Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide 5.2

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide 5.2
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Installation Guide
5.2
ISBN: N/A
Publication date:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
This Installation Guide documents relevant information regarding the installation of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5.2
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2: Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Installation Guide
Copyright © 2008 Red Hat, Inc.
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
Introduction ............................................................................................................. xiii
1. Architecture-specific Information ................................................................... xiii
2. Document Conventions ................................................................................ xiii
3. More to Come .............................................................................................. xvi
3.1. Send in Your Feedback ..................................................................... xvi
4. Where to Find Other Manuals ...................................................................... xvii
I. x86, AMD64, Intel® 64 and Itanium- Installation and Booting ..................................... 1
1. Itanium System Specific Information ................................................................ 3
1. Itanium System Installation Overview ...................................................... 3
2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell ........................................................... 3
2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names ........................................ 3
2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition ...................................... 4
2. Steps to Get You Started ................................................................................ 5
1. Upgrade or Install? ................................................................................. 5
2. Is Your Hardware Compatible? ............................................................... 5
3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space? ......................................................... 5
4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM or DVD? ........................................... 6
4.1. Alternative Boot Methods ............................................................. 6
4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM ........................................... 6
5. Preparing for a Network Installation ......................................................... 7
5.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation ....................................... 8
5.2. Preparing for an NFS install ......................................................... 9
6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation ..................................................... 9
3. System Specifications List .............................................................................13
4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems ............................................................15
1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ...................................15
1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles ....................................................16
2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface .................................17
2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ..................................................19
3. Starting the Installation Program ............................................................19
3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64
Systems ...........................................................................................20
3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems ...................21
3.3. Additional Boot Options ..............................................................22
4. Selecting an Installation Method .............................................................24
5. Installing from DVD/CD-ROM .................................................................25
5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found? ..................................26
6. Installing from a Hard Drive ...................................................................26
7. Performing a Network Installation ...........................................................27
8. Installing via NFS ..................................................................................28
9. Installing via FTP ..................................................................................29
10. Installing via HTTP ..............................................................................31
11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..................................................32
12. Language Selection .............................................................................32
13. Keyboard Configuration .......................................................................33
14. Enter the Installation Number ...............................................................34
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
15. Disk Partitioning Setup ........................................................................35
16. Advanced Storage Options ..................................................................37
17. Create Default Layout ..........................................................................38
18. Partitioning Your System .....................................................................40
18.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s) .............................................41
18.2. Disk Druid's Buttons ................................................................42
18.3. Partition Fields .........................................................................43
18.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ..........................................43
18.5. Adding Partitions ......................................................................46
18.6. Editing Partitions ......................................................................49
18.7. Deleting a Partition ...................................................................49
19. x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 Boot Loader Configuration ..........................49
19.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration .........................................51
19.2. Rescue Mode ...........................................................................53
19.3. Alternative Boot Loaders ...........................................................53
19.4. SMP Motherboards and GRUB .................................................54
20. Network Configuration .........................................................................54
21. Time Zone Configuration .....................................................................57
22. Set Root Password .............................................................................58
23. Package Group Selection ....................................................................60
24. Preparing to Install ..............................................................................63
24.1. Prepare to Install ......................................................................63
25. Installing Packages .............................................................................64
26. Installation Complete ...........................................................................64
27. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and Post-Installation Setup ...64
27.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options ........................................65
27.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically .........................65
5. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux ...............................................................69
6. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel® or AMD System ................................71
1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux ...................................71
1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card? ............................71
1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? ................................71
2. Trouble Beginning the Installation ..........................................................72
2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation ....................72
3. Trouble During the Installation ...............................................................72
3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message ..........................................................................................72
3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive ..................73
3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables .......................................................73
3.4. Using Remaining Space .............................................................73
3.5. Other Partitioning Problems ........................................................73
3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users ..................74
3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ...................................................74
4. Problems After Installation .....................................................................75
4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
.........................................................................................................75
4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment ..........................................76
vi
4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI) ..................................77
4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users ...........77
4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In ...............................................77
4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized? ..........................................78
4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work ........................................................79
4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration .............................................79
4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ......80
7. Driver Media for Intel® and AMD Systems ......................................................81
1. Why Do I Need Driver Media? ................................................................81
2. So What Is Driver Media Anyway? .........................................................81
3. How Do I Obtain Driver Media? ..............................................................81
3.1. Creating a Driver Diskette from an Image File ..............................82
4. Using a Driver Image During Installation .................................................82
8. Additional Boot Options for Intel® and AMD Systems ......................................85
9. The GRUB Boot Loader ................................................................................89
1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture ...................................................89
2. GRUB ..................................................................................................89
2.1. GRUB and the x86 Boot Process ................................................89
2.2. Features of GRUB ......................................................................90
3. Installing GRUB ....................................................................................91
4. GRUB Terminology ...............................................................................92
4.1. Device Names ...........................................................................92
4.2. File Names and Blocklists ...........................................................93
4.3. The Root File System and GRUB ................................................93
5. GRUB Interfaces ...................................................................................94
5.1. Interfaces Load Order .................................................................95
6. GRUB Commands ................................................................................95
7. GRUB Menu Configuration File ..............................................................97
7.1. Configuration File Structure .........................................................97
7.2. Configuration File Directives .......................................................98
8. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time ..........................................................99
9. Additional Resources ..........................................................................100
9.1. Installed Documentation ...........................................................100
9.2. Useful Websites .......................................................................100
9.3. Related Books .........................................................................100
10. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux ............................................101
II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting ..............................................103
11. Steps to Get You Started ...........................................................................105
1. Upgrade or Install? ..............................................................................105
2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p and System i .............................105
3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space? ......................................................105
4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM or DVD? ........................................106
5. Preparing for a Network Installation ......................................................106
5.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation ....................................107
5.2. Preparing for an NFS install ......................................................108
6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation ..................................................108
12. Installing on IBM System i and IBM System p systems ................................111
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface .................................111
2. Booting the IBM System i or IBM System p Installation Program ............112
3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles ....................................................113
4. Using the HMC vterm ..........................................................................114
5. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...............................114
5.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ................................................116
6. Beginning Installation ..........................................................................117
6.1. Installing from DVD/CD-ROM ....................................................117
7. Installing from a Hard Drive .................................................................118
8. Performing a Network Installation .........................................................119
9. Installing via NFS ................................................................................119
10. Installing via FTP ..............................................................................120
11. Installing via HTTP ............................................................................122
12. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ................................................123
13. Language Selection ...........................................................................123
14. Keyboard Configuration .....................................................................124
15. Enter the Installation Number .............................................................125
16. Disk Partitioning Setup ......................................................................126
17. Advanced Storage Options ................................................................128
18. Create Default Layout ........................................................................129
19. Partitioning Your System ...................................................................131
19.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s) ...........................................132
19.2. Disk Druid's Buttons ..............................................................133
19.3. Partition Fields .......................................................................134
19.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ........................................134
19.5. Adding Partitions ....................................................................136
19.6. Editing Partitions ....................................................................138
20. Network Configuration .......................................................................138
21. Time Zone Configuration ...................................................................141
22. Set Root Password ...........................................................................142
23. Package Group Selection ..................................................................144
24. Preparing to Install ............................................................................146
24.1. Prepare to Install ....................................................................146
25. Installing Packages ...........................................................................147
26. Installation Complete .........................................................................147
13. Driver Media for IBM POWER Systems ......................................................149
1. Why Do I Need Driver Media? ..............................................................149
1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway? .............................................149
1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media? .................................................149
1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation ....................................150
14. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System ..............................151
1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux .................................151
1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? ..............................151
2. Trouble Beginning the Installation ........................................................152
2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation ..................152
3. Trouble During the Installation .............................................................152
3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
viii
Message ........................................................................................152
3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive ................152
3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables .....................................................153
3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users ....153
3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors? .................................................153
4. Problems After Installation ...................................................................155
4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG ..................................................155
4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment ........................................155
4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI) ................................156
4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users .........156
4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In .............................................156
4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work ......................................................157
4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ....157
15. Additional Boot Options for IBM Power Systems .........................................159
III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting ............................................163
16. Steps to Get You Started ...........................................................................165
1. Pre-Installation ....................................................................................165
2. Additional System z Hardware Preparation for Installation Notes ............166
3. Basic Overview of the Boot Method ......................................................166
4. Preparing for a Network Installation ......................................................166
4.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation ....................................167
4.2. Preparing for an NFS install ......................................................167
5. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation ..................................................168
6. Installing under z/VM ...........................................................................169
7. Installing in an LPAR using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux LPAR CD .......175
8. Installing in an LPAR without the Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z
CD-ROMs ..............................................................................................175
9. Installing in an LPAR (Common Steps) .................................................176
10. Do You Have Enough Disk Space? ....................................................176
17. Installing on IBM System z Systems ...........................................................177
1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface .................................177
2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ...............................177
2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ................................................180
3. Running the Installation Program .........................................................180
3.1. Installation using X11 Forwarding ..............................................181
3.2. Installation using VNC ..............................................................181
4. Installing from a Hard Drive (DASD) .....................................................182
5. Installing via NFS ................................................................................182
6. Installing via FTP ................................................................................183
7. Installing via HTTP ..............................................................................185
8. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..................................................186
9. Language Selection ............................................................................186
10. Enter the Installation Number .............................................................187
11. Disk Partitioning Setup ......................................................................188
12. Advanced Storage Options ................................................................190
12.1. FCP Devices ..........................................................................190
13. Create Default Layout ........................................................................193
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
14. Partitioning Your System ...................................................................195
14.1. Graphical Display of DASD Device(s) ......................................196
14.2. Disk Druid's Buttons ..............................................................197
14.3. Partition Fields .......................................................................197
14.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ........................................197
14.5. Editing Partitions ....................................................................198
15. Network Configuration .......................................................................199
16. Time Zone Configuration ...................................................................201
17. Set Root Password ...........................................................................202
18. Package Group Selection ..................................................................204
19. Preparing to Install ............................................................................206
19.1. Preparing to Install .................................................................206
20. Installing Packages ...........................................................................207
21. Installation Complete .........................................................................207
18. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux ...........................................................209
19. Sample Parameter Files ............................................................................211
20. Additional Boot Options .............................................................................215
21. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM System z System ............................217
1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux .................................217
1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors? ..............................217
2. Trouble During the Installation .............................................................217
2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message ........................................................................................217
2.2. Trouble with Partition Tables .....................................................217
2.3. Other Partitioning Problems ......................................................217
2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors? .................................................218
3. Problems After Installation ...................................................................219
3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP ..................................219
3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In .............................................220
3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work ......................................................220
3.4. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup ....220
22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users ............................................221
1. The sysfs File System ........................................................................221
2. Using the zFCP Driver ..........................................................................222
3. Using mdadm to Configure RAID-Based and Multipath Storage ...............225
3.1. Creating a RAID Device With mdadm ..........................................225
3.2. Creating a Multipath Device With mdadm .....................................227
4. Configuring IPL from a SCSI Device .....................................................229
4.1. IPL the SCSI Disk ....................................................................229
5. Adding DASD .....................................................................................230
6. Adding a Network Device ....................................................................234
6.1. Adding a qeth Device ...............................................................235
6.2. Quick Reference for Adding Network Devices ............................239
7. Kernel-Related Information ..................................................................244
IV. Common Tasks .................................................................................................245
23. Upgrading Your Current System .................................................................247
1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install ......................................247
x
2. Upgrading Your System ......................................................................248
24. Activate Your Subscription .........................................................................251
1. RHN Registration ................................................................................251
1.1. Provide a Red Hat Login ...........................................................251
1.2. Provide Your Installation Number ..............................................251
1.3. Connect Your System ...............................................................252
25. An Introduction to Disk Partitions ................................................................253
1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts ...................................................................253
1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It ...........................253
1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many .....................................255
1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions 258
1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux ..............................258
1.5. Partition Naming Scheme .........................................................263
1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems .............................264
1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points ...............................................265
1.8. How Many Partitions? ...............................................................265
V. Basic System Recovery ......................................................................................267
26. Basic System Recovery .............................................................................269
1. Common Problems .............................................................................269
1.1. Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux .............................269
1.2. Hardware/Software Problems ....................................................269
1.3. Root Password ........................................................................269
2. Booting into Rescue Mode ...................................................................270
2.1. Reinstalling the Boot Loader .....................................................272
3. Booting into Single-User Mode .............................................................273
4. Booting into Emergency Mode .............................................................273
27. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems ............................................................275
1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue Mode
...............................................................................................................275
VI. Advanced Installation and Deployment ................................................................277
28. Kickstart Installations .................................................................................279
1. What are Kickstart Installations? ..........................................................279
2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation? .......................................279
3. Creating the Kickstart File ....................................................................279
4. Kickstart Options .................................................................................280
4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example .................................................300
5. Package Selection ..............................................................................301
6. Pre-installation Script ..........................................................................302
6.1. Example ..................................................................................302
7. Post-installation Script .........................................................................304
7.1. Examples ................................................................................305
8. Making the Kickstart File Available .......................................................305
8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media ...................................................306
8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network .....................306
9. Making the Installation Tree Available ..................................................307
10. Starting a Kickstart Installation ...........................................................308
29. Kickstart Configurator .............................................................................315
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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2
1. Basic Configuration .............................................................................315
2. Installation Method ..............................................................................316
3. Boot Loader Options ...........................................................................317
4. Partition Information ............................................................................319
4.1. Creating Partitions ....................................................................319
5. Network Configuration .........................................................................323
6. Authentication .....................................................................................324
7. Firewall Configuration ..........................................................................326
7.1. SELinux Configuration ..............................................................327
8. Display Configuration ..........................................................................327
8.1. General ...................................................................................327
8.2. Video Card ..............................................................................328
8.3. Monitor ....................................................................................328
9. Package Selection ..............................................................................329
10. Pre-Installation Script ........................................................................330
11. Post-Installation Script .......................................................................332
11.1. Chroot Environment ................................................................334
11.2. Use an Interpreter ..................................................................334
12. Saving the File ..................................................................................334
30. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown ...............................................................337
1. The Boot Process ...............................................................................337
2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process ....................................................337
2.1. The BIOS ................................................................................337
2.2. The Boot Loader ......................................................................338
2.3. The Kernel ...............................................................................339
2.4. The /sbin/init Program .........................................................339
3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time ...........................................343
4. SysV Init Runlevels .............................................................................343
4.1. Runlevels ................................................................................343
4.2. Runlevel Utilities ......................................................................345
5. Shutting Down ....................................................................................345
31. PXE Network Installations ..........................................................................347
1. Setting up the Network Server .............................................................347
2. PXE Boot Configuration .......................................................................347
2.1. Command Line Configuration ....................................................347
3. Adding PXE Hosts ..............................................................................348
3.1. Command Line Configuration ....................................................349
4. TFTPD ...............................................................................................350
4.1. Starting the tftp Server ...........................................................350
5. Configuring the DHCP Server ..............................................................350
6. Adding a Custom Boot Message ..........................................................350
7. Performing the PXE Installation ............................................................350
xii
Introduction
Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide .
HTML and PDF versions of the guides are available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been
available prior to the documentation being finalized. The Release Notes can be
found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, online at
http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-notes-5<variant>/ directory after
installation, where <variant> is Server, Client, or Desktop.
1. Architecture-specific Information
This manual is divided into different sections:
Sections One to Three are architecture specific, and give instructions on installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 with specific reference to 32- and 64-bit Intel® and AMD systems, IBM
POWER-based systems, and IBM System z architecture systems, respectively.
Section Four deals with a number of common tasks, including registering your system with Red
Hat Network, and generic information on Disk Partitioning.
Section Five deals with Basic System Recovery, and contains some architecture-specific
information, as well as information that applies to all architectures.
Section Six contains information on advanced installation topics such as Kickstart, PXE, and
Diskless installations.
2. Document Conventions
In this manual, certain words are represented in different fonts, typefaces, sizes, and weights.
This highlighting is systematic; different words are represented in the same style to indicate their
inclusion in a specific category. The types of words that are represented this way include the
following:
command
Linux commands (and other operating system commands, when used) are represented this
way. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the
command line and press Enter to invoke a command. Sometimes a command contains
words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as file names). In these
cases, they are considered to be part of the command, so the entire phrase is displayed as
xiii
Introduction
a command. For example:
Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file, named testfile, in the
current working directory.
file name
File names, directory names, paths, and RPM package names are represented this way.
This style indicates that a particular file or directory exists with that name on your system.
Examples:
The .bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your
own use.
The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and file systems.
Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program.
application
This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system
software). For example:
Use Mozilla to browse the Web.
key
A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example:
To use Tab completion, type in a character and then press the Tab key. Your terminal
displays the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.
key-combination
A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. For example:
The Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination exits your graphical session and returns you to
the graphical login screen or the console.
text found on a GUI interface
A title, word, or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window is shown in this style.
Text shown in this style indicates that a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI
screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). Example:
Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a
password before stopping.
top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window
A word in this style indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. If you click
on the word on the GUI screen, the rest of the menu should appear. For example:
Under File on a GNOME terminal, the New Tab option allows you to open multiple shell
prompts in the same window.
Instructions to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu look like the following
xiv
Document Conventions
example:
Go to Applications (the main menu on the panel) => Programming => Emacs Text
Editor to start the Emacs text editor.
button on a GUI screen or window
This style indicates that the text can be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. For
example:
Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.
computer output
Text in this style indicates text displayed to a shell prompt such as error messages and
responses to commands. For example:
The ls command displays the contents of a directory. For example:
Desktop
reports
about.html
logs
paulwesterberg.png Mail
backupfiles
mail
The output returned in response to the command (in this case, the contents of the directory)
is shown in this style.
prompt
A prompt, which is a computer's way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something,
is shown in this style. Examples:
$
#
[[email protected] stephen]$
leopard login:
user input
Text that the user types, either on the command line or into a text box on a GUI screen, is
displayed in this style. In the following example, text is displayed in this style:
To boot your system into the text based installation program, you must type in the text
command at the boot: prompt.
<replaceable>
Text used in examples that is meant to be replaced with data provided by the user is
displayed in this style. In the following example, <version-number> is displayed in this
style:
The directory for the kernel source is /usr/src/kernels/<version-number>/, where
<version-number> is the version and type of kernel installed on this system.
xv
Introduction
Additionally, we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of
information. In order of urgency, these items are marked as a note, tip, important, caution, or
warning. For example:
Note
Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words, a rose is not a ROSE is
not a rOsE.
Tip
The directory /usr/share/doc/ contains additional documentation for packages
installed on your system.
Important
If you modify the DHCP configuration file, the changes do not take effect until
you restart the DHCP daemon.
Caution
Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you
need to use the root account for system administration tasks.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary partitions. Removing other partitions
could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
3. More to Come
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide is part of Red Hat's ongoing commitment to
provide useful and timely support and information to Red Hat Enterprise Linux users.
3.1. Send in Your Feedback
xvi
Where to Find Other Manuals
If you spot a typo in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide, or if you have thought of a
way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Submit a report in Bugzilla
(http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/) against the component Installation_Guide
(Product: Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Version: 5.1).
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible. If
you have found an error, include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we
can find it easily.
4. Where to Find Other Manuals
Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals are available online at www.redhat.com/docs.
In addition to this manual, which covers installation, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide contains further information on system administration and security.
HTML and PDF versions of the guides are available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been
available prior to the documentation being finalized. The Release Notes can be
found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, online at
http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-notes-5<variant>/ directory after
installation, where <variant> is Server, Client, or Desktop.
xvii
xviii
Part I. x86, AMD64, Intel® 64 and
Itanium- Installation and Booting
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for Intel and AMD 32-bit and 64-bit systems
discusses the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation
troubleshooting. Advanced installation options are covered in the second part of this manual.
Chapter 1.
Itanium System Specific Information
1. Itanium System Installation Overview
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system is different from installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux on an x86-based system. In general, the sequence of steps to a successful
installation are the following:
1. Boot into the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) Shell.
2. If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM, make an LS-120 diskette from the boot image file
provided with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
3. Using the EFI Shell and the ELILO boot loader, load and run the kernel, and boot into the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell
Before you start to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium, you must have a basic
understanding of the EFI Shell, what it does, and the information it can provide.
The EFI Shell is a console interface used to launch applications (such as the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program), load EFI protocols and device drivers, and execute
simple scripts. It is similar to a DOS console and can only access media that is FAT16 (VFAT)
formatted.
The EFI Shell also contains common utilities that can be used on the EFI system partition.
These utilities include edit, type, cp, rm, and mkdir. For a list of utilities and other commands,
type help at the EFI Shell prompt.
The EFI Shell contains a boot loader called ELILO. Additional information on EFI can be found
at the following URL:
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm
2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names
The map command can be used to list all devices and file systems that EFI can recognize. When
your Itanium system boots into the EFI shell, it probes your system in the following order:
1. LS-120 drive (if it contains media)
2. IDE hard drives on the primary IDE interface
3. IDE hard drives on the secondary IDE interface
3
Chapter 1. Itanium System Specific Information
4. SCSI hard drives on the SCSI interface
5. CD-ROM drives on the IDE interface
6. CD-ROM drives on the SCSI interface
To view the results of this system poll, type the following command at the EFI Shell prompt:
map
The output is listed in the order the system was probed. So, all FAT16 file systems are listed
first, then IDE hard drives, then SCSI hard drives, then IDE CD-ROM drives, and finally SCSI
CD-ROM drives.
For example, output of the map command might look like the following:
Device mapping table
fs0 : VenHw(Unknown Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
fs1 : VenHw(Unknown Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
fs2 : VenHw(Unknown Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
blk0 : VenHw(Unknown Device:00)
blk1 : VenHw(Unknown Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
blk2 : VenHw(Unknown Device:80)
blk3 : VenHw(Unknown Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
blk4 : VenHw(Unknown Device:80)/HD(Part2,Sig00000000)
blk5 : VenHw(Unknown Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)
blk6 : VenHw(Unknown
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)/HD(Part1,Sig725F7772)
blk7 : VenHw(Unknown Device:FF)
blk8 : VenHw(Unknown Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)
blk9 : VenHw(Unknown Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
In this example, there is an LS-120 diskette in the LS-120 drive as well as a CD-ROM in the
CD-ROM drive. All the listings beginning with fs are FAT16 file systems that EFI can read. All
the listings beginning with blk are block devices that EFI recognizes. Both the file systems and
block devices are listed in the order they are probed. Therefore, fs0 is the system partition on
the LS-120, fs1 is the system partition on the hard drive, and fs2 is the system partition on the
CD-ROM.
2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition
When partitioning your hard drive for Linux, you must create a system partition that is FAT16
(VFAT) formatted and has a mount point of /boot/efi/. This partition contains the installed
Linux kernel(s) as well as the ELILO configuration file (elilo.conf). The elilo.conf file
contains a list of kernels from which you can boot your system.
4
Chapter 2.
Steps to Get You Started
1. Upgrade or Install?
For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to
Chapter 23, Upgrading Your Current System.
2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you
built yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 should be compatible with most hardware in systems
that were factory built within the last two years. However, hardware specifications change
almost daily, so it is difficult to guarantee that your hardware is 100% compatible.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with
disk partitions. If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the
basic concepts), refer to Chapter 25, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used
by other OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a
different version of Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 systems, at least two partitions (/ and
swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For Itanium systems, at least three
partitions (/, /boot/efi/, and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, you must
• have enough unpartitioned1 disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
• have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended
partitioning sizes discussed in Section 18.4, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create free disk
space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to Chapter 25, An Introduction to Disk
Partitions.
1
Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drive(s) you are installing to has not been
divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk drive.
5
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM or DVD?
There are several methods that can be used to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a CD-ROM or DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
product, you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 CD-ROM or DVD, and you have a
DVD/CD-ROM drive on a system that supports booting from it.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your DVD/CD-ROM drive. For more
information about changing your BIOS, refer to Section 3.1, “Booting the Installation Program on
x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 Systems”.
4.1. Alternative Boot Methods
Boot DVD/CD-ROM
If you can boot using the DVD/CD-ROM drive, you can create your own CD-ROM to boot
the installation program. This may be useful, for example, if you are performing an
installation over a network or from a hard drive. Refer to Section 4.2, “Making an Installation
Boot CD-ROM” for further instructions.
USB pen drive
If you cannot boot from the DVD/CD-ROM drive, but you can boot using a USB device,
such as a USB pen drive, the following alternative boot method is available:
To boot using a USB pen drive, use the dd command to copy the diskboot.img image file
from the /images/ directory on the DVD or CD-ROM #1. For example:
dd if=diskboot.img of=/dev/sda
Your BIOS must support booting from a USB device in order for this boot method to work.
4.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM
isolinux (not available for Itanium systems) is used for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation CD. To create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program, use the following
instructions:
Copy the isolinux/ directory from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or CD #1 into a
temporary directory (referred to here as <path-to-workspace>) using the following command:
cp -r <path-to-cd>/isolinux/<path-to-workspace>
Change directories to the <path-to-workspace> directory you have created:
cd <path-to-workspace>
6
Preparing for a Network Installation
Make sure the files you have copied have appropriate permissions:
chmod u+w isolinux/*
Finally, issue the following command to create the ISO image file:
mkisofs -o file.iso -b isolinux.bin -c boot.cat -no-emul-boot \
-boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -R -J -v -T isolinux/
Note
The above command was split into two lines for printing purposes only. When
you execute this command, be sure to type it as a single command, all on the
same line.
Burn the resulting ISO image (named file.iso and located in <path-to-workspace>) to a
CD-ROM as you normally would.
5. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure an installation CD (or any other type of CD) is not in your system's
CD/DVD drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a CD in
the drive may cause unexpected errors.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if
you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate
machine which can provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM or the
installation CD-ROMs.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the
integrity of the installation media. It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and
NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation
7
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any
installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to
improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following command at the
boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
Note
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will
contain the installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The
directory that will be made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be
specified as /export/directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space
may be a directory you create called /var/isos. /export/directory might be
/var/www/html/rhel5, for an HTTP install.
To copy the files from the installation DVD or CD-ROMs to a Linux machine which acts as an
installation staging server, perform the following steps:
• Create an iso image from the installation disk(s) using the following command (for DVDs):
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
For instructions on how to prepare a network installation using CD-ROMs, refer to the
instructions on the README-en file in disk1.
5.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
For FTP and HTTP installation, the iso image or images should be mounted via loopback in the
publicly available directory, in the following manner:
• For DVD:
mount -o loop /location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso /export/directory/
In this case /export/directory will be a directory that is shared via FTP or HTTP.
• For CDROMs:
8
Preparing for an NFS install
mount -o loop /location/of/disk/space/diskX.iso /export/directory/diskX/
Do the above for each of the CDROM iso images, for example:
mount -o loop /var/isos/disk1.iso /var/www/html/rhel5-install/disk1/
Next make sure that the /export/directory directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify
client access. You can check to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself,
and then from another machine on the same subnet that you will be installing to.
5.2. Preparing for an NFS install
For NFS installation it is not necessary to mount the iso image. It is sufficient to make the iso
image itself available via NFS. You can do this by moving the iso image or images to the NFS
exported directory:
• For DVD:
mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso /export/directory/
• For CDROMs:
mv /location/of/disk/space/disk*.iso /export/directory/
Ensure that the /export/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry in
/etc/exports.
To export to a specific system:
/export/directory client.ip.address(ro,no_root_squash)
To export to all systems use an entry such as:
/export/directory *(ro,no_root_squash)
Start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs
start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
9
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
Note
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you
have a file system other than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be
able to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or DVD/CD-ROM) images. An ISO image is
a file containing an exact copy of a DVD/CD-ROM image. After placing the required ISO images
(the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD/CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install from the
hard drive. You can then point the installation program at that directory to perform the
installation.
To prepare your system for a hard drive installation, you must set the system up in one of the
following ways:
• Using a set of CD-ROMs, or a DVD — Create ISO image files from each installation
CD-ROM, or from the DVD. For each CD-ROM (once for the DVD), execute the following
command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/file-name.iso
• Using ISO images — transfer these images to the system to be installed.
Verifying that ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation, helps to avoid
problems. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an
md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An
md5sum program should be available on the same Linux machine as the ISO images.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the
integrity of the installation media. It works with the CD / DVD, hard drive ISO, and
NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation
media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any
installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to
improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following command at the
boot: prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
10
Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the location from which you install, it is used
for updates to anaconda, the installation program. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the
anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.
11
12
Chapter 3.
System Specifications List
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
This system specifications list will help you keep a record of your current system settings and
requirements. Enter the corresponding information about your system in the list provided below
as a handy reference to help make your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation goes smoothly.
• hard drive(s): type, label, size; e.g. IDE hda=40 GB
• partitions: map of partitions and mount points; e.g. /dev/hda1=/home, /dev/hda2=/ (fill this in
once you know where they will reside)
• memory: amount of RAM installed on your system; e.g. 512 MB, 1 GB
• CD-ROM: interface type; e.g. SCSI, IDE (ATAPI)
• SCSI adapter: if present, make and model number; e.g. BusLogic SCSI Adapter, Adaptec
2940UW
• network card: if present, make and model number; e.g. Tulip, 3COM 3C590
• mouse: type, protocol, and number of buttons; e.g. generic 3 button PS/2 mouse, MouseMan
2 button serial mouse
• monitor: make, model, and manufacturer specifications; e.g. Optiquest Q53, ViewSonic G773
• video card: make, model number and size of VRAM; e.g. Creative Labs Graphics Blaster 3D,
8MB
• sound card: make, chipset and model number; e.g. S3 SonicVibes, Sound Blaster 32/64 AWE
• IP, DHCP, and BOOTP addresses
• netmask
• gateway IP address
• one or more name server IP addresses (DNS)
• domain name: the name given to your organization; e.g. example.com
• hostname: the name of your computer; your personal choice of names; e.g. cookie,
southpark
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network
administrator for assistance.
13
14
Chapter 4.
Installing on Intel and AMD Systems
This chapter explains how to perform a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from the
DVD/CD-ROM, using the graphical, mouse-based installation program. The following topics are
discussed:
• Becoming familiar with the installation program's user interface
• Starting the installation program
• Selecting an installation method
• Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, partitioning, etc.)
• Finishing the installation
1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to
move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys
expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a
highlighted item. You can also use the Alt-X key command combination as a way of clicking on
buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter
appearing within that screen.
Note
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel® 64 system, and you do not wish to use
the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available.
To start the text mode installation program, use the following command at the
boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 2, “The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a
brief overview of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation
program. The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program, including LVM configuration which is not
available during a text mode installation.
15
Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI
installation instructions and obtain all needed information.
Note
If you are using an Itanium system, and you do not wish to use the GUI
installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start
the text mode installation program, type the following command at the EFI Shell
prompt:
elilo linux text
1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the
installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a
way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages
on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical
machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a
problem. Refer to Table 4.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual
consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical
installations unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl-alt-f1
installation dialog
2
ctrl-alt-f2
shell prompt
3
ctrl-alt-f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
ctrl-alt-f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl-alt-f5
other messages
6
ctrl-alt-f6
x graphical display
16
The Text Mode Installation Program User
Table 4.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface that
includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.
Figure 4.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration”, and
Figure 4.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid”, illustrate the screens that
appear during the installation process.
Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text
mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. One
thing to note is that manipulation of LVM (Logical Volume Management) disk
volumes is only possible in graphical mode. In text mode it is only possible to
view and accept the default LVM setup.
Figure 4.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader
17
Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Configuration
Figure 4.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 4.1, “Installation Program Widgets
as seen in Boot Loader Configuration” and Figure 4.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen
in Disk Druid”:
• Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these
cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it
disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
• Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either
an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press
Space to select or deselect a feature.
• Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the
installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit
information on that line.
• Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text
widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more
information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you
position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to
scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by
18
Interface
a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
• Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a
list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to
any part of a file.
• Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation
program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these
buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
• Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular
widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change
color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget.
2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To
move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to
cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens
display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press
Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to
select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox
and press Space to select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the
installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
3. Starting the Installation Program
To start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you have
already read through Chapter 2, Steps to Get You Started, and followed the instructions, you
should be ready to start the installation process. When you have verified that you are ready to
begin, boot the installation program using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or CD-ROM #1 or
any boot media that you have created.
19
Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver diskette during the
installation. A driver diskette adds support for hardware that is not otherwise
supported by the installation program. Refer to Chapter 7, Driver Media for Intel®
and AMD Systems for more information.
3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel®
64 Systems
You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending upon
what your system can support):
• Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD/CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable DVD/CD-ROM
drive and you have the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM set or DVD.
• Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to perform
network or hard drive installation.
• USB pen drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
• PXE boot via network — Your machine supports booting from the network. This is an
advanced installation path. Refer to Chapter 31, PXE Network Installations for additional
information on this method.
To create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB pen drive for installation, refer to Section 4.2,
“Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM”.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system. Your BIOS settings may need to be changed to
allow you to boot from the CD-ROM or USB device.
Tip
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® 64 system, watch
the instructions provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line
of text appears, telling you which key to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you
can alter your boot sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on
whether you boot from your hard drive [C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this
sequence so that the CD-ROM is first in your boot order and that C or A
(whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to
first look at the CD-ROM drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable
20
Booting the Installation Program on Itanium
media on the CD-ROM drive, it then checks your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the
documentation that came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains
information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens
associated with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the
line at the bottom of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
• Once the boot: prompt appears, the installation program automatically begins if you take no
action within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen function
keys.
• If you press a help screen function key, there is a slight delay while the help screen is read
from the boot media.
Normally, you only need to press Enter to boot. Be sure to watch the boot messages to review if
the Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, continue to the
next section. If it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the
installation and use one of the boot options provided in Chapter 8, Additional Boot Options for
Intel® and AMD Systems.
3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems
Your Itanium system should be able to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program
directly from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. If your Itanium cannot boot the installation
program from the CD-ROM (or if you want to perform a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP
installation) you must boot from an LS-120 diskette. Refer to Section 3.2.2, “Booting the
Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette” for more information.
3.2.1. Booting the Installation Program from the DVD/CD-ROM
To boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 follow these steps:
1. Remove all media except Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell> prompt, change to the file system on the CD-ROM. For example, in the above
sample map output, the system partition on the CD-ROM is fs1. To change to the fs1 file
system, type fs1: at the prompt.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4, Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems to begin the installation.
3.2.2. Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette
If your Itanium cannot boot from Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, you must boot from an
LS-120 diskette. If you want to perform a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you must
boot from a boot LS-120 diskette.
You must create an LS-120 boot image file diskette from the boot image file on CD #1:
images/boot.img. To create this diskette in Linux, insert a blank LS-120 diskette and type the
following command at a shell prompt:
dd if=boot.img of=/dev/hda bs=180k
Replace boot.img with the full path to the boot image file and /dev/hda with the correct device
name for the LS-120 diskette drive.
If you are not using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD, the installation program starts in text
mode and you must choose a few basic options for your system.
If you are using the CD-ROM to load the installation program, follow the instructions contained
in Chapter 4, Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems.
To boot from an LS-120 diskette follow these steps:
1. Insert the LS-120 diskette you made from the boot image file boot.img. If you are performing
a local CD-ROM installation but booting off the LS-120 diskette, insert the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux CD #1 also. If you are performing a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you do
not need the CD-ROM.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell> prompt, change the device to the LS-120 drive by typing the command fs0:,
using the example map output above.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4, Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems to begin the installation.
3.3. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest to boot using a CD-ROM and perform a graphical installation, sometimes
there are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This
section discusses additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
22
Systems
For Itanium users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an Itanium system, enter the following at the EFI Shell
prompt:
elilo linux option
For x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® 64 system, use the instructions
as provided in the boot loader option samples below.
Note
Refer to Chapter 8, Additional Boot Options for Intel® and AMD Systems for
additional boot options not covered in this section.
• To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
• ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO
image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux mediacheck
The installation program prompts you to insert a CD or select an ISO image to test, and select
OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed on any
Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD and does not have to be performed in a specific order (for
example, CD #1 does not have to be the first CD you verify). It is strongly recommended to
perform this operation on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD that was created from
downloaded ISO images. This command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS
ISO installation methods.
• Also in the images/ directory is the boot.iso file. This file is an ISO image than can be used
to boot the installation program. To use the boot.iso, your computer must be able to boot
from its CD-ROM drive, and its BIOS settings must be configured to do so. You must then
burn the boot.iso file onto a recordable/rewriteable CD-ROM.
• If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console=<device>
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console=<device>
In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or
ttyS1). For example, linux text console=ttyS0.
Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports UTF-8.
Under UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit '95 works well.
Non-UTF-8 capable terminals works as long as only English is used during the installation
process. An enhanced serial display can be used by passing the utf8 command as a
boot-time option to the installation program. For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
3.3.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to apply updates for the anaconda
installation program from a floppy disk enter:
linux updates
For text mode installations, use:
linux text updates
This command will prompt you to insert a floppy diskette containing updates for anaconda. It is
not needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the updates
image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
After entering any options, press Enter to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The boot
options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to
Section 19, “x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 Boot Loader Configuration” for more information).
For more information on kernel options refer to Chapter 8, Additional Boot Options for Intel®
and AMD Systems.
4. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are
available:
24
Installing from DVD/CD-ROM
DVD/CD-ROM
If you have a DVD/CD-ROM drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs or DVD you
can use this method. Refer to Section 5, “Installing from DVD/CD-ROM”, for DVD/CD-ROM
installation instructions.
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can
use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer
to Section 6, “Installing from a Hard Drive”, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux
askmethod boot option). Refer to Section 8, “Installing via NFS” for network installation
instructions. Note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
FTP
If you are installing directly from an FTP server, use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM
(use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer to Section 9, “Installing via FTP”, for FTP
installation instructions.
