Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Installation Guide for x86, Itanium

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Installation Guide for x86, Itanium
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
Installation Guide for x86,
Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel®
Extended Memory 64
Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3: Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel®
Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
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Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i
1. Document Conventions.......................................................................................................... i
2. How to Use This Manual .....................................................................................................iii
2.1. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................. iv
3. Accessibility Solutions ........................................................................................................ iv
1. Itanium System Specific Information............................................................................................ 1
1.1. Itanium System Installation Overview............................................................................... 1
1.2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell .................................................................................... 1
1.2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names ............................................................. 1
1.2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition .......................................................... 2
2. Steps to Get You Started................................................................................................................. 3
2.1. Where to Find Other Manuals............................................................................................ 3
2.2. Registering Your Product ................................................................................................... 3
2.3. Is Your Hardware Compatible?.......................................................................................... 3
2.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?.................................................................................... 4
2.5. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?................................................................................ 4
2.5.1. Alternative Boot Methods................................................................................... 4
2.5.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM............................................................... 6
2.5.3. Making an Installation Boot Diskette ................................................................. 6
2.6. Preparing for a Network Installation.................................................................................. 8
2.6.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs .................................................................... 9
2.7. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation............................................................................ 10
3. System Requirements Table ......................................................................................................... 11
4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux........................................................................................... 13
4.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface ......................................................... 13
4.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles ......................................................................... 13
4.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface ....................................................... 14
4.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate ....................................................................... 16
4.3. Starting the Installation Program ..................................................................................... 16
4.3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
16
4.3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems ..................................... 18
4.3.3. Additional Boot Options ................................................................................... 18
4.4. Selecting an Installation Method ..................................................................................... 20
4.5. Installing from CD-ROM................................................................................................. 21
4.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found? .................................................... 21
4.6. Installing from a Hard Drive ............................................................................................ 22
4.7. Performing a Network Installation................................................................................... 23
4.8. Installing via NFS ............................................................................................................ 23
4.9. Installing via FTP............................................................................................................. 24
4.10. Installing via HTTP........................................................................................................ 25
4.11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux .......................................................................... 25
4.12. Language Selection........................................................................................................ 26
4.13. Keyboard Configuration................................................................................................. 26
4.14. Mouse Configuration ..................................................................................................... 27
4.15. Disk Partitioning Setup .................................................................................................. 28
4.16. Automatic Partitioning................................................................................................... 29
4.17. Partitioning Your System ............................................................................................... 31
4.17.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)................................................................ 32
4.17.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons ..................................................................................... 33
4.17.3. Partition Fields ................................................................................................ 33
4.17.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme ............................................................... 34
4.17.5. Adding Partitions ............................................................................................ 35
4.17.6. Editing Partitions ............................................................................................ 37
4.17.7. Deleting a Partition ......................................................................................... 37
4.18. x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration ..................................... 37
4.18.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration ............................................................ 39
4.18.2. Rescue Mode................................................................................................... 40
4.18.3. Alternative Boot Loaders ................................................................................ 41
4.18.4. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO .......................................................... 41
4.19. Network Configuration .................................................................................................. 42
4.20. Firewall Configuration ................................................................................................... 43
4.21. Language Support Selection .......................................................................................... 45
4.22. Time Zone Configuration............................................................................................... 46
4.23. Set Root Password ......................................................................................................... 47
4.24. Package Group Selection ............................................................................................... 49
4.25. Preparing to Install......................................................................................................... 51
4.26. Installing Packages......................................................................................................... 51
4.27. Video Card Configuration .............................................................................................. 51
4.28. X Configuration — Monitor and Customization ........................................................... 52
4.28.1. Configuring Your Monitor .............................................................................. 52
4.28.2. Custom Configuration..................................................................................... 53
4.29. Installation Complete ..................................................................................................... 54
4.30. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and Post-Installation Setup ...................... 55
4.30.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options............................................................ 56
4.30.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically.......................................... 56
A. Upgrading Your Current System................................................................................................ 59
A.1. What it Means to Upgrade .............................................................................................. 59
A.2. Upgrading Your System .................................................................................................. 59
A.3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration............................................................................... 60
A.3.1. Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration .................................................... 61
A.3.2. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration ............................................................. 63
A.3.3. Rescue Mode.................................................................................................... 64
A.3.4. Alternative Boot Loaders ................................................................................. 65
A.3.5. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO ........................................................... 65
A.4. Upgrading Packages........................................................................................................ 66
A.5. Upgrade Complete .......................................................................................................... 66
B. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux......................................................................................... 67
C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux............................................ 69
C.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux......................................................... 69
C.1.1. x86 Specific Instructions — Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?.... 69
C.1.2. x86 Specific Instructions — Are You Unable to Boot from a Boot Diskette?. 69
C.1.3. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card? ............................................ 70
C.1.4. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?.................................................. 70
C.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation.................................................................................. 71
C.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected? .......................................................................... 71
C.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation.................................... 71
C.3. Trouble During the Installation ....................................................................................... 72
C.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message........................................................................................................... 72
C.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive.................................... 72
C.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables ........................................................................... 72
C.3.4. Using Remaining Space ................................................................................... 72
C.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems for x86 System Users ......................................... 72
C.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users................................... 73
C.3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors? ....................................................................... 73
C.4. Problems After Installation ............................................................................................. 74
C.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System? ............ 74
C.4.2. Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen on an x86-based System? .............. 74
C.4.3. Booting into a Graphical Environment ............................................................ 75
C.4.4. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)................................................... 76
C.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In .................................................................. 76
C.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?............................................................. 76
C.4.7. Your Printer Will Not Work ............................................................................. 78
C.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration ................................................................ 78
C.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup....................... 78
C.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset........................................................................ 78
D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions............................................................................................. 81
D.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts .............................................................................................. 81
D.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It............................................ 81
D.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many ........................................................ 83
D.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions............... 84
D.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux.................................................. 85
D.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme ................................................................................ 89
D.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems.................................................. 90
D.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points .................................................................... 90
D.1.8. How Many Partitions?...................................................................................... 90
D.1.9. One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO ....................................................... 91
E. Driver Media................................................................................................................................. 93
E.1. Why Do I Need Driver Media? ....................................................................................... 93
E.1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?.................................................................. 93
E.1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media? ...................................................................... 93
E.1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation ........................................................ 94
F. Additional Boot Options .............................................................................................................. 95
G. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux....................................................................... 99
Index................................................................................................................................................. 101
Colophon.......................................................................................................................................... 107
Introduction
Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide. This guide contains useful information
to assist you during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3. From fundamental concepts such as
installation preparation to the step-by-step installation procedure, this book will be a valuable resource
as you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
1. Document Conventions
When you read this manual, certain words are represented in different fonts, typefaces, sizes, and
weights. This highlighting is systematic; different words are represented in the same style to indicate
their inclusion in a specific category. The types of words that are represented this way include the
following:
command
Linux commands (and other operating system commands, when used) are represented this way.
This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line
and press [Enter] to invoke a command. Sometimes a command contains words that would be
displayed in a different style on their own (such as file names). In these cases, they are considered
to be part of the command, so the entire phrase is displayed as a command. For example:
Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file, named testfile, in the current
working directory.
file name
File names, directory names, paths, and RPM package names are represented this way. This style
should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your system. Examples:
The .bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own
use.
The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and file systems.
Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program.
application
This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software).
For example:
Use Mozilla to browse the Web.
[key]
A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example:
To use [Tab] completion, type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. Your terminal displays
the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.
[key]-[combination]
A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. For example:
The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination exits your graphical session and return you to the
graphical login screen or the console.
ii
Introduction
text found on a GUI interface
A title, word, or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window is shown in this style. Text
shown in this style is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI
screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). Example:
Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password
before stopping.
top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window
A word in this style indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. If you click on
the word on the GUI screen, the rest of the menu should appear. For example:
Under File on a GNOME terminal, the New Tab option allows you to open multiple shell
prompts in the same window.
If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu, they are shown like the
following example:
Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text
editor.
button on a GUI screen or window
This style indicates that the text can be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. For example:
Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.
computer output
Text in this style indicates text displayed to a shell prompt such as error messages and responses
to commands. For example:
The ls command displays the contents of a directory. For example:
Desktop
Mail
about.html
backupfiles
logs
mail
paulwesterberg.png
reports
The output returned in response to the command (in this case, the contents of the directory) is
shown in this style.
prompt
A prompt, which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something, is
shown in this style. Examples:
$
#
[[email protected] stephen]$
leopard login:
user input
Text that the user has to type, either on the command line, or into a text box on a GUI screen, is
displayed in this style. In the following example, text is displayed in this style:
To boot your system into the text based installation program, you must type in the text command at the boot: prompt.
replaceable
Text used for examples which is meant to be replaced with data provided by the user is displayed
in this style. In the following example, version-number is displayed in this style:
Introduction
iii
The directory for the kernel source is /usr/src/ version-number /, where
version-number is the version of the kernel installed on this system.
Additionally, we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. In order of how critical the information is to your system, these items are marked as note, tip,
important, caution, or a warning. For example:
Note
Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words, a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE.
Tip
The directory /usr/share/doc/ contains additional documentation for packages installed on your
system.
Important
If you modify the DHCP configuration file, the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP
daemon.
Caution
Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root
account for system administration tasks.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
2. How to Use This Manual
This manual focuses on a CD-ROM-based installation and is ideal for users (both new and old) who
want a quick and simple installation solution. It helps you prepare your system and walk you through
the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
iv
Introduction
Note
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 (or greater) on an x86 system, you can perform an
upgrade.
Although upgrades are supported by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family on x86 processors, you
are likely to have a more consistent experience by backing up your data and then installing this
release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This
recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
To perform an upgrade, type the following command at the boot prompt:
linux upgrade
Skim Chapter 2 Steps to Get You Started to review the basics, then read Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, following the directions as you go. Once you have chosen to perform an upgrade
in the installation program, refer to Appendix A Upgrading Your Current System.
If you are an experienced user and you do not need a review of the basics, you can skip ahead to
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation process.
2.1. We Need Feedback!
If you discover a typo in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide or have thought of a way to
make this manual better, we would love to hear from you. Submit a bug report against the component
rhel-ig-x8664-multi in Bugzilla at:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual’s identifier:
rhel-ig-x8664-multi(EN)-3-Print-RHI (2003-07-25T17:10)
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding
text so we can find it easily.
If you have a support question (for example, if you need help configuring X, or if you are not sure
how to partition your hard drive[s]), use the online support system by registering your product at:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
3. Accessibility Solutions
While the graphic user interface (GUI) is convenient for sighted users, it is often inhibiting to those
with visual impairments because of the difficulty speech synthesizers have interpreting graphics. Red
Hat Enterprise Linux is an ideal operating system for users with visual limitations because the GUI is
not required by the kernel. Most modern tools including email, news, Web browsers, calendars, calculators, and much more can run on Linux without a graphical environment. The working environment
can also be customized to meet the hardware or software needs of the user.
Red Hat, Inc. is the distribution of choice for people with special needs because of the outstanding
support that is offered with the purchase of any boxed set. Many Linux distributions provide limited
or nonexistent support to customers. Red Hat’s installation support is deliverable via email or via
the telephone and special circumstances will be considered and addressed for users with physical
limitations. Customers should inform the support technician if they require specialized support.
Introduction
v
For more information, refer to:
•
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Accessibility-HOWTO/
•
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Keyboard-and-Console-HOWTO.html
•
The README-Accessibility file provides more information and instructions for
using some of the tools available for users with special needs. This file can be found in
/usr/share/doc/redhat-release-X/, where X is the release number of your installed
product.
vi
Introduction
Chapter 1.
Itanium System Specific Information
1.1. Itanium System Installation Overview
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system is different from installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an x86-based system. In general, the sequence of steps to a successful installation are
the following:
1. Boot into the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) Shell.
2. If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM, make an LS-120 diskette from the boot image file
provided with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
3. Using the EFI Shell and the ELILO bootloader, load and run the kernel, and boot into the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux installation program.
1.2. Itanium Systems — The EFI Shell
Before you start to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium, you must have a basic understanding of the EFI Shell, what it does, and the information it can provide.
The EFI Shell is a console interface used to launch applications (such as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
installation program), load EFI protocols and device drivers, and execute simple scripts. It is similar
to a DOS console and can only access media that is FAT16 (VFAT) formatted.
The EFI Shell also contains common utilities that can be used on the EFI system partition. These
utilities include edit, type, cp, rm, and mkdir. For a list of utilities and other commands, type help
at the EFI Shell prompt.
The EFI Shell contains a bootloader called ELILO. Additional information on EFI can be found at the
following URL:
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm
1.2.1. Itanium Systems — EFI Device Names
The map command can be used to list all devices and file systems that EFI can recognize. When your
Itanium system boots into the EFI shell, it probes your system in the following order:
1. LS-120 drive (if it contains media)
2. IDE hard drives on the primary IDE interface
3. IDE hard drives on the secondary IDE interface
4. SCSI hard drives on the SCSI interface
5. CD-ROM drives on the IDE interface
6. CD-ROM drives on the SCSI interface
To view the results of this system poll, type the following command at the EFI Shell prompt:
2
Chapter 1. Itanium System Specific Information
map
The output is listed in the order the system was probed. So, all FAT16 filesystems are listed first, then
IDE hard drives, then SCSI hard drives, then IDE CD-ROM drives, and finally SCSI CD-ROM drives.
For example, output of the map command might look like the following:
Device
fs0
fs1
fs2
blk0
blk1
blk2
blk3
blk4
blk5
blk6
blk7
blk8
blk9
mapping table
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
: VenHw(Unknown
Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:00)
Device:00)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)
Device:80)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part2,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)
Device:80)/HD(Part3,Sig00000000)/HD(Part1,Sig725F7772)
Device:FF)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)
Device:FF)/CDROM(Entry1)/HD(Part1,Sig00000000)
In this example, there is an LS-120 diskette in the LS-120 drive as well as a CD-ROM in the CDROM drive. All the listings beginning with fs are FAT16 file systems that EFI can read. All the
listings beginning with blk are block devices that EFI recognizes. Both the file systems and block
devices are listed in the order they are probed. Therefore, fs0 is the system partition on the LS-120,
fs1 is the system partition on the hard drive, and fs2 is the system partition on the CD-ROM.
1.2.2. Itanium Systems — EFI System Partition
When partitioning your hard drive for Linux, you must create a system partition that is FAT16 (VFAT)
formatted and has a mount point of /boot/efi/. This partition contains the installed Linux kernel(s)
as well as the ELILO configuration file (elilo.conf). The elilo.conf file contains a list of kernels
from which you can boot your system.
Chapter 2.
Steps to Get You Started
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to this documentation
being finalized. The Release Notes can be found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and online
at:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/
2.1. Where to Find Other Manuals
If your particular product did not include all of the printed Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals, you
can find them online or on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD included with your Red
Hat Enterprise Linux product.
To find the manuals in HTML, PDF, and RPM formats online, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/
2.2. Registering Your Product
Registration enables access to the Red Hat Services you have purchased, such as technical support
and Red Hat Network. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
Note
You must activate your product before attempting to connect to Red Hat Network. If your product
has not been activated, Red Hat Network rejects registration to channels to which the system is not
entitled.
2.3. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you
built yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 should be compatible with most hardware in systems that
were factory built within the last two years. However, hardware specifications change almost daily, so
it is hard to guarantee that your hardware will be 100% compatible.
4
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
2.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is
no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions.
If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer
to Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other
OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a different version of
Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T) systems, at
least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For Itanium systems,
at least three partitions (/, /boot/efi/, and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, one of the following conditions must be met:
•
Your computer must have enough unpartitioned1 disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
•
You must have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to
install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning sizes
discussed in Section 4.17.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create free disk
space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to Appendix D An Introduction to Disk
Partitions.
2.5. Can You Install Using the CD-ROM?
There are several methods that can be used to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a CD-ROM requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 product, or
you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM, and you have a CD-ROM drive. Most new computers
allow booting from the CD-ROM. If your system supports booting from the CD-ROM, it is an easy
way to begin a local CD-ROM installation.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your CD-ROM drive. For more information
about changing your BIOS, refer to Section 4.3.1 Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64,
and Intel® EM64T Systems.
2.5.1. Alternative Boot Methods
Boot CD-ROM
If you can boot using the CD-ROM drive, you can create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program. This may be useful, for example, if you are performing an installation over a
network or from a hard drive. Refer to Section 2.5.2 Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM for
further instructions.
1.
Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drive(s) you are installing to has not
been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk drive.
