Cyclone III LS

Cyclone III LS
9. Configuration, Design Security, and
Remote System Upgrades in the
Cyclone III Device Family
August 2012
CIII51016-2.2
CIII51016-2.2
This chapter describes the configuration, design security, and remote system
upgrades in Cyclone® III devices. The Cyclone III device family (Cyclone III and
Cyclone III LS devices) uses SRAM cells to store configuration data. Configuration
data must be downloaded to Cyclone III device family each time the device powers
up because SRAM memory is volatile.
The Cyclone III device family is configured using one of the following configuration
schemes:
■
Fast Active serial (AS)
■
Active parallel (AP) for Cyclone III devices only
■
Passive serial (PS)
■
Fast passive parallel (FPP)
■
Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)
All configuration schemes use an external configuration controller (for example,
MAX® II devices or a microprocessor), a configuration device, or a download cable.
The Cyclone III device family offers the following configuration features:
■
Configuration data decompression
■
Design security (for Cyclone III LS devices only)
■
Remote system upgrade
As Cyclone III LS devices play a role in larger and more critical designs in competitive
commercial and military environments, it is increasingly important to protect your
designs from copying, reverse engineering, and tampering. Cyclone III LS devices
address these concerns with 256-bit advanced encryption standard (AES)
programming file encryption and anti-tamper feature support to prevent tampering.
For more information about the design security feature in Cyclone III LS devices, refer
to “Design Security” on page 9–70.
System designers face difficult challenges such as shortened design cycles, evolving
standards, and system deployments in remote locations. The Cyclone III device
family helps overcome these challenges with inherent re-programmability and
dedicated circuitry to perform remote system upgrades. Remote system upgrades
help deliver feature enhancements and bug fixes without costly recalls, reduce
time-to-market, and extend product life. Remote system upgrades can also be
implemented with the advanced Cyclone III device family features such as real-time
decompression of configuration data. For more information about the remote system
upgrade feature in Cyclone III device family, refer to “Remote System Upgrade” on
page 9–74.
© 2012 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012
Subscribe
9–2
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
This chapter describes the Cyclone III device family configuration features and
describes how to configure Cyclone III device family using the supported
configuration schemes. This chapter also includes configuration pin descriptions and
the Cyclone III device family configuration file formats. In this chapter, the generic
term “device” includes all Cyclone III device family.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
“Configuration Features” on page 9–2
■
“Design Security” on page 9–70
■
“Remote System Upgrade” on page 9–74
Configuration Features
Cyclone III device family offers configuration data decompression to reduce
configuration file storage, provides design security feature to protect your
configuration data (for Cyclone III LS devices only), and provides remote system
upgrade to allow you to remotely update your Cyclone III device family designs.
Table 9–1 lists which configuration methods you can use in each configuration
scheme.
Table 9–1. Cyclone III Device Family Configuration Features (Part 1 of 2)
Configuration Scheme
Configuration
Method
Decompression
Remote
System
Upgrade
(1)
Design
Security
(Cyclone III LS
Devices Only)
Fast Active Serial Standard (AS Standard POR)
Serial Configuration
Device
v
v
v
Fast Active Serial Fast (AS Fast POR)
Serial Configuration
Device
v
v
v
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
Supported Flash
Memory (2)
—
v
—
Active Parallel ×16 Fast (AP Fast POR, for Cyclone III
devices only)
Supported Flash
Memory (2)
—
v
—
External Host with
Flash Memory
v
—
v
Download Cable
v
—
External Host with
Flash Memory
v
—
Download Cable
v
—
External Host with
Flash Memory
—
—
Passive Serial Standard (PS Standard POR)
Passive Serial Fast (PS Fast POR)
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
v
(3)
v
v
(3)
v
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–3
Table 9–1. Cyclone III Device Family Configuration Features (Part 2 of 2)
Configuration Scheme
Configuration
Method
Decompression
Remote
System
Upgrade
(1)
JTAG based configuration
Design
Security
(Cyclone III LS
Devices Only)
External Host with
Flash Memory
—
—
—
Download Cable
—
—
—
Notes to Table 9–1:
(1) Remote update mode is supported when using the remote system upgrade feature. You can enable or disable remote update mode with an option
setting in the Quartus® II software. For more information about the remote system upgrade feature, refer to “Remote System Upgrade” on
page 9–74.
(2) For more information about the supported families for the Micron commodity parallel flash, refer to Table 9–11 on page 9–24.
(3) The design security feature is not supported using a SRAM Object File (.sof).
1
The design security feature is for Cyclone III LS devices only and is available in all
configuration schemes except the JTAG-based configuration. The decompression
feature is not supported when you have enabled the design security feature.
1
When using a serial configuration scheme such as PS or fast AS, the configuration
time is the same whether or not you have enabled the design security feature. A ×4
DCLK is required if you use the FPP scheme with the design security feature.
1
Cyclone III devices support remote system upgrade in AS and AP configuration
schemes. Cyclone III LS devices only support remote system upgrade in the AS
configuration scheme.
This section only describes the decompression feature. For more information about
the design security and remote system upgrade, refer to “Design Security” on
page 9–70 and “Remote System Upgrade” on page 9–74.
Configuration Data Decompression
Cyclone III device family supports configuration data decompression, which saves
configuration memory space and time. This feature allows you to store compressed
configuration data in configuration devices or other memory and send the
compressed bitstream to Cyclone III device family. During configuration, Cyclone III
device family decompress the bitstream in real time and program SRAM cells. The
decompression feature is not supported when you have enabled the design security
feature.
1
Compression may reduce the configuration bitstream size by 35 to 55%.
Cyclone III device family supports decompression in the AS and PS configuration
schemes. Decompression is not supported in the AP, FPP, or JTAG-based
configuration schemes. In PS mode, use the Cyclone III device family decompression
feature to reduce configuration time.
1
August 2012
Altera recommends using the Cyclone III device family decompression feature during
AS configuration if you must save configuration memory space in the serial
configuration device.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–4
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
When you enable compression, the Quartus II software generates configuration files
with compressed configuration data. This compressed file reduces the storage
requirements in the configuration device or flash memory and decreases the time
needed to send the bitstream to the Cyclone III device family. The time needed by a
Cyclone III device family to decompress a configuration file is less than the time
needed to send the configuration data to the device. There are two methods for
enabling compression for Cyclone III device family bitstreams in the Quartus II
software:
■
Before design compilation (using the Compiler Settings menu).
■
After design compilation (use the Convert Programming Files dialog box).
To enable compression in the compiler settings of the project in the Quartus II
software, perform the following steps:
1. On the Assignments menu, click Device. The Settings dialog box appears.
2. Click Device and Pin Options. The Device and Pin Options dialog box appears.
3. Click the Configuration tab.
4. Turn on Generate compressed bitstreams (Figure 9–1).
5. Click OK.
6. In the Settings dialog box, click OK.
Figure 9–1. Enabling Compression for Cyclone III Device Family Bitstreams in Compiler Settings
To enable compression when creating programming files from the Convert
Programming Files window, follow these steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–5
2. Under Output programming file, from the pull-down menu, select your desired
file type.
3. If you select the Programmer Object File (.pof), you must specify a configuration
device, directly under the file type.
4. In the Input files to convert box, select SOF Data.
5. Click Add File to browse to the Cyclone III device family .sofs.
6. In the Convert Programming Files dialog box, select the .pof you added to SOF
Data and click Properties.
7. In the SOF File Properties dialog box, turn on the Compression option.
When multiple devices in Cyclone III device family are cascaded, you can selectively
enable the compression feature for each device in the chain. Figure 9–2 shows a chain
of two devices in Cyclone III device family. The first device has compression enabled
and receives compressed bitstream from the configuration device. The second device
has the compression feature disabled and receives uncompressed data. You can
generate programming files for this setup from the Convert Programming Files
dialog box from the File menu in the Quartus II software.
Figure 9–2. Compressed and Uncompressed Configuration Data in the Same Configuration File
Serial Data
Serial Configuration
Device
Compressed
Decompression
Controller
10 kΩ
Cyclone III
Device Family
nCE
Uncompressed
VCC
nCEO
Cyclone III
Device Family
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
Configuration Requirement
The following section describes power-on-reset (POR) for Cyclone III device family.
POR Circuit
The POR circuit keeps the device in the reset state until the power supply voltage
levels have stabilized after device power-up. After device power-up, the device does
not release nSTATUS until the required voltages listed in table Table 9–4 on page 9–8
are above the POR trip point of the device. VCCINT and VCCA are monitored for brownout conditions after device power-up.
1
August 2012
VCCA is the analog power to the phase-locked loop (PLL).
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–6
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
In Cyclone III device family, you can select either a fast POR time or standard POR
time depending on the MSEL pin settings. The fast POR time is 3 ms < TPOR < 9 ms
for the fast configuration time. The standard POR time is 50 ms < TPOR < 200 ms,
which has a lower power-ramp rate.
Table 9–2 lists the supported POR times for each configuration scheme.
Table 9–2. Cyclone III Device Family Supported POR Times Across Configuration Schemes (1)
Configuration Scheme
Fast Active Serial Standard (AS Standard POR)
Fast POR Time
(3 ms< TPOR < 9 ms)
Standard POR Time
(50 ms< TPOR < 200 ms)
Configuration
Voltage
Standard (V) (2)
—
v
3.3
Fast Active Serial Standard (AS Standard POR)
—
v
3.0/2.5
Fast Active Serial Fast (AS Fast POR)
v
—
3.3
Fast Active Serial Fast (AS Fast POR)
v
—
3.0/2.5
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
—
v
3.3
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
—
v
3.0/2.5
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
—
v
1.8
Active Parallel ×16 Fast (AP Fast POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
v
—
3.3
Active Parallel ×16 Fast (AP Fast POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
v
—
1.8
Passive Serial Standard (PS Standard POR)
—
v
3.3/3.0/2.5
Passive Serial Fast (PS Fast POR)
v
—
3.3/3.0/2.5
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
v
—
3.3/3.0/2.5
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
v
—
1.8/1.5
(3)
(3)
—
JTAG-based configuration
Notes to Table 9–2:
(1) Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins to VCCA or GND depending on the MSEL pin settings.
(2) The configuration voltage standard is applied to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the configuration pins reside.
(3) JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other configuration schemes, which means the MSEL pin settings are ignored. However, the
POR time is dependent on the MSEL pin settings.
In some applications, it is necessary for a device to wake up very quickly to begin
operation. The Cyclone III device family offers the fast POR time option to support
fast wake-up time applications. The fast POR time option has stricter power-up
requirements when compared with the standard POR time option. You can select
either the fast POR or standard POR options with the MSEL pin settings.
1
The automotive application is for Cyclone III devices only. The Cyclone III devices
fast wake-up time meets the requirement of common bus standards in automotive
applications, such as Media Orientated Systems Transport (MOST) and Controller
Area Network (CAN).
f For more information about wake-up time and the POR circuit, refer to the
Hot-Socketing and Power-On Reset in Cyclone III Devices chapter.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–7
Configuration File Size
Table 9–3 lists the uncompressed configuration file sizes for the Cyclone III device
family. To calculate the amount of storage space required for multiple device
configurations, add the file size of each device together.
.
Table 9–3. Cyclone III Device Family Uncompressed Raw Binary File (.rbf) Sizes
Device
Cyclone III
Cyclone III LS
Data Size (bits)
EP3C5
3,000,000
EP3C10
3,000,000
EP3C16
4,100,000
EP3C25
5,800,000
EP3C40
9,600,000
EP3C55
14,900,000
EP3C80
20,000,000
EP3C120
28,600,000
EP3CLS70
26,766,760
EP3CLS100
26,766,760
EP3CLS150
50,610,728
EP3CLS200
50,610,728
Use the data in Table 9–3 only to estimate the file size before design compilation.
Different configuration file formats, such as Hexadecimal (.hex) or Tabular Text
File (.ttf) formats, have different file sizes. However, for any specific version of the
Quartus II software, any design targeted for the same device has the same
uncompressed configuration file size. If you are using compression, the file size varies
after each compilation because the compression ratio is design dependent.
f For more information about setting device configuration options or creating
configuration files, refer to the Software Settings section in volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements
Cyclone III devices are manufactured using the TSMC 65-nm low-k dielectric process;
Cyclone III LS devices are manufactured using the TSMC 60-nm low-k dielectric
process. Although Cyclone III device family uses TSMC 2.5-V transistor technology in
the I/O buffers, the devices are compatible and able to interface with 2.5-, 3.0-, 3.3-V
configuration voltage standards. However, you must follow specific requirements
when interfacing Cyclone III device family with 2.5-, 3.0-, 3.3-V configuration voltage
standards.
All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. When using a JTAG
configuration scheme or a serial configuration device in an AS configuration scheme,
you must connect a 25- series resistor at the near end of the TDO and TDI pin or the
serial configuration device for the DATA[0]pin. When cascading Cyclone III device
family in a multi-device configuration, you must connect the repeater buffers between
the master and slave devices for DATA and DCLK.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–8
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot
equation shown in Equation 9–1:
Equation 9–1.
(1)
0.8Z O  R E  1.8Z O
Note to Equation 9–1:
(1)
ZO is the transmission line impedance and RE is the equivalent resistance of the output buffer.
Configuration Process
This section describes the configuration process.
f For more information about the configuration cycle state machine of Altera FPGAs,
refer to the Configuring Altera FPGAs chapter in volume 1 of the Configuration
Handbook.
Power Up
If the device is powered up from the power-down state, the VCCIO for all the I/O
banks must be powered up to the appropriate level for the device to exit POR.
To begin configuration, the required voltages listed in Table 9–4 must be powered up
to the appropriate voltage levels.
Table 9–4. Power-Up Voltage for Cyclone III Device Family Configuration
Device
Voltage that must be Powered-Up
Cyclone III
VCCINT, VCCA, VCCIO
Cyclone III LS
VCCBAT, VCCINT, VCCA, VCCIO
(1)
(2)
(2)
Notes to Table 9–4:
(1) Voltages must be powered up to the appropriate voltage levels to begin configuration.
(2) VCCIO is for banks in which the configuration and JTAG pins reside.
Reset
When nCONFIG or nSTATUS is low, the device is in reset. After power-up, the Cyclone III
device family goes through POR. POR delay depends on the MSEL pin settings,
which correspond to your configuration scheme.
Depending on the configuration scheme, a fast or standard POR time is available.
POR time for fast POR ranges between 3–9 ms. POR time for standard POR, which
has a lower power-ramp rate, ranges between 50–200 ms.
During POR, the device resets, holds nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low, and tri-states all
user I/O pins.
1
The configuration bus is not tri-stated in POR stage if the MSEL pins are set to AS or AP
mode. To tri-state the configuration bus for AS and AP configuration schemes, you
must tie nCE high and nCONFIG low. For more information about the hardware
implementation, refer to “Configuring With Multiple Bus Masters” on page 9–30.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–9
When the device exits POR, all user I/O pins continue to tri-state. The user I/O pins
and dual-purpose I/O pins have weak pull-up resistors that are always enabled (after
POR) before and during configuration. After POR, the Cyclone III device family
releases nSTATUS, which is pulled high by an external 10-k pull-up resistor and
enters configuration mode.
When nCONFIG goes high, the device exits reset and releases the open-drain nSTATUS
pin, which is then pulled high by an external 10-kpull-up resistor. After nSTATUS is
released, the device is ready to receive configuration data and the configuration stage
begins.
Cyclone III LS devices are accessible by limited JTAG instructions after POR. For more
information about enabling full JTAG instructions access, refer to “JTAG Instructions”
on page 9–60.
f For more information about the value of weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins that
are on before and during configuration, refer to the Cyclone III Device Data Sheet and
Cyclone III LS Device Data Sheet chapters.
Configuration
Configuration data is latched into the Cyclone III device family at each DCLK cycle.
However, the width of the data bus and the configuration time taken for each scheme
are different. After the device receives all the configuration data, the device releases
the open-drain CONF_DONE pin, which is pulled high by an external 10-kpull-up
resistor. A low-to-high transition on the CONF_DONE pin indicates that configuration is
complete and initialization of the device can begin. The CONF_DONE pin must have an
external 10-k pull-up resistor for the device to initialize.
You can begin reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG pin low. The nCONFIG pin must
be low for at least 500 ns. When nCONFIG is pulled low, the Cyclone III device family is
reset. The Cyclone III device family also pulls nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low and all I/O
pins are tri-stated. When nCONFIG returns to a logic-high level and nSTATUS is released
by the Cyclone III device family, reconfiguration begins.
Configuration Error
If an error occurs during configuration, the Cyclone III device family asserts the
nSTATUS signal low, indicating a data frame error, and the CONF_DONE signal stays low.
If the Auto-restart configuration after error option (available in the Quartus II
software from the General tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box) is turned
on, the Cyclone III device family releases nSTATUS after a reset time-out period (a
maximum of 230 s), and retries configuration. If this option is turned off, the system
must monitor nSTATUS for errors and then pulse nCONFIG low for at least 500 ns to
restart configuration.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–10
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Initialization
In Cyclone III device family, the clock source for initialization is either a 10-MHz
(typical) internal oscillator (separate from the AS internal oscillator) or an optional
CLKUSR pin. By default, the internal oscillator is the clock source for initialization. If
you use the internal oscillator, the device provides itself with enough clock cycles for a
proper initialization. When using the internal oscillator, you do not need to send
additional clock cycles from an external source to the CLKUSR pin during the
initialization stage. Additionally, you can use the CLKUSR pin as a user I/O pin.
You also have the flexibility to synchronize initialization of multiple devices or to
delay initialization with the CLKUSR option. The CLKUSR pin allows you to control
when your device enters user mode for an indefinite amount of time. You can turn on
the Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option in the Quartus II software
from the General tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box. When you turn on
the Enable user supplied start-up clock option (CLKUSR) option, the CLKUSR pin is
the initialization clock source. Supplying a clock on the CLKUSR pin does not affect the
configuration process. After the configuration data is accepted and CONF_DONE goes
high, the Cyclone III device family requires a certain amount of clock cycles to
initialize and to enter user mode.
Table 9–5 lists the required clock cycles for proper initialization in Cyclone III device
family.
Table 9–5. Initialization Clock Cycles Required in Cyclone III Device Family
Device
Initialization Clock Cycles
Cyclone III
3,185
Cyclone III LS
3,192
Table 9–6 lists the maximum CLKUSR frequency (fMAX) for Cyclone III device family.
Table 9–6. Maximum CLKUSR Frequency for Cyclone III Device Family
1
Device
fMAX (MHz)
Cyclone III
133
Cyclone III LS
100
If you use the optional CLKUSR pin and the nCONFIG pin is pulled low to restart
configuration during device initialization, ensure that the CLKUSR pin continues to
toggle when nSTATUS is low (a maximum of 230 s).
User Mode
An optional INIT_DONE pin is available that signals the end of initialization and the
start of user mode with a low-to-high transition. The Enable INIT_DONE Output
option is available in the Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device and
Pin Options dialog box. If you use the INIT_DONE pin, it is high due to an external
10-k pull-up resistor when nCONFIG is low and during the beginning of
configuration. After the option bit to enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the device
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–11
(during the first frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin goes low. When
initialization is complete, the INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high. This low-tohigh transition signals that the device has entered user mode. In user mode, the user
I/O pins function as assigned in your design and no longer have weak pull-up
resistors.
Configuration Scheme
A configuration scheme with different configuration voltage standards is selected by
driving the MSEL pins either high or low, as listed in Table 9–7.
The MSEL pins are powered by VCCINT. The MSEL[3..0] pins have 9-k internal
pull-down resistors that are always active.
1
Smaller Cyclone III devices or package options (E144, M164, Q240, F256, and U256
packages) do not have the MSEL[3] pin. The AS Fast POR configuration scheme at 3.0or 2.5-V configuration voltage standard and the AP configuration scheme are not
supported in Cyclone III devices without the MSEL[3] pin. To configure these devices
with other supported configuration schemes, select the MSEL[2..0] pins according to
the MSEL settings in Table 9–7.