HTTP
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server, use this method. You need a boot
CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). Refer to Section 10, “Installing via
HTTP”, for HTTP installation instructions.
5. Installing from DVD/CD-ROM
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD/CD-ROM, place the DVD or CD #1 in your
DVD/CD-ROM drive and boot your system from the DVD/CD-ROM.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your CD-ROM drive.
It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM drive.
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject
the boot media. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the
About to Install screen. Refer to Section 24, “Preparing to Install” for more
information.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
If your CD-ROM drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI CD-ROM, the installation program
prompts you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your
adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your
SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD/CD-ROM drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the
option to perform a media check on the DVD/CD-ROM. This will take some time, and you may
opt to skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should
reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check dialog,
continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 11, “Welcome to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux”).
5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) DVD/CD-ROM but the installation program fails to find it and asks
you what type of DVD/CD-ROM drive you have, try the following boot command. Restart the
installation, and at the boot: prompt enter linux hdX=cdrom. Replace X with one of the
following letters, depending on the interface the unit is connected to, and whether it is
configured as master or slave (also known as primary and secondary):
• a — first IDE controller, master
• b — first IDE controller, slave
• c — second IDE controller, master
• d — second IDE controller, slave
If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order, going
from controller to controller, and master to slave.
6. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
26
Performing a Network Installation
Figure 4.3. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images.
This partition must be formatted with a ext2 or vfat filesystem, and cannot be a logical volume.
There is also a field labeled Directory holding images.
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images
are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the
ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is
normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.
7. Performing a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog
asks for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and
Netmask of the device via DHCP or manually. If manually, you have the option to enter IPv4
and/or IPv6 information. Enter the IP address you are using during installation and press Enter.
Note that you need to supply IPv4 information if you wish to perform an NFS installation.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.4. TCP/IP Configuration
8. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you selected NFS Image
in the Installation Method dialog).
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from
a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the
NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 5,
“Preparing for a Network Installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the
directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later
on in the process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If
everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program
for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
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Installing via FTP
Figure 4.5. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, enter
the directory which contains the ISO images.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
9. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you selected FTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP server from which you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.6. FTP Setup Dialog
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name of the
directory containing the variant/ directory for your architecture. For example, if the FTP site
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/variant;/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/
(where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or
s390x, and variant is the variant that you are installing, such as Client, Server, Workstation,
etc.). If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to
the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO
images without copying them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For
each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop RHEL5-discX.iso discX
Replace X with the corresponding disc number.
30
Installing via HTTP
10. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you selected HTTP in
the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the HTTP server
from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of the
directory containing the variant/ directory for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/variant/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/
(where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or
s390x, and variant is the variant that you are installing, such as Client, Server, Workstation,
etc.). If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
Figure 4.7. HTTP Setup Dialog
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to
the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO
images without copying them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For
each ISO image:
mkdir discX
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
mount -o loop RHEL5-discX.iso discX
Replace X with the corresponding disc number.
11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the
Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
Click on the Next button to continue.
12. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select a language to use for the installation (refer to Figure 4.8, “Language
Selection”).
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it
is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration
later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based
on what you specify on this screen.
32
Keyboard Configuration
Figure 4.8. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
13. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard
you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.9. Keyboard Configuration
Tip
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation,
use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the
Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
14. Enter the Installation Number
Enter your Installation Number (refer to Figure 4.10, “Installation Number”). This number will
determine the package selection set that is available to the installer. If you choose to skip
entering the installation number you will be presented with a basic selection of packages to
install later on.
34
Disk Partitioning Setup
Figure 4.10. Installation Number
15. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating
systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Chapter 25, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
On this screen you can choose to create the default layout or choose to manual partition using
the 'Create custom layout' option of Disk Druid.
The first three options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition
your drive(s) yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is
recommended that you do not choose to create a custom layout and instead let the installation
program partition for you.
You can configure an iSCSI target for installation, or disable a dmraid device from this screen by
clicking on the 'Advanced storage configuration' button. For more information refer to
Section 16, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Warning
The Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/
partition, be sure to create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to
download package updates.
Figure 4.11. Disk Partitioning Setup
If you choose to create a custom layout using Disk Druid, refer to Section 18, “Partitioning Your
System”.
Warning
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation
saying something similar to:
"The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it
36
Advanced Storage Options
must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive."
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive
may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation
program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar
problems, causing data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before
the installation began).
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing
data on your systems should always be made.
16. Advanced Storage Options
Figure 4.12. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can choose to disable a dmraid device, in which case the individual
elements of the dmraid device will appear as separate hard drives. You can also choose to
configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target.
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add
ISCSI target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and
provide a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. Click the 'Add target' button to
attempt connection to the ISCSI target using this information.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.13. Configure ISCSI Parameters
Please note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it
incorrectly, but in order to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the
installation.
17. Create Default Layout
Create default layout allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any)
from your system. Your options are:
• Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to
remove all partitions on your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating
systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).
Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) is removed by the
installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you
want to keep on the hard drive(s) where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
• Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this
option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation).
This does not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or
38
Create Default Layout
FAT32 partitions).
• Use free space on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to retain
your current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your
hard drive(s).
Figure 4.14. Create Default Layout
Using your mouse, choose the storage drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux to
be installed. If you have two or more drives, you can choose which drive(s) should contain this
installation. Unselected drives, and any data on them, are not touched.
Caution
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For
example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back
up any data you wish to keep on your drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can
result in the loss of all your data.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting
from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be
created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard
drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with
problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select
Review and manually edit your /boot/ partition.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning,
select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the
partitions created for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these partitions
if they do not meet your needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
18. Partitioning Your System
If you chose one of the three automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip
ahead to Section 20, “Network Configuration”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either
accept the current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup using Disk Druid, the
manual partitioning tool.
Note
Please note that in the text mode installation it is not possible to work with LVM
(Logical Volumes) beyond viewing the existing setup. LVM can only be set up
using the graphical Disk Druid program in a graphical installation.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions
in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create and/or delete
partitions at this time.
40
Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Note
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Chapter 25, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 18.4, “Recommended Partitioning
Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and
a swap partition equal to twice the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Itanium system users should have a /boot/efi/ partition of approximately 100
MB and of type FAT (VFAT), a swap partition of at least 512 MB, and an
appropriately-sized root (/) partition.
Figure 4.15. Partitioning with Disk Druid on x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64
Systems
The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid. With the exception of
certain esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical
installation.
18.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click
to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/hda), the Geom (which shows
the hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders,
heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected
by the installation program.
18.2. Disk Druid's Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid's actions. They are used to change the attributes of a
partition (for example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID devices.
Buttons on this screen are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk
Druid. For further explanation, take a look at each button in order:
• New: Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing fields
(such as the mount point and size fields) that must be filled in.
• Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section.
Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on
whether the partition information has already been written to disk.
You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new partition
within that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button, or
double-click on the free space to edit it.
• To make a RAID device, you must first create (or reuse existing) software RAID partitions.
Once you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select Make RAID to join the
software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
• Delete: Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions
section. You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition.
• Reset: Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if you
Reset the partitions.
• RAID: Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions. It should only be used if you
have experience using RAID. To read more about RAID, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions
into a RAID device.
• LVM: Allows you to create an LVM logical volume. The role of LVM (Logical Volume
Manager) is to present a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a
hard drive(s). LVM manages individual physical disks — or to be more precise, the individual
42
Partition Fields
partitions present on them. It should only be used if you have experience using LVM. To read
more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
available in the graphical installation program.
To create an LVM logical volume, you must first create partitions of type physical volume
(LVM). Once you have created one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions, select LVM to
create an LVM logical volume.
18.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are
creating. The labels are defined as follows:
• Device: This field displays the partition's device name.
• Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at
which a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the
partition is mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount
point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button.
• Type: This field shows the partition's file system type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
• Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
• Size (MB): This field shows the partition's size (in MB).
• Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins.
• End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends.
Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want to view
any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
18.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
18.4.1. Itanium systems
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions for Itanium systems:
• A /boot/efi/ partition (100 MB minimum) — the partition mounted on /boot/efi/ contains
all the installed kernels, the initrd images, and ELILO configuration files.
Warning
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
You must create a /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT and at least 100 MB in
size as the first primary partition.
• A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In
other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the
data your system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of RAM
on your machine. It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors
including the following (in descending order of importance):
• The applications running on the machine.
• The amount of physical RAM installed on the machine.
• The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then an additional
1x physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
So, if:
M = Amount of RAM in GB, and S = Amount of swap in GB, then
If M < 2
S = M *2
Else
S = M + 2
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap, while one
with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap space partition
can be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get away
with a smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
• A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot/efi) are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets
you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
18.4.2. x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 systems
44
Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions for x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 systems:
• A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In
other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the
data your system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of RAM
on your machine. It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors
including the following (in descending order of importance):
• The applications running on the machine.
• The amount of physical RAM installed on the machine.
• The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then an additional
1x physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
So, if:
M = Amount of RAM in GB, and S = Amount of swap in GB, then
If M < 2
S = M *2
Else
S = M + 2
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap, while one
with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap space partition
can be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get away
with a smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
• A /boot/ partition (100 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating
system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files
used during the bootstrap process. Due to limitations, creating a native ext3 partition to hold
these files is required. For most users, a 100 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Tip
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was
manufactured more than two years ago), you may need to create a /boot/
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your
hard drive.
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting
from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be
created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard
drive.
• A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets
you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
18.5. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the New button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 4.16,
“Creating a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more.
For more information, refer to Chapter 25, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
46
Adding Partitions
Figure 4.16. Creating a New Partition
• Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the
root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the
pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the
mount point should not be set - setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
• File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 18.5.1, “File System
Types”.
• Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a
hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the
box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using
different checkbox settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions where you need them,
or let Disk Druid decide where partitions should go.
• Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 100 MB;
unless changed, only a 100 MB partition will be created.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
• Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right
of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for
future use.
• Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one
of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical
partition. Refer to Section 1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions”, for more information.
• OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
• Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
18.5.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system
they will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how
they can be utilized.
• ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories,
symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
• ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a
crash as there is no need to fsck1 the file system. The ext3 file system is selected by default
and is highly recommended.
• physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you
to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks.
For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide.
• software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to
a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
• vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows
long filenames on the FAT file system. This file system must be used for the /boot/efi/
partition on Itanium systems.
1
The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair one or more
Linux file systems.
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Deleting a Partition
18.6. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
Note
If the partition already exists on your disk, you can only change the partition's
mount point. To make any other changes, you must delete the partition and
recreate it.
18.7. Deleting a Partition
To delete a partition, highlight it in the Partitions section and click the Delete button. Confirm
the deletion when prompted.
For further installation instructions for x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 systems, skip to Section 19,
“x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 Boot Loader Configuration”.
For further installation instructions for Itanium systems, skip to Section 20, “Network
Configuration”.
19. x86, AMD64, and Intel® 64 Boot Loader
Configuration
To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot loader
is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and
transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the
rest of the operating system.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader.
GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems
with chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as DOS or
Windows, by loading another boot loader).
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.17. Boot Loader Configuration
If you do not want to install GRUB as your boot loader, click Change boot loader, where you
can choose not to install a boot loader at all.
If you already have a boot loader that can boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and do not want to
overwrite your current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader by clicking on the
Change boot loader button.
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the
system directly, and you must use another boot method (such as a commercial
boot loader application). Use this option only if you are sure you have another
way of booting the system!
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. The
partition holding the system's root file system has a Label of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (for
GRUB). Other partitions may also have boot labels. To add or change the boot label for other
partitions that have been detected by the installation program, click once on the partition to
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Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
select it. Once selected, you can change the boot label by clicking the Edit button.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You
cannot move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical
boot loaders, in order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a
boot label or type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the
configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access
to your server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without
a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which
can compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password
must first be entered before selecting any non-standard boot options. However, it is still possible
for someone with physical access to the machine to boot from a diskette, CD-ROM, or USB
media if the BIOS supports it. Security plans which include boot loader passwords should also
address alternate boot methods.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select
the checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
To configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing
options to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before
clicking Next.
19.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want
the boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
• The master boot record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader,
unless the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System
Commander. The MBR is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by
your computer's BIOS, and is the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of
the boot process. If you install it in the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB presents a
boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that
you have configured the boot loader to boot.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
• The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using another
boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control first. You can
then configure that boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 4.18. Boot Loader Installation
Tip
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting
from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the boot loader should not be
installed on the MBR of the RAID array. Rather, the boot loader should be
installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition was created.
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your
BIOS does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you
have multiple SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the
SCSI device.
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Rescue Mode
The Force LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder limit
for the /boot/ partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension for booting
operating systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your /boot/ partition
above cylinder 1024, you should select this option.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older
systems cannot access more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this
is the case, leave enough room for the /boot Linux partition on the first 1024
cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions can be after
cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
To add default options to the boot command, enter them into the Kernel parameters field. Any
options you enter are passed to the Linux kernel every time it boots.
19.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely
from boot media or some other boot method instead of the system's hard drive. There may be
times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to
access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on
your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that
hard drive. If you need to use rescue mode, try the following method:
• Using the CD-ROM to boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel® 64 system, type linux rescue at the
installation boot prompt. Itanium users should type elilo linux rescue to enter rescue
mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
19.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use a boot loader, you have several alternatives:
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux kernel
(and an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MS-DOS
partition. The only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
using some other method (for example, from a boot CD-ROM) and then copy the kernel to
an MS-DOS partition. LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander and
Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB to be installed in your Linux
root partition).
Note
Boot loaders such as LOADLIN and System Commander are considered to be
third-party boot loaders and are not supported by Red Hat.
19.4. SMP Motherboards and GRUB
In previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux there were two different kernel versions, a
uniprocessor version and an SMP version. In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 the kernel is
SMP-enabled by default and will take advantage of multiple core, hyperthreading, and multiple
CPU capabilities when they are present. This same kernel can run on single CPUs with a single
core and no hyperthreading.
20. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, this screen does not appear during your installation and
you should advance to Section 21, “Time Zone Configuration”.
54
Network Configuration
Figure 4.19. Network Configuration
The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and displays them
in the Network Devices list.
Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up screen,
you can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask (for IPv4 - Prefix for IPv6) of the
device via DHCP (or manually if DHCP is not selected) and you can choose to activate the
device at boot time. If you select Activate on boot, your network interface is started when you
boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide here, please
contact your network administrator.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.20. Editing a Network Device
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will
not work for your own network configuration. If you are not sure what values to
enter, contact your network administrator for assistance.
If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can choose to
have DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or you can manually
enter the hostname in the field provided.
Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the
Gateway address and the Primary and Secondary DNS addresses.
Tip
Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your
system. If you do not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be
known as localhost.
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Time Zone Configuration
Tip
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation,
use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the
Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
21. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on
the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
• Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a
yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
• You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using
your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.21. Configuring the Time Zone
Select System Clock uses UTC if you know that your system is set to UTC.
Tip
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time
and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the
command timeconfig.
22. Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT
58
Set Root Password
machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire
system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform
system maintenance or administration.
Figure 4.22. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general
use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the
chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password2 for your system. You cannot
proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to
the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the
installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is
easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with
upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT,
for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password,
keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any
password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of
these passwords could be considered a security risk.
Tip
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the
Root Password Tool.
Type the system-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch
the Root Password Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
23. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the
2
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as
root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal
user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
60
Package Group Selection
default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you are installing.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 24, “Preparing to Install”.
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen.
Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for
example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
Note
Users of Itanium systems who want support for developing or running 32-bit
applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and
Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install architecure
specific support for their systems.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 4.23, “Package Group
Selection”).
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
Figure 4.23. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install.
Once a package group has been selected, if optional components are available you can click on
Optional packages to view which packages are installed by default, and to add or remove
optional packages from that group. If there are no optional components this button will be
disabled.
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Preparing to Install
Figure 4.24. Package Group Details
24. Preparing to Install
24.1. Prepare to Install
A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log
once you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process,
this is your last opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your
machine. Once you press the Next button, partitions are written and packages
are installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should reboot now before
any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten.
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
To cancel this installation process, press your computer's Reset button or use the
Control-Alt-Delete key combination to restart your machine.
25. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How
quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer's speed.
26. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove
any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader
prompt appears at which you can do any of the following things:
• Press Enter — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
• Select a boot label, followed by Enter — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system
corresponding to the boot label.
• Do nothing — after the boot loader's timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot loader
automatically boots the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of
messages should scroll by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed
the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run
level), the Setup Agent is presented, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register
your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your
environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system quickly.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to Chapter 24,
Activate Your Subscription.
27. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and
Post-Installation Setup
This section describes how to boot your Itanium into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and how to set
your EFI console variables so that Red Hat Enterprise Linux is automatically booted when the
64
Post-Installation Boot Loader Options
machine is powered on.
After you reboot your system at the end of the installation program, type the following command
to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
elilo
After you type elilo, the default kernel listed in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf configuration file is
loaded. (The first kernel listed in the file is the default.)
If you want to load a different kernel, type the label name of the kernel from the file
/boot/efi/elilo.conf after the elilo command. For example, to load the kernel named
linux, type:
elilo linux
If you do not know the names of the installed kernels, you can view the /boot/efi/elilo.conf
file in EFI with the following instructions:
1. At the Shell> prompt, change devices to the system partition (mounted as /boot/efi in
Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell prompt.
2. Type ls at the fs0:\> to make sure you are in the correct partition.
3. Then type:
Shell>type elilo.conf
This command displays the contents of the configuration file. Each stanza contains a line
beginning with label followed by a label name for that kernel. The label name is what you
type after elilo to boot the different kernels.
27.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options
In addition to specifying a kernel to load, you can also enter other boot options such as single
for single user mode or mem=1024M to force Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use 1024 MB of
memory. To pass options to the boot loader, enter the following at the EFI Shell prompt (replace
linux with the label name of the kernel you want to boot and option with the boot options you
want to pass to the kernel):
elilo linux option
27.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically
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Chapter 4. Installing on Intel® and AMD Systems
After installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux you can type elilo and any boot options at the EFI
Shell prompt each time you wish to boot your Itanium system. However, if you wish to configure
your system to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically, you need to configure the EFI
Boot Manager.
To configure the EFI Boot Manager (may vary slightly depending on your hardware):
1. Boot the Itanium system and choose Boot option maintenance menu from the EFI Boot
Manager menu.
2. Choose Add a Boot Option from the Main Menu.
3. Select the system partition that is mounted as /boot/efi/ in Linux.
4. Select the elilo.efi file.
5. At the Enter New Description: prompt, type Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, or any name
that you want to appear on the EFI Boot Manager menu.
6. At the Enter Boot Option Data Type: prompt, enter N for No Boot Option if you do not
want to pass options to the ELILO boot loader. This option works for most cases. If you want
to pass options to the boot loader, you can configure it in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf
configuration file instead.
7. Answer Yes to the Save changes to NVRAM prompt. This returns you to the EFI Boot
Maintenance Manager menu.
8. Next, you want to make the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 menu item the default. A list of boot
options appears. Move the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 menu item up to the top of the list by
selecting it with the arrow keys and pressing the u key to move it up the list. You can move
items down the list by selecting it and pressing the d key. After changing the boot order,
choose Save changes to NVRAM. Choose Exit to return to the Main Menu.
9. Optionally, you can change the boot timeout value by choosing Set Auto Boot TimeOut =>
Set Timeout Value from the Main Menu.
10.Return to the EFI Boot Manager by selecting Exit.
27.2.1. Using a Startup Script
It is recommended that you configure the ELILO Boot Manager to boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux automatically. However, if you require additional commands to be executed before
starting the ELILO boot loader, you can create a startup script named startup.nsh. The last
command should be elilo to boot into Linux.
The startup.nsh script should be in the /boot/efi partition (/boot/efi/startup.nsh) and
contain the following text:
echo -off your set of commands elilo
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Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux
If you want to pass options to the boot loader (refer to Section 27.1, “Post-Installation Boot
Loader Options”) add them after elilo.
You can either create this file after booting into Red Hat Enterprise Linux or use the editor built
into the EFI shell. To use the EFI shell, at the Shell> prompt, change devices to the system
partition (mounted as /boot/efi in Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type
fs0: at the EFI Shell prompt. Type ls to make sure you are in the correct partition. Then type
edit startup.nsh. Type the contents of the file and save it.
The next time the system boots, EFI detects the startup.nsh file and use it to boot the system.
To stop EFI from loading the file, type Ctrl-c . This aborts the process, and returns you to the
EFI shell prompt.
67
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Chapter 5.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
To uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your x86-based system, you must remove the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader information from your master boot record (MBR).
Note
It is always a good idea to backup any data that you have on your system(s).
Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss all of your data.
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the
undocumented flag /mbr. This ONLY rewrites the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition. The
command should look like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the default
DOS (Windows) fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem.
The best way to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands partitions other than
DOS.
To begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and boot your system. Once you have
booted off the CD, a boot prompt appears. At the boot prompt, type: linux rescue. This starts
the rescue mode program.
You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you
would during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
install to rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
After selecting Skip, you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions you
would like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. This command lists all hard drives on your system
that are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in megabytes.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions.
Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system
environment.
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Chapter 5. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda is the
device on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number of the
partition to remove:
print
The print command also displays the partition's type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, and so
on). Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove the partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with minor
number 3:
rm 3
Important
The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the
command before committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from the
partition table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make,
type quit to quit parted.
After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your system,
instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically. If it does not,
you can reboot your computer using Control-Alt-Delete .
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Chapter 6.
Troubleshooting Installation on an
Intel or AMD System
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to
reinstall and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a
text-based screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB: ) and a flashing cursor
may be all that appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition
outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary
to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive that is
outside of the RAID array. This should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/ partition.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot
the system properly.
1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the
software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware
error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
places its own demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to
meet those demands, even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the
online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to
a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A
possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports
this. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the
problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation CD-ROMs. The Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media.
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Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel® or AMD System
It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat
recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and
before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to
improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot:
prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If
the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution
mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. This option may be most
helpful for laptop users. Another solution to try is the driver= option to specify the driver that
should be loaded for your video card. If this works, it should be reported as a bug as the
installer has failed to autodetect your videocard. Refer to Chapter 8, Additional Boot Options for
Intel® and AMD Systems for more information on boot options.
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text
mode, try using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for
accessibility with some screen reading hardware.
3. Trouble During the Installation
3.1. No
devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation
program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that
72
Saving Traceback Messages Without a
fixes your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Chapter 7, Driver
Media for Intel® and AMD Systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive
If you receive a traceback error message during installation, you can usually save it to a
diskette.
If you do not have a diskette drive available in your system, you can scp the error message to a
remote system.
When the traceback dialog appears, the traceback error message is automatically written to a
file named /tmp/anacdump.txt. Once the dialog appears, switch over to a new tty (virtual
console) by pressing the keys Ctrl-Alt-F2 and scp the message written to
/tmp/anacdump.txt to a known working remote system.
3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 15, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing
data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began) that could
not be recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your
systems should always be made.
3.4. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to use
the remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want the
/ (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
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Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel® or AMD System
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid's dependencies to be
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk
Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you.
3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid's dependencies to be
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition's type as swap, you do not have to assign it a mount
point. Disk Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you.
3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program
(also known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after
the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the
/tmp/directory. The error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20,
74
Diskette Drive
in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>
ToDo object: (itodo ToDo p1 (dp2 S'method' p3 (iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4 (dp5 S'progressWindow' p6
<failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have
been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation
process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda. Errata
can be found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking
system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
4. Problems After Installation
4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based
System?
If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot
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Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel® or AMD System
screen. To do this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins with splashimage by inserting the
# character at the beginning of the line.
Press Enter to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line back
into the grub.conf file.
4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment
once you log into your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, you can start the X Window System
graphical interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future
log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file,
/etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished,
reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within
the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have
networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
# id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
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Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl-Q keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login
prompt.
4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it
during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs
or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or
both, during the upgrade package selection process.
4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone other than root logs in, you
may have a full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information
about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this
example), refer to the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and
/tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that
partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that
was unsuccessful before.
4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
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Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel® or AMD System
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password
you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit
when the GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the
configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type
passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type
shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root,
type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This
allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with
the cat /proc/meminfo command.
Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If
they are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
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Your Printer Does Not Work
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
# all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.9-5.EL)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL ro root=/dev/hda3 mem=128M
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of
items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to boot.
4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try
using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration
If, for some reason, you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed,
you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool (system-config-soundcard) utility.
To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool, choose Main Menu => System =>
Administration => Soundcard Detection in GNOME, or Main Menu => Administration =>
Soundcard Detection in KDE. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password.
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Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel® or AMD System
You can also type the system-config-soundcard command at a shell prompt to launch the
Sound Card Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to
continue.
If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still
do not have audio sounds), it is likely that your sound card is not yet supported in Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.
4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup,
make sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
80
localhost.localdomain
localhost
Chapter 7.
Driver Media for Intel and AMD
Systems
1. Why Do I Need Driver Media?
While the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program is loading, a screen may appear asking
you for driver media. The driver media screen is most often seen in the following scenarios:
• If you need to perform an installation from a block device
• If you need to perform an installation from a PCMCIA device
• If you run the installation program by entering linux dd at the installation boot prompt
(Itanium users should enter elilo linux dd)
• If you run the installation program on a computer which does not have any PCI devices
2. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?
Driver media can add support for hardware that may or may not be supported by the installation
program. Driver media could include a driver diskette or image produced by Red Hat, it could be
a diskette or CD-ROM you make yourself from driver images found on the Internet, or it could
be a diskette or CD-ROM that a hardware vendor includes with a piece of hardware.
Driver media is used if you need access to a particular device to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Drivers can be used for network (NFS) installations, installations using a PCMCIA or
block device, non-standard or very new CD-ROM drives, SCSI adapters, NICs, and other
uncommon devices.
Note
If an unsupported device is not needed to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on
your system, continue with the installation and add support for the new piece of
hardware once the installation is complete.
3. How Do I Obtain Driver Media?
Driver images can be obtained from several sources. They may be included with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, or they may be available from a hardware or software vendor's website. If you
suspect that your system may require one of these drivers, you should create a driver diskette
or CD-ROM before beginning your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
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Chapter 7. Driver Media for Intel® and AMD Systems
Tip
It is also possible to use a driver image via a network file. Instead of using the
linux dd boot command, use the linux dd=url command, where url is
replaced by an HTTP, FTP, or NFS address of the driver image to be used.
Another option for finding specialized driver information is on Red Hat's website at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
under the section called Bug Fixes. Occasionally, popular hardware may be made available
after a release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that does not work with drivers already in the
installation program or included on the driver images on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. In
such cases, the Red Hat website may contain a link to a driver image.
3.1. Creating a Driver Diskette from an Image File
To create a driver diskette from a driver diskette image using Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
1. Insert a blank, formatted diskette (or LS-120 diskette for Itanium system users) into the first
diskette (or LS-120) drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver diskette image, such as drvnet.img, type dd
if=drvnet.img of=/dev/fd0 as root.
Tip
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports using a USB pen drive as a way to add driver
images during the installation process. The best way to do this is to mount the
USB pen drive and copy the desired driverdisk.img onto the USB pen drive.
For example:
dd if=driverdisk.img of=/dev/sda
You are then prompted during the installation to select the partition and specify
the file to be used.
4. Using a Driver Image During Installation
If you need to use a driver image, such as during a PCMCIA device or NFS installation, the
installation program prompts you to insert the driver (as a diskette, CD-ROM, or file name) when
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Using a Driver Image During Installation
it is needed.
For example, to specifically load a driver diskette that you have created, begin the installation
process by booting from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 (or using boot media you have
created). For x86-based systems, at the boot: prompt, enter linux dd if using an x86 or
x86-64 system. Refer to Section 3.1, “Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and
Intel® 64 Systems” for details on booting the installation program. For Itanium systems, at the
Shell> prompt, type elilo linux dd. Refer to Section 3.2, “Booting the Installation Program
on Itanium Systems” for details on booting the installation program.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program asks you to insert the driver diskette. Once
the driver diskette is read by the installation program, it can apply those drivers to hardware
discovered on your system later in the installation process.
83
84
Chapter 8.
Additional Boot Options for Intel and
AMD Systems
This section discusses additional boot and kernel boot options available for the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program.
To use any of the boot options presented here, type the command you wish to invoke at the
installation boot: prompt.
Boot Time Command Arguments
askmethod
this command asks you to select the installation method you would like to use when booting
from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM.
apic
this x86 boot command works around a bug commonly encountered in the Intel 440GX
chipset BIOS and should only be executed with the installation program kernel.
apm=allow_ints
this x86 boot command changes how the suspend service is handled (and may be
necessary for some laptops).
apm=off
this x86 boot command disables APM (advanced power management). It is useful because
some BIOSes have buggy power management (APM) and tend to crash.
apm=power_off
this x86 boot command makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux shutdown (power off) the system
by default. It is useful for SMP systems that do not shutdown by default.
apm=realmode_power_off
some BIOSes crash on x86-based systems when trying to shutdown (power off) the
machine. This command changes the method of how this is done from the Windows NT
way to the Windows 95 way.
dd
this argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver diskette.
dd=url
this argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver image from a
specified HTTP, FTP, or NFS network address.
display=ip:0
this command allows remote display forwarding. In this command, ip should be replaced
with the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
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Chapter 8. Additional Boot Options for Intel® and AMD Systems
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are
running the original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access to
the remote display terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not
specifically authorized for remote access.
driverdisk
this command performs the same function as the dd command and also prompts you to use
a driver diskette during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
ide=nodma
this command disables DMA on all IDE devices and may be useful when having IDE-related
problems.
linux upgradeany
this command relaxes some of the checks on your /etc/redhat-release file. If your
/etc/redhat-release file has been changed from the default, your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5. Use this option only if your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was not
detected.
mediacheck
this command gives you the option of testing the integrity of the install source (if an
ISO-based method). this command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO
installation methods. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an
installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during an installation.
mem=xxxm
this command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the
machine. This may be needed for some older systems where only 16 mb is detected and for
some new machines where the video card shares the video memory with the main memory.
When executing this command, xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in
megabytes.
nmi_watchdog=1
this command enables the built-in kernel deadlock detector. This command can be used to
debug hard kernel lockups. by executing periodic NMI (Non Maskable Interrupt) interrupts,
the kernel can monitor whether any CPU has locked up and print out debugging messages
as needed.
noapic
this x86 boot command tells the kernel not to use the APIC chip. It may be helpful for some
motherboards with a bad APIC (such as the Abit BP6) or with a buggy bios. systems based
on the nvidia nforce3 chipset (such as the Asus SK8N) have been known to hang during
IDE detection at boot time, or display other interrupt-delivery issues.
noht
this x86 boot command disables hyperthreading.
86
nofb
this command disables frame buffer support and allows the installation program to run in
text mode. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading
hardware.
nomce
this x86 boot command disables self-diagnosis checks performed on the CPU. the kernel
enables self-diagnosis on the CPU by default (called machine check exception). Early
Compaq Pentium systems may need this option as they do not support processor error
checking correctly. A few other laptops, notably those using the Radeon IGP chipset, may
also need this option.
nonet
this command disables network hardware probing.
nopass
this command disables the passing of keyboard and mouse information to stage 2 of the
installation program. It can be used to test keyboard and mouse configuration screens
during stage 2 of the installation program when performing a network installation.
nopcmcia
this command ignores any PCMCIA controllers in system.
noprobe
this command disables hardware detection and instead prompts the user for hardware
information.
noshell
this command disables shell access on virtual console 2 during an installation.
nostorage
this command disables probing for SCSI and RAID storage hardware.
nousb
this command disables the loading of USB support during the installation. If the installation
program tends to hang early in the process, this command may be helpful.
nousbstorage
this command disables the loading of the usbstorage module in the installation program's
loader. It may help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
numa=off
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports NUMA (non-uniform memory access) on the AMD64
architecture. while all cpus can access all memory even without numa support, the numa
support present in the updated kernel causes memory allocations to favor the cpu on which
they originate as much as possible, thereby minimizing inter-CPU memory traffic. This can
provide significant performance improvements in certain applications. to revert to the
original non-NUMA behavior, specify this boot option.
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Chapter 8. Additional Boot Options for Intel® and AMD Systems
reboot=b
this x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T boot command changes the way the kernel tries to
reboot the machine. If a kernel hang is experienced while the system is shutting down, this
command may cause the system to reboot successfully.
rescue
this command runs rescue mode. Refer to Chapter 26, Basic System Recovery for more
information about rescue mode.
resolution=
tells the installation program which video mode to run. it accepts any standard resolution,
such as 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, and so on.
serial
this command turns on serial console support.
text
this command disables the graphical installation program and forces the installation
program to run in text mode.
updates
this command prompts you to insert a floppy diskette containing updates (bug fixes) for the
anaconda installation program. It is not needed if you are performing a network installation
and have already placed the updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
updates=
this command allows you to specify a URL to retrieve updates (bug fixes) for the anaconda
installation program.
vnc
this command allows you to install from a VNC server.
vncpassword=
this command sets the password used to connect to the VNC server.
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Chapter 9.
The GRUB Boot Loader
When a computer with Red Hat Enterprise Linux is turned on, the operating system is loaded
into memory by a special program called a boot loader. A boot loader usually exists on the
system's primary hard drive (or other media device) and has the sole responsibility of loading
the Linux kernel with its required files or (in some cases) other operating systems into memory.
1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
Each architecture capable of running Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a different boot loader. The
following table lists the boot loaders available for each architecture:
Architecture
Boot Loaders
AMD® AMD64
GRUB
IBM®eServer™System i™
OS/400®
IBM®eServer™System p™
YABOOT
IBM®System z®
z/IPL
IBM®System z®
z/IPL
Intel®Itanium™
ELILO
x86
GRUB
Table 9.1. Boot Loaders by Architecture
This chapter discusses commands and configuration options for the GRUB boot loader included
with Red Hat Enterprise Linux for the x86 architecture.
2. GRUB
The GNU GRand Unified Boot loader (GRUB) is a program which enables the selection of the
installed operating system or kernel to be loaded at system boot time. It also allows the user to
pass arguments to the kernel.
2.1. GRUB and the x86 Boot Process
This section discusses the specific role GRUB plays when booting an x86 system. For a look at
the overall boot process, refer to Section 2, “A Detailed Look at the Boot Process”.
GRUB loads itself into memory in the following stages:
1. The Stage 1 or primary boot loader is read into memory by the BIOS from the MBR1. The
primary boot loader exists on less than 512 bytes of disk space within the MBR and is
1
For more on the system BIOS and the MBR, refer to Section 2.1, “The BIOS”.
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Chapter 9. The GRUB Boot Loader
capable of loading either the Stage 1.5 or Stage 2 boot loader.
2. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is read into memory by the Stage 1 boot loader, if necessary.
Some hardware requires an intermediate step to get to the Stage 2 boot loader. This is
sometimes true when the /boot/ partition is above the 1024 cylinder head of the hard drive
or when using LBA mode. The Stage 1.5 boot loader is found either on the /boot/ partition
or on a small part of the MBR and the /boot/ partition.
3. The Stage 2 or secondary boot loader is read into memory. The secondary boot loader
displays the GRUB menu and command environment. This interface allows the user to select
which kernel or operating system to boot, pass arguments to the kernel, or look at system
parameters.
4. The secondary boot loader reads the operating system or kernel as well as the contents of
/boot/sysroot/ into memory. Once GRUB determines which operating system or kernel to
start, it loads it into memory and transfers control of the machine to that operating system.
The method used to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux is called direct loading because the boot
loader loads the operating system directly. There is no intermediary between the boot loader
and the kernel.
The boot process used by other operating systems may differ. For example, the
Microsoft®Windows® operating system, as well as other operating systems, are loaded using
chain loading. Under this method, the MBR points to the first sector of the partition holding the
operating system, where it finds the files necessary to actually boot that operating system.
GRUB supports both direct and chain loading boot methods, allowing it to boot almost any
operating system.
Warning
During installation, Microsoft's DOS and Windows installation programs
completely overwrite the MBR, destroying any existing boot loaders. If creating a
dual-boot system, it is best to install the Microsoft operating system first.
2.2. Features of GRUB
GRUB contains several features that make it preferable to other boot loaders available for the
x86 architecture. Below is a partial list of some of the more important features:
• GRUB provides a true command-based, pre-OS environment on x86 machines. This feature
affords the user maximum flexibility in loading operating systems with specified options or
gathering information about the system. For years, many non-x86 architectures have
employed pre-OS environments that allow system booting from a command line.
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Installing GRUB
• GRUB supports Logical Block Addressing (LBA) mode. LBA places the addressing
conversion used to find files in the hard drive's firmware, and is used on many IDE and all
SCSI hard devices. Before LBA, boot loaders could encounter the 1024-cylinder BIOS
limitation, where the BIOS could not find a file after the 1024 cylinder head of the disk. LBA
support allows GRUB to boot operating systems from partitions beyond the 1024-cylinder
limit, so long as the system BIOS supports LBA mode. Most modern BIOS revisions support
LBA mode.
• GRUB can read ext2 partitions. This functionality allows GRUB to access its configuration file,
/boot/grub/grub.conf, every time the system boots, eliminating the need for the user to
write a new version of the first stage boot loader to the MBR when configuration changes are
made. The only time a user needs to reinstall GRUB on the MBR is if the physical location of
the /boot/ partition is moved on the disk. For details on installing GRUB to the MBR, refer to
Section 3, “Installing GRUB”.
