80C51 family hardware description

80C51 family hardware description
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
• The Serial Interface
• The Interrupt System
• Reset
• The Reduced Power Modes in CMOS devices
• The EPROM version of the 80C51
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
This chapter provides a detailed description of the 80C51
microcontroller (see Figure 1). Included in this description are:
• The port drivers and how they function both as ports and, for Ports
0 and 2, in bus operations
• The Timers/Counters
VCC
P0.0-P0.7
P2.0-P2.7
Port 0
Drivers
Port 2
Drivers
Port 0
Latch
Port 2
Latch
VSS
RAM Address
Register
RAM
EPROM/
ROM
Stack
Pointer
ACC
B
Register
TMP2
Program
Address
Register
TMP1
PCON
SCON
TMOD
TCON
T2CON
TH0
TL0
TH1
SBUF
IE
IP
Buffer
TL1
ALU
PC
Incrementer
Interrupt, Serial
Port, and Timer
Blocks
Program
Counter
PSW
PSEN
ALE
EA
Timing
and
Control
Instruction
Register
DPTR
RST
PD
Port 1 Latch
Port 3 Latch
Port 1
Drivers
Port 3
Drivers
Oscillator
XTAL1
XTAL2
P1.0-P1.7
P3.0-P3.7
SU00529
Figure 1. 80C51 Architecture
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
Ports 0 to 3
P0, P1, P2, and P3 are the SFR latches of Ports 0, 1, 2, and 3,
respectively. Writing a one to a bit of a port SFR (P0, P1, P2, or P3)
causes the corresponding port output pin to switch high. Writing a
zero causes the port output pin to switch low. When used as an
input, the external state of a port pin will be held in the port SFR
(i.e., if the external state of a pin is low, the corresponding port SFR
bit will contain a 0; if it is high, the bit will contain a 1).
Special Function Registers
A Map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function
Register (SFR) space is shown in Figure 2.
Note that in the SFRs not all of the addresses are occupied.
Unoccupied addresses are not implemented on the chip. Read
accesses to these addresses will in general return random data, and
write accesses will have no effect.
User software should not write 1s to these unimplemented locations,
since they may be used in other 80C51 Family derivative products
to invoke new features. The functions of the SFRs are described in
the text that follows.
Serial Data Buffer
The Serial Buffer is actually two separate registers, a transmit buffer
and a receive buffer. When data is moved to SBUF, it goes to the
transmit buffer and is held for serial transmission. (Moving a byte to
SBUF is what initiates the transmission.) When data is moved from
SBUF, it comes from the receive buffer.
Accumulator
ACC is the Accumulator register. The mnemonics for
Accumulator-Specific instructions, however, refer to the Accumulator
simply as A.
Timer Registers Basic to 80C51
Register pairs (TH0, TL0), and (TH1, TL1) are the 16-bit Counting
registers for Timer/Counters 0 and 1, respectively.
B Register
The B register is used during multiply and divide operations. For
other instructions it can be treated as another scratch pad register.
Control Register for the 80C51
Special Function Registers IP, IE, TMOD, TCON, SCON, and PCON
contain control and status bits for the interrupt system, the
Timer/Counters, and the serial port. They are described in later
sections.
Program Status Word
The PSW register contains program status information as detailed in
Figure 3.
Port Structures and Operation
Stack Pointer
The Stack Pointer register is 8 bits wide. It is incremented before
data is stored during PUSH and CALL executions. While the stack
may reside anywhere in on-chip RAM, the Stack Pointer is initialized
to 07H after a reset. This causes the stack to begin at locations 08H.
All four ports in the 80C51 are bidirectional. Each consists of a latch
(Special Function Registers P0 through P3), an output driver, and an
input buffer.
The output drivers of Ports 0 and 2, and the input buffers of Port 0,
are used in accesses to external memory. In this application, Port 0
outputs the low byte of the external memory address,
time-multiplexed with the byte being written or read.
Data Pointer
The Data Pointer (DPTR) consists of a high byte (DPH) and a low
byte (DPL). Its intended function is to hold a 16-bit address. It may
be manipulated as a 16-bit register or as two independent 8-bit
registers.
Port 2 outputs the high byte of the external memory address when
the address is 16 bits wide. Otherwise, the Port 2 pins continue to
emit the P2 SFR content.
8 BYTES
F8
F0
FF
B
F7
E8
E0
EF
ACC
E7
D8
D0
DF
D7
PSW
C8
CF
C0
C7
B8
IP
BF
B0
P3
B7
A8
IE
AF
A0
P2
98
SCON
90
P1
88
TCON
TMOD
TL0
TL1
80
P0
SP
DPL
DPH
A7
9F
SBUF
97
TH0
PCON
BIT ADDRESSABLE
87
SU00530
Figure 2. 80C51 SFR Memory Map
1997 Dec 01
8F
TH1
55
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
MSB
LSB
CY
AC
BIT
PSW.7
PSW.6
PSW.5
PSW.4
SYMBOL
CY
AC
F0
RS1
PSW.3
RS0
PSW.2
PSW.1
PSW.0
OV
—
P
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
—
P
FUNCTION
Carry flag.
Auxilliary Carry flag. (For BCD operations.)
Flag 0. (Available to the user for general purposes.)
Register bank select control bit 1.
Set/cleared by software to determine working register bank. (See Note.)
Register bank select control bit 0.
Set/cleared by software todetermine working register bank. (See Note.)
Overflow flag.
User-definable flag.
Parity flag.
Set/cleared by hardware each instruction cycle to indicate an odd/even
number of “one” bits in the Accumulator, i.e., even parity.
NOTE: The contents of (RS1, RS0) enable the working register banks as follows:
(0,0)— Bank 0 (00H–07H)
(0,1)— Bank 1 (08H–0fH)
(1,0)— Bank 2 (10H–17H)
(1,1)— Bank 3 (18H–17H)
SU00531A
Figure 3. Program Status Word (PSW) Register
being used as the ADDR/DATA BUS for external memory during
normal operation.) To be used as an input, the port bit latch must
contain a 1, which turns off the output driver FET. Then, for Ports 1,
2, and 3, the pin is pulled high by a weak internal pullup, and can be
pulled low by an external source.
All the Port 3 pins are multifunctional. They are not only port pins,
but also serve the functions of various special features as listed
below:
Port Pin
P3.0
P3.1
P3.2
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
Alternate Function
RxD (serial input port)
TxD (serial output port)
INT0 (external interrupt)
INT1 (external interrupt)
T0 (Timer/Counter 0 external input)
T1 (Timer/Counter 1 external input)
WR (external Data Memory write strobe)
RD (external Data Memory read strobe)
Port 0 differs in that its internal pullups are not active during normal
port operation. The pullup FET in the P0 output driver (see Figure 4)
is used only when the port is emitting 1s during external memory
accesses. Otherwise the pullup FET is off. Consequently P0 lines
that are being used as output port lines are open drain. Writing a 1
to the bit latch leaves both output FETs off, so the pin floats. In that
condition it can be used as a high-impedance input.
The alternate functions can only be activated if the corresponding bit
latch in the port SFR contains a 1. Otherwise the port pin remains at 0.
Because Ports 1, 2, and 3 have fixed internal pullups, they are
sometimes called “quasi- bidirectional” ports. When configured as
inputs they pull high and will source current (IIL, in the data sheets)
when externally pulled low. Port 0, on the other hand, is considered
“true” bidirectional, because when configured as an input it floats.
I/O Configurations
Figure 4 shows a functional diagram of a typical bit latch and I/O
buffer in each of the four ports. The bit latch (one bit in the port’s
SFR) is represented as a Type D flip-flop, which will clock in a value
from the internal bus in response to a “write to latch” signal from the
CPU. The level of the port pin itself is placed on the internal bus in
response to a “read pin” signal from the CPU. Some instructions that
read a port activate the “read latch” signal, and others activate the
“read pin” signal.
All the port latches in the 80C51 have 1s written to them by the reset
function. If a 0 is subsequently written to a port latch, it can be
reconfigured as an input by writing a 1 to it.
Writing to a Port
In the execution of an instruction that changes the value in a port
latch, the new value arrives at the latch during S6P2 of the final
cycle of the instruction. However, port latches are in fact sampled by
their output buffers only during Phase 1 of an clock period. (During
Phase 2 the output buffer holds the value it saw during the previous
Phase 1). Consequently, the new value in the port latch won’t
actually appear at the output pin until the next Phase 1, which will be
at S1P1 of the next machine cycle.
As shown in Figure 4, the output drivers of Port 0 and 2 are
switchable to an internal ADDR and ADDR/DATA bus by an internal
CONTROL signal for use in external memory accesses. During
external memory accesses, the P2 SFR remains unchanged, but the
P0 SFR gets 1s written to it.