1
Hardwire the MSEL pins to VCCA or GND without any pull-up or pull-down resistors
to avoid any problems detecting an incorrect configuration scheme. Do not drive the
MSEL pins with a microprocessor or another device.
1
The Quartus II software prohibits you from using the LVDS I/O standard in I/O
Bank 1 when the configuration device I/O voltage is not 2.5 V. If you need to assign
LVDS I/O standard in I/O Bank 1, navigate to
Assignments>Device>Settings>Device and Pin Option>Configuration to change the
Configuration Device I/O voltage to 2.5 V or Auto.
Table 9–7. Cyclone III Device Family Configuration Schemes
(1)
(Part 1 of 2)
MSEL
Configuration Voltage Standard (V)
Configuration Scheme
(2), (3)
3
2
1
0
Fast Active Serial Standard (AS Standard
POR)
0
0
1
0
3.3
Fast Active Serial Standard (AS Standard
POR)
0
0
1
1
3.0/2.5
Fast Active Serial Fast (AS Fast POR)
1
1
0
1
3.3
Fast Active Serial Fast (AS Fast POR)
0
1
0
0
3.0/2.5
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard
POR, for Cyclone III devices only)
0
1
1
1
3.3
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard
POR, for Cyclone III devices only)
1
0
1
1
3.0/2.5
Active Parallel ×16 Standard (AP Standard
POR, for Cyclone III devices only)
1
0
0
0
1.8
Active Parallel ×16 Fast (AP Fast POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
0
1
0
1
3.3
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–12
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Table 9–7. Cyclone III Device Family Configuration Schemes
(1)
(Part 2 of 2)
MSEL
Configuration Voltage Standard (V)
Configuration Scheme
(2), (3)
3
2
1
0
Active Parallel ×16 Fast (AP Fast POR, for
Cyclone III devices only)
0
1
1
0
1.8
Passive Serial Standard (PS Standard POR)
0
0
0
0
3.3/3.0/2.5
Passive Serial Fast (PS Fast POR)
1
1
0
0
3.3/3.0/2.5
1
1
1
0
3.3/3.0/2.5
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
(for Cyclone III devices only) (4)
1
1
1
1
1.8/1.5
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
(for Cyclone III LS devices only)
0
0
0
1
1.8/1.5
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
with Encryption (for Cyclone III LS
devices only)
0
1
0
1
3.3/3.0/2.5
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
with Encryption (for Cyclone III LS
devices only)
0
1
1
0
1.8/1.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
—
Fast Passive Parallel Fast (FPP Fast POR)
JTAG-based configuration
(5)
(4)
Notes to Table 9–7:
(1) Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins to VCCA or GND depending on the MSEL pin settings.
(2) The configuration voltage standard is applied to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the configuration pins reside.
(3) You must follow specific requirements when interfacing Cyclone III device family with 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.3-V configuration voltage standards. For
more information about these requirements, refer to “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
(4) FPP configuration is not supported in the Cyclone III E144 device package of Cyclone III devices.
(5) The JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other configuration schemes, which means the MSEL pin settings are ignored.
(6) Do not leave the MSEL pins floating. Connect them to VCCA or GND. These pins support the non-JTAG configuration scheme used in production.
Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins to GND if your device is only using the JTAG configuration.
AS Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
In the AS configuration scheme, Cyclone III device family is configured using a serial
configuration device. These configuration devices are low-cost devices with
non-volatile memories that feature a simple four-pin interface and a small form factor.
These features make serial configuration devices the ideal low-cost configuration
solution.
f For more information about serial configuration devices, refer to the Serial
Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Data Sheet
chapter in volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook.
In Cyclone III device family, the active master clock frequency runs at a maximum of
40 MHz, and typically at 30 MHz. Cyclone III device family only work with serial
configuration devices that support up to 40 MHz.
Serial configuration devices provide a serial interface to access configuration data.
During device configuration, Cyclone III device family reads configuration data using
the serial interface, decompress data if necessary, and configure their SRAM cells. This
scheme is referred to as the AS configuration scheme because the device controls the
configuration interface.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
1
9–13
If you want to gain control of the EPCS pins, hold the nCONFIG pin low and pull the
nCE pin high to cause the device to reset and tri-state the AS configuration pins.
Single-Device AS Configuration
The four-pin interface of serial configuration devices consists of the following pins:
■
Serial clock input (DCLK)
■
Serial data output (DATA)
■
AS data input (ASDI)
■
Active-low chip select (nCS)
This four-pin interface connects to Cyclone III device family pins, as shown in
Figure 9–3.
Figure 9–3. Single-Device AS Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
10 kΩ
Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
N.C. (3)
nCEO
GND
25 Ω (6)
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
(2)
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCSO (5)
ASDO (5)
(4)
MSEL[3..0]
Notes to Figure 9–3:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Cyclone III device family uses the ASDO-to-ASDI path to control the configuration device.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions
as the DATA[1] pin in other AP and FPP modes.
(6) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
August 2012
1
To tri-state the configuration bus for AS configuration schemes, you must tie nCE high
and nCONFIG low.
1
When connecting a serial configuration device to a Cyclone III device family in the
single-device AS configuration, you must connect a 25- series resistor at the near
end of the serial configuration device for DATA[0]. The 25- resistor in the series
works to minimize the driver impedance mismatch with the board trace and reduce
overshoot seen at the Cyclone III device family DATA[0]input pin.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–14
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
In a single-device AS configuration, the maximum board loading and board trace
length between the supported serial configuration device and the Cyclone III device
family must follow the recommendations in Table 9–9 on page 9–20.
The DCLK generated by the Cyclone III device family controls the entire configuration
cycle and provides timing for the serial interface. Cyclone III device family uses a 40MHz internal oscillator to generate DCLK. There are some variations in the internal
oscillator frequency because of the process, voltage, and temperature conditions in
Cyclone III device family. The internal oscillator is designed to ensure that its
maximum frequency is guaranteed to meet the EPCS device specifications.
1
EPCS1 does not support Cyclone III device family because of its insufficient memory
capacity.
Table 9–8 lists the AS DCLK output frequency for Cyclone III device family.
Table 9–8. AS DCLK Output Frequency
Oscillator
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
40 MHz
20
30
40
MHz
In the AS configuration scheme, the serial configuration device latches input and
control signals on the rising edge of DCLK and drives out configuration data on the
falling edge. Cyclone III device family drives out control signals on the falling edge of
DCLK and latch configuration data on the falling edge of DCLK.
In configuration mode, the Cyclone III device family enables the serial configuration
device by driving the nCSO output pin low, which connects to the nCS pin of the
configuration device. The Cyclone III device family uses the DCLK and DATA[1]pins to
send operation commands and read address signals to the serial configuration device.
The configuration device provides data on its DATA pin, which connects to the DATA[0]
input of the Cyclone III device family.
After all the configuration bits are received by the Cyclone III device family, it releases
the open-drain CONF_DONE pin, which is pulled high by an external 10-k resistor.
Initialization begins only after the CONF_DONE signal reaches a logic-high level. All AS
configuration pins (DATA[0], DCLK, nCSO, and DATA[1]) have weak internal pull-up
resistors that are always active. After configuration, these pins are set as input tristated and are driven high by weak internal pull-up resistors. The CONF_DONE pin must
have an external 10-k pull-up resistor for the device to initialize.
The timing parameters for AS mode are not listed here because the tCF2CD, tCF2ST0, tCFG,
tSTATUS, tCF2ST1, and tCD2UM timing parameters are identical to the timing parameters
for PS mode listed in Table 9–13 on page 9–39.
Multi-Device AS Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone III device family using a single serial
configuration device. You can cascade multiple Cyclone III device family using the
chip-enable (nCE) and chip-enable-out (nCEO) pins. The first device in the chain must
have its nCE pin connected to GND. You must connect its nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the
next device in the chain. Use an external 10-k pull-up resistor to pull the nCEO signal
high to its VCCIO level to help the internal weak pull-up resistor. When the first device
captures all its configuration data from the bitstream, it drives the nCEO pin low,
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–15
enabling the next device in the chain. You can leave the nCEO pin of the last device
unconnected or use it as a user I/O pin after configuration if the last device in the
chain is a Cyclone III device family. The nCONFIG, nSTATUS, CONF_DONE, DCLK, and
DATA[0] pins of each device in the chain are connected (Figure 9–4).
Figure 9–4. Multi-device AS Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
Master Device of the
Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
Slave Device of the Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
25 Ω (6)
50 Ω (6), (8)
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCSO (5)
ASDO (5)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
50 Ω (8)
Buffers (7)
Notes to Figure 9–4:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) You can leave the nCEO pin unconnected or use it as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device of the Cyclone III device
family in AS mode and the slave devices in PS mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AS mode and slave devices in PS mode,
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as the DATA[1] pin in other
AP and FPP modes.
(6) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(7) Connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices of the Cyclone III device family for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must
maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in
“Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
(8) The 50- series resistors are optional if the 3.3-V configuration voltage standard is applied. For optimal signal integrity, connect these 50- series
resistors if the 2.5- or 3.0-V configuration voltage standard is applied.
The first Cyclone III device family in the chain is the configuration master and
controls the configuration of the entire chain. You must connect its MSEL pins to
select the AS configuration scheme. The remaining Cyclone III device family is
configuration slaves and you must connect their MSEL pins to select the PS
configuration scheme. Any other Altera device that supports PS configuration can
also be part of the chain as a configuration slave.
1
August 2012
When connecting a serial configuration device to the Cyclone III device family in the
multi-device AS configuration, you must connect a 25- series resistor at the near end
of the serial configuration device for DATA[0].
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–16
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
1
In the multi-device AS configuration, the board trace length between the serial
configuration device to the master device of the Cyclone III device family must follow
the recommendations in Table 9–9 on page 9–20. You must also connect the repeater
buffers between the master and slave devices of the Cyclone III device family for
DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The
output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation
outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
As shown in Figure 9–4 on page 9–15, the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins on all target
devices are connected together with external pull-up resistors. These pins are
open-drain bidirectional pins on the devices. When the first device asserts nCEO (after
receiving all its configuration data), it releases its CONF_DONE pin. However, the
subsequent devices in the chain keep this shared CONF_DONE line low until they receive
their configuration data. When all target devices in the chain receive their
configuration data and release CONF_DONE, the pull-up resistor drives a high level on
this line and all devices simultaneously enter initialization mode.
1
Although you can cascade Cyclone III device family, serial configuration devices
cannot be cascaded or chained together.
If the configuration bitstream size exceeds the capacity of a serial configuration
device, you must select a larger configuration device, enable the compression feature,
or both. When configuring multiple devices, the size of the bitstream is the sum of the
individual devices configuration bitstreams.
Configuring Multiple Cyclone III Device Family with the Same Design
Certain designs require you to configure multiple Cyclone III device family with the
same design through a configuration bitstream or a .sof. You can do this using the
following methods:
■
Multiple SRAM Object Files
■
Single SRAM Object File
1
For both methods, the serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded or
chained together.
Multiple SRAM Object Files
Two copies of the .sof are stored in the serial configuration device. Use the first copy
to configure the master device of the Cyclone III device family and the second copy to
configure all the remaining slave devices concurrently. All slave devices must be of
the same density and package. The setup is similar to Figure 9–4 on page 9–15, in
which the master device is set up in AS mode and the slave devices are set up in PS
mode.
To configure four identical Cyclone III device family with the same .sof, you must set
up the chain similar to Figure 9–5. The first device is the master device and its MSEL
pins must be set to select the AS configuration. The other three slave devices are set
up for concurrent configuration and their MSEL pins must be set to select the PS
configuration. The nCEO pin from the master device drives the nCE input pins on all
three slave devices, as well as the DATA and DCLK pins that connect in parallel to all
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–17
four devices. During the first configuration cycle, the master device reads its
configuration data from the serial configuration device while holding nCEO high. After
completing its configuration cycle, the master device drives nCE low and sends the
second copy of the configuration data to all three slave devices, configuring them
simultaneously.
The advantage of using the setup in Figure 9–5 is that you can have a different .sof for
the master device. However, all the slave devices must be configured with the same
.sof. In this configuration method, you can either compress or uncompress the .sofs.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–18
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
1
You can still use this method if the master and slave devices use the same .sof.
Figure 9–5. Multi-Device AS Configuration where the Devices Receive the Same Data with Multiple SRAM Object Files
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Slave Device of the Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[3..0]
Master Device of the
Cyclone III Device
Family
Serial Configuration
Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
(4)
Slave Device of the Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
25 Ω (6)
50 Ω (6), (8)
DATA[0]
DATA[0]
DCLK
DCLK
nCSO (5)
ASDO (5)
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
Slave Device of the Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
50 Ω (8)
Buffers (7)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
Notes to Figure 9–5:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device in AS mode and the slave
devices in PS mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AS mode and the slave devices in PS mode, refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as the DATA[1] pin in other
AP and FPP modes.
(6) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(7) Connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage
of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O
Requirements” on page 9–7.
(8) The 50- series resistors are optional if the 3.3-V configuration voltage standard is applied. For optimal signal integrity, connect these 50- series
resistors if the 2.5- or 3.0-V configuration voltage standard is applied.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–19
Single SRAM Object File
The second method configures both the master device and slave devices with the
same .sof. The serial configuration device stores one copy of the .sof. This setup is
shown in Figure 9–6 where the master is set up in AS mode and the slave devices are
set up in PS mode. You must set up one or more slave devices in the chain. All the
slave devices must be set up as shown in Figure 9–6.
Figure 9–6. Multi-Device AS Configuration where the Devices Receive the Same Data with a Single .sof
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
Master Device of the Cyclone III
Device Family
Slave Device 1 of the Cyclone III
Device Family
Slave Device 2 of the Cyclone III
Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (2)
GND
25 Ω (5)
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
50 Ω (5),(7)
nCEO
N.C. (2)
GND
N.C. (2)
DATA[0]
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCSO (4)
ASDO (4)
nCEO
GND
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
DCLK
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
50 Ω(7)
Buffers (6)
Notes to Figure 9–6:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device of the Cyclone III device
family in AS mode and the slave devices in PS mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AS mode and slave devices in PS mode,
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as the DATA[1] pin in other
AP and FPP modes.
(5) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage
of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O
Requirements” on page 9–7.
(7) The 50- series resistors are optional if the 3.3-V configuration voltage standard is applied. For optimal signal integrity, connect these 50- series
resistors if the 2.5- or 3.0-V configuration voltage standard is applied.
In this setup, all the Cyclone III device family in the chain are connected for
concurrent configuration. This can reduce the AS configuration time because all the
Cyclone III device family is configured in one configuration cycle. Connect the nCE
input pins of all the Cyclone III device family to ground. You can either leave the nCEO
output pins on all the Cyclone III device family unconnected or use the nCEO output
pins as normal user I/O pins. The DATA and DCLK pins are connected in parallel to all
the Cyclone III device family.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–20
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Altera recommends putting a buffer before the DATA and DCLK output from the master
device to avoid signal strength and integrity issues. The buffer must not significantly
change the DATA-to-DCLK relationships or delay them with respect to other AS signals
(ASDI and nCS). Also, the buffer must only drive the slave devices to ensure that the
timing between the master device and the serial configuration device is unaffected.
This configuration method supports both compressed and uncompressed .sofs.
Therefore, if the configuration bitstream size exceeds the capacity of a serial
configuration device, you can enable the compression feature in the .sof or you can
select a larger serial configuration device.
Guidelines for Connecting Serial Configuration Device to Cyclone III Device
Family on AS Interface
For single- and multi-device AS configurations, the board trace length and loading
between the supported serial configuration device and Cyclone III device family must
follow the recommendations listed in Table 9–9.
Table 9–9. Maximum Trace Length and Loading for the AS Configuration
Cyclone III
Device Family
AS Pins
Maximum Board Trace Length from the
Cyclone III Device Family to the Serial
Configuration Device (Inches)
Maximum Board Load (pF)
DCLK
10
15
DATA[0]
10
30
nCSO
10
30
ASDO
10
30
Estimating AS Configuration Time
AS configuration time is dominated by the time it takes to transfer data from the serial
configuration device to the Cyclone III device family. This serial interface is clocked
by the Cyclone III device family DCLK output (generated from an internal oscillator).
Equation 9–2 and Equation 9–3 show the configuration time estimation for the
Cyclone III device family.
Equation 9–2.
maximum DCLK period
Size   ---------------------------------------------------------------- = estimated maximum configuration ti


1 bit
Equation 9–3.
50 ns
3,500,000 bits   ------------- = 175 ms
1 bit
To estimate the typical configuration time, use the typical DCLK period shown in
Figure 9–7 on page 9–22. With a typical DCLK period of 33.33 ns, the typical
configuration time is 116.7 ms. Enabling compression reduces the amount of
configuration data that is sent to the Cyclone III device family, which also reduces
configuration time. On average, compression reduces configuration time by 50%.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–21
Programming Serial Configuration Devices
Serial configuration devices are non-volatile, flash memory-based devices. You can
program these devices in-system using the USB-Blaster™ or ByteBlaster™ II
download cable. Alternatively, you can program them using the Altera Programming
Unit (APU), supported third-party programmers, or a microprocessor with the
SRunner software driver.
You can perform in-system programming of serial configuration devices using the AS
programming interface. During in-system programming, the download cable disables
device access to the AS interface by driving the nCE pin high. Cyclone III device family
is also held in reset by a low level on nCONFIG. After programming is complete, the
download cable releases nCE and nCONFIG, allowing the pull-down and pull-up
resistors to drive GND and VCC, respectively.
To perform in-system programming of a serial configuration device using the AS
programming interface, the diodes and capacitors must be placed as close as possible
to the Cyclone III device family. Ensure that the diodes and capacitors maintain a
maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V (Figure 9–7).
1
If you wish to use the same setup shown in Figure 9–7 to perform in-system
programming of a serial configuration device and single- or multi-device AS
configuration, you do not need a series resistor on the DATA line at the near end of the
serial configuration device. The existing diodes and capacitors are sufficient.
Altera has developed the Serial FlashLoader (SFL), a JTAG-based in-system
programming solution for Altera serial configuration devices. The SFL is a bridge
design for the Cyclone III device family that uses its JTAG interface to access the
EPCS JIC (JTAG Indirect Configuration Device Programming) file and then uses the
AS interface to program the EPCS device. Both the JTAG interface and AS interface
are bridged together inside the SFL design.
f For more information about implementing the SFL with Cyclone III device family,
refer to AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader with the Quartus II Software.
f For more information about the USB-Blaster download cable, refer to the USB-Blaster
Download Cable User Guide. For more information about the ByteBlaster II download
cable, refer to the ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–22
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Figure 9–7 shows the download cable connections to the serial configuration device.
Figure 9–7. In-System Programming of Serial Configuration Devices
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone III Device Family
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
3.3 V
10 kΩ
Serial
Configuration Device
nCEO
N.C. (2)
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
GND
(6)
DATA[0] (7)
DCLK (7)
nCSO (5)
ASDO (5)
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
Pin 1
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
3.3 V (3)
GND
10 pf
10 pf
GND
10 pf
ByteBlaster II or USB Blaster
10-Pin Male Header
GND
GND
GND
10 pf
(6)
GND
Notes to Figure 9–7:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II or USB-Blaster download cable with the 3.3-V supply.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0], refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or ground.
(5) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. This nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as the DATA[1] pin in other
AP and FPP modes.
(6) The diodes and capacitors must be placed as close as possible to the Cyclone III device family. Ensure that the diodes and capacitors maintain a
maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The external diodes and capacitors are required to prevent damage to the Cyclone III device family AS configuration
input pins due to possible overshoot when programming the serial configuration device using a download cable. For effective voltage clamping,
Altera recommends using the Schottky diode, which has a relatively lower forward diode voltage (VF) than the switching and Zener diodes. For
more information about the interface guidelines using Schottky diodes, refer to AN 523: Cyclone III Configuration Interface Guidelines with EPCS
Devices.