3. Installing GRUB
If GRUB was not installed during the installation process, it can be installed afterward. Once
installed, it automatically becomes the default boot loader.
Before installing GRUB, make sure to use the latest GRUB package available or use the GRUB
package from the installation CD-ROMs. For instructions on installing packages, refer to the
chapter titled Package Management with RPM in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide.
Once the GRUB package is installed, open a root shell prompt and run the command
/sbin/grub-install <location>, where <location> is the location that the GRUB Stage 1
boot loader should be installed. For example, the following command installs GRUB to the MBR
of the master IDE device on the primary IDE bus:
/sbin/grub-install /dev/hda
The next time the system boots, the GRUB graphical boot loader menu appears before the
kernel loads into memory.
Important
If GRUB is installed on a RAID 1 array, the system may become unbootable in
the event of disk failure. An unsupported workaround is provided online at the
following URL:
http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.d.stribblehill/mirrored_grub.html
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Chapter 9. The GRUB Boot Loader
4. GRUB Terminology
One of the most important things to understand before using GRUB is how the program refers
to devices, such as hard drives and partitions. This information is particularly important when
configuring GRUB to boot multiple operating systems.
4.1. Device Names
When referring to a specific device with GRUB, do so using the following format (note that the
parentheses and comma are very important syntactically):
(<type-of-device><bios-device-number>,<partition-number>)
The <type-of-device> specifies the type of device from which GRUB boots. The two most
common options are hd for a hard disk or fd for a 3.5 diskette. A lesser used device type is also
available called nd for a network disk. Instructions on configuring GRUB to boot over the
network are available online at http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
The <bios-device-number> is the BIOS device number. The primary IDE hard drive is
numbered 0 and a secondary IDE hard drive is numbered 1. This syntax is roughly equivalent to
that used for devices by the kernel. For example, the a in hda for the kernel is analogous to the
0 in hd0 for GRUB, the b in hdb is analogous to the 1 in hd1, and so on.
The <partition-number> specifies the number of a partition on a device. Like the
<bios-device-number>, most types of partitions are numbered starting at 0. However, BSD
partitions are specified using letters, with a corresponding to 0, b corresponding to 1, and so on.
Tip
The numbering system for devices under GRUB always begins with 0, not 1.
Failing to make this distinction is one of the most common mistakes made by
new users.
To give an example, if a system has more than one hard drive, GRUB refers to the first hard
drive as (hd0) and the second as (hd1). Likewise, GRUB refers to the first partition on the first
drive as (hd0,0) and the third partition on the second hard drive as (hd1,2).
In general the following rules apply when naming devices and partitions under GRUB:
• It does not matter if system hard drives are IDE or SCSI, all hard drives begin with the letters
hd. The letters fd are used to specify 3.5 diskettes.
• To specify an entire device without respect to partitions, leave off the comma and the partition
number. This is important when telling GRUB to configure the MBR for a particular disk. For
example, (hd0) specifies the MBR on the first device and (hd3) specifies the MBR on the
fourth device.
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File Names and Blocklists
• If a system has multiple drive devices, it is very important to know how the drive boot order is
set in the BIOS. This is a simple task if a system has only IDE or SCSI drives, but if there is a
mix of devices, it becomes critical that the type of drive with the boot partition be accessed
first.
4.2. File Names and Blocklists
When typing commands to GRUB that reference a file, such as a menu list, it is necessary to
specify an absolute file path immediately after the device and partition numbers.
The following illustrates the structure of such a command:
(<device-type><device-number>,<partition-number>)</path/to/file>
In this example, replace <device-type> with hd, fd, or nd. Replace <device-number> with the
integer for the device. Replace </path/to/file> with an absolute path relative to the top-level
of the device.
It is also possible to specify files to GRUB that do not actually appear in the file system, such as
a chain loader that appears in the first few blocks of a partition. To load such files, provide a
blocklist that specifies block by block where the file is located in the partition. Since a file is often
comprised of several different sets of blocks, blocklists use a special syntax. Each block
containing the file is specified by an offset number of blocks, followed by the number of blocks
from that offset point. Block offsets are listed sequentially in a comma-delimited list.
The following is a sample blocklist:
0+50,100+25,200+1
This sample blocklist specifies a file that starts at the first block on the partition and uses blocks
0 through 49, 100 through 124, and 200.
Knowing how to write blocklists is useful when using GRUB to load operating systems which
require chain loading. It is possible to leave off the offset number of blocks if starting at block 0.
As an example, the chain loading file in the first partition of the first hard drive would have the
following name:
(hd0,0)+1
The following shows the chainloader command with a similar blocklist designation at the
GRUB command line after setting the correct device and partition as root:
chainloader +1
4.3. The Root File System and GRUB
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Chapter 9. The GRUB Boot Loader
The use of the term root file system has a different meaning in regard to GRUB. It is important
to remember that GRUB's root file system has nothing to do with the Linux root file system.
The GRUB root file system is the top level of the specified device. For example, the image file
(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz is located within the /grub/ directory at the top-level (or root) of
the (hd0,0) partition (which is actually the /boot/ partition for the system).
Next, the kernel command is executed with the location of the kernel file as an option. Once
the Linux kernel boots, it sets up the root file system that Linux users are familiar with. The
original GRUB root file system and its mounts are forgotten; they only existed to boot the kernel
file.
Refer to the root and kernel commands in Section 6, “GRUB Commands” for more
information.
5. GRUB Interfaces
GRUB features three interfaces which provide different levels of functionality. Each of these
interfaces allows users to boot the Linux kernel or another operating system.
The interfaces are as follows:
Note
The following GRUB interfaces can only be accessed by pressing any key within
the three seconds of the GRUB menu bypass screen.
Menu Interface
This is the default interface shown when GRUB is configured by the installation program. A
menu of operating systems or preconfigured kernels are displayed as a list, ordered by
name. Use the arrow keys to select an operating system or kernel version and press the
Enter key to boot it. If you do nothing on this screen, then after the time out period expires
GRUB will load the default option.
Press the e key to enter the entry editor interface or the c key to load a command line
interface.
Refer to Section 7, “GRUB Menu Configuration File” for more information on configuring this
interface.
Menu Entry Editor Interface
To access the menu entry editor, press the e key from the boot loader menu. The GRUB
commands for that entry are displayed here, and users may alter these command lines
before booting the operating system by adding a command line (o inserts a new line after
the current line and O inserts a new line before it), editing one (e), or deleting one (d).
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Interfaces Load Order
After all changes are made, the b key executes the commands and boots the operating
system. The Esc key discards any changes and reloads the standard menu interface. The c
key loads the command line interface.
Tip
For information about changing runlevels using the GRUB menu entry editor,
refer to Section 8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
Command Line Interface
The command line interface is the most basic GRUB interface, but it is also the one that
grants the most control. The command line makes it possible to type any relevant GRUB
commands followed by the Enter key to execute them. This interface features some
advanced shell-like features, including Tab key completion based on context, and Ctrl key
combinations when typing commands, such as Ctrl-a to move to the beginning of a line and
Ctrl-e to move to the end of a line. In addition, the arrow, Home, End, and Delete keys
work as they do in the bash shell.
Refer to Section 6, “GRUB Commands” for a list of common commands.
5.1. Interfaces Load Order
When GRUB loads its second stage boot loader, it first searches for its configuration file. Once
found, the menu interface bypass screen is displayed. If a key is pressed within three seconds,
GRUB builds a menu list and displays the menu interface. If no key is pressed, the default
kernel entry in the GRUB menu is used.
If the configuration file cannot be found, or if the configuration file is unreadable, GRUB loads
the command line interface, allowing the user to type commands to complete the boot process.
If the configuration file is not valid, GRUB prints out the error and asks for input. This helps the
user see precisely where the problem occurred. Pressing any key reloads the menu interface,
where it is then possible to edit the menu option and correct the problem based on the error
reported by GRUB. If the correction fails, GRUB reports an error and reloads the menu
interface.
6. GRUB Commands
GRUB allows a number of useful commands in its command line interface. Some of the
commands accept options after their name; these options should be separated from the
command and other options on that line by space characters.
The following is a list of useful commands:
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Chapter 9. The GRUB Boot Loader
• boot — Boots the operating system or chain loader that was last loaded.
• chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. If the file is
located on the first sector of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1, instead of
the file name.
The following is an example chainloader command:
chainloader +1
• displaymem — Displays the current use of memory, based on information from the BIOS.
This is useful to determine how much RAM a system has prior to booting it.
• initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use when
booting. An initrd is necessary when the kernel needs certain modules in order to boot
properly, such as when the root partition is formatted with the ext3 file system.
The following is an example initrd command:
initrd /initrd-2.6.8-1.523.img
• install <stage-1><install-disk><stage-2>pconfig-file — Installs GRUB to the
system MBR.
• <stage-1> — Signifies a device, partition, and file where the first boot loader image can be
found, such as (hd0,0)/grub/stage1.
• <install-disk> — Specifies the disk where the stage 1 boot loader should be installed,
such as (hd0).
• <stage-2> — Passes the stage 2 boot loader location to the stage 1 boot loader, such as
(hd0,0)/grub/stage2.
• p<config-file> — This option tells the install command to look for the menu
configuration file specified by <config-file>, such as (hd0,0)/grub/grub.conf.
Warning
The install command overwrites any information already located on the MBR.
• kernel </path/to/kernel><option-1><option-N> ... — Specifies the kernel file to load
when booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an absolute path from
the partition specified by the root command. Replace <option-1> with options for the Linux
kernel, such as root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 to specify the device on which the root
partition for the system is located. Multiple options can be passed to the kernel in a space
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GRUB Menu Configuration File
separated list.
The following is an example kernel command:
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.8-1.523 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
The option in the previous example specifies that the root file system for Linux is located on
the hda5 partition.
• root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root partition for
GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
The following is an example root command:
root (hd0,0)
• rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the partition.
Other commands are also available; type help --all for a full list of commands. For a
description of all GRUB commands, refer to the documentation available online at
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/.
7. GRUB Menu Configuration File
The configuration file (/boot/grub/grub.conf), which is used to create the list of operating
systems to boot in GRUB's menu interface, essentially allows the user to select a pre-set group
of commands to execute. The commands given in Section 6, “GRUB Commands” can be used,
as well as some special commands that are only available in the configuration file.
7.1. Configuration File Structure
The GRUB menu interface configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.conf. The commands to set
the global preferences for the menu interface are placed at the top of the file, followed by
stanzas for each operating kernel or operating system listed in the menu.
The following is a very basic GRUB menu configuration file designed to boot either Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or Microsoft Windows 2000:
default=0
timeout=10
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-2.el5PAE)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-2.el5PAE ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-2.el5PAE.img
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Chapter 9. The GRUB Boot Loader
# section to load Windows
title Windows
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1
This file configures GRUB to build a menu with Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the default
operating system and sets it to autoboot after 10 seconds. Two sections are given, one for each
operating system entry, with commands specific to the system disk partition table.
Note
Note that the default is specified as an integer. This refers to the first title line
in the GRUB configuration file. For the Windows section to be set as the default in
the previous example, change the default=0 to default=1.
Configuring a GRUB menu configuration file to boot multiple operating systems is beyond the
scope of this chapter. Consult Section 9, “Additional Resources” for a list of additional
resources.
7.2. Configuration File Directives
The following are directives commonly used in the GRUB menu configuration file:
• chainloader </path/to/file> — Loads the specified file as a chain loader. Replace
</path/to/file> with the absolute path to the chain loader. If the file is located on the first
sector of the specified partition, use the blocklist notation, +1.
• color <normal-color><selected-color> — Allows specific colors to be used in the menu,
where two colors are configured as the foreground and background. Use simple color names
such as red/black. For example:
color red/black green/blue
• default=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the default entry title number to be loaded if
the menu interface times out.
• fallback=<integer> — Replace <integer> with the entry title number to try if the first
attempt fails.
• hiddenmenu — Prevents the GRUB menu interface from being displayed, loading the
default entry when the timeout period expires. The user can see the standard GRUB menu
by pressing the Esc key.
• initrd </path/to/initrd> — Enables users to specify an initial RAM disk to use when
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Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
booting. Replace </path/to/initrd> with the absolute path to the initial RAM disk.
• kernel </path/to/kernel><option-1><option-N> — Specifies the kernel file to load
when booting the operating system. Replace </path/to/kernel> with an absolute path from
the partition specified by the root directive. Multiple options can be passed to the kernel when
it is loaded.
• password=<password> — Prevents a user who does not know the password from editing the
entries for this menu option.
Optionally, it is possible to specify an alternate menu configuration file after the
password=<password> directive. In this case, GRUB restarts the second stage boot loader
and uses the specified alternate configuration file to build the menu. If an alternate menu
configuration file is left out of the command, a user who knows the password is allowed to edit
the current configuration file.
For more information about securing GRUB, refer to the chapter titled Workstation Security in
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• root (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root partition for
GRUB, such as (hd0,0), and mounts the partition.
• rootnoverify (<device-type><device-number>,<partition>) — Configures the root
partition for GRUB, just like the root command, but does not mount the partition.
• timeout=<integer> — Specifies the interval, in seconds, that GRUB waits before loading
the entry designated in the default command.
• splashimage=<path-to-image> — Specifies the location of the splash screen image to be
used when GRUB boots.
• title group-title — Specifies a title to be used with a particular group of commands used
to load a kernel or operating system.
To add human-readable comments to the menu configuration file, begin the line with the hash
mark character (#).
8. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
Under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time.
To change the runlevel of a single boot session, use the following instructions:
• When the GRUB menu bypass screen appears at boot time, press any key to enter the
GRUB menu (within the first three seconds).
• Press the a key to append to the kernel command.
• Add <space><runlevel> at the end of the boot options line to boot to the desired runlevel.
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Chapter 9. The GRUB Boot Loader
For example, the following entry would initiate a boot process into runlevel 3:
grub append> ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet 3
9. Additional Resources
This chapter is only intended as an introduction to GRUB. Consult the following resources to
discover more about how GRUB works.
9.1. Installed Documentation
• /usr/share/doc/grub-<version-number>/ — This directory contains good information
about using and configuring GRUB, where <version-number> corresponds to the version of
the GRUB package installed.
• info grub — The GRUB info page contains a tutorial, a user reference manual, a
programmer reference manual, and a FAQ document about GRUB and its usage.
9.2. Useful Websites
• http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/2 — The home page of the GNU GRUB project. This site
contains information concerning the state of GRUB development and an FAQ.
• http://kbase.redhat.com/faq/FAQ_43_4053.shtm — Details booting operating systems other
than Linux.
• http://www.linuxgazette.com/issue64/kohli.html — An introductory article discussing the
configuration of GRUB on a system from scratch, including an overview of GRUB command
line options.
9.3. Related Books
• Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide; Red Hat, Inc. — The Workstation Security
chapter explains, in a concise manner, how to secure the GRUB boot loader.
2
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub
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Chapter 10.
Additional Resources about Itanium
and Linux
Other reference materials, related to running Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system,
are available on the Web. A few of the available resources are as follows:
• http://www.intel.com/products/processor/itanium2/ — The Intel website on the Itanium 2
Processor
• http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm?iid=sr+efi — The Intel website for the
Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)
• http://www.itanium.com/business/bss/products/server/itanium2/index.htm — The Intel website
on the Itanium 2 processor
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Part II. IBM POWER Architecture Installation and Booting
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for IBM POWER systems discusses the
installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting.
Advanced installation options are covered in the second part of this manual.
Chapter 11.
Steps to Get You Started
1. Upgrade or Install?
For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to
Chapter 23, Upgrading Your Current System.
2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p and System i
The IBM eServer System p and IBM eServer System i systems introduce many options for
partitioning, virtual or native devices, and consoles. Both versions of the system use the same
kernel and have many of the same options available, depending on the system configuration.
If you are using a non-partitioned System p system, you do not need any pre-installation setup.
For systems using the HVSI serial console, hook up your console to the T2 serial port.
If using a partitioned system, whether IBM System p or IBM System i the steps to create the
partition and start the installation are largely the same. You should create the partition at the
HMC and assign some CPU and memory resources, as well as SCSI and Ethernet resources,
which can be either virtual or native. The HMC create partition wizard steps you through the
creation.
For more information on creating the partition, refer to IBM's Infocenter article on Configuring
Linux logical partitions available online at:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?topic=/iphbi/iphbikickoff.htm
If you are using virtual SCSI resources, rather than native SCSI, you must configure a 'link' to
the virtual SCSI serving partition, and then configure the virtual SCSI serving partition itself. You
create a 'link' between the virtual SCSI client and server slots using the HMC. You can configure
a virtual SCSI server on either AIX or i5/OS, depending on which model and options you have.
For more information on using virtual devices, including IBM Redbooks and other online
resources see:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?topic=/iphbi/iphbirelated.htm
Additional information on virtualization eServer i5 can be found in the IBM Redbook
SG24-6388-01, Implementing POWER Linux on IBM System i Platform. This can be accessed
at: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpieces/abstracts/sg246388.html?Open
Once you have your system configured, you need to Activate from the HMC or power it on.
Depending on what type of install you are doing, you may need to configure SMS to correctly
boot the system into the installation program.
3. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with
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Chapter 11. Steps to Get You Started
disk partitions. If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the
basic concepts), refer to Chapter 25, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used
by other OSes you may have installed on your system.
Before you start the installation process, you must
• have enough unpartitioned1 disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
• have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended
partitioning sizes discussed in Section 19.4, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
4. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM or DVD?
Installing from a CD-ROM or DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
product, you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 CD-ROM or DVD, and you have a
DVD/CD-ROM drive on a system that supports booting from it.
5. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure an installation CD (or any other type of CD) is not in your system's
CD/DVD drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a CD in
the drive may cause unexpected errors.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if
you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate
machine which can provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM or the
installation CD-ROMs.
Note
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the
1
Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drive(s) you are installing to has not been
divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk drive.
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Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
integrity of the installation media. It works with the CD / DVD, hard drive ISO, and
NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation
media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any
installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to
improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following command at the
yaboot: prompt:
linux mediacheck
Note
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will
contain the installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The
directory that will be made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be
specified as /export/directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space
may be a directory you create called /var/isos. /export/directory might be
/var/www/html/rhel5, for an HTTP install.
To copy the files from the installation DVD or CD-ROMs to a Linux machine which acts as an
installation staging server, perform the following steps:
• Create an iso image from the installation disk(s) using the following command (for DVDs):
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
For instructions on how to prepare a network installation using CD-ROMs, refer to the
instructions on the README-en file in disk1.
5.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
For FTP and HTTP installation, the iso image or images should be mounted via loopback in the
publicly available directory, in the following manner:
• For DVD:
mount -o loop /location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso /export/directory/
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In this case /export/directory will be a directory that is shared via FTP or HTTP.
• For CDROMs:
mount -o loop /location/of/disk/space/diskX.iso /export/directory/diskX/
Do the above for each of the CDROM iso images, for example:
mount -o loop /var/isos/disk1.iso /var/www/html/rhel5-install/disk1/
Next make sure that the /export/directory directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify
client access. You can check to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself,
and then from another machine on the same subnet that you will be installing to.
5.2. Preparing for an NFS install
For NFS installation it is not necessary to mount the iso image. It is sufficient to make the iso
image itself available via NFS. You can do this by moving the iso image or images to the NFS
exported directory:
• For DVD:
mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso /export/directory/
• For CDROMs:
mv /location/of/disk/space/disk*.iso /export/directory/
Ensure that the /export/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry in
/etc/exports.
To export to a specific system:
/export/directory client.ip.address(ro,no_root_squash)
To export to all systems use an entry such as:
/export/directory *(ro,no_root_squash)
Start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs
start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
6. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
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Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you
have a file system other than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be
able to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or DVD/CD-ROM) images. An ISO image is
a file containing an exact copy of a DVD/CD-ROM image. After placing the required ISO images
(the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD/CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install from the
hard drive. You can then point the installation program at that directory to perform the
installation.
To prepare your system for a hard drive installation, you must set the system up in one of the
following ways:
• Using a set of CD-ROMs, or a DVD — Create ISO image files from each installation
CD-ROM, or from the DVD. For each CD-ROM (once for the DVD), execute the following
command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/file-name.iso
• Using ISO images — transfer these images to the system to be installed.
Verifying that ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation, helps to avoid
problems. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an
md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An
md5sum program should be available on the same Linux machine as the ISO images.
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the location from which you install, it is used
for updates to anaconda, the installation program. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the
anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.
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System p systems
This chapter explains how to perform a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from the
DVD/CD-ROM, using the graphical, mouse-based installation program. The following topics are
discussed:
• Becoming familiar with the installation program's user interface
• Starting the installation program
• Selecting an installation method
• Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, partitioning, etc.)
• Finishing the installation
1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to
move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys
expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a
highlighted item. You can also use the Alt-X key command combination as a way of clicking on
buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter
appearing within that screen.
If you would like to use a graphical installation with a system that does not have that capability,
such as a partitioned system, you can use VNC or display forwarding. Both the VNC and display
forwarding options require an active network during the installation and the use of boot time
arguments. For more information on available boot time options, refer to Chapter 15, Additional
Boot Options for IBM Power Systems
Note
If you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation
program is also available. To start the text mode installation program, use the
following command at the yaboot: prompt:
linux text
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Refer to Section 5, “The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a
brief overview of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation
program. The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program, including LVM configuration which is not
available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI
installation instructions and obtain all needed information.
2. Booting the IBM System i or IBM System p
Installation Program
To boot an IBM System i or IBM System p system from a CD-ROM, you must specify the install
boot device in the System Management Services (SMS) menu.
To enter the System Management Services GUI, press the 1 key during the boot process
when you hear the chime sound. This brings up a graphical interface similar to the one
described in this section.
On a text console, press 1 when the self test is displaying the banner along with the tested
components:
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A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
Figure 12.1. SMS console
Once in the SMS menu, select the option for Select Boot Options. In that menu, specify Select
Install or Boot a Device. There, select CD/DVD, and then the bus type (in most cases SCSI). If
you are uncertain, you can select to view all devices. This scans all available buses for boot
devices, including network adapters and hard drives.
Finally, select the device containing the installation CD. YABOOT is loaded from this device and
you are presented with a boot: prompt. Press Enter or wait for the timeout to expire for the
installation to begin.
If you are booting via the network, use the images/netboot/ppc64.img file on CD #1.
3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
This information only applies to users of non-partitioned System p systems using a video card
as their console. Users of partitioned System i and System p systems should skip to Section 4,
“Using the HMC vterm”.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the
installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a
way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages
on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical
machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a
problem. Refer to Table 12.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual
consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical
installations unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
console
keystrokes
contents
1
ctrl-alt-f1
installation dialog
2
ctrl-alt-f2
shell prompt
3
ctrl-alt-f3
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
ctrl-alt-f4
system-related messages
5
ctrl-alt-f5
other messages
6
ctrl-alt-f6
x graphical display
Table 12.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
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4. Using the HMC vterm
The HMC vterm is the console for any partitioned IBM System p or IBM System i system. This is
opened by right clicking on the partition on the HMC, and then selecting Open Terminal
Window. Only a single vterm can be connected to the console at one time and there is no
console access for partitioned system besides the vterm. This often is referred to as a 'virtual
console', but is different from the virtual consoles in Section 3, “A Note about Linux Virtual
Consoles” .
5. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface that
includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.
Figure 12.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration”, and
Figure 12.3, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid”, illustrate the screens that
appear during the installation process.
Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text
mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. One
thing to note is that manipulation of LVM (Logical Volume Management) disk
volumes is only possible in graphical mode. In text mode it is only possible to
view and accept the default LVM setup.
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The Text Mode Installation Program User
Figure 12.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader
Configuration
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Figure 12.3. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 12.2, “Installation Program Widgets
as seen in Boot Loader Configuration” and Figure 12.3, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in Disk Druid”:
• Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these
cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it
disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
• Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either
an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press
Space to select or deselect a feature.
• Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the
installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit
information on that line.
• Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text
widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more
information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you
position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to
scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by
a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
• Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a
list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to
any part of a file.
• Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation
program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these
buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
• Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular
widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change
color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 12.2,
“Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration”, the cursor is
positioned on the OK button. Figure 12.3, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk
Druid”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
5.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To
move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to
cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens
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Interface
display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press
Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to
select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox
and press Space to select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the
installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
6. Beginning Installation
6.1. Installing from DVD/CD-ROM
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD/CD-ROM, place the DVD or CD #1 in your
DVD/CD-ROM drive and boot your system from the DVD/CD-ROM.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your CD-ROM drive.
It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM drive.
If your CD-ROM drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI CD-ROM, the installation program
prompts you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your
adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your
SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD/CD-ROM drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the
option to perform a media check on the DVD/CD-ROM. This will take some time, and you may
opt to skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should
reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check dialog,
continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 12, “Welcome to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux”).
6.1.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) DVD/CD-ROM but the installation program fails to find it and asks
you what type of DVD/CD-ROM drive you have, try the following boot command. Restart the
installation, and at the boot: prompt enter linux hdX=cdrom. Replace X with one of the
following letters, depending on the interface the unit is connected to, and whether it is
configured as master or slave (also known as primary and secondary):
• a — first IDE controller, master
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• b — first IDE controller, slave
• c — second IDE controller, master
• d — second IDE controller, slave
If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order, going
from controller to controller, and master to slave.
7. Installing from a Hard Drive
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 12.4. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images.
This partition must be formatted with a ext2 or vfat filesystem, and cannot be a logical volume.
There is also a field labeled Directory holding images.
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images
are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the
ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is
normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.
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Installing via NFS
8. Performing a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog
asks for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and
Netmask of the device via DHCP or manually. If manually, you have the option to enter IPv4
and/or IPv6 information. Enter the IP address you are using during installation and press Enter.
Note that you need to supply IPv4 information if you wish to perform an NFS installation.
Figure 12.5. TCP/IP Configuration
9. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you selected NFS Image
in the Installation Method dialog).
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from
a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the
NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 5,
“Preparing for a Network Installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/ which
contains the variant/ directory.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the
directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later
on in the process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If
everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program
for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
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Figure 12.6. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, enter
the directory which contains the ISO images.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
10. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you selected FTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP server from which you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Installing via HTTP
Figure 12.7. FTP Setup Dialog
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name of the
directory containing the variant/ directory for your architecture. For example, if the FTP site
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/variant;/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/
(where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or
s390x, and variant is the variant that you are installing, such as Client, Server, Workstation,
etc.). If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to
the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO
images without copying them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For
each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop RHEL5-discX.iso discX
Replace X with the corresponding disc number.
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11. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you selected HTTP in
the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the HTTP server
from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of the
directory containing the variant/ directory for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/variant/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/
(where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or
s390x, and variant is the variant that you are installing, such as Client, Server, Workstation,
etc.). If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
Figure 12.8. HTTP Setup Dialog
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to
the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO
images without copying them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For
each ISO image:
mkdir discX
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Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
mount -o loop RHEL5-discX.iso discX
Replace X with the corresponding disc number.
12. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the
Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
Click on the Next button to continue.
13. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select a language to use for the installation (refer to Figure 12.9, “Language
Selection”).
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it
is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration
later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based
on what you specify on this screen.
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Figure 12.9. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
14. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard
you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to Figure 12.10,
“Keyboard Configuration”).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
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Enter the Installation Number
Figure 12.10. Keyboard Configuration
Tip
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation,
use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the
Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
15. Enter the Installation Number
Enter your Installation Number (refer to Figure 12.11, “Installation Number”). This number will
determine the package selection set that is available to the installer. If you choose to skip
entering the installation number you will be presented with a basic selection of packages to
install later on.
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Figure 12.11. Installation Number
16. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating
systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Chapter 25, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
On this screen you can choose to create the default layout or choose to manual partition using
the 'Create custom layout' option of Disk Druid.
The first three options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition
your drive(s) yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is
recommended that you do not choose to create a custom layout and instead let the installation
program partition for you.
You can configure an iSCSI target for installation, or disable a dmraid device from this screen by
clicking on the 'Advanced storage configuration' button. For more information refer to
Section 17, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
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Disk Partitioning Setup
Warning
The Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/
partition, be sure to create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to
download package updates.
Figure 12.12. Disk Partitioning Setup
If you choose to create a custom layout using Disk Druid, refer to Section 19, “Partitioning Your
System”.
Warning
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation
saying something similar to:
"The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it
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must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive."
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing
data on your systems should always be made.
17. Advanced Storage Options
Figure 12.13. Advanced Storage Options
From this screen you can choose to disable a dmraid device, in which case the individual
elements of the dmraid device will appear as separate hard drives. You can also choose to
configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target.
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add
ISCSI target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and
provide a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. Click the 'Add target' button to
attempt connection to the ISCSI target using this information.
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Create Default Layout
Figure 12.14. Configure ISCSI Parameters
Please note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it
incorrectly, but in order to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the
installation.
18. Create Default Layout
Create default layout allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any)
from your system. Your options are:
• Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to
remove all partitions on your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating
systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).
Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) is removed by the
installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you
want to keep on the hard drive(s) where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
• Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this
option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation).
This does not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or
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FAT32 partitions).
• Use free space on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to retain
your current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your
hard drive(s).
Figure 12.15. Create Default Layout
Using your mouse, choose the storage drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux to
be installed. If you have two or more drives, you can choose which drive(s) should contain this
installation. Unselected drives, and any data on them, are not touched.
Caution
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For
example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back
up any data you wish to keep on your drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can
result in the loss of all your data.
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Partitioning Your System
Tip
[This text does not apply to iSeries system users.]
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting
from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be
created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard
drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with
problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select
Review and manually edit your /boot/ partition.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning,
select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the
partitions created for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these partitions
if they do not meet your needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
19. Partitioning Your System
If you chose one of the three automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip
ahead to Section 20, “Network Configuration”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either
accept the current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup using Disk Druid, the
manual partitioning tool.
Note
Please note that in the text mode installation it is not possible to work with LVM
(Logical Volumes) beyond viewing the existing setup. LVM can only be set up
using the graphical Disk Druid program in a graphical installation.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions
in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
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Note
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Chapter 25, An
Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 19.4, “Recommended Partitioning
Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root (/) partition,
a /boot/ partition, PPC PReP boot partition, and a swap partition equal to twice
the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Figure 12.16. Partitioning with Disk Druid on IBM System p and System i
systems
The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid. With the exception of
certain esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical
installation.
19.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click
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Disk Druid's Buttons
to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/hda), the Geom (which shows
the hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders,
heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected
by the installation program.
19.2. Disk Druid's Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid's actions. They are used to change the attributes of a
partition (for example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID devices.
Buttons on this screen are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk
Druid. For further explanation, take a look at each button in order:
• New: Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing fields
(such as the mount point and size fields) that must be filled in.
• Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section.
Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on
whether the partition information has already been written to disk.
You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new partition
within that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button, or
double-click on the free space to edit it.
• To make a RAID device, you must first create (or reuse existing) software RAID partitions.
Once you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select Make RAID to join the
software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
• Delete: Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions
section. You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition.
• Reset: Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if you
Reset the partitions.
• RAID: Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions. It should only be used if you
have experience using RAID. To read more about RAID, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions
into a RAID device.
• LVM: Allows you to create an LVM logical volume. The role of LVM (Logical Volume
Manager) is to present a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a
hard drive(s). LVM manages individual physical disks — or to be more precise, the individual
partitions present on them. It should only be used if you have experience using LVM. To read
more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only
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available in the graphical installation program.
To create an LVM logical volume, you must first create partitions of type physical volume
(LVM). Once you have created one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions, select LVM to
create an LVM logical volume.
19.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are
creating. The labels are defined as follows:
• Device: This field displays the partition's device name.
• Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at
which a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the
partition is mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount
point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button.
• Type: This field shows the partition's file system type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
• Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
• Size (MB): This field shows the partition's size (in MB).
• Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins.
• End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends.
Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want to view
any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
19.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
partitions:
• A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In
other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the
data your system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of RAM
on your machine. It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors
including the following (in descending order of importance):
• The applications running on the machine.
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Recommended Partitioning Scheme
• The amount of physical RAM installed on the machine.
• The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then an additional
1x physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
So, if:
M = Amount of RAM in GB, and S = Amount of swap in GB, then
If M < 2
S = M *2
Else
S = M + 2
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap, while one
with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap space partition
can be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get away
with a smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
• A PPC PReP boot partition on the first partition of the hard drive — the PPC PReP boot
partition contains the YABOOT boot loader (which allows other POWER systems to boot Red
Hat Enterprise Linux). Unless you plan to boot from a floppy or network source, you must
have a PPC PReP boot partition to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For IBM System i and IBM System p users: The PPC PReP boot partition should be between
4-8 MB, not to exceed 10 MB.
• A /boot/ partition (100 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating
system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files
used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC firmware, creating a
small partition to hold these is a good idea. For most users, a 100 MB boot partition is
sufficient.
Caution
If you have a RAID card, be aware that Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 does not
support setting up hardware RAID on an IPR card. If you already have the RAID
array setup, Open Firmware does not support booting from the RAID card. In
cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside
of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
• A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
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setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets
you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
19.5. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the New button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 12.17,
“Creating a New Partition”).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more.
For more information, refer to Chapter 25, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Figure 12.17. Creating a New Partition
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Adding Partitions
• Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the
root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the
pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the
mount point should not be set - setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
• File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this
partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 19.5.1, “File System
Types”.
• Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a
hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the
box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using
different checkbox settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions where you need them,
or let Disk Druid decide where partitions should go.
• Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 100 MB;
unless changed, only a 100 MB partition will be created.
• Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to
"grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any
remaining hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right
of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for
future use.
• Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one
of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical
partition. Refer to Section 1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
Partitions”, for more information.
• OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
• Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
19.5.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system
they will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how
they can be utilized.
• ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories,
symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
• ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a
crash as there is no need to fsck1 the file system. The ext3 file system is selected by default
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and is highly recommended.
• physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you
to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks.
For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment
Guide.
• software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
• swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to
a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
19.6. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
Note
If the partition already exists on your disk, you can only change the partition's
mount point. To make any other changes, you must delete the partition and
recreate it.
20. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, physical LAN, or virtual LAN, this screen does not appear
during your installation and you should advance to Section 21, “Time Zone Configuration”.
1
The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair one or more
Linux file systems.
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Network Configuration
Figure 12.18. Network Configuration
The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and displays them
in the Network Devices list.
Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up screen,
you can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask (for IPv4 - Prefix for IPv6) of the
device via DHCP (or manually if DHCP is not selected) and you can choose to activate the
device at boot time. If you select Activate on boot, your network interface is started when you
boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide here, please
contact your network administrator.
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Figure 12.19. Editing a Network Device
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will
not work for your own network configuration. If you are not sure what values to
enter, contact your network administrator for assistance.
If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can choose to
have DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or you can manually
enter the hostname in the field provided.
Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the
Gateway address and the Primary and Secondary DNS addresses.
Tip
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation,
use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the
Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
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Time Zone Configuration
password to continue.
21. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on
the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
• Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a
yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
• You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using
your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 12.20. Configuring the Time Zone
Select System Clock uses UTC if you know that your system is set to UTC.
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Tip
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time
and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the
command timeconfig.
22. Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT
machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire
system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform
system maintenance or administration.
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Set Root Password
Figure 12.21. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general
use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the
chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then
press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password2 for your system. You cannot
proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to
the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the
2
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as
root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal
user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
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installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is
easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with
upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT,
for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password,
keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any
password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of
these passwords could be considered a security risk.
Tip
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the
Root Password Tool.
Type the system-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch
the Root Password Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
23. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the
default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you are installing.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 24, “Preparing to Install”.
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen.
Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for
example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
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Package Group Selection
Note
Users who want support for developing or running 64-bit applications are
encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility Arch
Development Support packages to install architecure specific support for their
systems.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 12.22, “Package Group
Selection”).
Figure 12.22. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install.
Once a package group has been selected, if optional components are available you can click on
Optional packages to view which packages are installed by default, and to add or remove
optional packages from that group. If there are no optional components this button will be
disabled.
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Figure 12.23. Package Group Details
24. Preparing to Install
24.1. Prepare to Install
A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log
once you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process,
this is your last opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your
machine. Once you press the Next button, partitions are written and packages
are installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should reboot now before
any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten.
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Installing Packages
To cancel this installation process, press your computer's Reset button or use the
Control-Alt-Delete key combination to restart your machine.
25. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How
quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer's speed.
26. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot.
IBM eServer System p and System i — Completing the Installation
Do not forget to remove any boot media.
After rebooting, you must set the open firmware boot device to the disk containing your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux PReP and / partitions. To accomplish this, wait until the LED indicator
or HMC SRC says E1F1, then press 1 to enter the System Management Services GUI. Click
on Select Boot Options. Select Select Boot Devices. Select Configure 1st Boot Device.
Select the disk containing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Set the other devices as you wish.
Then exit the SMS menus to boot your new system.
Note
Steps in the SMS menu may be different depending on the machine model.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, YABOOT's prompt
appears, at which you can do any of the following things:
• Press Enter — causes YABOOT's default boot entry to be booted.
• Select a boot label, followed by Enter — causes YABOOT to boot the operating system
corresponding to the boot label. (Press Tab for non-System i systems at the boot:
prompt for a list of valid boot labels.)
• Do nothing — after YABOOT's timeout period, (by default, five seconds) YABOOT
automatically boots the default boot entry.
Once Red Hat Enterprise Linux has booted, one or more screens of messages should scroll
by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window
System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
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The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run
level), the Setup Agent is presented, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register
your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your
environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system quickly.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to Chapter 24,
Activate Your Subscription.
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Chapter 13.
