerly closed lead after the compressed ice had consolidated enough to stay intact. The trailing edge of the semi-consolidated drift-ice matches the configuration of the fast-ice edge (Fig. 20). Thus, wind incidents of several-day duration have great influence On ice formation, movements and drift patterns. Rhythmical changes of local winds probably are mainly responsible for Laptev Sea flaw lead opening, closing and oscillations.

Fig.

20:

Landsat irnage frorn April

9, 1992 shows trailing of the semi-consolidated drift ice (arrow in the

Zone of Open water). The polynya west of

Kotelnyy Island has a width of 10-15 km.

Dominance of northeastern and occasional strong southeastern and northwestern winds at Kotelnyy region during April 1992 are believed to have short range influence on local ice drift Patterns in the northeastern area of investigation, seaward of the flaw lead (Fig. 21).

An average southwestward drift rate of 8 cmls (0.15 knots) was measured by

GPS readings for a large floe at Ref. No.14 (Fig. 3) on April 17 over a 7-hr period, at the beginning of 7 days of strong northeastern winds. Thus, large ice sheets could be transported during this period for a distance of 50-100 km to southwestern directions (Fig. 21). April 1992 Kotelnyy meteorological data (Fig.

1983), which show mainly southeastern wind directions. According to wind data and GPS readings the local ice drift movements during April this year are partially distinct from presumed Laptev Sea ice drift during April to June after conclusion can be made, that Laptev Sea local Pattern of drift ice movements are probably much more complex than commonly shown in generalized ice maps.

6 . 2 Sediment entrainment

Wind as a potential transport agent for terrigeneous material onto the Arctic sea

&

NOONE 1985;

KINDL 1924; RAHN 1982; REIMNITZ & MAURER 1979). Especially, PFIRMAN et al.

(1989a) speculate that it might be important for the Siberian shelf areas. Our measurements in snow, however, indicate that eolian sediment transport is insignificant for the sedimentary budget of Laptev Sea ice. The overall particle concentrations in Snow are low compared to those in sea ice. Moreover, the

expected higher concentrations in the proximity of windward coasts and an offshore decrease in sediment content could not be observed. Except in the very restricted environment of the Lena River (Ref. No. 2 in Fig. 3), where clear discoloration of the Snow Cover was very noticeable even from the air, long- range eolian transport is insignificant.

Fig.

21: Local ice drifi in the noriheastern study area (grey arrow) as indicated from meteorological data and GPS readings for parts of April 1992. Black arrows indicate presurned general ice drin directions during period frorn April to June (after GUBKOVICH et al. 1983).

Our observations indicate that sediment entrainment by suspension freezing is not active during the period from February to May in the Laptev Sea. Prograding of the fast ice from shallow coastal areas to the 20-30 m isobath occurs during the cold period between November and January (Fig. 12). Shallow shelf areas and wind induced

turbulente

of supercooled water are thought to promote the rnechanism and incorporation of sediment and thus different chernical pollutants.

The extensive shallows were covered by ice at the time of field observations. We suspect that large loads are exported from the Laptev Sea during fall, and that such dirty ice rnight be recognized as a seasonal signal in the Transpolar Drift during winter or next spring. In accordance with the hypothezised high fall entrainrnent rates in Siberian source areas, amounts of sedirnent released from

melting sea ice in ablation areas would fluctuate rhythmically. After unfavorable autumn sediment-entrainment conditions, deposition in ablation areas could be reduced or stopped for several years. Such variations in sediment flux are suggested by very low loads observed in Fram Strait from June 15 to July 3,

1990 and very high loads a month later (pers. com. Erk Reimnitz, May 1992).

Knowledge of modern sea-ice formation, sediment entrainment, transport, and ablation should eventually lead toward a better understanding of fluctuations in

Arctic Ocean deposition Patterns during Quaternary glaciallinterglacial cycles.

With a sea level temporary more than 120 m below that of the present during the late Pleistocene glacial maximum 18.000 y. B.P. (BARD et al. 1988), the present wide Arctic shelf shallows were dry. Most areas of the recent Laptev Sea were covered by alluvial and loess-ice plains. In some parts of the eastern Arctic the submerged shoreline was located at the level of the present day 100 m isobath sediment entrainment would not be very effective during these periods, because they heavily depend on the extent of shallow water regions. Also, temporary absence or areal reduction of the East Siberian polynya "ice factories" in the geological past might have had great influence on ice production rates for the entire Arctic Ocean and thus a redundant effect on global climate processes. Due to the worldwide postglacial transgression the water-covered shallows in the eastern Arctic progressively assumed the modern extent. However, in accordance to paleogeographic maps (HOLMES 1974), the polynya ice formation- and sediment entrainment processes could have been recommenced at the very earliest 15,000 y. B.P., but most likely not until 11,500

Laptev Sea flaw leads alone during the coldest period from October to April. A similar ice volume is produced over the rest of the shelf. Thus, through the loss of the Laptev sea as an ice production area alone, the new-ice budget of the Arctic

Ocean would be reduced by well over 1000 km31yr during cold geological periods. Sea-ice extent, ablation rates and certainly the related sediment transport and deposition rates probably could have been much smaller for the entire Arctic Ocean than today.

6.3 Indications for different source areas

Our investigation of sediment load in the ice of the Laptev Sea and that northward thereof shows that it has different source areas. The patches of dirty ice within the fast ice area probably originated from areas shallower than 20 m within the Laptev Sea during fall. Dirty drift ice sampled north of the New

Siberian Islands and off Bennett Island probably originated from sources to the east, perhaps as far away as the Chukchi Sea, following the Transpolar Drift.

Future analyses of clay minerals, and of anthropogenic pollutants should ascertain this belief. Ice produced in the Laptev Sea polynya in January to May provides only little, if any sediment to the Transpolar Drift. Any sediment contained would probably originale from 20-30 m water depths.

6 . 4

Freshwater influence on suspension freezing processes

Multi-year ice was only Seen north- and northeastward of the New Siberian

Islands, but not in the Laptev Sea itself. This sea therefore was completely ice free prior to the freezeup of 1991, and the ice observed and sampled records events of one winter only. A 100-km wide region of continuous to patchy fresh- water ice along the eastern delta flank is a striking feature, when compared to coastal ice of Arctic Alaska. Discharge of northern Alaska's small rivers is greatly reduced or terminated at the time of freeze-up at sea, and therefore the shallow coastal waters are mixed to the bottom at salinities of 32 ppt during freeze-up water ice Seen far seaward off the Lena River indicates that river discharge here dominated the hydrography well into freeze-up. Surface water salinities at Ref.

Nos. 4, 5, and 6 of 0.0, 14.0, and 11.0 ppt, respectively, show the lasting influence of the river even in April, when there should be no actual discharge

(Fig. 5).

ZAKHAROV

(1966) wrote that in the Laptev Sea flaw lead the freshening by large rivers stabilize the water column so firmly that convection can not exceed 22 m.

However, in most areas this is "quite sufficient for convection to extend to the bottom", and this convection aerates bottom waters and promotes benthic life.

This would imply that the formation of frazil and its accretion On the sea floor as anchor ice could occur in mid winter in some areas below the polynya. The apparent absence of sediment-laden new ice seaward of the lead, and the low particle flux Seen in the trap deployed in the lead, on the other hand, suggests that suspension freezing does not extend to the bottom in mid winter.

Laboratory experiments showed that the formation of anchor ice is greatly facilitated when bottom sediments are ice bonded, or when the interstitial water is frozen which also diffuse into surface sediments, are replaced by waters of higher salinity during the onset of winter. The relatively low salinities within sediments are preserved for some time after river discharge ceases by the slow rates of molecular diffusion of seawater salts back into the sediment (REIMNITZ et al.