Also shown in Figure 4 is that if a P3 bit latch contains a 1, then the
output level is controlled by the signal labeled “alternate output
function.” The actual P3.X pin level is always available to the pin’s
alternate input function, if any.
If the change requires a 0-to-1 transition in Port 1, 2, or 3, an
additional pullup is turned on during S1P1 and S1P2 of the cycle in
which the transition occurs. This is done to increase the transition
speed. The extra pullup can source about 100 times the current that
the normal pullup can. It should be noted that the internal pullups
are field-effect transistors, not linear resistors. The pullup
arrangements are shown in Figure 5.
Ports 1, 2, and 3 have internal pullups, and Port 0 has open drain
outputs. Each I/O line can be independently used as an input or an
output. (Port 0 and 2 may not be used as general purpose I/O when
1997 Dec 01
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
ADDR/Data
Control
Read
Latch
VCC
Read
Latch
VCC
Internal
Pullup*
P0.X
Pin
Int. Bus
D
Write to
Latch
CL
Q
P0.X
Latch
MUX
Q
Int. Bus
D
Write to
Latch
CL
Read
Pin
P1.X
Pin
Q
P1.X
Latch
Q
Read
Pin
a. Port 0 Bit
b. Port 1 Bit
Alternate
Output
Function
ADDR/Data
Control
Read
Latch
VCC
Read
Latch
Internal
Pullup*
Internal
Pullup*
MUX
Int. Bus
D
Write to
Latch
CL
Q
P2.X
Latch
VCC
P2.X
Pin
Q
Int. Bus
D
Write to
Latch
CL
Q
P3.X
Latch
Q
Read
Pin
Read
Pin
c. Port 2 Bit
P3.X
Pin
Alternate
Input
Function
d. Port 3 Bit
SU00532
*See Figure 5 for details of the internal pullup.
Figure 4. 80C51 Port Bit Latches and I/O Buffers
a float state. pFET2 is a very weak pullup which is on whenever the
nFET is off, in traditional CMOS style. It’s only about 1/10 the
strength of pFET1. Its function is to restore a 1 to the pin in the
event the pin had a 1 and lost it to a glitch.
In the NMOS 8051 part, the fixed part of the pullup is a depletion
mode transistor with the gate wired to the source. This transistor will
allow the pin to source about 0.25mA when shorted to ground. In
parallel with the fixed pullup is an enhancement mode transistor,
which is activated during S1 whenever the port bit does a 0-to-1
transition. During this interval, if the port pin is shorted to ground,
this extra transistor will allow the pin to source an additional 30mA.
Port Loading and Interfacing
The output buffers of Ports 1, 2, and 3 can each drive 4 LS TTL
inputs. These ports on NMOS versions can be driven in a normal
manner by a TTL or NMOS circuit. Both NMOS and CMOS pins can
be driven by open-collector and open-drain outputs, but note that
0-to-1 transitions will not be fast.
In the CMOS 80C51, the pullup consists of three pFETs. It should be
noted that an n-channel FET (nFET) is turned on when a logical 1 is
applied to its gate, and is turned off when a logical 0 is applied to its
gate. A p-channel FET (pFET) is the opposite: it is on when its gate
sees a 0, and off when its gate sees a 1.
In the NMOS device, if the pin is driven by an open-collector output,
a 0-to-1 transition will have to be driven by the relatively weak
depletion mode FET in Figure 5a. In the CMOS device, an input 0
turns off pullup pFET3, leaving only the very weak pullup pFET2 to
drive the transition.
pFET1 in Figure 5 is the transistor that is turned on for 2 oscillator
periods after a 0-to-1 transition in the port latch. While it’s on, it turns
on pFET3 (a weak pullup), through the inverter. This inverter and
pFET3 form a latch which holds the 1.
Port 0 output buffers can each drive 8 LS TTL inputs. They do,
however, require external pullups to drive NMOS inputs, except
when being used as the ADDRESS/DATA bus for external memory.
Note that if the pin is emitting a 1, a negative glitch on the pin from
some external source can turn off pFET3, causing the pin to go into
1997 Dec 01
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
VCC
2 Osc. Periods
Enhancement Mode FET
Depletion Mode FET
Port
Pin
Q
From Port
Latch
VSS
a. NMOS Configuration.
The enhancement mode transistor is turned on for 2 oscillator periods after Q makes a 0-to-1 transition.
VCC
VCC
P1
P2
VCC
2 Osc. Periods
P3
Port
Pin
n
Q
From Port
Latch
Input Data
Read Port Pin
b. CMOS Configuration.
pFET1 is turned on for 2 oscillator periods after Q makes a 0-to-1 transition.
During this time, pFET1 also turns on pFET3 through the inverter to form a latch which holds the 1. pFET2 is also on.
SU00533
Figure 5. Ports 1 and 3 NMOS and CMOS Internal Pullup Configurations
(Port 2 is similar except that it holds the strong pullup on while emitting 1s that are address bits. See Accessing External Memory.)
It is not obvious that the last three instructions in this list are
read-modify-write instructions, but they are. They read the port byte,
all 8 bits, modify the addressed bit, then write the new byte back to
the latch.
Read-Modify-Write Feature
Some instructions that read a port read the latch and others read the
pin. Which ones do which? The instructions that read the latch
rather than the pin are the ones that read a value, possibly change
it, and then rewrite it to the latch. These are called
“read-modify-write” instructions. The instructions listed below are
read-modify-write instructions. When the destination operand is a
port, or a port bit, these instructions read the latch rather than the
pin:
The reason that read-modify-write instructions are directed to the
latch rather than the pin is to avoid a possible misinterpretation of
the voltage level at the pin. For example, a port bit might be used to
drive the base of a transistor. When a 1 is written to the bit, the
transistor is turned on. If the CPU then reads the same port bit at the
pin rather than the latch, it will read the base voltage of the transistor
and interpret it as a 0. Reading the latch rather than the pin will
return the correct value of 1.
ANL
ORL
XRL
JBC
CPL
INC
DEC
DJNZ
(logical AND, e.g., ANL P1,A)
(logical OR, e.g., ORL P2,A)
(logical EX-OR, e.g., XRL P3,A)
(jump if bit = 1 and clear bit, e.g., JBC P1.1,LABEL)
(complement bit, e.g., CPL P3.0)
(increment, e.g., INC P2)
(decrement, e.g., DEC P2)
(decrement and jump if not zero,
e.g., DJNZ P3,LABEL)
MOV PX.Y,C (move carry bit to bit Y of Port X)
CLR PX.Y
(clear bit Y of Port X)
SET PX.Y
(set bit Y of Port X)
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the
transition was detected. Since it takes 2 machine cycles (24
oscillator periods) to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the maximum
count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency. There are no
restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to
ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes,
it should be held for at least one full cycle. In addition to the “Timer”
or “Counter” selection, Timer 0 and Timer 1 have four operating
modes from which to select.
Accessing External Memory
Accesses to external memory are of two types: accesses to external
Program Memory and accesses to external Data Memory. Accesses
to external Program Memory use signal PSEN (program store
enable) as the read strobe. Accesses to external Data Memory use
RD or WR (alternate functions of P3.7 and P3.6) to strobe the
memory. Fetches from external Program Memory always use a
16-bit address. Accesses to external Data Memory can use either a
16-bit address (MOVX @ DPTR) or an 8-bit address (MOVX @Ri).
Whenever a 16-bit address is used, the high byte of the address
comes out on Port 2, where it is held for the duration of the read or
write cycle. Note that the Port 2 drivers use the strong pullups during
the entire time that they are emitting address bits that are 1s. This is
during the execution of a MOVX @DPTR instruction. During this
time the Port 2 latch (the Special Function Register) does not have
to contain 1s, and the contents of the Port 2 SFR are not modified. If
the external memory cycle is not immediately followed by another
external memory cycle, the undisturbed contents of the Port 2 SFR
will reappear in the next cycle.
Timer 0 and Timer 1
The “Timer” or “Counter” function is selected by control bits C/T in
the Special Function Register TMOD. These two Timer/Counters
have four operating modes, which are selected by bit-pairs (M1, M0)
in TMOD. Modes 0, 1, and 2 are the same for both Timers/Counters.
Mode 3 is different. The four operating modes are described in the
following text.
Mode 0
Putting either Timer into Mode 0 makes it look like an 8048 Timer,
which is an 8-bit Counter with a divide-by-32 prescaler. Figure 7
shows the Mode 0 operation as it applies to Timer 1.