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
5
If you choose to create a boot CD-ROM, it is not necessary to create a driver diskette.
If you cannot boot from the CD-ROM drive, the following alternative boot method is available:
Boot Diskette
If you need a boot diskette2 , you must create it. A boot diskette is needed if you cannot boot from
the CD-ROM. It can be used to boot from a network, block, or PCMCIA device (you also need
the corresponding driver diskette for your booting scenario).
The boot diskette image file, bootdisk.img, is located in the images/ directory on the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. Refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette, for
more information on making a boot diskette.
If you choose to create a boot diskette, you must also create the appropriate driver diskette if you
are installing over a network or from a hard drive.
Driver Diskettes
If you are performing anything other than a IDE CD-ROM or hard disk installation and are
using a boot diskette, you will need at least one driver diskette that you must make in advance.
You will be prompted by the installation program to insert the driver diskette at the correct time.
For more information on driver diskettes, refer to Appendix E Driver Media.
During your installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the following driver diskettes may be
required:
Network Device Drivers Diskette
If you need a network device drivers diskette to boot from a network, you must create it. The
network device driver diskette image file, drvnet.img, is located in the images/ directory
on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. Refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot
Diskette or Appendix E Driver Media, for more information on making a diskette.
Block Device Drivers Diskette
If you need a block device driver diskette to boot from a block device (for example, a
SCSI CD-ROM drive), you must create it. The block device driver diskette image file,
drvblock.img, is located in the images/ directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD
#1. Refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette or Appendix E Driver Media, for more information on making a diskette.
PCMCIA Device Drivers Diskette
If you are using a PCMCIA device to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux you need a PCMCIA
device driver diskette. If you need a PCMCIA device driver diskette, you must create it.
The following checklist can help you determine if you must create a PCMCIA device driver
diskette:
2.
•
You will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a CD-ROM, and your CD-ROM drive is
attached to your computer through a PCMCIA card.
•
You will use a PCMCIA network adapter during the installation.
A boot diskette can be a diskette you created to boot (or start) the installation program, or it can be a diskette
you create during the installation process that can later be used to boot the operating system. Normally, your
computer boots from a hard disk, but if the hard disk is damaged, you can boot the computer from a bootable
diskette.
6
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
The PCMCIA device driver diskette image file, pcmciadd.img, is located in the images/
directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. Refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette or Appendix E Driver Media, for more information on making a
diskette.
Note
USB Diskette Drive — You can also boot the installation program using a boot diskette in a USB
diskette drive (if your system supports booting from a USB diskette drive).
2.5.2. Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM
isolinux (not available for Itanium systems) is used for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux in-
stallation CD. To create your own CD-ROM to boot the installation program, use the following instructions:
Copy the isolinux/ directory from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 into a temporary directory
(referred to here as path-to-workspace ) using the following command:
cp -r
path-to-cd
/isolinux/
Change directories to the
cd
path-to-workspace
path-to-workspace
path-to-workspace
directory you have created:
Make sure the files you have copied have appropriate permissions:
chmod u+w isolinux/*
Finally, issue the following command to create the ISO image file:
mkisofs -o file.iso -b isolinux.bin -c boot.cat -no-emul-boot \
-boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -R -J -v -T isolinux/
Note
The above command was split into two lines for printing purposes only. When you execute this command, be sure to type it as a single command, all on the same line.
Burn the resulting ISO image (named file.iso and located in
ROM as you normally would.
path-to-workspace ) to a CD
2.5.3. Making an Installation Boot Diskette
isolinux (not available for Itanium systems) is used for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux in-
stallation CD. If you have problems booting from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD, you can write
the images/bootdisk.img image to a diskette.
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
7
You may need to create a diskette from an image file; for example, you may need to use updated
diskette images obtained from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux errata page:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/support/errata/
An image file contains an exact copy (or image) of a diskette’s contents. Since a diskette contains file
system information in addition to the data contained in files, the contents of the image file are not
usable until they have been written to a diskette.
For x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems: You need a blank, formatted, high-density (1.44MB),
3.5-inch diskette and access to a computer with a 3.5-inch diskette drive.
For Itanium systems: You need an LS-120 diskette and an LS-120 diskette drive.
The computer must be able to run either an MS-DOS program or the dd utility found on most Linuxlike operating systems.
The images/ directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 contains boot images. Once you have
selected the proper image (bootdisk.img), transfer the image file onto a diskette using one of the
following methods.
2.5.3.1. Using the rawrite Utility
To make a diskette using MS-DOS, use the rawrite utility included on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD #1 in the dosutils/ directory. First, label a blank, formatted diskette appropriately (such as
Boot Disk or Updates Disk). Insert it into the diskette drive. Then, use the following commands (assuming your CD-ROM is drive D:):
C:\ d:
D:\ cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils rawrite
Enter disk image source file name: ..\images\bootdisk.img
Enter target diskette drive: a:
Please insert a formatted diskette into drive A: and
press --ENTER-- : [Enter]
D:\dosutils
First, rawrite asks you for the file name of a diskette image; enter the directory and name of the
image to write (for example, ..\images\bootdisk.img). Then rawrite asks for a diskette drive
to write the image to; enter a:. Finally, rawrite asks for confirmation that a formatted diskette is
in the drive you have selected. After pressing [Enter] to confirm, rawrite copies the image file onto
the diskette. To make another diskette, label that diskette, and run rawrite again, specifying the
appropriate image file.
Note
The rawrite utility only accepts 8.3-type file names, such as filename.img 3 . If you
download an update image from http://www.redhat.com/ named something similar to
update-anaconda-03292002.img, you must rename it as updates.img before you run rawrite.
3. The 8.3-type file name originates from the naming convention of eight characters, a period, and
three characters for a file name extension. This naming convention supports file names between 1 and
8 characters, which cannot have spaces, and may not contain ? or _ characters at the start of the
name.
8
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
2.5.3.2. Using the dd Command
To make a diskette under Linux (or any other Linux-like operating system), you must have permission
to write to the device representing a diskette drive (known as /dev/fd0 under Linux).
First, label a blank, formatted diskette appropriately (such as Boot Diskette or Updates
Diskette). Insert it into the diskette drive (but do not mount4 the diskette). After mounting the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM, change to the directory containing the desired image file, and
use the following command (changing the name of the image file and diskette device as appropriate):
dd if=bootdisk.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k
To make another diskette, label that diskette, and run dd again, specifying the appropriate image file.
2.6. Preparing for a Network Installation
Note
Make sure an installation CD (or any other type of CD) is not your hosting partition’s drive if you are
performing a network-based installation. Having a CD in the drive may cause unexpected errors.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media must be available for either a network installation
(via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a seperate machine
which can provide the complete RedHat/ directory. Both the RedHat/base/ and RedHat/RPMS/
directories must be available and populated with all files from all installation CD-ROMs.
Note
The directory specified in the following refers to /location/of/disk/space/. This means it is the
directory up to, but not including, the RedHat/ distribution directory. For example, if you have Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 3 installation files located in /export/redhat/ on the installation staging server,
/location/of/disk/space/ would be /export/redhat/.
To copy the RedHat/ directory from the installation CD-ROMs to a Linux machine which acts as an
installation staging server, perform the following steps:
•
For each binary CD-ROM, execute the following commands:
•
mount /mnt/cdrom
•
cp -var /mnt/cdrom/RedHat /location/of/disk/space
where /location/of/disk/space/ is a directory you create such as /export/redhat/
•
4.
umount /mnt/cdrom/
When you mount a diskette or CD-ROM, you make that device’s contents available to you.
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
•
9
Note that the Release Notes are not included in the RedHat directory. Unless they are specifically
copied over, the Release Notes will not be available during your installation of Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. The Release Notes are formatted in HTML files located at the root of the disc. Copy the files
to your installation directory. For example:
cp /mnt/cdrom/RELEASE-NOTES*.html /location/of/disk/space/
The Release Notes are also available online from http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
•
Next, make /location/of/disk/space/ accessible to the installation program via NFS, FTP,
or HTTP and verify access from a client.
•
For NFS, export the directory by adding an entry to /etc/exports to export to a specific system:
/location/of/disk/space client.ip.address(ro,no_root_squash)
To export to all machines (not appropriate for all NFS systems), add:
/location/of/disk/space *(ro,no_root_squash)
Start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux machine, use /sbin/service nfs
start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux
system, use /usr/bin/service nfs reload).
Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System
Administration Guide.
If the RedHat/ directory does not appear in the NFS shared directory, the wrong path may have
been mounted and/or exported.
•
FTP and HTTP installations also support a second type of tree structure. To make it easier to access
the contents of the installation CD-ROMs, mount each CD-ROM or ISO image with the following
mount point on the FTP or HTTP server (where X is the number of the CD-ROM or ISO image):
/location/of/disk/space/discX/
For example:
mount -o loop CD1.iso /location/of/disk/space/disc1/
2.6.1. Using ISO Images for NFS Installs
NFS installations can use ISO (or CD-ROM) images rather than copying an entire installation tree.
After placing the required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs) in a directory,
choose to install via NFS. You will then point the installation program at that directory to perform the
installation.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid problems
that are often encountered during an NFS installation. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to
performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various
operating systems). An md5sum program should be available on the same server as the ISO images.
Note
ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO image, at
the installation boot prompt, type (prepend with elilo for Itanium systems):
linux mediacheck
Additionally, if a file called updates.img exists in the directory from which you install, then it will
be used for installation program updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the anaconda
10
Chapter 2. Steps to Get You Started
RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as
well as how to apply the installation program updates.
Note
You can only have the ISO images for one release and one variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the
directory.
2.7. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
Hard drive installations require a working Linux system installed and the use of ISO (or CD-ROM)
images rather than the entire installation tree.
Hard drive installations only work from ext2 or ext3 file systems.
•
Set of CD-ROMs — Create CD-ROM ISO image files from each installation CD-ROMs. For each
CD-ROM, execute the following command on a Linux system:
•
ISO images — transfer these images to the system to be installed.
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/file-name.iso
Verifying that ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation, helps to avoid problems.
To verify the ISO images are intact prior to performing an installation, use an md5sum program
(many md5sum programs are available for various operating systems). An md5sum program should
be available on the same Linux machine as the ISO images.
Chapter 3.
System Requirements Table
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
This system requirements table will help you keep a record of your current system settings and requirements. Enter information about your system in the table provided as a handy reference to help
make your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation go more smoothly.
hard drive(s): type, label,
size; ex: IDE hda=40 GB
partitions: map of
partitions and mount
points; ex:
/dev/hda1=/home,
/dev/hda2=/ (fill this in
once you know where they
will reside)
memory: amount of RAM
installed on your system;
ex: 128 MB, 512 MB
CD-ROM: interface type;
ex: SCSI, IDE (ATAPI)
SCSI adapter: if present,
make and model number;
ex: BusLogic SCSI
Adapter, Adaptec
2940UW
network card: if present,
make and model number;
ex: Tulip, 3COM 3C590
mouse: type, protocol, and
number of buttons; ex:
generic 3 button PS/2
mouse, MouseMan 2
button serial mouse
monitor: make, model, and
manufacturer
specifications; ex:
Optiquest Q53, ViewSonic
G773
video card: make, model
number and size of
VRAM; ex: Creative Labs
Graphics Blaster 3D, 8MB
12
Chapter 3. System Requirements Table
sound card: make, chipset
and model number; ex: S3
SonicVibes, Sound Blaster
32/64 AWE
IP, DHCP, and BOOTP
addresses: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
10.0.2.15
netmask: four numbers,
separated by dots; ex:
255.255.248.0
gateway IP address: four
numbers, separated by
dots; ex: 10.0.2.245
one or more name server
IP addresses (DNS): one
or more sets of
dot-separated numbers; ex:
10.0.2.1
domain name: the name
given to your organization;
ex: example.com
hostname: the name of
your computer; your
personal choice of names;
ex: cookie, southpark
Table 3-1. System Requirements Table
If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network administrator for assistance.
Chapter 4.
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
This chapter explains how to perform a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from the CD-ROM,
using the graphical, mouse-based installation program. The following topics are discussed:
•
Becoming familiar with the installation program’s user interface
•
Starting the installation program
•
Selecting an installation method
•
Configuration steps during the installation (language, keyboard, mouse, partitioning, etc.)
•
Finishing the installation
4.1. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process;
use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields. You can also navigate
through the installation using the [Tab] and [Enter] keys.
Note
If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, and you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation
program, use the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 4.2 The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface for a brief overview of text
mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. The GUI
installation program offers the full functunality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program,
including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation instructions
and obtain all needed information.
Note
If you are using an Itanium system, and you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the
text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation program, type the
following command at the EFI Shell prompt:
elilo linux text
14
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.1.1. A Note about Virtual Consoles
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation process. Several different kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, in addition to providing a way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages
on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise
Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer
to Table 4-1 for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #7 for graphical installations)
unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Console
Keystrokes
Contents
1
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F1]
installation dialog
2
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2]
shell prompt
3
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F3]
install log (messages from
installation program)
4
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F4]
system-related messages
5
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F5]
other messages
7
[Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F7]
X graphical display
Table 4-1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
4.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux text mode installation program uses a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 4-1, and
Figure 4-2, illustrate the screens that appear during the installation process.
Note
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation
program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions and obtain all needed information.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15
Figure 4-1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Boot Loader Configuration
Figure 4-2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Disk Druid
Here is a list of the most important widgets shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2:
•
Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you can only
interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you
to continue working in the window underneath.
•
Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an
asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press [Space] to
select or deselect a feature.
•
Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on
that line.
•
Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets
may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information
16
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor
within the text widget, you can then use the [Up] and [Down] arrow keys to scroll through all
the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which
moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
•
Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or
document is currently in the window’s frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a
file.
•
Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons,
using the [Tab] and [Enter] keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
•
Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact) with a particular widget.
As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor
itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 4-1, the cursor is positioned on
the OK button. Figure 4-2, shows the cursor on the Edit button.
4.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move
the cursor, use the [Left], [Right], [Up], and [Down] arrow keys. Use [Tab], and [Alt]-[Tab] to cycle
forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a
summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using [Tab], for example) and press [Space]
or [Enter]. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and
press [Enter]. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press [Space]
to select an item. To deselect, press [Space] a second time.
Pressing [F12] accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing
the OK button.
Caution
Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process
(doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).
4.3. Starting the Installation Program
To start, boot the installation program. Make sure you have all the resources you need for the installation. If you have already read through Chapter 2 Steps to Get You Started, and followed the
instructions, you should be ready to begin.
Note
Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver diskette during the installation. A driver
diskette adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation program. Refer
to Appendix E Driver Media for more information.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17
4.3.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T
Systems
You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending upon what
your system can support):
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you
have the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM set.
•
Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to perform
network or hard drive installation.
•
Boot diskette — Your machine does not support a bootable CD-ROM and you want to install from
a local CD-ROM, network, or a hard drive1
To create a boot CD-ROM, refer to Section 2.5.2 Making an Installation Boot CD-ROM.
To create a boot diskette, refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette.
Insert the boot diskette into your computer’s first diskette drive and reboot (or boot using the CDROM, if your computer supports booting from it). Your BIOS settings may need to be changed to
allow you to boot from the diskette or CD-ROM.
Tip
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, watch the instructions
provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key
to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot
sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C]
or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the CD-ROM is first in your boot order and that
C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at
the CD-ROM drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the CD-ROM drive, it will
then check your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that
came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens associated
with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the line at the bottom
of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
•
Once the boot: prompt appears, the installation program automatically begins if you take no action
within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen function keys.
•
If you press a help screen function key, there will be a slight delay while the help screen is read
from the boot media.
Normally, you only need to press [Enter] to boot. Watch the boot messages to review if the Linux
kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, continue to the next section. If
it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the installation and use one of the
boot options provided in Appendix F Additional Boot Options.
1.
isolinux (not available for Itanium systems) is used for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation
CD. If you have problems booting from the CD, refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette for
further instructions.
18
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.3.2. Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems
Your Itanium system may be able to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program directly
from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. If your Itanium cannot boot the installation program from
the CD-ROM (or if you want to perform a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation) you must boot
from a diskette. Refer to Section 4.3.2.2 Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette
for more information on booting from a diskette.
4.3.2.1. Booting the Installation Program from the CD-ROM
To boot from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 follow these steps:
1. Remove all media except Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell prompt, change to the file system on the CD-ROM. For example, in the above
sample map output, the system partition on the CD-ROM is fs1. To change to the fs1 file
system, type fs1: at the prompt.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation.