1987). This salinity lag in bottom sediments results in ice bonding, when more saline sea waters at their lower freezing temperature sweep across the bottom.

Freezing point differences across the waterlsediment interface should be much greater off this large river, and therefore the formation of anchor ice more prevalent. Strong evidence for the action of anchor ice, in form of small patches of delicately structured sediment inclusions, was Seen not only in fresh-water ice around the delta, but also

in

turbid sea ice. As nothing is known about these phenomena and the bottom-water conditions in the Laptev Sea, they must be studied in the future.

7 .

C O N C L U S I O N S

The most important results of E.S.A.R.E. '92 are summarized as follows:

A

Zone of large grounded pressure ridges (stamukhi) stabilizing the fast ice on the Arctic shelf of North American is not Seen along the edge of the fast ice in the Laptev Sea. Its absence reflects a lack of onshore ice pressure.

A 10 to 15-km wide, recurring flaw lead (polynya) instead borders the edge of the smooth fast ice, and is maintained by dominantly offshore winds.

A large volume of freshwater discharged by the Lena River and its eastward deflection is recorded in a 100-km wide region surface largely bare of snow, east of the delta.

of

freshwater ice, with

a

slick

During the period from January through April the lead lies at water depths ranging from 20 to 30 m, with the configuration of the fast ice edge at least locally controlled by shoals.

Large amounts of ice are produced in the polynya, which totally surrounds the Laptev Sea for a distance of nearly 1800 km.

During the period of our study, only first-year ice occurred in the Laptev

Sea, indicating that the sea was totally ice free during late summer of the previous year.

The ice produced seaward of 20 m and continuously advected offshore was clean in April. We believe that a water column firmly stratified from river water input may prevent effective sediment entrainment during late winter.

Conditions for sediment entrainment may be optimal during freeze-up, when vast shallow' regions are exposed to fall storms. Continuous ice export, with a short period of entrainment followed by a long period of clean ice production would cause large and rythmical variations in sediment flux out of the Laptev Sea.

The occurrence of delicately structured sediment inclusions and of turbid ice within the fast ice, indicate that anchor- and frazil ice were principal entrainment mechanisms.

Wind transport from land to sea must be ruled out as important for the occurrence of fine particulate matter in pack ice of the Transpolar Drift.

The ice drifting westward past the Laptev Sea carries large amounts of sediment compared to that advected from this sea during winter.

The yearly occurrence of the flaw lead is a function of present atmospheric pressure patterns. Rates of ice production, release of cold brines, and sediment flux from the Laptev Sea probably varied during the postglacial rise of sea level, and will vary with any climatic change.

Short periods of strong wind incidents have great influence on ice formation, polynya opening, closing and oscillation and the patterns of drift ice movement.

14) The vertical particulate flux at 10 m depth was high at a site with a total water depth of 17.5 m in May 1991 and very low at a site with a total water depth of 28 m in April 1992. This indicates a different resuspension rate.

The results are in a good agreement with

ZAKHAROV

(1966) who estimated the vertical convection in Laptev Sea flaw leads reaching 22 m as a maximum.

8 .

A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S

Naming all the persons involved in making this study possible can not be done in this context, but they certainly are not too many for us to remember fondly. We are indebted to Prof. Jör Thiede for his great support of Arctic sea-ice research.

Dr. Heidemarie Kassens has been a inalienable helping hand in GEOMAR preparations for the expedition. We also mention Dr. Sergey

M.

Pryamikov of

AARI, who was in overall charge of the difficult logistics and the many arrangements. The helicopter Crew, especially the pilots, earned our highest respect and trust, and we thank them. We also are greatful to William Shatohin, the chief of the small navigation station at Kotelnyy, for his wonderful hospitality and authentic foods he prepared. Research funds were provided by the

Bundesministerium fü Forschung und Technologie (BMFT), by the Deutsche

Forschungsgemeinschaft contract No. N 00014

(DFG),

by DFG-Leibniz TH 20015-1 and by

U.S.

ONR

-

88- J -1087.

9 .

R E F E R E N C E S

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Nature, 345, 405-410.

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In L.A.Brigham (ed.):

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In A. Grantz, L. Johnson & J.F. Sweeney (eds.): The Arctic

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In S. G. Gorshkov (ed.): World Ocean Atlas, Vol. 3,

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Russian Team Solves Arctic Mystery.

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Polar

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&

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1 0 . A P P E N D I X

Table 1 : List of stations

Daie

06.04.1992

Jul. Date;lStaiion

Table 2:

List o f samples

.

Date

06.04.19S

06.04.19S

07.04.19S

07.04.19E

Jul. Daie-Slat

97-1

97-2

98-1

98-1-1

Laiitude

71Â 45' N

7 I 0 4 5 ' N

71' 45' N

07.04.199 98-1-2

Longitude

128O 45' E

128'45'E

127' 09' E

Sample

Slones

Sand

Cornrnents

Hill behind Tiksi town

Tiksi beach sand

Ice

Ice

Ice surface

Ice m r e

Geological

Stones

Sand

Sample 1 (first landing) Laser

G s

No. 2 grain size sample

Lena-Rwer

Lena 0-10

cm

(PI)

Ica core lce core

0-40 cm

41-90

cm,

Ice core

RNer ice core

90-130 crn

Lena 47-55 crn (PI)

cm

Snow

Slone

C

Ice

Lena River (Pf)

Frorn east beach Lena-River

No. 2 grain size sample Laser Gs

TTU

No. 3 sampte Laser Gs

TTU

130 cm (SM)

E Bank (Lena-River)

Stones frorn beach Lena-RNer

Frorn beach (W) Lena-River

C

Sand

Laser Gs TTU

Frorn beach

(W) Lena-River

Date

09.04.19!

Jul. Date-Stff

100-1

Latitude

72' 30'

N

09.04.19t 100-1-1

09.04.19!

09.04.1!3!

09.04.19!

100-1-2

100-1-3

100-2 73O 29.7' N

09.04.19S 100-2-2

10. 04.19E 101-1 73O 44,6'

N

10.04.19S 101-1-2

11.04.19s

102-1 74O 05,6'

N

11.04.19s 102-1-2

II.04.19< 102-1-3 lI.04.19E

102-2

11.04.19s 102-2-1

74O 28.7' N

11.04.19s 102-2-2

11. 04.199

11.04.199

102-2-3

102-2-4

12.04.199 103-1

12.04.199 103-1-1

71Â 485'

N

Sample Comments

Snow

I

Snow

(Pf)

Laser GsTTU

A with Aic. (Ab)

Ads. Column Cfg. pollution enriched from sea water

Fiiiered SPM

1

(one) filter used

Ice Sample 100 cm (SM)

Ice core Ice core from 34-47

Bottom sed.

üotto sediment from sub ice corer

Sediment rest Sediment red. from sub ice corer

Water Sample (SM)

Ica w r e

81-160 cm

+

103-1-1 mitte ice core Mixed

+

103-1-1 unten

Ice core 0-80

cm

+

103-1 -1

(oben)

Water

Water

Lena delta 17.5 m water

depht.

Bailed out 01 ice hole.

160 cm deep

14 ppm sal. probably high. (PI)

3018

Bottom sed. Bottom sed. from sub ice corer

Snow

(Pf)

Bottom sed. üotto sed. from sub ice corer (rest) lce core ice core bottom and sea water, sal. 0 0100 (Gr)

Bottom Laser Gs, TTU

C

Laser Gs, TTU

Ice w r e

0-60 cm

Ica w r e

61-120 cm b w r e 121-178cm

Water

C

Sample

+ slush

Jus1 bottom ice

11.5 ppm (PF)

318 0

Snow

Sample melted in microwave (Pf)

Snow

Snow

(Gr)

W i h Akohol (Ab)

Water Water for 318 0

Bottom sed. üotto sed. from sub \ce corer (ca.