(7) When cascading Cyclone III device family in a multi-device AS configuration, connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices
for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the
maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
You can use the Quartus II software with the APU and the appropriate configuration
device programming adapter to program serial configuration devices. All serial
configuration devices are offered in an 8- or 16-pin small outline integrated circuit
(SOIC) package.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–23
In production environments, serial configuration devices are programmed using
multiple methods. Altera programming hardware or other third-party programming
hardware is used to program blank serial configuration devices before they are
mounted onto PCBs. Alternatively, you can use an on-board microprocessor to
program the serial configuration device in-system by porting the reference C-based
SRunner software driver provided by Altera.
A serial configuration device is programmed in-system by an external microprocessor
using the SRunner software driver. The SRunner software driver is a software driver
developed for embedded serial configuration device programming, which is easily
customized to fit in different embedded systems. The SRunner software driver is able
to read a Raw Programming Data (.rpd) file and write to the serial configuration
devices. The serial configuration device programming time using the SRunner
software driver is comparable to the programming time with the Quartus II software.
f For more information about the SRunner software driver, refer to AN 418: SRunner:
An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device Programming and the source code
at the Altera website (www.altera.com).
AP Configuration (Supported Flash Memories)
The AP configuration scheme is for Cyclone III devices only. In the AP configuration
scheme, Cyclone III devices are configured using commodity 16-bit parallel flash
memory. These external non-volatile configuration devices are industry standard
microprocessor flash memories. The flash memories provide a fast interface to access
the configuration data. The speed-up in configuration time is mainly due to the 16-bit
wide parallel data bus, which is used to retrieve data from the flash memory.
Some of the smaller Cyclone III devices or package options do not support the AP
configuration scheme and do not have the MSEL[3] pin. Table 9–10 lists the supported
AP configuration scheme for each Cyclone III device.
Table 9–10. Supported AP Configuration Scheme for Cyclone III Devices
Package Options
Device
E144
M164
Q240
F256
F324
F484
F780
U256
U484
EP3C5
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP3C10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP3C16
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
v
EP3C25
—
—
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
EP3C40
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
—
v
EP3C55
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
—
v
EP3C80
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
—
v
EP3C120
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
—
—
During device configuration, Cyclone III devices read configuration data using the
parallel interface and configure their SRAM cells. This scheme is referred to as the AP
configuration scheme because the device controls the configuration interface. This
scheme contrasts with the FPP configuration scheme, where an external host controls
the interface.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–24
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
AP Configuration Supported Flash Memory
The AP configuration controller in Cyclone III devices is designed to interface with
the Micron P30 Parallel NOR flash family and the Micron P33 Parallel NOR flash
family, which are two industry standard flash families. Unlike serial configuration
devices, both of the flash families supported in the AP configuration scheme are
designed to interface with microprocessors. By configuring from an industry standard
microprocessor flash which allows access to the flash after entering user mode, the AP
configuration scheme allows you to combine configuration data and user data
(microprocessor boot code) on the same flash memory.
The Micron P30 and P33 flash families support a continuous synchronous burst read
mode at 40 MHz DCLK frequency for reading data from the flash. Additionally, the
Micron P30 and P33 flash families have identical pin-out and adopt similar protocols
for data access.
1
Cyclone III devices use a 40-MHz oscillator for the AP configuration scheme.
Table 9–11 lists the supported families of the commodity parallel flash for the AP
configuration scheme.
Table 9–11. Supported Commodity Flash for the AP Configuration Scheme for Cyclone III
Devices (1)
Flash Memory Density
Micron P30 Flash Family
(2)
Micron P33 Flash Family
64 Mbit
v
v
128 Mbit
v
v
256 Mbit
v
v
(3)
Notes to Table 9–11:
(1) The AP configuration scheme only supports flash memory speed grades of 40 MHz and above.
(2) 3.3- , 3.0-, 2.5-, and 1.8-V I/O options are supported for the Micron P30 flash family.
(3) 3.3-, 3.0- and 2.5-V I/O options are supported for the Micron P33 flash family.
The AP configuration scheme of Cyclone III devices supports the Micron P30 and P33
family 64-, 128-, and 256-Mbit flash memories. Configuring Cyclone III devices from
the Micron P30 and P33 family 512-Mbit flash memory is possible, but you must
properly drive the extra address and FLASH_nCE pins as required by these flash
memories.
1
You must refer to the respective flash data sheets to check for supported speed grades
and package options.
The AP configuration scheme in Cyclone III devices supports flash speed grades of
40 MHz and above. However, the AP configuration for all these speed grades must be
capped at 40 MHz. The advantage of faster speed grades is realized when your design
in the Cyclone III device accesses flash memory in user mode.
f For more information about the operation of the Micron P30 Parallel NOR and P33
flash memories, search for the keyword “P30” or “P33” on the Micron website
(www.micron.com) to obtain the P30 or P33 family data sheet.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–25
Single-Device AP Configuration
The following groups of interface pins are supported in Micron P30 and P33 flash
memories:
■
Control pins
■
Address pins
■
Data pins
Following are the control signals from the supported parallel flash memories:
■
CLK
■
active-low reset (RST#)
■
active-low chip enable (CE#)
■
active-low output enable (OE#)
■
active-low address valid (ADV#)
■
active-low write enable (WE#)
The supported parallel flash memories output a control signal (WAIT) to Cyclone III
devices to indicate when synchronous data is ready on the data bus. Cyclone III
devices have a 24-bit address bus connecting to the address bus (A[24:1]) of the flash
memory. A 16-bit bidirectional data bus (DATA[15..0]) provides data transfer between
the Cyclone III device and the flash memory.
The following are the control signals from the Cyclone III device to flash memory:
August 2012
■
DCLK
■
nRESET
■
FLASH_nCE
■
nOE
■
nAVD
■
nWE
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–26
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
The interface for the Micron P30 flash memory and P33 flash memory connects to
Cyclone III device pins, as shown in Figure 9–8.
Figure 9–8. Single-Device AP Configuration Using Micron P30 and P33 Flash Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
10k
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
10k
nCONFIG
10k
N.C. (2)
nCEO
nCE
GND
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
Micron P30/P33 Flash
(3)
MSEL[3..0]
DCLK
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
nWE
I/O (4)
DATA[15..0]
PADD[23..0]
Cyclone III Device
Notes to Figure 9–8:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0], refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use a normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
1
To tri-state the configuration bus for AP configuration schemes, you must tie nCE high
and nCONFIG low.
1
In a single-device AP configuration, the maximum board loading and board trace
length between the supported parallel flash and Cyclone III devices must follow the
recommendations listed in Table 9–12 on page 9–30.
1
If you use the AP configuration scheme for Cyclone III devices, the VCCIO of I/O
banks 1, 6, 7, and 8 must be 3.3, 3.0, 2.5, or 1.8 V. Altera does not recommend using the
level shifter between the Micron P30/P33 flash and the Cyclone III device in the AP
configuration scheme.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
1
9–27
There are no series resistors required in the AP configuration mode for Cyclone III
devices when using the Micron flash at 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.3-V I/O standard. The output
buffer of the Micron P30 IBIS model does not overshoot above 4.1 V. Thus, series
resistors are not required for the 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.3-V AP configuration option.
However, if there are any other devices sharing the same flash I/Os with Cyclone III
devices, all shared pins are still subject to the 4.1-V limit and may require series
resistors.
The default read mode of the supported parallel flash memory and all writes to the
parallel flash memory are asynchronous. Both the parallel flash families support a
synchronous read mode, with data supplied on the positive edge of DCLK.
■
nRESET is an active-low hard reset
■
FLASH_nCE is an active-low chip enable
■
nOE is an active-low output enable for the DATA[15..0] bus and WAIT pin
■
nAVD is an active-low address valid signal and is used to write addresses into the
flash
■
nWE is an active-low write enable and is used to write data into the flash
■
PADD[23..0] bus is the address bus supplied to the flash
■
DATA[15..0] bus is a bidirectional bus used to supply and read data to and from
the flash, with the flash output controlled by nOE
The serial clock (DCLK) generated by Cyclone III devices controls the entire
configuration cycle and provides timing for the parallel interface. Cyclone III devices
use a 40-Mhz internal oscillator to generate DCLK. The oscillator is the same oscillator
used in the AS configuration scheme. The active DCLK output frequency is listed in
Table 9–8 on page 9–14.
Multi-Device AP Configuration
You can cascade multiple Cyclone III devices using the chip-enable (nCE) and chipenable-out (nCEO) pins. The first device in the chain must have its nCE pin connected to
GND. Connect its nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the next device in the chain. Use an
external 10-k pull-up resistor to pull the nCEO signal high to its VCCIO level to help
the internal weak pull-up resistor. When the first device captures all its configuration
data from the bitstream, it drives the nCEO pin low, enabling the next device in the
chain. You can leave the nCEO pin of the last device unconnected or use it as a user I/O
pin after configuration if the last device in the chain is a Cyclone III device. The
nCONFIG, nSTATUS, CONF_DONE, DCLK, DATA[15..8], and DATA[7..0] pins of each device
in the chain are connected (Figure 9–9 on page 9–28 and Figure 9–10 on page 9–29).
The first Cyclone III device in the chain, as shown in Figure 9–9 on page 9–28 and
Figure 9–10 on page 9–29, is the configuration master device and controls the
configuration of the entire chain. Connect its MSEL pins to select the AP configuration
scheme. The remaining Cyclone III devices are used as configuration slaves. Connect
their MSEL pins to select the FPP configuration scheme. Any other Altera device that
supports FPP configuration can also be part of the chain as a configuration slave.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–28
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
The following are the configurations for the DATA[15..0] bus in a multi-device AP
configuration:
■
Byte-wide multi-device AP configuration
■
Word-wide multi-device AP configuration
Byte-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
The simpler method for multi-device AP configuration is the byte-wide multi-device
AP configuration. In the byte-wide multi-device AP configuration, the LSB of the
DATA[7..0]pin from the flash and master device (set to the AP configuration scheme)
is connected to the slave devices set to the FPP configuration scheme, as shown in
Figure 9–9.
Figure 9–9. Byte-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
nCE
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCE
nSTATUS
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
10 kΩ
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
Micron P30/P33 Flash
DCLK
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
nWE
I/O (5)
DATA[15..0]
PADD[23..0]
MSEL[3..0]
Cyclone III Master Device
(4)
DQ[7..0]
MSEL[3..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
(4)
DQ[7..0]
Cyclone III Slave Device
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone III Slave Device
Buffers (6)
Notes to Figure 9–9:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device in AP mode and the slave
devices in FPP mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AP mode and the slave devices in FPP mode, refer to Table 9–7 on
page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use the normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the master device and slave devices for DATA[15..0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum
AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG
Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–29
Word-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
The more efficient setup is one in which some of the slave devices are connected to the
LSB of DATA[7..0]and the remaining slave devices are connected to the MSB of
DATA[15..8]. In the word-wide multi-device AP configuration, the nCEO pin of the
master device enables two separate daisy-chains of slave devices, allowing both
chains to be programmed concurrently, as shown in Figure 9–10.
Figure 9–10. Word-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
nCEO
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCE
nSTATUS
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nCONFIG
10 kΩ
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (3)
GND
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
Micron P30/P33 Flash
DCLK
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
nWE
I/O (5)
DATA[15..0]
PADD[23..0]
MSEL[3..0]
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DQ[7..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone III Master Device
(4)
DQ[7..0]
Cyclone III Slave Device
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone III Slave Device
VCCIO (1)
Buffers (6)
nCE
nCE
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
10 kΩ
nCEO
N.C. (3)
DQ[15..8]
MSEL[3..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone III Slave Device
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DQ[15..8]
(4)
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone III Slave Device
Notes to Figure 9–10:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device in AP mode and the slave
devices in FPP mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AP mode and the slave devices in FPP mode, refer to Table 9–7 on
page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use the normal I/O pin to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the Cyclone III master device and slave devices for DATA[15..0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a
maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration
and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
1
August 2012
In a multi-device AP configuration, the board trace length between the parallel flash
and the master device must follow the recommendations listed in Table 9–12.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–30
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
As shown in Figure 9–9 and Figure 9–10, the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins on all target
devices are connected together with external pull-up resistors. These pins are opendrain bidirectional pins on the devices. When the first device asserts nCEO (after
receiving all its configuration data), it releases its CONF_DONE pin. However, the
subsequent devices in the chain keep this shared CONF_DONE line low until they receive
their configuration data. When all target devices in the chain receive their
configuration data and release CONF_DONE, the pull-up resistor drives a high level on
this line and all devices simultaneously enter initialization mode.
Guidelines for Connecting Parallel Flash to Cyclone III Devices for the AP
Interface
For the single- and multi-device AP configuration, the board trace length and loading
between the supported parallel flash and Cyclone III devices must follow the
recommendations listed in Table 9–12. These recommendations also apply to an AP
configuration with multiple bus masters.
Table 9–12. Maximum Trace Length and Loading for the AP Configuration
Maximum Board Trace Length from the
Cyclone III Device to the Flash Device
(Inches)
Maximum Board Load (pF)
DCLK
6
15
DATA[15..0]
6
30
PADD[23..0]
6
30
nRESET
6
30
Flash_nCE
6
30
nOE
6
30
nAVD
6
30
6
30
6
30
Cyclone III AP Pins
nWE
I/O
(1)
Note to Table 9–12:
(1) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal from the flash during configuration mode. However, if you are
accessing flash during user mode with user logic, you can optionally use the normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal
from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
Configuring With Multiple Bus Masters
Similar to the AS configuration scheme, the AP configuration scheme supports
multiple bus masters for the parallel flash. For another master to take control of the
AP configuration bus, the master must assert nCONFIG low for at least 500 ns to reset
the master Cyclone III device and override the weak 10 k pull-down resistor on the
nCE pin. This resets the master Cyclone III device and causes it to tri-state its AP
configuration bus. The other master then takes control of the AP configuration bus.
After the other master is done, it releases the AP configuration bus, then releases the
nCE pin, and finally pulses nCONFIG low to restart the configuration.
In the AP configuration scheme, multiple masters share the parallel flash. Similar to
the AS configuration scheme, the bus control is negotiated by the nCE pin.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–31
Figure 9–11 shows the AP configuration with multiple bus masters.
Figure 9–11. AP Configuration with Multiple Bus Masters
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
I/O (7)
nCONFIG (8)
Other Master Device (6)
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 k
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
10 k
nCONFIG
10 k
nCE
10 k
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
GND
Micron P30/P33 Flash
nCEO
DCLK (5)
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
MSEL[3..0]
nWE
I/O (4)
DATA[15..0] (5)
PADD[23..0]
(2)
(3)
Cyclone III Master Device
Notes to Figure 9–11:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0], refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use the normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
(5) When cascading Cyclone III devices in a multi-device AP configuration, connect the repeater buffers between the master device and slave devices
for DATA[15..0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit
the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
(6) The other master device must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
(7) The other master device can control the AP configuration bus by driving the nCE pin to high with an output high on the I/O pin.
(8) The other master device can pulse nCONFIG if it is under system control rather than tied to VCCIO.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–32
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Figure 9–12 shows the recommended balanced star routing for multiple bus master
interfaces to minimize signal integrity issue.
Figure 9–12. Balanced Star Routing
External
Master Device
N (2)
DCLK
M (1)
N (2)
Cyclone III
Master Device
Micron Flash
Notes to Figure 9–12:
(1) Altera does not recommend M to exceed six inches as listed in Table 9–12 on page 9–30.
(2) Altera recommends using a balanced star routing. Try to keep the N length equal and as short as possible to minimize
reflection noise from the transmission line. The M length is applicable for this setup.
Estimating the AP Configuration Time
AP configuration time is dominated by the time it takes to transfer data from the
parallel flash to the Cyclone III devices. This parallel interface is clocked by the
Cyclone III DCLK output (generated from an internal oscillator). As listed in Table 9–8
on page 9–14, the DCLK minimum frequency when using the 40-MHz oscillator is
20 MHz (50 ns). In word-wide cascade programming, the DATA[15..0] bus transfers a
16-bit word and essentially cuts configuration time to approximately 1/16 of the AS
configuration time. Therefore, the maximum configuration time estimation for an
EP3C40 device (9,600,000 bits of uncompressed data) is defined in Equation 9–4 and
Equation 9–5.
Equation 9–4.
maximum DCLK period
Size   ---------------------------------------------------------------- = estimated maximum configuration ti
16 bits per DCLK cycle
Equation 9–5.
50 ns
9,600,000 bits   ----------------- = 30 ms
 16 bits
To estimate a typical configuration time, use the typical DCLK period listed in Table 9–8
on page 9–14. With a typical DCLK period of 33.33 ns, the typical configuration time is
20 ms.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–33
Programming Parallel Flash Memories
Supported parallel flash memories are external non-volatile configuration devices.
They are industry standard microprocessor flash memories. For more information
about the supported families for the commodity parallel flash, refer to Table 9–11 on
page 9–24.
Cyclone III devices in a single- or multiple-device chains support in-system parallel
flash programming with the JTAG interface using the flash loader megafunction. For
Cyclone III devices, the board-intelligent host or download cable uses four JTAG pins
to program the parallel flash in system, even if the host or download cable cannot
access the configuration pins of the parallel flash.
f For more information about using the JTAG pins on Cyclone III devices to program
the parallel flash in-system, refer to AN 478: Using FPGA-Based Parallel Flash Loader
(PFL) with the Quartus II Software.
In the AP configuration scheme, the default configuration boot address is 0×010000
when represented in 16-bit word addressing in the supported parallel flash memory
(Figure 9–13). In the Quartus II software, the default configuration boot address is
0x020000 because it is represented in 8-bit byte addressing. Cyclone III devices
configure from word address 0x010000, which is equivalent to byte address 0x020000.
1
August 2012
The Quartus II software uses byte addressing for the default configuration boot
address. You must set the start address field to 0x020000.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–34
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
The default configuration boot addressing allows the system to use special parameter
blocks in the flash memory map. Parameter blocks are at the top or bottom of the
memory map. The configuration boot address in the AP configuration scheme is
shown in Figure 9–13. You can change the default configuration default boot address
0x010000 to any desired address using the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction. For
more information about the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction, refer to “JTAG
Instructions” on page 9–60.
Figure 9–13. Configuration Boot Address in AP Flash Memory Map
Bottom Parameter Flash Memory
Top Parameter Flash Memory
Other data/code
128-Kb
parameter area
Other data/code
Cyclone III
Default
Boot
Address
Cyclone III
Default
Boot
Address
Configuration
Data
Configuration
Data
x010000 (1)
x00FFF
x010000 (1)
x00FFF
Other data/code
128-Kb
parameter area
16-bit word
x000000
bit[15]
x000000
bit[0]
16-bit word
bit[15]
bit[0]
Note to Figure 9–13:
(1) The default configuration boot address is x010000 when represented in 16-bit word addressing.
PS Configuration
You can perform PS configuration on Cyclone III device family with an external
intelligent host, such as a MAX II device, microprocessor with flash memory, or a
download cable. In the PS scheme, an external host controls the configuration.
Configuration data is clocked into the target Cyclone III device family using the
DATA[0] pin at each rising edge of DCLK.
If your system already contains a common flash interface (CFI) flash memory, you can
use it for the Cyclone III device family configuration storage as well. The MAX II PFL
feature provides an efficient method to program CFI flash memory devices through
the JTAG interface and provides the logic to control the configuration from the flash
memory device to the Cyclone III device family. Both PS and FPP configuration
schemes are supported using the PFL feature.
f For more information about the PFL, refer to Parallel Flash Loader Megafunction User
Guide.
1
Cyclone III device family does not support enhanced configuration devices for PS or
FPP configurations.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–35
PS Configuration Using an External Host
In the PS configuration scheme, you can use an intelligent host such as MAX II or
microprocessor that controls the transfer of configuration data from a storage device,
such as flash memory, to the target Cyclone III device family. You can store the
configuration data in .rbf, .hex, or .ttf format.
Figure 9–14 shows the configuration interface connections between a Cyclone III
device family and an external host device for a single-device configuration.