If an 8-bit address is being used (MOVX @Ri), the contents of the
Port 2 SFR remain at the Port 2 pins throughout the external
memory cycle. This will facilitate paging.
In this mode, the Timer register is configured as a 13-bit register. As
the count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s, it sets the Timer interrupt
flag TF1. The counted input is enabled to the Timer when TR1 = 1
and either GATE = 0 or INT1 = 1. (Setting GATE = 1 allows the
Timer to be controlled by external input INT1, to facilitate pulse width
measurements). TR1 is a control bit in the Special Function Register
TCON (Figure 8). GATE is in TMOD.
In any case, the low byte of the address is time-multiplexed with the
data byte on Port 0. The ADDR/DATA signals drive both FETs in the
Port 0 output buffers. Thus, in this application the Port 0 pins are not
open-drain outputs, and do not require external pullups. ALE
(Address Latch Enable) should be used to capture the address byte
into an external latch. The address byte is valid at the negative
transition of ALE. Then, in a write cycle, the data byte to be written
appears on Port 0 just before WR is activated, and remains there
until after WR is deactivated. In a read cycle, the incoming byte is
accepted at Port 0 just before the read strobe is deactivated.
The 13-bit register consists of all 8 bits of TH1 and the lower 5 bits
of TL1. The upper 3 bits of TL1 are indeterminate and should be
ignored. Setting the run flag (TR1) does not clear the registers.
During any access to external memory, the CPU writes 0FFH to the
Port 0 latch (the Special Function Register), thus obliterating
whatever information the Port 0 SFR may have been holding.
Mode 0 operation is the same for the Timer 0 as for Timer 1.
Substitute TR0, TF0, and INT0 for the corresponding Timer 1
signals in Figure 7. There are two different GATE bits, one for Timer
1 (TMOD.7) and one for Timer 0 (TMOD.3).
External Program Memory is accessed under two conditions:
Whenever signal EA is active; or whenever the program counter
(PC) contains a number that is larger than 0FFFH (in the 80C51).
Mode 1
Mode 1 is the same as Mode 0, except that the Timer register is
being run with all 16 bits.
This require that the ROMless versions have EA wired low to enable
the lower 4k program bytes to be fetched from external memory.
Mode 2
Mode 2 configures the Timer register as an 8-bit Counter (TL1) with
automatic reload, as shown in Figure 9. Overflow from TL1 not only
sets TF1, but also reloads TL1 with the contents of TH1, which is
preset by software. The reload leaves TH1 unchanged.
When the CPU is executing out of external Program Memory, all 8
bits of Port 2 are dedicated to an output function and may not be
used for general purpose I/O. During external program fetches they
output the high byte of the PC. During this time the Port 2 drivers
use the strong pullups to emit PC bits that are 1s.
Mode 2 operation is the same for Timer/Counter 0.
Mode 3
Timer 1 in Mode 3 simply holds its count. The effect is the same as
setting TR1 = 0.
Timer/Counters
The 80C51 has two 16-bit Timer/Counter registers: Timer 0 and
Timer 1. Both can be configured to operate either as timers or event
counters (see Figure 6).
Timer 0 in Mode 3 establishes TL0 and TH0 as two separate
counters. The logic for Mode 3 on Timer 0 is shown in Figure 10.
TL0 uses the Timer 0 control bits: C/T, GATE, TR0, INT0, and TF0.
TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting machine cycles) and
takes over the use of TR1 and TF1 from Timer 1. Thus, TH0 now
controls the “Timer 1” interrupt.
In the “Timer” function, the register is incremented every machine
cycle. Thus, one can think of it as counting machine cycles. Since a
machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods, the count rate is
1/12 of the oscillator frequency.
In the “Counter” function, the register is incremented in response to
a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin, T0 or T1.
In this function, the external input is sampled during S5P2 of every
machine cycle.
Mode 3 is provided for applications requiring an extra 8-bit timer on
the counter. With Timer 0 in Mode 3, an 80C51 can look like it has
three Timer/Counters. When Timer 0 is in Mode 3, Timer 1 can be
turned on and off by switching it out of and into its own Mode 3, or
can still be used by the serial port as a baud rate generator, or in
fact, in any application not requiring an interrupt.
When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next
cycle, the count is incremented. The new count value appears in the
1997 Dec 01
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
MSB
GATE
LSB
C/T
M1
M0
GATE
TIMER 1
GATE
M0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
M1
M0
TIMER 0
Gating control when set. Timer/Counter “x” is enabled only while “INTx” pin is high and
“TRx” control pin is set. when cleared Timer “x” is enabled whenever “TRx” control bit is set.
Timer or Counter Selector cleared for Timer operation (input from in=ternal system clock.)
Set for Counter operation (input from “Tx” input pin).
C/T
M1
0
0
1
C/T
OPERATING
8048 Timer “TLx” serves as 5-bit prescaler.
16-bit Timer/Counter “THx” and “TLx” are cascaded; there is no prescaler.
8-bit auto-reload Timer/Counter “THx” holds a value which is to be reloaded
into “TLx” each time it overflows.
(Timer 0) TL0 is an 8-bit Timer/Counter controlled by the standard Timer 0 control bits.
TH0 is an 8-bit timer only controlled by Timer 1 control bits.
(Timer 1) Timer/Counter 1 stopped.
SU00534
Figure 6. Timer/Counter Mode Control (TMOD) Register
÷12
Osc.
C/T = 0
TL1
(5 Bits)
TH1
(8 Bits)
TF1
Interrupt
C/T = 1
Control
T1 Pin
TR1
Gate
INT1 Pin
SU00535
Figure 7. Timer/Counter Mode 0: 13-Bit Counter
MSB
TF1
BIT
TCON.7
SYMBOL
TF1
TCON.6
TCON.5
TR1
TF0
TCON.4
TCON.3
TR0
IE1
TCON.2
IT1
TCON.1
IE0
TCON.0
IT0
LSB
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
FUNCTION
Timer 1 overflow flag. Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow.
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine, or clearing the bit in software.
Timer 1 Run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer/Counter on/off.
Timer 0 overflow flag. Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow.
Cleared by hardware when processor vectors to interrupt routine, or by clearing the bit in software.
Timer 0 Run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer/Counter on/off.
Interrupt 1 Edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt edge detected.
Cleared when interrupt processed.
Interrupt 1 type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify falling edge/low level triggered
external interrupts.
Interrupt 0 Edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt edge detected.
Cleared when interrupt processed.
Interrupt 0 Type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify falling edge/low level
triggered external interrupts.
SU00536
Figure 8. Timer/Counter Control (TCON) Register
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
÷12
Osc.
C/T = 0
TL1
(8 Bits)
TF1
Interrupt
C/T = 1
Control
T1 Pin
Reload
TR1
Gate
TH1
(8 Bits)
INT1 Pin
SU00537
Figure 9. Timer/Counter Mode 2: 8-Bit Auto-Load
÷12
Osc.
1/12 fOSC
1/12 fOSC
C/T = 0
TL0
(8 Bits)
TF0
Interrupt
TH0
(8 Bits)
TF1
Interrupt
C/T = 1
T0 Pin
Control
TR0
Gate
INT0 Pin
1/12 fOSC
Control
TR1
SU00538
Figure 10. Timer/Counter 0 Mode 3: Two 8-Bit Counters
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
slave will be interrupted by a data byte. An address byte, however,
will interrupt all slaves, so that each slave can examine the received
byte and see if it is being addressed. The addressed slave will clear
its SM2 bit and prepare to receive the data bytes that will be coming.
The slaves that weren’t being addressed leave their SM2s set and
go on about their business, ignoring the coming data bytes.
Standard Serial Interface
The serial port is full duplex, meaning it can transmit and receive
simultaneously. It is also receive-buffered, meaning it can
commence reception of a second byte before a previously received
byte has been read from the register. (However, if the first byte still
hasn’t been read by the time reception of the second byte is
complete, one of the bytes will be lost.) The serial port receive and
transmit registers are both accessed at Special Function Register
SBUF. Writing to SBUF loads the transmit register, and reading
SBUF accesses a physically separate receive register.
SM2 has no effect in Mode 0, and in Mode 1 can be used to check
the validity of the stop bit. In a Mode 1 reception, if SM2 = 1, the
receive interrupt will not be activated unless a valid stop bit is
received.
The serial port can operate in 4 modes:
Mode 0:
Serial data enters and exits through RxD. TxD outputs
the shift clock. 8 bits are transmitted/received (LSB first).
The baud rate is fixed at 1/12 the oscillator frequency.
Mode 1:
10 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received
(through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and
a stop bit (1). On receive, the stop bit goes into RB8 in
Special Function Register SCON. The baud rate is
variable.