12 cm) lce core 0-78cm ice core 0-78 cm

Ice w r e 0-78 cm lce w r e

Ice core bottom and sea water; 14.5 0100 in ice hole (Gr)

Nater a. slush SM

Ice core SM

Snow A biol. 4% Ak. (Ab)

tee

core

30-55 cm Laser GsTTU, tuttoki layer from ice core

üotto sed.

B bottom Laser Gs TTU

Snow A biol.

Ice w r e 152-156 cm, bottom of ice core and filtered sea water (Gr)

Snow Snow for 318 0

(Pf)

üotto sed. Bottom sed. from sub ice corer

Icacore SM

Nater a. slush SM

Ice w r e

150-155 cm, ice core bottom and filtered sea water (Gr)

Ice core 0-50 cm lce core 51-100 cm

tee

core

101-150 cm

üotto Laser Gs, TTU

Snow A biol. 4% Alc.

Snow

Snow for

318 0 (Pf)

Bottom

sed.

Sub

ice wrer (ca.

10 cm)

Ice

core

8690 an,

ica

core bottom

and

filtered sea water, (GR)

Snow A wilh Alc. (Ab)

Bottom

sed.

Taken from sub ice corer

üotto

sed.

Taken from sub ice corer

üotto

sed.

Taken from sub ice corer

Bottom

sed.

Taken Irom sub ice corer k a w r e 90 cm lengih and 113-2-2 (66-135 k a core

90 cm lenglh and 113-2-2 (0-65 cm) k a core

Water

SM

SM

Date

12.041'

12.04.1!

16.04.X

17.04.1!

17. 04.15

17. 04.15

17. 04.13

17.04.1E

17. 04.15

17. 04.19

17.04.19

17.04.19

17. 04.19'

17. 04.19!

17. 04.19!

20.04.19!

20. 04.195

20. 04.199

20.04.199

Jul. Date-Stz

103-1-1

103-1

107-1

108-1

108-1-1

([email protected])

(108-1-213)

108-1-2

108-1-4

108-2

108-2-1

108-2-3

108-2-4

108-2-5

108-2-6

111-1

111-1-1

111-1-2

111-1-4

Latitude t-

71Â 45' N

7S0 59,s'

N

76O 593' h

76' 00'N

79' 00.9' N

Longiiude

129O 00,O' l

128O 45' E

137'53,I'i

134' 5 8 3 'E

133¡05,1'

1Oo

01.261

'

Sample l ~ o m m e n t s

tee

w r e l ~ i d d l e

tee

core Lower and 100-1-3, rnixed

Water Water for 318 0 (Pf)

cm

Snow

Water

Ice core

üotto sed.

Snow

Snow

Fehes

Snow

A Snow for318 0 (Pf)

Sample (SM)

SM

From sub ice corer

A with Alc. (Gr)

Snow with Ale. (Ab)

Ref. meas. PCB, Bay of Tiksi

Laser Gs, TTU dusty Snow on the coasi line near Kotelnyy Stack

C

Snow

Snow

Botlom

Water

A biolog. 4 %Ale. (Ab)

B Laser Gs TTU

Sub ice water for Tritium (Pf)

No. 2 Laser

Gs,

Ice

Ice

Ice core

No. 1 Laser Gs, TTU

0-90 crn. and 11 2-3-2, 121-180

cm

Mixed, and 112-3-2 (61-120 crn)

Ice core

Ice wre Mixed, and 112-3-2 (0-60 crn)

Ads. Column

Filteret) SPM

Ice core

Org. polluiion enriched frorn sea water

1 (one) filter used

135138 cm, ice w r e bottorn, 4% Alc., (Gr)

Vater

a.

siush SM

Ice core

Ice

Bottornsed.

Seafborsed.

;eafbor sed.

Bottom

Seafloor

Botlom

0-90 cm,

SM

Snapper

No

No

ard

11 2-3-2 (0-60 crn)

Seafbor sed.

Seafbor sed. No

With large sione

No

Bottorn sample t h r o q h seal hole, with cucumber

Laser Gs, TTU

Snow

Snow

Water

Ice

A biol., 4% Ale. (Ab)

A biol., 4% Ale., (Gr)

SM

SM

Bonorn sed.

Ice core

Lead line, taken from weight

94-97

cm,

% Ale., (Gr)

Grap. bottorn sediment, surface

Boiiorn sed.

üoiio sed. eafbor sed.

Ice core

Grap. bottom sediment, surface

No

Ece core

Icecore

Water

Snow

Dirty ice

Water

I

0-98cm and 113-1-2, 141-210 Cm

0-98 crn

and

113-1-2, 0-71 cm

0-98cmand 113-1-2,71-140cm

Sub

ice

waterfor Tritium (Pf)

Snow for (Pf)

Turbid

Sub ice waterfor 318 0 (PI)

I

Ice

C

Turbid ice

Meltwater

Snow

Snow

No. 1 Laser Gs, TTU, turbid ice frorn pressure r i i e

No. 3 Laser Gs, TTU, thin turbid layer in riiges

No. 4 Laser Gs, TTU, very turbid granular ice

No. 5 Laser Gs, TTU, sediment layer on one side of ice block

Core from t u r b i ice

Frorn 5 jars cornbined Mart, thinks ER'S, stat.

A, 4% Alc. (Gr)

A, 4% Ale. fater a. siush SM

(Ab)

Ice

Ice core

Ica core ids. Colurnn iiiered SPM

Water

Ice

Ice

Ice core lce core

Ice core

SM

0-80 crn,

ard

112-2-2 (0-80 crn)

81-170 crn. and 112-2-3 (0-30 crn

+

90-123 Cm)

Org. pollutwn enriched frorn sea water

1 (one) filter used

Sub

'W

waler (Pt) 318 0

Conc. 1,TTU

Conc. 2,TTU

72-175 cm, Laser Gs, TTU

Mixed and 112-2-2 81-123 crn

2 cm, 170 crn core in fittered seawater 20 um, 4 % Alc. (Gr)

Date

20.04.1992

Jul. Date-Slat

111-1-61111-1-

21. 04.1992

23.04.1992

23.04.1992

114-1-7

114-1-8 (a)

23.04.1992

114-1-8 (b)

Longitude

40- 01,261'

135'26,8' E

135¡26,8

E

14O004'E

133- 11,7'E

133'11,7"E

132O 12,9'

E

130' 28,6' E

140O 21,O'

E

Sample ice cores

Ice cores

Bonorn

Comments

Two combmed

\Ce cores for 318 0 (Pf)

Two k e wres

Sediment

Water

Seafbor sed.

.

Sediment trap sarnple, TTU

Suriace

and

bottorn salinity

No

~onomsurt.

Snapper

Seafbor sed.

Snapper

~onornsuri.

Snapper

Snow Snow A for biölogy 4 %Ale. (Ab)

Laser Gs, TTU

Laser Gs, T i U

Bonorn

Botlorn

Snow

Seafbor sed.

Ice core

Ice core

Water

I lce core

Ice core

60 m deplh

In seawaier (120-123 crn), (Gr)

0-80 crn,

and

11 1-1-1 (0-80 cm)

SM

SM

81-123 crn and 111-1-2 mix

0-30 cd90-123 crn, and 111-1-1 (81-170 cm)

Snow

Ice Core

Ice Core

Snow

Bonom

Bonomsed.

Bottornsed.

Ice core

Waler

Ice core

Ice core

Ice core

A biol. 4% Alc. (Gr)

0-75 Cm, Laser Gs, TTU

Laser Gs, TTU

A biol., 4% Ak.