Driver Media for IBM POWER
Systems
1. Why Do I Need Driver Media?
While the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program is loading, a screen may appear asking
you for driver media. The driver media screen is most often seen in the following scenarios:
• If you need to perform an installation from a network device
• If you need to perform an installation from a block device
• If you need to perform an installation from a PCMCIA device
• If you run the installation program by entering linux dd at the installation boot prompt or in
the IPL Parameter field of the NWSD
• If you run the installation program on a computer which does not have any PCI devices
1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?
Driver media can add support for hardware that may or may not be supported by the installation
program. Driver media could include a driver diskette or image produced by Red Hat, it could be
a diskette or CD-ROM you make yourself from driver images found on the Internet, or it could
be a diskette or CD-ROM that a hardware vendor includes with a piece of hardware.
Driver media is used if you need access to a particular device to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Drivers can be used for network (NFS) installations, installations using a PCMCIA or
block device, non-standard or very new CD-ROM drives, SCSI adapters, NICs, and other
uncommon devices.
Note
If an unsupported device is not needed to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on
your system, continue with the installation and add support for the new piece of
hardware once the installation is complete.
1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media?
Driver images can be obtained from several sources. They may be included with Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, or they may be available from a hardware or software vendor's website. If you
suspect that your system may require one of these drivers, you should create a driver diskette
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Chapter 13. Driver Media for IBM POWER Systems
or CD-ROM before beginning your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Tip
It is also possible to use a driver image via a network file. Instead of using the
linux dd boot command, use the linux dd=url command, where url is
replaced by an HTTP, FTP, or NFS address of the driver image to be used.
Another option for finding specialized driver information is on Red Hat's website at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
under the section called Bug Fixes. Occasionally, popular hardware may be made available
after a release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that does not work with drivers already in the
installation program or included on the driver images on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. In
such cases, the Red Hat website may contain a link to a driver image.
1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation
If you need to use a driver image, such as during a PCMCIA device or NFS installation, the
installation program prompts you to insert the driver (as a diskette, CD-ROM, or file name) when
it is needed.
However, there are some cases where you must specifically tell the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program to load that driver diskette and use it during the installation process.
For example, to specifically load a driver diskette that you have created, begin the installation
process by booting from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 (or using boot media you have
created). At the yaboot: prompt enter linux dd. Refer to Chapter 12, Installing on IBM System
i and IBM System p systems for details on booting the installation program.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program asks you to insert the driver diskette. Once
the driver diskette is read by the installation program, it can apply those drivers to hardware
discovered on your system later in the installation process.
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Troubleshooting Installation on an
IBM POWER System
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
You may also find the IBM Online Alert Section for System p and System i useful. It is located
at:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/lopdiags/info/LinuxAlerts.html
Please note that the url above has been split across two lines for readability. It should be
entered into a browser as one continuous line, with no linebreak.
1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the
software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware
error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
places its own demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to
meet those demands, even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the
online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to
a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A
possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports
this. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the
problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation CD-ROMs. The Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media.
It works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat
recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and
before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to
improperly-burned CDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot:
prompt (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
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Chapter 14. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If
the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution
mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. Refer to Chapter 15,
Additional Boot Options for IBM Power Systems for more information.
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text
mode, try using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for
accessibility with some screen reading hardware.
3. Trouble During the Installation
3.1. No
devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation
program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that
fixes your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Chapter 13, Driver
Media for IBM POWER Systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive
If you receive a traceback error message during installation, you can usually save it to a
diskette.
If you do not have a diskette drive available in your system, you can scp the error message to a
remote system.
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Trouble with Partition Tables
This information does not apply to users of headless IBM System p systems.
When the traceback dialog appears, the traceback error message is automatically written to a
file named /tmp/anacdump.txt. Once the dialog appears, switch over to a new tty (virtual
console) by pressing the keys Ctrl-Alt-F2 and scp the message written to
/tmp/anacdump.txt to a known working remote system.
3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 16, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your
systems should always be made.
3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System
Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid's dependencies to be
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
• A PPC PReP Boot partition.
• A /boot/ partition.
Tip
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk
Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you.
3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
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During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program
(also known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after
the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the
/tmp/directory. The error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20,
in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>
ToDo object: (itodo ToDo p1 (dp2 S'method' p3 (iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4 (dp5 S'progressWindow' p6
<failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have
been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation
process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda. Errata
can be found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking
system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
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Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
4. Problems After Installation
4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
If you are experiencing difficulties when trying to IPL from *NWSSTG, you may not have created
a PReP Boot partition set as active.
4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment
once you log into your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, you can start the X Window System
graphical interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future
log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file,
/etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished,
reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within
the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have
networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
# id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
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Chapter 14. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System
id:5:initdefault:
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl-Q keys. A window
appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login
prompt.
4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it
during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs
or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or
both, during the upgrade package selection process.
4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone other than root logs in, you
may have a full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information
about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this
example), refer to the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and
/tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that
partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that
was unsuccessful before.
4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password
you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type
passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type
shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
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Your Printer Does Not Work
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root,
type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This
allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try
using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup,
make sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
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158
Chapter 15.
Additional Boot Options for IBM
Power Systems
This section discusses additional boot and kernel boot options available for the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program.
To use any of the boot options presented here, type the command you wish to invoke at the
installation boot: prompt.
Boot Time Command Arguments
askmethod
this command asks you to select the installation method you would like to use when booting
from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM.
dd
this argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver diskette.
dd=url
this argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver image from a
specified HTTP, FTP, or NFS network address.
display=ip:0
this command allows remote display forwarding. In this command, ip should be replaced
with the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are
running the original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access to
the remote display terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not
specifically authorized for remote access.
driverdisk
this command performs the same function as the dd command and also prompts you to use
a driver diskette during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
ide=nodma
this command disables DMA on all IDE devices and may be useful when having IDE-related
problems.
mediacheck
this command gives you the option of testing the integrity of the install source (if an
ISO-based method). this command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO
installation methods. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an
installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during an installation.
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Chapter 15. Additional Boot Options for IBM Power Systems
mem=xxxm
this command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the
machine. This may be needed for some older systems where only 16 mb is detected and for
some new machines where the video card shares the video memory with the main memory.
When executing this command, xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in
megabytes.
nopass
this command disables the passing of keyboard and mouse information to stage 2 of the
installation program. It can be used to test keyboard and mouse configuration screens
during stage 2 of the installation program when performing a network installation.
nopcmcia
this command ignores any PCMCIA controllers in system.
noprobe
this command disables hardware detection and instead prompts the user for hardware
information.
noshell
this command disables shell access on virtual console 2 during an installation.
nousb
this command disables the loading of USB support during the installation. If the installation
program tends to hang early in the process, this command may be helpful.
nousbstorage
this command disables the loading of the usbstorage module in the installation program's
loader. It may help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
rescue
this command runs rescue mode. Refer to Chapter 26, Basic System Recovery for more
information about rescue mode.
resolution=
tells the installation program which video mode to run. it accepts any standard resolution,
such as 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, and so on.
serial
this command turns on serial console support.
text
this command disables the graphical installation program and forces the installation
program to run in text mode.
updates
this command prompts you to insert a floppy diskette containing updates (bug fixes) for the
anaconda installation program. It is not needed if you are performing a network installation
and have already placed the updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
160
vnc
this command allows you to install from a VNC server.
vncpassword=
this command sets the password used to connect to the VNC server.
161
162
Part III. IBM System z Architecture Installation and Booting
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for IBM System z Architecture systems
discusses the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation
troubleshooting. Advanced installation options are covered in the second part of this manual.
Chapter 16.
Steps to Get You Started
1. Pre-Installation
The installation process assumes a basic familiarity with the IBM eServer System z platforms.
For additional information on these platforms, refer to the IBM Redbooks available online at:
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/1
This manual assumes you are familiar with the related Redbooks and can set up logical
partitions (LPARs) and virtual machines (VMs) on an IBM eServer System z system.
Note
For the most current IBM resources, visit http://www.ibm.com/eserver/zseries/.
Before you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must perform the following steps:
1. Allocate sufficient Disk Storage Space using DASDs2 or SCSI3 partitions to provide suitable
disk space (for example, 2 GB is sufficient for server installations, while 5 GB is minimally
required to install all packages).
2. Acquire a minimum of 512 MB RAM (1 GB is strongly recommended) to designate for the
Linux virtual machine.
3. Determine if you need swap space and if so how much. While it is possible (and
recommended) to assign enough memory to z/VM and let z/VM do the necessary swapping,
there may be cases where the amount of required RAM is not predictable. Such instances
should be examined on a case-by-case basis.
4. Decide on the environment under which to run the operating system (on an LPAR or as a
guest operating system on one or more virtual machines).
5. Finally, it is important to review sections 3.3 through 3.8, and Chapters 5 and 6 of the IBM
Linux for System z Redbook, as it explains the different configurations and install scenarios
available on the zSeries platform as well as how to setup an initial LPAR or Linux virtual
machine (z/VM).
1
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com
Direct Access Storage Devices (or DASDs) are hard disks that allow a maximum of three (3) partitions per DASD. For
example, dasda has dasda[123].
3
Using the zFCP driver over fiber and a dedicated switch, SCSI LUNs can be presented to the linux guest as if they
were locally attached SCSI drives.
2
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Chapter 16. Steps to Get You Started
2. Additional System z Hardware Preparation for
Installation Notes
The network configuration must be determined beforehand. Red Hat Enterprise Linux for IBM
System z supports QDIO-enabled (Queued Direct I/O) and LCS (LAN channel station) devices.
The CTC (channel-to-channel) and IUCV (inter-user communication vehicle) are deprecated
and are not supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For the purposes of this installation, it is recommended that at least 4 GB of disk space (such as
two 2 GB DASD, direct access storage device, partitions or equivalent IBM System z SCSI
LUNs) be allocated for the installation process. All DASD disk allocations should be completed
prior to the installation process. After the installation, more DASD or SCSI (for IBM System z
only) disk partitions may be added or deleted as necessary.
3. Basic Overview of the Boot Method
To prepare for installation, you must have the Linux kernel (kernel.img), the ram disk
(initrd.img), and if using z/VM, an optional CMS configuration file (redhat.conf) and a
parameter file. Sample parameter and CMS configuration files are provided (redhat.parm and
redhat.conf). You should edit the CMS configuration file and add information about your
DASD. You may also want to add some information about your network configuration. Once this
is started on the IBM System z, the networking is configured. You can then use ssh on another
computer to log into your installation image. Now you can start an installation script to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
4. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure an installation CD (or any other type of CD) is not in your hosting
partition's drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a CD
in the drive may cause unexpected errors.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media must be available for either a network
installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if
you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate
machine which can provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM or the
installation CD-ROMs.
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Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
Note
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will
contain the installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The
directory that will be made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be
specified as /export/directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space
may be a directory you create called /var/isos. /export/directory might be
/var/www/html/rhel5, for an HTTP install.
To copy the files from the installation DVD or CD-ROMs to a Linux machine which acts as an
installation staging server, perform the following steps:
• Create an iso image from the installation disk(s) using the following command (for DVDs):
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
For instructions on how to prepare a network installation using CD-ROMs, refer to the
instructions on the README-en file in disk1.
4.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
For FTP and HTTP installation, the iso image or images should be mounted via loopback in the
publicly available directory, in the following manner:
• For DVD:
mount -o loop /location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso /export/directory/
In this case /export/directory will be a directory that is shared via FTP or HTTP.
• For CDROMs:
mount -o loop /location/of/disk/space/diskX.iso /export/directory/diskX/
Do the above for each of the CDROM iso images, for example:
mount -o loop /var/isos/disk1.iso /var/www/html/rhel5-install/disk1/
Next make sure that the /export/directory directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify
client access. You can check to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself,
and then from another machine on the same subnet that you will be installing to.
4.2. Preparing for an NFS install
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Chapter 16. Steps to Get You Started
For NFS installation it is not necessary to mount the iso image. It is sufficient to make the iso
image itself available via NFS. You can do this by moving the iso image or images to the NFS
exported directory:
• For DVD:
mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL5.iso /export/directory/
• For CDROMs:
mv /location/of/disk/space/disk*.iso /export/directory/
Ensure that the /export/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry in
/etc/exports.
To export to a specific system:
/export/directory client.ip.address(ro,no_root_squash)
To export to all systems use an entry such as:
/export/directory *(ro,no_root_squash)
Start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs
start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
5. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Note
Hard drive installations using DASD or SCSI source storage only work from
native ext2 or ext3 partitions. If you have a file system based on devices other
than native ext2 or ext3 (particularly a file system based on RAID or LVM
partitions) you will not be able to use it as a source to perform a hard drive
installation.
To prepare your system for a hard drive installation, you must set the system up in one of the
following ways:
• Using a set of CD-ROMs, or a DVD — Create ISO image files from each installation
CD-ROM, or from the DVD. For each CD-ROM (once for the DVD), execute the following
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Installing under z/VM
command on a Linux system:
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/file-name.iso
This command may raise an error message when the data at the end of the CD-ROM is
reached which can be ignored. The ISO images created can now be used for installation,
once copied to the correct DASD.
• Using ISO images - transfer these to the system to be installed (or to the correct DASD or
SCSI devices).
Verifying that ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation, helps to avoid
problems. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an
md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An
md5sum program should be available on the same Linux machine as the ISO images.
Make the correct DASDs or SCSI LUNs accessible to the new VM or LPAR, and then
proceed with installation.
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the location from which you install, it is used
for updates to anaconda, the installation program. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in
the anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.
6. Installing under z/VM
Log onto z/VM as the Linux guest account. You can use x3270 or c3270 (from the x3270-text
package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux) to log in to z/VM from other Linux systems. Alternatively,
use the 3270 terminal emulator on the IBM System z management console. If you are working
from a Windows based machine, Jolly Giant (http://www.jollygiant.com/4) offers an SSL-enabled
3270 emulator.
If you are not in CMS mode, enter it now.
i cms
If necessary, add the device containing z/VM's TCP/IP tools to your CMS disk list. For example:
vmlink tcpmaint 592 592
If using any of the qdio/qeth based network connection types (such as OSA express or
hipersockets), set the VM guest qioassist parameter off:
4
http://www.jollygiant.com
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Chapter 16. Steps to Get You Started
set qioassist off
FTP to the machine containing the boot images (kernel.img and initrd.img), log in, and
execute the following commands (use the (repl option if you are overwriting existing
kernel.img and initrd.img image files):
• cd /location/of/boot/images/
• locsite fix 80
• bin
• get kernel.img (repl
• get initrd.img (repl
• ascii
• get generic.prmredhat.parm (repl
• quit
You may now create the parameter file (for example, redhat.parm). Refer to Chapter 19,
Sample Parameter Files for sample parm files. Below is an explanation of the parm file contents.
There is a limit of 32 total parameters in the parameter file. In order to accommodate limitations
with parameter files, a new configuration file on a CMS DASD should be used to configure the
initial network setup and the DASD specification.
A .parm file is still required for the real kernel parameters, such as root=/dev/ram0 ro ip=off
ramdisk_size=40000, and single parameters which are not assigned to variables, such as vnc.
Two parameters which are used in z/VM installs to point the installation program at the new
CMS configuration file need to be added to the .parm file:
CMSDASD=191 CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
CMSDASD is the device ID of the CMS formatted DASD which contains the configuration file.
CMSDASD is often the 'A' DASD (usually disk 191) of the z/VM guest account. The name of the
configuration file must be set with CMSCONFFILE and needs to be all lowercase.
The syntax of the CMSCONFFILE is bash style with variable="value" pairs, one on each line.
Example redhat.parm file:
root=/dev/ram0 ro ip=off ramdisk_size=40000
CMSDASD=191 CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
vnc
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Installing under z/VM
Example redhat.exec file:
/* */
'cl rdr'
'purge rdr all'
'spool punch * rdr'
'PUNCH KERNEL IMG A (NOH'
'PUNCH REDHAT PARM A (NOH'
'PUNCH INITRD IMG A (NOH'
'ch rdr all keep nohold'
'i 00c'
Example redhat.conf file:
HOSTNAME="foobar.systemz.example.com"
DASD="200-203"
NETTYPE="qeth"
IPADDR="192.168.17.115"
SUBCHANNELS="0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602"
PORTNAME="FOOBAR"
NETWORK="192.168.17.0"
NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
BROADCAST="192.168.17.255"
SEARCHDNS="example.com:systemz.example.com"
GATEWAY="192.168.17.254"
DNS="192.168.17.1"
MTU="4096"
The following parameters are required and must be included in the parameter file:
• DASD=dasd-list
Where dasd-list represents the list of DASD devices to be used by Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
Although autoprobing for DASDs is done if this parameter is omitted, it is highly
recommended to include the DASD= parameter, as the device numbers (and therefore the
device names) can vary when a new DASD is added to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux guest.
This can result in an unusable system.
Additionally, in SAN-based environments, autoprobing in an LPAR-based install may have
unintended side effects, as the number of DASD and SCSI volumes visible may be
unexpectedly large and include volumes currently in use by other users. In particular,
autoprobing during a kickstart install (which may have enabled autopartitioning to clear all
partitions) is highly discouraged.
• root=file-system
where file-system represents the device on which the root file system can be found. For
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Chapter 16. Steps to Get You Started
installation purposes, it should be set to /dev/ram0, which is the ramdisk containing the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
The following parameters are required to set up networking:
• SUBCHANNELS=
Provides required device bus IDs for the various network interfaces.
qeth: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,
data_device_bus_id"
lcs: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id"
For example (a sample qeth SUBCHANNEL statement):
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
The following parameters are optional:
• HOSTNAME=string
Where string is the hostname of the newly-installed Linux guest.
• NETTYPE=type
Where type must be one of the following: lcs, or qeth.
• IPADDR=IP
Where IP is the IP address of the new Linux guest.
• NETWORK=network
Where network is the address of your network.
• NETMASK=netmask
Where netmask is the netmask.
• BROADCAST=broadcast
Where broadcast is the broadcast address.
• GATEWAY=gw
Where gw is the gateway-IP for your eth device.
• MTU=mtu
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Installing under z/VM
Where mtu is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for this connection.
• DNS=server1:server2::serverN
Where server1:server2::serverN is a list of DNS servers, separated by colons. For
example:
DNS=10.0.0.1:10.0.0.2
• SEARCHDNS=domain1:domain2::domainN
Where domain1:domain2::domainN is a list of the search domains, separated by colons. For
example:
SEARCHDNS=example.com:example.org
• PORTNAME=osa_portname | lcs_portnumber
This variable supports OSA devices operating in qdio mode or non-qdio mode.
When using qdio mode: osa_portname is the portname specified on the OSA device when
operating in qeth mode. PORTNAME is only required for z/VM 4.3 or older without APARs
VM63308 and PQ73878.
When using non-qdio mode: lcs_portnumber is used to pass the relative port number as
integer in the range of 0 through 15.
• FCP_n="device_number SCSI_ID WWPN SCSI_LUN FCP_LUN"
The variables can be used on systems with FCP devices to preconfigure the FCP setup and
can be subsequently edited in anaconda during the installation. An example value may look
similar to:
FCP_1="0.0.5000 0x01 0x5105074308c212e9 0x0 4010"
• n is an integer value (e.g. FCP_1, FCP_2, ...).
• device_number is used to specify the address of the FCP device ( 0.0.5000 for device
5000, for example).
• SCSI_ID is specified in hex-value, typically sequential values (e.g. 0x01, 0x02 ... ) are used
over multiple FCP_ variables.
• WWPN is the world wide port name used for routing (often in conjunction with multipathing)
and is as a 16-digit hex value (e.g. 0x5105074308c212e9).
• SCSI_LUN refers to the local SCSI logical unit value and is specified as a hex-value,
typically sequential values (e.g. 0x00, 0x01, ...) are used over multiple FCP_ variables.
• FCP_LUN refers to the storage logical unit identifier and is specified as a hex-value (such as
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Chapter 16. Steps to Get You Started
0x4010).
Note
Each of the values used in the FCP parameters (FCP_1, FCP_2, ...) are
site-specific and are normally supplied by the FCP storage administrator.
The following parameters for kickstart installations are optional:
• RUNKS=value
Where value is defined as 1 if you want to run the installation program in noninteractive
(kickstart) mode in the 3270 terminal, or 0 otherwise.
• cmdline
When cmdline is specified, 3270 terminal output becomes much more readable, as the
installer disables most escape terminal sequences that are applicable to unix-like consoles,
but not supported on the 3270 console.
• Make sure that your kickstart file contains all required parameters before you use either of the
RUNKS of cmdline options.
If any of the network parameters required to make the network operate correctly are omitted
from the parm file, a prompt appears during the installation boot process.
If you logged off, reconnect and log in using z/VM guest ID you configured for installation. If you
are not in CMS mode, enter it now.
i cms
Create an executable script containing the commands necessary to IPL the kernel image and
start the installation. The following sample script is a typical initial start-up script:
/* */ 'CL RDR' 'PURGE RDR ALL' 'SPOOL PUNCH * RDR' 'PUNCH KERNEL IMG A (NOH'
'PUNCH REDHAT PARM A (NOH' 'PUNCH INITRD IMG A (NOH' 'CH RDR ALL KEEP
NOHOLD' 'IPL 00C CLEAR'
The initial installation start-up script prompts you for information about your networking and
DASDs unless you have specified all necessary information in the parm file.
Once all questions have been answered, you are ready to begin the core installation program,
loader. To continue with the installation, refer to Chapter 17, Installing on IBM System z
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Installing in an LPAR using the Red Hat
Systems for further instructions.
7. Installing in an LPAR using the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux LPAR CD
The following steps must be taken when installing onto an LPAR.
• Log in on the Hardware Master Console (HMC) or the Support Element Workplace (SEW) as
a user with sufficient privileges to install a new OS to an LPAR. The SYSPROG user is
recommended.
• Select Images, then select the LPAR to which you wish to install. Use the arrows in the frame
on the right side to navigate to the CPC Recovery menu.
• Double-click on Load from CD-ROM or Server.
• In the dialog box that follows, select Local CD-ROM then click Continue.
• In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins then click Continue.
• Skip to Section 9, “Installing in an LPAR (Common Steps)” to continue.
8. Installing in an LPAR without the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux for System z CD-ROMs
• Log in on the Support Element Workplace as a user with sufficient privileges to install a new
OS to an LPAR.
• Select Images, then select the LPAR you wish to install to.
• Use the arrows in the frame on the right side to navigate to the CPC Recovery menu.
• Double-click on Load from CD-ROM or Server.
• In the dialog box that follows, select FTP Source, and enter the following information:
Host Computer:
Hostname or IP address of the FTP server you wish to install from (for example,
ftp.redhat.com)
User ID:
Your user name on the FTP server (or anonymous)
Password:
Your password (use your email address if you are logging in as anonymous)
Account:
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Chapter 16. Steps to Get You Started
Leave this field empty
File location (can be left blank):
Directory on the FTP server holding Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z (for example,
/pub/redhat/linux/rawhide/s390x)
• Click Continue.
• In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of redhat.ins and click Continue.
• Refer to Section 9, “Installing in an LPAR (Common Steps)” to continue.
9. Installing in an LPAR (Common Steps)
Once the installation program has started (if the red field behind the LPAR icon is disappearing,
the installation program has begun), select the LPAR and double-click on Operating System
Messages.
The initial installation start-up script asks you questions about your networking and DASD
configurations. Red Hat Enterprise Linux has changed the limit for parameter file definitions and
now accepts thirty-two (32) parameters. Any information not specified in the parameter file must
be specified by answering the installation program questions.
Once all questions have been answered, you are ready to begin the core installation program,
loader. To continue with the installation, refer to Chapter 17, Installing on IBM System z
Systems for further instructions.
Note
If you install over a network with a Hard Drive Installation source you must
perform a text mode installation.
10. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with
disk partitions.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used
by other OSes you may have installed on your system.
For more information about disks and partition configuration, refer to Section 14.4,
“Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
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This chapter explains how to perform a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation using the
graphical, mouse-based installation program. The following topics are discussed:
• Becoming familiar with the installation program's user interface
• Starting the installation program
• Selecting an installation method
• Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, partitioning, etc.)
• Finishing the installation
1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this
process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to
move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys
expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a
highlighted item. You can also use the Alt-X key command combination as a way of clicking on
buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter
appearing within that screen.
Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text
mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. One
thing to note is that manipulation of LVM (Logical Volume Management) disk
volumes and the configuration of zFCP devices are only possible in graphical
mode. In text mode it is only possible to view and accept the default LVM setup.
2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface that
includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces.
Figure 17.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration”, and
Figure 17.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid”, illustrate the screens that
appear during the installation process.
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Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text
mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. One
thing to note is that manipulation of LVM (Logical Volume Management) disk
volumes is only possible in graphical mode. In text mode it is only possible to
view and accept the default LVM setup.
Figure 17.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader
Configuration
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The Text Mode Installation Program User
Figure 17.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 17.1, “Installation Program Widgets
as seen in Boot Loader Configuration” and Figure 17.2, “Installation Program Widgets as
seen in Disk Druid”:
• Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen
throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these
cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it
disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
• Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either
an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press
Space to select or deselect a feature.
• Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the
installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit
information on that line.
• Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text
widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more
information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you
position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to
scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by
a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
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• Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a
list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to
any part of a file.
• Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation
program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these
buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
• Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular
widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change
color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 17.1,
“Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration”, the cursor is
positioned on the OK button. Figure 17.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk
Druid”, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To
move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to
cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens
display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press
Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to
select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox
and press Space to select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to
pressing the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the
installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
3. Running the Installation Program
After following the steps outlined in Chapter 16, Steps to Get You Started for booting an LPAR
or VM system, ssh to the configured Linux install system on the IBM System z.
Although the text mode installation program is run by default for most installations, you can
optionally run the graphical installation program available for both VM and LPAR installations via
the NFS installation method.
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Note
If you have a slow network connection or prefer a text-based installation, do not
set the DISPLAY= variable in the parm file. The text-based installation is similar to
the graphical installation; however, the graphical installation offers more package
selection details and other options not available in text-based installs. It is
strongly recommended to use the graphical installation whenever possible.
To run the graphical installation, use a workstation that has an X Window System server or VNC
client installed. Use an SSH client that allows X11 forwarding or a Telnet client. SSH is strongly
recommended for its security features as well as its ability to forward X and VNC sessions.
Enable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the Linux image (the Linux
guest running on z/VM).
3.1. Installation using X11 Forwarding
For example, to connect to the Linux image and display the graphical installation program using
OpenSSH with X11 forwarding on a Linux workstation, type the following at the workstation shell
prompt:
ssh -X linuxvm.example.com
The -X option enables X11 forwarding.
The graphical installation program cannot be started if your DNS or hostnames are not set
correctly, or the Linux image is not allowed to open applications on your display. You can
prevent this by setting a correct DISPLAY= variable. Add the parameter
DISPLAY=workstationname:0.0 in the parameter file, replacing workstationname with the
hostname of the client workstation connecting to the Linux Image. Allow the Linux image to
connect to the workstation using the command xhost +linuxvm on the local workstation.
If the graphical installation via NFS does not automatically begin for you, verify the DISPLAY=
variable settings in the parm file. If performing a VM installation, rerun the installation to load the
new parm file on the reader. Additionally, make sure when performing an X11 forwarded display
that the X server is started on the workstation machine. Finally, make sure either the NFS, FTP
or HTTP protocols are selected, as all 3 methods support graphical installations.
3.2. Installation using VNC
If you are using VNC, a message on the workstation SSH terminal prompts you to start the VNC
client viewer and details the VNC display specifications. Enter the specifications from the SSH
terminal into the VNC client viewer and connect to the Linux image to begin the installation.
Once you have logged into the Linux image the loader will start the installation program.
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When the loader starts, several screens appear for selecting the installation method.
4. Installing from a Hard Drive (DASD)
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images.
This partition must be formatted with a ext2 or vfat filesystem, and cannot be a logical volume.
There is also a field labeled Directory holding images.
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images
are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the
ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is
normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.
After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.
5. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you selected NFS Image
in the Installation Method dialog).
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from
a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the
NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 4,
“Preparing for a Network Installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the
directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later
on in the process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If
everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program
for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
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Figure 17.3. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, enter
the directory which contains the ISO images.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
6. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you selected FTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP server from which you
are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
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Figure 17.4. FTP Setup Dialog
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name of the
directory containing the variant/ directory for your architecture. For example, if the FTP site
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/variant;/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/
(where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or
s390x, and variant is the variant that you are installing, such as Client, Server, Workstation,
etc.). If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to
the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO
images without copying them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For
each ISO image:
mkdir discX
mount -o loop RHEL5-discX.iso discX
Replace X with the corresponding disc number.
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7. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you selected HTTP in
the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the HTTP server
from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of the
directory containing the variant/ directory for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/variant/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/
(where arch is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or
s390x, and variant is the variant that you are installing, such as Client, Server, Workstation,
etc.). If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being
retrieved from the server.
Figure 17.5. HTTP Setup Dialog
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to
the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO
images without copying them into a single tree by loopback mounting them. For
each ISO image:
mkdir discX
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mount -o loop RHEL5-discX.iso discX
Replace X with the corresponding disc number.
8. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the
Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
Click on the Next button to continue.
9. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select a language to use for the installation (refer to Figure 17.6, “Language
Selection”).
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it
is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration
later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based
on what you specify on this screen.
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Enter the Installation Number
Figure 17.6. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
10. Enter the Installation Number
Enter your Installation Number (refer to Figure 17.7, “Installation Number”). This number will
determine the package selection set that is available to the installer. If you choose to skip
entering the installation number you will be presented with a basic selection of packages to
install later on.
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Figure 17.7. Installation Number
11. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your storage drive(s) into isolated sections, where each section
behaves as its own drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems,
or wish to enforce a logical or functional distinction between your storage partitions (such as a
/home partition that persistently contains user information).
On this screen you can choose to create the default layout or choose to manual partition using
the 'Create custom layout' option of Disk Druid.
The first three options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition
your drive(s) yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is
recommended that you do not choose to create a custom layout and instead let the installation
program partition for you.
You can configure an zFCP LUN for installation, or disable a dmraid device from this screen by
clicking on the 'Advanced storage configuration' button. For more information refer to
Section 12, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
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Warning
The Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by
default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/
partition, be sure to create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to
download package updates.
Figure 17.8. Disk Partitioning Setup
If you choose to create a custom layout using Disk Druid, refer to Section 14, “Partitioning Your
System”.
Warning
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation
saying something similar to:
"The partition table on device dasda was unreadable. To create new partitions it
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must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive."
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive
may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation
program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing
data on your systems should always be made.
12. Advanced Storage Options
12.1. FCP Devices
FCP (Fibre Channel protocol) devices enable IBM System z to use SCSI devices rather than
DASD devices. FCP (Fibre Channel protocol) devices provide a switched fabric topology that
enables zSeries systems to use SCSI LUNs as disk devices in addition to traditional DASD
devices.
Typically, an operating system is loaded, and the automatic probing and defining of hardware is
done by the OS. However, because of the flexibility of configurations associated with FCP, IBM
System z requires that any FCP (Fibre Channel protocol) device be entered manually (either in
the installation program interactively, or specified as unique parameter entries in the CMS conf
file) in order for the installation program to recognize the hardware. The values entered here are
unique to each site in which they are setup.
Note
Interactive creation of a zFCP device is only possible in the graphical mode
installer. It is not possible to interactively configure a zFCP device in a text-only
install.
Each value entered should be verified as correct, as any mistakes made may cause the system
not to operate properly.
For more information on these values, refer to the hardware documentation that came with your
system and check with the system administrator who has setup the network for this system.
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FCP Devices
Figure 17.9. Advanced Storage Options
To configure a Fiber Channel Protocol SCSI device invoke the 'Add FCP device' dialog by
selecting 'Add ZFCP LUN' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the 16 bit
device number, 64 bit World Wide Port Number (WWPN) and 64 bit FCP LUN. Click the 'Add'
button to attempt connection to the FCP device using this information.
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Figure 17.10. Configure FCP Device
The newly added device should then be present and usable during the Disk Druid portion of
the installation.
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Figure 17.11. Configure FCP Device
Note
The installer requires that at least one ECKD DASD be defined. In the situation
where a SCSI-only installation is desired a DASD= parameter should be entered
into the CMS conf file with a non-existent device number. This will satisfy
Anaconda's requirement for a defined ECKD DASD, while resulting in a
SCSI-only environment.
13. Create Default Layout
Create default layout allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any)
from your system. Your options are:
• Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to
remove all partitions on your hard drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating
systems such as z/VM or z/OS).
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Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected DASD and SCSI storage drive(s)
is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have
information that you want to keep on the storage drive(s) where you are installing
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
• Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this
option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation).
This does not remove other partitions you may have on your storage drive(s) (such as z/VM
or z/OS partitions).
• Use free space on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to retain
your current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your
storage drive(s).
Figure 17.12. Create Default Layout
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Partitioning Your System
Using your mouse, choose the storage drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux to
be installed. If you have two or more drives, you can choose which drive(s) should contain this
installation. Unselected drives, and any data on them, are not touched.
Caution
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For
example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back
up any data you wish to keep on your drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can
result in the loss of all your data.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning,
select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the
partitions created for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these partitions
if they do not meet your needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
14. Partitioning Your System
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions
in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
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Figure 17.13. Partitioning with Disk Druid
The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid. With the exception of
certain esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical
installation.
14.1. Graphical Display of DASD Device(s)
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your DASD device(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click
to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/dasda), the Geom (which
shows the hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of
cylinders, heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as
detected by the installation program.
Finally, note which device is associated with /boot. The kernel files and bootloader sector will
be associated with this device. For most common cases, the first DASD or SCSI LUN will be
used, but for some unusual cases, this may not be the case. The device number will be used
when re-ipling the post-installed system.
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14.2. Disk Druid's Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid's actions. They are used to change the attributes of a
partition (for example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID devices.
Buttons on this screen are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk
Druid. For further explanation, take a look at each button in order:
• Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section.
Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on
whether the partition information has already been written to disk.
• RAID: Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions. It should only be used if you
have experience using RAID. To read more about RAID, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have
created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions
into a RAID device.
14.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are
creating. The labels are defined as follows:
• Device: This field displays the partition's device name.
• Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at
which a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the
partition is mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount
point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button.
• Type: This field shows the partition's file system type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
• Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
• Size (MB): This field shows the partition's size (in MB).
• Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins.
• End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends.
Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want to view
any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
14.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following
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partitions:
• A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In
other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the
data your system is processing.
If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the amount of RAM
on your machine. It must be of type swap.
Creation of the proper amount of swap space varies depending on a number of factors
including the following (in descending order of importance):
• The applications running on the machine.
• The amount of physical RAM installed on the machine.
• The version of the OS.
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM, and then an additional
1x physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less than 32 MB.
So, if:
M = Amount of RAM in GB, and S = Amount of swap in GB, then
If M < 2
S = M *2
Else
S = M + 2
Using this formula, a system with 2 GB of physical RAM would have 4 GB of swap, while one
with 3 GB of physical RAM would have 5 GB of swap. Creating a large swap space partition
can be especially helpful if you plan to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
For systems with really large amounts of RAM (more than 32 GB) you can likely get away
with a smaller swap partition (around 1x, or less, of physical RAM).
• A /boot/ partition (100 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating
system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files
used during the bootstrap process. Due to limitations, creating a native ext3 partition to hold
these files is required. For most users, a 100 MB boot partition is sufficient.
14.5. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
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Note
If the partition already exists on your disk, you can only change the partition's
mount point. To make any other changes, you must delete the partition and
recreate it.
15. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device, this screen does not appear during your installation and
you should advance to Section 16, “Time Zone Configuration”.
Figure 17.14. Network Configuration
The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and displays them
in the Network Devices list.
Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up screen,
you can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask (for IPv4 - Prefix for IPv6) of the
device via DHCP (or manually if DHCP is not selected) and you can choose to activate the
device at boot time. If you select Activate on boot, your network interface is started when you
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boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide here, please
contact your network administrator.
Note
DHCP should not be chosen for qdio/qeth devices that are configured with
OSA layer 3 support. Layer 3 does not provide MAC address or Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) abilities and so can not be used with network services
that require them.
Figure 17.15. Editing a Network Device
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will
not work for your own network configuration. If you are not sure what values to
enter, contact your network administrator for assistance.
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Time Zone Configuration
If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can choose to
have DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or you can manually
enter the hostname in the field provided.
Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the
Gateway address and the Primary and Secondary DNS addresses.
16. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on
the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
• Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a
yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
• You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using
your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 17.16. Configuring the Time Zone
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Select System Clock uses UTC if you know that your system is set to UTC.
Tip
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the
installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time
and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the
command timeconfig.
17. Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your
installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT
machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most
system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire
system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform
system maintenance or administration.
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Set Root Password
Figure 17.17. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general
use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the
chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then
press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password1 for your system. You cannot
proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to
the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the
1
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as
root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal
user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
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installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is
easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root,
123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with
upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT,
for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password,
keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any
password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of
these passwords could be considered a security risk.
Tip
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the
Root Password Tool.
Type the system-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch
the Root Password Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root
password to continue.
18. Package Group Selection
Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the
default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux you are installing.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 19, “Preparing to Install”.
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen.
Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for
example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
204
Package Group Selection
Note
Users of IBM System z who want support for developing or running legacy 31-bit
applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and
Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install architecture
specific support for their systems.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 17.18, “Package Group
Selection”).
Figure 17.18. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install.
Once a package group has been selected, if optional components are available you can click on
Optional packages to view which packages are installed by default, and to add or remove
optional packages from that group. If there are no optional components this button will be
disabled.