Mode 2:
Mode 3:
Serial Port Control Register
The serial port control and status register is the Special Function
Register SCON, shown in Figure 11. This register contains not only
the mode selection bits, but also the 9th data bit for transmit and
receive (TB8 and RB8), and the serial port interrupt bits (TI and RI).
Baud Rates
The baud rate in Mode 0 is fixed: Mode 0 Baud Rate = Oscillator
Frequency / 12. The baud rate in Mode 2 depends on the value of
bit SMOD in Special Function Register PCON. If SMOD = 0 (which
is the value on reset), the baud rate is 1/64 the oscillator frequency.
If SMOD = 1, the baud rate is 1/32 the oscillator frequency.
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received
(through RxD): start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a
programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1). On
Transmit, the 9th data bit (TB8 in SCON) can be
assigned the value of 0 or 1. Or, for example, the parity
bit (P, in the PSW) could be moved into TB8. On receive,
the 9th data bit goes into RB8 in Special Function
Register SCON, while the stop bit is ignored. The baud
rate is programmable to either 1/32 or 1/64 the oscillator
frequency.
Mode 2 Baud Rate =
2 SMOD (Oscillator Frequency)
64
In the 80C51, the baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by
the Timer 1 overflow rate.
Using Timer 1 to Generate Baud Rates
When Timer 1 is used as the baud rate generator, the baud rates in
Modes 1 and 3 are determined by the Timer 1 overflow rate and the
value of SMOD as follows:
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received
(through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a
programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1). In fact,
Mode 3 is the same as Mode 2 in all respects except
baud rate. The baud rate in Mode 3 is variable.
Mode 1, 3 Baud Rate =
2 SMOD (Timer 1 Overflow Rate)
32
In all four modes, transmission is initiated by any instruction that
uses SBUF as a destination register. Reception is initiated in Mode 0
by the condition RI = 0 and REN = 1. Reception is initiated in the
other modes by the incoming start bit if REN = 1.
The Timer 1 interrupt should be disabled in this application. The
Timer itself can be configured for either “timer” or “counter”
operation, and in any of its 3 running modes. In the most typical
applications, it is configured for “timer” operation, in the auto-reload
mode (high nibble of TMOD = 0010B). In that case the baud rate is
given by the formula:
Multiprocessor Communications
Modes 2 and 3 have a special provision for multiprocessor
communications. In these modes, 9 data bits are received. The 9th
one goes into RB8. Then comes a stop bit. The port can be
programmed such that when the stop bit is received, the serial port
interrupt will be activated only if RB8 = 1. This feature is enabled by
setting bit SM2 in SCON. A way to use this feature in multiprocessor
systems is as follows:
Mode 1, 3 Baud Rate =
2 SMOD Oscillator Frequency
32
12 [256 (TH1)]
One can achieve very low baud rates with Timer 1 by leaving the
Timer 1 interrupt enabled, and configuring the Timer to run as a
16-bit timer (high nibble of TMOD = 0001B), and using the Timer 1
interrupt to do a 16-bit software reload. Figure 12 lists various
commonly used baud rates and how they can be obtained from
Timer 1.
When the master processor wants to transmit a block of data to one
of several slaves, it first sends out an address byte which identifies
the target slave. An address byte differs from a data byte in that the
9th bit is 1 in an address byte and 0 in a data byte. With SM2 = 1, no
1997 Dec 01
62
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
MSB
SM0
LSB
SM1
SM2
REN
TB8
RB8
TI
RI
Where SM0, SM1 specify the serial port mode, as follows:
SM0
0
0
1
1
SM1
0
1
0
1
Mode
0
1
2
3
Description
shift register
8-bit UART
9-bit UART
9-bit UART
Baud Rate
fOSC/ 12
variable
fOSC/64 or fOSC/32
variable
SM2
Enables the multiprocessor communication feature in Modes 2 and 3. In Mode 2 or 3, if SM2 is set to 1, then Rl will not be
activated if the received 9th data bit (RB8) is 0. In Mode 1, if SM2=1 then RI will not be activated if a valid stop bit was not
received. In Mode 0, SM2 should be 0.
REN
Enables serial reception. Set by software to enable reception. Clear by software to disable reception.
TB8
The 9th data bit that will be transmitted in Modes 2 and 3. Set or clear by software as desired.
RB8
In Modes 2 and 3, is the 9th data bit that was received. In Mode 1, it SM2=0, RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In Mode 0,
RB8 is not used.
TI
Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in Mode 0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in the other
modes, in any serial transmission. Must be cleared by software.
RI
Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in Mode 0, or halfway through the stop bit time in the other
modes, in any serial reception (except see SM2). Must be cleared by software.
SU00120
Figure 11. Serial Port Control (SCON) Register
Timer 1
Ba d Rate
Baud
Mode 0 Max: 1.67MHz
Mode 2 Max: 625k
Mode 1, 3 Max: 104.2k
19.2k
9.6k
4.8k
2.4k
1.2k
137.5
110
110
fOSC
SMOD
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
11.059MHz
11.059MHz
11.059MHz
11.059MHz
11.059MHz
11.986MHz
6MHz
12MHz
X
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
C/T
Mode
Reload Value
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
X
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
X
X
FFH
FDH
FDH
FAH
F4H
E8H
1DH
72H
FEEBH
Figure 12. Timer 1 Generated Commonly Used Baud Rates
More About Mode 0
Serial data enters and exits through RxD. TxD outputs the shift
clock. 8 bits are transmitted/received: 8 data bits (LSB first). The
baud rate is fixed a 1/12 the oscillator frequency.
As data bits shift out to the right, zeros come in from the left. When
the MSB of the data byte is at the output position of the shift register,
then the 1 that was initially loaded into the 9th position, is just to the
left of the MSB, and all positions to the left of that contain zeros.
This condition flags the TX Control block to do one last shift and
then deactivate SEND and set T1. Both of these actions occur at
S1P1 of the 10th machine cycle after “write to SBUF.”
Figure 13 shows a simplified functional diagram of the serial port in
Mode 0, and associated timing.
Transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a
destination register. The “write to SBUF” signal at S6P2 also loads a
1 into the 9th position of the transmit shift register and tells the TX
Control block to commence a transmission. The internal timing is
such that one full machine cycle will elapse between “write to SBUF”
and activation of SEND.
Reception is initiated by the condition REN = 1 and R1 = 0. At S6P2
of the next machine cycle, the RX Control unit writes the bits
11111110 to the receive shift register, and in the next clock phase
activates RECEIVE.
RECEIVE enable SHIFT CLOCK to the alternate output function line
of P3.1. SHIFT CLOCK makes transitions at S3P1 and S6P1 of
every machine cycle. At S6P2 of every machine cycle in which
RECEIVE is active, the contents of the receive shift register are
shifted to the left one position. The value that comes in from the right
is the value that was sampled at the P3.0 pin at S5P2 of the same
machine cycle.
SEND enables the output of the shift register to the alternate output
function line of P3.0 and also enable SHIFT CLOCK to the alternate
output function line of P3.1. SHIFT CLOCK is low during S3, S4, and
S5 of every machine cycle, and high during S6, S1, and S2. At
S6P2 of every machine cycle in which SEND is active, the contents
of the transmit shift are shifted to the right one position.
1997 Dec 01
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Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
As data bits come in from the right, 1s shift out to the left. When the
0 that was initially loaded into the rightmost position arrives at the
leftmost position in the shift register, it flags the RX Control block to
do one last shift and load SBUF. At S1P1 of the 10th machine cycle
after the write to SCON that cleared RI, RECEIVE is cleared as RI is
set.
More About Modes 2 and 3
Eleven bits are transmitted (through TxD), or received (through
RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data
bit, and a stop bit (1). On transmit, the 9th data bit (TB8) can be
assigned the value of 0 or 1. On receive, the 9the data bit goes into
RB8 in SCON. The baud rate is programmable to either 1/32 or 1/64
the oscillator frequency in Mode 2. Mode 3 may have a variable
baud rate generated from Timer 1.
More About Mode 1
Ten bits are transmitted (through TxD), or received (through RxD): a
start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit (1). On receive, the
stop bit goes into RB8 in SCON. In the 80C51 the baud rate is
determined by the Timer 1 overflow rate.
Figures 15 and 16 show a functional diagram of the serial port in
Modes 2 and 3. The receive portion is exactly the same as in Mode
1. The transmit portion differs from Mode 1 only in the 9th bit of the
transmit shift register.
Figure 14 shows a simplified functional diagram of the serial port in
Mode 1, and associated timings for transmit receive.
Transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a
destination register. The “write to SBUF” signal also loads TB8 into
the 9th bit position of the transmit shift register and flags the TX
Control unit that a transmission is requested. Transmission
commences at S1P1 of the machine cycle following the next rollover
in the divide-by-16 counter. (Thus, the bit times are synchronized to
the divide-by-16 counter, not to the “write to SBUF” signal.)
Transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a
destination register. The “write to SBUF” signal also loads a 1 into
the 9th bit position of the transmit shift register and flags the TX
Control unit that a transmission is requested. Transmission actually
commences at S1P1 of the machine cycle following the next rollover
in the divide-by-16 counter. (Thus, the bit times are synchronized to
the divide-by-16 counter, not to the “write to SBUF” signal.)
The transmission begins with activation of SEND, which puts the
start bit at TxD. One bit time later, DATA is activated, which enables
the output bit of the transmit shift register to TxD. The first shift pulse
occurs one bit time after that. The first shift clocks a 1 (the stop bit)
into the 9th bit position of the shift register. Thereafter, only zeros
are clocked in. Thus, as data bits shift out to the right, zeros are
clocked in from the left. When TB8 is at the output position of the
shift register, then the stop bit is just to the left of TB8, and all
positions to the left of that contain zeros. This condition flags the TX
Control unit to do one last shift and then deactivate SEND and set
TI. This occurs at the 11th divide-by-16 rollover after “write to SUBF.”
The transmission begins with activation of SEND which puts the
start bit at TxD. One bit time later, DATA is activated, which enables
the output bit of the transmit shift register to TxD. The first shift pulse
occurs one bit time after that.
As data bits shift out to the right, zeros are clocked in from the left.
When the MSB of the data byte is at the output position of the shift
register, then the 1 that was initially loaded into the 9th position is
just to the left of the MSB, and all positions to the left of that contain
zeros. This condition flags the TX Control unit to do one last shift
and then deactivfate SEND and set TI. This occurs at the 10th
divide-by-16 rollover after “write to SBUF.”
Reception is initiated by a detected 1-to-0 transition at RxD. For this
purpose RxD is sampled at a rate of 16 times whatever baud rate
has been established. When a transition is detected, the
divide-by-16 counter is immediately reset, and 1FFH is written to the
input shift register.
Reception is initiated by a detected 1-to-0 transition at RxD. For this
purpose RxD is sampled at a rate of 16 times whatever baud rate
has been established. When a transition is detected, the
divide-by-16 counter is immediately reset, and 1FFH is written into
the input shift register. Resetting the divide-by-16 counter aligns its
rollovers with the boundaries of the incoming bit times.
At the 7th, 8th, and 9th counter states of each bit time, the bit
detector samples the value of R-D. The value accepted is the value
that was seen in at least 2 of the 3 samples. If the value accepted
during the first bit time is not 0, the receive circuits are reset and the
unit goes back to looking for another 1-to-0 transition. If the start bit
proves valid, it is shifted into the input shift register, and reception of
the rest of the frame will proceed.
The 16 states of the counter divide each bit time into 16ths. At the
7th, 8th, and 9th counter states of each bit time, the bit detector
samples the value of RxD. The value accepted is the value that was
seen in at least 2 of the 3 samples. This is done for noise rejection.
If the value accepted during the first bit time is not 0, the receive
circuits are reset and the unit goes back to looking for another 1-to-0
transition. This is to provide rejection of false start bits. If the start bit
proves valid, it is shifted into the input shift register, and reception of
the rest of the frame will proceed.
As data bits come in from the right, 1s shift out to the left. When the
start bit arrives at the leftmost position in the shift register (which in
Modes 2 and 3 is a 9-bit register), it flags the RX Control block to do
one last shift, load SBUF and RB8, and set RI.
The signal to load SBUF and RB8, and to set RI, will be generated
if, and only if, the following conditions are met at the time the final
shift pulse is generated.
1. RI = 0, and
2. Either SM2 = 0, or the received 9th data bit = 1.
As data bits come in from the right, 1s shift out to the left. When the
start bit arrives at the leftmost position in the shift register (which in
mode 1 is a 9-bit register), it flags the RX Control block to do one
last shift, load SBUF and RB8, and set RI. The signal to load SBUF
and RB8, and to set RI, will be generated if, and only if, the following
conditions are met at the time the final shift pulse is generated.:
1. R1 = 0, and
2. Either SM2 = 0, or the received stop bit = 1.
If either of these conditions is not met, the received frame is
irretrievably lost, and RI is not set. If both conditions are met, the
received 9th data bit goes into RB8, and the first 8 data bits go into
SBUF. One bit time later, whether the above conditions were met or
not, the unit goes back to looking for a 1-to-0 transition at the RxD
input.
If either of these two conditions is not met, the received frame is
irretrievably lost. If both conditions are met, the stop bit goes into
RB8, the 8 data bits go into SBUF, and RI is activated. At this time,
whether the above conditions are met or not, the unit goes back to
looking for a 1-to-0 transition in RxD.
1997 Dec 01
64
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
80C51 Internal Bus
Write
to
SBUF
S
D
Q
RxD
P3.0 Alt
Output
Function
SBUF
CL
Zero Detector
Start
Shift
TX Control
S6
T1
TX Clock
Send
Serial
Port
Interrupt
R1
RX Clock
Receive
RX Control
REN
RI
Start
1
1
1
TxD
P3.1 Alt
Output
Function
Shift
Clock
Shift
1
1
1
1
0
MSB
LSB
RxD
P3.0 Alt
Input
Function
Input Shift Register
Shift
Load
SBUF
LSB
MSB
SBUF
Read
SBUF
80C51 Internal Bus
S4 . .
S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1 . . . . S6 S1
ALE
Write to SBUF
S6P2
Send
Shift
Transmit
RxD (Data Out)
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
TxD (Shift Clock)
S3P1
TI
S6P1
Write to SCON (Clear RI)
RI
Receive
Shift
RxD (Data In)
Receive
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
S5P2
TxD (Shift Clock)
SU00539
Figure 13. Serial Port Mode 0
1997 Dec 01
65
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
Timer 1
Overflow
80C51 Internal Bus
TB8
÷2
SMOD = 0
SMOD = 1
Write
to
SBUF
S
D
Q
SBUF
TxD
CL
Zero Detector
Start
Data
Shift
TX Control
÷ 16
T1
Send
RX Clock RI
Load
SBUF
TX Clock
Serial
Port
Interrupt
÷ 16
Sample
RX Control
1-to-0
Transition
Detector
Shift
Start
1FFH
Bit Detector
Input Shift Register
(9 Bits)
Shift
RxD
Load
SBUF
SBUF
Read
SBUF
80C51 Internal Bus
TX
Clock
Write to SBUF
Send
Data
S1P1
Transmit
Shift
TxD
Start Bit
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Stop Bit
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Stop Bit
TI
÷ 16 Reset
RX
Clock
RxD
Bit Detector
Sample Times
Start
Bit
Receive
Shift
RI
SU00540
Figure 14. Serial Port Mode 1
1997 Dec 01
66
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
80C51 Internal Bus
TB8
Write
to
SBUF
S
D
Q
SBUF
TxD
CL
Phase 2 Clock
(1/2 fOSC)
Zero Detector
Mode 2
Start
÷ 16
SMOD = 1
Stop Bit
Gen.
TX Control
TX Clock
Shift
Data
T1
Send
R1
Load
SBUF
Serial
Port
Interrupt
÷2
SMOD = 0
(SMOD is
PCON.7)
÷ 16
RX Clock
Sample
RX Control
1-to-0
Transition
Detector
Shift
Start
1FFH
Bit Detector
Input Shift Register
(9 Bits)
Shift
RxD
Load
SBUF
SBUF
Read
SBUF
80C51 Internal Bus
TX
Clock
Write to SBUF
Send
Data
S1P1
Transmit
Shift
TxD
Start Bit
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
TB8
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RB8
Stop Bit
TI
Stop Bit Gen.
÷ 16 Reset
RX
Clock
RxD
Bit Detector
Sample Times
Start
Bit
Stop Bit
Receive
Shift
RI
SU00541
Figure 15. Serial Port Mode 2
1997 Dec 01
67
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
Timer 1
Overflow
80C51 Internal Bus
TB8
Write
to
SBUF
÷2
SMOD = 0
SMOD = 1
S
D
Q
SBUF
TxD
CL
Zero Detector
Start
Data
Shift
TX Control
÷ 16
TX Clock
T1
Send
R1
Load
SBUF
Serial
Port
Interrupt
÷ 16
RX Clock
Sample
RX Control
1-to-0
Transition
Detector
Shift
Start
1FFH
Bit Detector
Input Shift Register
(9 Bits)
Shift
RxD
Load
SBUF
SBUF
Read
SBUF
80C51 Internal Bus
TX
Clock
Write to SBUF
Send
Data
S1P1
Transmit
Shift
TxD
Start Bit
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
TB8
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RB8
Stop Bit
TI
Stop Bit Gen.
RX
Clock
RxD
Bit Detector
Sample Times
÷ 16 Reset
Start
Bit
Stop Bit
Receive
Shift
RI
SU00542
Figure 16. Serial Port Mode 3
1997 Dec 01
68
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
Register IP (Figure 19). A low-priority interrupt can itself be
interrupted by a high-priority interrupt, but not by another low-priority
interrupt. A high-priority interrupt can’t be interrupted by any other
interrupt source.
0
INT0
IT0
IE0
If two request of different priority levels are received simultaneously,
the request of higher priority level is serviced. If requests of the
same priority level are received simultaneously, an internal polling
sequence determines which request is serviced. Thus within each
priority level there is a second priority structure determined by the
polling sequence as follows:
1
TF0
0
IT1
INT1
IE1
Interrupt
Sources
Source
1. IE0
2. TF0
3. IE1
4. TF1
5. RI+TI
1
TF1
TI
RI
SU00543
(lowest)
Note that the “priority within level” structure is only used to resolve
simultaneous requests of the same priority level.
Figure 17. 80C51 Interrupt Sources
The IP register contains a number of unimplemented bits. IP.7, IP.6,
and IP.5 are reserved in the 80C51. User software should not write
1s to these positions, since they may be used in other 8051 Family
products.
Interrupts
The 80C51 provides 5 interrupt sources. These are shown in Figure
17. The External Interrupts INT0 and INT1 can each be either
level-activated or transition-activated, depending on bits IT0 and IT1
in Register TCON. The flags that actually generate these interrupts
are bits IE0 and IE1 in TCON. When an external interrupt is
generated, the flag that generated it is cleared by the hardware
when the service routine is vectored to only if the interrupt was
transition-activated. If the interrupt was level-activated, then the
external requesting source is what controls the request flag, rather
than the on-chip hardware.
How Interrupts Are Handled
The interrupt flags are sampled at S5P2 of every machine cycle.
The samples are polled during the following machine cycle. If one of
the flags was in a set condition at S5P2 of the preceding cycle, the
polling cycle will find it and the interrupt system will generate an
LCALL to the appropriate service routine, provided this
hardware-generated LCALL is not blocked by any of the following
conditions:
1. An interrupt of equal or higher priority level is already in
progress.
2. The current (polling) cycle is not the final cycle in the execution
of the instruction in progress.
3. The instruction in progress is RETI or any write to the IE or IP
registers.
The Timer 0 and Timer 1 Interrupts are generated by TF0 and TF1,
which are set by a rollover in their respective Timer/Counter
registers (except see Timer 0 in Mode 3). When a timer interrupt is
generated, the flag that generated it is cleared by the on-chip
hardware when the service routine is vectored to.
The Serial Port Interrupt is generated by the logical OR of RI and TI.
Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service
routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine will normally have
to determine whether it was RI or TI that generated the interrupt,
and the bit will have to be cleared in software.
Any of these three conditions will block the generation of the LCALL
to the interrupt service routine. Condition 2 ensures that the
instruction in progress will be completed before vectoring to any
service routine. Condition 3 ensures that if the instruction in
progress is RETI or any access to IE or IP, then at least one more
instruction will be executed before any interrupt is vectored to.
All of the bits that generate interrupts can be set or cleared by
software, with the same result as though it had been set or cleared
by hardware. That is, interrupts can be generated or pending
interrupts can be canceled in software.
The polling cycle is repeated with each machine cycle, and the
values polled are the values that were present at S5P2 of the
previous machine cycle. Note that if an interrupt flag is active but not
being responded to for one of the above conditions, if the flag is not
still active when the blocking condition is removed, the denied
interrupt will not be serviced. In other words, the fact that the
interrupt flag was once active but not serviced is not remembered.
Every polling cycle is new.
Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or
disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE
(Figure 18). IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables
all interrupts at once.
Priority Level Structure
Each interrupt source can also be individually programmed to one of
two priority levels by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function
1997 Dec 01
Priority Within Level
(highest)
69
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
MSB
EA
BIT
IE.7
SYMBOL
EA
IE.6
IE.5
IE.4
IE.3
IE.2
IE.1
IE.0
—
—
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
LSB
X
X
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
FUNCTION
Disables all interrupts. If EA=0, no interrupt will be acknowledged. If EA=1, each interrupt
source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable bit.
Reserved.
Reserved.
Enables or disables the Serial Port interrupt. If ES=0, the Serial Port interrupt is disabled.
Enables or disables the Timer 1 Overflow interrupt. If ET1=0, the Timer 1 interrupt is disabled.
Enables or disables External Interrupt 1. If EX1=0, External interrupt 1 is disabled.
Enables or disables the Timer 0 Overflow interrupt. If ET0=0, the Timer 0 interrupt is disabled.
Enables or disables External interrupt 0. If EX0=0, External interrupt 0 is disabled.
SU00544
Figure 18. Interrupt Enable Register (IE)
MSB
X
BIT
IP.7
IP.6
IP.5
IP.4
IP.3
IP.2
IP.1
IP.0
SYMBOL
—
—
—
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
LSB
X
X
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
FUNCTION
Reserved.
Reserved.
Reserved.
Defines the Serial Port interrupt priority level. PS=1 programs it to the higher priority level.
Defines the Timer 1 interrupt priority level. PT1=1 programs it to the higher priority level.
Defines the External Interrupt 1 priority level. PX1=1 programs it to the higher priority level.
Enables or disables the Timer 0 interrupt priority level. PT0=1 programs it to the higher priority level.
Defines the External Interrupt 0 priority level. PX0=1 programs it to the higher priority level.
SU00545
Figure 19. Interrupt Priority Register (IP)
.........
C1
S5P2
C2
C3
C4
C5
....
S6
.........
....
....
ε
Interrupt
Goes
Active
Interrupts
Are Polled
Long Call to
Interrupt
Vector Address
Interrupt
Latched
Interrupt Routine
This is the fastest possible response when C2 is the final cycle of an instruction other than RETI or an access to IE or IP.
SU00546
Figure 20. Interrupt Response Timing Diagram
hardware-generated LCALL pushes the contents of the Program
Counter on to the stack (but it does not save the PSW) and reloads
the PC with an address that depends on the source of the interrupt
being vectored to, as shown below:
The polling cycle/LCALL sequence is illustrated in Figure 20.
Note that if an interrupt of higher priority level goes active prior to
S5P2 of the machine cycle labeled C3 in Figure 20, then in
accordance with the above rules it will be vectored to during C5 and
C6, without any instruction of the lower priority routine having been
executed.
Source
IE0
TF0
IE1
TF1
RI+TI
Thus the processor acknowledges an interrupt request by executing
a hardware-generated LCALL to the appropriate servicing routine. In
some cases it also clears the flag that generated the interrupt, and in
other cases it doesn’t. It never clears the Serial Port flag. This has to
be done in the user’s software. It clears an external interrupt flag
(IE0 or IE1) only if it was transition-activated. The
1997 Dec 01
Vector Address
0003H
000BH
0013H
001BH
0023H
Execution proceeds from that location until the RETI instruction is
encountered. The RETI instruction informs the processor that this
70
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
one other instruction has been executed. Thus, once an interrupt
routine has been entered, it cannot be re-entered until at least one
instruction of the interrupted program is executed. One way to use
this feature for single-step operation is to program one of the
external interrupts (e.g., INT0) to be level-activated. The service
routine for the interrupt will terminate with the following code:
interrupt routine is no longer in progress, then pops the top two
bytes from the stack and reloads the Program Counter. Execution of
the interrupted program continues from where it left off.
Note that a simple RET instruction would also have returned
execution to the interrupted program, but it would have left the
interrupt control system thinking an interrupt was still in progress,
making future interrupts impossible.
JNB P3.2,$ ;Wait Till INT0 Goes High
JB
P3.2,$ ;Wait Till INT0 Goes Low
RETI
;Go Back and Execute One Instruction
External Interrupts
The external sources can be programmed to be level-activated or
transition-activated by setting or clearing bit IT1 or IT0 in Register
TCON. If ITx = 0, external interrupt x is triggered by a detected low
at the INTx pin. If ITx = 1, external interrupt x is edge triggered. In
this mode if successive samples of the INTx pin show a high in one
cycle and a low in the next cycle, interrupt request flag IEx in TCON
is set. Flag bit IEx then requests the interrupt.
Now if the INT0 pin, which is also the P3.2 pin, is held normally low,
the CPU will go right into the External Interrupt 0 routine and stay
there until INT0 is pulsed (from low to high to low). Then it will
execute RETI, go back to the task program, execute one instruction,
and immediately re-enter the External Interrupt 0 routine to await the
next pulsing of P3.2. One step of the task program is executed each
time P3.2 is pulsed.
Since the external interrupt pins are sampled once each machine
cycle, an input high or low should hold for at least 12 oscillator
periods to ensure sampling. If the external interrupt is
transition-activated, the external source has to hold the request pin
high for at least one cycle, and then hold it low for at least one cycle.
This is done to ensure that the transition is seen so that interrupt
request flag IEx will be set. IEx will be automatically cleared by the
CPU when the service routine is called.
Reset
The reset input is the RST pin, which is the input to a Schmitt
Trigger. A reset is accomplished by holding the RST pin high for at
least two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods), while the oscillator
is running. The CPU responds by generating an internal reset, with
the timing shown in Figure 21.
If the external interrupt is level-activated, the external source has to
hold the request active until the requested interrupt is actually
generated. Then it has to deactivate the request before the interrupt
service routine is completed, or else another interrupt will be
generated.
The external reset signal is asynchronous to the internal clock. The
RST pin is sampled during State 5 Phase 2 of every machine cycle.
The port pins will maintain their current activities for 19 oscillator
periods after a logic 1 has been sampled at the RST pin; that is, for
19 to 31 oscillator periods after the external reset signal has been
applied to the RST pin.
Response Time
The INT0 and INT1 levels are inverted and latched into IE0 and IE1
at S5P2 of every machine cycle. The values are not actually polled
by the circuitry until the next machine cycle. If a request is active
and conditions are right for it to be acknowledged, a hardware
subroutine call to the requested service routine will be the next
instruction to be executed. The call itself takes two cycles. Thus, a
minimum of three complete machine cycles elapse between
activation of an external interrupt request and the beginning of
execution of the first instruction of the service routine. Figure 20
shows interrupt response timings.
The internal reset algorithm writes 0s to all the SFRs except the port
latches, the Stack Pointer, and SBUF. The port latches are initialized
to FFH, the Stack Pointer to 07H, and SBUF is indeterminate. Table
1 lists the SFR reset values. The internal RAM is not affected by
reset. On power up the RAM content is indeterminate.
Table 1.
A longer response time would result if the request is blocked by one
of the 3 previously listed conditions. If an interrupt of equal or higher
priority level is already in progress, the additional wait time obviously
depends on the nature of the other interrupt’s service routine. If the
instruction in progress is not in its final cycle, the additional wait time
cannot be more the 3 cycles, since the longest instructions (MUL
and DIV) are only 4 cycles long, and if the instruction in progress is
RETI or an access to IE or IP, the additional wait time cannot be
more than 5 cycles (a maximum of one more cycle to complete the
instruction in progress, plus 4 cycles to complete the next instruction
if the instruction is MUL or DIV).
Thus, in a single-interrupt system, the response time is always more
than 3 cycles and less than 9 cycles.
Single-Step Operation
The 80C51 interrupt structure allows single-step execution with very
little software overhead. As previously noted, an interrupt request
will not be responded to while an interrupt of equal priority level is
still in progress, nor will it be responded to after RETI until at least
1997 Dec 01
71
80C51 SFR Reset Values
REGISTER
RESET VALUE
PC
ACC
B
PSW
SP
DPTR
P0–P3
IP
IE
TMOD
TCON
TH0
TL0
TH1
TL1
SCON
SBUF
PCON (NMOS)
PCON (CMOS)
000H
00H
00H
00H
07H
0000H
FFH
XXX00000B
0XX00000B
00H
00H
00H
00H
00H
00H
00H
Indeterminate
0XXXXXXXB
0XXX0000B
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
12 Osc. Periods
S5
S6
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S1
S2
S3
S4
RST:
Internal Reset Signal
Sample RST
Sample RST
ALE:
PSEN:
P0:
Inst.
Addr.
Inst.
Addr.
Inst.
Addr.
11 Osc. Periods
Inst.
Addr.
Inst.
Addr.
19 Osc. Periods
SU00547
Figure 21. Reset Timing
software should never write 1s to unimplemented bits, since they
may be used in other 80C51 Family products.
Power-on Reset
An automatic reset can be obtained when VCC is turned on by
connecting the RST pin to VCC through a 10µf capacitor and to VSS
through an 8.2k resistor, providing the VCC rise time does not
exceed 1 millisecond and the oscillator start-up time does not
exceed 10 milliseconds. This power-on reset circuit is shown in
Figure 22. The CMOS devices do not require the 8.2k pulldown
resistor, although its presence does no harm.
Idle Mode
An instruction that sets PCON.0 causes that to be the last
instruction executed before going into the Idle mode, the internal
clock signal is gated off to the CPU but not to the Interrupt, Timer,
and Serial Port functions. The CPU status is preserved in its
entirety; the Stack Pointer, Program Counter, Program Status Word,
Accumulator, and all other registers maintain their data during Idle.
The port pins hold the logical states they had at the time Idle was
activated. ALE and PSEN hold at logic high levels.
When power is turned on, the circuit holds the RST pin high for an
amount of time that depends on the value of the capacitor and the
rate at which it charges. To ensure a good reset, the RST pin must
be high long enough to allow the oscillator time to start-up (normally
a few ms) plus two machine cycles.
There are two ways to terminate the Idle. Activation of any enabled
interrupt will cause PCON.0 to be cleared by hardware, terminating
the Idle mode. The interrupt will be serviced, and following RETI, the
next instruction to be executed will be the one following the
instruction that put the device into Idle.
Note that the port pins will be in a random state until the oscillator
has started and the internal reset algorithm has written 1s to them.
With this circuit, reducing VCC quickly to 0 causes the RST pin
voltage to momentarily fall below 0V. However, this voltage is
internally limited, and will not harm the device.
The flag bits GF0 and GF1 can be used to give an indication if an
interrupt occurred during normal operation or during an Idle. For
example, an instruction that activates Idle can also set one or both
flag bits. When Idle is terminated by an interrupt, the interrupt
service routine can examine the flag bits. The other way of
terminating the Idle mode is with a hardware reset. Since the clock
oscillator is still running, the hardware reset needs to be held active
for only two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) to complete the
reset.
Power-Saving Modes of Operation
For applications where power consumption is critical the CMOS
version provides power reduced modes of operation as a standard
feature. The power down mode in NMOS devices is no longer a
standard feature.
CMOS Power Reduction Mode
CMOS versions have two power reducing modes, Idle and Power
Down. The input through which backup power is supplied during
these operations is VCC. Figure 23 shows the internal circuitry which
implements these features. In the Idle modes (IDL = 1), the oscillator
continues to run and the Interrupt, Serial Port, and Timer blocks
continue to be clocked, but the clock signal is gated off to the CPU.
In Power Down (PD = 1), the oscillator is frozen. The Idle and Power
Down Modes are activated by setting bits in Special Function
Register PCON. The address of this register is 87H. Figure 24
details its contents.
The signal at the RST pin clears the IDL bit directly and
asynchronously. At this time the CPU resumes program execution
from where it left off; that is, at the instruction following the one that
invoked the Idle Mode. As shown in Figure 21, two or three machine
cycles of program execution may take place before the internal reset
algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to the
internal RAM during this time, but access to the port pins is not
inhibited, so, the insertion of 3 NOP instructions is recommended
following the instruction that invokes idle mode. To eliminate the
possibility of unexpected outputs at the port pins, the instruction
following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a
port pin or to external Data RAM.
In the NMOS devices the PCON register only contains SMOD. The
other four bits are implemented only in the CMOS devices. User
1997 Dec 01
72
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
VCC
VCC
10µf
80C51
RST
8.2kΩ
VSS
SU00548
Figure 22. Power-On Reset Circuit
XTAL2
XTAL1
Osc.
Interrupt,
Serial Port,
Timer Blocks
Clock
Gen.
CPU
PD
IDL
SU00549
Figure 23. Idle and Power Down Hardware
MSB
LSB
SMOD
BIT
PCON.7
SYMBOL
SMOD
PCON.6
PCON.5
PCON.4
PCON.3
PCON.2
PCON.1
PCON.0
—
—
—
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
—
—
—
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
FUNCTION
Double Baud rate bit. When set to a 1 and Timer 1 is used to generate baud rate, and the Serial Port is used in modes 1, 2, or 3.
Reserved.
Reserved.
Reserved.
General-purpose flag bit.
General-purpose flag bit.
Power-Down bit. Setting this bit activates power-down operation.
Idle mode bit. Setting this bit activate idle mode operation.
If 1s are written to PD and IDL at the same time, PD takes precedence. The reset value of PCON is (0XXX0000).
In the NMOS devices, the PCON register only contains SMOD. The other four bits are implemented only in the CMOS
devices. User software should never write 1s to unimplemented bits, since they may be used in future products.
SU00550
Figure 24. Power Control (PCON) Register
1997 Dec 01
73
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
Power-Down Mode
The On-Chip Oscillators
An instruction that sets PCON.1 causes that to be the last
instruction executed before going into the Power Down mode. In the
Power Down mode, the on-chip oscillator is stopped. With the clock
frozen, all functions are stopped, the contents of the on-chip RAM
and Special Function Registers are maintained. The port pins output
the values held by their respective SFRs. The ALE and PSEN
output are held low.
CMOS Versions
The on-chip oscillator circuitry for the 80C51, shown in Figure 25,
consists of a single stage linear inverter intended for use as a
crystal-controlled, positive reactance oscillator in the same manner
as the NMOS parts. However, there are some important differences.
One difference is that the 80C51 is able to turn off its oscillator
under software control (by writing a 1 to the PD bit in PCON).
Another difference is that, in the 80C51, the internal clocking
circuitry is driven by the signal at XTAL1, whereas in the NMOS
versions it is by the signal at XTAL2.
The only exit from Power Down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines
all the SFRs, but does not change the on-chip RAM.
In the Power Down mode of operation, VCC can be reduced to as
low as 2V. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that VCC is not
reduced before the Power Down mode is invoked, and that VCC is
restored to its normal operating level, before the Power Down mode
is terminated. The reset that terminates Power Down also frees the
oscillator. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored
to its normal operating level, and must be held active long enough to
allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize (normally less than 10ms).
The feedback resistor Rf in Figure 25 consists of paralleled n- and
p-channel FETs controlled by the PD bit, such that Rf is opened
when PD = 1. The diodes D1 and D2, which act as clamps to VCC
and VSS, are parasitic to the Rf FETs. The oscillator can be used
with the same external components as the NMOS versions, as
shown in Figure 26. Typically, C1 = C2 = 30pF when the feedback
element is a quartz crystal, and C1 = C2 = 47pF when a ceramic
resonator is used.
ONCE Mode
The ONCE (“on-circuit emulation”) mode facilitates testing and
debugging of systems using the device without the device having to
be removed from the circuit. The ONCE mode is invoked by:
1. Pull ALE low while the device in in reset and PSEN is high;
When a crystal is used at frequencies above 25MHz, C1 and C2
should be in the range of 20pF to 25pF.
To drive the CMOS parts with an external clock source, apply the
external clock signal to XTAL1, and leave XTAL2 float, as shown in
Figure 27.
2. Hold ALE low as RST is deactivated.
The reason for this change from the way the NMOS part is driven
can be seen by comparing Figure 25. In the NMOS devices the
internal timing circuits are driven by the signal at XTAL2. In the
CMOS devices the internal timing circuits are driven by the signal at
XTAL1.
While the device is in the ONCE mode, the Port 0 pins go into a float
state, and the other port pins and ALE and PSEN are weakly pulled
high. The oscillator circuit remains active. While the device is in this
mode, an emulator or test CPU can be used to drive the circuit.
Normal operation is restored after a normal reset is applied.
VCC
TO INTERNAL
TIMING CIRCUITS
•
Q2
D1
400Ω
XTAL1
•
•
•
Q1
Rf
•
XTAL2
Q3
D2
•
PD
Q4
VSS
Figure 25. On-Chip Oscillator Circuitry in the CMOS Version of the 80C51 Family
1997 Dec 01
74
SU00554
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
VCC
PD
TO INTERNAL
TIMING CIRCUITS
Rf
VSS
80C51
XTAL2
XTAL1
QUARTZ CRYSTAL OR
CERAMIC RESONATOR
C1
C2
SU00555
Figure 26. Using the CMOS On-Chip Oscillator
80C51
NC
EXTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
SIGNAL
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
CMOS GATE
SU00556
Figure 27. Driving the CMOS Family Parts with an External Clock Source
Memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle (except that
two PSEN activations are skipped during accesses to external Data
Memory). PSEN is not activated when the device is executing out of
internal Program Memory.
Internal Timing
Figures 28 through 31 show when the various strobe and port
signals are clocked internally. The figures do not show rise and fall
times of the signals, nor do they show propagation delays between
the XTAL2 signal and events at other pins.
EA/VPP: When EA is held high the CPU executes out of internal
Program Memory (unless the Program Counter exceeds 0FFFH in
the 80C51). Holding EA low forces the CPU to execute out of
external memory regardless of the Program Counter value. In the
80C31, EA must be externally wired low. In the EPROM devices,
this pin also receives the programming supply voltage (VPP) during
EPROM programming.
Rise and fall times are dependent on the external loading that each
pin must drive. They are often taken to be something in the
neighborhood of 10ns, measured between 0.8V and 2.0V.
Propagation delays are different for different pins. For a given pin
they vary with pin loading, temperature, VCC, and manufacturing lot.
If the XTAL2 waveform is taken as the timing reference, prop delays
may vary up to ±200%.
XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier.
XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
The AC Timings section of the data sheets do not reference any
timing to the XTAL2 waveform. Rather, they relate the critical edges
of control and input signals to each other. The timings published in
the data sheets include the effects of propagation delays under the
specified test conditions.
Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional port. As an open
drain output port, it can sink eight LS TTL loads. Port 0 pins that
have 1s written to them float, and in that state will function as high
impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order address
and data bus during accesses to external memory. In this application
it uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. Port 0 emits code
bytes during program verification. In this application, external pullups
are required.
80C51 Pin Descriptions
ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low
byte of the address during accesses to external memory. ALE is
emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 of the oscillator frequency, for
external timing or clocking purposes, even when there are no
accesses to external memory. (However, one ALE pulse is skipped
during each access to external Data Memory.) This pin is also the
program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming.
Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups.
Port 1 pins that have 1s written to them are pulled high by the
internal pullups, and in that state can be used as inputs. As inputs,
port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current
because of the internal pullups.
PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external Program
Memory. When the device is executing out of external Program
1997 Dec 01
75
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
Port Pin
P3.0
P3.1
P3.2
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups.
Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during accesses to external
memory that use 16-bit addresses. In this application, it uses the
strong internal pullups when emitting 1s.
Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. It
also serves the functions of various special features of the 80C51
Family as follows:
Alternate Function
RxD (serial input port)
TxD (serial output port)
INT0 (external interrupt 0)
INT1 (external interrupt 1)
T0 (timer 0 external input)
T1 (timer 1 external input)
WR (external data memory write strobe)
RD (external data memory read strobe)
VCC: Supply voltage
VSS: Circuit ground potential
State 1
P1
P2
State 2
P1
P2
State 3
P1
P2
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
State 6
P1
P2
State 1
P1
P2
State 2
P1
P2
XTAL2:
ALE:
PSEN:
Data Sampled
Data Sampled
PCL
Out
P0:
Data Sampled
PCL
Out
P2:
PCH Out
PCL
Out
PCH Out
PCH Out
SU00557
Figure 28. External Program Memory Fetches
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
State 6
P1
P2
State 1
P1
P2
State 2
P1
P2
State 3
P1
P2
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
XTAL2:
ALE:
RD:
PCL Out if Program
Memory Is External
Data Sampled
P0:
P2:
Float
DPL or RI
Out
PCH or P2
SFR
Float
DPH or P2 SFR Out
PCH or P2
SFR
SU00558
Figure 29. External Data Memory Read Cycle
1997 Dec 01
76
Phlips Semiconductors
80C51 Family
80C51 family hardware description
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
State 6
P2
P1
State 1
P1
P2
State 2
P1
P2
State 3
P1
P2
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
XTAL2:
ALE:
WR:
PCL Out if Program
Memory Is External
DPL or RI
Out
P0:
P2:
PCL
Out
Data Out
PCH or P2
SFR
PCH or P2
SFR
DPH or P2 SFR Out
SU00559
Figure 30. External Data Memory Write Cycle
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
State 6
P1
P2
State 1
P1
P2
State 2
P1
P2
State 3
P1
P2
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
XTAL2:
P0, P1
P0, P1
Inputs Sampled:
P2, P3, RST
MOV Port, SRC:
P2, P3, RST
New Data
Old Data
Serial Port
Shift Clock
(Mode 0):
RXD Pin Sampled
RXD Sampled
SU00560
Figure 31. Port Operation
1997 Dec 01
77
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