Laser Gs, TTU

Snapper

Snapper

234-237 crn, ice core boltorn in sea water, 4% Alc., (Gr)

SM

0-60 cm

and

108-1-213 rnix

61-120 crnand 108-1-1/2 rnix

121-180crn and 108-1-1,O-90crn

Ice SM

Seafloor sed.

[NO

Sediment

[~elected

Snow A biol.

Snow

I

I

I

I

Dirty ice

Ice core

A biol.

No. 2, Laser

Gs,

No. 3, Laser

No. 4, Laser

No. 5, Laser

Gs,

Gs,

Gs,

Thin layer turbid

Bottorn

and

4% Alc. (203-207 cm) (Gr)

Ice core

Ice core

Ice core

Ice and slush

Ice

Ice

Ads. Colurnn

Fiilered SPM

I

0-70 cm

71-140 crn and 108-260-98 crn

141-210 cm

SM

SM and 108-2-5,O-98 Cm

No. 1, Laser

and

108-2-4,O-98 Cm

Gs.

Org. pollution enfiched frorn sea water

3 (three) filleffi used

Anchor k e and org. rnaterid

Snow

Snow

Ice core

Ice core

Ice core

'

Ice core

Ice

Waler

Ice core

Ice core

Red ice

Stones

C

Snow A (Gr)

Snow A biolg., 4 % Ak. (Ab)

Ice w r e bottorn, 4 %Ab. (Gr)

0-55 cm, Laser Gs, TTU

66-135 crn, and 102-2-2 (90

cm)

0-65 crn,

SM

SM

and

102-2-3 (90 crn)

136-180 cm, and 102-2-4 (90 cm), and 113-2-3,20 crn lenght

Length 20 crn, and 102-2-4 (90 crn), and 113-2-2 (136-180 Cm)

From Bennen Island,

4%

Ak.

NE coasi Bennen Island

No. 1, Laser

Gs,

C

Beach

Dirty ice

Ice

Ice

No. 1, Laser

Gs.

No

Tufbii layer

Ica R i g e

SM

I c e R i g e

Table 2:

TTU:

SPM:

SM

G S: s

L:

ST

Pf:

G

r:

Ab:

Jul. Date:

Stat.:

Loc.:

Abbreviations in Table 2

Tallin Technical University

Suspended particulate matter

Heavy metals

Grain size analysis

Sea level

Sediment trap

Dr. Pfirman (Lamont-Doherty Geol.

Obs.,

Palisades, USA)

Dr. Gradinger (IPÖ Kiel,

FRG)

Dr. Abelmann (AWI, Bremerhaven,

FRG)

Julian Date

Station

Location at station

Table 3:

Sediment load in snow sarnples of the study area. Data are presented in

Fig.

16.

Sample i Type of sample snow A snow B snow

C snow A

Snow

B

Snow

C

snow A snow B snow C

Snow A snow B snow C snow A

Snow B snow C snow A snow B enow

C snow A snow B inow C snow

Amount o water (ml:

338,OO

382,OO

402,OO

355,OO

295,OO

31500

352.00

376,OO

430,oo

959,OO

330.00

380,OO

248,OO

281,OO

204.00

348,00

340,OO

242,OO

278,OO

224,OO

283,OO

368,OO

Sediment per liter (mg/l)

197.17

107,24

202.92

49,76

14,25

4,20

2,60

1,55

12,86

244

7.02

23,21

1.90

19,14

259

13.73

13,38

12,12

28,62

37,41

40,74

33,73

Sample

Ã

107-1

108-1

108-1

108-1

108-2

108-2

108-22

111-11

111-11

111-11

112-2

112-2

112-2

112-3

112-3

112-3

113-1

113-1

113-1

113-2

113-2

113-2

Snow snow A snow

B snow C snow B snow C snow A

Snow A

Snow B snow C snow A

Snow

B snow C

Snow A

Snow B

Snow

C

Snow A

Snow B

Snow

C

snow A

Snow B snow C

Type of sample

Amount ol water (ml)

508.00

347,OO

358,OO

388,OO

430,oo

366,OO

503,OO

217,OO

228,OO

228.00

267,OO

254.00

31 0.00

340.00

379.00

348,OO

363,OO

352,OO

413,OO

340,oo

388.00

364,OO

Sediment per liter (mgR)

29,86

10,27

5,90

2,41

6.39

27,85

41,71

3,04

3,68

7,40

36,56

19,84

32,95

11,55

0,Ol

3,19

1,58

0,50

0,39

67,64

32,68

27,61

Table 4:

Sediment load in ice samples of the study area. Data are presented in Fig. 17.

Sample i

0

f Depth (cm) Descriptio

1 0 2 - 2 1

1 0 3 - 1 1

1 0 3 - 1 1

1 0 8 - 1 2

1 0 8 - 1 2

1 0 8 - 1 2

1 0 8 - 1 2

1 0 8 - 1 3

1 0 8 - 2 1

1 0 8 - 2 1

1 0 8 - 2 1

1 1 1 - 1 - 0

1 1 1 - 1 - 1

1 1 1 - 1 - 1 b

1 1 1 - 1 -3a

1 1 1 - 1 - 3 b

1 0 0 - 1 1

1 0 0 - 1 2

1 0 0 - 1 2

1 0 0 - 1 2

1 0 0 - 1 2

1 0 0 - 1 2

1 0 0 - 1 2

1 0 0 - 2 1

1 0 0 - 2 1

1 0 1 - 1 1

1 0 1 - 1 1

1 0 2 - 1 1

1 0 2 - 1 2

1 0 2 - 1 2

1 0 2 - 1 2

1 0 2 - 1 2

1 0 2 - 1 2

1 0 2 - 2 1

I ice con ice corl ice cort ice cort ice corl i i

3 -

3

3

I

3

,

, tu e

0 - 6

4 2 - 4 8

7 2 - 7 8

1 2 0 - 1 2 6 surface

0 - 6

41 - 5 0

7 0 - 7 6

1 1 2 - 3 1

1 1 3 - 1 2

1 1 3 - 1 3

1 1 3 - 1 3

1 1 3 - 1 5

1 1 3 - 1 6

1 1 3 - 2 1

1 1 4 - 1

1 1 4 - 1 2

1 1 4 - 1 3

1 1 4 - 1 4

1 1 4 - 1 4

1 1 4 - 1 5

1 1 4 - 1 5 b

1 1 4 - 1 6

1 1 1 - 1 - 4

1 1 1 - 1 - 5

1 1 1 - 1 - 6

1 1 1 - 1 - 7

1 1 1 - 1 - 8

1 1 1 - 1 - 9

1 1 1 - 1 - 1 2 a

1 1 1 - 1 - 1 2 b

1 1 1 - 2

1 1 2 - 2

1 1 2 - 3 1

1 1 2 - 3 1

1 1 2 - 3 1

1 1 2 - 3 1

1 1 2 - 3 1 ic ic ic ic

ic

;e core

;e core

:e core

:e core

:e core ic ic re e core e core id ice

3

tur bid ice tur bid ice tur bid ice tur bid ice tur bid ice surface

001- 5

2 7 - 3 2

6 9 - 7 5

1 1 0 - 1 1 6

1 7 8 - 1 8 4

2 2 7 - 2 3 0

0 - 3 4

24 cm below ice surfa

0 - 6 0 surface

0 - 3 0 surface surface surface surface

See 1. filter surface surface surface

Sed. layer repr. chunl repr. chunl repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece repr. piece

. repr. chunk

. repr. chunk turbid ice repr. chunks repr. chunks repr. chunks repr. chunks repr. chunks repr. chunks repr. chunks repr. chunks

322,OO

1251 ,OO

1170,OO

1950,OO

242.00

348,OO

312,OO

389,OO

327,OO

358.00

1128,OO

1218,OO

1402,OO

1168,OO

1361 ,OO

1348,OO

520.00

788.00

678,OO

832,OO

832,OO

708,OO

708,OO

782.00

190.00

965,OO

450,OO

443,OO

502,OO

403,OO

883,OO

393.00

412,OO

400,OO

1066,OO

734,OO

1048,OO

823,OO

1020,oo

1286,OO

1140,OO

523,OO

720,OO

1256,OO

1123,OO

Imount

C water (ml

1 156,OO

1420,OO

1 148.00

1258,OO

1191,OO

657,OO

1 1 04.00

828.00

936,OO

1246,OO

972,OO

758,OO

231 .OO

340.00

222,oo

284,OO

278.00

730,OO

986.00

Sediment per liter ( m g )

30.19

4 2

Table 5:

Grain size distribution and abundances of rnost irnportant sedirnent cornponents as estirnated frorn srnear slides.