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Chapter 17. Installing on IBM System z Systems
Figure 17.19. Package Group Details
19. Preparing to Install
19.1. Preparing to Install
A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log
once you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process,
this is your last opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your
machine. Once you press the Next button, partitions are written and packages
are installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should close your SSH
session and re-IPL the machineeboot now before any existing information on any
hard drive is rewritten.
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Installing Packages
To cancel this installation process, close your SSH session and re-IPL the system using your
3270 terminal emulator.
20. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How
quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your
computer's speed.
21. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot.
Once the installation is complete, you must IPL (boot) from either the DASD or SCSI LUN where
the /boot partition for Red Hat Enterprise Linux has been installed.
For example, using dasd at device 200 on the 3270 console you may issue the command #cp i
200. Often, especially in DASD only environments where automatic partitioning (clearing data
from all partitions) was chosen, the first dasd (dasda) is where the /boot partition is located.
Using /boot on a SCSI LUN in a z/VM guest account, it may be necessary to provide WWPN
and LUN information through which a zFCP device can ipl. As an example,
#CP SET LOADDEV PORTNAME 50050763 FCCD9689 LUN 83030000 00000000
could be used to provide zFCP routing information to a zFCP device (where
0x50050763FCCD9689 is the example WWPN, and 8303 is the SCSI LUN). Then the zFCP
device information can be queried and used to start the IPL:
#cp q v fcp
After querying this information the zFCP device (4322 in this example) could be ipl-ed with a
command like:
#cp ipl 4322
For LPAR-based installations, the HMC console may be used to issue a load command to the
LPAR, specifying the particular DASD or SCSI LUN and zFCP WWPN where the /boot
partition is located.
Note
For guest accounts using z/VM, assuming you want to disconnect from the 3270
console without halting the linux guest, use #cp disc instead of #cp logout or
#cp log. This allows for the virtual system running Red Hat Enterprise Linux for
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Chapter 17. Installing on IBM System z Systems
IBM System z to continue even when not connected to the 3270 console.
Following IPLing the installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux OS, you may log on to the system via
ssh. It is important to note that the only place you can log in as root is from the 3270 or from
other devices as listed in /etc/securetty.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in a graphical environment, the
Setup Agent may be manually started, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register
your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your
environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system quickly.
For information on registering your Red Hat Enterprise Linux subscription, refer to Chapter 24,
Activate Your Subscription.
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Chapter 18.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
To remove from the S/390 you can either remove the DASD allocation from the VM or you can
start the installation program and re-format all of the DASD partitions. Instead of selecting OK
you will select Cancel to exit the installation program.
209
210
Chapter 19.
Sample Parameter Files
The IBM System z architectures use a special parameter file to set up networking before the
installation program (anaconda) can be started. This section describes the contents of the
parameter file.
The parameter file has a limit of 32 total parameters. To accommodate limitations of the
parameter files, a new configuration file on a CMS DASD should be used to configure the initial
network setup and the DASD specification. The .parm file should contain the real kernel
parameters, such as root=/dev/ram0 ro ip=off ramdisk_size=40000, and single
parameters which are not assigned to variables, such as vnc. Two new parameters which point
the installation program at the new configuration file need to be added to the .parm file. They
are CMSDASD and CMSCONF .
CMSDASD=cmsdasd_address
Where cmsdasd_address represents the list of the device ID of the CMS DASD device
which contains the configuration file. This is usually the CMS user's 'A' disk. This option is
applicable only for users who have a CMS formatted disk (z/VM) available.
For example: CMSDASD=191
CMSCONFFILE=configuration_file
Where configuration_file represents the name of the configuration file. This value must
be specified in lower case. It is specified in a Linux style file name format. The CMS file
REDHAT CONF is specified as redhat.conf. This option is applicable only for users who
have a CMS formatted disk (z/VM) available.
For example: CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
DASD=dasd-list
Where dasd-list represents the list of DASD devices to be used by Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
Although automatic probing for DASDs is done if this parameter is omitted, it is highly
recommended to include the DASD= parameter, as the device numbers (and therefore the
device names) can vary when a new DASD is added to the guest. This can result in an
unusable system.
For example: DASD=0.0.0100,0.0201-0.0.0204
The following parameters are required to set up networking:
SUBCHANNELS=
Provides required device bus IDs for the various network interfaces.
qeth: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,
data_device_bus_id"
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Chapter 19. Sample Parameter Files
lcs: SUBCHANNELS="read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id"
Due to the length of the qeth command line, it has been broken into two lines.
Note
The CTC, and NETIUCV drivers have been deprecated and are no longer
supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For example (a sample qeth SUBCHANNEL statement):
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
The following parameters are optional:
HOSTNAME=string
Where string is the hostname of the newly-installed Linux guest.
NETTYPE=type
Where type must be one of the following: qeth or lcs.
IPADDR=IP
Where IP is the IP address of the new Linux guest.
NETWORK=network
Where network is the address of your network.
NETMASK=netmask
Where netmask is the netmask.
BROADCAST=broadcast
Where broadcast is the broadcast address.
GATEWAY=gw
Where gw is the gateway-IP for your eth device.
MTU=mtu
Where mtu is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for this connection.
DNS=server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN
Where server1:server2:additional_server_terms:serverN is a list of DNS servers,
separated by colons. For example:
DNS=10.0.0.1:10.0.0.2
212
SEARCHDNS=domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN
Where domain1:domain2:additional_dns_terms:domainN is a list of the search domains,
separated by colons. For example:
SEARCHDNS=example.com:example.org
PORTNAME=osa_portname | lcs_portnumber
This variable supports OSA devices operating in qdio mode or in non-qdio mode.
When using qdio mode: osa_portname is the portname specified on the OSA device when
operating in qeth mode. PORTNAME is only required for z/VM 4.3 or older without APARs
VM63308 and PQ73878.
When using non-qdio mode: lcs_portnumber is used to pass the relative port number as
integer in the range of 0 through 15.
FCP_* (FCP_1, FCP_2, ...)
These variables can be used on systems with FCP devices to preconfigure the FCP setup
(these can be changed during the installation).
Use the following samples as a guide to formatting proper parameter files.
Sample file with minimally required parameters:
root=/dev/ram0 DASD=200
Note
The installation program prompts the user for any required parameters not
specified in the parameter file.
Sample file configuring a QETH networking device:
Example of redhat.parm file:
root=/dev/ram0 ro ip=off ramdisk_size=40000
CMSDASD=191 CMSCONFFILE=redhat.conf
vnc
Example of redhat.conf file (pointed to by CMSCONFFILE in redhat.parm)
DASD=200
HOSTNAME="foobar.systemz.example.com"
DASD="200-203"
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Chapter 19. Sample Parameter Files
NETTYPE="qeth"
IPADDR="192.168.17.115"
SUBCHANNELS="0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602"
PORTNAME="FOOBAR"
NETWORK="192.168.17.0"
NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
BROADCAST="192.168.17.255"
SEARCHDNS="example.com:systemz.example.com"
GATEWAY="192.168.17.254"
DNS="192.168.17.1"
MTU="4096"
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Chapter 20.
Additional Boot Options
This section discusses additional boot and kernel boot options available for the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation program.
To use any of the boot options presented here, type the command you wish to invoke at the
installation boot: prompt.
boot time command arguments
askmethod
this command asks you to select the installation method you would like to use when booting
from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM.
dd=url
this argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver image from a
specified HTTP, FTP, or NFS network address.
display=ip:0
this command allows remote display forwarding. In this command, ip should be replaced
with the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are
running the original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access to
the remote display terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not
specifically authorized for remote access.
mediacheck
this command gives you the option of testing the integrity of the install source (if an
ISO-based method). this command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO
installation methods. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an
installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during an installation.
noprobe
this command disables hardware detection and instead prompts the user for hardware
information.
rescue
this command runs rescue mode. Refer to Chapter 26, Basic System Recovery for more
information about rescue mode.
text
this command disables the graphical installation program and forces the installation
program to run in text mode.
vnc
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Chapter 20. Additional Boot Options
this command allows you to install from a VNC server.
vncpassword=
this command sets the password used to connect to the VNC server.
noipv6
this command disables the default selection of ipv6 options during the installer stage 1
processing. Ipv6 settings may still be made manually if this option is specified, but the
default behavior will be that Ipv6 settings are not enabled.
cmdline
The 3270 console (most often used during installation on IBM System z) does not recognize
terminal formatting entries common to most unix-style terminals. Specifying this option
changes the behavior of anaconda during kickstart installations so that console output on
the 3270 is much better. This option should not be used for regular, interactive installations.
RUNKS=1
This option is used to specify (usually in conjunction with the cmdline option) kickstart
installation for IBM System z.
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Chapter 21.
Troubleshooting Installation on an
IBM System z System
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a
memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the
software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the
online errata to see if newer versions are available.
2. Trouble During the Installation
2.1. No
devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Error Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, then there may be an issue with your DASD devices. If you encounter this error, add the
DASD=<disks> parameter to your parm file (where disks is the DASD range reserved for
installation) and start the install again.
Additionally, make sure you format the DASDs using the dasdfmt command within a Linux root
shell, instead of formatting the DASDs using CMS.
2.2. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 11, “Disk Partitioning Setup”)
phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be
initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be
recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your
systems should always be made.
2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you
probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid's dependencies to be
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Chapter 21. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM System z System
satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
• A / (root) partition
• A <swap> partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk
Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you.
2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program
(also known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after
the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the
/tmp/directory. The error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20,
in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>
ToDo object: (itodo ToDo p1 (dp2 S'method' p3 (iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4 (dp5 S'progressWindow' p6
<failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have
been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation
process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda. Errata
can be found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
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Problems After Installation
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking
system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
3. Problems After Installation
3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
If you have installed the X Window System and would like to log in to your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system using a graphical login manager, enable the X Display Manager Control Protocol
(XDMCP). This protocol allows users to remotely log in to a desktop environment from any X
Window System compatible client (such as a network-connected workstation or X terminal). To
enable remote login using XDMCP, edit the following line in the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file on
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux system with a text editor such as vi or nano:
Add the line Enable=true, save the file, and exit the text editor. Switch to runlevel 5 to start the
X server:
/sbin/init 5
From the client machine, start remote X session using X. For example:
X :1 -query s390vm.example.com
The command connects to the remote X server via XDMCP (replace s390vm.example.com with
the hostname of the remote X server) and displays the remote graphical login screen on display
:1 of the client system (usually accessible by using the Ctrl-Alt-F8 key combination).
You may also access remote desktop sessions using a nested X server, which opens the
remote desktop as a window in your current X session. Xnest allows users to open a remote
desktop nested within their local X session. For example, run Xnest using the following
command, replacing s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X server:
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Chapter 21. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM System z System
Xnest :1 -query s390vm.example.com
3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password
you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type
passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type
shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root,
type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This
allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The
Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try
using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
3.4. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup,
make sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
220
localhost.localdomain
localhost
Chapter 22.
Additional Information for IBM
System z Users
1. The sysfs File System
The Linux 2.6 kernel introduced the sysfs file system. The sysfs file system is described as a
union of the proc, devfs, and devpty file systems. The sysfs file system enumerates the
devices and busses attached to the system into a file system hierarchy that can be accessed
from user space. It is designed to handle the device and driver specific options that have
previously resided in /proc/, and encompass the dynamic device addition previously offered by
devfs.
The sysfs file system is mounted at /sys/ and contains directories that organize the devices
attached to the system in several different ways. The /sysfs/ subdirectories include:
1. The /devices/ directory
This directory contains the /css0/ directory. Its subdirectories represent all the subchannels
detected by the Linux kernel. Subchannel directories are named in the form 0.0.nnnn where
nnnn is the subchannel number in hex between 0000 and ffff. Subchannel directories in turn
contain status files and another subdirectory which represents the actual device. The device
directory is named 0.0.xxxx where xxxx is the unit address for the device. The /devices/
directory also contains status information as well as configuration options for the device.
2. The /bus/ directory
This contains a /ccw/ subdirectory and a /ccwgroup/ subdirectory. CCW devices are
accessed using channel command words. Devices in the /ccw/ directory only use one
subchannel on the mainframe channel subsystem. CCW group devices are also accessed
with channel command words, but they use more than one subchannel per device. For
example, a 3390-3 DASD device uses one subchannel, while a QDIO network connection for
an OSA adapter uses three subchannels. The /ccw/ and the /ccwgroup/ directories both
contain directories called devices and drivers:
The /devices/ directory contains a symbolic link to the device directories in the
/sys/devices/css0/ directory.
The /drivers/ directory contains directories for each device driver currently loaded on the
system. Drivers associated with devices such as dasd, console, qeth, and zfcp have
directory entries here. The /driver/ directory contains settings for the device driver, as well
as symbolic links to the devices it is using (in the /sys/devices/css0/ directory).
3. The /class/ directory
This contains directories that group together similar devices such as ttys, SCSI tape drives,
network devices, and other miscellaneous devices.
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
4. The /block/ directory
This directory contains directories for each of the block devices on the system. These are
mostly disk type devices such as real DASD, loopback devices, and software raid block
devices. The noticeable difference between older Linux systems and ones that use sysfs is
the need to refer to devices by their sysfs name. On a 2.4 kernel image, the zFCP driver was
passed as its device addresses. On the 2.6 Kernel image system the driver is passed as
0.0.1600.
2. Using the zFCP Driver
During the initial installation, you are prompted to enter SCSI/FCP information. If this information
is entered, it creates the /etc/zfcp.conf file which contains your SCSI configuration. It also
adds the line alias scsi_hostadapter zFCP to /etc/modprobe.conf. This loads the required
zFCP modules.
# cat /etc/zfcp.conf
0.0.010a 0x01 0x5005076300c18154 0x00 0x5719000000000000
# cat /etc/modprobe.conf
alias eth0 qeth
options dasd_mod dasd=201,4b2e
alias scsi_hostadapter zfcp
If no SCSI devices were defined during the initial installation, the following example
demonstrates how to add one manually:
# cd /lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/kernel/drivers/s390/scsi
# modprobe zfcp
# lsmod
Module
zfcp
autofs4
qeth
qdio
ccwgroup
ipt_REJECT
ipt_state
ip_conntrack
iptable_filter
ip_tables
sd_mod
scsi_mod
dm_mod
ext3
jbd
dasd_fba_mod
dasd_eckd_mod
dasd_mod
222
Size
221460
39944
166288
60240
25344
23552
18944
57904
19712
37888
39688
182904
86408
179056
92720
25344
77056
85328
Used by
0 [permanent]
0
0
3 zfcp,qeth
1 qeth
1
5
1 ipt_state
1
3 ipt_REJECT,ipt_state,iptable_filter
0
2 zfcp,sd_mod
0
2
1 ext3
0
4
6 dasd_fba_mod,dasd_eckd_mod
Using the zFCP Driver
# cd /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.010a
# echo 1 > online
# cat online
1
# echo 0x5005076300c18154 > /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.010a/port_add
# ls
0x5005076300c18154 failed
lic_version
s_id
availability
fc_link_speed
nameserver
status
card_version
fc_service_class online
wwnn
cmb_enable
fc_topology
port_add
wwpn
cutype
hardware_version port_remove
detach_state
host2
scsi_host_no
devtype
in_recovery
serial_number
# cd /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.010a/0x5005076300c18154
# echo 0x5719000000000000 > unit_add
# ls
0x5719000000000000 d_id
in_recovery status
unit_remove
detach_state
failed scsi_id
unit_add wwnn
# cat /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.010a/scsi_host_no
0x0
# cat /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.010a/0x5005076300c18154/scsi_id
0x1
# cat \
/sys/bus/ccw/drivers/zfcp/0.0.010a/0x5005076300c18154/0x5719000000000000/scsi_lun
0x0
# cat /sys/bus/scsi/devices/0\:0\:1\:0/hba_id
0.0.010a
# cat /sys/bus/scsi/devices/0\:0\:1\:0/wwpn
0x5005076300c18154
# cat /sys/bus/scsi/devices/0\:0\:1\:0/fcp_lun
0x5719000000000000
# cat /sys/bus/scsi/devices/0\:0\:1\:0/block/dev
8:0
# cat /sys/bus/scsi/devices/0\:0\:1\:0/block/sda1/dev
8:1
# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
Attached devices:
Host: scsi2 Channel: 00 Id: 01 Lun: 00
Vendor: IBM
Model: 2105F20
Type:
Direct-Access
Rev: .123
ANSI SCSI revision: 03
# fdisk /dev/sda
# mke2fs -j /dev/sda1
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
# df
Filesystem
1K-blocks
/dev/dasda1
2344224
none
511652
Used Available Use% Mounted on
1427948
797196 65% /
0
511652
0% /dev/shm
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
/dev/dasdb1
/dev/sda1
2365444
3844088
32828
32828
2212456
3615988
2% /opt
1% /mnt
# cd /boot
# mv initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img.orig
# mkinitrd -v --with=scsi_mod --with=zfcp --with=sd_mod
initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img 2.6.7-1.451.2.3
Looking for deps of module ide-disk
Looking for deps of module dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_eckd_mod
dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_fba_mod dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module ext3 jbd
Looking for deps of module jbd
Looking for deps of module scsi_mod
Looking for deps of module zfcp qdio scsi_mod
Looking for deps of module qdio
Looking for deps of module scsi_mod
Looking for deps of module sd_mod
scsi_mod
Looking for deps of module scsi_mod
Using modules: ./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_mod.ko
./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_eckd_mod.ko
./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_fba_mod.ko ./kernel/fs/jbd/jbd.ko
./kernel/fs/ext3/ext3.ko ./kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_mod.ko
./kernel/drivers/s390/cio/qdio.ko ./kernel/drivers/s390/scsi/zfcp.ko
./kernel/drivers/scsi/sd_mod.ko
Using loopback device /dev/loop0
/sbin/nash -> /tmp/initrd.cT1534/bin/nash
/sbin/insmod.static -> /tmp/initrd.cT1534/bin/insmod
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_mod.ko'->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/dasd_mod.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_eckd_mod.ko'
->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/dasd_eckd_mod.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_fba_mod.ko'
->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/dasd_fba_mod.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/fs/jbd/jbd.ko' ->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/jbd.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/fs/ext3/ext3.ko' ->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/ext3.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_mod.ko' ->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/scsi_mod.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/cio/qdio.ko' ->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/qdio.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/scsi/zfcp.ko' ->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/zfcp.ko'
`/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/scsi/sd_mod.ko' ->
`/tmp/initrd.cT1534/lib/sd_mod.ko'
...
Loading module dasd_mod with options dasd=201,4b2e
Loading module dasd_eckd_mod
Loading module dasd_fba_mod
Loading module jbd
Loading module ext3
Loading module scsi_mod
224
Using mdadm to Configure RAID-Based and
Loading module qdio
Loading module zfcp
Loading module sd_mod
# zipl -V
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................: 5e:00
Partition.......................: 5e:01
Device name.....................: dasda
DASD device number..............: 0201
Type............................: disk partition
Disk layout.....................: ECKD/compatible disk layout
Geometry - heads................: 15
Geometry - sectors..............: 12
Geometry - cylinders............: 3308
Geometry - start................: 24
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 4096
Device size in physical blocks..: 595416
Building bootmap '/boot//bootmap'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.7-1.451.2.3 at 0x10000
kernel parmline...: 'root=LABEL=/' at 0x1000
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img at 0x800000
Preparing boot device: dasda (0201).
Preparing boot menu
Interactive prompt......: disabled
Menu timeout............: disabled
Default configuration...: 'linux'
Syncing disks...
Done.
3. Using mdadm to Configure RAID-Based and Multipath
Storage
Similar to other tools comprising the raidtools package set, the mdadm command can be used
to perform all the necessary functions related to administering multiple-device sets. This section
explains how mdadm can be used to:
• Create a RAID device
• Create a multipath device
3.1. Creating a RAID Device With mdadm
To create a RAID device, edit the /etc/mdadm.conf file to define appropriate DEVICE and
ARRAY values:
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
DEVICE /dev/sd[abcd]1
ARRAY /dev/md0 devices=/dev/sda1,/dev/sdb1,/dev/sdc1,/dev/sdd1
In this example, the DEVICE line is using traditional file name globbing (refer to the glob(7) man
page for more information) to define the following SCSI devices:
• /dev/sda1
• /dev/sdb1
• /dev/sdc1
• /dev/sdd1
The ARRAY line defines a RAID device (/dev/md0) that is comprised of the SCSI devices defined
by the DEVICE line.
Prior to the creation or usage of any RAID devices, the /proc/mdstat file shows no active
RAID devices:
Personalities :
read_ahead not set
Event: 0
unused devices: none
Next, use the above configuration and the mdadm command to create a RAID 0 array:
mdadm -C /dev/md0 --level=raid0 --raid-devices=4 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
/dev/sdc1 \
/dev/sdd1
Continue creating array? yes
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.
Once created, the RAID device can be queried at any time to provide status information. The
following example shows the output from the command mdadm --detail /dev/md0:
/dev/md0:
Version : 00.90.00
Creation Time : Mon Mar 1 13:49:10 2004
Raid Level : raid0
Array Size : 15621632 (14.90 GiB 15.100 GB)
Raid Devices : 4
Total Devices : 4
Preferred Minor : 0
Persistence : Superblock is persistent
Update Time : Mon Mar 1 13:49:10 2004
State : dirty, no-errors
226
Multipath Storage
Active Devices : 4
Working Devices : 4
Failed Devices : 0
Spare Devices : 0
Chunk Size : 64K
Number
Major
Minor
RaidDevice State
0
8
1
0
active sync
1
8
17
1
active sync
2
8
33
2
active sync
3
8
49
3
active sync
UUID : 25c0f2a1:e882dfc0:c0fe135e:6940d932
Events : 0.1
/dev/sda1
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdc1
/dev/sdd1
3.2. Creating a Multipath Device With mdadm
In addition to creating RAID arrays, mdadm can also be used to take advantage of hardware
supporting more than one I/O path to individual SCSI LUNs (disk drives). The goal of multipath
storage is continued data availability in the event of hardware failure or individual path
saturation. Because this configuration contains multiple paths (each acting as an independent
virtual controller) accessing a common SCSI LUN (disk drive), the Linux kernel detects each
shared drive once "through" each path. In other words, the SCSI LUN (disk drive) known as
/dev/sda may also be accessible as /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc, and so on, depending on the
specific configuration.
To provide a single device that can remain accessible if an I/O path fails or becomes saturated,
mdadm includes an additional parameter to its level option. This parameter multipath directs
the md layer in the Linux kernel to re-route I/O requests from one pathway to another in the
event of an I/O path failure.
To create a multipath device, edit the /etc/mdadm.conf file to define values for the DEVICE and
ARRAY lines that reflect your hardware configuration.
Note
Unlike the previous RAID example (where each device specified in
/etc/mdadm.conf must represent different physical disk drives), each device in
this file refers to the same shared disk drive.
The command used for the creation of a multipath device is similar to that used to create a
RAID device; the difference is the replacement of a RAID level parameter with the multipath
parameter:
mdadm -C /dev/md0 --level=multipath --raid-devices=4 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
/dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1
Continue creating array? yes
227
Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.
Due to the length of the mdadm command line, it has been broken into two lines.
In this example, the hardware consists of one SCSI LUN presented as four separate SCSI
devices, each accessing the same storage by a different pathway. Once the multipath device
/dev/md0 is created, all I/O operations referencing /dev/md0 are directed to /dev/sda1,
/dev/sdb1, /dev/sdc1, or /dev/sdd1 (depending on which path is currently active and
operational).
The configuration of /dev/md0 can be examined more closely using the command mdadm
--detail /dev/md0 to verify that it is, in fact, a multipath device:
/dev/md0:
Version : 00.90.00
Creation Time : Tue Mar 2 10:56:37 2004
Raid Level : multipath
Array Size : 3905408 (3.72 GiB 3.100 GB)
Raid Devices : 1
Total Devices : 4
Preferred Minor : 0
Persistence : Superblock is persistent
Update Time : Tue Mar 2 10:56:37 2004
State : dirty, no-errors
Active Devices : 1
Working Devices : 4
Failed Devices : 0
Spare Devices : 3
Number
0
1
2
3
Major
Minor
RaidDevice State
8
49
0
active sync
/dev/sdd1
8
17
1
spare
/dev/sdb1
8
33
2
spare
/dev/sdc1
8
1
3
spare
/dev/sda1
UUID : 4b564608:fa01c716:550bd8ff:735d92dc
Events : 0.1
Another feature of mdadm is the ability to force a device (be it a member of a RAID array or a
path in a multipath configuration) to be removed from an operating configuration. In the
following example, /dev/sda1 is flagged as being faulty, is then removed, and finally is added
back into the configuration. For a multipath configuration, these actions would not affect any I/O
activity taking place at the time:
# mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sda1
mdadm: set /dev/sda1 faulty in /dev/md0
# mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sda1
mdadm: hot removed /dev/sda1
# mdadm /dev/md0 -a /dev/sda1
mdadm: hot added /dev/sda1
#
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Configuring IPL from a SCSI Device
4. Configuring IPL from a SCSI Device
Anaconda (the installation program) supports the direct installation to SCSI devices. This
section includes information on how to IPL from a SCSI device within z/VM.
4.1. IPL the SCSI Disk
To IPL the SCSI disk, we provide the WWPN and LUN to the machine loader using the SET
LOADDEV command.
#cp set loaddev portname 50050763 00c18154 lun 57190000 00000000
Ready; T=0.01/0.01 15:47:53
q loaddev
PORTNAME 50050763 00C18154
LUN 57190000 00000000
BOOTPROG 0
BR_LBA
00000000 00000000
Ready; T=0.01/0.01 15:47:56
IPL the SCSI disk using the FCP device defined to the guest.
q fcp
00: FCP 010A ON FCP
010ACHPID C1 SUBCHANNEL = 0000
00:
010A QDIO-ELIGIBLE
QIOASSIST-ELIGIBLE
Ready; T=0.01/0.01 15:51:29
i 010a
00: I 010A
00: HCPLDI2816I Acquiring the machine loader from the processor
controller.
00: HCPLDI2817I Load completed from the processor controller.
00: HCPLDI2817I Now starting machine loader version 0001.
01: HCPGSP2630I The virtual machine is placed in CP mode due to a SIGP
stop and
store status from CPU 00.
00: MLOEVL012I: Machine loader up and running (version 0.13).
00: MLOPDM003I: Machine loader finished, moving data to final storage
location.
Linux version 2.6.7-1.451.2.3 ([email protected]) (gcc
version 3.4
.1 20040702 (Red Hat Linux 3.4.1-2)) #1 SMP Wed Jul 14 17:52:22 EDT 2004
We are running under VM (64 bit mode)
Note
The example may vary slightly from your installed system due to the code
available during the documentation process for this manual.
229
Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
5. Adding DASD
The following is an example of how to add a DASD volume:
Note
Make sure the device is attached or linked to the Linux system if running under
VM.
CP LINK RHEL4X 4B2E 4B2E MR
DASD 4B2E LINKED R/W
Procedure 22.1. Bringing a disk online
1.
Use the cd command to change to the /sys/ directory that represents that volume:
# cd /sys/bus/ccw/drivers/dasd-eckd/0.0.4b2e/
# ls -l
total 0
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 availability
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 cmb_enable
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 cutype
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 detach_state
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 devtype
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 discipline
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 online
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 readonly
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Aug 25 17:04 use_diag
2.
Next, check to see if it is already online:
# cat online
0
3.
If it is not online, run the following command to bring it online:
# echo 1 > online
# cat online
1
4.
Verify which block devnode it is being accessed as:
# ls -l
230
Adding DASD
total 0
-r--r--r-lrwxrwxrwx
-rw-r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
0
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
0
4096
4096
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
Aug
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
17:04
17:07
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
17:04
availability
block -> ../../../../block/dasdb
cmb_enable
cutype
detach_state
devtype
discipline
online
readonly
use_diag
As shown in this example, device 4B2E is being accessed as /dev/dasdb.
As an alternative, the recommended method for bringing a disk online (automatically) is to use
the following simple command:
# chccwdev -e 4b2e
Once the disk is online, change back to the /root directory and format the device:
# cd
# dasdfmt -b 4096 -d cdl -f /dev/dasdb -l LX4B2E -p -y
cyl
97 of
3338 |#----------------------------------------------|
2%
When the progress bar reaches the end and the format is complete, use fdasd to partition the
device:
# fdasd -a /dev/dasdb
auto-creating one partition for the whole disk...
writing volume label...
writing VTOC...
checking !
wrote NATIVE!
rereading partition table...
Next, make a file system on the new partition:
# mke2fs -j /dev/dasdb1
mke2fs 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
300960 inodes, 600816 blocks
30040 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
231
Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
First data block=0
19 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
15840 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (8192 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 39 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
Mount the new file system:
# mount /dev/dasdb1 /opt
# mount
/dev/dasda1 on / type ext3 (rw)
none on /proc type proc (rw)
none on /sys type sysfs (rw)
none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
/dev/dasdb1 on /opt type ext3 (rw)
Add an entry to /etc/fstab so that the file system is mounted at IPL time:
# vi /etc/fstab
# cat /etc/fstab
LABEL=/
1 1
none
0 0
none
0 0
none
0 0
none
0 0
/dev/dasdb1
1 2
/
ext3
defaults
/dev/pts
devpts
gid=5,mode=620
/dev/shm
tmpfs
defaults
/proc
proc
defaults
/sys
sysfs
defaults
/opt
ext3
defaults
Add the device to the option line for the dasd_mod in /etc/modprobe.conf Make sure to add
the new device at the end of the list, otherwise it changes the device number : devnode
mapping and file systems are not on the devices they used to be on.
# vi /etc/modprobe.conf
# cat /etc/modprobe.conf
alias eth0 qeth
options dasd_mod dasd=201,4B2E
232
Adding DASD
Rerun mkinitrd to pick up the changes to modprobe.conf so that the device can be online and
mountable after the next IPL:
Note that the example below has been modified slightly for readability and for printing purposes.
Each line that ends with "(elf64-s390)" should be treated as one line with no spaces, such as
/tmp/initrd.AR1182/lib/dasd_mod.ko(elf64-s390).
# cd /boot
# mv initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img.old
# mkinitrd -v initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img 2.6.7-1.451.2.3
Looking for deps of module ide-disk
Looking for deps of module dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_eckd_mod
dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_fba_mod dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module dasd_mod
Looking for deps of module ext3 jbd
Looking for deps of module jbd
Using modules: ./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_mod.ko
./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_eckd_mod.ko
./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_fba_mod.ko ./kernel/fs/jbd/jbd.ko
./kernel/fs/ext3/ext3.ko
Using loopback device /dev/loop0
/sbin/nash -> /tmp/initrd.AR1182/bin/nash
/sbin/insmod.static -> /tmp/initrd.AR1182/bin/insmod
copy from
/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_mod.ko
(elf64-s390) to
/tmp/initrd.AR1182/lib/dasd_mod.ko(elf64-s390)
copy from
/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_eckd_mod.ko
(elf64-s390) to
/tmp/initrd.AR1182/lib/dasd_eckd_mod.ko
(elf64-s390)
copy from
/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/drivers/s390/block/dasd_fba_mod.ko
(elf64-s390) to
/tmp/initrd.AR1182/lib/dasd_fba_mod.ko
(elf64-s390)
copy from
/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/fs/jbd/jbd.ko(elf64-s390) to
/tmp/initrd.AR1182/lib/jbd.ko(elf64-s390)
copy from
/lib/modules/2.6.7-1.451.2.3/./kernel/fs/ext3/ext3.ko(elf64-s390) to
/tmp/initrd.AR1182/lib/ext3.ko(elf64-s390)
Loading module dasd_mod with options dasd=201,4B2E
Loading module dasd_eckd_mod
Loading module dasd_fba_mod
Loading module jbd
Loading module ext3
Run zipl to save the changes to initrd for the next IPL:
# zipl -V
233
Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
Using config file '/etc/zipl.conf'
Target device information
Device..........................: 5e:00
Partition.......................: 5e:01
Device name.....................: dasda
DASD device number..............: 0201
Type............................: disk partition
Disk layout.....................: ECKD/compatible disk layout
Geometry - heads................: 15
Geometry - sectors..............: 12
Geometry - cylinders............: 3308
Geometry - start................: 24
File system block size..........: 4096
Physical block size.............: 4096
Device size in physical blocks..: 595416
Building bootmap '/boot//bootmap'
Building menu 'rh-automatic-menu'
Adding #1: IPL section 'linux' (default)
kernel image......: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.7-1.451.2.3 at 0x10000
kernel parmline...: 'root=LABEL=/' at 0x1000
initial ramdisk...: /boot/initrd-2.6.7-1.451.2.3.img at 0x800000
Preparing boot device: dasda (0201).
Preparing boot menu
Interactive prompt......: disabled
Menu timeout............: disabled
Default configuration...: 'linux'
Syncing disks...
Done.
6. Adding a Network Device
The process of adding a network device has changed with the migration of the 2.4 kernel to the
2.6 kernel:
• The proc file system is no longer used to control or obtain status on network devices.
• The new sys file system now provides facilities for controlling devices.
• /sys/class/net/interface_name/device now provides status on active devices.
interface_name is a name such as eth0 or eth2 that is given to a network interface by the
device driver when the device is configured.
• /etc/chandev.conf no longer exists.
The sys file system now contains the information that was placed in /etc/chandev.conf.
• /etc/modules.conf no longer exists.
Network interface alias specifications are now placed in /etc/modprobe.conf.
234
Adding a qeth Device
Section 6.1, “Adding a qeth Device” describes in detail how to add a qeth device to an existing
instance of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Section 6.2, “Quick Reference for Adding Network
Devices” is a quick reference for installing other IBM System z network interfaces.
6.1. Adding a qeth Device
First, determine whether the qeth device driver modules are loaded.
# lsmod | grep qeth
qeth
qdio
ipv6
ccwgroup
135240
45360
303984
15104
0
2 qeth
13 qeth
1 qeth
If the output of the lsmod command shows that the modules are not loaded, you must run the
modprobe command to load them:
# modprobe qeth
Next, create a qeth group device.
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
Due to the length of this command, it has been broken into two lines.
In the following example, read_device_bus_id is 0.0.0600, write_device_bus_id is 0.0.0601,
and data_device_bus_id is 0.0.0602. The device is a z/VM virtual NIC and the IP address to
be assigned to this interface is 192.168.70.69.
# echo 0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
Next, verify that the qeth group device was created properly:
# ls /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth
0.0.0600 0.0.09a0 group notifier_register
You may optionally add a portname. First, you must check to see if a portname is required:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.0600/portname
no portname required
The response indicates that you do not need to provide a portname.
235
Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
To add a port name, check that the devices are offline, and then run the following command:
Note
The device(s) must be offline when you add a portname.
# echo portname > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.0600/portname
Next, bring the device back online:
# echo 1 /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.0600/online
Then verify the state of the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.0600/online1
A return value of "1" indicates that the device is online, while a return value '0' indicates that the
device is offline.
Check to see what interface name was assigned to the device:
# cat /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.0600/if_name
eth1
To change the value of if_name, run the following command:
# echo new_if_name > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/0.0.0600/if_name
You may optionally set additional parameters and features, depending on the way you are
setting up your system and the features you require.
• add_hhlen
• broadcast_mode
• buffer_count
• canonical_macaddr
• card_type
• checksumming
236
Adding a qeth Device
• chpid
• detach_state
• fake_broadcast
• fake_ll
• ipa_takeover
• portno
• priority_queueing
• recover
• route4
• rxip
• state
• ungroup
• vipa
For information on how these features work, refer to
http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/linux390/october2005_documentation.html#3
(Device Drivers, Features, and Commands - SC33-8289-02).
Now you need to create the configuration file for your new interface. The network interface
configuration files are placed in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/.
The network configuration files use the naming convention ifcfg-device, where device is the
value found in the if_name file in the qeth group device that was created earlier. In this example
it is eth1.
If there is an existing configuration file for another device of the same type already defined, the
simplest solution is to copy it to the new name.
# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
# cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-eth1
If you do not have a similar device defined you must create one. Use this example of
ifcfg-eth0 as a template.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
HWADDR=00:06:29:FB:5F:F1
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
IPADDR=9.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1,0.0.09a2
TYPE=Ethernet
Edit the new ifcfg-eth1 file.
Remove the HWADDR line for now.
Modify the DEVICE statement to reflect the contents of the if_name file from your ccwgroup.
Modify the IPADDR statement to reflect the IP address of your new interface.
Modify the NETMASK statement as needed.
If you want your new interface to be activated at boot time, then make sure ONBOOT is set to
yes .
Make sure the SUBCHANNELS statement matches the hardware addresses for your qeth
device.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth1
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.70.87
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
TYPE=Ethernet
A qeth device requires an alias definition in /etc/modprobe.conf. Edit this file and add an alias
for your interface.
/etc/modprobe.conf
alias eth0 qeth
alias eth1 qeth
options dasd_mod dasd=0.0.0100,0.0.4b19
Now you can start the new interface:
# ifup eth1
Check the status of the interface:
# ifconfig eth1
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Quick Reference for Adding Network
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:00:00:01
inet addr:192.168.70.87 Bcast:192.168.70.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::ff:fe00:1/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1
RX packets:23 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:644 (644.0 b) TX bytes:264 (264.0 b)
Note that the HWaddr field in the first line of the ifconfig command output. The value after that
must be added to the ifcfg-eth1 file. Add a line like the following to that file:
HWADDR=02:00:00:00:00:01
Now ifcfg-eth1 looks similar to the following:
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth1
HWADDR=02:00:00:00:00:01
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.70.69
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602
TYPE=Ethernet
Check the routing for the new interface:
# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
192.168.70.0
*
9.12.20.0
*
169.254.0.0
*
default
pdlrouter-if5.p
Genmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.0.0
0.0.0.0
Flags
U
U
U
UG
Metric
0
0
0
0
Ref
0
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
0
Iface
eth1
eth0
eth1
eth0
Verify your changes by using the ping command to ping the gateway:
# ping -c 1 192.168.70.8
PING 192.168.70.8 (192.168.70.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.70.8: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=8.07 ms
If the default route information has changed, you must also update /etc/sysconfig/network
accordingly.