4.3.2.2. Booting the Installation Program from an LS-120 Diskette
If your Itanium cannot boot from Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1, you must boot from an LS-120
diskette. If you want to perform a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you must boot from
boot LS-120 diskette.
You must create an LS-120 boot image file diskette from the boot image file on CD #1:
images/boot.img. To create this diskette in Linux, insert a blank LS-120 diskette and type the
following command at a shell prompt:
dd if=boot.img of=/dev/hda bs=180k
Replace boot.img with the full path to the boot image file and /dev/hda with the correct device
name for the LS-120 diskette drive.
If you are not using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD, the installation program starts in text mode and
you must choose a few basic options for your system.
If you are using the CD-ROM to load the installation program, follow the instructions contained in
Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To boot from an LS-120 diskette follow these steps:
1. Insert the LS-120 diskette you made from the boot image file boot.img. If you are performing
a local CD-ROM installation but booting off the LS-120 diskette, insert the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux CD #1 also. If you are performing a hard drive, NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation, you do
not need the CD-ROM.
2. From the Boot Option menu choose EFI Shell.
3. At the Shell prompt, change the device to the LS-120 drive by typing the command fs0:,
using the example map output above.
4. Type elilo linux to boot into the installation program.
5. Go to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux to begin the installation.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
19
4.3.3. Additional Boot Options
While it is easiest to boot using a CD-ROM and perform a graphical installation, sometimes there
are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This section discusses
additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For Itanium users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an Itanium system, enter the following at the EFI Shell prompt:
elilo linux option
For x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T users:
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, use the instructions
as provided in the boot loader option samples below.
Note
Refer to Appendix F Additional Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in this section.
•
To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
•
ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO image,
at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux text
linux mediacheck
The installation program will prompt you to insert a CD or select an ISO image to test, and select
OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed on any Red
Hat Enterprise Linux CD and does not have to be performed in a specific order (for example, CD #1
does not have the be the first CD you verify). It is strongly recommended to perform this operation
on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD that was created from downloaded ISO images. This command
works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
•
Also in the images/ directory is the boot.iso file. This file is an ISO image than can be used to
boot the installation program. It is a handy way to start network-based installations without having
to use multiple diskettes. To use the boot.iso, your computer must be able to boot from its CDROM drive, and its BIOS settings must be configured to do so. You must then burn the boot.iso
file onto a recordable/rewriteable CD-ROM.
•
If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
linux console= device
For text mode installations, use:
linux text console= device
In the above command, device should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or ttyS1).
For example, linux text console=ttyS0.
Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports UTF-8. Under
UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit ’95 works well. Non-UTF-8 capable terminals will work as long as only English is used during the installation process. An enhanced
serial display can be used by passing the utf8 command as a boot-time option to the installation
program. For example:
linux console=ttyS0 utf8
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.3.3.1. Kernel Options
Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to instruct the kernel to use all the RAM in a
system with 128 MB of RAM, at the installation boot prompt, enter:
linux mem=128M
For text mode installations, use:
linux text mem=128M
After entering any options, press [Enter] to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The boot
options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to Section
4.18 x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration for more information).
4.3.3.2. Booting Without Diskettes on x86-based Systems
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM can be booted by computers that support bootable CDROMs. Not all computers support this feature, so if your system cannot boot from the CD-ROM,
there is one other way to start the installation without using a boot diskette. The following method is
specific to x86-based computers only.
If you have MS-DOS installed on your system, you can boot directly from the CD-ROM drive without
using a boot diskette. To do this (assuming your CD-ROM is drive d:), use the following commands:
d:
C:\
D:\
cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils autoboot.bat
This method does not work if run in a DOS window — the autoboot.bat file must be executed with
DOS as the only operating system. In other words, Windows cannot be running.
If your computer cannot boot directly from CD-ROM (and you cannot use a DOS-based
autoboot.bat), use a boot diskette to start the installation.
4.4. Selecting an Installation Method
What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are available:
CD-ROM
If you have a CD-ROM drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, you can use this
method. You need a boot diskette or the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. A PCMCIA driver
diskette may also be used. Refer to Section 4.5 Installing from CD-ROM, for CD-ROM installation instructions.
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can
use this method. You need a boot diskette or a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot
option). A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. Refer to Section 4.6 Installing from a Hard
Drive, for hard drive installation instructions.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
21
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot diskette or a boot CD-ROM (use the
linux askmethod boot option). You may also need a network driver diskette. A PCMCIA
driver diskette may also be used. Refer to Section 4.8 Installing via NFS for network installation
instructions. Note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
FTP
If you are installing directly from an FTP server, use this method. You need a boot diskette or a
boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). You may also need a network driver
diskette. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. Refer to Section 4.9 Installing via FTP,
for FTP installation instructions.
HTTP
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server, use this method. You need a boot
diskette or a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod boot option). You may also need a
network driver diskette. A PCMCIA driver diskette may also be used. Refer to Section 4.10
Installing via HTTP, for HTTP installation instructions.
4.5. Installing from CD-ROM
To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a CD-ROM, choose the CD-ROM option and select OK.
When prompted, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD into your CD-ROM drive (if you did not
boot from the CD). Once the CD is in the CD-ROM drive, select OK, and press [Enter].
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your CD-ROM drive. It
starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) CD-ROM drive. If found, continue to the next
stage of the installation process (refer to Section 4.12 Language Selection).
Note
To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot diskette
or CD-ROM. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the About to Install screen.
Refer to Section 4.25 Preparing to Install for more information.
If your CD-ROM drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI CD-ROM, the installation program prompts
you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may
specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
Tip
A partial list of optional parameters for CD-ROM drives can be found in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Reference Guide, in the General Parameters and Modules appendix.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.5.1. What If the IDE CD-ROM Was Not Found?
If you have an IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM on an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, but the installation program fails to find your IDE (ATAPI) CD-ROM and asks you what type of CD-ROM drive you
have, try the following boot command. Restart the installation, and at the boot: prompt enter linux
hdX=cdrom. Replace the X with one of the following letters, depending on the interface the unit is
connected to, and whether it is configured as master or slave (also known as primary and secondary):
• a
— first IDE controller, master
• b
— first IDE controller, slave
• c
— second IDE controller, master
• d
— second IDE controller, slave
If you have a third and/or fourth controller, continue assigning letters in alphabetical order, going from
controller to controller, and master to slave.
4.6. Installing from a Hard Drive
Note
Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, or FAT file systems. If you have a file system other
than those listed here, such as reiserfs, you will not be able to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations require the use of the ISO (or CD-ROM) images. An ISO image is a file
containing an exact copy of a CD-ROM disk image. Because Red Hat Enterprise Linux has so many
packages included with its distribution, there are several ISO images available. After placing the
required ISO images (the binary Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs) in a directory, choose to install
from the hard drive. You can then point the installation program at that directory to perform the
installation.
Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation will help to avoid problems
that are often encountered during a hard drive installation. To verify the ISO images are intact prior to
performing an installation, use an md5sum program (many md5sum programs are available for various
operating systems). An md5sum program should be available on the same server as the ISO images.
Note
ISO images have an md5sum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO image, at
the installation boot prompt, type:
linux mediacheck
Itanium users should use the elilo linux mediacheck command.
Additionally, if a file called RedHat/base/updates.img exists in the directory from which you
install, it is used for installation program updates. Refer to the file install-methods.txt in the
anaconda RPM package for detailed information on the various ways to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, as well as how to apply the installation program updates.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23
Figure 4-3. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you
selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk
partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images. There is
also a field labeled Directory holding images.
If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of that partition, enter the path to the ISO images
(for example, if the partition on which the ISO images are located is normally mounted as /home/,
and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter new).
If the ISO images are not in the root (top-level) directory of that partition, enter the full path to the ISO
images (for example, if the ISO images are located in /test/new/, you would enter /test/new/).
After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.
4.7. Performing a Network Installation
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks
for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of
the device via DHCP or manually. If manually, enter the IP address you are using during installation
and press [Enter]. The installation program attempts to guess your Netmask based on your IP address;
you may change the netmask if it is incorrect. Press [Enter]. The installation program guesses the
Default gateway and Primary nameserver addresses from your IP address and netmask; you may
change them if they are incorrect.
4.8. Installing via NFS
The NFS dialog applies only if you are installing from an NFS server (if you supplied x86 system drivers from a network or PCMCIA driver diskette and selected NFS Image in the Installation
Method dialog).
Enter the domain name of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a host named
eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 2.6
Preparing for a Network Installation, you would enter the directory /location/of/disk/space/
which contains the RedHat/ directory.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter
the directory which contains the RedHat/ directory. (If you do not know this directory
path, ask your system administrator.) For example, if the NFS site contains the directory
/mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch is replaced
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything was
specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux is running.
Figure 4-4. NFS Setup Dialog
If the NFS server is exporting the ISO images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs, enter the
directory which contains the ISO images.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
4.9. Installing via FTP
The FTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an FTP server (if you selected FTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to identify the FTP server from which you are
installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Figure 4-5. FTP Setup Dialog
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP site you are installing from, and the name of the directory
containing the RedHat/ installation files for your architecture. For example, if the FTP site contains
the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch
is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything
was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
25
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO images without copying them into a single tree
by loopback mounting them. For each ISO image:
mkdir disc1
mount -o loop example-1.iso disc1
4.10. Installing via HTTP
The HTTP dialog applies only if you are installing from an HTTP server (if you selected HTTP in the
Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the HTTP server from
which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Enter the name or IP address of the HTTP site you are installing from, and the name of the directory
containing the RedHat/ installation files for your architecture. For example, if the HTTP site contains
the directory /mirrors/redhat/arch/RedHat/, enter /mirrors/redhat/arch/ (where arch
is replaced with the architecture type of your system, such as i386, ia64, ppc, or s390). If everything
was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that base/hdlist is being retrieved.
Figure 4-6. HTTP Setup Dialog
Next, the Welcome dialog appears.
Tip
You can save disk space by using the ISO images you have already copied to the server. To accomplish this, install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using ISO images without copying them into a single tree
by loopback mounting them. For each ISO image:
mkdir disc1
mount -o loop example-1.iso disc1
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.11. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. Read over the help text in the left panel for
additional instructions and information on where to register your Red Hat Enterprise Linux product.
Notice the Hide Help button at the bottom left corner of the screen. The help screen is open by default.
If you do not want to view the help information, click on Hide Help to minimize the help portion of
the screen.
Click on the Next button to continue.
4.12. Language Selection
Using your mouse, select the language you would prefer to use for the installation (refer to Figure
4-7).
Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on
this screen.
Figure 4-7. Language Selection
Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.
4.13. Keyboard Configuration
Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you
would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to Figure 4-8).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
27
Figure 4-8. Keyboard Configuration
Tip
To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the Keyboard
Configuration Tool.
Type the redhat-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.14. Mouse Configuration
Choose the correct mouse type for your system. If you cannot find an exact match, choose a mouse
type that you are sure is compatible with your system (refer to Figure 4-9).
To determine your mouse’s interface, follow the mouse cable back to where it plugs into your system
and use the following diagrams.
If your mouse is a serial mouse, the port looks similar to
.
If your mouse is a PS/2 mouse, the port looks similar to
.
If your mouse is a USB mouse, the port looks similar to
.
If you cannot find a mouse that you are sure is compatible with your system, select one of the Generic
entries, based on your mouse’s number of buttons, and its interface.
Tip
If you have a scroll mouse, select the Generic - Wheel Mouse entry (with your proper mouse port)
as the compatible mouse type.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
If you have a PS/2, USB, or Bus mouse, you do not need to pick a port and device. If you have a serial
mouse, choose the correct port and device that your serial mouse is on.
The Emulate 3 buttons checkbox allows you to use a two-button mouse as if it had three buttons. In
general, the graphical interface (the X Window System) is easier to use with a three-button mouse. If
you select this checkbox, you can emulate a third, "middle" button by pressing both mouse buttons
simultaneously.
Figure 4-9. Mouse Configuration
Tip
To change your mouse configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Mouse Configuration Tool.
Type the redhat-config-mouse command in a shell prompt to launch the Mouse Configuration
Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To configure your mouse to work as a left-handed mouse, reset the order of the mouse buttons. To do
this, after you have booted the system, go to the Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Preferences
=> Mouse.
4.15. Disk Partitioning Setup
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves
as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you
are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix D An Introduction to Disk
Partitions for more information.
On this screen, you can choose to perform automatic partitioning, or manual partitioning using Disk
Druid.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
29
Automatic partitioning allows you to perform an installation without having to partition your drive(s)
yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is recommended that you do
not choose to partition manually and instead let the installation program partition for you.
To partition manually, choose the Disk Druid partitioning tool.
Warning
The Red Hat Update Agent downloads updated packages to /var/spool/up2date/ by default.
If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to create the
partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
Figure 4-10. Disk Partitioning Setup
If you chose to manually partition using Disk Druid, refer to Section 4.17 Partitioning Your System.
Warning
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation saying something
similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
You may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data
to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began).
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.16. Automatic Partitioning
Automatic partitioning allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed (if any)
from your system. Your options are:
•
Remove all Linux partitions on this system — select this option to remove only Linux partitions
(partitions created from a previous Linux installation). This will not remove other partitions you
may have on your hard drive(s) (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
•
Remove all partitions on this system — select this option to remove all partitions on your hard
drive(s) (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows or NTFS
partitions).
Caution
If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive(s) is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drive(s)
where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
•
Keep all partitions and use existing free space — select this option to retain your current data
and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your hard drive(s).
Figure 4-11. Automatic Partitioning
Using your mouse, choose the hard drive(s) on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be
installed. If you have two or more hard drives, you can choose which hard drive(s) should contain this
installation. Unselected hard drives, and any data on them, are not touched.
Note
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are
upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your
hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
31
Caution
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In
cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array,
such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with
problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and manually
edit your /boot/ partition.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select
the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created
for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your
needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.
4.17. Partitioning Your System
If you chose automatic partitioning and did not select Review, skip ahead to Section 4.19 Network
Configuration.
If you chose automatic partitioning and selected Review, you can either accept the current partition
settings (click Next), or modify the setup using Disk Druid, the manual partitioning tool.
At this point, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This
is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux
will be installed. You may also need to create and/or delete partitions at this time.
Note
If you have not yet planned how you will set up your partitions, refer to Appendix D An Introduction
to Disk Partitions. At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and a swap
partition equal to twice the amount of RAM you have on the system. Itanium system users will need
a /boot/efi/ partition of approximately 100 MB and of type FAT (VFAT), a swap partition of at least
512 MB, and an appropriately-sized root (/) partition.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-12. Partitioning with Disk Druid on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems
Figure 4-13. Partitioning with Disk Druid on Itanium Systems
The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid. With the exception of certain
esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
4.17.1. Graphical Display of Hard Drive(s)
Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive(s).
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to
edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/hda), the Geom (which shows the
hard disk’s geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads, and
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
33
sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected by the installation
program.
4.17.2. Disk Druid’s Buttons
These buttons control Disk Druid’s actions. They are used to change the attributes of a partition (for
example the file system type and mount point) and also to create RAID devices. Buttons on this screen
are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk Druid. For further explanation,
take a look at each button in order:
•
New: Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing fields (such
as mount point and size) that must be filled in.
•
Edit: Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section. Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on whether the
partition information has already been written to disk.
You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new partition within
that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button, or double-click on the
free space to edit it.
•
To make a RAID device, you must first create (or reuse existing) software RAID partitions. Once
you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select Make RAID to join the software
RAID partitions into a RAID device.
•
Delete: Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions section.
You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition.
•
Reset: Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if you Reset
the partitions.
•
RAID: Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions. It should only be used if you have
experience using RAID. To read more about RAID, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System
Administration Guide.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created
two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a
RAID device.
•
LVM: Allows you to create an LVM logical volume. The role of LVM (Logical Volume Manager)
is to present a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a hard drive(s).
LVM manages individual physical disks — or to be more precise, the individual partitions present
on them. It should only be used if you have experience using LVM. To read more about LVM, refer
to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide. Note, LVM is only available in the
graphical installation program.
To create an LVM logical volume, you must first create partitions of type physical volume (LVM).
Once you have created one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions, select LVM to create an
LVM logical volume.
4.17.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are creating. The labels are defined as follows:
•
Device: This field displays the partition’s device name.
•
Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at which
a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the partition is
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount point. Double-click
on the partition or click the Edit button.
•
Type: This field shows the partition’s type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat).
•
Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted.
•
Size (MB): This field shows the partition’s size (in MB).