Grain size analysis

Ref.4 Sand Silt

-

2

-

85 10

2

2

14

17

17

17

17

17

16

10

10

18

18

30

25

5

5

5

0

0

0

5

20

0

0

0

60

65

70

50

60

20

40

20

20

60

45

60

40 durntefs

in

'

Clay

5

10

10

10

50

40

80

60

75

35

50

35

60

Sediment type ioarse

sand

Sandy

silt

Sandy

silt

Sandy

silt

Siity day

Clayey sÃ

Silty day

Silty day

Sihy day

Silty day

Clayey siii

Clayey silt

Clayey siii

Silty day anal

Ref.4 is

Quatiz Quatiz Feldspar Rock

10

10

18

18

17

17

17

16

2

2

2

14

17

17

40

35

30

40

30

55

15

30

25

30

40

30

30

15

5

4

5

5

20

15

10

20

20

20

20

10

13

15

20

3

40

35

70

50

60

50

30

50

35

50

Clay

: i i

ninerals

1~

D i a t ~

Plant debris traces traces traces traces

5

5

9

5

15

10

10

3

10

5

10

10

15

3

15

traces traces traces

5

traces traces

1

Table

6 :

Coarse fraction

(>63

Data are presented in

Fig.

20,

Station-#

981

9811-2

981 1-3

100-1

100-12

1002

1021

10211

1071

1081-1

1081-2

108-13

1 1 1 1 - 1

1111-3

1111-3b

1111-4

1111-5

1111-8

1111-9

1122

1123

1123

1131-2

1131-3

11312

113-12

11321

1131-5

11315

1141-2

11414

114-16

üescriptio Total sedimen'

(mg)

47

-

55

cm sea ice

575,85

4,781

sea ice sea ice

30

-

55

cm cm sea ice

-

52

sea ice

40

sea ice

1,311

0,215

8446

0,362

0,174

21,53

0.182

1,237

0,973

4473

sea ice turbid ice sea ice sea ice ica core sea ice sea ice ice core ice core sea ice sea ice

0-75cm

sea ice sea ice sea ice

0 - 3 4 c m sea

EGG

sea ice turbid ice

seaice

turbid ice sea ice

0,255

0,371

159,15

1.858

1,179

70,13

11.71

1,358

0,892

0,243

3,272

1,317

0,914

110,s

0,154

2,649

317,93

3,026

831,59

256,s

Coarse fradior

>

63bm (mg)

44540

4,7140

0,1260

0,0000

traces

0,0000

0,0000

4,50

0,0060

traces traces

3,60

0,0080

0,0000

traces traces traces

0,90

0.40

traces traces

0,0000

1,1890

0,1340

0,ooOO

620

0,0000

traces

1,80

0,0580

traces

5,40

Coarse fraction in

% of total sediment

77.35

Expedition to Novaja Zemlja and Franz Josef Land with

RV "Dalnie Zelentsy

" by D.

Nürnber a n d E. Groth

Elke Groth, GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences, Wischhofstr. 1-3,

D-2300 Kiel

14,

F.R.G.

Expedition to Novaja Zernlja and Franz Josef Land with

RV

"Dalnie Zelentsy"

by

D

.

Nurnberg and E

.

Groth

INTRODUCTION

...............................................................................................

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

49

....................................................................

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

COURSE OF EXPEDITION

METHODS

6.1 Sedimentology

6.2 Radioactive pollution

APPENDIX

.........................................................................................................

5.2 Water sarnpling

REFERENCES

......................................................................................

PRELIMINARY RESULTS 53

......................................................................................

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

.............................................................................

.............................................................................

5.1 Sediment sampling equiprnent and procedures

5.3 Sedimentological investigations

.............................

52

53

........................................................

...............................................................................

............................................................................

...............................................................................

..................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................

Expedition t o Novaja Zemlja and Franz Josef Land with

RV "Dalnie Zelentsy"

by D. Nurnberg and E. Groth

1.

INTRODUCTION i t is generally accepted that the Arctic Ocean is a sensitive area for changes in the global climate. Unfortunately, the short- and long-term geological and climatological development of this area is only unsufficiently known mainly due to major technological and logistical problems when reaching this permanently ice-covered region. First attempts to systematically investigate the geology of the

Arctic Ocean area underline the importance of Eurasian shelves as potential source areas for sediments being deposited in the abyssal plains of the Central

Arctic Ocean. It has been shown recently that Laptev Sea is a major area where shelf sediments are entrained in Arctic sea ice and subsequently transported through the entire Arctic Ocean via the Transpolar Drift. Whether these large amounts of sea ice sediments contribute to the deep sea sedimentation is disputable. From the comparison of sea ice and deep sea clay mineralogy, oceanic currents andlor gravity flows, tubidity currents etc. across the continental slopes also have to be considered as important steering mechanisms for the sedimentation of terrigeneous material.

The invitation of the "Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology" (Russia) to take Part into a ship expedition to the Barents Sea was consequently welcomed to reach areas on the Eurasian shelves, which are very difficult to enter due to logistical and political restrictions. The research vessel "Dalnie Zelentsy", an approximately 40 m long ship not suitable for ice conditions, worked in coastal areas along Novaja Zemlja and Franz Josef Land up to ca. 81 ON. Chief scientist was Dr. G. Tarasov from Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology. For the first time,

Western scientists were allowed to work along the coast of Novaja Zemlja, which served as a nuclear test area during the sixties and seventies. Franz Josef Land, much more glaciated than Spitsbergen and uninfluenced by ihe Norwegian-

Atlantic Current, has fortunately been reached due to favorable ice conditions.

Exactly 120 years ago, this group of islands has been discovered by an Austrian expedition. The archipelago is believed to be a potential source area for kaolinite occurences, which have been found in the Central Arctic Ocean.

In view of a planned joint ship operation of

RV

"Polarstern" and RV "Dalnie

Zelentsy" in 1993 on the Eurasian shelves, this year's expedition on "Dalnie

Zelentsy" was additionally a good opportunity to test the ship's technical equipment for marine-geological work, especially the possibilities to handle heavy sampling gear provided by the German institutes.

2 .

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Generally the Barents shelf is strongly influenced by glacial processes during ihe last glacial. According to southern Barents Sea directly overlie the erosional top of the Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Glacial moraine deposits are of local distribution On the shelf areas and form extended ranges which mark the extension of glaciers from

1992; PAVILDIS et al. 1992). Below Ca. 200 m (see also PAVILDIS et al. 1992),

however, moraine debris is obviously absent being replaced by glaciomarine fine-grained sediments, which have been deposited under ice-covered marine environments. The onset of the Late Weichselian glaciation did not Start before

22 ky BP according to ELVERH01 et al. (1992). During the last glacial maximum, the entire Barents Sea was covered by grounded ice being connected with the

Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Ice recession started not before 15 ky BP, and shallowest parts of the northern Barents Sea have not been completely deglaciated before 10 ky

BP.