6.2. Quick Reference for Adding Network Devices
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
There are several basic tasks for adding a network interface on IBM System z.
• Load the device driver.
• Create the group device.
• Configure the device.
• Set the device online.
• Define the alias (if needed).
• Create a configuration script.
• Activate the device.
The following sections provide basic information for each task of each IBM System z network
device driver.
6.2.1. Working With the LCS Device Driver
The LAN channel station (LCS) device driver supports OSA-2 Ethernet/Token Ring,
OSA-Express Fast Ethernet in non-QDIO mode, and OSA-Express High Speed Token Ring in
non-QDIO mode. For z990, the LCS driver also supports Gigabit Ethernet in non-QDIO mode
(including 1000Base-T).
Based on the type of interface being added, the LCS driver assigns one of two base interface
names: ethn for OSA-Express Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet trn for Token Ring, where n is
an integer that uniquely identifies the device. n is 0 for the first device of that type, 1 for the
second, and so on.
• Load the device driver:
# modprobe lcs
• Create the group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/group
Due to the length of this command, it has been broken into two lines.
• Configure the device.
OSA cards can provide up to 16 ports for a single CHPID. By default, the LCS group device
uses port 0. To use a different port, issue a command similar to the following:
240
Devices
# echo portno > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/device_bus_id/portno
For more information about configuration of the LCS driver, refer to the following:
http://www- 128.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/linux390/october2005_documentation.html#3
(Linux for IBM System z and S/390 Device Drivers, Features, and Commands)
• Set the device online:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/lcs/read_device_bus_id/online
• Define the alias.
Based on the type interface being added, add a line to /etc/modprobe.conf that is similar to
one of the following:
ethn alias lcs
trn alias lcs
• Create a configuration script.
Create a file in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ with a name like one of the following:
ifcfg-ethn
ifcfg-trn
The file should look similar to the following:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM LCS
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
HWADDR=00:06:29:FB:5F:F1
IPADDR=9.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=lcs
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1
PORTNAME=0
TYPE=Ethernet
Based on the type interface being added, the DEVICE parameter should be one of the
following:
DEVICE=ethn
DEVICE=trn
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
• Activate the device.
Based on the type interface being added, issue an ifup command:
# ifup ethn
# ifup trn
6.2.2. Working With the QETH Device Driver
The QETH network device driver supports IBM System z HiperSockets, OSA-Express Fast
Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet (including 1000Base-T), High Speed Token Ring, and ATM features
(running Ethernet LAN emulation) in QDIO mode.
Based on the type of interface being added, the QETH driver assigns one of three base
interface names:
• hsin for HiperSocket devices
• ethn for OSA-Express Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet
• trn for Token Ring
The value n is an integer that uniquely identifies the device. n is 0 for the first device of that
type, 1 for the second, and so on.
• Load the device driver:
# modprobe qeth
• Create the group device:
# echo read_device_bus_id,write_device_bus_id,data_device_bus_id >
/sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/group
Due to the length of this command, it has been broken into two lines.
• Configure the device.
For more information about configuration of the QETH driver, refer to the following:
http://oss.software.ibm.com/developerworks/opensource/linux390/docu/lx26apr04dd01.pdf
(Linux for IBM System z and S/390 Device Drivers, Features, and Commands)
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Quick Reference for Adding Network
• Set the device online:
# echo 1 > /sys/bus/ccwgroup/drivers/qeth/read_device_bus_id/online
• Define the alias.
Based on the type interface being added, add a line to /etc/modprobe.conf that is like one
of the following:
hsin alias qeth
ethn alias qeth
trn alias qeth
• Create a configuration script.
Create a file in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ with a name like one of the following:
ifcfg-hsin
ifcfg-ethn
ifcfg-trn
The file should look like this:
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# IBM QETH
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
HWADDR=00:06:29:FB:5F:F1
IPADDR=9.12.20.136
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
NETTYPE=qeth
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.09a0,0.0.09a1,0.0.09a2
TYPE=Ethernet
Based on the type interface being added, the DEVICE parameter should be like one of the
following:
DEVICE=hsin
DEVICE=ethn
DEVICE=trn
• Activate the device.
Based on the type interface being added, issue an ifup command:
# ifup hsin
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Chapter 22. Additional Information for IBM System z Users
# ifup ethn
# ifup trn
7. Kernel-Related Information
Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes a modification to the way the Linux kernel timer interrupt is
handled. Normally, a hardware timer is set to generate periodic interrupts at a fixed rate (100
times a second for most architectures). These periodic timer interrupts are used by the kernel to
schedule various internal housekeeping tasks, such as process scheduling, accounting, and
maintaining system uptime.
While a timer-based approach works well for a system environment where only one copy of the
kernel is running, it can cause additional overhead when many copies of the kernel are running
on a single system (for example, as z/VM(R) guests). In these cases, having thousands of
copies of the kernel each generating interrupts many times a second can result in excessive
system overhead.
Therefore, Red Hat Enterprise Linux now includes the ability to turn off periodic timer interrupts.
This is done through the /proc/ file system. To disable periodic timer interrupts, issue the
following command:
echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/hz_timer
To enable periodic timer interrupts, issue the following command:
echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/hz_timer
By default, periodic timer interrupts are disabled.
Periodic timer interrupt states can also be set at boot-time; to do so, add the following line to
/etc/sysctl.conf to disable periodic timer interrupts:
kernel.hz_timer = 0
Note
Disabling periodic timer interrupts can violate basic assumptions in system
accounting tools. If you notice a malfunction related to system accounting, verify
that the malfunction disappears if periodic timer interrupts are enabled, then
submit a bug at http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/ (for malfunctioning bundled
tools), or inform the tool vendor (for malfunctioning third-party tools).
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Part IV. Common Tasks
Information that is common to all architectures related to registering your system with Red Hat
Network, choosing whether to install or upgrade, and information on disk partitioning is
contained in this section.
Chapter 23.
Upgrading Your Current System
This chapter explains the various methods available for upgrading your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux system.
1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install
While upgrading from Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 4 Update 4 is supported, you are more
likely to have a consistent experience by backing up your data and then installing this release of
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0 over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
To upgrade from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 you should bring your system up to date using
RHN before performing the upgrade.
This recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
For more information about re-installing your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, refer to the
Whitepapers available online at http://www.redhat.com/rhel/resource_center/.
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 4, you can perform a traditional,
installation program-based upgrade.
However, before you chose to upgrade your system, there are a few things you should keep in
mind:
• Individual package configuration files may or may not work after performing an upgrade due
to changes in various configuration file formats or layouts.
• If you have one of Red Hat's layered products (such as the Cluster Suite) installed, it may
need to be manually upgraded after the Red Hat Enterprise Linux upgrade has been
completed.
• Third party or ISV applications may not work correctly following the upgrade.
Upgrading your system installs updated versions of the packages which are currently installed
on your system.
The upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an .rpmsave
extension (for example, sendmail.cf.rpmsave). The upgrade process also creates a log of its
actions in /root/upgrade.log.
Caution
As software evolves, configuration file formats can change. It is very important to
carefully compare your original configuration files to the new files before
integrating your changes.
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Chapter 23. Upgrading Your Current System
Note
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For
example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back
up any data you wish to keep on your hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can
result in the loss of all of your data.
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If
you choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve
dependency problems. Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies,
but it may need to install additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt you to
add an additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that equals twice
your RAM, it asks you if you would like to add a new swap file. If your system does not have a
lot of RAM (less than 256 MB), it is recommended that you add this swap file.
2. Upgrading Your System
The Upgrade Examine screen appears if you have instructed the installation program to
perform an upgrade.
Note
If the contents of your /etc/redhat-release file have been changed from the
default, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation may not be found when
attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0.0.
You can relax some of the checks against this file by booting with the following
boot command:
linux upgradeany
Use the linux upgradeany command if your Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation was not given as an option to upgrade.
To perform an upgrade, select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation. Click Next
when you are ready to begin your upgrade.
To re-install your system, select Perform a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and
refer to http://www.redhat.com/docs/wp/ as well as Chapter 4, Installing on Intel® and AMD
Systems, Chapter 12, Installing on IBM System i and IBM System p systems, or Chapter 17,
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Upgrading Your System
Installing on IBM System z Systems for further instructions.
To perform a new installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system, select Perform a
new Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and refer to Chapter 4, Installing on Intel® and
AMD Systems, Chapter 12, Installing on IBM System i and IBM System p systems, or
Chapter 17, Installing on IBM System z Systems for further instructions.
249
250
Chapter 24.
Activate Your Subscription
1. RHN Registration
Before you can access service and software maintenance information, and the support
documentation included in your subscription, you must activate your subscription by registering
with Red Hat. Registration includes these simple steps:
• Provide a Red Hat login
• Provide an installation number
• Connect your system
The first time you boot your installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you are prompted to
register with Red Hat using the Setup Agent. If you follow the prompts during the Setup Agent,
you can complete the registration steps and activate your subscription.
If you can not complete registration during the Setup Agent (which requires network access),
you can alternatively complete the Red Hat registration process online at
http://www.redhat.com/register/.
1.1. Provide a Red Hat Login
If you do not have an existing Red Hat login, you can create one when prompted during the
Setup Agent or online at:
https://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/newlogin.html
A Red Hat login enables your access to:
• Software updates, errata and maintenance via Red Hat Network
• Red Hat technical support resources, documentation, and Knowledgebase
If you have forgotten your Red Hat login, you can search for your Red Hat login online at:
https://rhn.redhat.com/help/forgot_password.pxt
1.2. Provide Your Installation Number
Your installation number is located in the package that came with your order. If your package
did not include an installation number, your subscription was activated for you and you can skip
this step.
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Chapter 24. Activate Your Subscription
You can provide your installation number when prompted during the Setup Agent or by visiting
http://www.redhat.com/register/.
1.3. Connect Your System
The Red Hat Network Registration Client helps you connect your system so that you can begin
to get updates and perform systems management. There are three ways to connect:
1. During the Setup Agent — Check the Send hardware information and Send system
package list options when prompted.
2. After the Setup Agent has been completed — From Applications (the main menu on the
panel), go to System Tools, then select Package Updater.
3. After the Setup Agent has been completed — Run rhn_register from the command line as
the root user.
252
Chapter 25.
An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Note
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures.
However, the general concepts mentioned here may apply.
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architectures. However, the
general concepts mentioned here may apply.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to Section 1.4,
“Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux”, for more information on the process of freeing up
disk space to prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This section also discusses
the partition naming scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk space with other operating
systems, and related topics.
1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on
command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the
underlying hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore, this
appendix uses a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening when
a disk drive is partitioned. Figure 25.1, “An Unused Disk Drive”, shows a brand-new, unused
disk drive.
Figure 25.1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is adequate.
Say that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it will not work.
There is something we need to do first.
1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the drive.
Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive, creating
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Chapter 25. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
order out of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
Figure 25.2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure 25.2, “Disk Drive with a File System”, implies, the order imposed by a file system
involves some trade-offs:
• A small percentage of the drive's available space is used to store file system-related data and
can be considered as overhead.
• A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux,
these segments are known as blocks. 1
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these trade-offs are
usually seen as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure 25.3, “Disk Drive
with a Different File System”, shows, a disk drive may have one of many different file systems
written on it. As you might guess, different file systems tend to be incompatible; that is, an
operating system that supports one file system (or a handful of related file system types) may
not support another. This last statement is not a hard-and-fast rule, however. For example, Red
Hat Enterprise Linux supports a wide variety of file systems (including many commonly used by
other operating systems), making data interchange between different file systems easy.
Figure 25.3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to
actually store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been
written to it.
1
Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average disk drive contains
thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these minor discrepancies.
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Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
Figure 25.4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure 25.4, “Disk Drive with Data Written to It”, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks
are now holding data. However, by just looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how
many files reside on this drive. There may only be one file or many, as all files use at least one
block and some files use multiple blocks. Another important point to note is that the used blocks
do not have to form a contiguous region; used and unused blocks may be interspersed. This is
known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part when attempting to resize an existing
partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their
introduction. In particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their capacity
to store information. And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in the way disk
drives were used.
1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted
space in one big chunk was such a great idea. This line of thinking was driven by several
issues, some philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size, it
seemed that the additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the
technical side, some file systems were never designed to support anything above a certain
capacity. Or the file systems could support larger drives with a greater capacity, but the
overhead imposed by the file system to track files became excessive.
The solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be accessed
as if it was a separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate
from the actual disk drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition
table is stored at the very start of the disk, before any file system or user data.
But for clarity, they are separate in our diagrams.
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Chapter 25. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure 25.5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure 25.5, “Disk Drive with Partition Table” shows, the partition table is divided into four
sections or four primary partitions. A primary partition is a partition on a hard drive that can
contain only one logical drive (or section). Each section can hold the information necessary to
define a single partition, meaning that the partition table can define no more than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
• The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
• Whether the partition is "active"
• The partition's type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points
actually define the partition's size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by some
operating systems' boot loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is
marked "active" is booted.
The partition's type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition's
anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning of the
partition type is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote a specific
file system type, to flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to
indicate that the partition contains a bootable operating system, or some combination of the
three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used. Refer
to Figure 25.6, “Disk Drive With Single Partition”, for an example.
Figure 25.6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
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Partitions within Partitions — An Overview
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating
the method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used, and it points to
the start of the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several
possible partition types listed in Table 25.1, “Partition Types”, it is adequate for the purposes of
this discussion.
Table 25.1, “Partition Types”, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types,
along with their hexadecimal numeric values.
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
DOS 16-bit <=32M
04
Linux swap
82
Extended
05
Linux native
83
DOS 16-bit >=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
Novell
51
DOS access
e1
PPC PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
Table 25.1. Partition Types
1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended
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Chapter 25. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk drives
continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure four
reasonably-sized partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be some way of
creating more partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table 25.1, “Partition Types”, there is
an "Extended" partition type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is
created. In essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a partition
table that points to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed to the four
primary partitions) contained entirely within the extended partition itself. Figure 25.7, “Disk Drive
With Extended Partition”, shows a disk drive with one primary partition and one extended
partition containing two logical partitions (along with some unpartitioned free space).
Figure 25.7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there can
only be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical partitions that
can exist. However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux, you should avoid
defining more than 12 logical partitions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The following list presents some possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition
your hard disk:
• Unpartitioned free space is available
• An unused partition is available
• Free space in an actively used partition is available
258
of Extended Partitions
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity
and do not reflect the exact partition layout that you encounter when actually
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1.4.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving
unallocated space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure 25.8, “Disk Drive with
Unpartitioned Free Space”, shows what this might look like.
Figure 25.8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure 25.8, “Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space”, 1 represents an undefined partition
with unallocated space and 2 represents a defined partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference is that
all the space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this
scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new disk
just for Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to take
up all available space on a disk drive (refer to Section 1.4.3, “Using Free Space from an Active
Partition”).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
1.4.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps
you have dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you dedicated
to it never seem to be used anymore. Figure 25.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”,
illustrates such a situation.
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Chapter 25. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure 25.9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure 25.9, “Disk Drive With an Unused Partition”, 1 represents an unused partition and 2
represents reallocating an unused partition for Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition. You
first must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s) in its place. You
can delete the unused partition and manually create new partitions during the installation
process.
1.4.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main
problem is that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition that is
already in use. If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard disk most likely
has one massive partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you
might imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means that
making a complete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use
verification (if available in your backup software), and try to read data from your backup
before you delete the partition.
Caution
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it needs
to be reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed
operating systems may not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original
operating system. The best time to notice if this applies to your system is before
you destroy your original partition and its operating system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall any
software, restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
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Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 25.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned” shows this being done.
Figure 25.10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure 25.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, 1 represents before and 2
represents after.
Caution
As Figure 25.10, “Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned”, shows, any data
present in the original partition is lost without proper backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition
smaller without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found this
method to be reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform this feat?
There are several disk management software products on the market. Do some research to
find the one that is best for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are a
number of steps involved:
• Compress and backup existing data
• Resize the existing partition
• Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
1.4.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure 25.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, shows, the first step is to compress the data
in your existing partition. The reason for doing this is to rearrange the data such that it
maximizes the available free space at the "end" of the partition.
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Figure 25.11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure 25.11, “Disk Drive Being Compressed”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from being
resized to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data cannot be
moved. If this is the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)), you may be
forced to destructively repartition your disk.
1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure 25.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, shows the actual resizing process. While the
actual result of the resizing operation varies depending on the software used, in most cases the
newly freed space is used to create an unformatted partition of the same type as the original
partition.
Figure 25.12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure 25.12, “Disk Drive with Partition Resized”, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed
space, so that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would be
best to delete the new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However,
unless your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the partition that
was created during the resizing process. Figure 25.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition
Configuration”, shows this being done.
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Partition Naming Scheme
Figure 25.13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
In Figure 25.13, “Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration”, 1 represents before and 2
represents after.
Note
The following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. This is a freely available
program that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar with
disk storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make two
copies of all the important data on your computer. These copies should be to removable media
(such as tape, CD-ROM, or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable before
proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left with two
partitions: the one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space. If your
goal is to use that space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the newly
created partition, either by using the partitioning utility under your current operating system or
while setting up partitions during installation.
1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be
confusing, particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their
partitions. In the DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
• Each partition's type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
• If the partition's type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start with a
"C" and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to be labeled.
• The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system contained
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on that partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more
information than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is
file-based, with file names in the form of /dev/xxyN.
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
This is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside on
hard disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions reside in
/dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition
resides, usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first IDE
hard disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions are
numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is the third
primary or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the second logical
partition on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike
DOS/Windows, all partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Of
course, this does not mean that Red Hat Enterprise Linux can access data on
every type of partition, but in many cases it is possible to access data on a
partition dedicated to another operating system.
Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting up the
partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by other
operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are certain
combinations of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
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How Many Partitions?
1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are used
and accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple: Each
partition gets a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and directories
on its corresponding partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with disk
storage in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the storage
necessary to support a single set of files and directories. This is done by associating a partition
with a directory through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition makes its storage
available starting at the specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that all files and
directories under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file
/usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file
/etc/X11/gdm/Sessions/Gnome would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would be
mount points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be mounted
on /usr/local/, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside on /dev/hda7
rather than /dev/hda5.
1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give some
consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system.
The question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the Linux community
and, without any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are probably as many
partition layouts as there are people debating the issue.
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, you
should at least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/ (or a /boot/efi/ partition for
Itanium systems), a /var/ partition for Itanium systems, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 18.4, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
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Part V. Basic System Recovery
When things go wrong, there are ways to fix problems. However, these methods require that
you understand the system well. This section describes how to boot into rescue mode,
single-user mode, and emergency mode, where you can use your own knowledge to repair the
system..
Chapter 26.
Basic System Recovery
When things go wrong, there are ways to fix problems. However, these methods require that
you understand the system well. This chapter describes how to boot into rescue mode,
single-user mode, and emergency mode, where you can use your own knowledge to repair the
system.
1. Common Problems
You might need to boot into one of these recovery modes for any of the following reasons:
• You are unable to boot normally into Red Hat Enterprise Linux (runlevel 3 or 5).
• You are having hardware or software problems, and you want to get a few important files off
of your system's hard drive.
• You forgot the root password.
1.1. Unable to Boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This problem is often caused by the installation of another operating system after you have
installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Some other operating systems assume that you have no
other operating system(s) on your computer. They overwrite the Master Boot Record (MBR) that
originally contained the GRUB boot loader. If the boot loader is overwritten in this manner, you
cannot boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux unless you can get into rescue mode and reconfigure the
boot loader.
Another common problem occurs when using a partitioning tool to resize a partition or create a
new partition from free space after installation, and it changes the order of your partitions. If the
partition number of your / partition changes, the boot loader might not be able to find it to mount
the partition. To fix this problem, boot in rescue mode and modify the /boot/grub/grub.conf
file.
For instructions on how to reinstall the GRUB boot loader from a rescue environment, refer to
Section 2.1, “Reinstalling the Boot Loader”.
1.2. Hardware/Software Problems
This category includes a wide variety of different situations. Two examples include failing hard
drives and specifying an invalid root device or kernel in the boot loader configuration file. If
either of these occur, you might not be able to reboot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux. However, if
you boot into one of the system recovery modes, you might be able to resolve the problem or at
least get copies of your most important files.
1.3. Root Password
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What can you do if you forget your root password? To reset it to a different password, boot into
rescue mode or single-user mode, and use the passwd command to reset the root password.
2. Booting into Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely
from CD-ROM, or some other boot method, instead of the system's hard drive.
As the name implies, rescue mode is provided to rescue you from something. During normal
operation, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system uses files located on your system's hard drive
to do everything — run programs, store your files, and more.
However, there may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running
completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can
access the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat
Enterprise Linux from that hard drive.
To boot into rescue mode, you must be able to boot the system using one of the following
methods1:
• By booting the system from an installation boot CD-ROM.
• By booting the system from other installation boot media, such as USB flash devices.
• By booting the system from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1.
Once you have booted using one of the described methods, add the keyword rescue as a
kernel parameter. For example, for an x86 system, type the following command at the
installation boot prompt:
linux rescue
You are prompted to answer a few basic questions, including which language to use. It also
prompts you to select where a valid rescue image is located. Select from Local CD-ROM, Hard
Drive, NFS image, FTP, or HTTP. The location selected must contain a valid installation tree,
and the installation tree must be for the same version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux disk from which you booted. If you used a boot CD-ROM or other media to
start rescue mode, the installation tree must be from the same tree from which the media was
created. For more information about how to setup an installation tree on a hard drive, NFS
server, FTP server, or HTTP server, refer to the earlier section of this guide.
If you select a rescue image that does not require a network connection, you are asked whether
or not you want to establish a network connection. A network connection is useful if you need to
backup files to a different computer or install some RPM packages from a shared network
1
Refer to the earlier sections of this guide for more details.
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Booting into Rescue Mode
location, for example.
The following message is displayed:
The rescue environment will now attempt to find your Linux installation and
mount it under the directory /mnt/sysimage. You can then make any changes
required to your system. If you want to proceed with this step choose
'Continue'. You can also choose to mount your file systems read-only instead
of read-write by choosing 'Read-only'. If for some reason this process fails
you can choose 'Skip' and this step will be skipped and you will go directly
to a command shell.
If you select Continue, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory
/mnt/sysimage/. If it fails to mount a partition, it notifies you. If you select Read-Only, it
attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/, but in read-only mode.
If you select Skip, your file system is not mounted. Choose Skip if you think your file system is
corrupted.
Once you have your system in rescue mode, a prompt appears on VC (virtual console) 1 and
VC 2 (use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 key combination to access VC 1 and Ctrl-Alt-F2 to access VC 2):
sh-3.00b#
If you selected Continue to mount your partitions automatically and they were mounted
successfully, you are in single-user mode.
Even if your file system is mounted, the default root partition while in rescue mode is a
temporary root partition, not the root partition of the file system used during normal user mode
(runlevel 3 or 5). If you selected to mount your file system and it mounted successfully, you can
change the root partition of the rescue mode environment to the root partition of your file system
by executing the following command:
chroot /mnt/sysimage
This is useful if you need to run commands such as rpm that require your root partition to be
mounted as /. To exit the chroot environment, type exit to return to the prompt.
If you selected Skip, you can still try to mount a partition or LVM2 logical volume manually
inside rescue mode by creating a directory such as /foo, and typing the following command:
mount -t ext3 /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 /foo
In the above command, /foo is a directory that you have created and
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol02 is the LVM2 logical volume you want to mount. If the
partition is of type ext2, replace ext3 with ext2.
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If you do not know the names of all physical partitions, use the following command to list them:
fdisk -l
If you do not know the names of all LVM2 physical volumes, volume groups, or logical volumes,
use the following commands to list them:
pvdisplay
vgdisplay
lvdisplay
From the prompt, you can run many useful commands, such as:
• ssh, scp, and ping if the network is started
• dump and restore for users with tape drives
• parted and fdisk for managing partitions
• rpm for installing or upgrading software
• joe for editing configuration files
Note
If you try to start other popular editors such as emacs, pico, or vi, the joe editor
is started.
2.1. Reinstalling the Boot Loader
In many cases, the GRUB boot loader can mistakenly be deleted, corrupted, or replaced by
other operating systems.
The following steps detail the process on how GRUB is reinstalled on the master boot record:
• Boot the system from an installation boot medium.
• Type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt to enter the rescue environment.
• Type chroot /mnt/sysimage to mount the root partition.
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Booting into Single-User Mode
• Type /sbin/grub-install /dev/hda to reinstall the GRUB boot loader, where /dev/hda is
the boot partition.
• Review the /boot/grub/grub.conf file, as additional entries may be needed for GRUB to
control additional operating systems.
• Reboot the system.
3. Booting into Single-User Mode
One of the advantages of single-user mode is that you do not need a boot CD-ROM; however, it
does not give you the option to mount the file systems as read-only or not mount them at all.
If your system boots, but does not allow you to log in when it has completed booting, try
single-user mode.
In single-user mode, your computer boots to runlevel 1. Your local file systems are mounted, but
your network is not activated. You have a usable system maintenance shell. Unlike rescue
mode, single-user mode automatically tries to mount your file system. Do not use single-user
mode if your file system cannot be mounted successfully. You cannot use single-user mode if
the runlevel 1 configuration on your system is corrupted.
On an x86 system using GRUB, use the following steps to boot into single-user mode:
1. At the GRUB splash screen at boot time, press any key to enter the GRUB interactive menu.
2. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the version of the kernel that you wish to boot and
type a to append the line.
3. Go to the end of the line and type single as a separate word (press the Spacebar and then
type single). Press Enter to exit edit mode.
4. Booting into Emergency Mode
In emergency mode, you are booted into the most minimal environment possible. The root file
system is mounted read-only and almost nothing is set up. The main advantage of emergency
mode over single-user mode is that the init files are not loaded. If init is corrupted or not
working, you can still mount file systems to recover data that could be lost during a
re-installation.
To boot into emergency mode, use the same method as described for single-user mode in
Section 3, “Booting into Single-User Mode” with one exception, replace the keyword single
with the keyword emergency.
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Chapter 27.
Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
You can use the installation disks in rescue mode, in case your system does not boot. Rescue
mode gives you access to the disk partitions on your system so you can make any changes
necessary to rescue your installation.
To boot in rescue mode on IBM System i with power control NWSD , follow the instructions for
booting the installation program, with this change: In the NWSD, set the IPL parameters field to
'rescue' (including the quotes), or to 'dd rescue' if you need to load the SCSI driver. On
other systems, specify the rescue or dd rescue (without quotes) after the default kernel name
at the YABOOT prompt.
After the Language Selection screen (Section 13, “Language Selection”), the installation
program attempts to mount the disk partitions on your system. It then presents you with a shell
prompt where you can make the changes you need. These changes may include storing the
kernel and command line into the IPL source, as described in the Installation Complete section
(Section 26, “Installation Complete”).
When your changes are complete, you can exit the shell using exit 0. This causes a reboot
from the C side. To reboot from the A or B side or from *NWSSTG, you should vary off the
system instead of exiting the shell.
1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI
Utilities from Rescue Mode
If your system uses Native DASD disks, you may need access to the SCSI utilities from rescue
mode. These utilities are located on the driver disc CD. The driver disc CD cannot be mounted
from rescue mode unless special steps are taken. These steps are described below.
If you have a second CD-ROM drive assigned to your Linux system, you can mount the driver
disc CD in the second drive.
If you have only one CD-ROM drive, you must set up an NFS boot, using the following steps:
1. Boot from the CD-ROM with the linux rescue askmethod command. This allows you to
manually select NFS as the source of your rescue media instead of defaulting to the
CD-ROM drive.
2. Copy the first installation disc onto a file system of another Linux system.
3. Make this copy of the installation disc available through NFS or FTP.
4. Vary off or power down the system you need to rescue. Set its IPL parameters as instructed
for booting the Installation discs in rescue mode, except that the IPL source should point to
the copy of boot.img on your IFS (from step 1, above).
5. Make sure the installation disc is not in your CD-ROM drive.
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Chapter 27. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
6. IPL the Linux system.
7. Follow the prompts as decribed in Chapter 27, Rescue Mode on POWER Systems. An
additonal prompt for the installation source appears. Select NFS or FTP (as appropriate) and
complete the following network configuration screen.
8. When the Linux system has booted into rescue mode, the CD-ROM drive is available for use
and you can mount the driver media to access the SCSI utilities.
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Part VI. Advanced Installation and
Deployment
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide discusses the installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. However, advanced installation options
are also covered in this manual. This part provides instructions for kickstart (an automated
installation technique)and all related tools. Use this part in conjunction with the first part of the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide to perform any of these advanced installation tasks.
Chapter 28.
Kickstart Installations
1. What are Kickstart Installations?
Many system administrators would prefer to use an automated installation method to install Red
Hat Enterprise Linux on their machines. To answer this need, Red Hat created the kickstart
installation method. Using kickstart, a system administrator can create a single file containing
the answers to all the questions that would normally be asked during a typical installation.
Kickstart files can be kept on a single server system and read by individual computers during
the installation. This installation method can support the use of a single kickstart file to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux on multiple machines, making it ideal for network and system
administrators.
Kickstart provides a way for users to automate a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
Kickstart installations can be performed using a local CD-ROM, a local hard drive, or via NFS,
FTP, or HTTP.
To use kickstart, you must:
1. Create a kickstart file.
2. Create a boot media with the kickstart file or make the kickstart file available on the network.
3. Make the installation tree available.
4. Start the kickstart installation.
This chapter explains these steps in detail.
3. Creating the Kickstart File
The kickstart file is a simple text file, containing a list of items, each identified by a keyword. You
can create it by using the Kickstart Configurator application, or writing it from scratch. The
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program also creates a sample kickstart file based on the
options that you selected during installation. It is written to the file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg.
You should be able to edit it with any text editor or word processor that can save files as ASCII
text.
First, be aware of the following issues when you are creating your kickstart file:
• Sections must be specified in order. Items within the sections do not have to be in a specific
order unless otherwise specified. The section order is:
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Chapter 28. Kickstart Installations
• Command section — Refer to Section 4, “Kickstart Options” for a list of kickstart options.
You must include the required options.
• The %packages section — Refer to Section 5, “Package Selection” for details.
• The %pre and %post sections — These two sections can be in any order and are not
required. Refer to Section 6, “Pre-installation Script” and Section 7, “Post-installation Script”
for details.
• Items that are not required can be omitted.
• Omitting any required item results in the installation program prompting the user for an
answer to the related item, just as the user would be prompted during a typical installation.
Once the answer is given, the installation continues unattended (unless it finds another
missing item).
• Lines starting with a pound (also known as hash) sign (#) are treated as comments and are
ignored.
• For kickstart upgrades, the following items are required:
• Language
• Installation method
• Device specification (if device is needed to perform the installation)
• Keyboard setup
• The upgrade keyword
• Boot loader configuration
If any other items are specified for an upgrade, those items are ignored (note that this
includes package selection).
4. Kickstart Options
The following options can be placed in a kickstart file. If you prefer to use a graphical interface
for creating your kickstart file, use the Kickstart Configurator application. Refer to Chapter 29,
Kickstart Configurator for details.
Note
If the option is followed by an equals mark (=), a value must be specified after it.
In the example commands, options in brackets ([]) are optional arguments for the
command.
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Kickstart Options
autopart (optional)
Automatically create partitions — 1 GB or more root (/) partition, a swap partition, and an
appropriate boot partition for the architecture. One or more of the default partition sizes can
be redefined with the part directive.
ignoredisk (optional)
Causes the installer to ignore the specified disks. This is useful if you use autopartition and
want to be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk, attempting
to deploy on a SAN-cluster the kickstart would fail, as the installer detects passive paths to
the SAN that return no partition table.
The ignoredisk option is also useful if you have multiple paths to your disks.
The syntax is:
ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
where driveN is one of sda, sdb,..., hda,... etc.
autostep (optional)
Similar to interactive except it goes to the next screen for you. It is used mostly for
debugging.
• --autoscreenshot — Take a screenshot at every step during installation and copy the
images over to /root/anaconda-screenshots after installation is complete. This is most
useful for documentation.
auth or authconfig (required)
Sets up the authentication options for the system. It is similar to the authconfig command,
which can be run after the install. By default, passwords are normally encrypted and are not
shadowed.
• --enablemd5 — Use md5 encryption for user passwords.
• --enablenis — Turns on NIS support. By default, --enablenis uses whatever domain it
finds on the network. A domain should almost always be set by hand with the
--nisdomain= option.
• --nisdomain= — NIS domain name to use for NIS services.
• --nisserver= — Server to use for NIS services (broadcasts by default).
• --useshadow or --enableshadow — Use shadow passwords.
• --enableldap — Turns on LDAP support in /etc/nsswitch.conf, allowing your system
to retrieve information about users (UIDs, home directories, shells, etc.) from an LDAP
directory. To use this option, you must install the nss_ldap package. You must also
specify a server and a base DN (distinguished name) with --ldapserver= and
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Chapter 28. Kickstart Installations
--ldapbasedn=.
• --enableldapauth — Use LDAP as an authentication method. This enables the
pam_ldap module for authentication and changing passwords, using an LDAP directory.
To use this option, you must have the nss_ldap package installed. You must also specify
a server and a base DN with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
• --ldapserver= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this
option to specify the name of the LDAP server to use. This option is set in the
/etc/ldap.conf file.
• --ldapbasedn= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this
option to specify the DN in your LDAP directory tree under which user information is
stored. This option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
• --enableldaptls — Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups. This option allows
LDAP to send encrypted usernames and passwords to an LDAP server before
authentication.
• --enablekrb5 — Use Kerberos 5 for authenticating users. Kerberos itself does not know
about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable Kerberos, you must make users'
accounts known to this workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the
/usr/sbin/useradd command. If you use this option, you must have the pam_krb5
package installed.
• --krb5realm= — The Kerberos 5 realm to which your workstation belongs.
• --krb5kdc= — The KDC (or KDCs) that serve requests for the realm. If you have multiple
KDCs in your realm, separate their names with commas (,).
• --krb5adminserver= — The KDC in your realm that is also running kadmind. This server
handles password changing and other administrative requests. This server must be run
on the master KDC if you have more than one KDC.
• --enablehesiod — Enable Hesiod support for looking up user home directories, UIDs,
and shells. More information on setting up and using Hesiod on your network is in
/usr/share/doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod, which is included in the glibc
package. Hesiod is an extension of DNS that uses DNS records to store information
about users, groups, and various other items.
• --hesiodlhs — The Hesiod LHS ("left-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf.
This option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when
looking up information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.
• --hesiodrhs — The Hesiod RHS ("right-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf.
This option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when
looking up information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.
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Tip
To look up user information for "jim", the Hesiod library looks up
jim.passwd<LHS><RHS>, which should resolve to a TXT record that looks like
what his passwd entry would look like (jim:*:501:501:Jungle
Jim:/home/jim:/bin/bash). For groups, the situation is identical, except
jim.group<LHS><RHS> would be used.
Looking up users and groups by number is handled by making "501.uid" a
CNAME for "jim.passwd", and "501.gid" a CNAME for "jim.group". Note that the
library does not place a period . in front of the LHS and RHS values when
performing a search. Therefore the LHS and RHS values need to have a period
placed in front of them in order if they require this.
• --enablesmbauth — Enables authentication of users against an SMB server (typically a
Samba or Windows server). SMB authentication support does not know about home
directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable SMB, you must make users' accounts known to
the workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd
command to make their accounts known to the workstation. To use this option, you must
have the pam_smb package installed.
• --smbservers= — The name of the server(s) to use for SMB authentication. To specify
more than one server, separate the names with commas (,).
• --smbworkgroup= — The name of the workgroup for the SMB servers.
• --enablecache — Enables the nscd service. The nscd service caches information about
users, groups, and various other types of information. Caching is especially helpful if you
choose to distribute information about users and groups over your network using NIS,
LDAP, or hesiod.
bootloader (required)
Specifies how the boot loader should be installed. This option is required for both
installations and upgrades.
• --append= — Specifies kernel parameters. To specify multiple parameters, separate
them with spaces. For example:
bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
• --driveorder — Specify which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:
bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
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• --location= — Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the following:
mbr (the default), partition (installs the boot loader on the first sector of the partition
containing the kernel), or none (do not install the boot loader).
• --password= — If using GRUB, sets the GRUB boot loader password to the one
specified with this option. This should be used to restrict access to the GRUB shell, where
arbitrary kernel options can be passed.
• --md5pass= — If using GRUB, similar to --password= except the password should
already be encrypted.
• --upgrade — Upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, preserving the old entries.
This option is only available for upgrades.
clearpart (optional)
Removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no
partitions are removed.
Note
If the clearpart command is used, then the --onpart command cannot be
used on a logical partition.
• --all — Erases all partitions from the system.
• --drives= — Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the following
clears all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE controller:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
• --initlabel — Initializes the disk label to the default for your architecture (for example
msdos for x86 and gpt for Itanium). It is useful so that the installation program does not
ask if it should initialize the disk label if installing to a brand new hard drive.
• --linux — Erases all Linux partitions.