•
Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins.
•
End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends.
Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want to view
any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
4.17.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions
for Itanuim systems:
•
A /boot/efi/ partition (100 MB minimum) — the partition mounted on /boot/efi/ contains
all the installed kernels, the initrd images, and ELILO configuration files.
Warning
You must create a /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT and at least 100 MB in size as the first
primary partition.
•
A swap partition (512 MB minimum) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In
other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data
your system is processing. If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice
the amount of RAM on your machine (but no larger than 2 GB). It must be of type swap.
Tip
If your partitioning scheme requires a swap partition that is larger than 2 GB, you should create
an additional swap partition. For example, if you have 4 GB of RAM, you may want to create two 2
GB swap partitions.
•
A root partition (900 MB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot/efi/) are on the root partition. It must be of type
ext3 or ext2.
•
A /var/ partition (3.0 GB or larger) — the /var/ partition is where variable data files are written. This includes spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, and transient and
temporary files. Updates that are applied to Red Hat Enterprise Linux are written to the /var/
partition.
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions
for x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems:
•
A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other
words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your
system is processing. If you are unsure about what size swap partition to create, make it twice the
amount of RAM on your machine, but no more than 2048 MB (or 2 GB). It must be of type swap.
For example, if you have 1 GB of RAM or less, your swap partition should be at least equal to the
amount of RAM on your system, up to two times the RAM. For more than 1 GB of RAM, 2 GB of
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
35
swap is recommended. Creating a large swap space partition can be especially helpful if you plan
to upgrade your RAM at a later time.
Tip
If your partitioning scheme requires a swap partition that is larger than 2 GB, you should create
an additional swap partition. For example, if you have 4 GB of RAM, you may want to create two 2
GB swap partitions.
•
A /boot/ partition (100 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system
kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux, along with files used during
the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC BIOSes, creating a small partition to hold
these files is a good idea. For most users, a 100 MB boot partition is sufficient.
Caution
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured more than two
years ago), you may need to create a /boot/ partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all
of the remaining space on your hard drive.
Caution
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card.
In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID
array, such as on a separate hard drive.
•
A root partition (350 MB - 5.0 GB) — this is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this
setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
A 350 MB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets
you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.
•
A /var/ partition (3.0 GB or larger) — the /var/ partition is where variable data files are written. This includes spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, and transient and
temporary files. Updates that are applied to Red Hat Enterprise Linux are written to the /var/
partition.
4.17.5. Adding Partitions
To add a new partition, select the New button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 4-14).
Note
You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more information,
refer to Appendix D An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-14. Creating a New Partition
•
Mount Point: Enter the partition’s mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root
partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down
menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition.
•
File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 4.17.5.1 File System Types.
•
Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard
disk’s box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is
not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox
settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions where you need them, or let Disk Druid decide
where partitions should go.
•
Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 100 MB; unless
changed, only a 100 MB partition will be created.
•
Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to "grow"
(fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any remaining
hard drive space available.
If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of
this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future
use.
•
Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of
the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition.
Refer to Section D.1.3 Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions, for more
information.
•
OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
•
Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.
4.17.5.1. File System Types
Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system they
will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how they can
be utilized.
•
ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic
links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
•
ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage —
journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
37
as there is no need to fsck2 the file system. The ext3 file system is selected by default and is highly
recommended.
•
physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you
to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For
more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration
Guide.
•
software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID
device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide.
•
swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a
swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide for additional information.
•
vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows
long filenames on the FAT file system. This file system must be used for the /boot/efi/ partition
on Itanuim systems.
4.17.6. Editing Partitions
To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition.
Note
If the partition already exists on your hard disk, you can only change the partition’s mount point. To
make any other changes, you must delete the partition and recreate it.
4.17.7. Deleting a Partition
To delete a partition, highlight it in the Partitions section and click the Delete button. Confirm the
deletion when prompted.
For further installation instructions for x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T systems, skip to Section 4.18
x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration.
For further installation instructions for Itanium systems, skip to Section 4.19 Network Configuration.
4.18. x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Boot Loader Configuration
To boot the system without a boot diskette, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot loader
is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the
operating system.
The x86-based installation program provides two boot loaders for you to choose from, GRUB and
LILO.On AMD64- and Intel® EM64T-based systems, only the GRUB boot loader is provided.
2.
The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair one or
more Linux file systems.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader.
GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with
chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as DOS or Windows,
by loading another boot loader).
LILO (LInux LOader) is a versatile boot loader for Linux. It does not depend on a specific file system,
can boot Linux kernel images from floppy diskettes and hard disks, and can even boot other operating
systems.
Note
LILO does not apply as a boot loader option to users of AMD64 and Intel® EM64T systems.
Figure 4-15. Boot Loader Configuration
If you do not want to install GRUB as your boot loader, click Change boot loader. You can then
choose to install LILO or choose not to install a boot loader at all.
If you already have a boot loader that can boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and do not want to overwrite
your current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader by clicking on the Change boot loader
button.
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB or LILO for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system
directly, and you must use another boot method (such as a commercial boot loader application). Use
this option only if you are sure you have another way of booting the system!
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. The partition holding the system’s root file system will have a Label of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (for
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
39
GRUB) or linux (for LILO). Other partitions may also have boot labels. To add or change the boot label for other partitions that have been detected by the installation program, click once on the partition
to select it. Once selected, you can change the boot label by clicking the Edit button.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You will not be
able to move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in
order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type [e]
for edit. You will be presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have
selected.
At the graphical LILO screen, press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit to the boot: prompt. If you forget the boot labels
defined on your system, you can always press [Tab] at the prompt to display a list of defined boot
labels.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to your
server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without
a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can
compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be
entered before selecting any non-standard boot options.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the
checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
To configure more advance boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options
to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking Next.
4.18.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the
boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
•
The master boot record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless
the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is
a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer’s BIOS, and is the
earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in the
MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB (or LILO) will present a boot prompt. You can then boot
Red Hat Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader
to boot.
•
The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using another
boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader will take control first. You can
then configure that boot loader to start GRUB (or LILO), which will then boot Red Hat Enterprise
Linux.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-16. Boot Loader Installation
Caution
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In
cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of the RAID array. Rather,
the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition was created.
If your system will use only Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS
does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you have multiple
SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the SCSI device.
The Force LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder limit for
the /boot/ partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension for booting operating
systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your /boot/ partition above cylinder
1024, you should select this option.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access
more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot
Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions
can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
To add default options to the boot command, enter them into the Kernel parameters field. Any
options you enter are passed to the Linux kernel every time it boots.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
41
4.18.2. Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from
a diskette, CD-ROM, or some other boot method instead of the system’s hard drive. There may be
times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files
on your system’s hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system’s hard
drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to
use rescue mode, there are several options available to you.
•
Using the CD-ROM to boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel® EM64T system, type linux rescue at
the installation boot prompt. Itanium users should type elilo linux rescue to enter rescue
mode.
•
By booting your system from an installation boot diskette made from the bootdisk.img image.
This method requires that the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1 be inserted as the rescue
image or that the rescue image be on the hard drive as an ISO image. Once you have booted
using this diskette, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt. Itanium users should type elilo
linux rescue to enter rescue mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide.
4.18.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use a boot loader, you have several alternatives:
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux kernel (and
an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MS-DOS partition. The
only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system using some other
method (for example, from a boot diskette) and then copy the kernel to an MS-DOS partition.
LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander and Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB or LILO to be installed in your Linux
root partition).
Note
Boot loaders such as LOADLIN and System Commander are considered to be third-party boot loaders and are not supported by Red Hat.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.18.4. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
This section is specific to SMP motherboards only. SMP, short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, is a
computer architecture providing fast performance by making multiple CPUs available to complete
individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing).
If the installation program detects an SMP motherboard on your system, it will automatically create
two boot loader entries.
Note
Intel® Pentium® 4 systems with hyperthreading will have an SMP kernel installed by default.
The two GRUB entries will be Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version) and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (kernel version-smp). The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel
version-smp) will boot by default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can
elect to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version) entry instead. You will
retain all the functionality as before, but you will only be operating with a single processor.
The two LILO entries will be linux and linux-up. The linux entry will boot by default. However,
if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the linux-up entry instead. You will
retain all the functionality as before, but you will only be operating with a single processor.
4.19. Network Configuration
If you do not have a network device this screen is not shown. Skip ahead to Section 4.20 Firewall
Configuration.
Figure 4-17. Network Configuration
The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and display them in the
Network Devices list.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
43
Once you have selected a network device, click Edit. From the Edit Interface pop-up screen, you can
choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP (or manually if DHCP is not
selected) and you can choose to activate the device at boot time. If you select Activate on boot, your
network interface is started when you boot. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure
what to provide here, please contact your network administrator.
Figure 4-18. Editing a Network Device
Note
Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will not work for your own
network configuration. If you are not sure what values to enter, contact your network administrator for
assistance.
If you have a hostname (fully qualified domain name) for the network device, you can choose to have
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) automatically detect it or you can manually enter the
hostname in the field provided.
Finally, if you entered the IP and Netmask information manually, you may also enter the Gateway
address and the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary DNS addresses.
Tip
Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your system. If you do
not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be known as localhost.
Tip
To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network
Administration Tool.
Type the redhat-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.20. Firewall Configuration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers firewall protection for enhanced system security. A firewall exists
between your computer and the network, and determines which resources on your computer remote
users on the network can access. A properly configured firewall can greatly increase the security of
your system.
Figure 4-19. Firewall Configuration
Choose the appropriate security level for your system.
No firewall
No firewall provides complete access to your system and does no security checking. Security
checking is the disabling of access to certain services. This should only be selected if you are
running on a trusted network (not the Internet) or plan to do more firewall configuration later.
Enable firewall
If you choose Enable firewall, connections are not accepted by your system (other than the
default settings) that are not explicitly defined by you. By default, only connections in response
to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests, are allowed. If access to services
running on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
If you are connecting your system to the Internet, but do not plan to run a server, this is the safest
choice.
Next, select which services, if any, should be allowed to pass through the firewall.
Enabling these options allow the specified services to pass through the firewall. Note, these services
may not be installed on the system by default. Make sure you choose to enable any options that you
may need.
WWW (HTTP)
The HTTP protocol is used by Apache (and by other Web servers) to serve webpages. If you plan
on making your Web server publicly available, enable this option. This option is not required for
viewing pages locally or for developing webpages. You must install the httpd package if you
want to serve webpages.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
45
Enabling WWW (HTTP) does not open a port for HTTPS. To enable HTTPS, specify it in the
Other ports field.
FTP
The FTP protocol is used to transfer files between machines on a network. If you plan on making
your FTP server publicly available, enable this option. You must install the vsftpd package for
this option to be useful.
SSH
Secure SHell (SSH) is a suite of tools for logging in to and executing commands on a remote
machine. If you plan to use SSH tools to access your machine through a firewall, enable this option. You need to have the openssh-server package installed in order to access your machine
remotely, using SSH tools.
Telnet
Telnet is a protocol for logging in to remote machines. Telnet communications are unencrypted
and provide no security from network snooping. Allowing incoming Telnet access is not recommended. To allow inbound Telnet access, you must install the telnet-server package.
Mail (SMTP)
If you want to allow incoming mail delivery through your firewall, so that remote hosts can
connect directly to your machine to deliver mail, enable this option. You do not need to enable
this if you collect your mail from your ISP’s server using POP3 or IMAP, or if you use a tool such
as fetchmail. Note that an improperly configured SMTP server can allow remote machines to
use your server to send spam.
You can allow access to ports which are not listed here by listing them in the Other ports field. Use
the following format: port:protocol. For example, if you want to allow IMAP access through
your firewall, you can specify imap:tcp. You can also explicitly specify numeric ports; to allow
UDP packets on port 1234 through the firewall, enter 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate
them with commas.
Finally, select any devices should allow access to your system for all traffic from that device.
Selecting any of these trusted devices excludes them from the firewall rules. For example, if you are
running a local network, but are connected to the Internet via a PPP dialup, you can check eth0 and
any traffic coming from your local network is allowed. Selecting eth0 as trusted means all traffic over
the Ethernet is allowed, but the ppp0 interface is still firewalled. If you want to restrict traffic on an
interface, leave it unchecked.
It is not recommended that you make any device that is connected to public networks, such as the
Internet, a trusted device.
Tip
To change your security level configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Security
Level Configuration Tool.
Type the redhat-config-securitylevel command in a shell prompt to launch the Security Level
Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.21. Language Support Selection
You can install and support multiple languages for use on your system.
You must select a language to use as the default language. The default language is the language used
on the system once the installation is complete. If you choose to install other languages during this
installation, you can change your default language after the installation.
If you are only going to use one language on your system, selecting only that language saves significant disk space. The default language is the language you selected to use during the installation.
Caution
If you select only one language, you can only use that specified language after the installation is
complete.
Figure 4-20. Language Support Selection
To use more than one language on your system, choose specific languages to be installed or select all
languages to have all available languages installed on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Use the Reset button to cancel your selections. Resetting reverts to the default; only the language you
selected for use during the installation is installed.
Tip
To change the language configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Language
Configuration Tool.
Type the redhat-config-language command in a shell prompt to launch the Language Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
47
4.22. Time Zone Configuration
You can set your time zone by selecting your computer’s physical location or by specifying your time
zone’s offset from Universal Time, Coordinated (UTC).
Notice the two tabs at the top of the screen (refer to Figure 4-21). The first tab allows you to configure
your time zone by your location.
On the interactive map, you can also click on a specific city, which is marked by a yellow dot; a red X
appears indicating your selection. You can also scroll through a list and choose a time zone.
The second tab allows you to specify a UTC offset. The tab displays a list of offsets to choose from,
as well as an option to set daylight saving time.
Figure 4-21. Configuring the Time Zone
On both tabs, you can select System Clock uses UTC. Please select this if you know that your system
is set to UTC.
Tip
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and
Date Properties Tool.
Type the redhat-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties
Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command
timeconfig.
4.23. Set Root Password
Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation.
Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT machines. The root
account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging
in as root gives you complete control over your system.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Note
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
Figure 4-22. Root Password
Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use
and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the chances of
a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
Tip
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press [Enter]. Then,
enter the root password and press [Enter].
The installation program prompts you to set a root password3 for your system. You cannot proceed to
the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the
screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program
asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for
someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater
are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters
and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the
3.
A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only
log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions
placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
49
password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is
recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.
Note
Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords
could be considered a security risk.
Tip
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password
Tool.
Type the redhat-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch the Root Password
Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.24. Package Group Selection
After your partitions have been selected and configured for formatting, you are ready to select packages for installation.
First, a screen appears that details the default package set for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.
Figure 4-23. Default Package List Confirmation
To customize your package set further, select Customize the set of packages to be installed option
on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 4.25 Preparing to Install.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example,
X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
Note
Users of AMD64, Intel® EM64T, and Itanium systems who want support for developing or running
32-bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility
Arch Development Support packages to install architecure specific support for their systems.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 4-24).
Figure 4-24. Package Group Selection
Select each component you wish to install. Selecting Everything (at the end of the component list)
installs all packages included with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Once a package group has been selected, click on Details to view which packages will be installed by
default, and to add or remove optional packages from that group.
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Figure 4-25. Package Group Details
4.25. Preparing to Install
A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears.
For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log once
you reboot your system.
Warning
If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process, this is your last
opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your machine. Once you press the Next button,
partitions will be written and packages will be installed. If you wish to abort the installation, you should
reboot now before any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten.
To cancel this installation process, press your computer’s Reset button or use the [Control]-[Alt][Delete] key combination to restart your machine.
4.26. Installing Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly
this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer’s speed.
4.27. Video Card Configuration
The installation program now presents a list of video cards for you to choose from.
If you decided to install the X Window System packages, you now have the opportunity to configure
an X server for your system. If you did not choose to install the X Window System packages, skip
ahead to Section 4.25 Preparing to Install.
If your video card does not appear on the list (refer to Figure 4-26), X may not support it. However,
if you have technical knowledge about your card, you may choose Unlisted Card and attempt to
configure it by matching your card’s video chipset with one of the available X servers.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-26. Video Card Setup
Next, enter the amount of video memory installed on your video card. If you are not sure, please
consult the documentation accompanying your video card. You will not damage your video card by
choosing more memory than is available, but the X server may not start correctly if you do.
If you decide that the values you have selected are incorrect, you can click the Restore original values
button to return to the suggested settings.
You can also select Skip X Configuration if you would rather configure X after the installation or not
at all.