Holocene sediments being of varying thicknesses

The coastal areas of Novaja Zemlja are characterized by large glacier tongues deposits in the corresponding bays show distinct

differentes

from south to north.

Southern bays are supposed to be estuaries with dark marine clay deposits. In the middle fjords, stratified soft marine and glacial-marine deposits lying in trough-like depressions dominate. Northernmost fjords are characterized by two main depositional types: semiliquid, elastic, light-gray, fine-grained ooze and dark-gray moraine deposits cornposed of dense sand loam with abundant gravel.

The Franz Josef Land area, consisting of Ca. 75 islands at the northeastern edge of the Barents Shelf (total area of about 19,700.km2), generally shows horizontal sedimentary Strata of Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous age with a capping of basaltic lavas (HORN 1930). The sedimentary deposits mainly consist of marine clayey shale intercalated with shale, bands of ironstone, and thin layers of lignite.

Diabase sills and dykes probably intruded during Lower Cretaceous (DIBNER et al. 1992). The latest geologic history of the archipelago is characterized by postglacial uplift indicated by raised beach terraces, which have been found between sealevel and 30 m (and more!) above this level.

3 . RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Main objective during the RV "Dalnie Zelentsy" Leg 68 from August 15, 1992 to

September 5, 1992 was' the sampling of shelf bottom sediments including surface samples and long core sections from the coastal areas off Novaja Zemlja and Franz Josef Land as well as from the Barents Shelf. These samples will be added to an already existing sedimentological data base of seafloor sediments at AWI and GEOMAR from the Arctic Ocean being collected during RV

Polarstern" cruises ARK IVl3 and Vllll3, from the Laptev Sea area (E.S.A.R.E.

9 2 expedition to Kotelnyy Island), and from Fram Strait being sampled during different cruises during the last years. The sedimentological data will be used to reconstruct the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic evolution of the Arctic areas during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

4 . COURSE OF EXPEDITION

Starting at Murmansk (Russia) and having visited an Arctic research station of the Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology at Dalnie Zelentsy approximately 180 km east of Murmansk, the ship went straight to Novaja Zemlja where the geological sampling program started at about 73ON and 53OE (Fig. 1).

Subsequently, 7 sampling sites (mostly shallower than 150 m) along the coastal

so'

Fig. 1 Bathyrnetric chart of the eastern Barents Sea including Franz Josef Land and Novaja

Zernlja areas. Sarnpling sites are indicated. Large circles show areas severly influenced by nuclear tests.

areas of Novaja Zemlja have been visited. On the way to Franz Josef Land, a profile of 5 sampling sites has been investigated. Deepest stations reached Ca.

415 m. At Ca. 78ON and 61° a prolongation of the ice edge being SE-NW located has been met. The further north we went, the more large icebergs originating from the Franz Josef Land area could be Seen. These icebergs were up to 200 m long and up to 40 m high. In the Franz Josef Land archipelago, 9 sites in the vicinity of 8 islands (Wilczek Land, Klagenfurt Island, Greem-Bell

Land, Wilczek Island, Hooker Island, Champ Island, Wiener Neustadt Island,

Chejsa Island) have been successfully sampled. Water depths here reach from

275 m to 31 m. The ice edge east of Greem-Bell Island has been situated at Ca.

8 I 0 N and 65OE. Within the archipelago, manoevring was sometimes difficult since sea ice and iceberg drift within the fjords occur rapidly. On the way back, we stopped near by at Admirality Peninsula (Novaja Zemlja) and gained samples from Nordenskiöl Bay in front of a large glacier system. While heading further south, samples have been achieved along the coast of Novaja Zemlja down to 71°35N 44'24E.

5 .

M E T H O D S

5 . 1 Sediment sampling equipment and procedures

For geological, geochemical and biological investigations on seafloor surface samples, box core and van Veen grab were used. For few longer sediment cores the gravity core device onboard RV "Dalnie Zelentsy" was applied (Table 1).

For the first time the box core usually used on German research vessels was operated onboard RV "Dalnie Zelentsy". The device (20

X

28

X

44 cm), which weighs approximately one ton, has been run successfully for 16 times down to water depths of 415 m. Except few attempts, the sediment surface gained by the box core was undisturbed being of considerable importance for the ongoing investigations. However, it has to be mentioned that the operation of such a heavy device is highly problematic and time consuming on a small ship as

'Dalnie Zelentsy" is. At high wind speeds with considerable wave action it was impossible. Moreover, the winch system onboard

RV

"Dalnie Zelentsy" allows only safe operation of the box core down to water depths of approximately 200 m. Below that, strong efforts had to be undertaken to get the device back onboard since the winch system is too weak. For safe operation, at least 6 men including

2 crane Operators are necessary. At three sites the core overpenetrated, however, the surfaces could still be used though they were compressed and disturbed. A few times the device did not work due to malfunctions of the trigger mechanism.

In

average, sediment cores gained by the box corer are 29 cm in length. Maximum core length was 40 Cm, minimum is at 12 Cm.

Beside the box core, the van Veen grab was applied 10 times to attain approximately 15 cm of seafloor surface sediments. The application of this device was mostly successful though a few malfunctions of the mechanism have been noted. These, however, could still be removed onboard.

Two attempts were made to get longer sediment cores by applying a simple 3 m- gravity corer, which belongs to

R V

"Dalnie Zelentsy". A removed or highly disturbed surface in addition to severely compression and marginal deformation of core material during sampling procedure, however, causes too many disadvantages for the ongoing analyses.

5 . 2

Water sampling

Water from 5 m and 50 m depth has been sampled at 17 stations, where geological work has also been performed. Water temperatures have in addition been measured (Table 2). Water samples will be investigated for

PCB

and oxygen isotopes.

5 . 3

Sedimentological investigations

The sediment cores gained during the cruise have been routinely photographed, intensively described and graphically displayed. Sediment colors were identified according to the "Munsell Soil Color Charts"

INSTRUMENTS CORP.,

Newburgh, USA). Samples were coded by "Dalny Zelentsy" DS-numbers and a number code consisting of day, month, number of station and number of device e.g. 23 08 2 1).

The upper 1 cm of the sediment surface has been systematically sampled for various purposes. The paleontological investigation will include macrobenthos, diatom, foraminifer, and coccolith analyses. Sedimentological work will focus On the grain size, coarse fraction, oxygen isotopes, total organic carbon and clay mineralogy. PCB measurements on surface sediments will be undertaken in conjunction to measurements already performed on Laptev Sea shelf sediments

(see

DETHLEFF

The sediment column was sampled every 2 cm for paleontological, geochemical and sedimentological purposes. Syringes injected into the sediment will be used for bulk density measurements, total carbon and carbonate content analyses.

Cores taken by the gravity corer have been split into 50 cm long pieces, and subsequently packed into plastic liners, which have not been opened yet.

6 .

6 . 1

PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Sedimentology

Along the coast of Novaja Zemlja, 13 shelf bottom samples have been taken. In general, the sediments, which lie in water depths not deeper than 150 m, do not differ significantly from each other. Comparatively coarse sediments, namely silty sand or sandy silts, have been found, which are severly bioturbated by benthic life. Worm tubes (Polychaets) have been observed to core depths of ca. 40 Cm.

Ophiuroideans and bivalves (Helioptera, Cardium) are common. Dropstones showing a size of more than 10 cm in diameter are abundant at the surface as well as in the entire sediment column. Dark organic rich laminae are visible in all cores down to the core bottoms, however, are mostly destroyed by bioturbation.

A few stations were situated in front of large glacier Systems. The belonging sediments are more fine-grained, namely silty clay or clayey silt.