Figure 9–14. Single-Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO(1) VCCIO(1)
ADDR
Cyclone III
Device Family
DATA[0]
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
10 kΩ
GND
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (2)
DATA[0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Notes to Figure 9–14:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for the device. VCC must be high
enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or ground.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
To begin configuration, the external host device must generate a low-to-high
transition on the nCONFIG pin. When nSTATUS is pulled high, the external host device
must place the configuration data one bit at a time on the DATA[0]pin. If you are using
configuration data in a .rbf, .ttf, or .hex file, you must first send the LSB of each data
byte. For example, if the .rbf contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01 FA, the serial
bitstream you must send to the device is:
0100-0000 1101-1000 0111-0111 1000-0000 0101-1111
Cyclone III device family receives configuration data on the DATA[0]pin and the clock
is received on the DCLK pin. Data is latched into the device on the rising edge of DCLK.
Data is continuously clocked into the target device until CONF_DONE goes high and the
device enters the initialization state.
1
Two DCLK falling edges are required after CONF_DONE goes high to begin device
initialization.
The INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high when initialization is complete. The
external host device must be able to detect this low-to-high transition which signals
the device has entered user mode. When initialization is complete, the device enters
user mode. In user mode, the user I/O pins no longer have weak pull-up resistors and
function as assigned in your design.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–36
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
To ensure DCLK and DATA[0] are not left floating at the end of configuration, the MAX
II device must drive them either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
The DATA[0] pin is available as a user I/O pin after configuration. In the PS scheme,
the DATA[0] pin is tri-stated by default in user mode and must be driven by the
external host device. To change this default option in the Quartus II software, select
the Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box.
The configuration clock (DCLK) speed must be below the specified system frequency to
ensure correct configuration (Figure 9–19 on page 9–42). No maximum DCLK period
exists, which means you can pause configuration by halting DCLK for an indefinite
amount of time.
If a configuration error occurs during configuration and the Auto-restart
configuration after error option is turned on, the Cyclone III device family releases
nSTATUS after a reset time-out period (a maximum of 230 s). After nSTATUS is released
and pulled high by a pull-up resistor, the external host device tries to reconfigure the
target device without needing to pulse nCONFIG low. If this option is turned off, the
external host device must generate a low-to-high transition (with a low pulse of at
least 500 ns) on nCONFIG to restart the configuration process.
The external host device can also monitor the CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE pins to ensure
successful configuration. The CONF_DONE pin must be monitored by the external device
to detect errors and to determine when the programming is complete. If all
configuration data is sent, but CONF_DONE or INIT_DONE has not gone high, the external
device must reconfigure the target device.
Figure 9–15 shows how to configure multiple devices using an external host device.
This circuit is similar to the PS configuration circuit for a single device, except that the
Cyclone III device family is cascaded for multi-device configuration.
Figure 9–15. Multi-Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1) Cyclone III Device Family 1
ADDR DATA[0]
10 k
10 k
10 k
(4)
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (3)
DATA[0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
DATA[0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
MSEL[3..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
VCCIO (2)
Cyclone III Device Family 2
GND
Buffers (5)
Notes to Figure 9–15:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or ground.
(5) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–37
In a multi-device PS configuration, the nCE pin of the first device is connected to GND
while its nCEO pin is connected to the nCE pin of the next device in the chain. The nCE
input of the last device comes from the previous device, while its nCEO pin is left
floating. After the first device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration
chain, its nCEO pin drives low to activate the nCE pin of the second device, which
prompts the second device to begin configuration. The second device in the chain
begins configuration in one clock cycle. Therefore, the transfer of data destinations is
transparent to the external host device. All other configuration pins (nCONFIG,
nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA[0], and CONF_DONE) are connected to every device in the chain.
Configuration signals can require buffering to ensure signal integrity and prevent
clock skew problems. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. Because all
device CONF_DONE pins are tied together, all devices initialize and enter user mode at
the same time.
If any device detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and the entire
chain must be reconfigured because all nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
For example, if the first device flags an error on nSTATUS, it resets the chain by pulling
its nSTATUS pin low. This behavior is similar to a single device detecting an error.
You can have multiple devices that contain the same configuration data in your
system. To support this configuration scheme, all device nCE inputs are tied to GND,
while the nCEO pins are left floating. All other configuration pins (nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
DCLK, DATA[0], and CONF_DONE) are connected to every device in the chain.
Configuration signals can require buffering to ensure signal integrity and prevent
clock skew problems. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. Devices must
be of the same density and package. All devices start and complete configuration at
the same time.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–38
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Figure 9–16 shows a multi-device PS configuration when both Cyclone III device
family is receiving the same configuration data.
Figure 9–16. Multi-Device PS Configuration When Both Devices Receive the Same Data
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1) Cyclone III Device Family
ADDR
Cyclone III Device Family
DATA[0]
10 k
10 k
MSEL[3..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
GND
DATA[0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
(3)
(3)
MSEL[3..0]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
GND
DATA[0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Buffers (4)
Notes to Figure 9–16:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pins of both devices are left unconnected or used as user I/O pins when configuring the same configuration
data into multiple devices.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or ground.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
PS Configuration Timing
A PS configuration must meet the setup and hold timing parameters and the
maximum clock frequency. When using a microprocessor or another intelligent host
to control the PS interface, ensure that you meet these timing requirements.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–39
Figure 9–17 shows the timing waveform for a PS configuration when using an
external host device as an external host.
Figure 9–17. PS Configuration Timing Waveform
(1)
tCF2ST1
tCFG
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (2)
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
t
CLK
CONF_DONE (3)
tCF2CD
tST2CK
tCH tCL
DCLK (4)
tDH
DATA[0]
Bit 0
Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3
(5)
Bit n
tDSU
User Mode
User I/O Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 9–17:
(1) The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode, nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE
are at logic-high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
(2) After power-up, the Cyclone III device family holds nSTATUS low during POR delay.
(3) After power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(4) In user mode, drive DCLK either high or low when using the PS configuration scheme, whichever is more convenient.
When using the AS configuration scheme, DCLK is a Cyclone III device family output pin and must not be driven
externally.
(5) Do not leave the DATA[0] pin floating after configuration. Drive it high or low, whichever is more convenient.
Table 9–13 lists the PS configuration timing parameters for Cyclone III device family.
Table 9–13. PS Configuration Timing Parameters for Cyclone III Device Family (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to CONF_DONE low
—
500
ns
tCF2ST0
nCONFIG low to nSTATUS low
—
500
ns
tCFG
nCONFIG low pulse width
500
—
ns
tSTATUS
tCF2ST1
nSTATUS low pulse width
45
nCONFIG high to nSTATUS high
—
—
s
5
—
ns
0
—
ns
3.2
—
ns
3.2
—
ns
7.5
—
tST2CK
nSTATUS high to first rising edge of DCLK
tDSU
Data setup time before rising edge on DCLK
tDH
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
tCH
DCLK high time
tCL
DCLK low time
tCLK
DCLK period
CONF_DONE high to user mode
tCD2CU
CONF_DONE high to CLKUSR enabled
August 2012
Altera Corporation
(1)
—
tCD2UM
s
2
800
(3)
800
s
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on DCLK
DCLK frequency
s
(2)
—
tCF2CK
fMAX
800
(1)
300
4 × maximum DCLK period
100
ns
(4)
MHz
650
s
—
—
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–40
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Table 9–13. PS Configuration Timing Parameters for Cyclone III Device Family (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
tCD2UMC
CONF_DONE high to user mode with CLKUSR option on
Minimum
tCD2CU + (initialization clock
cycles × CLKUSR period) (5)
Maximum
Unit
—
—
Notes to Table 9–13:
(1) This value is applicable if you do not delay configuration by extending the nCONFIG or nSTATUS low pulse width.
(2) This value is applicable if you do not delay configuration by externally holding nSTATUS low.
(3) The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if the internal oscillator is chosen as the clock source for starting the device.
(4) Cyclone III devices can support a DCLK fMAX of 133 MHz. Cyclone III LS devices can support a DCLK fMAX of 100 MHz.
(5) For more information about the initialization clock cycles required in Cyclone III device family, refer to Table 9–5 on page 9–10.
PS Configuration Using a Download Cable
In this section, the generic term "download cable" includes the Altera USB-Blaster
universal serial bus (USB) port download cable, MasterBlaster™ serial/USB
communications cable, ByteBlaster II parallel port download cable, the
ByteBlasterMV™ parallel port download cable, and the Ethernet-Blaster
communications cable.
In the PS configuration with a download cable, an intelligent host (such as a PC)
transfers data from a storage device to the device using the download cable.
The programming hardware or download cable then places the configuration data
one bit at a time on the DATA[0] pin of the device. The configuration data is clocked
into the target device until CONF_DONE goes high. The CONF_DONE pin must have an
external 10-k pull-up resistor for the device to initialize.
When you use a download cable, setting the Auto-restart configuration after error
option does not affect the configuration cycle because you must manually restart
configuration in the Quartus II software when an error occurs. Additionally, the
Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option has no effect on the device
initialization because this option is disabled in the .sof when programming the device
using the Quartus II programmer and download cable. Therefore, if you turn on the
CLKUSR option, you do not need to provide a clock on CLKUSR when you are
configuring the device with the Quartus II programmer and a download cable.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–41
Figure 9–18 shows PS configuration for Cyclone III device family using a download
cable.
Figure 9–18. PS Configuration Using a USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster, ByteBlaster II,
ByteBlasterMV, or Ethernet Blaster Cable
VCCA (1)
(2)
VCCA (1)
10kΩ
10 kΩ
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
10kΩ
10kΩ
10kΩ
(2)
Cyclone III Device Family
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL[3..0] (5)
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (4)
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
GND
DCLK
DATA[0]
nCONFIG
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
GND
VIO (3)
Shield
GND
Notes to Figure 9–18:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to the same supply voltage as the VCCA supply.
(2) You only need the pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA[0] and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example,
if you are also using a configuration device, you do not need the pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. For the USB Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, ByteBlaster MV, and Ethernet Blaster, this pin is a no connect.
(4) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(5) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11 for PS configuration schemes. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(6) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5- V supply from VCCA.
Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable.
The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from
the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
You can use a download cable to configure multiple Cyclone III device family by
connecting the nCEO pin of each device to the nCE pin of the subsequent device. The
nCE pin of the first device is connected to GND while its nCEO pin is connected to the
nCE pin of the next device in the chain. The nCE input of the last device comes from the
previous device while its nCEO pin is left floating. All other configuration pins,
nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA[0], and CONF_DONE are connected to every device in the
chain. Because all CONF_DONE pins are tied together, all devices in the chain initialize
and enter user mode at the same time.
In addition, the entire chain halts configuration if any device detects an error because
the nSTATUS pins are tied together. The Auto-restart configuration after error option
does not affect the configuration cycle because you must manually restart
configuration in the Quartus II software when an error occurs.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–42
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Figure 9–19 shows PS configuration for multi Cyclone III device family using a
MasterBlaster, USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV cable.
Figure 9–19. Multi-Device PS Configuration Using a USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster, ByteBlaster II,
ByteBlasterMV, or Ethernet Blaster Cable
VCCA (1)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
10 kΩ
(2)
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
10 kΩ
VCCA (1)
10 kΩ
(2)
VCCIO (4)
10 kΩ
VCCA (1)
(Passive Serial Mode)
10 kΩ
Cyclone III Device Family 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL[3..0] (6)
Pin 1
VCCA (7)
GND
VIO (3)
nCE
10 kΩ
GND
DATA[0]
nCONFIG
nCEO
GND
Cyclone III Device Family 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL[3..0]
DCLK
(6)
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (5)
DATA[0]
nCONFIG
Notes to Figure 9–19:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to the same supply voltage as the VCCA supply.
(2) You only need the pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA[0] and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if
you are also using a configuration device, you do not need the pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. In ByteBlasterMV,
this pin is a no connect. In USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, and Ethernet Blaster, this pin is connected to nCE when it is
used for AS programming. Otherwise, it is a no connect.
(4) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(5) The nCEO pin of the last device in the chain is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin.
(6) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0] for
PS configuration schemes, refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(7) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5- V supply from VCCA.
Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable.
The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from
the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
FPP Configuration
The FPP configuration in Cyclone III device family is designed to meet the increasing
demand for faster configuration time. Cyclone III device family is designed with the
capability of receiving byte-wide configuration data per clock cycle.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–43
You can perform the FPP configuration of Cyclone III device family with an intelligent
host, such as a MAX II device or microprocessor with flash memory. If your system
already contains a CFI flash memory, you can use it for the Cyclone III device family
configuration storage as well. The MAX II PFL feature in MAX II devices provides an
efficient method to program CFI flash memory devices through the JTAG interface
and the logic to control configuration from the flash memory device to the Cyclone III
device family. Both PS and FPP configuration schemes are supported using this PFL
feature.
f For more information about the PFL, refer to Parallel Flash Loader Megafunction User
Guide.
1
Cyclone III device family does not support enhanced configuration devices for PS or
FPP configurations.
1
FPP configuration is not supported in the E144 package of Cyclone III devices.
FPP Configuration Using an External Host
The FPP configuration using an external host provides a fast method to configure
Cyclone III device family. In the FPP configuration scheme, you can use an external
host device to control the transfer of configuration data from a storage device, such as
flash memory, to the target Cyclone III device family. You can store configuration data
in either an .rbf, .hex, or .ttf format. When using the external host, a design that
controls the configuration process, such as fetching the data from flash memory and
sending it to the device, must be stored in the external host device. Figure 9–20 shows
the configuration interface connections between the Cyclone III device family and an
external device for single-device configuration.
Figure 9–20. Single-Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
ADDR
DATA[7..0]
VCCIO(1) VCCIO(1) Cyclone III Device Family
10 k
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
10 k
GND
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (2)
DATA[7..0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Notes to Figure 9–20:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for the device. VCC must be high
enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[7..0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
After nSTATUS is released, the device is ready to receive configuration data and the
configuration stage begins. When nSTATUS is pulled high, the external host device
places the configuration data one byte at a time on the DATA[7..0]pins.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–44
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Cyclone III device family receives configuration data on the DATA[7..0] pins and the
clock is received on the DCLK pin. Data is latched into the device on the rising edge of
DCLK. Data is continuously clocked into the target device until CONF_DONE goes high.
The CONF_DONE pin goes high one byte early in FPP configuration mode. The last byte
is required for serial configuration (AS and PS) modes.
1
Two DCLK falling edges are required after CONF_DONE goes high to begin the
initialization of the device.
Supplying a clock on CLKUSR does not affect the configuration process. After the
CONF_DONE pin goes high, CLKUSR is enabled after the time specified as tCD2CU. After
this time period elapses, Cyclone III device family requires certain amount of clock
cycles to initialize properly and enter user mode. For more information about the
initialization clock cycles required in the Cyclone III device family, refer to Table 9–5
on page 9–10. For more information about the supported CLKUSR fMAX value for
Cyclone III device family, refer to Table 9–14 on page 9–47.
The INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high when initialization is complete. The
external host device must be able to detect this low-to-high transition which signals
the device has entered user mode. When initialization is complete, the device enters
user mode. In user mode, the user I/O pins no longer have weak pull-up resistors and
function as assigned in your design.
To ensure that DCLK and DATA[0] are not left floating at the end of the configuration,
the MAX II device must drive them either high or low, whichever is convenient on
your board. The DATA[0] pin is available as a user I/O pin after configuration. When
you choose the FPP scheme in the Quartus II software, the DATA[0] pin is tri-stated by
default in user mode and must be driven by the external host device. To change this
default option in the Quartus II software, select the Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the
Device and Pin Options dialog box.
The DCLK speed must be below the specified system frequency to ensure correct
configuration. No maximum DCLK period exists, which means you can pause
configuration by halting DCLK for an indefinite amount of time.
If a configuration error occurs during configuration and the Auto-restart
configuration after error option is turned on, the Cyclone III device family releases
nSTATUS after a reset time-out period (a maximum of 230 s). After nSTATUS is released
and pulled high by a pull-up resistor, the external host device can try to reconfigure
the target device without needing to pulse nCONFIG low. If this option is turned off, the
external host device must generate a low-to-high transition (with a low pulse of at
least 500 ns) on nCONFIG to restart the configuration process.
The external host device can also monitor the CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE pins to ensure
successful configuration. The CONF_DONE pin must be monitored by the external device
to detect errors and to determine when programming is complete. If all configuration
data is sent but CONF_DONE or INIT_DONE has not gone high, the external device must
reconfigure the target device.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–45
Figure 9–21 shows how to configure multiple devices using a MAX II device. This
circuit is similar to the FPP configuration circuit for a single device, except the
Cyclone III device family is cascaded for a multi-device configuration.
Figure 9–21. Multi-Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
ADDR DATA[7..0]
VCCIO (2)
Cyclone III Device Family 1
10 k
10 k
(4)
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (3)
DATA[7..0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
DATA[7..0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
MSEL[3..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
Cyclone III Device Family 2
10 k
GND
Buffers (5)
Notes to Figure 9–21:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or ground.
(5) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[7..0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
In a multi-device FPP configuration, the nCE pin of the first device is connected to
GND while its nCEO pin is connected to the nCE pin of the next device in the chain. The
nCE input of the last device comes from the previous device while its nCEO pin is left
floating. After the first device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration
chain, its nCEO pin drives low to activate the nCE pin of the second device, which
prompts the second device to begin configuration. The second device in the chain
begins configuration in one clock cycle; therefore, the transfer of data destinations is
transparent to the MAX II device. All other configuration pins (nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
DCLK, DATA[7..0], and CONF_DONE) are connected to every device in the chain. The
configuration signals may require buffering to ensure signal integrity and prevent
clock skew problems. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. All devices
initialize and enter user mode at the same time because all device CONF_DONE pins are
tied together.
All nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are tied together and if any device detects an error,
configuration stops for the entire chain and the entire chain must be reconfigured. For
example, if the first device flags an error on nSTATUS, it resets the chain by pulling its
nSTATUS pin low. This behavior is similar to a single device detecting an error.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–46
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
If a system has multiple devices that contain the same configuration data, tie all
device nCE inputs to GND and leave nCEO pins floating. All other configuration pins
(nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA[7..0], and CONF_DONE) are connected to every device in
the chain. Configuration signals can require buffering to ensure signal integrity and
prevent clock skew problems. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered.
Devices must be of the same density and package. All devices start and complete
configuration at the same time.
Figure 9–22 shows multi-device FPP configuration when both Cyclone III device
family is receiving the same configuration data.
Figure 9–22. Multi-Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive
the Same Data
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
Cyclone III Device Family 1
Cyclone III Device Family 2
ADDR DATA[7..0]
10 k
10 k
MSEL[3..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
GND
(3)
N.C. (2)
GND
DATA[7..0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (2)
DATA[7..0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Buffers (4)
Notes to Figure 9–22:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pins of both devices are left unconnected or used as user I/O pins when configuring the same configuration
data into multiple devices.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0],
refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[7..0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
You can use a single configuration chain to configure Cyclone III device family with
other Altera devices that support the FPP configuration. To ensure that all devices in
the chain complete configuration at the same time or that an error flagged by one
device starts reconfiguration in all devices, tie all the device CONF_DONE and nSTATUS
pins together.
f For more information about configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, refer to the Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains chapter in
volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–47
FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 9–23 shows the timing waveform for FPP configuration when using an
external host.
Figure 9–23. FPP Configuration Timing Waveform
(1)
tCF2ST1
tCFG
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (2)
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
t
CLK
CONF_DONE (3)
tCF2CD
tST2CK
tCH tCL
(4)
DCLK
tDH
DATA[7..0]
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte n-1
(5)
Byte n
User Mode
tDSU
User Mode
User I/O Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 9–23:
(1) The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode, nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE
are at logic-high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
(2) After power-up, the Cyclone III device family holds nSTATUS low during POR delay.
(3) After power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(4) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. It must be driven high or low, whichever is more convenient.
(5) DATA[7..0] is available as user I/O pin after configuration; the state of the pin depends on the dual-purpose pin
settings.
Table 9–14 lists the FPP configuration timing parameters for Cyclone III device family.