Tip
To change your X configuration after you have completed the installation, use the X Configuration
Tool.
Type the redhat-config-xfree86 command in a shell prompt to launch the X Configuration Tool.
If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.28. X Configuration — Monitor and Customization
To complete X configuration, you must configure your monitor and customize your X settings.
To skip X configuration, go to Section 4.29 Installation Complete.
4.28.1. Configuring Your Monitor
The installation program presents you with a list of monitors to select from. From this list, you can
either use the monitor that is automatically detected for you, or choose another monitor.
Note
If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a laptop with an LCD screen, you should select the
most appropriate Generic LCD model available.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
53
If your monitor does not appear on the list, select the most appropriate Generic CRT or Generic
LCD model available. If you select a Generic CRT or Generic LCD monitor, the installation program
suggests horizontal and vertical sync ranges. These values are generally available in the documentation
which accompanies your monitor, or from your monitor’s vendor or manufacturer; please check your
documentation to make sure these values are set correctly.
Caution
Do not select a monitor similar to your monitor unless you are certain that the monitor you are
selecting does not exceed the capabilities of your monitor. Doing so may overclock your monitor and
damage or destroy it.
Figure 4-27. Monitor Selection
The horizontal and vertical ranges that the installation program suggests for the selected monitor are
also displayed below the list of monitors.
If you decide that your monitor selection or the horizontal and vertical ranges are incorrect, you can
click the Restore original values button to return to the original suggested settings.
Click Next when you have finished configuring your monitor.
4.28.2. Custom Configuration
Choose the correct color depth and resolution for your X configuration.
You can also choose whether you want to boot your system into a graphical or text environment once
the installation is complete. Unless you have special needs, booting into a graphical environment
(similar to a Windows environment) is recommended. If you choose to boot into a text environment,
a command prompt (similar to a DOS environment) appears.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Figure 4-28. X Customization
Tip
To change your X configuration after you have completed the installation, use the X Configuration
Tool.
Type the redhat-config-xfree86 command in a shell prompt to launch the X Configuration Tool.
If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
4.29. Installation Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any
installation media (diskette in the diskette drive or CD in the CD-ROM drive) if they are not ejected
automatically upon reboot.
After your computer’s normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader prompt
appears at which you can do any of the following things:
•
Press [Enter] — causes the default boot entry to be booted.
•
Select a boot label, followed by [Enter] — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system
corresponding to the boot label. (Press [?] or [Tab] at LILO’s text mode boot loader prompt for a
list of valid boot labels.)
•
Do nothing — after the boot loader’s timeout period, (by default, five seconds) the boot loader
automatically boots the default boot entry.
Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of messages should
scroll by. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System
and chose to start X automatically) appears.
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
55
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux machine in run level 5 (the graphical run level),
the Setup Agent is presented, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration.
Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with
Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your environment at the beginning,
so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.
If you are not sure what to do next, we suggest you begin with the other Red Hat Enterprise Linux
manuals available online or on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD included with your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux product.
HTML, PDF, and RPM versions of the manuals are available on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. They can be found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and online at
http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
If you are a more experienced user looking for information on administration topics, you may find the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide to be more helpful.
For an overview of system administration, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration. If you are looking for information on system configuration, you may find the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide to be helpful.
If you are looking for information on securing your system, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Security Guide.
Do not forget to register for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. Registration enables
access to the Red Hat Services you have purchased, such as technical support and Red Hat Network.
To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
4.30. Itanium Systems — Booting Your Machine and Post-Installation
Setup
This section describes how to boot your Itanium into Red Hat Enterprise Linux and how to set your
EFI console variables so that Red Hat Enterprise Linux is automatically booted when the machine is
powered on.
After you reboot your system at the end of the installation program, type the following command to
boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
elilo
After you type elilo, the default kernel listed in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf configuration file is
loaded. (The first kernel listed in the file is the default.)
If you want to load a different kernel, type the label name of the kernel from the file
/boot/efi/elilo.conf after the elilo command. For example, to load the kernel named
linux, type:
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
elilo linux
If you do not know the names of the installed kernels, you can view the /boot/efi/elilo.conf
file in EFI with the following instructions:
1. At the Shell prompt, change devices to the system partition (mounted as /boot/efi in
Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell prompt.
2. Type ls at the fs0:\> to make sure you are in the correct partition.
3. Then type:
Shell type elilo.conf
This command displays the contents of the configuration file. Each stanza contains a line beginning with label followed by a label name for that kernel. The label name is what you type
after elilo to boot the different kernels.
4.30.1. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options
In addition to specifying a kernel to load, you can also enter other boot options such as single for
single user mode or mem=1024M to force Red Hat Enterprise Linux to use 1024 MB of memory. To
pass options to the boot loader, enter the following at the EFI Shell prompt (replace linux with the
label name of the kernel you want to boot and option with the boot options you want to pass to the
kernel):
elilo linux option
4.30.2. Booting Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automatically
After installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux you can type elilo and any boot options at the EFI Shell
prompt each time you wish to boot your Itanium system. However, if you wish to configure your
system to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically, you need to configure the EFI Boot
Manager.
To configure the EFI Boot Manager (may vary slighly depending on your hardware):
1. Boot the Itanium system and choose Boot option maintenance menu from the EFI Boot Manager menu.
2. Choose Add a Boot Option from the Main Menu.
3. Select the system partition that is mounted as /boot/efi/ in Linux.
4. Select the elilo.efi file.
5. At the Enter New Description: prompt, type Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, or
any name that you want to appear on the EFI Boot Manager menu.
6. At the Enter Boot Option Data Type prompt, enter N for No Boot Option if you do not
want to pass options to the ELILO boot loader. This option works for most cases. If you want to
pass options to the boot loader, you can configure it in the /boot/efi/elilo.conf configuration file instead.
7. Answer Yes to the Save changes to NVRAM prompt. This returns you to the EFI Boot
Maintenance Manager menu.
8. Next, you want to make the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 menu item the default. A list of
boot options appears. Move the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 menu item up to the top of the
list by selecting it with the arrow keys and pressing the [u] key to move it up the list. You can
Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
57
move items down the list by selecting it and pressing the [d] key. After changing the boot order,
choose Save changes to NVRAM. Choose Exit to return to the Main Menu.
9. Optionally, you can change to boot timeout value by choosing Set Auto Boot TimeOut => Set
Timeout Value from the Main Menu.
10. Return to the EFI Boot Manager by selecting Exit.
4.30.2.1. Using a Startup Script
It is recommended that you configure the ELILO Boot Manager to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
automatically. However, if you require additional commands to be executed before starting the ELILO
boot loader, you can create a startup script named startup.nsh. The last command should be elilo
to boot into Linux.
The startup.nsh script should be in the /boot/efi partition (/boot/efi/startup.nsh) and
contain the following text:
echo -off
your set of commands
elilo
If you want to pass options to the boot loader (refer to Section 4.30.1 Post-Installation Boot Loader
Options) add them after elilo.
You can either create this file after booting into Red Hat Enterprise Linux or use the editor built into the
EFI shell. To use the EFI shell, at the Shell> prompt, change devices to the system partition (mounted
as /boot/efi in Linux). For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell
prompt. Type ls to make sure you are in the correct partition. Then type edit startup.nsh. Type
the contents of the file and save it.
The next time the system boots, EFI detects the startup.nsh file and use it to boot the system. To
stop EFI from loading the file, type [Ctrl]-[c]. This aborts the process, and returns you to the EFI shell
prompt.
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Chapter 4. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Appendix A.
Upgrading Your Current System
This appendix walks you through a typical Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 upgrade.
Note
If you currently use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 on an x86 system, you can perform an upgrade.
Although upgrades are supported by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux family on x86 processors, you
are likely to have a more consistent experience by backing up your data and then installing this
release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This
recommended reinstallation method helps to ensure the best system stability possible.
To perform an upgrade, type the following command at the boot prompt:
linux upgrade
A.1. What it Means to Upgrade
The installation process for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 includes the ability to upgrade from an earlier
version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (such as from Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 2.1 for x86).
Upgrading your system installs the modular 2.4.x kernel as well as updated versions of the packages
which are currently installed on your system.
The upgrade process preserves existing configuration files by renaming them with an .rpmsave extension (for example, sendmail.cf.rpmsave). The upgrade process also creates a log of its actions
in /root/upgrade.log. As software evolves, configuration file formats can change, so you should
carefully compare your original configuration files to the new files before integrating your changes.
Note
It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are
upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your
hard drive(s). Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss all of your data.
Some upgraded packages may require the installation of other packages for proper operation. If you
choose to customize your packages to upgrade, you may be required to resolve dependency problems. Otherwise, the upgrade procedure takes care of these dependencies, but it may need to install
additional packages which are not on your system.
Depending on how you have partitioned your system, the upgrade program may prompt you to add an
additional swap file. If the upgrade program does not detect a swap file that equals twice your RAM,
it asks you if you would like to add a new swap file. If your system does not have a lot of RAM (less
than 128 MB), it is recommended that you add this swap file.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
A.2. Upgrading Your System
The Upgrade Examine screen appears if you have instructed the installation program to perform an
upgrade by typing the linux upgrade command at the boot prompt.
Note
If the contents of your /etc/redhat-release file have been changed from the default, your Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 3.
You can relax some of the checks against this file by booting with the following boot command:
linux upgradeany
Use the linux upgradeany command if your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was not given as
an option to upgrade.
To perform an upgrade, select Perform an upgrade of an existing installation. Click Next when you
are ready to begin your upgrade.
To perform a new installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system, select Perform a new
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation and refer to Chapter 4 Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
for further instructions.
Figure A-1. Choosing to Upgrade or Install
A.3. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration
A software boot loader is used to start Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your computer. It can also start
other operating systems, such as Windows. If you are using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux software boot
loader (GRUB or LILO), it is detected automatically.
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
61
Figure A-2. Upgrade Boot Loader Configuration
On the Boot Loader Configuration Screen, your options are:
Update boot loader configuration — Choose this option to keep your current boot loader configuration (GRUB or LILO depending on what you have currently installed) and have updates applied.
Skip boot loader updating — Choose this option if you do not want to make any changes to your
current boot loader configuration. If you are using a third party boot loader, you should not update
your boot loader.
Create new boot loader configuration — Choose this option if you want to create a new boot loader
for your system. If you currently have LILO and want to switch to GRUB, or if you have been using
boot diskettes to boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system and want to use a software boot loader
such as GRUB or LILO, create a new boot loader configuration (refer to Section A.3.1 Creating a
New Boot Loader Configuration for more information).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
A.3.1. Creating a New Boot Loader Configuration
In order to boot the system without a boot diskette, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot
loader is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and
transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of
the operating system.
The installation program provides two boot loaders for you to choose from, GRUB and LILO.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader.
GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with
chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as DOS or Windows,
by loading another boot loader).
LILO (LInux LOader) is a versatile boot loader for Linux. It does not depend on a specific file system,
can boot Linux kernel images from floppy diskettes and hard disks, and can even boot other operating
systems.
If you do not want to install GRUB as your boot loader, click Change boot loader. You can then
choose to install LILO or choose not to install a boot loader at all.
If you already have a boot loader that can boot Linux and do not want to overwrite your current boot
loader, choose Do not install a boot loader by clicking on the Change boot loader button.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Caution
If you choose not to install GRUB or LILO for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system
directly, and you must use another boot method (such as a boot diskette). Use this option only if you
are sure you have another way of booting the system!
Figure A-3. Boot Loader Configuration
Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. The partition
holding your the system’s root file system has a Label of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (for GRUB)
or linux (for LILO). Other partitions may also have boot labels. If you would like to add or change
the boot label for other partitions that have been detected by the installation program, click once on
the partition to select it. Once selected, you can change the boot label by clicking the Edit button.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You will not be
able to move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.
Note
The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in
order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type
[e] for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have
selected.
At the graphical LILO screen, press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit to the boot: prompt. If you forget the boot labels
defined on your system, you can always press [Tab] at the prompt to display a list of defined boot
labels.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to your
server is available.
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
63
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without
a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can
compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be
entered in order to select any non-standard boot options.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the
checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
To configure more advance boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options
to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking Next.
A.3.2. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the
boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
The master boot record (MBR)
This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless the MBR already starts another
operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special area on your hard
drive that is automatically loaded by your computer’s BIOS, and is the earliest point at which the
boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in the MBR, when your machine
boots, GRUB (or LILO) presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux or
any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot.
The first sector of your boot partition
This is recommended if you are already using another boot loader on your system. In this case,
your other boot loader takes control first. You can then configure that boot loader to start GRUB
(or LILO), which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Caution
If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In
cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of the RAID array. Rather,
the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot partition was created.
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
Figure A-4. Boot Loader Installation
If your system will use only Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS
does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you have multiple
SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the SCSI device.
The Force LBA32 (not normally required) option allows you to exceed the 1024 cylinder limit for
the /boot partition. If you have a system which supports the LBA32 extension for booting operating
systems above the 1024 cylinder limit, and you want to place your /boot partition above cylinder
1024, you should select this option.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access
more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot
Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions
can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
If you wish to add default options to the boot command, enter them into the Kernel parameters field.
Any options you enter are passed to the Linux kernel every time it boots.
A.3.3. Rescue Mode
If you need to use rescue mode, there are several options available to you.
•
Using the CD-ROM to boot, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt.
•
By booting your system from an installation boot diskette made from the bootdisk.img image.
This method requires that the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1 be inserted as the rescue
Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
65
image or that the rescue image be on the hard drive as an ISO image. Once you have booted using
this diskette, type linux rescue at the boot: prompt.
If you are performing anything other than a IDE CD-ROM or hard disk installation and are using
a boot diskette, you must have at least one driver diskette that you must make in advance. You
are prompted by the installation program to insert the driver diskette at the correct time. For more
information, refer to Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette or Appendix E Driver
Media.
A.3.4. Alternative Boot Loaders
If you do not wish to use a boot loader, you have several alternatives:
LOADLIN
You can load Linux from MS-DOS. Unfortunately, this requires a copy of the Linux kernel (and
an initial RAM disk, if you have a SCSI adapter) to be available on an MS-DOS partition. The
only way to accomplish this is to boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system using some other
method (for example, from a boot diskette) and then copy the kernel to an MS-DOS partition.
LOADLIN is available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/dualboot/
and associated mirror sites.
SYSLINUX
SYSLINUX is an MS-DOS program very similar to LOADLIN. It is also available from
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/boot/loaders/
and associated mirror sites.
Commercial boot loaders
You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. For example, System Commander and Partition Magic are able to boot Linux (but still require GRUB or LILO to be installed in your Linux
root partition).
Boot loaders such as LOADLIN and System Commander are considered to be third-party boot loaders
and are not supported by Red Hat.
A.3.5. SMP Motherboards, GRUB, and LILO
This section is specific to SMP motherboards only. SMP, short for Symmetric Multiprocessing, is a
computer architecture providing fast performance by making multiple CPUs available to complete
individual processes simultaneously (multiprocessing).
If the installation program detects an SMP motherboard on your system, it automaticallys create two
boot loader entries (depending on the boot loader you installed), rather than the usual single entry.
Note
Intel® Pentium® 4 systems with hyperthreading have an SMP kernel installed by default.
The two GRUB entries are Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version) and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux (kernel version-smp). The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel
version-smp) boots by default. However, if you have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to
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Appendix A. Upgrading Your Current System
boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (kernel version) entry instead. This retains all the
functionality as before, but you can only operate with a single processor.
The two LILO entries are linux and linux-up. The linux entry boots by default. However, if you
have trouble with the SMP kernel, you can elect to boot the linux-up entry instead. This retains all
the functionality as before, but you can only operate with a single processor.
A.4. Upgrading Packages
At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been upgraded or installed.
A.5. Upgrade Complete
Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 upgrade is now complete!
You are now prompted to prepare your system for reboot. Do not forget to remove any diskette in the
floppy drive or CD in the CD-ROM drive if they are not ejected automatically upon reboot.
If you are not sure what to do next, we suggest you begin with the other Red Hat Enterprise Linux
manuals available online or on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD included with your
Red Hat Enterprise Linux product.
HTML, PDF, and RPM versions of the manuals are available on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
Note
Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. They can be found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and online at
http://www.redhat.com/docs/.
If you are a more experienced user looking for information on administration topics, you may find the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide to be more helpful.
For an overview of system administration, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration. If you are looking for information on system configuration, you may find the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration Guide to be helpful.
If you are looking for information on securing your system, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Security Guide.