A

lamination, especially the black organic rich layers, is well evolved since benthic life is rare probably due to high sedimentation rates. According to Tarasov (pers. com.), a cyclic change from the green-gray silty clays or clayey silts to the black laminae can be observed in a few cores.

In the archipelago of Franz Josef Land, samples show a wide variability since they were taken from rather different depths (275

-

31 m). Shallowest stations have uneven sediment surfaces densely covered by ice-rafted detritus. Worm tubes

(Polychaefs)

being present through all the sediment column are abundant.

Benthic life including barnacles, ophiuroideans, bivalves and worms has drastically evolved. In general, sediments are silty sands or sandy silts showing somewhat lighter colors near the surface than 3-4 cm beyond. Sediments from deeper stations exhibit reduced benthic life and thus,

a

more intact layering.

6 . 2

Radioactive pollution

Novaja Zemlja has been lest area for nuclear explosions for a long time. The chart "Barents Sea

-

Biological resources and human impact" prepared by an underground pit 3 km inland Novaja Zemlja, which is a quite high dose.

According to SZCZYPA et al. (1992) radionuclides produced by nuclear explosions can rapidly be accumulated by plankton and algae. Since these organisms serve as food for higher trophic levels, radionuclides become concentrated in organisms such as oysters, clams, shrimp etc. The probability for ncorporation of radionuclides into recent sedimentary deposits consequently was suspected.

Since the cruise was supposed to focus on this nuclear test area, a dose rate meter for Gamma radiation has been applied. Measurements have been undertaken on land, next to shelf bottom sediments and continuously in the atmosphere during the entire cruise (Table I ) , especially in areas of atomic bomb tests indicated in the map of MATISHOV (1991).

The average value being measured is 0.071 pSv/h. Next to shallow marine sediments, maximum radiation is about 0.106 pSv/h and lowest radiation is about 0.028 pSv/h. The highest value

of

0.179 pSv/h has been measured on

Novaja Zemlja (Bezymannaya Bay) in the vicinity of the GREENPEACE working area. However, all measurements can be accounted for natural radiation, which is in the range of approximately 50 to 200 nSv1h (equals 0.05 to 0.20 pSvIh). Our high levels of radioactive radiation.

7 .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank Prof. Dr. G. Matishov, Director of "Murmansk Institute of

Marine Biology" (Russia) for inviting us to take part in the expedition to the

Russian Arctic. Also, we thank Dr. G. Tarasov, chief-scientist onboard RV "Dalnie

Zelentsy", who helped to solve all logistical problems. Without the Crew of RV

'Dalnie Zelentsy" and members of the "Murmansk Institute of Marine Biology" we would not have been able to gather this data Set, For discussion we gratefully thank Dr.

H.

Kassens. Thanks are also due to Prof. Dr. D. Fütterer

(AWI), and Prof. Dr. J. Thiede (GEOMAR), who encouraged this work.

8 . R E F E R E N C E S

East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition '92: The Laptev Sea significance for Arctic sea-ice formation and Transpolar sediment flux.

-

Its

-

Ber.

Polarforsch. (this volume).

Dibner, V., Bro, E., Pchelina, T., Preobrarajenskaja, E, Shkola, l., Embry,

E.

&

Mork, A. (1992): Geology of the Franz Josef Land archipelago, Russian

Republic.

-

Int. Conf. Arct. Marg. (ICAM 1992), Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Elverhoi, A., Solheim, A., Nyland-Berg, M. & Russwurm, interglacial-glacial cycle, Western Barents Sea.

L.

(1992): Last

-

LUNDQUA Report, 35, 17-

24.

Horn, G. (1930): Franz Josef Land

-

Natural history, discovery, exploration, and hunting. -Srifter om Svalbard og Ishavet, 29, 54 pp.

Levchenko, O.V., Dunaev, N.N., Merklin, L.R. & Pavlidis, Yu.A. (1992): The sediment Cover structure of the western Novaya Zemlya Bays.

-

Int. Conf.

Arct. Marg. (ICAM 1992), Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Matishov, G. (1991) Problems of the Arctic nature protection.

-

Polar Session,

Arctic Environment Research, Wyprawy Geograficzne na Spitsbergen,

UMCS, Lublin.

Merklin, L.R., Dunaev, N.N., Levchenko, O.V. & Pavlidis, Yu.A. (1992): The

Quaternary deposits of the Barents Sea.

-

Int. Conf. Arct. Marg. (ICAM

1992), Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Pavildis, Yu.A., Dunaev,

Pleistocene paleogeography of the Eurasia Arctic shelf.

-

Int. Conf. Arct.

Marg. (ICAM 1992), Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Szczypa, J., Janusz, W, Solecki, J., Matishov, G.G. & Matishov, D.G. (1992): The investigation of concentration of radionuclides in the sediments in the

Barents Sea.

-

Wyprawy Geograficzne na Spitsbergen, UMCS, Lublin, 179-

189.

9 . APPENDIX

Table 1

Geographical locations and technical data of sediment wres and sediment surface samples gained during the cruise. Gamma radiation measured on sediment surfaces is indicated.

Water sarnples

Station-#

Locality

Velkitshy Bay

Latitude

(¡N

75¡28,0 oH Novaja

S .

Russian Bay

OH Novaja S. oH Novaja S. ofi Novaja S. oH Novaja S.

OH FJL reern Bell Islan

Wilczek Island

Chejsa Island

/Jener Neustac

Camp

Hooker Island ordenskiöl Ba off Novaja S.

OH Novaja S. oH Novaja S.

76¡25,3

76O28.50

77¡19,4

77¡29,4

78¡03,6

78'54,50

79°50.0

81°07,1

7g052,87

80°37,2

80°44,3

80'24.04

80°19,9

75"33,30

73¡00,6

72¡36,9

71°35,1

Longitude

(¡E

056'44,17

061°23,7

065'1 1,80

062'16,90

061°42,3

061'11.20

05Q000,00

061°29,0

063'31.57

058*40,97

058O05,80

057'53.80

059'37.75

052'50,OO

056'26.70

051°53,6

051°2 .90

044'24,70

Water depth

(rn)

139

53

150

219

335

415

260

145

275

43

34

29

40

49

165

70

85

85

Waler botlle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water botlle

Water botlle

Water bottle

Water boitle

Waler bottle

Waler bottle

Waler botlle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water botlle

Waler botlle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Waler botlle

Water bollle

Waler bollle

Waler bonle

Water bottle

Water botlle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Water boiile

Water boltle

Water bottle

Waler bottle

Waler botlle

Water bottle

Water bottle

Sample type

5,OO

34,OO

5.00

5.00

40,OO

5.00

45,OO

5.00

50,OO

5,OO

50.00

5,OO

50,OO

5,OO

50,OO

5.00

50.00

5,OO

50.00

5,OO

50,OO

5,OO

50,OO

Mater sarnples

Dept h (in)

5,OO

10.00

20,oo

50,OO

5,OO

40,OO

5 , m

50,OO

5,OO

50,OO

5.00

5,OO

Water ternp. +

?

2,50

1 ,oo

3.50

1 ,oo

-1 .OO

-1,50

-1

,oo

-1.20

-1,oo

-1,oo

4.00

3,25

6,OO

4,25

5,75

6.00

7\00

2,oo

1.00

0,50

1,20

2,oo

3,OO

-1,oo

3,OO

1 ,oo

1.25

-1 ,oo

-1,50

-1,25

-0.50

Legend

l::;:;:;:::

Sand n

..........

..........