Table 9–14. FPP Timing Parameters for Cyclone III Device Family
Symbol
Parameter
(Part 1 of 2)
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to CONF_DONE low
—
500
ns
tCF2ST0
nCONFIG low to nSTATUS low
—
500
ns
tCFG
nCONFIG low pulse width
500
—
ns
tSTATUS
tCF2ST1
nSTATUS low pulse width
45
nCONFIG high to nSTATUS high
—
230
(1)
s
230
(1)
s
—
s
2
—
s
DATA setup time before rising edge on DCLK
5
—
ns
DATA hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
—
ns
DCLK high time
3.2
—
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
3.2
—
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
7.5
—
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on DCLK
230
tST2CK
nSTATUS high to first rising edge of DCLK
tDSU
tDH
tCH
fMAX
tCD2UM
August 2012
DCLK frequency
CONF_DONE high to user mode
Altera Corporation
(1)
—
(2)
300
100
ns
(3)
650
MHz
s
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–48
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Table 9–14. FPP Timing Parameters for Cyclone III Device Family
Symbol
Parameter
(Part 2 of 2)
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
tCD2CU
CONF_DONE high to CLKUSR enabled
4 × maximum DCLK period
—
—
tCD2UMC
CONF_DONE high to user mode with CLKUSR
option on
tCD2CU + (initialization clock
cycles × CLKUSR period) (4)
—
—
Notes to Table 9–14:
(1) This value is applicable if users do not delay configuration by extending the nCONFIG or nSTATUS low pulse width.
(2) The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if the internal oscillator is chosen as the clock source for starting up the device.
(3) Cyclone III EP3C5, EP3C10, EP3C16, EP3C25, and EP3C40 devices support a DCLK fMAX of 133 MHz. Cyclone III EP3C55, EP3C80, EP3C120 and
all the Cyclone III LS devices support a DCLK fMAX of 100 MHz.
(4) For more information about the initialization clock cycles required in Cyclone III device family, refer to Table 9–5 on page 9–10.
JTAG Configuration
JTAG has developed a specification for boundary-scan testing. This boundary-scan
test (BST) architecture offers the capability to efficiently test components on PCBs
with tight lead spacing. The BST architecture can test pin connections without using
physical test probes and capture functional data while a device is operating normally.
You can also use the JTAG circuitry to shift configuration data into the device. The
Quartus II software automatically generates .sofs that are used for JTAG
configuration with a download cable in the Quartus II software programmer.
f For more information about JTAG boundary-scan testing, refer to the IEEE 1149.1
(JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone III Devices chapter.
For the Cyclone III device, JTAG instructions have precedence over any other device
configuration modes. Therefore, JTAG configuration can take place without waiting
for other configuration modes to complete. For example, if you attempt JTAG
configuration of a Cyclone III device during PS configuration, PS configuration
terminates and JTAG configuration begins. If the Cyclone III device MSEL pins are set
to AS mode, the Cyclone III device does not output a DCLK signal when JTAG
configuration takes place.
1
For the Cyclone III LS device, JTAG programming is disabled if the device was
already configured using the PS or AS mode. After POR, the Cyclone III LS device
allows only mandatory JTAG 1149.1 instructions (BYPASS, SAMPLE/RELOAD, EXTEST, and
FACTORY). For more information, refer to “JTAG Instructions” on page 9–60.
The four required pins for a device operating in JTAG mode are TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK.
The TCK pin has an internal weak pull-down resistor while the TDI and TMS pins have
weak internal pull-up resistors (typically 25 k). The TDO output pin is powered by
VCCIO in I/O bank 1. All the JTAG input pins are powered by the VCCIO pin. All the
JTAG pins support only LVTTL I/O standard. All user I/O pins are tri-stated during
JTAG configuration. Table 9–15 lists the function of each JTAG pin.
1
The TDO output is powered by the VCCIO power supply of I/O bank 1.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–49
f For more information about how to connect a JTAG chain with multiple voltages
across the devices in the chain, refer to the IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing
for Cyclone III Devices chapter.
Table 9–15. Dedicated JTAG Pins
Pin
Name
Pin Type
Description
Test data input
Serial input pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data shifts in on the
rising edge of TCK. The TDI pin is powered by the VCCIO supply. If the JTAG interface is not
required on the board, the JTAG circuitry is disabled by connecting this pin to VCC.
Test data output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data shifts out on
the falling edge of TCK. The pin is tri-stated if data is not being shifted out of the device. The
TDO pin is powered by VCCIO in I/O bank 1. If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the
JTAG circuitry is disabled by leaving this pin unconnected.
TMS
Test mode select
Input pin that provides the control signal to determine the transitions of the TAP controller state
machine. Transitions in the state machine occur on the rising edge of TCK. Therefore, TMS must
be set up before the rising edge of TCK. TMS is evaluated on the rising edge of TCK. The TMS pin
is powered by the VCCIO supply. If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG
circuitry is disabled by connecting this pin to VCC.
TCK
Test clock input
Clock input to the BST circuitry. Some operations occur at the rising edge while others occur at
the falling edge. The TCK pin is powered by the VCCIO supply. If the JTAG interface is not
required on the board, the JTAG circuitry is disabled by connecting this pin to GND.
TDI
TDO
You can download data to the device on the PCB through the USB-Blaster,
MasterBlaster, ByteBlaster II, ByteBlasterMV download cable, and Ethernet-Blaster
communications cable during JTAG configuration. Configuring devices using a cable
is similar to programming devices in-system. Figure 9–24 and Figure 9–25 show the
JTAG configuration of a single Cyclone III device family.
For device VCCIO of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.3 V, refer to Figure 9–24. All I/O inputs must
maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. Because JTAG pins do not have the internal
PCI clamping diodes to prevent voltage overshoot when using VCCIO of 2.5, 3.0, and
3.3 V, you must power up the VCC of the download cable with a 2.5-V supply from
VCCA, and you must pull TCK to ground.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–50
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
For device VCCIO of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 V, refer to Figure 9–25. You can power up the VCC
of the download cabled with the supply from VCCIO.
Figure 9–24. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable (2.5, 3.0, and 3.3-V
VCCIO Powering the JTAG Pins)
VCCA
(1)
VCCIO (2)
VCCIO (2)
VCCA
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
GND
N.C. (4)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
Cyclone III Device Family
nCE (3)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0]
DATA[0]
DCLK
(1)
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
TMS
TDI
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
GND
VIO (7)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 9–24:
(1) The resistor value can vary from 1 k to 10 k. Perform signal integrity analysis to select the resistor value for your
setup.
(2) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(3) The nCE pin must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(4) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(5) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[3..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG
configuration, connect the nCONFIG pin to logic high and the MSEL[3..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK and
DATA[0] either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(6) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, ByteBlasterMV, or Ethernet Blaster cable with a 2.5- V supply
from VCCA. Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the
MasterBlaster cable. The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power
supply, or 5.0 V from the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User
Guide.
(7) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the device's VCCA.
For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. In USB-Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, ByteBlasterMV, and Ethernet Blaster, this pin is a no connect.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–51
Figure 9–25. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable (1.5-V or 1.8-V VCCIO
Powering the JTAG Pins)
VCCIO
(1)
VCCIO (2)
VCCIO (2)
VCCIO
10 kΩ
Cyclone III Device Family
10 kΩ
nCE (3)
GND
N.C. (4)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(1)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0]
DATA[0]
DCLK
TMS
TDI
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header (Top View)
Pin 1
VCCIO (6)
GND
VIO (7)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 9–25:
(1) The resistor value can vary from 1 k to 10 k. Perform signal integrity analysis to select the resistor value for your
setup.
(2) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(3) The nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(4) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(5) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[3..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG
configuration, connect the nCONFIG pin to logic-high and the MSEL[3..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK and
DATA[0] either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(6) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or Ethernet Blaster cable with supply from VCCIO. The
ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, and Ethernet Blaster cables do not support a target supply voltage of 1.2 V. For the target
supply voltage value, refer to the ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide, USB-Blaster Download Cable User Guide
and Ethernet Blaster Communications Cable User Guide.
(7) In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming;
otherwise it is a no connect.
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software places all
other devices in bypass mode. In bypass mode, devices pass programming data from
the TDI pin to the TDO pin through a single bypass register without being affected
internally. This scheme enables the programming software to program or verify the
target device. Configuration data driven into the device appears on the TDO pin one
clock cycle later.
The Quartus II software verifies successful JTAG configuration upon completion. At
the end of configuration, the software checks the state of CONF_DONE through the JTAG
port. When the Quartus II software generates a .jam for a multi-device chain, it
contains instructions to have all devices in the chain initialize at the same time. If
CONF_DONE is not high, the Quartus II software indicates that configuration has failed.
If CONF_DONE is high, the software indicates that configuration was successful. After
the configuration bitstream is serially sent using the JTAG TDI port, the TCK port
clocks an additional clock cycle to perform device initialization.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–52
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Cyclone III device family has dedicated JTAG pins that function as JTAG pins. You
can perform JTAG testing on Cyclone III device family before, during, and after
configuration. Cyclone III device family supports the BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE
instructions during configuration without interrupting configuration. All other JTAG
instructions can only be issued by first interrupting configuration and
reprogramming I/O pins using the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE and CONFIG_IO instructions.
The CONFIG_IO instruction allows I/O buffers to be configured using the JTAG port
and when issued after the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction interrupts configuration.
This instruction allows you to perform board-level testing prior to configuring the
Cyclone III device family or waiting for a configuration device to complete
configuration. Prior to issuing the CONFIG_IO instruction, you must issue the
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction. This is because in Cyclone III device family, the
CONFIG_IO instruction does not hold nSTATUS low until reconfiguration, so you must
disengage the active configuration mode controller when active configuration is
interrupted. The ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction places the active configuration mode
controllers in an idle state prior to JTAG programming. Additionally, the
ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction allows you to re-engage a disengaged active configuration
mode controller.
1
You must follow a specific flow when executing the CONFIG_IO, ACTIVE_DISENGAGE,
and ACTIVE_ENGAGE JTAG instructions in Cyclone III device family. For more
information about the instruction flow, refer to “JTAG Instructions” on page 9–60.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins on
Cyclone III device family do not affect JTAG boundary-scan or programming
operations. Toggling these pins does not affect JTAG operations (other than the usual
boundary-scan operation).
When designing a board for JTAG configuration, consider the dedicated configuration
pins. Table 9–16 lists how these pins must be connected during JTAG configuration.
Table 9–16. Dedicated Configuration Pin Connections During JTAG Configuration
Signal
Description
nCE
On all Cyclone III device family in the chain, nCE must be driven low by connecting it to ground, pulling it
low using a resistor or driving it by some control circuitry. For devices that are also in multi-device AS, AP,
PS, or FPP configuration chains, the nCE pins must be connected to GND during JTAG configuration or
JTAG configured in the same order as the configuration chain.
nCEO
On all Cyclone III device family in the chain, nCEO is left floating or connected to the nCE of the next
device.
MSEL[3..0]
These pins must not be left floating. These pins support whichever non-JTAG configuration that is used in
production. If you only use JTAG configuration, tie these pins to GND.
nCONFIG
Driven high by connecting to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides and pulling up using a
resistor or driven high by some control circuitry.
nSTATUS
Pull to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides using a 10-k resistor. When configuring
multiple devices in the same JTAG chain, each nSTATUS pin must be pulled up to the VCCIO individually.
CONF_DONE
Pull to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides using a 10-k resistor. When configuring
multiple devices in the same JTAG chain, each CONF_DONE pin must be pulled up to the VCCIO supply of
the bank in which the pin resides individually. CONF_DONE going high at the end of JTAG configuration
indicates successful configuration.
DCLK
Must not be left floating. Drive low or high, whichever is more convenient on your board.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–53
When programming a JTAG device chain, one JTAG-compatible header is connected
to several devices. The number of devices in the JTAG chain is limited only by the
drive capability of the download cable. When four or more devices are connected in a
JTAG chain, Altera recommends buffering the TCK, TDI, and TMS pins with an on-board
buffer.
JTAG-chain device programming is ideal when the system contains multiple devices,
or when testing your system using JTAG BST circuitry. Figure 9–26 and Figure 9–27
show a multi-device JTAG configuration.
For the device VCCIO of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.3 V, refer to Figure 9–26. All I/O inputs must
maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. Because JTAG pins do not have the internal
PCI clamping diodes to prevent voltage overshoot when using VCCIO of 2.5, 3.0, and
3.3 V, you must power up the VCC of the download cable with a 2.5-V supply from
VCCA.
For device VCCIO of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 V, refer to Figure 9–27. You can power up the VCC
of the download cable with the supply from VCCIO.
Figure 9–26. JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable (2.5, 3.0, and 3.3-V VCCIO Powering the
JTAG Pins)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
VCCA
VCCIO (1)
(6)
Pin 1
VCCA (5) VCCA
(6)
VIO
(3)
VCCIO (1)
Cyclone III Device
10 kΩ
Family
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0] CONF_DONE
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO(1)
Cyclone III Device
10 kΩ
Family
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0] CONF_DONE
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
Cyclone III Device
10 kΩ
Family
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0] CONF_DONE
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
1 kΩ
Notes to Figure 9–26:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[3..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG configuration, connect the
nCONFIG pin to logic high and the MSEL[3..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0] either high or low, whichever is convenient
on your board.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the device. For this value, refer to the
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. In the ByteBlasterMV cable, this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and
ByteBlaster II cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) The nCE pin must be connected to ground or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5- V supply from VCCA. Third-party programmers must switch
to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable. The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V
circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications User Guide.
(6) The resistor value can vary from 1 k to 10 k. Perform signal integrity analysis to select the resistor value for your setup.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–54
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Figure 9–27. JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable (1.2, 1.5, and 1.8-V VCCIO Powering the
JTAG Pins)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
VCCIO (1)
Pin 1
VCCIO (5)
VCCIO (1)
(6)
VCCIO (1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(6)
VIO
(3)
VCCIO (1)
Cyclone III
10 kΩ Device Family
TDO
TCK
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0] CONF_DONE
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
VCCIO (1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Cyclone III
Device Family
VCCIO(1)
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0] CONF_DONE
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
VCCIO (1)
Cyclone III
Device Family
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[3..0] CONF_DONE
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
1 kΩ
Notes to Figure 9–27:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[3..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG configuration, connect the
nCONFIG pin to logic high and the MSEL[3..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0] either high or low, whichever is convenient
on your board.
(3) In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II cable, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) The nCE pin must be connected to ground or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II or USB-Blaster cable with supply from VCCIO. The ByteBlaster II and USB-Blaster cables do not support a
target supply voltage of 1.2 V. For the target supply voltage value, refer to the ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide and the USB-Blaster
Download Cable User Guide.
(6) The resistor value can vary from 1 k to 10 k. Perform signal integrity analysis to select the resistor value for your setup.
1
All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. If a non-Cyclone III
device family is cascaded in the JTAG-chain, TDO of the non-Cyclone III device family
driving into TDI of the Cyclone III device family must fit the maximum overshoot
equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
The nCE pin must be connected to GND or driven low during JTAG configuration. In
multi-device AS, AP, PS, and FPP configuration chains, the nCE pin of the first device
is connected to GND while its nCEO pin is connected to the nCE pin of the next device
in the chain. The inputs of the nCE pin of the last device come from the previous device
while its nCEO pin is left floating. In addition, the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS signals are
shared in multi-device AS, AP, PS, and FPP configuration chains to ensure that the
devices enter user mode at the same time after configuration is complete. When the
CONF_DONE and nSTATUS signals are shared among all the devices, every device must
be configured when you perform JTAG configuration.
If you only use JTAG configuration, Altera recommends that you connect the circuitry
as shown in Figure 9–26 or Figure 9–27, in which each of the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS
signals are isolated so that each device can enter user mode individually.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–55
After the first device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration chain,
its nCEO pin drives low to activate the nCE pin of the second device, which prompts the
second device to begin configuration. Therefore, if these devices are also in a JTAG
chain, ensure that the nCE pins are connected to GND during JTAG configuration or
that the devices are JTAG configured in the same order as the configuration chain. As
long as the devices are JTAG configured in the same order as the multi-device
configuration chain, the nCEO pin of the previous device drives the nCE pin of the next
device low when it has successfully been JTAG configured. You can place other Altera
devices that have JTAG support in the same JTAG chain for device programming and
configuration.
1
JTAG configuration allows an unlimited number of Cyclone III device family to be
cascaded in a JTAG chain.
f For more information about configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, refer to the Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains chapter in
volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook.
Figure 9–28 shows JTAG configuration of a Cyclone III device family with a
microprocessor.
Figure 9–28. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Microprocessor
Cyclone III Device Family
Memory
nCE(3)
ADDR
Microprocessor
DATA
N.C.
nCEO MSEL[3..0]
(2)
(2)
(2)
nCONFIG
DATA[0]
DCLK
TDI (4)
TCK (4)
TDO
TMS (4) nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
(2)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Notes to Figure 9–28:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[3..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG
configuration, connect the nCONFIG pin to logic high and the MSEL[3..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK and
DATA[0] either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(3) The nCE pin must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. Signals driving into TDI, TMS, and TCK must fit the
maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 9–7.
Configuring Cyclone III Device Family with Jam STAPL
Jam STAPL, JEDEC standard JESD-71, is a standard file format for in-system
programmability (ISP) purposes. Jam STAPL supports programming or configuration
of programmable devices and testing of electronic systems, using the IEEE 1149.1
JTAG interface. Jam STAPL is a freely licensed open standard. The Jam Player
provides an interface for manipulating the IEEE Std. 1149.1 JTAG TAP state machine.
f For more information about JTAG and Jam STAPL in embedded environments, refer
to AN 425: Using Command-Line Jam STAPL Solution for Device Programming. To
download the jam player, visit the Altera website (www.altera.com).
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–56
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Configuring Cyclone III Device Family with the JRunner Software Driver
The JRunner software driver allows you to configure Cyclone III device family
through the ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV cables in JTAG mode. The supported
programming input file is in .rbf format. The JRunner software driver also requires a
Chain Description File (.cdf) generated by the Quartus II software. The JRunner
software driver is targeted for embedded JTAG configuration. The source code is
developed for the Windows NT operating system (OS). You can customize the code to
make it run on your embedded platform.
1
The .rbf used by the JRunner software driver cannot be a compressed .rbf because the
JRunner software driver uses JTAG-based configuration. During JTAG-based
configuration, the real-time decompression feature is not available.
f For more information about the JRunner software driver, refer to AN 414: JRunner
Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG Configuration and the source files
on the Altera website at (www.altera.com).
Combining JTAG and AS Configuration Schemes
You can combine the AS configuration scheme with the JTAG-based configuration
(Figure 9–29). This setup uses two 10-pin download cable headers on the board. One
download cable is used in JTAG mode to configure the Cyclone III device family
directly using the JTAG interface. The other download cable is used in AS mode to
program the serial configuration device in-system using the AS programming
interface. The MSEL[3..0] pins must be set to select AS configuration mode (Table 9–7
on page 9–11). If you try configuring the device using both schemes simultaneously,
the JTAG configuration takes precedence and the AS configuration terminates.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–57
Figure 9–29. Combining JTAG and AS Configuration Schemes
VCCIO (1) VCCIO(1) VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone III Device Family
VCCA
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE nCEO N.C.
(8)
nCONFIG
nCE
V
Serial 10kΩ
Configuration
Device
GND
Pin 1
CCA
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
MSEL [3..0]
(4)
(8)
(7)
DATA
DATA[0]
TCK
DCLK
DCLK
TDO
nCS
nCSO (5)
TMS
ASDI
ASDO (5)
TDI
Download Cable
(JTAG Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
(top view)
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
VIO (3)
3.3 V (2)
1 kΩ
10 pf
GND
10 pf
10 pf
Download Cable
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
GND
10 pf
(7)
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 9–29:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or Ethernet Blaster cable with the 3.3-V supply.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. In ByteBlasterMV,
this pin is a no connect. In USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS
programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0]for
AS configuration schemes, refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. This nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions
as the DATA[1] pin in other AP and FPP modes.