• --none (default) — Do not remove any partitions.
cmdline (optional)
Perform the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any prompts
for interaction halts the install. This mode is useful on IBM System z systems with the x3270
console.
device (optional)
On most PCI systems, the installation program autoprobes for Ethernet and SCSI cards
properly. On older systems and some PCI systems, however, kickstart needs a hint to find
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the proper devices. The device command, which tells the installation program to install
extra modules, is in this format:
device <type><moduleName> --opts=<options>
• <type> — Replace with either scsi or eth.
• <moduleName> — Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be installed.
• --opts= — Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. Any options that can be
specified in /etc/fstab for an NFS mount are allowed. The options are listed in the
nfs(5) man page. Multiple options are separated with a comma.
driverdisk (optional)
Driver diskettes can be used during kickstart installations. You must copy the driver
diskettes's contents to the root directory of a partition on the system's hard drive. Then you
must use the driverdisk command to tell the installation program where to look for the
driver disk.
driverdisk <partition> [--type=<fstype>]
Alternatively, a network location can be specified for the driver diskette:
driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
• <partition> — Partition containing the driver disk.
• --type= — File system type (for example, vfat or ext2).
firewall (optional)
This option corresponds to the Firewall Configuration screen in the installation program:
firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] <device> [--port=]
• --enabled or --enable — Reject incoming connections that are not in response to
outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running
on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
• --disabled or --disable — Do not configure any iptables rules.
• --trust= — Listing a device here, such as eth0, allows all traffic coming from that device
to go through the firewall. To list more than one device, use --trust eth0 --trust
eth1. Do NOT use a comma-separated format such as --trust eth0, eth1.
• <incoming> — Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified services
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through the firewall.
• --ssh
• --telnet
• --smtp
• --http
• --ftp
• --port= — You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the
port:protocol format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall, specify
imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to allow UDP
packets on port 1234 through, specify 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them
by commas.
firstboot (optional)
Determine whether the Setup Agent starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled,
the firstboot package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by default.
• --enable or --enabled — The Setup Agent is started the first time the system boots.
• --disable or --disabled — The Setup Agent is not started the first time the system
boots.
• --reconfig — Enable the Setup Agent to start at boot time in reconfiguration mode.
This mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time
zone, and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
halt (optional)
Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. This is similar to a manual
installation, where anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key
before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the
reboot option is used as default.
The halt option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -h command.
For other completion methods, refer to the poweroff, reboot, and shutdown kickstart
options.
graphical (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in graphical mode. This is the default.
install (optional)
Tells the system to install a fresh system rather than upgrade an existing system. This is the
default mode. For installation, you must specify the type of installation from cdrom,
harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP or HTTP installations). The install command and the
installation method command must be on separate lines.
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• cdrom — Install from the first CD-ROM drive on the system.
• harddrive — Install from a Red Hat installation tree on a local drive, which must be
either vfat or ext2.
• --biospart=
BIOS partition to install from (such as 82).
• --partition=
Partition to install from (such as sdb2).
• --dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
For example:
harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
• nfs — Install from the NFS server specified.
• --server=
Server from which to install (hostname or IP).
• --dir=
Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
• --opts=
Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. (optional)
For example:
nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
• url — Install from an installation tree on a remote server via FTP or HTTP.
For example:
url --url http://<server>/<dir>
or:
url --url ftp://<username>:<password>@<server>/<dir>
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interactive (optional)
Uses the information provided in the kickstart file during the installation, but allow for
inspection and modification of the values given. You are presented with each screen of the
installation program with the values from the kickstart file. Either accept the values by
clicking Next or change the values and click Next to continue. Refer to the autostep
command.
iscsi (optional)
issci --ipaddr= [options].
• --target —
• --port= —
• --user= —
• --password= —
key (optional)
Specify an installation key, which is needed to aid in package selection and identify your
system for support purposes. This command is Red Hat Enterprise Linux-specific; it has no
meaning for Fedora and will be ignored.
• --skip — Skip entering a key. Usually if the key command is not given, anaconda will
pause at this step to prompt for a key. This option allows automated installation to
continue if you do not have a key or do not want to provide one.
keyboard (required)
Sets system keyboard type. Here is the list of available keyboards on i386, Itanium, and
Alpha machines:
be-latin1, bg, br-abnt2, cf, cz-lat2, cz-us-qwertz, de, de-latin1,
de-latin1-nodeadkeys, dk, dk-latin1, dvorak, es, et, fi, fi-latin1,
fr, fr-latin0, fr-latin1, fr-pc, fr_CH, fr_CH-latin1, gr, hu, hu101,
is-latin1, it, it-ibm, it2, jp106, la-latin1, mk-utf, no, no-latin1,
pl, pt-latin1, ro_win, ru, ru-cp1251, ru-ms, ru1, ru2, ru_win,
se-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-qwerty, slovene, speakup, speakup-lt,
sv-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-querty, slovene, trq, ua, uk, us, us-acentos
The file /usr/lib/python2.2/site-packages/rhpl/keyboard_models.py also contains
this list and is part of the rhpl package.
lang (required)
Sets the language to use during installation and the default language to use on the installed
system. For example, to set the language to English, the kickstart file should contain the
following line:
lang en_US
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The file /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list provides a list of the valid
language codes in the first column of each line and is part of the system-config-language
package.
Certain languages (mainly Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indic languages) are not
supported during text mode installation. If one of these languages is specified using the lang
command, installation will continue in English though the running system will have the
specified langauge by default.
langsupport (deprecated)
The langsupport keyword is deprecated and its use will cause an error message to be
printed to the screen and installation to halt. Instead of using the langsupport keyword, you
should now list the support package groups for all languages you want supported in the
%packages section of your kickstart file. For instance, adding support for French means you
should add the following to %packages:
@french-support
logvol (optional)
Create a logical volume for Logical Volume Management (LVM) with the syntax:
logvol <mntpoint> --vgname=<name> --size=<size> --name=<name><options>
The options are as follows:
• --noformat — Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
• --useexisting — Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
• --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are ext2, ext3,
swap, and vfat.
• --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
• --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the
logical volume. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those
cases.
• --grow= — Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the
maximum size setting.
• --maxsize= — The maximum size in megabytes when the logical volume is set to grow.
Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
• --recommended= — Determine the size of the logical volume automatically.
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• --percent= — Specify the size of the logical volume as a percentage of available space
in the volume group.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical
volume. For example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
logging (optional)
This command controls the error logging of anaconda during installation. It has no effect on
the installed system.
• --host= — Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be running a
syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
• --port= — If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, it may be
specified with this option.
• --level= — One of debug, info, warning, error, or critical.
Specify the minimum level of messages that appear on tty3. All messages will still be sent
to the log file regardless of this level, however.
mediacheck (optional)
If given, this will force anaconda to run mediacheck on the installation media. This
command requires that installs be attended, so it is disabled by default.
monitor (optional)
If the monitor command is not given, anaconda will use X to automatically detect your
monitor settings. Please try this before manually configuring your monitor.
• --hsync= — Specifies the horizontal sync frequency of the monitor.
• --monitor= — Use specified monitor; monitor name should be from the list of monitors in
/usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB from the hwdata package. The list of monitors can also be
found on the X Configuration screen of the Kickstart Configurator. This is ignored if
--hsync or --vsync is provided. If no monitor information is provided, the installation
program tries to probe for it automatically.
• --noprobe= — Do not try to probe the monitor.
• --vsync= — Specifies the vertical sync frequency of the monitor.
mouse (deprecated)
The mouse keyword is deprecated.
network (optional)
Configures network information for the system. If the kickstart installation does not require
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networking (in other words, it is not installed over NFS, HTTP, or FTP), networking is not
configured for the system. If the installation does require networking and network
information is not provided in the kickstart file, the installation program assumes that the
installation should be done over eth0 via a dynamic IP address (BOOTP/DHCP), and
configures the final, installed system to determine its IP address dynamically. The network
option configures networking information for kickstart installations via a network as well as
for the installed system.
• --bootproto= — One of dhcp, bootp, or static.
It defaults to dhcp. bootp and dhcp are treated the same.
The DHCP method uses a DHCP server system to obtain its networking configuration. As
you might guess, the BOOTP method is similar, requiring a BOOTP server to supply the
networking configuration. To direct a system to use DHCP:
network --bootproto=dhcp
To direct a machine to use BOOTP to obtain its networking configuration, use the
following line in the kickstart file:
network --bootproto=bootp
The static method requires that you enter all the required networking information in the
kickstart file. As the name implies, this information is static and are used during and after
the installation. The line for static networking is more complex, as you must include all
network configuration information on one line. You must specify the IP address, netmask,
gateway, and nameserver. For example: (the "\" indicates that this should be read as one
continuous line):
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 \
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
If you use the static method, be aware of the following two restrictions:
• All static networking configuration information must be specified on one line; you
cannot wrap lines using a backslash, for example.
• You can also configure multiple nameservers here. To do so, specify them as a
comma-delimited list in the command line. For example:
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 \
--gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver 192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
• --device= — Used to select a specific Ethernet device for installation. Note that using
--device= is not effective unless the kickstart file is a local file (such as ks=floppy),
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since the installation program configures the network to find the kickstart file. For
example:
network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
• --ip= — IP address for the machine to be installed.
• --gateway= — Default gateway as an IP address.
• --nameserver= — Primary nameserver, as an IP address.
• --nodns — Do not configure any DNS server.
• --netmask= — Netmask for the installed system.
• --hostname= — Hostname for the installed system.
• --ethtool= — Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device which will be
passed to the ethtool program.
• --essid= — The network ID for wireless networks.
• --wepkey= — The encryption key for wireless networks.
• --onboot= — Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
• --class= — The DHCP class.
• --mtu= — The MTU of the device.
• --noipv4 — Disable IPv4 on this device.
• --noipv6 — Disable IPv6 on this device.
multipath (optional)
multipath --name= --device= --rule=
part or partition (required for installs, ignored for upgrades)
Creates a partition on the system.
If more than one Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation exists on the system on different
partitions, the installation program prompts the user and asks which installation to upgrade.
Warning
All partitions created are formatted as part of the installation process unless
--noformat and --onpart are used.
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For a detailed example of part in action, refer to Section 4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
• <mntpoint> — The <mntpoint> is where the partition is mounted and must be of one of
the following forms:
• /<path>
For example, /, /usr, /home
• swap
The partition is used as swap space.
To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the --recommended
option:
swap --recommended
The minimum size of the automatically-generated swap partition is no smaller than the
amount of RAM in the system and no larger than twice the amount of RAM in the
system.
• raid.<id>
The partition is used for software RAID (refer to raid).
• pv.<id>
The partition is used for LVM (refer to logvol).
• --size= — The minimum partition size in megabytes. Specify an integer value here such
as 500. Do not append the number with MB.
• --grow — Tells the partition to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum
size setting.
• --maxsize= — The maximum partition size in megabytes when the partition is set to
grow. Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
• --noformat — Tells the installation program not to format the partition, for use with the
--onpart command.
• --onpart= or --usepart= — Put the partition on the already existing device. For
example:
partition /home --onpart=hda1
puts /home on /dev/hda1, which must already exist.
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• --ondisk= or --ondrive= — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk. For
example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on the system.
• --asprimary — Forces automatic allocation of the partition as a primary partition, or the
partitioning fails.
• --type= (replaced by fstype) — This option is no longer available. Use fstype.
• --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values are ext2, ext3,
swap, and vfat.
• --start= — Specifies the starting cylinder for the partition. It requires that a drive be
specified with --ondisk= or ondrive=. It also requires that the ending cylinder be
specified with --end= or the partition size be specified with --size=.
• --end= — Specifies the ending cylinder for the partition. It requires that the starting
cylinder be specified with --start=.
• --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the
partition. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
• --recommended — Determine the size of the partition automatically.
• --onbiosdisk — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as discovered by
the BIOS.
Note
If partitioning fails for any reason, diagnostic messages appear on virtual console
3.
poweroff (optional)
Shut down and power off the system after the installation has successfully completed.
Normally during a manual installation, anaconda displays a message and waits for the user
to press a key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is
specified, the reboot option is used as default.
The poweroff option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -p command.
Note
The poweroff option is highly dependent on the system hardware in use.
Specifically, certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM (advanced
power management), and ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface)
must be able to interact with the system kernel. Contact your manufacturer for
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more information on you system's APM/ACPI abilities.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, reboot, and shutdown kickstart options.
raid (optional)
Assembles a software RAID device. This command is of the form:
raid <mntpoint> --level=<level> --device=<mddevice><partitions*>
• <mntpoint> — Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is /, the RAID level
must be 1 unless a boot partition (/boot) is present. If a boot partition is present, the
/boot partition must be level 1 and the root (/) partition can be any of the available types.
The <partitions*> (which denotes that multiple partitions can be listed) lists the RAID
identifiers to add to the RAID array.
• --level= — RAID level to use (0, 1, or 5).
• --device= — Name of the RAID device to use (such as md0 or md1). RAID devices
range from md0 to md15, and each may only be used once.
• --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the
RAID device. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those
cases.
• --spares= — Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array. Spare
drives are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
• --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values are ext2, ext3,
swap, and vfat.
• --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the
filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and
should be enclosed in quotes.
• --noformat — Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
• --useexisting — Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
The following example shows how to create a RAID level 1 partition for /, and a RAID level
5 for /usr, assuming there are three SCSI disks on the system. It also creates three swap
partitions, one on each drive.
part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda
part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb
part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
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part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda
part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb
part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03
raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
For a detailed example of raid in action, refer to Section 4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
reboot (optional)
Reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally, kickstart
displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.
The reboot option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -r command.
Note
Use of the reboot option may result in an endless installation loop, depending
on the installation media and method.
The reboot option is the default completion method if no other methods are
explicitly specified in the kickstart file.
For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and shutdown kickstart options.
repo (optional)
Configures additional yum repositories that may be used as sources for package
installation. Multiple repo lines may be specified.
repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
• --name= — The repo id. This option is required.
• --baseurl= — The URL for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo
config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --mirrorlist,
not both.
• --mirrorlist= — The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. The variables
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that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of
either this option or --baseurl, not both.
rootpw (required)
Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
• --iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be
encrypted.
selinux (optional)
Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in
anaconda.
selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
• --enforcing — Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.
Note
If the selinux option is not present in the kickstart file, SELinux is enabled and
set to --enforcing by default.
• --permissive — Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not actually
enforce the policy.
• --disabled — Disables SELinux completely on the system.
For complete information regarding SELinux for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, refer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
services (optional)
Modifies the default set of services that will run under the default runlevel. The services
listed in the disabled list will be disabled before the services listed in the enabled list are
enabled.
• --disabled — Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
• --enabled — Enable the services given in the comma separated list.
shutdown (optional)
Shut down the system after the installation has successfully completed. During a kickstart
installation, if no completion method is specified, the reboot option is used as default.
The shutdown option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown command.
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For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and reboot kickstart options.
skipx (optional)
If present, X is not configured on the installed system.
text (optional)
Perform the kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in
graphical mode by default.
timezone (required)
Sets the system time zone to <timezone> which may be any of the time zones listed by
timeconfig.
timezone [--utc] <timezone>
• --utc — If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC (Greenwich
Mean) time.
upgrade (optional)
Tells the system to upgrade an existing system rather than install a fresh system. You must
specify one of cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP and HTTP) as the location of the
installation tree. Refer to install for details.
user (optional)
Creates a new user on the system.
user --name=<username> [--groups=<list>] [--homedir=<homedir>]
[--password=<password>] [--iscrypted] [--shell=<shell>] [--uid=<uid>]
• --name= — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
• --groups= — In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group names the
user should belong to.
• --homedir= — The home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to
/home/<username>.
• --password= — The new user's password. If not provided, the account will be locked by
default.
• --iscrypted= — Is the password provided by --password already encrypted or not?
• --shell= — The user's login shell. If not provided, this defaults to the system default.
• --uid= — The user's UID. If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system
UID.
vnc (optional)
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Allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely via VNC. This method is usually
preferred over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text installs.
With no options, this command will start a VNC server on the machine with no password
and will print out the command that needs to be run to connect a remote machine.
vnc [--host=<hostname>] [--port=<port>] [--password=<password>]
• --host= — Instead of starting a VNC server on the install machine, connect to the VNC
viewer process listening on the given hostname.
• --port= — Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If not
provided, anaconda will use the VNC default.
• --password= — Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC session.
This is optional, but recommended.
volgroup (optional)
Use to create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group with the syntax:
volgroup <name><partition><options>
The options are as follows:
• --noformat — Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
• --useexisting — Use an existing volume group and reformat it.
• --pesize= — Set the size of the physical extents.
Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical
volume. For example:
part pv.01 --size 3000
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
For a detailed example of volgroup in action, refer to Section 4.1, “Advanced Partitioning
Example”.
xconfig (optional)
Configures the X Window System. If this option is not given, the user must configure X
manually during the installation, if X was installed; this option should not be used if X is not
installed on the final system.
• --driver — Specify the X driver to use for the video hardware.
• --videoram= — Specifies the amount of video RAM the video card has.
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• --defaultdesktop= — Specify either GNOME or KDE to set the default desktop
(assumes that GNOME Desktop Environment and/or KDE Desktop Environment has
been installed through %packages).
• --startxonboot — Use a graphical login on the installed system.
• --resolution= — Specify the default resolution for the X Window System on the
installed system. Valid values are 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, 1152x864, 1280x1024,
1400x1050, 1600x1200. Be sure to specify a resolution that is compatible with the video
card and monitor.
• --depth= — Specify the default color depth for the X Window System on the installed
system. Valid values are 8, 16, 24, and 32. Be sure to specify a color depth that is
compatible with the video card and monitor.
zerombr (optional)
If zerombr is specified any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. This
destroys all of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables.
Note that in previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, this command was specified as
zerombr yes. This form is now deprecated; you should now simply specify zerombr in your
kickstart file instead.
zfcp (optional)
Define a Fiber channel device (IBM System z).
zfcp [--devnum=<devnum>] [--fcplun=<fcplun>] [--scsiid=<scsiid>]
[--scsilun=<scsilun>] [--wwpn=<wwpn>]
%include (optional)
Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the
kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command in the
kickstart file.
4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
The following is a single, integrated example showing the clearpart, raid, part, volgroup,
and logvol kickstart options in action:
clearpart --drives=hda,hdc --initlabel
# Raid 1 IDE config
part raid.11
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.12
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.13
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.14
--size 8000
part raid.15
--size 1 --grow
part raid.21
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.22
--size 1000
--asprimary
part raid.23
--size 2000
--asprimary
part raid.24
--size 8000
300
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hda
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
--ondrive=hdc
Package Selection
part raid.25
--size 1 --grow
--ondrive=hdc
# You can add --spares=x
raid /
--fstype ext3 --device md0 --level=RAID1 raid.11
raid /safe
--fstype ext3 --device md1 --level=RAID1 raid.12
raid swap
--fstype swap --device md2 --level=RAID1 raid.13
raid /usr
--fstype ext3 --device md3 --level=RAID1 raid.14
raid pv.01
--fstype ext3 --device md4 --level=RAID1 raid.15
raid.21
raid.22
raid.23
raid.24
raid.25
# LVM configuration so that we can resize /var and /usr/local later
volgroup sysvg pv.01
logvol /var
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=var
logvol /var/freespace
--vgname=sysvg --size=8000
--name=freespacetouse
logvol /usr/local
--vgname=sysvg --size=1 --grow --name=usrlocal
This advanced example implements LVM over RAID, as well as the ability to resize various
directories for future growth.
5. Package Selection
Use the %packages command to begin a kickstart file section that lists the packages you would
like to install (this is for installations only, as package selection during upgrades is not
supported).
Packages can be specified by group or by individual package name, including with globs using
the asterisk. The installation program defines several groups that contain related packages.
Refer to the variant/repodata/comps-*.xml file on the first Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROM for a list of groups. Each group has an id, user visibility value, name, description, and
package list. In the package list, the packages marked as mandatory are always installed if the
group is selected, the packages marked default are selected by default if the group is selected,
and the packages marked optional must be specifically selected even if the group is selected to
be installed.
In most cases, it is only necessary to list the desired groups and not individual packages. Note
that the Core and Base groups are always selected by default, so it is not necessary to specify
them in the %packages section.
Here is an example %packages selection:
%packages
@ X Window System
@ GNOME Desktop Environment
@ Graphical Internet
@ Sound and Video dhcp
As you can see, groups are specified, one to a line, starting with an @ symbol, a space, and then
the full group name as given in the comps.xml file. Groups can also be specified using the id for
the group, such as gnome-desktop. Specify individual packages with no additional characters
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(the dhcp line in the example above is an individual package).
You can also specify which packages not to install from the default package list:
-autofs
The following options are available for the %packages option:
--nobase
Do not install the @Base group. Use this option if you are trying to create a very small
system.
--resolvedeps
The --resolvedeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are resolved automatically
every time now.
--ignoredeps
The --ignoredeps option has been deprecated. Dependencies are resolved automatically
every time now.
--ignoremissing
Ignore the missing packages and groups instead of halting the installation to ask if the
installation should be aborted or continued. For example:
%packages --ignoremissing
6. Pre-installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the ks.cfg has been parsed.
This section must be at the end of the kickstart file (after the commands) and must start with the
%pre command. You can access the network in the %pre section; however, name service has
not been configured at this point, so only IP addresses work.
Note
Note that the pre-install script is not run in the change root environment.
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace
/usr/bin/python with the scripting language of your choice.
6.1. Example
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Example
Here is an example %pre section:
%pre
#!/bin/sh
hds=""
mymedia=""
for file in /proc/ide/h* do
mymedia=`cat $file/media`
if [ $mymedia == "disk" ] ; then
hds="$hds `basename $file`"
fi
done
set $hds
numhd=`echo $#`
drive1=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f1`
drive2=`echo $hds | cut -d' ' -f2`
#Write out partition scheme based on whether there are 1 or 2 hard drives
if [ $numhd == "2" ] ; then
#2 drives
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 2 drives" >
/tmp/part-include
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75 --ondisk hda" >>
/tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hda" >>
/tmp/part-include
echo "part swap --recommended --ondisk $drive1" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 1 --grow --ondisk hdb" >>
/tmp/part-include
else
#1 drive
echo "#partitioning scheme generated in %pre for 1 drive" >
/tmp/part-include
echo "clearpart --all" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /boot --fstype ext3 --size 75" >> /tmp/part-includ
echo "part swap --recommended" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part / --fstype ext3 --size 2048" >> /tmp/part-include
echo "part /home --fstype ext3 --size 2048 --grow" >>
/tmp/part-include
fi
This script determines the number of hard drives in the system and writes a text file with a
different partitioning scheme depending on whether it has one or two drives. Instead of having a
set of partitioning commands in the kickstart file, include the line:
%include /tmp/part-include
The partitioning commands selected in the script are used.
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Note
The pre-installation script section of kickstart cannot manage multiple install trees
or source media. This information must be included for each created ks.cfg file,
as the pre-installation script occurs during the second stage of the installation
process.
7. Post-installation Script
You have the option of adding commands to run on the system once the installation is
complete. This section must be at the end of the kickstart file and must start with the %post
command. This section is useful for functions such as installing additional software and
configuring an additional nameserver.
Note
If you configured the network with static IP information, including a nameserver,
you can access the network and resolve IP addresses in the %post section. If
you configured the network for DHCP, the /etc/resolv.conf file has not been
completed when the installation executes the %post section. You can access the
network, but you can not resolve IP addresses. Thus, if you are using DHCP, you
must specify IP addresses in the %post section.
Note
The post-install script is run in a chroot environment; therefore, performing tasks
such as copying scripts or RPMs from the installation media do not work.
--nochroot
Allows you to specify commands that you would like to run outside of the chroot
environment.
The following example copies the file /etc/resolv.conf to the file system that was just
installed.
%post --nochroot cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sysimage/etc/resolv.conf
--interpreter /usr/bin/python
Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Replace
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Examples
/usr/bin/python with the scripting language of your choice.
Tip
To make any changes to the newly installed filesystem in the post-installation
section outside of the chroot environment, append the directory name with
/mnt/sysimage.
7.1. Examples
Register the system to a Red Hat Network Satellite:
%post
( # Note that in this example we run the entire %post section as a subshell
for logging.
wget -O- http://proxy-or-sat.example.com/pub/bootstrap_script | /bin/bash
/usr/sbin/rhnreg_ks --activationkey=<activationkey>
# End the subshell and capture any output to a post-install log file.
) 1>/root/post_install.log 2>&1
Run a script named runme from an NFS share:
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount -o nolock 10.10.0.2:/usr/new-machines /mnt/temp open -s -w -/mnt/temp/runme
umount /mnt/temp
Note
NFS file locking is not supported while in kickstart mode, therefore -o nolock is
required when mounting an NFS mount.
8. Making the Kickstart File Available
A kickstart file must be placed in one of the following locations:
• On a boot diskette
• On a boot CD-ROM
• On a network
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Normally a kickstart file is copied to the boot diskette, or made available on the network. The
network-based approach is most commonly used, as most kickstart installations tend to be
performed on networked computers.
Let us take a more in-depth look at where the kickstart file may be placed.
8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
Diskette-based booting is no longer supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Installations must
use CD-ROM or flash memory products for booting. However, the kickstart file may still reside
on a diskette's top-level directory, and must be named ks.cfg.
To perform a CD-ROM-based kickstart installation, the kickstart file must be named ks.cfg and
must be located in the boot CD-ROM's top-level directory. Since a CD-ROM is read-only, the file
must be added to the directory used to create the image that is written to the CD-ROM. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for instructions on creating boot media;
however, before making the file.iso image file, copy the ks.cfg kickstart file to the
isolinux/ directory.
To perform a pen-based flash memory kickstart installation, the kickstart file must be named
ks.cfg and must be located in the flash memory's top-level directory. Create the boot image
first, and then copy the ks.cfg file.
For example, the following transfers a boot image to the pen drive (/dev/sda) using the dd
command:
dd if=diskboot.img of=/dev/sda bs=1M
Note
Creation of USB flash memory pen drives for booting is possible, but is heavily
dependent on system hardware BIOS settings. Refer to your hardware
manufacturer to see if your system supports booting to alternate devices.
8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
Network installations using kickstart are quite common, because system administrators can
easily automate the installation on many networked computers quickly and painlessly. In
general, the approach most commonly used is for the administrator to have both a
BOOTP/DHCP server and an NFS server on the local network. The BOOTP/DHCP server is
used to give the client system its networking information, while the actual files used during the
installation are served by the NFS server. Often, these two servers run on the same physical
machine, but they are not required to.
To perform a network-based kickstart installation, you must have a BOOTP/DHCP server on
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Making the Installation Tree Available
your network, and it must include configuration information for the machine on which you are
attempting to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The BOOTP/DHCP server provides the client
with its networking information as well as the location of the kickstart file.
If a kickstart file is specified by the BOOTP/DHCP server, the client system attempts an NFS
mount of the file's path, and copies the specified file to the client, using it as the kickstart file.
The exact settings required vary depending on the BOOTP/DHCP server you use.
Here is an example of a line from the dhcpd.conf file for the DHCP server:
filename"/usr/new-machine/kickstart/"; next-server blarg.redhat.com;
Note that you should replace the value after filename with the name of the kickstart file (or the
directory in which the kickstart file resides) and the value after next-server with the NFS
server name.
If the file name returned by the BOOTP/DHCP server ends with a slash ("/"), then it is
interpreted as a path only. In this case, the client system mounts that path using NFS, and
searches for a particular file. The file name the client searches for is:
<ip-addr>-kickstart
The <ip-addr> section of the file name should be replaced with the client's IP address in dotted
decimal notation. For example, the file name for a computer with an IP address of 10.10.0.1
would be 10.10.0.1-kickstart.
Note that if you do not specify a server name, then the client system attempts to use the server
that answered the BOOTP/DHCP request as its NFS server. If you do not specify a path or file
name, the client system tries to mount /kickstart from the BOOTP/DHCP server and tries to
find the kickstart file using the same <ip-addr>-kickstart file name as described above.
9. Making the Installation Tree Available
The kickstart installation must access an installation tree. An installation tree is a copy of the
binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs with the same directory structure.
If you are performing a CD-based installation, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1
into the computer before starting the kickstart installation.
If you are performing a hard drive installation, make sure the ISO images of the binary Red Hat
Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs are on a hard drive in the computer.
If you are performing a network-based (NFS, FTP, or HTTP) installation, you must make the
installation tree available over the network. Refer to the Preparing for a Network Installation
section of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for details.
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10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
To begin a kickstart installation, you must boot the system from boot media you have made or
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1, and enter a special boot command at the boot
prompt. The installation program looks for a kickstart file if the ks command line argument is
passed to the kernel.
CD-ROM #1 and Diskette
The linux ks=floppy command also works if the ks.cfg file is located on a vfat or ext2
file system on a diskette and you boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1.
An alternate boot command is to boot off the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1 and
have the kickstart file on a vfat or ext2 file system on a diskette. To do so, enter the
following command at the boot: prompt:
linux ks=hd:fd0:/ks.cfg
With Driver Disk
If you need to use a driver disk with kickstart, specify the dd option as well. For example, to
boot off a boot diskette and use a driver disk, enter the following command at the boot:
prompt:
linux ks=floppy dd
Boot CD-ROM
If the kickstart file is on a boot CD-ROM as described in Section 8.1, “Creating Kickstart
Boot Media”, insert the CD-ROM into the system, boot the system, and enter the following
command at the boot: prompt (where ks.cfg is the name of the kickstart file):
linux ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg
Other options to start a kickstart installation are as follows:
askmethod
Do not automatically use the CD-ROM as the install source if we detect a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux CD in your CD-ROM drive.
autostep
Make kickstart non-interactive.
debug
Start up pdb immediately.
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dd
Use a driver disk.
dhcpclass=<class>
Sends a custom DHCP vendor class identifier. ISC's dhcpcd can inspect this value using
"option vendor-class-identifier".
dns=<dns>
Comma separated list of nameservers to use for a network installation.
driverdisk
Same as 'dd'.
expert
Turns on special features:
• allows partitioning of removable media
• prompts for a driver disk
gateway=<gw>
Gateway to use for a network installation.
graphical
Force graphical install. Required to have ftp/http use GUI.
isa
Prompt user for ISA devices configuration.
ip=<ip>
IP to use for a network installation, use 'dhcp' for DHCP.
keymap=<keymap>
Keyboard layout to use. Valid values are those which can be used for the 'keyboard'
kickstart command.
ks=nfs:<server>:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the NFS server <server>, as file
<path>. The installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For example, if
your NFS server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the NFS share
/mydir/ks.cfg, the correct boot command would be
ks=nfs:server.example.com:/mydir/ks.cfg.
ks=http://<server>/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the HTTP server <server>, as file
<path>. The installation program uses DHCP to configure the Ethernet card. For example, if
your HTTP server is server.example.com and the kickstart file is in the HTTP directory
/mydir/ks.cfg, the correct boot command would be
ks=http://server.example.com/mydir/ks.cfg.
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ks=floppy
The installation program looks for the file ks.cfg on a vfat or ext2 file system on the
diskette in /dev/fd0.
ks=floppy:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on the diskette in /dev/fd0, as file
<path>.
ks=hd:<device>:/<file>
The installation program mounts the file system on <device> (which must be vfat or ext2),
and look for the kickstart configuration file as <file> in that file system (for example,
ks=hd:sda3:/mydir/ks.cfg).
ks=file:/<file>
The installation program tries to read the file <file> from the file system; no mounts are
done. This is normally used if the kickstart file is already on the initrd image.
ks=cdrom:/<path>
The installation program looks for the kickstart file on CD-ROM, as file <path>.
ks
If ks is used alone, the installation program configures the Ethernet card to use DHCP. The
kickstart file is read from the "bootServer" from the DHCP response as if it is an NFS server
sharing the kickstart file. By default, the bootServer is the same as the DHCP server. The
name of the kickstart file is one of the following:
• If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with a /, the boot file provided by DHCP is
looked for on the NFS server.
• If DHCP is specified and the boot file begins with something other than a /, the boot file
provided by DHCP is looked for in the /kickstart directory on the NFS server.
• If DHCP did not specify a boot file, then the installation program tries to read the file
/kickstart/1.2.3.4-kickstart, where 1.2.3.4 is the numeric IP address of the
machine being installed.
ksdevice=<device>
The installation program uses this network device to connect to the network. For example,
consider a system connected to an NFS server through the eth1 device. To perform a
kickstart installation on this system using a kickstart file from the NFS server, you would use
the command ks=nfs:<server>:/<path> ksdevice=eth1 at the boot: prompt.
kssendmac
Adds HTTP headers to ks=http:// request that can be helpful for provisioning systems.
Includes MAC address of all nics in CGI environment variables of the form:
"X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab".
lang=<lang>
Language to use for the installation. This should be a language which is valid to be used
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with the 'lang' kickstart command.
loglevel=<level>
Set the minimum level required for messages to be logged. Values for <level> are debug,
info, warning, error, and critical. The default value is info.
lowres
Force GUI installer to run at 640x480.
mediacheck
Activates loader code to give user option of testing integrity of install source (if an
ISO-based method).
method=cdrom
Do a CDROM based installation.
method=ftp://<path>
Use <path> for an FTP installation.
method=hd:<dev>:<path>
Use <path> on <dev> for a hard drive installation.
method=http://<path>
Use <path> for an HTTP installation.
method=nfs:<path>
Use <path> for an NFS installation.
netmask=<nm>
Netmask to use for a network installation.
nofallback
If GUI fails exit.
nofb
Do not load the VGA16 framebuffer required for doing text-mode installation in some
languages.
nofirewire
Do not load support for firewire devices.
noipv6
Disable IPv6 networking during installation.
nokill
A debugging option that prevents anaconda from terminating all running programs when a
fatal error occurs.
nomount
Don't automatically mount any installed Linux partitions in rescue mode.
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nonet
Do not auto-probe network devices.
noparport
Do not attempt to load support for parallel ports.
nopass
Don't pass keyboard/mouse info to stage 2 installer, good for testing keyboard and mouse
config screens in stage2 installer during network installs.
nopcmcia
Ignore PCMCIA controller in system.
noprobe
Do not attempt to detect hw, prompts user instead.
noshell
Do not put a shell on tty2 during install.
nostorage
Do not auto-probe storage devices (SCSI, IDE, RAID).
nousb
Do not load USB support (helps if install hangs early sometimes).
nousbstorage
Do not load usbstorage module in loader. May help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
rescue
Run rescue environment.
resolution=<mode>
Run installer in mode specified, '1024x768' for example.
serial
Turns on serial console support.
skipddc
Skips DDC probe of monitor, may help if it's hanging system.
syslog=<host>[:<port>]
Once installation is up and running, send log messages to the syslog process on <host>,
and optionally, on port <port>. Requires the remote syslog process to accept connections
(the -r option).
text
Force text mode install.
updates
Prompt for floppy containing updates (bug fixes).
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updates=ftp://<path>
Image containing updates over FTP.
updates=http://<path>
Image containing updates over HTTP.
upgradeany
Don't require an /etc/redhat-release that matches the expected syntax to upgrade.
vnc
Enable vnc-based installation. You will need to connect to the machine using a vnc client
application.
vncconnect=<host>[:<port>]
Once installation is up and running, connect to the vnc client named <host>, and optionally
use port <port>.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
vncpassword=<password>
Enable a password for the vnc connection. This will prevent someone from inadvertently
connecting to the vnc-based installation.
Requires 'vnc' option to be specified as well.
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Kickstart Configurator
Kickstart Configurator allows you to create or modify a kickstart file using a graphical user
interface, so that you do not have to remember the correct syntax of the file.
To use Kickstart Configurator, you must be running the X Window System. To start Kickstart
Configurator, select Applications (the main menu on the panel) => System Tools =>
Kickstart, or type the command /usr/sbin/system-config-kickstart.
As you are creating a kickstart file, you can select File => Preview at any time to review your
current selections.
To start with an existing kickstart file, select File => Open and select the existing file.
1. Basic Configuration
Figure 29.1. Basic Configuration
Choose the language to use during the installation and as the default language to be used after
installation from the Default Language menu.
Select the system keyboard type from the Keyboard menu.
From the Time Zone menu, choose the time zone to use for the system. To configure the
system to use UTC, select Use UTC clock.
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Enter the desired root password for the system in the Root Password text entry box. Type the
same password in the Confirm Password text box. The second field is to make sure you do not
mistype the password and then realize you do not know what it is after you have completed the
installation. To save the password as an encrypted password in the file, select Encrypt root
password. If the encryption option is selected, when the file is saved, the plain text password
that you typed is encrypted and written to the kickstart file. Do not type an already encrypted
password and select to encrypt it. Because a kickstart file is a plain text file that can be easily
read, it is recommended that an encrypted password be used.
Choosing Target Architecture specifies which specific hardware architecture distribution is
used during installation.
Choosing Reboot system after installation reboots your system automatically after the
installation is finished.
Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default. To override this default and
use text mode instead, select the Perform installation in text mode option.
You can perform a kickstart installation in interactive mode. This means that the installation
program uses all the options pre-configured in the kickstart file, but it allows you to preview the
options in each screen before continuing to the next screen. To continue to the next screen,
click the Next button after you have approved the settings or change them before continuing the
installation. To select this type of installation, select the Perform installation in interactive
mode option.
2. Installation Method
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Boot Loader Options
Figure 29.2. Installation Method
The Installation Method screen allows you to choose whether to perform a new installation or
an upgrade. If you choose upgrade, the Partition Information and Package Selection options
are disabled. They are not supported for kickstart upgrades.
Choose the type of kickstart installation or upgrade from the following options:
• CD-ROM — Choose this option to install or upgrade from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROMs.
• NFS — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an NFS shared directory. In the text field
for the the NFS server, enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the NFS
directory, enter the name of the NFS directory that contains the variant directory of the
installation tree. For example, if the NFS server contains the directory
/mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter /mirrors/redhat/i386/ for the NFS directory.
• FTP — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an FTP server. In the FTP server text
field, enter a fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the FTP directory, enter the name
of the FTP directory that contains the variant directory. For example, if the FTP server
contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter
/mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for the FTP directory. If the FTP server requires a
username and password, specify them as well.
• HTTP — Choose this option to install or upgrade from an HTTP server. In the text field for the
HTTP server, enter the fully-qualified domain name or IP address. For the HTTP directory,
enter the name of the HTTP directory that contains the variant directory. For example, if the
HTTP server contains the directory /mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/, enter
/mirrors/redhat/i386/Server/ for the HTTP directory.
• Hard Drive — Choose this option to install or upgrade from a hard drive. Hard drive
installations require the use of ISO (or CD-ROM) images. Be sure to verify that the ISO
images are intact before you start the installation. To verify them, use an md5sum program as
well as the linux mediacheck boot option as discussed in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Installation Guide. Enter the hard drive partition that contains the ISO images (for example,
/dev/hda1) in the Hard Drive Partition text box. Enter the directory that contains the ISO
images in the Hard Drive Directory text box.
3. Boot Loader Options
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Figure 29.3. Boot Loader Options
Please note that this screen will be disabled if you have specified a target architecture other
than x86 / x86_64.
GRUB is the default boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86 / x86_64 architectures. If
you do not want to install a boot loader, select Do not install a boot loader. If you choose not
to install a boot loader, make sure you create a boot diskette or have another way to boot your
system, such as a third-party boot loader.
You must choose where to install the boot loader (the Master Boot Record or the first sector of
the /boot partition). Install the boot loader on the MBR if you plan to use it as your boot loader.
To pass any special parameters to the kernel to be used when the system boots, enter them in
the Kernel parameters text field. For example, if you have an IDE CD-ROM Writer, you can tell
the kernel to use the SCSI emulation driver that must be loaded before using cdrecord by
configuring hdd=ide-scsi as a kernel parameter (where hdd is the CD-ROM device).
You can password protect the GRUB boot loader by configuring a GRUB password. Select Use
GRUB password, and enter a password in the Password field. Type the same password in the
Confirm Password text field. To save the password as an encrypted password in the file,
select Encrypt GRUB password. If the encryption option is selected, when the file is saved, the
plain text password that you typed is encrypted and written to the kickstart file. If the password
you typed was already encrypted, unselect the encryption option.
If Upgrade an existing installation is selected on the Installation Method page, select
Upgrade existing boot loader to upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, while
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Partition Information
preserving the old entries.
4. Partition Information
Figure 29.4. Partition Information
Select whether or not to clear the Master Boot Record (MBR). Choose to remove all existing
partitions, remove all existing Linux partitions, or preserve existing partitions.
To initialize the disk label to the default for the architecture of the system (for example, msdos
for x86 and gpt for Itanium), select Initialize the disk label if you are installing on a brand new
hard drive.
Note
Although anaconda and kickstart support Logical Volume Management (LVM),
at present there is no mechanism for configuring this using the Kickstart
Configurator.
4.1. Creating Partitions
To create a partition, click the Add button. The Partition Options window shown in Figure 29.5,
“Creating Partitions” appears. Choose the mount point, file system type, and partition size for
the new partition. Optionally, you can also choose from the following:
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• In the Additional Size Options section, choose to make the partition a fixed size, up to a
chosen size, or fill the remaining space on the hard drive. If you selected swap as the file
system type, you can select to have the installation program create the swap partition with the
recommended size instead of specifying a size.
• Force the partition to be created as a primary partition.
• Create the partition on a specific hard drive. For example, to make the partition on the first
IDE hard disk (/dev/hda), specify hda as the drive. Do not include /dev in the drive name.
• Use an existing partition. For example, to make the partition on the first partition on the first
IDE hard disk (/dev/hda1), specify hda1 as the partition. Do not include /dev in the partition
name.
• Format the partition as the chosen file system type.
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Creating Partitions
Figure 29.5. Creating Partitions
To edit an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Edit button. The same
Partition Options window appears as when you chose to add a partition as shown in
Figure 29.5, “Creating Partitions”, except it reflects the values for the selected partition. Modify
the partition options and click OK.
To delete an existing partition, select the partition from the list and click the Delete button.
4.1.1. Creating Software RAID Partitions
To create a software RAID partition, use the following steps:
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1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a software RAID partition.
3. Configure the partitions as previously described, except select Software RAID as the file
system type. Also, you must specify a hard drive on which to make the partition or specify an
existing partition to use.
Figure 29.6. Creating a Software RAID Partition
Repeat these steps to create as many partitions as needed for your RAID setup. All of your
partitions do not have to be RAID partitions.
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Network Configuration
After creating all the partitions needed to form a RAID device, follow these steps:
1. Click the RAID button.
2. Select Create a RAID device.
3. Select a mount point, file system type, RAID device name, RAID level, RAID members,
number of spares for the software RAID device, and whether to format the RAID device.
Figure 29.7. Creating a Software RAID Device
4. Click OK to add the device to the list.
5. Network Configuration
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Figure 29.8. Network Configuration
If the system to be installed via kickstart does not have an Ethernet card, do not configure one
on the Network Configuration page.
Networking is only required if you choose a networking-based installation method (NFS, FTP, or
HTTP). Networking can always be configured after installation with the Network
Administration Tool (system-config-network). Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for details.
For each Ethernet card on the system, click Add Network Device and select the network
device and network type for the device. Select eth0 to configure the first Ethernet card, eth1 for
the second Ethernet card, and so on.
6. Authentication
324
Firewall Configuration
Figure 29.9. Authentication
In the Authentication section, select whether to use shadow passwords and MD5 encryption
for user passwords. These options are highly recommended and chosen by default.
The Authentication Configuration options allow you to configure the following methods of
authentication:
• NIS
• LDAP
• Kerberos 5
• Hesiod
• SMB
• Name Switch Cache
These methods are not enabled by default. To enable one or more of these methods, click the
appropriate tab, click the checkbox next to Enable, and enter the appropriate information for the
authentication method. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more
information about the options.
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7. Firewall Configuration
The Firewall Configuration window is similar to the screen in the installation program and the
Security Level Configuration Tool.
Figure 29.10. Firewall Configuration
If Disable firewall is selected, the system allows complete access to any active services and
ports. No connections to the system are refused or denied.
Selecting Enable firewall configures the system to reject incoming connections that are not in
response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services
running on this machine is required, you can choose to allow specific services through the
firewall.
Only devices configured in the Network Configuration section are listed as available Trusted
devices. Connections from any devices selected in the list are accepted by the system. For
example, if eth1 only receives connections from internal system, you might want to allow
connections from it.
If a service is selected in the Trusted services list, connections for the service are accepted
and processed by the system.
In the Other ports text field, list any additional ports that should be opened for remote access.
Use the following format: port:protocol. For example, to allow IMAP access through the
firewall, specify imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; to allow UDP packets
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SELinux Configuration
on port 1234 through the firewall, enter 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them with
commas.
7.1. SELinux Configuration
Kickstart can set SELinux to enforcing, permissive or disabled mode. Finer grained
configuration is not possible at this time.
8. Display Configuration
If you are installing the X Window System, you can configure it during the kickstart installation
by checking the Configure the X Window System option on the Display Configuration
window as shown in Figure 29.11, “X Configuration - General”. If this option is not chosen, the X
configuration options are disabled and the skipx option is written to the kickstart file.
8.1. General
The first step in configuring X is to choose the default color depth and resolution. Select them
from their respective pulldown menus. Be sure to specify a color depth and resolution that is
compatible with the video card and monitor for the system.
Figure 29.11. X Configuration - General
If you are installing both the GNOME and KDE desktops, you must choose which desktop
should be the default. If only one desktop is to be installed, be sure to choose it. Once the
system is installed, users can choose which desktop they want to be their default.
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Next, choose whether to start the X Window System when the system is booted. This option
starts the system in runlevel 5 with the graphical login screen. After the system is installed, this
can be changed by modifying the /etc/inittab configuration file.
Also select whether to start the Setup Agent the first time the system is rebooted. It is disabled
by default, but the setting can be changed to enabled or enabled in reconfiguration mode.
Reconfiguration mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level,
time zone, and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
8.2. Video Card
Probe for video card driver is selected by default. Accept this default to have the installation
program probe for the video card during installation. Probing works for most modern video
cards. If this option is selected and the installation program cannot successfully probe the video
card, the installation program stops at the video card configuration screen. To continue the
installation process, select the driver for your video card from the list and click Next.
Alternatively, you can select the video card driver from the list on the Video Card tab as shown
in Figure 29.12, “X Configuration - Video Card”. Specify the amount of video RAM the selected
video card has from the Video Card RAM pulldown menu. These values are used by the
installation program to configure the X Window System.
Figure 29.12. X Configuration - Video Card
8.3. Monitor
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Package Selection
After configuring the video card, click on the Monitor tab as shown in Figure 29.13, “X
Configuration - Monitor”.
Figure 29.13. X Configuration - Monitor
Probe for monitor is selected by default. Accept this default to have the installation program
probe for the monitor during installation. Probing works for most modern monitors. If this option
is selected and the installation program cannot successfully probe the monitor, the installation
program stops at the monitor configuration screen. To continue the installation process, select
your monitor from the list and click Next.
Alternatively, you can select your monitor from the list. You can also specify the horizontal and
vertical sync rates instead of selecting a specific monitor by checking the Specify hsync and
vsync instead of monitor option. This option is useful if the monitor for the system is not listed.
Notice that when this option is enabled, the monitor list is disabled.
9. Package Selection
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Figure 29.14. Package Selection
The Package Selection window allows you to choose which package groups to install.
Package resolution is carried out automatically.
Currently, Kickstart Configurator does not allow you to select individual packages. To install
individual packages, modify the %packages section of the kickstart file after you save it. Refer to
Section 5, “Package Selection” for details.
10. Pre-Installation Script
330
Pre-Installation Script
Figure 29.15. Pre-Installation Script
You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the kickstart file has been
parsed and before the installation begins. If you have configured the network in the kickstart file,
the network is enabled before this section is processed. To include a pre-installation script, type
it in the text area.
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter
option and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.4 can
be specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using %pre --interpreter
/usr/bin/python2.4 in your kickstart file.
Many of the commands that are available in the pre-installation environment are provided by a
version of busybox called busybox-anaconda. Busybox-supplied commands do not provide
all features, but supply only the most commonly used features. The following list of available
commands include commands provided by busybox:
addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arping, ash, awk, basename, bbconfig, bunzip2, busybox,
bzcat, cal, cat, catv, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm,
cp, cpio, crond, crontab, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, devfsd, df,
diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck,
e2label, echo, ed, egrep, eject, env, ether-wake, expr, fakeidentd, false, fbset,
fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, fgrep, find, findfs, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck.ext2,
fsck.ext3, fsck.minix, ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, hdparm,
head, hexdump, hostid, hostname, httpd, hush, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, inetd,
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insmod, install, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iptunnel, kill,
killall, lash, last, length, less, linux32, linux64, ln, load_policy, loadfont,
loadkmap, login, logname, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, makedevs, md5sum, mdev,
mesg, mkdir, mke2fs, mkfifo, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mkfs.minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp,
modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, msh, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nice, nohup,
nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof, ping, ping6, pipe_progress, pivot_root,
printenv, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, readprofile, realpath, renice, reset, rm,
rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, run-parts, runlevel, rx, sed, seq, setarch,
setconsole, setkeycodes, setlogcons, setsid, sh, sha1sum, sleep, sort,
start-stop-daemon, stat, strings, stty, su, sulogin, sum, swapoff, swapon, switch_root,
sync, sysctl, tail, tar, tee, telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, time, top, touch, tr,
traceroute, true, tty, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, umount, uname, uncompress, uniq,
unix2dos, unlzma, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock, watch,
watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip
For a description of any of these commands, run:
busybox command --help
In addition to the aforementioned commands, the following commands are provided in their full
featured versions:
anaconda, bash, bzip2, jmacs, ftp, head, joe, kudzu-probe, list-harddrives, loadkeys,
mtools, mbchk, mtools, mini-wm, mtools, jpico, pump, python, python2.4, raidstart,
raidstop, rcp, rlogin, rsync, setxkbmap, sftp, shred, ssh, syslinux, syslogd, tac,
termidx, vncconfig, vncpasswd, xkbcomp, Xorg, Xvnc, zcat
Caution
Do not include the %pre command. It is added for you.
Note
The pre-installation script is run after the source media is mounted and stage 2 of
the bootloader has been loaded. For this reason it is not possible to change the
source media in the pre-installation script.
11. Post-Installation Script
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Chroot Environment
Figure 29.16. Post-Installation Script
You can also add commands to execute on the system after the installation is completed. If the
network is properly configured in the kickstart file, the network is enabled, and the script can
include commands to access resources on the network. To include a post-installation script,
type it in the text area.
Caution
Do not include the %post command. It is added for you.
For example, to change the message of the day for the newly installed system, add the
following command to the %post section:
echo "Hackers will be punished!" > /etc/motd
Tip
More examples can be found in Section 7.1, “Examples”.
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11.1. Chroot Environment
To run the post-installation script outside of the chroot environment, click the checkbox next to
this option on the top of the Post-Installation window. This is equivalent to using the
--nochroot option in the %post section.
To make changes to the newly installed file system, within the post-installation section, but
outside of the chroot environment, you must prepend the directory name with /mnt/sysimage/.
For example, if you select Run outside of the chroot environment, the previous example
must be changed to the following:
echo "Hackers will be punished!" > /mnt/sysimage/etc/motd
11.2. Use an Interpreter
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter
option and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.2 can
be specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using %post --interpreter
/usr/bin/python2.2 in your kickstart file.
12. Saving the File
To review the contents of the kickstart file after you have finished choosing your kickstart
options, select File => Preview from the pull-down menu.
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Saving the File
Figure 29.17. Preview
To save the kickstart file, click the Save to File button in the preview window. To save the file
without previewing it, select File => Save File or press Ctrl-S . A dialog box appears. Select
where to save the file.
After saving the file, refer to Section 10, “Starting a Kickstart Installation” for information on how
to start the kickstart installation.
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Chapter 30.
Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
An important and powerful aspect of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the open, user-configurable
method it uses for starting the operating system. Users are free to configure many aspects of
the boot process, including specifying the programs launched at boot-time. Similarly, system
shutdown gracefully terminates processes in an organized and configurable way, although
customization of this process is rarely required.
Understanding how the boot and shutdown processes work not only allows customization, but
also makes it easier to troubleshoot problems related to starting or shutting down the system.
1. The Boot Process
Below are the basic stages of the boot process for an x86 system:
1. The system BIOS checks the system and launches the first stage boot loader on the MBR of
the primary hard disk.
2. The first stage boot loader loads itself into memory and launches the second stage boot
loader from the /boot/ partition.
3. The second stage boot loader loads the kernel into memory, which in turn loads any
necessary modules and mounts the root partition read-only.
4. The kernel transfers control of the boot process to the /sbin/init program.
5. The /sbin/init program loads all services and user-space tools, and mounts all partitions
listed in /etc/fstab.
6. The user is presented with a login screen for the freshly booted Linux system.
Because configuration of the boot process is more common than the customization of the
shutdown process, the remainder of this chapter discusses in detail how the boot process works
and how it can be customized to suite specific needs.
2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
The beginning of the boot process varies depending on the hardware platform being used.
However, once the kernel is found and loaded by the boot loader, the default boot process is
identical across all architectures. This chapter focuses primarily on the x86 architecture.
2.1. The BIOS
When an x86 computer is booted, the processor looks at the end of system memory for the
Basic Input/Output System or BIOS program and runs it. The BIOS controls not only the first
step of the boot process, but also provides the lowest level interface to peripheral devices. For
this reason it is written into read-only, permanent memory and is always available for use.
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Other platforms use different programs to perform low-level tasks roughly equivalent to those of
the BIOS on an x86 system. For instance, Itanium-based computers use the Extensible
Firmware Interface (EFI) Shell.
Once loaded, the BIOS tests the system, looks for and checks peripherals, and then locates a
valid device with which to boot the system. Usually, it checks any diskette drives and CD-ROM
drives present for bootable media, then, failing that, looks to the system's hard drives. In most
cases, the order of the drives searched while booting is controlled with a setting in the BIOS,
and it looks on the master IDE device on the primary IDE bus. The BIOS then loads into
memory whatever program is residing in the first sector of this device, called the Master Boot
Record or MBR. The MBR is only 512 bytes in size and contains machine code instructions for
booting the machine, called a boot loader, along with the partition table. Once the BIOS finds
and loads the boot loader program into memory, it yields control of the boot process to it.
2.2. The Boot Loader
This section looks at the default boot loader for the x86 platform, GRUB. Depending on the
system's architecture, the boot process may differ slightly. Refer to Section 2.2.1, “Boot Loaders
for Other Architectures” for a brief overview of non-x86 boot loaders. For more information about
configuring and using GRUB, see Chapter 9, The GRUB Boot Loader.
A boot loader for the x86 platform is broken into at least two stages. The first stage is a small
machine code binary on the MBR. Its sole job is to locate the second stage boot loader and load
the first part of it into memory.
GRUB has the advantage of being able to read ext2 and ext3 1 partitions and load its
configuration file — /boot/grub/grub.conf — at boot time. Refer to Section 7, “GRUB Menu
Configuration File” for information on how to edit this file.
Tip
If upgrading the kernel using the Red Hat Update Agent, the boot loader
configuration file is updated automatically. More information on Red Hat Network
can be found online at the following URL: https://rhn.redhat.com/.
Once the second stage boot loader is in memory, it presents the user with a graphical screen
showing the different operating systems or kernels it has been configured to boot. On this
screen a user can use the arrow keys to choose which operating system or kernel they wish to
boot and press Enter. If no key is pressed, the boot loader loads the default selection after a
configurable period of time has passed.
Once the second stage boot loader has determined which kernel to boot, it locates the
corresponding kernel binary in the /boot/ directory. The kernel binary is named using the
1
GRUB reads ext3 file systems as ext2, disregarding the journal file. Refer to the chapter titled The ext3 File System in
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information on the ext3 file system.
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following format — /boot/vmlinuz-<kernel-version> file (where <kernel-version>
corresponds to the kernel version specified in the boot loader's settings).
For instructions on using the boot loader to supply command line arguments to the kernel, refer
to Chapter 9, The GRUB Boot Loader. For information on changing the runlevel at the boot
loader prompt, refer Section 8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
The boot loader then places one or more appropriate initramfs images into memory. Next, the
kernel decompresses these images from memory to /sysroot/, a RAM-based virtual file
system, via cpio. The initramfs is used by the kernel to load drivers and modules necessary
to boot the system. This is particularly important if SCSI hard drives are present or if the
systems use the ext3 file system.
Once the kernel and the initramfs image(s) are loaded into memory, the boot loader hands
control of the boot process to the kernel.
For a more detailed overview of the GRUB boot loader, refer to Chapter 9, The GRUB Boot
Loader.
2.2.1. Boot Loaders for Other Architectures
Once the kernel loads and hands off the boot process to the init command, the same
sequence of events occurs on every architecture. So the main difference between each
architecture's boot process is in the application used to find and load the kernel.
For example, the Itanium architecture uses the ELILO boot loader, the IBM eServer pSeries
architecture uses yaboot, and the IBM System z systems use the z/IPL boot loader.
2.3. The Kernel
When the kernel is loaded, it immediately initializes and configures the computer's memory and
configures the various hardware attached to the system, including all processors, I/O
subsystems, and storage devices. It then looks for the compressed initramfs image(s) in a
predetermined location in memory, decompresses it directly to /sysroot/, and loads all
necessary drivers. Next, it initializes virtual devices related to the file system, such as LVM or
software RAID, before completing the initramfs processes and freeing up all the memory the
disk image once occupied.
The kernel then creates a root device, mounts the root partition read-only, and frees any unused
memory.
At this point, the kernel is loaded into memory and operational. However, since there are no
user applications that allow meaningful input to the system, not much can be done with the
system.
To set up the user environment, the kernel executes the /sbin/init program.
2.4. The /sbin/init Program
The /sbin/init program (also called init) coordinates the rest of the boot process and
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configures the environment for the user.
When the init command starts, it becomes the parent or grandparent of all of the processes
that start up automatically on the system. First, it runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script, which
sets the environment path, starts swap, checks the file systems, and executes all other steps
required for system initialization. For example, most systems use a clock, so rc.sysinit reads
the /etc/sysconfig/clock configuration file to initialize the hardware clock. Another example
is if there are special serial port processes which must be initialized, rc.sysinit executes the
/etc/rc.serial file.
The init command then runs the /etc/inittab script, which describes how the system should
be set up in each SysV init runlevel. Runlevels are a state, or mode, defined by the services
listed in the SysV /etc/rc.d/rc<x>.d/ directory, where <x> is the number of the runlevel. For
more information on SysV init runlevels, refer to Section 4, “SysV Init Runlevels”.
Next, the init command sets the source function library, /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions, for
the system, which configures how to start, kill, and determine the PID of a program.
The init program starts all of the background processes by looking in the appropriate rc
directory for the runlevel specified as the default in /etc/inittab. The rc directories are
numbered to correspond to the runlevel they represent. For instance, /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ is the
directory for runlevel 5.
When booting to runlevel 5, the init program looks in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory to
determine which processes to start and stop.
Below is an example listing of the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory:
K05innd -> ../init.d/innd
K05saslauthd -> ../init.d/saslauthd
K10dc_server -> ../init.d/dc_server
K10psacct -> ../init.d/psacct
K10radiusd -> ../init.d/radiusd
K12dc_client -> ../init.d/dc_client
K12FreeWnn -> ../init.d/FreeWnn
K12mailman -> ../init.d/mailman
K12mysqld -> ../init.d/mysqld
K15httpd -> ../init.d/httpd
K20netdump-server -> ../init.d/netdump-server
K20rstatd -> ../init.d/rstatd
K20rusersd -> ../init.d/rusersd
K20rwhod -> ../init.d/rwhod
K24irda -> ../init.d/irda
K25squid -> ../init.d/squid
K28amd -> ../init.d/amd
K30spamassassin -> ../init.d/spamassassin
K34dhcrelay -> ../init.d/dhcrelay
K34yppasswdd -> ../init.d/yppasswdd
K35dhcpd -> ../init.d/dhcpd
K35smb -> ../init.d/smb
K35vncserver -> ../init.d/vncserver
K36lisa -> ../init.d/lisa
K45arpwatch -> ../init.d/arpwatch
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The /sbin/init Program
K45named -> ../init.d/named
K46radvd -> ../init.d/radvd
K50netdump -> ../init.d/netdump
K50snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
K50snmptrapd -> ../init.d/snmptrapd
K50tux -> ../init.d/tux
K50vsftpd -> ../init.d/vsftpd
K54dovecot -> ../init.d/dovecot
K61ldap -> ../init.d/ldap
K65kadmin -> ../init.d/kadmin
K65kprop -> ../init.d/kprop
K65krb524 -> ../init.d/krb524
K65krb5kdc -> ../init.d/krb5kdc
K70aep1000 -> ../init.d/aep1000
K70bcm5820 -> ../init.d/bcm5820
K74ypserv -> ../init.d/ypserv
K74ypxfrd -> ../init.d/ypxfrd
K85mdmpd -> ../init.d/mdmpd
K89netplugd -> ../init.d/netplugd
K99microcode_ctl -> ../init.d/microcode_ctl
S04readahead_early -> ../init.d/readahead_early
S05kudzu -> ../init.d/kudzu
S06cpuspeed -> ../init.d/cpuspeed
S08ip6tables -> ../init.d/ip6tables
S08iptables -> ../init.d/iptables
S09isdn -> ../init.d/isdn
S10network -> ../init.d/network
S12syslog -> ../init.d/syslog
S13irqbalance -> ../init.d/irqbalance
S13portmap -> ../init.d/portmap
S15mdmonitor -> ../init.d/mdmonitor
S15zebra -> ../init.d/zebra
S16bgpd -> ../init.d/bgpd
S16ospf6d -> ../init.d/ospf6d
S16ospfd -> ../init.d/ospfd
S16ripd -> ../init.d/ripd
S16ripngd -> ../init.d/ripngd
S20random -> ../init.d/random
S24pcmcia -> ../init.d/pcmcia
S25netfs -> ../init.d/netfs
S26apmd -> ../init.d/apmd
S27ypbind -> ../init.d/ypbind
S28autofs -> ../init.d/autofs
S40smartd -> ../init.d/smartd
S44acpid -> ../init.d/acpid
S54hpoj -> ../init.d/hpoj
S55cups -> ../init.d/cups
S55sshd -> ../init.d/sshd
S56rawdevices -> ../init.d/rawdevices
S56xinetd -> ../init.d/xinetd
S58ntpd -> ../init.d/ntpd
S75postgresql -> ../init.d/postgresql
S80sendmail -> ../init.d/sendmail
S85gpm -> ../init.d/gpm
S87iiim -> ../init.d/iiim
S90canna -> ../init.d/canna
S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
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Chapter 30. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
S90xfs -> ../init.d/xfs
S95atd -> ../init.d/atd
S96readahead -> ../init.d/readahead
S97messagebus -> ../init.d/messagebus
S97rhnsd -> ../init.d/rhnsd
S99local -> ../rc.local
As illustrated in this listing, none of the scripts that actually start and stop the services are
located in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory. Rather, all of the files in /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ are
symbolic links pointing to scripts located in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory. Symbolic links
are used in each of the rc directories so that the runlevels can be reconfigured by creating,
modifying, and deleting the symbolic links without affecting the actual scripts they reference.
The name of each symbolic link begins with either a K or an S. The K links are processes that
are killed on that runlevel, while those beginning with an S are started.
The init command first stops all of the K symbolic links in the directory by issuing the
/etc/rc.d/init.d/<command> stop command, where <command> is the process to be killed. It
then starts all of the S symbolic links by issuing /etc/rc.d/init.d/<command> start.
Tip
After the system is finished booting, it is possible to log in as root and execute
these same scripts to start and stop services. For instance, the command
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd stop stops the Apache HTTP Server.
Each of the symbolic links are numbered to dictate start order. The order in which the services
are started or stopped can be altered by changing this number. The lower the number, the
earlier it is started. Symbolic links with the same number are started alphabetically.
Note
One of the last things the init program executes is the /etc/rc.d/rc.local
file. This file is useful for system customization. Refer to Section 3, “Running
Additional Programs at Boot Time” for more information about using the
rc.local file.
After the init command has progressed through the appropriate rc directory for the runlevel,
the /etc/inittab script forks an /sbin/mingetty process for each virtual console (login
prompt) allocated to the runlevel. Runlevels 2 through 5 have all six virtual consoles, while
runlevel 1 (single user mode) has one, and runlevels 0 and 6 have none. The /sbin/mingetty
process opens communication pathways to tty devices2, sets their modes, prints the login
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Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
prompt, accepts the user's username and password, and initiates the login process.
In runlevel 5, the /etc/inittab runs a script called /etc/X11/prefdm. The prefdm script
executes the preferred X display manager3 — gdm, kdm, or xdm, depending on the contents of
the /etc/sysconfig/desktop file.
Once finished, the system operates on runlevel 5 and displays a login screen.
3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
The /etc/rc.d/rc.local script is executed by the init command at boot time or when
changing runlevels. Adding commands to the bottom of this script is an easy way to perform
necessary tasks like starting special services or initialize devices without writing complex
initialization scripts in the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory and creating symbolic links.
The /etc/rc.serial script is used if serial ports must be setup at boot time. This script runs
setserial commands to configure the system's serial ports. Refer to the setserial man page
for more information.
4. SysV Init Runlevels
The SysV init runlevel system provides a standard process for controlling which programs init
launches or halts when initializing a runlevel. SysV init was chosen because it is easier to use
and more flexible than the traditional BSD-style init process.
The configuration files for SysV init are located in the /etc/rc.d/ directory. Within this
directory, are the rc, rc.local, rc.sysinit, and, optionally, the rc.serial scripts as well as
the following directories:
init.d/ rc0.d/ rc1.d/ rc2.d/ rc3.d/ rc4.d/ rc5.d/ rc6.d/
The init.d/ directory contains the scripts used by the /sbin/init command when controlling
services. Each of the numbered directories represent the six runlevels configured by default
under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
4.1. Runlevels
The idea behind SysV init runlevels revolves around the idea that different systems can be used
in different ways. For example, a server runs more efficiently without the drag on system
resources created by the X Window System. Or there may be times when a system
administrator may need to operate the system at a lower runlevel to perform diagnostic tasks,
like fixing disk corruption in runlevel 1.
The characteristics of a given runlevel determine which services are halted and started by init.
2
3
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information about tty devices.
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for more information about display managers.
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Chapter 30. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
For instance, runlevel 1 (single user mode) halts any network services, while runlevel 3 starts
these services. By assigning specific services to be halted or started on a given runlevel, init
can quickly change the mode of the machine without the user manually stopping and starting
services.
The following runlevels are defined by default under Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
• 0 — Halt
• 1 — Single-user text mode
• 2 — Not used (user-definable)
• 3 — Full multi-user text mode
• 4 — Not used (user-definable)
• 5 — Full multi-user graphical mode (with an X-based login screen)
• 6 — Reboot
In general, users operate Red Hat Enterprise Linux at runlevel 3 or runlevel 5 — both full
multi-user modes. Users sometimes customize runlevels 2 and 4 to meet specific needs, since
they are not used.
The default runlevel for the system is listed in /etc/inittab. To find out the default runlevel for
a system, look for the line similar to the following near the top of /etc/inittab:
id:5:initdefault:
The default runlevel listed in this example is five, as the number after the first colon indicates.
To change it, edit /etc/inittab as root.
Warning
Be very careful when editing /etc/inittab. Simple typos can cause the system
to become unbootable. If this happens, either use a boot diskette, enter
single-user mode, or enter rescue mode to boot the computer and repair the file.
For more information on single-user and rescue mode, refer to the chapter titled
Basic System Recovery in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
It is possible to change the default runlevel at boot time by modifying the arguments passed by
the boot loader to the kernel. For information on changing the runlevel at boot time, refer to
Section 8, “Changing Runlevels at Boot Time”.
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Shutting Down
4.2. Runlevel Utilities
One of the best ways to configure runlevels is to use an initscript utility. These tools are
designed to simplify the task of maintaining files in the SysV init directory hierarchy and relieves
system administrators from having to directly manipulate the numerous symbolic links in the
subdirectories of /etc/rc.d/.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux provides three such utilities:
• /sbin/chkconfig — The /sbin/chkconfig utility is a simple command line tool for
maintaining the /etc/rc.d/init.d/ directory hierarchy.
• /usr/sbin/ntsysv — The ncurses-based /sbin/ntsysv utility provides an interactive
text-based interface, which some find easier to use than chkconfig.
• Services Configuration Tool — The graphical Services Configuration Tool
(system-config-services) program is a flexible utility for configuring runlevels.
Refer to the chapter titled Controlling Access to Services in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Deployment Guide for more information regarding these tools.
5. Shutting Down
To shut down Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the root user may issue the /sbin/shutdown
command. The shutdown man page has a complete list of options, but the two most common
uses are:
/sbin/shutdown -h now/sbin/shutdown -r now
After shutting everything down, the -h option halts the machine, and the -r option reboots.
PAM console users can use the reboot and halt commands to shut down the system while in
runlevels 1 through 5. For more information about PAM console users, refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
If the computer does not power itself down, be careful not to turn off the computer until a
message appears indicating that the system is halted.
Failure to wait for this message can mean that not all the hard drive partitions are unmounted,
which can lead to file system corruption.
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Chapter 31.
PXE Network Installations
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows for installation over a network using the NFS, FTP, or HTTP
protocols. A network installation can be started from a boot CD-ROM, a bootable flash memory
drive, or by using the askmethod boot option with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1.
Alternatively, if the system to be installed contains a network interface card (NIC) with
Pre-Execution Environment (PXE) support, it can be configured to boot from files on another
networked system rather than local media such as a CD-ROM.
For a PXE network installation, the client's NIC with PXE support sends out a broadcast request
for DHCP information. The DHCP server provides the client with an IP address, other network
information such as name server, the IP address or hostname of the tftp server (which
provides the files necessary to start the installation program), and the location of the files on the
tftp server. This is possible because of PXELINUX, which is part of the syslinux package.
The following steps must be performed to prepare for a PXE installation:
1. Configure the network (NFS, FTP, HTTP) server to export the installation tree.
2. Configure the files on the tftp server necessary for PXE booting.
3. Configure which hosts are allowed to boot from the PXE configuration.
4. Start the tftp service.
5. Configure DHCP.
6. Boot the client, and start the installation.
1. Setting up the Network Server
First, configure an NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to export the entire installation tree for the version
and variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be installed. Refer to the section Preparing for a
Network Installation in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for detailed instructions.
2. PXE Boot Configuration
The next step is to copy the files necessary to start the installation to the tftp server so they
can be found when the client requests them. The tftp server is usually the same server as the
network server exporting the installation tree.
To copy these files, run the Network Booting Tool on the NFS, FTP, or HTTP server. A
separate PXE server is not necessary.
2.1. Command Line Configuration
If the network server is not running X, the pxeos command line utility, which is part of the
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Chapter 31. PXE Network Installations
system-config-netboot package, can be used to configure the tftp server files as described
in Section 4, “TFTPD”:
pxeos -a -i "<description>" -p <NFS|HTTP|FTP> -D 0 -s client.example.com \
-L <net-location> -k <kernel> -K <kickstart><os-identifer>
The following list explains the options:
• -a — Specifies that an OS instance is being added to the PXE configuration.
• -i "<description>" — Replace "<description>" with a description of the OS instance.
• -p <NFS|HTTP|FTP> — Specify which of the NFS, FTP, or HTTP protocols to use for
installation. Only one may be specified.
• -D <0|1> — Specify "0" which indicates that it is not a diskless configuration since pxeos can
be used to configure a diskless environment as well.
• -sclient.example.com — Provide the name of the NFS, FTP, or HTTP server after the -s
option.
• -L<net-location> — Provide the location of the installation tree on that server after the -L
option.
• -k<kernel> — Provide the specific kernel version of the server installation tree for booting.
• -K<kickstart> — Provide the location of the kickstart file, if available.
• <os-identifer> — Specify the OS identifier, which is used as the directory name in the
/tftpboot/linux-install/ directory.
If FTP is selected as the installation protocol and anonymous login is not available, specify a
username and password for login, with the following options before <os-identifer> in the
previous command:
-A 0 -u <username> -p <password>
For more information on command line options available for the pxeos command, refer to the
pxeos man page.
3. Adding PXE Hosts
After configuring the network server, the interface as shown in Figure 31.1, “Add Hosts” is
displayed.
Figure 31.1. Add Hosts
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Command Line Configuration
The next step is to configure which hosts are allowed to connect to the PXE boot server. For the
command line version of this step, refer to Section 3.1, “Command Line Configuration”.
To add hosts, click the New button.
Figure 31.2. Add a Host
Enter the following information:
• Hostname or IP Address/Subnet — The IP address, fully qualified hostname, or a subnet of
systems that should be allowed to connect to the PXE server for installations.
• Operating System — The operating system identifier to install on this client. The list is
populated from the network install instances created from the Network Installation Dialog.
• Serial Console — This option allows use of a serial console.
• Kickstart File — The location of a kickstart file to use, such as
http://server.example.com/kickstart/ks.cfg. This file can be created with the
Kickstart Configurator. Refer to Chapter 29, Kickstart Configurator for details.
Ignore the Snapshot name and Ethernet options. They are only used for diskless
environments.
3.1. Command Line Configuration
If the network server is not running X, the pxeboot utility, a part of the system-config-netboot
package, can be used to add hosts which are allowed to connect to the PXE server:
pxeboot -a -K <kickstart> -O <os-identifier> -r <value><host>
The following list explains the options:
• -a — Specifies that a host is to be added.
• -K<kickstart> — The location of the kickstart file, if available.
• -O<os-identifier> — Specifies the operating system identifier as defined in Section 2,
“PXE Boot Configuration”.
• -r<value> — Specifies the ram disk size.
• <host> — Specifies the IP address or hostname of the host to add.
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Chapter 31. PXE Network Installations
For more information on command line options available for the pxeboot command, refer to the
pxeboot man page.
4. TFTPD
4.1. Starting the tftp Server
On the DHCP server, verify that the tftp-server package is installed with the command rpm
-q tftp-server. If it is not installed, install it via Red Hat Network or the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux CD-ROMs.
Note
For more information on installing RPM packages, refer to the Package
Management Section of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
tftp is an xinetd-based service; start it with the following commands:
/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 xinetd on /sbin/chkconfig --level 345 tftp on
These commands configure the tftp and xinetd services to immediately turn on and also
configure them to start at boot time in runlevels 3, 4, and 5.
5. Configuring the DHCP Server
If a DHCP server does not already exist on the network, configure one. Refer to the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for details. Make sure the configuration file contains the
following so that PXE booting is enabled for systems which support it:
allow booting; allow bootp; class "pxeclients" { match if substring(option
vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient"; next-server <server-ip>;
filename "linux-install/pxelinux.0"; }
where the next-server <server-ip> should be replaced with the IP address of the tftp server.
6. Adding a Custom Boot Message
Optionally, modify /tftpboot/linux-install/msgs/boot.msg to use a custom boot message.
7. Performing the PXE Installation
For instructions on how to configure the network interface card with PXE support to boot from
the network, consult the documentation for the NIC. It varies slightly per card.
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Performing the PXE Installation
After the system boots the installation program, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation
Guide.
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