Sandy silty ciay

. f?^

Siltv clav

1

Larninae 1 singie thin layers

¥ ¥ ¥

-

Uneven sharp contact

Horizontal sharp contact

Coarsening upwards sequence i-ing upwards sequence

Rock colors according to "Munsell Soil Color Charts" (Kollmorgen Instruments Cop., Newburgh, USA, 1990)

HUE 2.5Y

HUE 5Y

HUE10YR

HUE 7.5YR

2.5Y2.10

2.5Y312

2.5Y313

2.5Y412

2.5Y413

5Y2.511

5Y2.5/2

5Y3/1

5Y312

5Y411

5Y4/2

5Y413

5Y5/1

10YR212

10Y R313

7.5YR312

Black

Very dark grayish brown

Dark olive brown

Dark grayish brown

Olive brown

Black

Black

Very dark olive gray

Dark olive gray

Dark gray

Olive gray

Olive

Gray

Very dark brown

Dark brown

Dark brown

Core Number

Gear:

Box cora

Surface

i i i e to

CO- smd wiih g r m l up oniv minor ciav m d siR notiiotu. an in diameia, in km)

iwilom,

1

Lithology

1

Texture

I

Gear:

BOX core

Core Number

Length:

=an

180821

-

DS 68-2

~

1

3 ~

tnvestigator

~

1

~

Date

Remarks, etc.

N U ~ ~ W G ~ O ~

~ sz

Description,

p $ ~ , ~ E wciy denseb cove%ed by

&onslonas

1-30 cm in dianwiff. r w n M and dr8dw irom

-0

stMion shows r u h h i h i c liiw crabs. pabcypods, M,

ckyw sin 10 siny chy, biohnbath dmvn

to

cwe bonm, bbek 'xgsnicrich h i n -

............................

Surface

............................

Color

Texture

Core Number

corb

iakm

in

front 01

a

!um g h c k

W

N w @

h l j a

Suriace

S Y U l

1

Core Nurnber

Geac

Lenaih:

BOX core

20a-n investigator

Description, Remarks, etc.

Nürnberg'Grot

1

Date

1

AUS

20, ce

ailty day, w o m iubes (poiychaels) a& small pelecypods (up 10 1 Cm in d1amete-r) common, sudace ls damgad

sie

clay, w o m tubes (poiycbeis) and small palecypods (up to 1 m in diamatar) wmmon, sudaca

SO

60

7o

- - - - - -

- - - -

.-

- - - - - - -

- - - - - -

-

.-~,-:.--.-?.-?.-7.~

.-

- - - - - - -

. .

,-

-

.- .- .-

,-

.-

. . . . . . .

. . . . . .

- - - - - - -

,-

- - -

I:.;..

. . .

- - - - - V

,..:A

- ? - - ? - .

-----V-

.............

1

Description,

lnvestigat or

Remarks,

etc.

NÃœmberaG

1

Date

1

Aug. 20,

92 lnvesti{

Description, Remarks, etc.

w h -

ithology

Texture

Suriace

S Y Y I - S Y Z Z c o r e Number

21 0821

-

DS

68-8

Geac

BOX GOI-

-

Leng*:

29 an dep*:

27sm

Description, Remarks, etc. lnvestigator

1

1

Date

A u a . 2 1 , ~ ~ biack wganic rich l m i n m eil wer à ¼ ~ miunn, mainiy concenirated buhvem 12 cm and 14 cm bloturbation d o m to cote bottcm, indicated by

.

rsidish, oaywnized w i w s

;:

,'

: :;;

Descri tion

...........................

.....

5:

Number

21

0831

DS

68-9

Gear:

Leng*: van

V- grab

ca

15 an water d e ~ * : i i 9 3 . 2 0 N C6l03O,70 E

r

Surface

Textura

r

Description, Remarks, etc. siityclay, light brown w h potchç

-

siity

ctay,

coiors wtih block

patchÃ

brownith

çuriw

into bloturbatfon down to reddish, oxygenized cotors

1 lnvestigator

1

Date

Description, Remarks, etc.

NŸmiwdGmi

Aua.22.92

r dayey sift, llght brown colors wrth black patcheà udiment suriocà is highw diaturbod

and wrnpresçÃ

çine

cofe

ovafpanatr-

howver,

Èurfxc

U not m j u m g

ciayey

8 i k iiaht brown colorà wrth black

paicheÃ

(nunganeç

and

Iron oxidoà (7.5YRU.2)) light brownish oxidized l q w à intercalstad

act

4-5

cm,

12-13 an,

bioturbatfon down to core bottorn, indlcated

by

reddlsh, oxysenized colon, apeclaity betwmn 7-27

cm

clçye silt

ara

intwcaiated, w o m tubos

(pofychwts) occur

all

ovw

the

s e d i m t w l u m n

Surface

2SY42

-

M Y 4 3

Suriace

Description, Remarks, etc.

Suriace

1

Lithology

T

1

-

DS 68-1 6

1

,: :: E:

Box coro

Core Number riptio"

,$

.........................

Color

240821

,

.

-

lepth:

U m

..

--

-

lnvestigator

Description, Remarks, etc.

NÜ-WG~O

1

Date

1

AW. 24% 92

Texture

21

Rn

4

EOC

21

cm

siW send, v w

ai

suriac* wm black orgmic ri& swk!as

all

o v w

iragmmts

abundant d o m 10 cwe boticm

.......,..

. .

.....

........................................

...

....,.... ...

Core

Nurnber

260821

-

D S

68-20

Geac

Length:

~

Description,

Rernqks,

etc.

üo cwe

~ ~ ~ ' ~ 5 ~ ~ ~

Surface

Description, Remarks, etc.

r

Suriace

Texture

Core Nurnber

..............................

Suriace

Color

Texture

Core Number

. . .

.......

.

:.:.:.:<

Gean

Box

cof

. . .

.

.

.

. .

.

. . .

.

. .

.

.

. . . .

.:::,,

Core Nurnber

Length: z a a

300821

-

DS

68-32

-

~ 8 e

1

lnvestigator

1

Date

Description, Rernarks, etc.

HŸmbacg/Groi

Aua.ao,~z

~

Surface

5 Y M

~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~

..........................

Color

Core

Number sitty clay, biack organic rich [anihm d

ovar

the sediment column, v w bioturbation not evident, few droptoneà and bivahre

¥hell (gk* ÈuSponSton

Suriace

I I

in

d i n i

takffl

by

Tarasov, cyclk depositlon of silty clay and blackorganic rich l a y w

can

observed, layers become thinner the d e e W

In

tha sodimont column they are hypotheç annual variatimà in d u n m t a t l o n

(wintar and

Èumme depo&ito)

:

.sg:

Descrf tion

8

Core Number

Gean

-

DS

68-37

Length: water

73-00.63 v m V-

'W,,

N 051*53.64 E grab

I

Description, Remarks, etc. t tilty

~ n d ,

Idn&

oi

droqçtone (-1 0

cm

tubei

(pofychaef),

tiailoqtera, Cardium

W., Sipunculfda,

siW und,

d m w t y with different kindÃ

oi

dropstonç (-10

cm

tubç

( p o f y c e t e ) ,

ÈP.

SIpunwli&,

OphlUroidBans, abundant in echinoderma,

barnach

settling

On

dropstoneç

Suriace

5Y413

sitiy Sand, dmsety packed with diiierent k h d s

oi

dropttoneà (-20

cm

barnactaç

ophiuroideans, echhodams,

bivatva

shelii,

Hellopterà common

............

............

............

............ u t i y

und,

wckod with diiarant kinds o i dropçtone

(-20 cm

in dhatec), echinodwns,

bmadoç bivaive

Shells.

Grabt,

Heltoptef m m o n

ithology

1

Textura

Surface

Description,

Remarks, etc.

cow

thosodinwnt swfaca

çt{cldn out ot cm, s M l Ã

( C h y s ,

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