(6) Power up VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, ByteBlasterMV, or Ethernet Blaster cable with a 2.5- V supply from
VCCA. Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster
cable. The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V
from the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
(7) You must place the diodes and capacitors as close as possible to the Cyclone III device family. For effective voltage
clamping, Altera recommends using the Schottky diode, which has a relatively lower forward diode voltage (VF) than
the switching and Zener diodes. For more information about the interface guidelines using Schottky diodes, refer to
AN 523: Cyclone III Configuration Interface Guidelines with EPCS Devices.
(8) The resistor value can vary from 1 k to 10 k. Perform signal integrity analysis to select the resistor value for your
setup.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–58
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System Using the JTAG
Interface
Cyclone III device family in a single-device or in a multiple-device chain supports
in-system programming of a serial configuration device with the JTAG interface using
the SFL design. The intelligent host or download cable of the board can use the four
JTAG pins on the Cyclone III device family to program the serial configuration device
in system, even if the host or download cable cannot access the configuration pins
(DCLK, DATA, ASDI, and nCS pins).
The SFL design is a JTAG-based in-system programming solution for Altera serial
configuration devices. The SFL is a bridge design for the Cyclone III device family
that uses its JTAG interface to access the EPCS JTAG Indirect Configuration Device
Programming (.jic) file and then uses the AS interface to program the EPCS device.
Both the JTAG interface and AS interface are bridged together inside the SFL design.
In a multiple device chain, you must only configure the master device that controls
the serial configuration device. When using this feature, the slave devices in the
multiple device chain which are configured by the serial configuration device do not
need to be configured. To use this feature successfully, set the MSEL[3..0]pins of the
master device to select the AS configuration scheme (Table 9–7 on page 9–11). The
serial configuration device in-system programming through the Cyclone III device
family JTAG interface has three stages, which are described in the following sections:
■
“Loading the SFL Design” on page 9–58
■
“ISP of the Configuration Device” on page 9–59
■
“Reconfiguration” on page 9–60
Loading the SFL Design
The SFL design is a design inside the Cyclone III device family that bridges the JTAG
interface and the AS interface with glue logic.
The intelligent host uses the JTAG interface to configure the master device with a SFL
design. The SFL design allows the master device to control the access of four serial
configuration device pins, also known as the Active Serial Memory Interface (ASMI)
pins, through the JTAG interface. The ASMI pins are serial clock input (DCLK), serial
data output (DATA), AS data input (ASDI), and active-low chip select (nCS) pins.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–59
If you configure a master device with a SFL design, the master device enters user
mode even though the slave devices in the multiple device chain are not being
configured. The master device enters user mode with a SFL design even though the
CONF_DONE signal is externally held low by the other slave devices in chain.
Figure 9–30 shows the JTAG configuration of a single Cyclone III device family with a
SFL design.
Figure 9–30. Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System Using the JTAG Interface
VCCA
(9)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCA
10 kΩ
Cyclone III Device Family
Serial Configuration
VCCIO (1)
Device
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
25 Ω (7)
nCE (4)
GND
N.C. (5)
(2)
(9)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
TMS
nSTATUS
TDI
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
Serial
MSEL[3..0]
Flash
DATA[0]
Loader
DCLK
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
nCSO (8)
ASDO (8)
GND
VIO (3)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 9–30:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0]for
AS configuration schemes, refer to Table 9–7 on page 9–11. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. In ByteBlasterMV,
this pin is a no connect. In USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, and Ethernet Blaster, this pin is connected to nCE when it is
used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) The nCE pin must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(6) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, ByteBlasterMV, or Ethernet Blaster cable with a 2.5-V supply from
VCCA. Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster
cable. The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V
from the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
(7) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(8) These are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions
as the DATA[1] pin in other AP and FPP modes.
(9) The resistor value can vary from 1 k to 10 k. Perform signal integrity analysis to select the resistor value for your
setup.
ISP of the Configuration Device
In the second stage, the SFL design in the master device allows you to write the
configuration data for the device chain into the serial configuration device with the
Cyclone III device family JTAG interface. The JTAG interface sends the programming
data for the serial configuration device to the Cyclone III device family first. The
Cyclone III device family then uses the ASMI pins to send the data to the serial
configuration device.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–60
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Reconfiguration
After the configuration data is successfully written into the serial configuration
device, the Cyclone III device family does not reconfigure by itself. The intelligent
host issues the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction to initialize the reconfiguration
process. During reconfiguration, the master device is reset and the SFL design no
longer exists in the Cyclone III device family and the serial configuration device
configures all the devices in the chain with your user design.
f For more information about SFL, refer to AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader with
Quartus II Software.
JTAG Instructions
This section describes the instructions that are necessary for JTAG configuration for
the Cyclone III device family. Table 9–17 lists the supported JTAG instructions.
Table 9–17. JTAG Instructions
JTAG Instruction
Cyclone III Device
Cyclone III LS Device
CONFIG_IO
v
v
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
v
v
ACTIVE_ENGAGE
v
v
EN_ACTIVE_CLK
v
—
DIS_ACTIVE_CLK
v
—
APFC_BOOT_ADDR
v
—
—
v
KEY_PROG_VOL
(2)
—
v
KEY_CLR_VREG
(2)
—
v
FACTORY
(1)
Notes to Table 9–17:
(1) In Cyclone III LS devices, the CONFIG_IO, ACTIVE_DISENGAGE, PULSE_NCONFIG, and PROGRAM instructions are
supported, provided that the FACTORY instruction is executed. It is not necessary to execute the FACTORY
instruction prior to the JTAG configuration in Cyclone III devices because this instruction is used for Cyclone III LS
devices only.
(2) Use the KEY_PROG_VOL and KEY_CLR_VREG instructions for the design security feature. For more information,
refer to “Design Security” on page 9–70.
f For more information about the JTAG binary instruction code, refer to the IEEE 1149.1
(JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone III Devices chapter.
For Cyclone III LS devices, the device can only allow mandatory JTAG 1149.1
instructions after POR. These instructions are BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, EXTEST and
FACTORY. To enable the access of other JTAG instructions, issue the FACTORY instruction.
The FACTORY instruction puts the device in a state in which it is ready for in-house
testing and board-level testing and it must be executed before configuration starts.
When this instruction is executed, the CRAM bits content and volatile key are cleared
and the device is reset.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–61
I/O Reconfiguration
Use the CONFIG_IO instruction to reconfigure the I/O configuration shift register
(IOCSR) chain. This instruction allows you to perform board-level testing prior to
configuring the Cyclone III device family or waiting for a configuration device to
complete configuration. After the configuration is interrupted and JTAG testing is
complete, the part must be reconfigured using the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction
or by pulsing the nCONFIG pin low.
You can issue the CONFIG_IO instruction any time during user mode. The CONFIG_IO
instruction cannot be issued when nCONFIG pin is asserted low (during power up) or
immediately after issuing a JTAG instruction that triggers reconfiguration. For more
information about the wait-time for issuing the CONFIG_IO instruction, refer to
Table 9–18.
When using CONFIG_IO instruction, you must meet the following timing restrictions:
■
CONFIG_IO instruction cannot be issued during the nCONFIG pin low
■
Observe 230 s minimum wait time after any of the following conditions are met:
■
■
nCONFIG pin goes high
■
Issuing the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction
■
Issuing the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction, before issuing the CONFIG_IO instruction
Wait 230 s after power up with nCONFIG pin high before issuing the CONFIG_IO
instruction (or wait for the nSTATUS pin to go high)
Table 9–18. Wait Time for Issuing the CONFIG_IO Instruction
Wait Time
Time
Wait time after the nCONFIG pin is released
230 s
Wait time after PULSE_NCONFIG or ACTIVE_ENGAGE is
issued
230 s
Use the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction with CONFIG_IO instruction to interrupt
configuration. Table 9–19 lists the sequence of instructions to use for various
CONFIG_IO usage scenarios.
Table 9–19. JTAG CONFIG_IO (without JTAG_PROGRAM) Instruction Flows
(1)
(Part 1 of 2)
Configuration Scheme and Current State of the Cyclone III Device Family
Prior to User Mode
(Interrupting
Configuration)
JTAG Instruction
AP
FPP
AS
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
R
R
R
NA
O
O
O
O
O
O
—
—
—
—
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
NA
NA
NA
NA
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
—
—
—
—
AS
FACTORY
NA
NA
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
O
O
CONFIG_IO
R
JTAG Boundary Scan Instructions (no
JTAG_PROGRAM)
O
(4)
PS
FPP AS
AP
PS
FPP
Altera Corporation
AP
Power Up
(4)
PS
August 2012
User Mode
(4)
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–62
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
(1)
Table 9–19. JTAG CONFIG_IO (without JTAG_PROGRAM) Instruction Flows
(Part 2 of 2)
Configuration Scheme and Current State of the Cyclone III Device Family
Prior to User Mode
(Interrupting
Configuration)
JTAG Instruction
PS
FPP
ACTIVE_ENGAGE
A
PULSE_NCONFIG
AS
R
AP
(4)
R
(2)
R
(2)
A
(3)
A
(3)
A
(3)
A
(3)
A
Pulse nCONFIG pin
JTAG TAP Reset
User Mode
R
R
R
PS
FPP
AS
R
A
R
A
R
(2)
Power Up
AP
(4)
R
(2)
PS
FPP AS
AP
(4)
—
—
—
—
O
O
—
—
—
—
O
O
—
—
—
—
R
R
—
—
—
—
Notes to Table 9–19:
(1) “R” indicates that the instruction is to be executed before the next instruction, “O” indicates the optional instruction, “A” indicates that the
instruction must be executed, and “NA” indicates that the instruction is not allowed in this mode.
(2) Required if you use ACTIVE_DISENGAGE.
(3) Neither of the instruction is required if you use ACTIVE_ENGAGE.
(4) AP configuration is for Cyclone III devices only.
The CONFIG_IO instruction does not hold the nSTATUS pin low until reconfiguration.
You must disengage the active configuration controllers (AS and AP) by issuing the
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE and ACTIVE_ENGAGE instructions when the active configuration is
interrupted. You must issue the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction alone or prior to the
CONFIG_IO instruction if the JTAG_PROGRAM instruction is to be issued later (Table 9–20).
This puts the active configuration controllers into the idle state. The active
configuration controller is re-engaged after user mode is reached using JTAG
programming (Table 9–20).
1
While executing the CONFIG_IO instruction, all user I/Os are tri-stated.
If reconfiguration after interruption is performed using configuration modes (rather
than using JTAG_PROGRAM), it is not necessary to issue the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
instruction prior to CONFIG_IO. You can start reconfiguration by either pulling the
nCONFIG pin low for at least 500 ns, or issuing the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction. If the
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction was issued and the JTAG_PROGRAM instruction fails to
enter user mode, you must issue the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction to reactivate the active
configuration controller. Issuing the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction also triggers the
reconfiguration in configuration modes; therefore, it is not necessary to pull the
nCONFIG pin low or issue the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction.
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
The ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction places the active configuration controller (AS and
AP) into an idle state prior to JTAG programming. The active configuration controller
is the AS controller when the MSEL pins are set to AS configuration scheme and the
AP controller when the MSEL pins are set to the AP configuration scheme. The two
purposes of placing the active controllers in an idle state are:
■
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
To ensure that they are not trying to configure the device in their respective
configuration modes during JTAG programming
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
■
9–63
To allow the controllers to properly recognize a successful JTAG programming
that results in the device reaching user mode
The ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction is required before JTAG programming regardless
of the current state of the Cyclone III device family if the MSEL pins are set to an
active configuration scheme (AS or AP). If the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction is issued
during a passive configuration scheme (PS or FPP), it has no effect on the Cyclone III
device family. Similarly, the CONFIG_IO instruction is issued after an
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction, but is no longer required to properly halt
configuration. Table 9–20 lists the required, recommended, and optional instructions
for each configuration mode. The ordering of the required instructions is a hard
requirement and must be met to ensure functionality.
Table 9–20. JTAG Programming Instruction Flows
(1)
Configuration Scheme and Current State of the Cyclone III Device
Prior to User Mode
(Interrupting
Configuration)
JTAG Instruction
User Mode
AP
(2)
PS
FPP
AS
NA
NA
NA
NA
O
R
R
O
Rc
Rc
O
O
Other JTAG instructions
O
O
O
JTAG_PROGRAM
R
R
CHECK_STATUS
Rc
Rc
Power Up
AP
AP
(2)
PS
FPP
AS
NA
NA
R
R
R
NA
O
O
R
O
O
R
R
O
O
O
O
NA
NA
NA
NA
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
PS
FPP
AS
FACTORY
NA
NA
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
O
CONFIG_IO
(2)
JTAG_STARTUP
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
JTAG TAP Reset/ other instruction
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Notes to Table 9–20:
(1) “R” indicates that the instruction is required to be executed before the next instruction, “O” indicates the optional instruction, “Rc” indicates
the recommended instruction, and “NA” indicates that the instruction is not allowed to be executed in this mode.
(2) AP configuration is for Cyclone III devices only.
In AS or AP configuration schemes, the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction puts the active
configuration controllers into idle state. If a successful JTAG programming is
executed, the active controllers are automatically re-engaged after user mode is
reached using JTAG programming. This causes the active controllers to transition to
their respective user mode states.
If JTAG programming fails to get the Cyclone III device family to enter user mode and
re-engage active programming, there are available methods to achieve this for the AS
or AP configuration schemes:
August 2012
■
When in the AS configuration scheme, you can re-engage the AS controller by
moving the JTAG TAP controller to the reset state or by issuing the ACTIVE_ENGAGE
instruction.
■
When in the AP configuration scheme, the only way to re-engage the AP controller
is to issue the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction. In this case, asserting the nCONFIG pin
does not re-engage either active controller.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–64
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
ACTIVE_ENGAGE
The ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction allows you to re-engage a disengaged active controller.
You can issue this instruction any time during configuration or user mode to reengage an already disengaged active controller as well as trigger reconfiguration of
the Cyclone III device family in the active configuration scheme specified by the
MSEL pin settings.
The ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction functions as the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction when the
device is in passive configuration schemes (PS or FPP). The nCONFIG pin is disabled
when the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction is issued.
1
Altera does not recommend using the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction but it is provided as
a fail-safe instruction for re-engaging the active configuration (AS or AP) controllers.
Changing the Start Boot Address of the AP Flash
In the AP configuration scheme, for Cyclone III devices only, you can change the
default configuration boot address of the parallel flash memory to any desired
address using the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction.
APFC_BOOT_ADDR
The APFC_BOOT_ADDR instruction is for Cyclone III devices only and allows you to
define a start boot address for the parallel flash memory in the AP configuration
scheme.
This instruction shifts in a start boot address for the AP flash. When this instruction
becomes the active instruction, the TDI and TDO pins are connected through a 22-bit
active boot address shift register. The shifted-in boot address bits get loaded into the
22-bit AP boot address update register, which feeds into the AP controller. The content
of the AP boot address update register can be captured and shifted-out of the active
boot address shift register from TDO.
The boot address in the boot address shift register and update register are shifted to
the right (in the LSB direction) by two bits versus the intended boot address. The
reason for this is that the two LSB of the address are not accessible. When this boot
address is fed into the AP controller, two 0s are attached in the end as LSB, thereby
pushing the shifted-in boot address to the left by two bits, which become the actual
AP boot address the AP controller gets.
If you have enabled the remote update feature, the APFC_BOOT_ADDR instruction sets
the boot address for the factory configuration only.
1
The APFC_BOOT_ADDR instruction is retained after reconfiguration while the system
board is still powered on. However, you must reprogram the instruction whenever
you restart the system board.
Device Configuration Pins
Table 9–21 through Table 9–23 describe the connections and functionality of all the
configuration-related pins on Cyclone III device family.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–65
Table 9–21 lists the Cyclone III device family pin configuration.
Table 9–21. Cyclone III Device Family Configuration Pin Summary
Bank
Description
Input/Output
Dedicated
Powered By
VCCIO
1
FLASH_nCE, nCSO
Output
—
6
CRC_ERROR
Output
—
1
DATA[0]
Input
Bidirectional
Yes
Input
1
DATA[1], ASDO
8
DATA[7..2]
8
DATA[15..8]
6
INIT_DONE
1
nSTATUS
1
nCE
1
DCLK
6
CONF_DONE
1
Output
—
VCCIO/Pull-up
VCCIO
VCCIO
Output
PS, FPP, AS
AP
(2)
AS
VCCIO
(2)
Optional, all modes
VCCIO
Input
Bidirectional
(1)
FPP
VCCIO
—
AS, AP
VCCIO
Bidirectional
Bidirectional
Configuration Mode
AP
(2)
FPP
VCCIO
AP
(2)
VCCIO
AP
(2)
—
Pull-up
Optional, all modes
Bidirectional
Yes
Pull-up
All modes
Input
Yes
VCCIO
All modes
VCCIO
PS, FPP
Input
Output
Yes
VCCIO
AS, AP
(2)
Bidirectional
Yes
Pull-up
All modes
TDI
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
1
TMS
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
1
TCK
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
1
nCONFIG
Input
Yes
VCCIO
All modes
6
CLKUSR
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional
6
nCEO
Output
—
VCCIO
Optional, all modes
6
MSEL[3..0]
Input
Yes
VCCINT
All modes
1
TDO
Output
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
7
PADD[14..0]
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
8
PADD[19..15]
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
6
PADD[23..20]
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
1
nRESET
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
6
nAVD
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
6
nOE
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
6
nWE
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
(2)
5
DEV_OE
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional, AP
(2)
5
DEV_CLRn
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional, AP
(2)
Notes to Table 9–21:
(1) In Cyclone III devices, the CRC_ERROR pin is a dedicated output by default. Optionally, you can enable the CRC_ERROR pin as an open-drain output
in the CRC Error Detection tab from the Device and Pin Options dialog box.
(2) AP configuration is for Cyclone III devices only.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–66
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Table 9–22 lists the dedicated configuration pins that must be connected properly on
your board for successful configuration. Some of these pins may not be required for
your configuration scheme.
Table 9–22. Dedicated Configuration Pins on Cyclone III Device Family (Part 1 of 4)
Pin Name
MSEL [3..0]
User
Mode
N/A
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Description
Input
4-bit configuration input that sets the Cyclone III device
family configuration scheme. These pins must be hardwired
to VCCA or GND. The MSEL[3..0] pins have internal 9-k
pull-down resistors that are always active.
Some of the smaller devices or package options of
Cyclone III devices do not have the MSEL[3] pin; therefore,
the AP configuration scheme is not supported.
nCONFIG
N/A
All
Input
Configuration control input. Pulling this pin low with external
circuitry during user mode causes the Cyclone III device
family to lose its configuration data, enter a reset state, and
tri-state all I/O pins. Returning this pin to a logic-high level
starts a reconfiguration.
The Cyclone III device family drives nSTATUS low
immediately after power-up and releases it after the POR
time.
nSTATUS
N/A
All
■
Status output. If an error occurs during configuration,
nSTATUS is pulled low by the target device.
■
Status input. If an external source (for example, another
Cyclone III device family) drives the nSTATUS pin low
during configuration or initialization, the target device
enters an error state.
Bidirectional
open-drain
Driving nSTATUS low after configuration and initialization
does not affect the configured device. If you use a
configuration device, driving nSTATUS low causes the
configuration device to attempt to configure the device, but
because the device ignores transitions on nSTATUS in user
mode, the device does not reconfigure. To start a
reconfiguration, nCONFIG must be pulled low.
CONF_DONE
N/A
All
Bidirectional
open-drain
■
Status output. The target Cyclone III device family drives
the CONF_DONE pin low before and during configuration.
After all configuration data is received without error and
the initialization cycle starts, the target device releases
CONF_DONE.
■
Status input. After all data is received and CONF_DONE
goes high, the target device initializes and enters user
mode. The CONF_DONE pin must have an external 10-k
pull-up resistor in order for the device to initialize.