Do not forget to register for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. Registration enables
access to the Red Hat Services you have purchased, such as technical support and Red Hat Network.
To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
Appendix B.
Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
To uninstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your system, you must remove the GRUB or LILO information from your master boot record (MBR).
Note
It is always a good idea to backup any data that you have on your system(s). Mistakes do happen
and can result in the loss all of your data.
In DOS and Windows, use the Windows fdisk utility to create a new MBR with the undocumented
flag /mbr. This will ONLY rewrite the MBR to boot the primary DOS partition. The command should
look like the following:
fdisk /mbr
If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the default DOS
(Windows) fdisk, you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem. The best
way to remove non-DOS partitions is with a tool that understands partitions other than DOS.
To begin, insert the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 and boot your system. Once you have booted off
the CD, you will receive a boot prompt. At the boot prompt, type: linux rescue. This will start
the rescue mode program.
You will be prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you would
during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Next, a screen will appear telling you that the program will now attempt to find a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux install to rescue. Select Skip on this screen.
After selecting Skip, you will be given a command prompt where you can access the partitions you
would like to remove.
First, type the command list-harddrives. This command will list all hard drives on your system
that are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in megabytes.
Warning
Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.
To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Start parted, where /dev/hda is the
device on which to remove the partition:
parted /dev/hda
Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number of the
partition to remove:
print
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Appendix B. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The print command will also display the partition’s type (such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, and so on).
Knowing the type of the partition will help you in determining whether to remove the partition.
Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with minor number
3:
rm 3
Important
The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the command before committing to it.
After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from the partition
table.
Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make, type
quit to quit parted.
After quitting parted, type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your system,
instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically. If it does not, you
can reboot your computer using [Control]-[Alt]-[Delete].
Appendix C.
Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
This appendix discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
C.1. You are Unable to Boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.1.1. x86 Specific Instructions — Are You Unable to Boot from the CD-ROM?
Note
There are a few cases where the system BIOS does not allow the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM
to boot because of the size of the boot image on the CD-ROM itself. In cases such as these, a boot
diskette should be made to boot the installation program. Once booted, the CD-ROMs work properly
for the installation.
If you cannot boot from your Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM, you have two options:
1. Change your BIOS so that booting from the CD-ROM is recognized first in the boot order
2. Boot using a boot diskette you have created
To change your BIOS, refer to your system manual for the correct keyboard combination that allows
you to access your BIOS, or you can read the key sequence needed while the system begins to boot
(assuming it is displayed).
To create a boot diskette, follow the instructions in Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette.
To boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux using a boot diskette, insert the diskette you have created into your
diskette drive and then boot/reboot your computer. Make sure that your BIOS is set to use the diskette
or removable diskette to boot.
C.1.2. x86 Specific Instructions — Are You Unable to Boot from a Boot
Diskette?
If you cannot boot from a boot diskette, you have two options:
1. Change your BIOS so that booting from the boot diskette is recognized first in the boot order
2. Boot using an updated boot diskette image
To change your BIOS, refer to your system manual for the correct keyboard combination that allows
you to access your BIOS, or you can read the key sequence needed while the system begins to boot
(assuming it is displayed).
To find an updated boot diskette image, check the online errata at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
and follow the instructions in Section 2.5.3 Making an Installation Boot Diskette to make an updated
boot diskette for your system.
C.1.3. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall
and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a text-based
screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB:) and a flashing cursor may be all that
appears. If this is the case, you will need to repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you will need to install your /boot partition
outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use
for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) outside of the RAID array — not
on the MBR. The boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot partition
was created.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the system
properly.
C.1.4. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a memory
location that was not assigned.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in
memory on your system’s bus. A hardware error in memory can be caused by problems in executables
or with the system’s hardware. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own
demands on your system’s hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands,
even if they work properly under another OS.
Review if you have the latest installation and supplemental boot diskettes from Red Hat. Review the
online errata to check if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a
problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible
solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS. You could also try to swap your
memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
You can also try running the installation with only 256 MB of memory. This can be done by booting
the installation program with the mem=256M boot option. To try this option, at the installation boot
prompt, type:
mem=xxxM
where xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in megabytes.
This command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the machine. This
may be needed for some older systems where only 16MB is detected by the installation program (but
more RAM is present in the system), and for some new machines where the video card shares the
video memory with the main memory.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation CD-ROMs. To test the checksum
integrity of an ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
linux mediacheck
This command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
71
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/
C.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
C.2.1. Is Your Mouse Not Detected?
If the Mouse Not Detected screen (refer to Figure C-1) appears, then the installation program was
not able to identify your mouse correctly.
You can choose to continue with the GUI installation or use the text mode installation, which does
not require using a mouse. If you choose to continue with the GUI installation, you must provide
the installation program with your mouse configuration information (refer to Section 4.14 Mouse
Configuration).
Figure C-1. Mouse Not Detected
C.2.2. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
There are some video cards that do not work properly with the installation program. The end result
being a problem booting into the graphical installation program.
If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it will try to run in a lower resolution
mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. This option may be most helpful
for laptop users. Refer to Appendix F Additional Boot Options for more information.
Note
To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using
the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading
hardware.
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
C.3. Trouble During the Installation
C.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error
Message
If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor’s website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes
your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Appendix E Driver Media.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
C.3.2. Saving Traceback Messages Without a Diskette Drive
If you receive a traceback error message during installation, you can usually save it to a diskette.
If you do not have a diskette drive available in your system, you can scp the error message to a remote
system.
When the traceback dialog appears, the traceback error message is automatically written to a file
named /tmp/anacdump.txt. Once the dialog appears, switch over to a new tty (virtual console) by
pressing the keys [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[F2] and scp the message written to /tmp/anacdump.txt to a
known working remote system.
C.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 4.15 Disk Partitioning Setup) phase
of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized,
causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to
be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began) that could not be recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems
should always be made.
C.3.4. Using Remaining Space
You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to use the
remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want the /
(root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
73
C.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems for x86 System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably
have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A / (root) partition
•
A
swap
partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk Druid automatically
assigns the mount point for you.
C.3.6. Other Partitioning Problems for Itanium System Users
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably
have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid’s dependencies to be satisfied.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
•
A /boot/efi/ partition of type VFAT
•
A / (root) partition
•
A
swap
partition of type swap
Tip
When defining a partition’s type as swap, you do not have to assign it a mount point. Disk Druid
automatically assigns the mount point for you.
C.3.7. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also
known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the selection
of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in /tmp/. The error may look similar
to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py",
line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in
doInstall
self.fstab.savePartitions ()
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions
sys.exit(0)
SystemExit: 0
Local variables in innermost frame:
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
self:
fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0
sys:
module ’sys’ (built-in)
ToDo object:
(itodo
ToDo
p1
(dp2
S’method’
p3
(iimage
CdromInstallMethod
p4
(dp5
S’progressWindow’
p6
failed
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been
changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process,
so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda. Errata can be
found at:
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat’s bug tracking system,
go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our
support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/
C.4. Problems After Installation
C.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
If, for some reason, you need to disable the graphical boot screen, you can do so, as root, by editing
the /boot/grub/grub.conf file and then rebooting your system.
To do this, comment out the line which begins with splashimage in the grub.conf file. To comment
out a line, insert the # character at the beginning of the line.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file will be reread and your changes will take place.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line back into
the grub.conf file.
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
75
C.4.2. Trouble With the Graphical LILO Screen on an x86-based System?
If, for some reason, you need to disable the graphical boot screen, you can do so, as root, by editing
the /etc/lilo.conf file and then rerunning LILO.
First, as root, comment out (or delete) the line which reads message=/boot/message in the
/etc/lilo.conf file. To comment out a line, insert the ; character at the beginning of the line.
Next, rerun LILO by typing /sbin/lilo -v. The next time you boot, the text LILO: prompt
appears, as used in previous Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by adding (or uncommenting) the above line back into
the lilo.conf file and rerunning LILO.
C.4.3. Booting into a Graphical Environment
If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once
you log into your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, you can start the X Window System graphical
interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press [Enter], the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file,
/etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot
the computer. The next time you log in, you will have a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab will open.
Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line
id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.
Warning
Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
id:5:initdefault:
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys. A message
appears telling you that the file has been modified, and asking you to confirm your change. Type [Y]
for yes.
Now, your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen.
C.4.4. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it
during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROMs or
perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both,
during the upgrade package selection process.
C.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password you
assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit when
the GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for
the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
single
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
Once the GRUB screen has returned, type b to boot into single user mode.
If you are using an x86-based system and LILO is your installed boot loader, press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit
the graphical LILO screen and gain access to the LILO boot: prompt.
Next, enter linux single at the LILO boot: prompt.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd
root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r
now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su
username . This allows you
to enter a new password for the specified user account.
- and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
77
C.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with the
cat /proc/meminfo command.
Find out if the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If they
are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
#NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
#
all kernel paths are relative to /boot/
default=0
timeout=30
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.4.21-1.1931.2.399.ent)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.4.21-1.1931.2.399.ent ro root=/dev/hda3 mem=128M
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf will be reflected on your system.
Or, you can add the following line to the /etc/lilo.conf file:
append="mem=xxM"
Note, that the append command works in both GRUB and LILO.
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes. Remember that per-image append
lines completely overwrite the global append line. It might be worth adding this to the per-image
descriptions.
In /etc/lilo.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
boot=/dev/sda
map=/boot/map
install=/boot/boot.b
prompt
timeout=50
image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.21-1.1931.2.399.ent
label=linux
root=/dev/sda1
initrd=/boot/initrd-2.4.21-1.1931.2.399.ent.img
read-only
append="mem=128M"
Remember to run /sbin/lilo -v after changing /etc/lilo.conf.
Note that you can also produce the same effect by actually passing this option when you are specifying
the label/image to use in GRUB or LILO.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items
in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
or
append=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press [Enter] to exit edit mode.
Once the GRUB screen has returned, type b to boot with your new RAM specifications.
At the graphical LILO screen, press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit to the boot: prompt. Next, enter the following
at the boot: prompt:
linux mem=xxM
Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press [Enter] to boot.
C.4.7. Your Printer Will Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try
using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the redhat-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
C.4.8. Problems with Sound Configuration
If, for some reason, you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed, you can
run the Sound Card Configuration Tool (redhat-config-soundcard) utility.
To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool, choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard
Detection. A small text box will pop up prompting you for your root password.
You can also type the redhat-config-soundcard command at a shell prompt to launch the Sound
Card Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the text-based configuration tool, as root, type sndconfig in a terminal window. Note, the
sndconfig application is not installed by default but can be found on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
CD-ROMs.
If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still
do not have audio sounds), there are alternatives, although they are not quite as simple as running
the Sound Card Configuration Tool. You can edit your modules.conf file (this strategy is not
recommended for most new users), or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for
more information.
C.4.9. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make
sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
79
C.4.10. Trouble with NVIDIA chipset
If you have an NVIDIA chipset and have just updated your kernel, you may experience problems with
the video card, such as not having any video output.
If you experience a similar problem, you should download the latest kernel drivers available for your
NVIDIA chipset. For more information, refer to:
http://www.nvidia.com/view.asp?IO=linux_display_1.0-3123
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Appendix C. Troubleshooting Your Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Appendix D.
An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Note
This appendix is not necessarily applicable to non-x86-based architecures. However, the general
concepts mentioned here may apply.
Disk partitions are a standard part of the personal computer landscape and have been for quite some
time. However, with many people purchasing computers featuring pre-installed operating systems,
relatively few people understand how partitions work. This chapter attempts to explain the reasons for
and use of disk partitions so your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is as simple and painless as
possible.
If you are reasonably comfortable with disk partitions, you could skip ahead to Section D.1.4 Making
Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, for more information on the process of freeing up disk space to
prepare for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This section also discusses the partition naming
scheme used by Linux systems, sharing disk space with other operating systems, and related topics.
D.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
Hard disks perform a very simple function — they store data and reliably retrieve it on command.
When discussing issues such as disk partitioning, it is important to know a bit about the underlying
hardware. Unfortunately, it is easy to become bogged down in details. Therefore, this appendix uses
a simplified diagram of a disk drive to help explain what is really happening when a disk drive is
partitioned. Figure D-1, shows a brand-new, unused disk drive.
Figure D-1. An Unused Disk Drive
Not much to look at, is it? But if we are talking about disk drives on a basic level, it is adequate. Say
that we would like to store some data on this drive. As things stand now, it will not work. There is
something we need to do first. . .
D.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
Experienced computer users probably got this one on the first try. We need to format the drive. Formatting (usually known as "making a file system") writes information to the drive, creating order out
of the empty space in an unformatted drive.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
Figure D-2. Disk Drive with a File System
As Figure D-2, implies, the order imposed by a file system involves some trade-offs:
•
A small percentage of the drive’s available space is used to store file system-related data and can be
considered as overhead.
•
A file system splits the remaining space into small, consistently-sized segments. For Linux, these
segments are known as blocks. 1
Given that file systems make things like directories and files possible, these tradeoffs are usually seen
as a small price to pay.
It is also worth noting that there is no single, universal file system. As Figure D-3, shows, a disk drive
may have one of many different file systems written on it. As you might guess, different file systems
tend to be incompatible; that is, an operating system that supports one file system (or a handful of
related file system types) may not support another. This last statement is not a hard-and-fast rule,
however. For example, Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports a wide variety of file systems (including
many commonly used by other operating systems), making data interchange between different file
systems easy.
Figure D-3. Disk Drive with a Different File System
Of course, writing a file system to disk is only the beginning. The goal of this process is to actually
store and retrieve data. Let us take a look at our drive after some files have been written to it.
Figure D-4. Disk Drive with Data Written to It
As Figure D-4, shows, some of the previously-empty blocks are now holding data. However, by just
looking at this picture, we cannot determine exactly how many files reside on this drive. There may
only be one file or many, as all files use at least one block and some files use multiple blocks. Another
important point to note is that the used blocks do not have to form a contiguous region; used and
unused blocks may be interspersed. This is known as fragmentation. Fragmentation can play a part
when attempting to resize an existing partition.
As with most computer-related technologies, disk drives changed over time after their introduction. In
particular, they got bigger. Not larger in physical size, but bigger in their capacity to store information.
And, this additional capacity drove a fundamental change in the way disk drives were used.
1.
Blocks really are consistently sized, unlike our illustrations. Keep in mind, also, that an average disk drive
contains thousands of blocks. But for the purposes of this discussion, please ignore these minor discrepancies.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
83
D.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
As disk drive capacities soared, some people began to wonder if having all of that formatted space
in one big chunk was such a great idea. This line of thinking was driven by several issues, some
philosophical, some technical. On the philosophical side, above a certain size, it seemed that the
additional space provided by a larger drive created more clutter. On the technical side, some file
systems were never designed to support anything above a certain capacity. Or the file systems could
support larger drives with a greater capacity, but the overhead imposed by the file system to track files
became excessive.
The solution to this problem was to divide disks into partitions. Each partition can be accessed as if it
was a separate disk. This is done through the addition of a partition table.
Note
While the diagrams in this chapter show the partition table as being separate from the actual disk
drive, this is not entirely accurate. In reality, the partition table is stored at the very start of the disk,
before any file system or user data. But for clarity, they are separate in our diagrams.
Figure D-5. Disk Drive with Partition Table
As Figure D-5, shows, the partition table is divided into four sections. Each section can hold the
information necessary to define a single partition, meaning that the partition table can define no more
than four partitions.
Each partition table entry contains several important characteristics of the partition:
•
The points on the disk where the partition starts and ends
•
Whether the partition is "active"
•
The partition’s type
Let us take a closer look at each of these characteristics. The starting and ending points actually define
the partition’s size and location on the disk. The "active" flag is used by some operating systems’ boot
loaders. In other words, the operating system in the partition that is marked "active" is booted.
The partition’s type can be a bit confusing. The type is a number that identifies the partition’s anticipated usage. If that statement sounds a bit vague, that is because the meaning of the partition type
is a bit vague. Some operating systems use the partition type to denote a specific file system type, to
flag the partition as being associated with a particular operating system, to indicate that the partition
contains a bootable operating system, or some combination of the three.
By this point, you might be wondering how all this additional complexity is normally used. Refer to
Figure D-6, for an example.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
DOS
Figure D-6. Disk Drive With Single Partition
In many cases, there is only a single partition spanning the entire disk, essentially duplicating the
method used before partitions. The partition table has only one entry used, and it points to the start of
the partition.
We have labeled this partition as being of the "DOS" type. Although it is only one of several possible
partition types listed in Table D-1, it is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.
Table D-1, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with their hexidecimal numeric values.
Partition Type
Value
Partition Type
Value
Empty
00
Novell Netware 386
65
DOS 12-bit FAT
01
PIC/IX
75
XENIX root
02
Old MINIX
80
XENIX usr
03
Linux/MINUX
81
=32M
04
Linux swap
82
05
Linux native
83
=32
06
Linux extended
85
OS/2 HPFS
07
Amoeba
93
AIX
08
Amoeba BBT
94
DOS 16-bit
Extended
DOS 16-bit
AIX bootable
09
BSD/386
a5
OS/2 Boot Manager
0a
OpenBSD
a6
Win95 FAT32
0b
NEXTSTEP
a7
Win95 FAT32 (LBA)
0c
BSDI fs
b7
Win95 FAT16 (LBA)
0e
BSDI swap
b8
Win95 Extended (LBA)
0f
Syrinx
c7
Venix 80286
40
CP/M
db
e1
Novell
51
DOS access
PPC PReP Boot
41
DOS R/O
e3
GNU HURD
63
DOS secondary
f2
Novell Netware 286
64
BBT
ff
Table D-1. Partition Types
D.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
Of course, over time it became obvious that four partitions would not be enough. As disk drives
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
85
continued to grow, it became more and more likely that a person could configure four reasonablysized partitions and still have disk space left over. There needed to be some way of creating more
partitions.
Enter the extended partition. As you may have noticed in Table D-1, there is an "Extended" partition
type. It is this partition type that is at the heart of extended partitions.
When a partition is created and its type is set to "Extended," an extended partition table is created. In
essence, the extended partition is like a disk drive in its own right — it has a partition table that points
to one or more partitions (now called logical partitions, as opposed to the four primary partitions)
contained entirely within the extended partition itself. Figure D-7, shows a disk drive with one primary
partition and one extended partition containing two logical partitions (along with some unpartitioned
free space).
DOS
Extended
Linux native
OS/2 HPFS
Figure D-7. Disk Drive With Extended Partition
As this figure implies, there is a difference between primary and logical partitions — there can only
be four primary partitions, but there is no fixed limit to the number of logical partitions that can exist.
However, due to the way in which partitions are accessed in Linux, you should avoid defining more
than 12 logical paritions on a single disk drive.
Now that we have discussed partitions in general, let us review how to use this knowledge to install
Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
D.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
There are three possible scenarios you may face when attempting to repartition your hard disk:
•
Unpartitioned free space is available
•
An unused partition is available
•
Free space in an actively used partition is available
Let us look at each scenario in order.
Note
Keep in mind that the following illustrations are simplified in the interest of clarity and do not reflect
the exact partition layout that you encounter when actually installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
D.1.4.1. Using Unpartitioned Free Space
In this situation, the partitions already defined do not span the entire hard disk, leaving unallocated
space that is not part of any defined partition. Figure D-8, shows what this might look like.
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Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-8. Disk Drive with Unpartitioned Free Space
In Figure D-8, 1 represents an undefined partition with unallocated space and 2 represents a defined
partition with allocated space.
If you think about it, an unused hard disk also falls into this category. The only difference is that all
the space is not part of any defined partition.
In any case, you can create the necessary partitions from the unused space. Unfortunately, this scenario, although very simple, is not very likely (unless you have just purchased a new disk just for Red
Hat Enterprise Linux). Most pre-installed operating systems are configured to take up all available
space on a disk drive (refer to Section D.1.4.3 Using Free Space from an Active Partition).
Next, we will discuss a slightly more common situation.
D.1.4.2. Using Space from an Unused Partition
In this case, maybe you have one or more partitions that you do not use any longer. Perhaps you have
dabbled with another operating system in the past, and the partition(s) you dedicated to it never seem
to be used anymore. Figure D-9, illustrates such a situation.
DOS
DOS
CP/M
Linux native
Figure D-9. Disk Drive With an Unused Partition
In Figure D-9, 1 represents an unused partition and 2 represents reallocating an unused partition for
Linux.
If you find yourself in this situation, you can use the space allocated to the unused partition. You first
must delete the partition and then create the appropriate Linux partition(s) in its place. You can create
partitions manually during the installation process and delete the partition before creating a new one.
D.1.4.3. Using Free Space from an Active Partition
This is the most common situation. It is also, unfortunately, the hardest to handle. The main problem
is that, even if you have enough free space, it is presently allocated to a partition that is already in use.
If you purchased a computer with pre-installed software, the hard disk most likely has one massive
partition holding the operating system and data.
Aside from adding a new hard drive to your system, you have two choices:
Destructive Repartitioning
Basically, you delete the single large partition and create several smaller ones. As you might
imagine, any data you had in the original partition is destroyed. This means that making a com-
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
87
plete backup is necessary. For your own sake, make two backups, use verification (if available in
your backup software), and try to read data from your backup before you delete the partition.
Caution
If there was an operating system of some type installed on that partition, it needs to be reinstalled as well. Be aware that some computers sold with pre-installed operating systems may
not include the CD-ROM media to reinstall the original operating system. The best time to notice if this applies to your system is before you destroy your original partition and its operating
system installation.
After creating a smaller partition for your existing operating system, you can reinstall any software, restore your data, and start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. Figure D-10 shows
this being done.
DOS
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-10. Disk Drive Being Destructively Repartitioned
In Figure D-10, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Caution
As Figure D-10, shows, any data present in the original partition is lost without proper backup!
Non-Destructive Repartitioning
Here, you run a program that does the seemingly impossible: it makes a big partition smaller
without losing any of the files stored in that partition. Many people have found this method to be
reliable and trouble-free. What software should you use to perform this feat? There are several
disk management software products on the market. Do some research to find the one that is best
for your situation.
While the process of non-destructive repartitioning is rather straightforward, there are a number
of steps involved:
•
Compress and backup existing data
•
Resize the existing partition
•
Create new partition(s)
Next we will look at each step in a bit more detail.
D.1.4.3.1. Compress existing data
As Figure D-11, shows, the first step is to compress the data in your existing partition. The reason for
doing this is to rearrange the data such that it maximizes the available free space at the "end" of the
partition.
88
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
DOS
DOS
DOS
Figure D-11. Disk Drive Being Compressed
In Figure D-11, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
This step is crucial. Without it, the location of your data could prevent the partition from being resized
to the extent desired. Note also that, for one reason or another, some data cannot be moved. If this is
the case (and it severely restricts the size of your new partition(s)), you may be forced to destructively
repartition your disk.
D.1.4.3.2. Resize the existing partition
Figure D-12, shows the actual resizing process. While the actual result of the resizing operation varies
depending on the software used, in most cases the newly freed space is used to create an unformatted
partition of the same type as the original partition.
DOS
DOS
DOS
DOS
Figure D-12. Disk Drive with Partition Resized
In Figure D-12, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
It is important to understand what the resizing software you use does with the newly freed space, so
that you can take the appropriate steps. In the case we have illustrated, it would be best to delete the
new DOS partition and create the appropriate Linux partition(s).
D.1.4.3.3. Create new partition(s)
As the previous step implied, it may or may not be necessary to create new partitions. However, unless
your resizing software is Linux-aware, it is likely that you must delete the partition that was created
during the resizing process. Figure D-13, shows this being done.
DOS
DOS
DOS
DOS
Linux native
Figure D-13. Disk Drive with Final Partition Configuration
In Figure D-13, 1 represents before and 2 represents after.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
89
Note
The following information is specific to x86-based computers only.
As a convenience to our customers, we provide the parted utility. This is a freely available program
that can resize partitions.
If you decide to repartition your hard drive with parted, it is important that you be familiar with
disk storage and that you perform a backup of your computer data. You should make two copies of
all the important data on your computer. These copies should be to removable media (such as tape,
CD-ROM, or diskettes), and you should make sure they are readable before proceeding.
Should you decide to use parted, be aware that after parted runs you are left with two partitions:
the one you resized, and the one parted created out of the newly freed space. If your goal is to use
that space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should delete the newly created partition, either by
using the partitioning utility under your current operating system or while setting up partitions during
installation.
D.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
Linux refers to disk partitions using a combination of letters and numbers which may be confusing,
particularly if you are used to the "C drive" way of referring to hard disks and their partitions. In the
DOS/Windows world, partitions are named using the following method:
•
Each partition’s type is checked to determine if it can be read by DOS/Windows.
•
If the partition’s type is compatible, it is assigned a "drive letter." The drive letters start with a "C"
and move on to the following letters, depending on the number of partitions to be labeled.
•
The drive letter can then be used to refer to that partition as well as the file system contained on that
partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses a naming scheme that is more flexible and conveys more information
than the approach used by other operating systems. The naming scheme is file-based, with file names
in the form of /dev/xxyN .
Here is how to decipher the partition naming scheme:
/dev/
This is the name of the directory in which all device files reside. Since partitions reside on hard
disks, and hard disks are devices, the files representing all possible partitions reside in /dev/.
xx
The first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition
resides, usually either hd (for IDE disks) or sd (for SCSI disks).
y
This letter indicates which device the partition is on. For example, /dev/hda (the first IDE hard
disk) or /dev/sdb (the second SCSI disk).
90
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
N
The final number denotes the partition. The first four (primary or extended) partitions are numbered 1 through 4. Logical partitions start at 5. So, for example, /dev/hda3 is the third primary
or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk, and /dev/sdb6 is the second logical partition
on the second SCSI hard disk.
Note
There is no part of this naming convention that is based on partition type; unlike DOS/Windows, all
partitions can be identified under Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Of course, this does not mean that Red
Hat Enterprise Linux can access data on every type of partition, but in many cases it is possible to
access data on a partition dedicated to another operating system.
Keep this information in mind; it makes things easier to understand when you are setting up the
partitions Red Hat Enterprise Linux requires.
D.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions are sharing a hard disk with partitions used by other operating systems, most of the time you will have no problems. However, there are certain combinations
of Linux and other operating systems that require extra care.
D.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
One area that many people new to Linux find confusing is the matter of how partitions are used and
accessed by the Linux operating system. In DOS/Windows, it is relatively simple: Each partition gets
a "drive letter." You then use the correct drive letter to refer to files and directories on its corresponding
partition.
This is entirely different from how Linux deals with partitions and, for that matter, with disk storage
in general. The main difference is that each partition is used to form part of the storage necessary to
support a single set of files and directories. This is done by associating a partition with a directory
through a process known as mounting. Mounting a partition makes its storage available starting at the
specified directory (known as a mount point).
For example, if partition /dev/hda5 is mounted on /usr/, that would mean that
all files and directories under /usr/ physically reside on /dev/hda5. So the file
/usr/share/doc/FAQ/txt/Linux-FAQ would be stored on /dev/hda5, while the file
/etc/X11/gdm/Sessions/Gnome would not.
Continuing our example, it is also possible that one or more directories below /usr/ would be
mount points for other partitions. For instance, a partition (say, /dev/hda7) could be mounted on
/usr/local/, meaning that /usr/local/man/whatis would then reside on /dev/hda7 rather
than /dev/hda5.
D.1.8. How Many Partitions?
At this point in the process of preparing to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must give some
consideration to the number and size of the partitions to be used by your new operating system. The
question of "how many partitions" continues to spark debate within the Linux community and, without
any end to the debate in sight, it is safe to say that there are probably as many partition layouts as there
are people debating the issue.
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
91
Keeping this in mind, we recommend that, unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, you should at
least create the following partitions: swap, /boot/ (or a /boot/efi/ partition for Itanium systems)„
/boot/efi/, and / (root).
For more information, refer to Section 4.17.4 Recommended Partitioning Scheme.
Caution
Make sure you read Section D.1.9 One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO — the information there
applies to the /boot/ partition!
D.1.9. One Last Wrinkle: Using GRUB or LILO
GRUB and LILO are the most commonly used methods to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux on x86based systems. As operating system loaders, they operate "outside" of any operating system, using
only the Basic I/O System (or BIOS) built into the computer hardware itself. This section describes
GRUB and LILO’s interactions with PC BIOSes and is specific to x86-compatible computers.
D.1.9.1. BIOS-Related Limitations Impacting GRUB and LILO
GRUB and LILO are subject to some limitations imposed by the BIOS in most x86-based computers.
Specifically, some BIOSes cannot access more than two hard drives, and they cannot access any data
stored beyond cylinder 1023 of any drive. Note that some recent BIOSes do not have these limitations,
but this is by no means universal.
Tip
While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access
more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot
Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions
can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html
All the data GRUB and LILO need to access at boot time (including the Linux kernel) is located in the
/boot/ directory. If you follow the partition layout recommended or select automatic partitioning,
the /boot/ directory is in a small, separate partition. Otherwise, it may reside in the root partition
(/). In either case, the partition in which /boot/ resides must conform to the following guidelines if
you are going to use GRUB or LILO to boot your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system:
On First Two IDE Drives
If you have 2 IDE (or EIDE) drives, /boot/ must be located on one of them. Note that this
two-drive limit also includes any IDE CD-ROM drives on your primary IDE controller. So, if
you have one IDE hard drive, and one IDE CD-ROM on your primary controller, /boot/ must
be located on the first hard drive only, even if you have other hard drives on your secondary IDE
controller.
92
Appendix D. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
On First IDE or First SCSI Drive
If you have one IDE (or EIDE) drive and one or more SCSI drives, /boot/ must be located
either on the IDE drive or the SCSI drive at ID 0. No other SCSI IDs will work.
On First Two SCSI Drives
If you have only SCSI hard drives, /boot/ must be located on a drive at ID 0 or ID 1. No other
SCSI IDs will work.
As mentioned earlier, it is possible that some of the newer BIOSes may permit GRUB and LILO to
work with configurations that do not meet these guidelines. Likewise, some of GRUB and LILO’s
more esoteric features may be used to get a Linux system started, even if the configuration does not
meet our guidelines. However, due to the number of variables involved, Red Hat cannot support such
efforts.
Note
Disk Druid, as well as automatic partitioning, takes these BIOS-related limitations into account.
Appendix E.
Driver Media
E.1. Why Do I Need Driver Media?
While the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program is loading, a screen may appear asking you
for driver media. The driver media screen is most often seen in the following scenarios:
•
If you need to perform an installation from a network device
•
If you need to perform an installation from a block device
•
If you need to perform an installation from a PCMCIA device
•
If you run the installation program by entering linux dd at the installation boot prompt (Itanium
users should enter elilo linux dd)
•
If you run the installation program on a computer which does not have any PCI devices
E.1.1. So What Is Driver Media Anyway?
Driver media can add support for hardware that may or may not be supported by the installation
program. Driver media could include a driver diskette or image produced by Red Hat, it could be a
diskette or CD-ROM you make yourself from drivers found on the Internet, or it could be a diskette
or CD-ROM that a hardware vendor includes with a piece of hardware.
Driver media is used if you need access to a particular device to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Drivers can be used for network (NFS) installations, installations using a PCMCIA or block device,
non-standard or very new CD-ROM drives, SCSI adapters, NICs, and other uncommon devices.
Note
If an unsupported device is not needed to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on your system, continue
with the installation and add support for the new piece of hardware once the installation is complete.
E.1.2. How Do I Obtain Driver Media?
Driver images can be obtained from several sources. They may be included with Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, or they may be available from a hardware or software vendor’s website. If you suspect that
your system may require one of these drivers, you should create a driver diskette or CD-ROM before
beginning your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
For users with x86-based systems, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 includes driver images (including images/drvnet.img — network card drivers and images/drvblock.img — drivers for
SCSI controllers) containing many drivers (both common and obscure).
94
Appendix E. Driver Media
Tip
It is also possible to use a driver image via a network file. Instead of using the linux dd boot command, use the linux dd=url command, where url is replaced by an HTTP, FTP, or NFS address
of the driver image to be used.
Another option for finding specialized driver information is on Red Hat’s website at
http://www.redhat.com/support/errata/
under the section called Bug Fixes. Occasionally, popular hardware may be made available after a
release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that does not work with drivers already in the installation program
or included on the driver images on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1. In such cases, the Red Hat
website may contain a link to a driver image.
E.1.2.1. Creating a Driver Diskette from an Image File
If you have a driver image that you need to write to a diskette, this can be done from within DOS or
Red Hat Enterprise Linux. On an Itanium system, the diskette must be an LS-120.
To create a driver diskette from a driver diskette image using Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
1. Insert a blank, formatted diskette (or LS-120 diskette for Itanium system users) into the first
diskette (or LS-120) drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver diskette image, such as drvnet.img , type dd
if=drvnet.img of=/dev/fd0 as root.
To create a driver diskette from a driver diskette image using DOS:
1. Insert a blank, formatted diskette (or LS-120 diskette for Itanium system users) into the diskette
drive.
2. From the same directory containing the driver diskette image, such as drvnet.img , type
d:\dosutils\rawrite drvnet.img a: at the command line, where d: is the drive letter
for the CD-ROM device.
E.1.3. Using a Driver Image During Installation
If you need to use a driver image, such as during a PCMCIA device or NFS installation, the installation
program prompts you to insert the driver (as a diskette, CD-ROM, or file name) when it is needed.
However, there are some cases where you must specifically tell the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to load that driver diskette and use it during the installation process.
For example, to specifically load a driver diskette that you have created, begin the installation process
by booting from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD #1 (or the installation boot diskette). For x86-based
systems, at the boot: prompt, enter linux dd if using an x86 or x86-64 system. Refer to Section
4.3.1 Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T Systems for details on
booting the installation program. For Itanium systems, at the Shell> prompt, type elilo linux
dd. Refer to Section 4.3.2 Booting the Installation Program on Itanium Systems for details on booting
the installation program.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program asks you to insert the driver diskette. Once the
driver diskette is read by the installation program, it can apply those drivers to hardware discovered
on your system later in the installation process.
Appendix F.
Additional Boot Options
This appendix discusses additional boot and kernel boot options available for the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation program.
To use any of the boot options presented here, type the command you wish to invoke at the installation
boot: prompt.
Boot Time Command Arguments
askmethod
This command asks you to select the installation method you would like to use when booting
from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM.
apic
This x86 boot command works around a bug commonly encountered in the Intel 440GX chipset
BIOS and should only be executed with the installation program kernel.
apm=allow_ints
This x86 boot command changes how the suspend service is handled (and may be necessary for
some laptops).
apm=off
This x86 boot command disables APM (Advanced Power Management). It useful because some
BIOSes have buggy power management (APM) and tend to crash.
apm=power_off
This x86 boot command makes Red Hat Enterprise Linux shutdown (power off) the system by
default. It is useful for SMP systems that do not shutdown by default.
apm=realmode_power_off
Some BIOSes crash on x86-based systems when trying to shutdown (power off) the machine.
This command changes the method of how this is done from the Windows NT way to the Windows 95 way.
dd
This argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver diskette.
dd=url
This argument causes the installation program to prompt you to use a driver image from a specified HTTP, FTP, or NFS network address.
display=IP:0
This command allows remote display forwarding. In this command, IP should be replaced with
the IP address of the system on which you want the display to appear.
On the system you want the display to appear on, you must execute the command xhost
+remotehostname, where remotehostname is the name of the host from which you are
running the original display. Using the command xhost +remotehostname limits access
96
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
to the remote display terminal and does not allow access from anyone or any system not
specifically authorized for remote access.
driverdisk
This command performs the same function as the dd command and also prompts you to use a
driver diskette during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
ide=nodma
This command disables DMA on all IDE devices and may be useful when having IDE-related
problems.
linux upgradeany
This command relaxes some of the checks on your /etc/redhat-release file. If your
/etc/redhat-release file has been changed from the default, your Red Hat Enterprise
Linux installation may not be found when attempting an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.
Use this option only if your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation was not detected.
mediacheck
This command gives you the option of testing the integrity of the install source (if an ISO-based
method). This command works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation
methods. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to
avoid problems that are often encountered during an installation.
mem=xxxM
This command allows you to override the amount of memory the kernel detects for the machine.
This may be needed for some older systems where only 16 MB is detected and for some new
machines where the video card shares the video memory with the main memory. When executing
this command, xxx should be replaced with the amount of memory in megabytes.
nmi_watchdog=1
This command enables the built-in kernel deadlock detector. This command can be used to debug
hard kernel lockups. By executing periodic NMI (Non Maskable Interrupt) interrupts, the kernel
can monitor whether any CPU has locked up and print out debugging messages as needed.
noapic
This x86 boot command tells the kernel not to use the APIC chip. It may be helpful for some
motherboards with a bad APIC (such as the Abit BP6) or with a buggy BIOS.
noht
This x86 boot command disables hyperthreading.
nofb
This command disables frame buffer support and allows the installation program to run in text
mode. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading hardware.
nomce
This x86 boot command disables self-diagnosis checks performed on the CPU. The kernel enables self-diagnosis on the CPU by default (called Machine Check Exception). Early Compaq
Pentium systems may need this option as they do not support processor error checking correctly.
A few other laptops, notably those using the Radeon IGP chipset, may also need this option.
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
97
nopass
This command disables the passing of keyboard and mouse information to stage 2 of the installation program. It can be used to test keyboard and mouse configuration screens during stage 2
of the installation program when performing a network installation.
nopcmcia
This command ignores any PCMCIA controllers in system.
noprobe
This command disables hardware detection and instead prompts the user for hardware information.
noshell
This command disables shell access on virtual console 2 during an installation.
nousb
This command disables the loading of USB support during the installation. If the installation
program tends to hang early in the process, this command may be helpful.
nousbstorage
This command disables the loading of the usbstorage module in the installation program’s loader.
It may help with device ordering on SCSI systems.
reboot=b
This x86, AMD64, and Intel® EM64T boot command changes the way the kernel tries to reboot
the machine. If a kernel hang is experienced while the system is shutting down, this command
may cause the system to reboot successfully.
rescue
This command runs rescue mode. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration
Guide for more information about rescue mode.
resolution=
Tells the installation program which video mode to run. It accepts any standard resolution, such
as 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, and so on.
serial
This command turns on serial console support.
skipddc
This x86 boot command skips the ddc monitor probe which causes problems on some systems.
text
This command disables the graphical installation program and forces the installation program to
run in text mode.
updates
This command prompts you to insert a floppy diskette containing updates (bug fixes). It is not
needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the updates image
contents in RHupdates/ on the server.
98
Appendix F. Additional Boot Options
vnc
This command allows you to install from a VNC server.
vncpassword=
This command sets the password used to connect to the VNC server.
Appendix G.
Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux
Other reference materials, related to running Red Hat Enterprise Linux on an Itanium system, are
available on the Web. A few of the available resources are as follows:
•
http://www.linuxia64.org/ — The Official Home Page of the Itanium Linux Project
•
http://www.intel.com/products/server/processors/server/itanium/index.htm?iid=sr+itanium&
The Intel website on the Itanium Processor
•
http://developer.intel.com/technology/efi/index.htm?iid=sr+efi& — The Intel website for the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)
•
http://www.itanium.com/eBusiness/products/itanium/ — The Intel website on the Itanium 2 processor
—
100
Appendix G. Additional Resources about Itanium and Linux
Index
kernel, 95
boot.iso, 19
mediacheck, 19
Symbols
/boot/ partition
recommended partitioning, 34
/boot/efi/, 34
/root/install.log
install log file location, 51
/var/ partition
recommended partitioning, 34
serial mode, 19
UTF-8, 19
text mode, 19
boot.img, 18
boot.iso, 19
bootable CD-ROM, 20
booting
installation program
A
accessibility, iv
boot option
nofb, 96
adding partitions, 35
file system type, 36
ATAPI CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 22
autoboot, 20
ELILO, 56
automatic partitioning, 28, 30
B
BIOS, issues related to GRUB, 91
BIOS, issues related to LILO, 91
boot CD-ROM, 4
creating, 6
boot diskette
creating from boot image file, 18
boot loader, 37
alternatives to, 41, 65
commercial products, 41, 65
LOADLIN, 41, 65
SYSLINUX, 41, 65
configuration, 37
GRUB, 37
installing on boot partition, 39, 63
LILO, 37
MBR, 39, 63
password, 39, 63
boot loader password, 39, 63
boot methods
block device drivers diskette, 4
boot CD-ROM, 4
local boot diskette, 4
network device drivers diskette, 4
PCMCIA device drivers diskettes, 4
USB diskette drive, 6
boot options, 19
additional, 95
from a CD-ROM, 18
from an LS-120 diskette, 18
Itanium, 18
x86, AMD64 and Intel EM64T, 17
C
canceling the installation, 21
CD-ROM
ATAPI, 21
unrecognized, problems with, 22
boot CD-ROM, creating, 6
bootable, 20
IDE, 21
unrecognized, problems with, 22
installation from, 21
SCSI, 21
clock, 47
configuration
clock, 47
GRUB, 37
hardware, 11
LILO, 37
network, 42
time, 47
time zone, 47
consoles, virtual, 14
conventions
document, i
102
D
DASD installation, 22
dd
creating installation diskette, 8
deleting partitions, 37
Disk Druid
adding partitions, 35
file system type, 36
buttons, 33
deleting partitions, 37
editing partitions, 37
partitions, 31
disk partitioning, 28
disk space, 4
diskette
boot, creating, 6
making under Linux-like OS, 8
making with MS-DOS, 7
media, 93
network boot, creating, 6
PCMCIA support, creating, 6
documentation
other manuals, 3
driver diskette, 5, 16
driver media, 93
creating diskette from image, 94
produced by others, 94
produced by Red Hat, 93
using a driver image, 94
E
editing partitions, 37
EFI
system partition, 2
EFI Shell, 1
ELILO
autoboot, 56
post-installation boot setup, 55
extended partitions, 84
F
feedback
contact information for this manual, iv
file system
formats, overview of, 81
file system types, 36
firewall configuration, 44
customize incoming services, 44
customize trusted services, 44
security levels
enable firewall, 44
no firewall, 44
FTP
installation, 8, 24
G
GRUB, 37, 60
alternatives to, 41, 65
commercial products, 41, 65
LOADLIN, 41, 65
SYSLINUX, 41, 65
BIOS-related issues, 91
configuration, 37, 60
creating a new configuration, 61
partitioning-related issues, 91
removing, 67
SMP motherboards, 42, 65
H
hard disk
basic concepts, 81
extended partitions, 84
file system formats, 81
partition introduction, 83
partition types, 84
partitioning of, 81
hard drive installation, 22
preparing for, 10
hardware
compatibility, 3
configuration, 11
hostname configuration, 43
how to use this manual, iii
HTTP
installation, 8, 25
I
ia64
(See Itanium)
IDE CD-ROM
unrecognized, problems with, 22
install log file
/root/install.log, 51
installation
aborting, 21
can you install with a CD-ROM, 4
CD-ROM, 21
DASD, 22
disk space, 4
FTP, 8, 24
GUI
CD-ROM, 13
hard drive, 10, 22
103
HTTP, 8, 25
Itanium overview, 1
keyboard navigation, 16
mediacheck, 19
method
CD-ROM, 20
FTP, 21
hard drive, 20
HTTP, 21
NFS image, 21
selecting, 20
network, 8
NFS, 8, 23
server information, 24
partitioning, 31
problems
IDE CD-ROM related, 22
program
booting without a diskette, 20
graphical user interface, 13
starting, 16
text mode user interface, 14
virtual consoles, 14
registering your product, 3
serial mode, 19
UTF-8, 19
starting, 21
text mode, 19
installation overview, 1
installation program
Itanium
booting, 18
x86, AMD64 and Intel EM64T
booting, 17
installing packages, 49
introduction, i
isolinux, 17
K
kernel
boot options, 95
kernel options, 20
keyboard
configuration, 26
navigating the installation program using, 16
keymap
selecting type of keyboard, 26
L
language
selecting, 26
support for multiple languages, 46
LILO, 37, 60
alternatives to, 41, 65
commercial products, 41, 65
LOADLIN, 41, 65
SYSLINUX, 41, 65
BIOS-related issues, 91
configuration, 37, 60
creating a new configuration, 61
partitioning-related issues, 91
removing, 67
SMP motherboards, 42, 65
Linux-like OS
creating installation diskette with, 8
LOADLIN, 41, 65
M
manuals, 3
MBR
installing boot loader on, 39, 63
monitor setup, 52
mount points
partitions and, 90
mouse
configuring, 27
not detected, 71
selecting, 27
MS-DOS
creating installation diskette with, 7
N
network
configuration, 42
installations
FTP, 24
HTTP, 25
NFS, 23
network installation
performing, 23
preparing for, 8
NFS
installation, 8, 23
O
online help
hiding, 26
OS/2 boot manager, 39, 63
104
P
S
packages
groups, 49
selecting, 49
installing, 49
selecting, 49
parted partitioning utility, 89
partition
extended, 84
Partition Magic, 41, 65
partitioning, 31
automatic, 28, 30
basic concepts, 81
creating new, 35
file system type, 36
destructive, 86
extended partitions, 84
GRUB issues related to, 91
how many partitions, 90
introduction to, 83
LILO issues related to, 91
making room for partitions, 85
mount points and, 90
naming partitions, 89
non-destructive, 87
numbering partitions, 89
other operating systems, 90
recommended, 34
types of partitions, 84
using free space, 85
using in-use partition, 86
using unused partition, 86
password
boot loader, 39, 63
setting root, 47
post-installation setup, 55
selecting
packages, 49
SMP motherboards
GRUB, 42, 65
LILO, 42, 65
starting
installation, 16, 21
startup.nsh, 57
steps
disk space, 4
hardware compatibility, 3
installing with CD-ROM, 4
swap file
upgrade, 59
swap parition
recommended partitioning, 34
SYSLINUX, 41, 65
System Commander, 41, 65
System Partition, 2
system requirements table, 11
R
rawrite
creating installation diskette, 7
recursion
(See recursion)
registering your product, 3
removing
GRUB, 67
LILO, 67
Red Hat Enterprise Linux, 67
rescue mode, 41, 64
root / partition
recommended partitioning, 34
root password, 47
T
tables
reference, 11
system requirements, 11
TCP/IP configuration, 23
time zone
configuration, 47
traceback messages
saving traceback messages without a floppy drive,
72
troubleshooting, 69
after the installation
Apache-based httpd service hangs during
startup, 78
after the installation, 74
booting into a graphical environment, 75
booting into GNOME or KDE, 75
booting into the X Window System, 75
graphical GRUB screen, 74
graphical LILO screen, 75
logging in, 76
NVIDIA, 79
printers, 78
RAM not recognized, 77
Sendmail hangs during startup, 78
sound configuration, 78
X (X Window System), 76
beginning the installation, 71
frame buffer, disabling, 71
GUI installation method unavailable, 71
mouse not detected, 71
booting, 69
105
boot diskette, 69
CD-ROM, 69
RAID cards, 70
signal 11 error, 70
CD-ROM failure
CD-ROM verification, 19
during the installation
No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise
Linux error message, 72
saving traceback messages without a diskette
drive, 72
during the installation, 72
completing partitions, 73, 73
partition tables, 72
Python errors, 73
using remaining hard drive space, 72
U
uninstalling, 67
upgrade, 59
adding a swap file, 59
boot loader configuration, 60
boot loader configuration, creating new, 61
description of, 59
starting, 59
USB diskette drive
booting the installation program, 6
user interface, graphical
installation program, 13
user interface, text mode
installation program, 14
V
video card setup, 51
virtual consoles, 14
Colophon
The manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4.1 format. The HTML and PDF formats are produced
using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. The DocBook SGML files are
written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode.
Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note, tip, important, caution, and warning). They
may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation.
The Red Hat Product Documentation Team consists of the following people:
Sandra A. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide
for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T); Primary
Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for the IBM® eServer™ iSeries™ and IBM® eServer™ pSeries™ Architectures; Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Step By Step Guide
Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux System Administration
Guide; Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™,
AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory 64 Technology (Intel® EM64T); Contributing Writer to the
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide; Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step
By Step Guide; Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts
Edward C. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Release Notes; Contributing Writer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for x86, Itanium™, AMD64, and Intel® Extended Memory
64 Technology (Intel® EM64T)
Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Reference Guide; Cowriter/Co-maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide; Contributing Writer to the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration
John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Cluster Suite Configuring and Managing a
Cluster; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Glossary; Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red
Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for the IBM® S/390® and IBM® eServer™ zSeries® Architectures; Co-writer/Co-maintainer of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Guide; Contributing
Writer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Introduction to System Administration; Contributing Writer to
the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Step By Step Guide
The Red Hat Localization Team consists of the following people:
Jean-Paul Aubry — French translations
David Barzilay — Brazilian Portuguese translations
Bernd Groh — German translations
James Hashida — Japanese translations
Michelle Ji-yeen Kim — Korean translations
Yelitza Louze — Spanish translations
Noriko Mizumoto — Japanese translations
Nadine Richter — German translations
Audrey Simons — French translations
Francesco Valente — Italian translations
Sarah Saiying Wang — Simplified Chinese translations
Ben Hung-Pin Wu — Traditional Chinese translations
108
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