Driving CONF_DONE low after configuration and initialization
does not affect the configured device. Do not connect bus
holds or ADC to the CONF_DONE pin.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–67
Table 9–22. Dedicated Configuration Pins on Cyclone III Device Family (Part 2 of 4)
Pin Name
User
Mode
N/A
nCE
N/A if
option is
on. I/O if
option is
off.
nCEO
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Description
Input
Active-low chip enable. The nCE pin activates the Cyclone III
device family with a low signal to allow configuration. The
nCE pin must be held low during configuration, initialization,
and user-mode. In a single-device configuration, it must be
tied low. In a multi-device configuration, nCE of the first
device is tied low while its nCEO pin is connected to the nCE
pin of the next device in the chain. The nCE pin must also be
held low for successful JTAG programming of the device.
Output open
drain
All
Output that drives low when configuration is complete. In a
single-device configuration, you can leave this pin floating or
use it as a user I/O pin after configuration. In a multi-device
configuration, this pin feeds the nCE pin of the next device.
The nCEO of the last device in the chain is left floating or is
used as a user I/O pin after configuration.
If you use the nCEO pin to feed the nCE pin of the next device,
use an external 10-k pull-up resistor to pull the nCEO pin
high to the VCCIO voltage of its I/O bank to help the internal
weak pull-up resistor.
If you use the nCEO pin as a user I/O pin after configuration,
set the state of the pin on the Dual-Purpose Pin settings.
FLASH_nCE,
nCSO
(1), (2)
Output control signal from the Cyclone III device family to the
serial configuration device in AS mode that enables the
configuration device. This pin functions as the nCSO pin in AS
mode and the FLASH_NCE pin in AP mode.
I/O
AS, AP
(3)
Output
Output control signal from the Cyclone III device to the
parallel flash in AP mode that enables the flash. Connects to
the CE# pin on the Micron P30 or P33 flash. (3)
This pin has an internal pull-up resistor that is always active.
In PS and FPP configuration, DCLK is the clock input used to
clock data from an external source into the target Cyclone III
device family. Data is latched into the device on the rising
edge of DCLK.
In AS mode, DCLK is an output from the Cyclone III device
family that provides timing for the configuration interface, it
has an internal pull-up resistor (typically 25 k) that is
always active.
DCLK
(1), (2)
August 2012
N/A
Altera Corporation
PS, FPP, AS,
AP (3)
Input (PS,
FPP). Output In AP mode, DCLK is an output from the Cyclone III device
(3)
(AS, AP (3)) that provides timing for the configuration interface.
In active configuration schemes (AS or AP), this pin will be
driven into an inactive state after configuration completes.
Alternatively, in active schemes, you can use this pin as a
user I/O during user mode. In passive schemes (PS or FPP)
that use a control host, DCLK must be driven either high or
low, whichever is more convenient. In passive schemes, you
cannot use DCLK as a user I/O in user mode. Toggling this pin
after configuration does not affect the configured device
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–68
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
Table 9–22. Dedicated Configuration Pins on Cyclone III Device Family (Part 3 of 4)
Pin Name
User
Mode
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
Data input. In serial configuration modes, bit-wide
configuration data is presented to the target Cyclone III
device family on the DATA[0] pin.
DATA[0]
(1), (2)
I/O
PS, FPP, AS,
AP (3)
In AS mode, DATA[0] has an internal pull-up resistor that is
Input (PS, always active. After AS configuration, DATA[0] is a dedicated
FPP, AS).
input pin with optional user control.
Bidirectional
After PS or FPP configuration, DATA[0] is available as a user
(AP) (3)
I/O pin and the state of this pin depends on the Dual-Purpose
Pin settings.
After AP configuration, DATA[0] is a dedicated bidirectional
pin with optional user control. (3)
Data input in non-AS mode. Control signal from the
Cyclone III device family to the serial configuration device in
AS mode used to read out configuration data. The DATA[1]
pin functions as the ASDO pin in AS mode.
In AS mode, DATA[1] has an internal pull-up resistor that is
always active. After AS configuration, DATA[1] is a dedicated
output pin with optional user control.
DATA[1],
ASDO (1), (2)
I/O
FPP, AS, AP
(3)
Input (FPP),
In PS configuration scheme, DATA[1] functions as user I/O
Output (AS).
pin during configuration, which means it is tri-stated.
Bidirectional
After FPP configuration, DATA[1] is available as a user I/O
(AP) (3)
pin and the state of this pin depends on the Dual-Purpose
Pin settings.
In AP configuration scheme, which is for Cyclone III devices
only, the byte-wide or word-wide configuration data is
presented to the target Cyclone III device on DATA[7..0] or
DATA[15..0], respectively. After AP configuration, DATA[1]
is a dedicated bidirectional pin with optional user control. (3)
Data inputs.
In AS or PS configuration schemes, they function as user I/O
pins during configuration, which means they are tri-stated.
DATA[7..2]
I/O
FPP, AP
(3)
After FPP configuration, DATA[7..2] are available as user
Inputs
I/O pins and the state of these pin depends on the
(FPP).
Dual-Purpose Pin settings.
Bidirectional
The byte-wide or word-wide configuration data is presented
(AP) (3)
to the target Cyclone III device on DATA[7..0] or
DATA[15..0], respectively, in the AP configuration scheme
(for Cyclone III devices only). After AP configuration,
DATA[7..2] are dedicated bidirectional pins with optional
user control. (3)
Data inputs. Word-wide configuration data is presented to the
target Cyclone III device on DATA[15..0].
DATA[15..8]
I/O
AP
(3)
In PS, FPP, or AS configuration schemes, they function as
Bidirectional user I/O pins during configuration, which means they are
tri-stated.
After AP configuration, DATA[15:8] are dedicated
bidirectional pins with optional user control.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Configuration Features
9–69
Table 9–22. Dedicated Configuration Pins on Cyclone III Device Family (Part 4 of 4)
Pin Name
User
Mode
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
PADD[23..0]
I/O
AP
(3)
Output
24-bit address bus from the Cyclone III device to the parallel
flash in AP mode. Connects to the A[24:1] bus on the
Micron P30 or P33 flash.
nRESET
I/O
AP
(3)
Output
Active-low reset output. Driving the nRESET pin low resets
the parallel flash. Connects to the RST# pin on the Micron
P30 or P33 flash.
Output
Active-low address valid output. Driving the nAVD pin low
during a read or write operation indicates to the parallel flash
that valid address is present on the PADD[23..0] address
bus. Connects to the ADV# pin on the Micron P30 or P33
flash.
Output
Active-low output enable to the parallel flash. Driving the nOE
pin low during a read operation enables the parallel flash
outputs (DATA[15..0]). Connects to the OE# pin on the
Micron P30 or P33 flash.
Output
Active-low write enable to the parallel flash. Driving the nWE
pin low during a write operation indicates to the parallel flash
that data on the DATA[15..0] bus is valid. Connects to the
WE# pin on the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
I/O
nAVD
I/O
nOE
I/O
nWE
AP
(3)
AP
(3)
AP
(3)
Note to Table 9–22:
(1) If you are accessing the EPCS device with the ALTASMI_PARALLEL megafunction or your own user logic in user mode, in the Device and Pin
Options window of the Quartus II software, in the Dual-Purpose Pins category, select Use as regular I/O for this pin.
(2) To tri-state the AS configuration pins in user mode, turn on the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in user mode option from the
Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Configuration tab. This option tri-states the DCLK, DATA0, nCSO, and ASDO pins.
(3) AP configuration scheme is for Cyclone III devices only.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–70
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Design Security
Table 9–23 lists the optional configuration pins. If these optional configuration pins
are not enabled in the Quartus II software, they are available as general-purpose user
I/O pins. Therefore, during configuration, these pins function as user I/O pins and
are tri-stated with weak pull-up resistors.
Table 9–23. Optional Configuration Pins
Pin Name
User Mode
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
CLKUSR
INIT_DONE
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
Pin Type
Description
Input
Optional user-supplied clock input synchronizes the initialization
of one or more devices. This pin is enabled by turning on the
Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option in the
Quartus II software.
Output
open-drain
Status pin used to indicate when the device has initialized and is
in user-mode. When nCONFIG is low and during the beginning
of configuration, the INIT_DONE pin is tri-stated and pulled high
due to an external 10-k pull-up resistor. After the option bit to
enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the device (during the
first frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin goes low.
When initialization is complete, the INIT_DONE pin is released
and pulled high and the device enters user mode. Thus, the
monitoring circuitry must be able to detect a low-to-high
transition. This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable
INIT_DONE output option in the Quartus II software.
The functionality of this pin changes if the Enable OCT_DONE
option is enabled in the Quartus II software. This option
controls whether the INIT_DONE signal is gated by the
OCT_DONE signal, which indicates the Power-Up OCT calibration
is complete. If this option is turned off, the INIT_DONE signal is
not gated by the OCT_DONE signal
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
DEV_OE
DEV_CLRn
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
Input
Optional pin that allows you to override all tri-states on the
device. When this pin is driven low, all I/O pins are tri-stated;
when this pin is driven high, all I/O pins behave as programmed.
This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable device-wide
output enable (DEV_OE) option in the Quartus II software.
Input
Optional pin that allows you to override all clears on all device
registers. When this pin is driven low, all registers are cleared;
when this pin is driven high, all registers behave as
programmed. This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable
device-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) option in the Quartus II
software.
Design Security
The design security feature is for Cyclone III LS devices only. The design security
feature is not supported in Cyclone III devices.
Cyclone III LS Design Security Protection
Cyclone III LS device designs are protected from copying, reverse engineering, and
tampering using configuration bitstream encryption and anti-tamper features.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Design Security
9–71
Security Against Copying
The volatile key is securely stored in the Cyclone III LS device and cannot be read out
through any interfaces. The information of your design cannot be copied because the
configuration file read-back feature is not supported in Cyclone III LS devices.
Security Against Reverse Engineering
Reverse engineering from an encrypted configuration file is very difficult and time
consuming because Cyclone III LS configuration file formats are proprietary and the
file contains million of bits which require specific decryption. Reverse engineering the
Cyclone III LS device is just as difficult because the device is manufactured on the
advanced 60-nm process technology.
Security Against Tampering
Cyclone III LS devices support the following anti-tamper features:
■
Ability to limit JTAG instruction set and provides protection against configuration
data readback over the JTAG port
■
Ability to clear contents of FPGA logic, configuration memory, user memory, and
volatile key
■
Error detection (ED) cycle indicator to core Cyclone III LS devices provide a pass
or fail indicator at every ED cycle and visibility over intentional or unintentional
change of CRAM bits.
f For more information about anti-tamper protection for Cyclone III LS devices, refer to
AN 593: Anti-Tamper Protection for Cyclone III LS Devices.
f For more information about the implementation of secure configuration flow in
Quartus II, refer to AN 589: Using Design Security Feature in Cyclone III LS Devices.
AES Decryption Block
The main purpose of the AES decryption block is to decrypt the configuration
bitstream prior to entering configuration. Prior to receiving encrypted data, you must
enter and store the 256-bit volatile key in the device with battery backup. The key is
scrambled prior to storing it in the key storage to make it more difficult for anyone to
retrieve the stored key using de-capsulation of the device.
Key Storage
Cyclone III LS devices support volatile key programming. Table 9–24 lists the volatile
key features.
Table 9–24. Security Key Features
(Part 1 of 2)
Volatile Key Features
Key programmability
Reprogrammable and erasable
External battery
Required
Key programming method
August 2012
Description
Altera Corporation
(1)
On-board
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–72
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Design Security
Table 9–24. Security Key Features
(Part 2 of 2)
Volatile Key Features
Design protection
Description
Secure against copying, reverse engineering, and
tampering
Note to Table 9–24:
(1) Key programming is carried out using the JTAG interface.
AES volatile key zeroization is supported in Cyclone III LS devices. The volatile key
clear and key program JTAG instructions from the device core is supported to protect
Cyclone III LS devices against tampering. You can clear and reprogram the key from
the device core whenever tampering attempt is detected by executing the
KEY_CLR_VREG and KEY_PROG_VOL JTAG instructions to clear and reprogram the
volatile key, and then reset the Cyclone III LS device by pulling the nCONFIG pin low
for at least 500 ns. When nCONFIG returns to a logic-high level and nSTATUS is released
by the Cyclone III LS device, reconfiguration begins to configure the Cyclone III LS
device with a benign or unencrypted configuration file. After configuration is
successfully completed, observe the cyclecomplete signal from error detection block
to ensure that reconfigured CRAM bits content is correct for at least one error
detection cycle. You can also observe the cyclecomplete and crcerror signals for any
unintentional CRAM bits change.
f cyclecomplete is a signal that is routed from the error detection block to the core for
the purpose of every complete error detection cycle. You must include the
cycloneiiils_crcblock WYSIWYG atom in your design to use the cyclecomplete
signal. For more information about the SEU mitigation, refer to the SEU Mitigation in
Cyclone III Devices chapter.
VCCBAT is a dedicated power supply for the volatile key storage and not shared with
other on-chip power supplies, such as VCCIO or VCC. VCCBAT continuously supplies
power to the volatile register regardless of the on-chip supply condition. The nominal
voltage for this supply is 3.0 V, while its valid operating range is from 1.2 to 3.3 V. If
you do not use the volatile security key, you may connect the VCCBAT to a 1.8-V, 2.5-V,
or 3.0-V power supply.
1
After power-up, wait for 200 ms (Standard POR) or 9 ms (Fast POR) before beginning
the key programming to ensure that VCCBAT is at its full rail.
1
As an example, BR1220 (-30°C to +80°C) and BR2477A (-40 C to +125°C) are lithium
coin-cell type batteries used for volatile key storage purposes.
f For more information about the battery specifications, refer to the Cyclone III LS Device
Data Sheet chapter.
Cyclone III LS Design Security Solution
Cyclone III LS devices are SRAM-based devices. To provide design security,
Cyclone III LS devices require a 256-bit volatile key for configuration bitstream
encryption.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Design Security
9–73
The Cyclone III LS design security feature provides routing architecture optimization
for design separation flow with the Quartus II software. Design separation flow
achieves both physical and functional isolation between design partitions.
f For more information about the design separation flow, refer to AN 567: Quartus II
Design Separation Flow.
You can carry out secure configuration in Steps 1–3, as shown in Figure 9–31:
1. Generate the encryption key programming file and encrypt the configuration data.
The Quartus II configuration software uses the user-defined 256-bit volatile keys
to generate a key programming file and an encrypted configuration file. The
encrypted configuration file is stored in an external memory, such as a flash
memory or a configuration device.
2. Program the volatile key into the Cyclone III LS device.
Program the user-defined 256-bit volatile keys into the Cyclone III LS device
through the JTAG interface.
3. Configure the Cyclone III LS device.
At system power-up, the external memory device sends the encrypted
configuration file to the Cyclone III LS device.
Figure 9–31. Cyclone III LS Secure Configuration Flow
(1)
Step 1. Generate the Encryption Key Programming File
Encrypt Configuration Data and Store in External Memory
Quartus II
Configuration
Data
AES
Encryptor
Volatile Key
Encrypted
Configuration
Data
Encryption Key
Programming File
Step 3. Configure the Cyclone III LS Device
Using Encrypted Configuration Data
Memory
Storage
Encrypted
Configuration
Data
Encrypted
Configuration
Data
FPGA
AES
Decryptor
Volatile
Key Storage
Volatile Key
Step 2. Program Volatile Key into
Cyclone III LS Device
Note to Figure 9–31:
(1) Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3 correspond to the procedure detailed in “Cyclone III LS Design Security Solution”.
Available Security Modes
There are several security modes available on Cyclone III LS devices, they are:
■
Volatile Key
■
No Key Operation
■
FACTORY Mode
Volatile Key
Secure operation with volatile key programmed and required external battery—this
mode accepts both encrypted and unencrypted configuration bitstreams. Use the
unencrypted configuration bitstream support for board-level testing only.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–74
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
No Key Operation
Only unencrypted configuration bitstreams are allowed to configure the device.
FACTORY Mode
After power up, Cyclone III LS devices must be in FACTORY mode to program the
volatile key. The FACTORY private JTAG instruction must be issued after the device
successfully exits from POR and before the device starts loading the core
configuration data to enable access to all other instructions from the JTAG pins. The
device configuration data and AES volatile key are cleared if the FACTORY instruction
is executed.
Table 9–25 lists the configuration bitstream and the configuration mode supported for
each security mode.
Table 9–25. Security Modes Supported
Mode
Function
Configuration
File
Allowed Configuration Mode
PS with AES (without decompression).
FPP with AES (without decompression).
Secure
Encrypted
Volatile Key
Remote update fast AS with AES
(without decompression).
Fast AS (without decompression).
No Key
FACTORY
Board-Level
Testing
Unencrypted
All configuration modes that do not
engage the design security feature.
—
Unencrypted
All configuration modes that do not
engage the design security feature.
Volatile Key
Programming
—
—
Remote System Upgrade
Cyclone III devices support remote system upgrade in AS and AP configuration
schemes. Cyclone III LS devices support remote system upgrade in the AS
configuration scheme only. Remote system upgrade can also be implemented with
advanced Cyclone III features such as real-time decompression of configuration data
in the AS configuration scheme.
■
The serial configuration device uses the AS configuration scheme to configure
Cyclone III or Cyclone III LS devices
■
The supported parallel flash uses the AP configuration scheme to configure
Cyclone III devices
■
Remote system upgrade is not supported in the multi-device configuration chain
for any configuration scheme.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
9–75
Functional Description
The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry in Cyclone III device family manages
remote configuration and provides error detection, recovery, and status information.
User logic or a Nios II processor implemented in the Cyclone III device family logic
array provides access to the remote configuration data source and an interface to the
configuration memory.
1
Configuration memory refers to serial configuration devices (EPCS) or supported
parallel flash memory, and depends on the configuration scheme that you use.
The remote system upgrade process of Cyclone III device family involves the
following steps:
1. A Nios II processor (or user logic) implemented in the Cyclone III device family
logic array receives new configuration data from a remote location. The connection
to the remote source is a communication protocol such as the transmission control
protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), peripheral component interconnect (PCI),
user datagram protocol (UDP), universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
(UART), or a proprietary interface.
2. The Nios II processor (or user logic) writes this new configuration data into a
configuration memory.
3. The Nios II processor (or user logic) starts a reconfiguration cycle with the new or
updated configuration data.
4. The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry detects and recovers from any
error that might occur during or after the reconfiguration cycle, and provides error
status information to the user design.
Figure 9–32 shows the steps required for performing remote configuration updates
(the numbers in Figure 9–32 coincide with steps 1–4).
Figure 9–32. Functional Diagram of Cyclone III Device Family Remote System Upgrade
1
2
Development
Location
Data
Data
Configuration
Memory
Cyclone III
Device Family
Control Module
Data
Device Configuration
3
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–76
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
Figure 9–33 shows the block diagrams to implement remote system upgrade with the
AS and AP configuration schemes.
Figure 9–33. Remote System Upgrade Block Diagrams for AS and AP Configuration Schemes
Serial Configuration Device
Parallel Flash Memory
Cyclone III or
Cyclone III LS
Device
Nios Processor or User
Logic
Serial Configuration Device
1
Cyclone III Device
Nios Processor or User
Logic
Supported Parallel Flash
Remote system upgrade only supports single-device configuration.
When using remote system upgrade in Cyclone III devices, you must set the mode
select pins (MSEL [3.0]) to the AS or AP configuration scheme. When using remote
system upgrade in Cyclone III LS devices, you must set MSEL [3..0] to the AS
configuration scheme. The MSEL pin setting in remote system upgrade mode is the
same as standard configuration mode. Standard configuration mode refers to normal
Cyclone III device family configuration mode with no support for remote system
upgrades, and the remote system upgrade circuitry is disabled. When using remote
system upgrade in Cyclone III device family, you must enable the remote update
mode option setting in the Quartus II software. For more information, refer to
“Enabling Remote Update” on page 9–76.
Enabling Remote Update
You can enable or disable remote update for Cyclone III device family in the
Quartus II software before design compilation (in the Compiler Settings menu). To
enable remote update in the compiler settings of the project, perform the following
steps in the Quartus II software:
1. On the Assignments menu, click Device. The Settings dialog box appears.
2. Click Device and Pin Options. The Device and Pin Options dialog box appears.
3. Click the Configuration tab.
4. From the Configuration Mode list, select Remote.
5. Click OK.
6. In the Settings dialog box, click OK.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
9–77
Configuration Image Types
When using remote system upgrade, Cyclone III device family configuration
bitstreams are classified as factory configuration images or application configuration
images. An image, also referred to as a configuration, is a design loaded into the
device that performs certain user-defined functions. Each device in your system
requires one factory image with the addition of one or more application images. The
factory image is a user-defined fall-back, or safe, configuration and is responsible for
administering remote updates with dedicated circuitry. Application images
implement user-defined functionality in the target Cyclone III device family. You can
include the default application image functionality in the factory image.
Remote System Upgrade Mode
In remote update mode, the Cyclone III device family loads the factory configuration
image after power-up. The user-defined factory configuration determines which
application configuration is to be loaded and triggers a reconfiguration cycle. The
factory configuration can also contain application logic.
When used with configuration memory, remote update mode allows an application
configuration to start at any flash sector boundary. Additionally, the remote update
mode features a user watchdog timer that can detect functional errors in an
application configuration.
Remote Update Mode
When a Cyclone III device family is first powered up in remote update in the AS
configuration scheme, it loads the factory configuration located at address
boot_address[23:0] = 24b'0. Altera recommends storing the factory configuration
image for your system at boot address 24b'0 when using the AS configuration
scheme. A factory configuration image is a bitstream for Cyclone III device family in
your system that is programmed during production and is the fall-back image when
an error occurs. This image is stored in non-volatile memory and is never updated or
modified using remote access. This corresponds to the start address location 0x000000
in the serial configuration device.
When you use the AP configuration in Cyclone III devices, the Cyclone III device
loads the default factory configuration located at the following address after device
power-up in remote update mode:
boot_address[23:0] = 24'h010000 = 24'b1 0000 0000 0000 0000
You can change the default factory configuration address to any desired address using
the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction. The factory configuration image is stored in
non-volatile memory and is never updated or modified using remote access. This
corresponds to the default start address location 0x010000 represented in 16-bit word
addressing (or the updated address if the default address is changed) in the
supported parallel flash memory. For more information about the application of the
APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction in AP configuration scheme, refer to “JTAG
Instructions” on page 9–60.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–78
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
The factory configuration image is user designed and contains soft logic (Nios II
processor or state machine and the remote communication interface) to:
■
Process any errors based on status information from the dedicated remote system
upgrade circuitry
■
Communicate with the remote host and receive new application configurations
and store the new configuration data in the local non-volatile memory device
■
Determine which application configuration is to be loaded into the Cyclone III
device family
■
Enable or disable the user watchdog timer and load its time-out value (optional)
■
Instruct the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to start a reconfiguration
cycle
Figure 9–34 shows the transitions between the factory and application configurations
in remote update mode.
Figure 9–34. Transitions Between Configurations in Remote Update Mode
Configuration Error
Application 1
Configuration
Power Up
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Factory
Configuration
Configuration
Error
Reload a Different Application
Reload a Different Application
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Application n
Configuration
Configuration Error
After power up or a configuration error, the factory configuration logic writes the
remote system upgrade control register to specify the address of the application
configuration to be loaded. The factory configuration also specifies whether or not to
enable the user watchdog timer for the application configuration and, if enabled,
specifies the timer setting.
1
Only valid application configurations designed for remote update mode include the
logic to reset the timer in user mode. For more information about the user watchdog
timer, refer to “User Watchdog Timer” on page 9–85.
If there is an error while loading the application configuration, the remote system
upgrade status register is written by the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry of
the Cyclone III device family, specifying the cause of the reconfiguration.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
9–79
The following actions cause the remote system upgrade status register to be written:
■
nSTATUS driven low externally
■
Internal CRC error
■
User watchdog timer time-out
■
A configuration reset (logic array nCONFIG signal or external nCONFIG pin assertion)
Cyclone III device family automatically load the factory configuration located at
address boot_address[23:0] = 24'b0 for the AS configuration scheme, and default
address boot_address[23:0] = 24'h010000 (or the updated address if the default
address is changed) for the AP configuration scheme. This user-designed factory
configuration reads the remote system upgrade status register to determine the reason
for reconfiguration. Then the factory configuration takes the appropriate error
recovery steps and writes to the remote system upgrade control register to determine
the next application configuration to be loaded.
When Cyclone III device family successfully load the application configuration, the
devices enter user mode. In user mode, the soft logic (Nios II processor or state
machine and the remote communication interface) assists the Cyclone III device
family in determining when a remote system update is arriving. When a remote
system update arrives, the soft logic receives the incoming data, writes it to the
configuration memory device, and triggers the device to load the factory
configuration. The factory configuration reads the remote system upgrade status
register, determines the valid application configuration to load, writes the remote
system upgrade control register accordingly, and starts system reconfiguration.
Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
This section explains the implementation of the Cyclone III device family remote
system upgrade dedicated circuitry. The remote system upgrade circuitry is
implemented in hard logic. This dedicated circuitry interfaces to the user-defined
factory application configurations implemented in the Cyclone III device family logic
array to provide the complete remote configuration solution. The remote system
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–80
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
upgrade circuitry contains the remote system upgrade registers, a watchdog timer,
and state machines that control those components. Figure 9–35 shows the data path of
the remote system upgrade block.
Figure 9–35. Remote System Upgrade Circuit Data Path
(1)
Internal Oscillator
Status Register (SR)
Previous
State
Register 2
Bit[30..0]
Previous
State
Register 1
Bit[30..0]
Current
State
Logic
Bit[31..0]
Control Register
Bit [38..0]
Logic
Update Register
Bit [38..0]
update
RSU
Master
State
Machine
Logic
RSU
Reconfiguration
State
Machine
Shift Register
din
dout
din
dout
Bit [40..39]
Bit [38..0]
capture
clkout
RU_DIN
RU_SHIFTnLD
timeout User
Watchdog
Timer
capture update
Logic
clkin
RU_CAPTnUPDT
RU_CLK (2)
RU_DOUT
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
Notes to Figure 9–35:
(1) RU_DOUT, RU_SHIFTnLD, RU_CAPTnUPDT, RU_CLK, RU_DIN,RU_nCONFIG, and RU_nRSTIMER signals
are internally controlled by the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction.
(2) RU_CLK refers to ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction block "clock" input. For more information, refer to the
Remote Update Circuitry (ALTREMOTE_UPDATE) Megafunction User Guide.
Remote System Upgrade Registers
The remote system upgrade block contains a series of registers that stores the
configuration addresses, watchdog timer settings, and status information. These
registers are listed in Table 9–26.
Table 9–26. Remote System Upgrade Registers (Part 1 of 2)
Register
Description
Shift register
This register is accessible by the logic array and allows the update, status, and control registers to be
written and sampled by user logic. Write access is enabled in remote update mode for factory
configurations to allow writes to the update register. Write access is disabled for all application
configurations in remote update mode.
Control register
This register contains the current configuration address, the user watchdog timer settings, one option
bit for checking early CONF_DONE, and one option bit for selecting the internal oscillator as the startup
state machine clock. During a read operation in an application configuration, this register is read into the
shift register. When a reconfiguration cycle is started, the contents of the update register are written into
the control register.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
9–81
Table 9–26. Remote System Upgrade Registers (Part 2 of 2)
Register
Description
Update register
This register contains data similar to that in the control register. However, it can only be updated by the
factory configuration by shifting data into the shift register and issuing an update operation. When a
reconfiguration cycle is triggered by the factory configuration, the control register is updated with the
contents of the update register. During a read in a factory configuration, this register is read into the shift
register.
Status register
This register is written to by the remote system upgrade circuitry on every reconfiguration to record the
cause of the reconfiguration. This information is used by the factory configuration to determine the
appropriate action following a reconfiguration. During a capture cycle, this register is read into the shift
register.
The control and status registers of the remote system upgrade are clocked by the
10-MHz internal oscillator (the same oscillator that controls the user watchdog timer).
However, the shift and update registers of the remote system upgrade are clocked by
the maximum frequency of 40-MHz user clock input (RU_CLK). There is no minimum
frequency for RU_CLK.
Remote System Upgrade Control Register
The remote system upgrade control register stores the application configuration
address, the user watchdog timer settings, and option bits for application
configuration. In remote update mode for the AS configuration scheme, the control
register address bits are set to all zeros (24'b0) at power up to load the AS factory
configuration. In remote update mode for the AP configuration scheme, the control
register address bits are set to 24'h010000 (24'b1 0000 0000 0000 0000) at power up to
load the AP default factory configuration. However, for the AP configuration scheme,
you can change the default factory configuration address to any desired address using
the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction. Additionally, a factory configuration in remote
update mode has write access to this register.
The control register bit positions are shown in Figure 9–36 and listed in Table 9–27. In
the figure, the numbers show the bit position of a setting in a register. For example, bit
number 35 is the enable bit for the watchdog timer.
Figure 9–36. Remote System Upgrade Control Register
38
Rsv2
37
36
35
34 33
12 11
0
Cd_early Osc_int Wd_en Rsv1 Ru_address[21..0] Wd_timer[11..
When enabled, the early CONF_DONE check (Cd_early) option bit ensures that there is a
valid configuration at the boot address specified by the factory configuration and that
it is of the proper size. If an invalid configuration is detected or CONF_DONE pin is
asserted too early, the device resets and then reconfigures the factory configuration
image. The internal oscillator, as startup state machine clock (Osc_int) option bit,
ensures a functional startup clock to eliminate the hanging of startup when enabled.
When all option bits are turned on, they provide complete coverage for the
programming and startup portions of the application configuration. It is strongly
recommended that you turn on both the Cd_early and Osc_int option bits.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–82
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
1
The Cd_early and Osc_int option bits for the application configuration must be
turned on by the factory configuration.
Table 9–27. Remote System Upgrade Control Register Contents
Control Register Bit
Value
Definition
User watchdog time-out value (most significant 12 bits of
29-bit count value:
{Wd_timer[11..0],17'b1000})
Wd_timer[11..0]
12'b000000000000
Ru_address[21..0]
Configuration address (most significant 22 bits of 24-bit
22'b0000000000000000000000 boot address value:
boot_address[23:0] = {Ru_address[21..0],2'b0})
Rsv1
1'b0
Reserved bit
1'b1
User watchdog timer enable bit
1’b1
Internal oscillator as startup state machine clock enable bit
1’b1
Early CONF_DONE check
1'b1
Reserved bit
Wd_en
Osc_int
Cd_early
(1)
(1)
Rsv2
Note to Table 9–27:
(1) Option bit for the application configuration.
Remote System Upgrade Status Register
The remote system upgrade status register specifies the reconfiguration trigger
condition. The various trigger and error conditions include:
■
Cyclical redundancy check (CRC) error during application configuration
■
nSTATUS assertion by an external device due to an error
■
Cyclone III device family logic array triggered a reconfiguration cycle, possibly
after downloading a new application configuration image
■
External configuration reset (nCONFIG) assertion
■
User watchdog timer time out
Table 9–28 lists the contents of the current state logic in the status register, when the
remote system upgrade master state machine is in factory configuration or
application configuration accessing the factory information or application
information respectively, and the MSEL pin setting is set to AS or AP configuration
scheme. The status register bit in Table 9–28 lists the bit positions in a 32-bit logic.
Table 9–28. Remote System Upgrade Current State Logic Contents In Status Register (1)
Current State Logic
Factory information
Status Register Bit
Definition
31:30
Master State Machine
current state
The current state of the RSU master
state machine
29:24
Reserved bits
Padding bits that are set to all 0's
Boot address
The current 24-bit boot address that was
used by the configuration scheme as the
start address to load the current
configuration.
(2)
23:0
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
Description
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
9–83
Table 9–28. Remote System Upgrade Current State Logic Contents In Status Register (1)
Current State Logic
Status Register Bit
Application information
part 1 (3)
Application information
part 2 (3)
Definition
Description
31:30
Master State Machine
current state
The current state of the RSU master
state machine
29
User watchdog timer
enable bit
The current state of the user watchdog
enable, which is active high
28:0
User watchdog timer
time-out value
The current entire 29-bit
watchdog time-out value
31:30
Master State Machine
current state
The current state of the RSU master
state machine
29:24
Reserved bits
Padding bits that are set to all 0’s
Boot address
The current 24-bit boot address that was
used by the configuration scheme as the
start address to load the current
configuration
23:0
Notes to Table 9–28:
(1) The MSEL pin setting is in the AS or AP configuration scheme.
(2) The RSU master state machine is in factory configuration.
(3) The RSU master state machine is in application configuration.
The previous two application configurations are available in the previous state
registers (previous state register 1 and previous state register 2), but only for
debugging purposes.
Table 9–29 lists the contents of the previous state register 1 and previous state register
2 in the status register when the MSEL pin setting is set to the AS or AP scheme. The
status register bit in Table 9–29 shows the bit positions in a 31-bit register. The
previous state register 1 and previous state register 2 have the same bit definitions.
The previous state register 1 reflects the current application configuration and the
previous state register 2 reflects the previous application configuration.
Table 9–29. Remote System Upgrade Previous State Register 1 and Previous State Register 2
Contents in Status Register (1) (Part 1 of 2)
Status Register Bit
30
nCONFIG source
29
CRC error source
28
nSTATUS source
27
User watchdog timer source
26
Remote system upgrade nCONFIG
source
25:24
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Definition
Description
One-hot, active-high field that
describes the reconfiguration source
that caused the Cyclone III device
family to leave the previous application
configuration. If there is a tie, the
higher bit order indicates precedence.
For example, if nCONFIG and remote
system upgrade nCONFIG reach the
reconfiguration state machine at the
same time, the nCONFIG precedes the
remote system upgrade nCONFIG.
The state of the master state machine
during reconfiguration causes the
Master state machine current state
Cyclone III device family to leave the
previous application configuration.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–84
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
Table 9–29. Remote System Upgrade Previous State Register 1 and Previous State Register 2
Contents in Status Register (1) (Part 2 of 2)
Status Register Bit
Definition
Description
The address used by the configuration
scheme to load the previous
application configuration.
Boot address
23:0
Note to Table 9–29:
(1) The MSEL pin settings are in the AS configuration scheme.
If a capture is inappropriately done, for example, capturing a previous state before the
system has entered remote update application configuration for the first time, a value
will output from the shift register to indicate that the capture was incorrectly called.
Remote System Upgrade State Machine
The remote system upgrade control and update registers have identical bit
definitions, but serve different roles (Table 9–26 on page 9–81). While both registers
can only be updated when the device is loaded with a factory configuration image,
the update register writes are controlled by the user logic, and the control register
writes are controlled by the remote system upgrade state machine.
In factory configurations, the user logic should send the option bits (Cd_early and
Osc_int), the configuration address, and watchdog timer settings for the next
application configuration bit to the update register. When the logic array
configuration reset (RU_nCONFIG) goes high, the remote system upgrade state machine
updates the control register with the contents of the update register and starts system
reconfiguration from the new application page.
1
To ensure the successful reconfiguration between the pages, assert RU_nCONFIG signal
for a minimum of 250 ns. This is equivalent to strobing the reconfig input of the
ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction high for a minimum of 250 ns.
If there is an error or reconfiguration trigger condition, the remote system upgrade
state machine directs the system to load a factory or application configuration (based
on mode and error condition) by setting the control register accordingly.
Table 9–30 lists the contents of the control register after such an event occurs for all
possible error or trigger conditions.
The remote system upgrade status register is updated by the dedicated error
monitoring circuitry after an error condition but before the factory configuration is
loaded.
Table 9–30. Control Register Contents After an Error or Reconfiguration Trigger Condition
Reconfiguration
Error/Trigger
nCONFIG reset
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
Control Register Setting In
Remote Update
All bits are 0
nSTATUS error
All bits are 0
CORE triggered reconfiguration
Update register
CRC error
All bits are 0
Wd time out
All bits are 0
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Remote System Upgrade
9–85
User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration from stalling the
device indefinitely. The system uses the timer to detect functional errors after an
application configuration is successfully loaded into the Cyclone III device family.
The user watchdog timer is a counter that counts down from the initial value loaded
into the remote system upgrade control register by the factory configuration. The
counter is 29-bits wide and has a maximum count value of 229. When specifying the
user watchdog timer value, specify only the most significant 12 bits. Remote system
upgrade circuitry appends 17’b1000 to form the 29 bits value for the watchdog timer.
The granularity of the timer setting is 217 cycles. The cycle time is based on the
frequency of the 10-MHz internal oscillator.
Table 9–31 lists the operating range of the 10-MHz internal oscillator.
Table 9–31. 10-MHz Internal Oscillator Specifications
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
5
6.5
10
MHz
The user watchdog timer begins counting after the application configuration enters
device user mode. This timer must be periodically reloaded or reset by the application
configuration before the timer expires by asserting RU_nRSTIMER. If the application
configuration does not reload the user watchdog timer before the count expires, a
time-out signal is generated by the remote system upgrade dedicated circuitry. The
time-out signal tells the remote system upgrade circuitry to set the user watchdog
timer status bit (Wd) in the remote system upgrade status register and reconfigures the
device by loading the factory configuration.
1
To allow remote system upgrade dedicated circuitry to reset the watchdog timer, you
must assert the RU_nRSTIMER signal active for a minimum of 250 ns. This is equivalent
to strobing the reset_timer input of the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction high
for a minimum of 250 ns.
The user watchdog timer is not enabled during the configuration cycle of the device.
Errors during configuration are detected by the CRC engine. Also, the timer is
disabled for factory configuration. Functional errors must not exist in the factory
configuration because it is stored and validated during production and is never
updated remotely.
1
By default, the user watchdog timer is disabled in factory configurations and enabled
in user-mode application configurations. If you do not want to use the watchdog
timer feature, disable this feature in the factory configuration.
Quartus II Software Support
Implementation in your design requires a remote system upgrade interface between
the Cyclone III device family logic array and the remote system upgrade circuitry. You
must also generate configuration files for production and remote programming of the
system configuration memory. The Quartus II software provides these features.
August 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
9–86
Chapter 9: Configuration, Design Security, and Remote System Upgrades in the Cyclone III Device Family
Document Revision History
The two implementation options, the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction and the
remote system upgrade atom, are for the interface between the remote system
upgrade circuitry and the device logic array interface. Using the megafunction block
instead of creating your own logic saves design time and offers more efficient logic
synthesis and device implementation.
f For more information about the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction, refer to the
Remote Update Circuitry (ALTREMOTE_UPDATE) Megafunction User Guide.
Document Revision History
Table 9–32 lists the revision history for this document.
Table 9–32. Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
August 2012
2.2
Updated Micron P30 and P33 Parallel NOR flash devices.
July 2012
2.1
Finalized Table 9–3, Table 9–13, and Table 9–14.
December 2011
December 2009
2.0
1.2
■
Updated “Configuration Features” on page 9–2, “Reset” on page 9–8,“AS Configuration
(Serial Configuration Devices)” on page 9–12, “Single-Device AS Configuration” on
page 9–13, “AP Configuration Supported Flash Memory” on page 9–24, “Single-Device
AP Configuration” on page 9–25, “JTAG Configuration” on page 9–48, and “User
Watchdog Timer” on page 9–85.
■
Removed the “Overriding the Internal Oscillator” section from “JTAG Configuration”.
■
Updated Figure 9–11, Figure 9–24, Figure 9–25, Figure 9–26, Figure 9–27, Figure 9–29,
Figure 9–30.
■
Updated Table 9–13, Table 9–18, and Table 9–22.
■
Replaced links to AN 386: Using the Parallel Flash Loaderwith the Quartus II Software
links to Parallel Flash Loader Megafunction User Guide.
■
Updated Table 9–7, Table 9–10, Table 9–22, and Table 9–28.
■
Updated Figure 9–23 and Figure 9–30.
■
Updated the “Programming Serial Configuration Devices” and “Security Against
Tampering” sections.
■
Minor changes to the text.
July 2009
1.1
Made a minor correction to the part number.
June 2009
1.0
Initial release.
Cyclone III Device Handbook
Volume 1
August 2012 Altera Corporation
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement