TM-1-1500-204-23-9
*TM 1-1500-204-23-9
TECHNICAL MANUAL
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM)
AND AVIATION INTERMEDIATE
MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
*This manual together with TM 1-1500-204-23-1 through TM 1-1500-204-23-8 and TM 1-1500204-23-10, dated 31 July 1992, supersedes TM 55-1500-204-25/1, dated 6 April 1970,
including all changes.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
31 JULY 1992
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
PRECAUTIONARY DATA
Personnel performing instructions involving operations, procedures, and practices which are included or implied
in this technical manual shall observe the following instructions. Disregard of these warnings and precautionary
information can cause serious injury, death, or an aborted mission.
HAZARD COMMUNICATION
Most materials supplies listed in this volume (paints, solvents, etc.) contain chemical agents which are considered
hazardous under 29 CFR 1910.1200, The Hazard Communication Rule (25 Nov 1983). All personnel who have
potential on-the-job exposure to chemical agents must be aware of provisions of their organization’s written hazard
communications program which describes how your facility will comply with the standard. An important part of this
standard is the requirement for Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for hazardous materials. The MSDS lists the
hazardous chemical components for the product and contains essential information on use, handling, fire-fighting,
labelling, emergency procedures (such as accidental spills and leaks) and disposal of material. These MSDS must
be accessible to the worker and adequate training provided BEFORE use of hazardous materials. MSDS by themselves are not an adequate substitute for proper training and written procedures.
Consult your supervisor, safety officer or industrial hygienist before using any material which may be considered
hazardous. Warning labels on products or general warnings mentioned in this document ARE NOT intended to be
a complete description of all potential hazards, nor are they a substitute proper training and MSDS information.
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES are means of attracting attention to essential or critical information in a
manual. De.nitions are outlined as follows:
WARNING: An operating or maintenance procedure, practice, condition, statement, etc. which if not strictly observed, could result in injury to or death of personnel.
CAUTION: An operating or maintenance procedure, practice, condition, statement, etc., which, if not strictly observed could result in damage to, or destruction of, equipment or loss of mission effectiveness or long term health
hazards to personnel.
NOTE: An essential operating or maintenance procedure, condition, or statement, which must be highlighted.
a
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
USING SOLVENTS/PAINTS
Consider all solvents/paints potentially hazardous and .ammable. Consult MSDS and be thoroughly familiar with
health and safety aspects of material prior to use.
HOT BRAKES
If it is necessary to approach a wheel with a hot brake, do so either from directly in front or directly behind the aircraft.
GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
To prevent accidental falls, appropriate maintenance platforms/safety stands illustrated in appropriate workstand
manuals or any other approved locally procured/manufactured safety stands/restraint equipment will be used when
working (above 4 feet) on aircraft in a non-tactical environment.
Do not attempt to lift any load when the hydraulic axle jack is tilted.
Release air pressure in air compressor tank before performing maintenance on air compressors.
Disconnect power before changing belts on electrically-driven compressors.
Disconnect electrical power before opening or disassembling any part of electrical equipment.
Install safety lock when an adjustable-height maintenance platform is in use.
Ensure the air hose used with compressed air is safe for the pressure being handled.
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Halon type .re extinguishers, Monobromotrifluoromethane (CF3BR) and Bromocholormethane (CB) are odorless
gasses. When used in confined areas, available oxygen for breathing may be depleted. Use supplied breathing air
when using these gasses in enclosed spaces.
HYDRAULIC FLUID
To avoid contamination, do not use previously opened cans of hydraulic fluid. Cans of hydraulic fluid can not be resealed. Immediately transfer unused hydraulic fluid to an approved airtight, pressure venting, stainless steel storage
reservoir, an approved hydraulic servicing unit or a hydraulic test stand containing the same hydraulic fluid. When
opening can, clean top and use a clean sharp, unplated instrument to prevent contamination. Can openers attached
to the aircraft must be cleaned before using.
COMPRESSED AIR
Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes unless reduced to less than 30 psi and then only with
effective chip-guarding and personal protective equipment.
NOISE HAZARD
Noise levels reached during ground runup of Army aircraft are of a level that may cause permanent hearing loss. All
personnel shall wear adequate hearing protection when working on aircraft with engines in operation.
b
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
PROPER USE OF PLATED TOOLS
Use only chrome plated steel or unplated steel tools for disassembly or reassembly procedures described in this
manual. Use of cadmium or zinc plated tools is not permitted since these platings are prone to chipping and flaking.
Should these chips or flakes become embedded in aircraft parts, galvanic corrosion will result. Should these chips
or flakes enter fuel or oil wetted components, they may eventually clog the filter or produce intergranular attack of
nickel or titanium base alloys at elevated temperature. All tools regardless of type plating should be serviceable and
free of chipping.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
All switches and electrical equipment shall be of the enclosed explosion-proof type. All metal apparatus shall be
grounded to avoid the danger of igniting test fluid fumes or creating electrical shock.
LUBRICATING OIL
Lubricating oil, MIL-L-7808 or MIL-L-23699, contains an additive which is poisonous and absorbed readily through
the skin. Do not allow oil to remain on skin any longer than necessary.
To avoid contamination, do not use previously opened cans of turbine engine oil. A new sealed can of fluid must be
opened and used. When opening can, clean top and use a clean sharp, unplated instrument to prevent contamination.
FUEL
When servicing aircraft or support equipment, clean up spilled fuel with cotton mops or cotton rags. Wash off any
fuel on hands, body, or clothing.
HANDLING ACID
Wear protective clothing when mixing acid with water. Always pour acid into water, never water into acid.
REMOVING CORROSION
Take precautions to prevent possible dust explosions when removing corrosion from steel alloys. Use goggles or
face shield when removing paint or corrosion with a wire brush or by the grinding method.
OXYGEN SYSTEM
Do not allow petroleum base products to come in contact with oxygen system components, as an explosion or fire
may result.
Change 5
c
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CLEANING COMPOUND, MIL-PRF-87937 TYPE II
Cleaning compound can irritate eyes and skin. Wear protective gloves and goggles. Avoid repeated or prolonged
contact.
DEGREASING SOLVENT, MIL-PRF-680
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, is combustible and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Wear protective
gloves and goggles/face shield. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use
approved respirator as determined by local safety/industrial hygiene personnel). Keep away from open flames or
other sources of ignition.
HFE-71DE
HFE-71DE is toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and decomposes into other hazardous products to extreme
heat. Wear chemical protective gloves and goggles/face shield. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in
well-ventilated areas. If ventilation is not adequate, use approved respirator as determined by local safety/industrial
hygiene personnel. Keep away from open flames, welding, or other sources of extreme heat.
ALIPHATIC NAPHTHA
Aliphatic Naphtha is extremely flammable and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Wear protective gloves
and goggles/face shield. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use approved
respirator as determined by local safety/industrial hygiene personnel). Keep away from open flames, sparks, or
other sources of ignition.
d
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C5
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 13 January 2011
NO. 5
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM) AND AVIATION INTERMEDIATE
MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICAL INFORMATION
This document has been reviewed for the presence of Class I Ozone Depleting Chemicals by the AMCOM G-4 (Logistics) Environmental Division. As of the base document through C04, dated 15 March 2001, all references to Class I Ozone Depleting Chemicals
have been removed from this document by substitution with chemicals that do not cause atmospheric ozone depletion EXCEPT
Bromotri.uoromethane (CF3BR); Fire Extinguisher Agent (Halon 1301).
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL INFORMATION
This document has been reviewed for the presence of SOLVENTS containing hazardous materials as de.ned by the EPCRA 302
and 313 lists by the AMCOM G-4 (Logistics) Environmental Division. As of the base document through C04, dated 15 March 2001, all
references to SOLVENTS containing hazardous materials have been removed from this document by substitution with nonhazardous
or less hazardous materials were possible.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9, 31 July 1992, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove Pages
Insert Pages
a through c/(d blank)
A/(B blank)
......
i/(ii blank)
2-1 and 2-2
3-3 through 3-6
3-9 and 3-10
3-17 and 3-18
......
3-19 and 3-20
......
4-3 and 4-4
4-7 through 4-10
4-17 and 4-18
4-21 and 4-22
4-27 and 4-28
4-33 and 4-34
4-37 through 4-44
......
5-5 and 5-6
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7-11 and 7-12
8-3 and 8-4
a through d
A and B
C/(D blank)
i/(ii blank)
2-1 and 2-2
3-3 through 3-6
3-9 and 3-10
3-17 and 3-18
3-18.1/(3-18.2 Blank)
3-19 and 3-20
4-2.1/(4-2.2 Blank)
4-3 and 4-4
4-7 through 4-10
4-17 and 4-18
4-21 and 4-22
4-27 and 4-28
4-33 and 4-34
4-37 through 4-44
5-2.1/(5-2.2 Blank)
5-5 and 5-6
6-1 and 6-2
7-7 and 7-8
7-11 and 7-12
8-3 and 8-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C5
Remove Pages
Insert Pages
8-7 and 8-8
......
8-9 and 8-10
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8-11 and 8-12
8-17/(8-18 Blank)
9-1 through 9-24
9-27 through 9-32
9-37 through 9-44
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9-45 through 9-54
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A-1 and A-2
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Index 9 through Index 12
Index 17 through Index 20
8-7 and 8-8
8-8.1 and 8-8.2
8-9 and 8-10
8-10.1/(8-10.2 Blank)
8-11 and 8-12
8-17/(8-18 Blank)
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9-44.1/(9-44.2 Blank)
9-45 through 9-54
9-57 and 9-58
A-1 and A-2
A-3 and A-4
Index 9 through Index 12
Index 17 through Index 20
2. File these sheets in front of the manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
JOYCE E. MORROW
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
1033608
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with the Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 313302,
requirements for TM 1-1500-204-23-9.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C4
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 MARCH 2001
NO. 4
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM)
AND
AVIATION INTERMEDIATE MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
Part Number
National Stock Number
3800232-1-1 thru 1-3
2835-01-180-0452
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 1-1500- 204-23-9, 31 July 1992, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
A / (B blank)
i / (ii blank)
7-11 through 7-15
7-16 blank
Index 13 and 14
A / (B blank)
i / (ii blank)
7-11 through 7-15
7-16 blank
Index 13 and 14
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C4
2.Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
Official:
ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0032102
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 313302, requirements for
TM 1-1500-204-23-9.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C3
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, DC 15 June 1999
CHANGE
NO. 3
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM)
AND
AVIATION INTERMEDIATE MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9, 31 July 1992, is changed as follows:
1.
Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
.....
A / (B blank)
i / (ii blank)
9-55 and 9-56
Index 3 and 4
Index 7 and 8
i/ (ii blank)
9-55 and 9-56
Index 3 and 4
Index 7 and 8
2.
Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
9911803
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 313302, requirements for TM
1-1500-204-23-9.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C2
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1 February 1994
NO. 2
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM)
AND
AVIATION INTERMEDIATE MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9, 31 July 1992, is change as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is
indicated by a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
4-39 and 4-40
5-7 and 5-8
7-5 and 7-6
9-23 and 9-24
9-29 and 9-30
A-1 and A-2
4-39 and 4-40
5-7 and 5-8
7-5 and 7-6
9-23 and 9-24
9-29 and 9-30
A-1 and A-2
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
06351
Distribution:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block No. 3302, requirements for TM 1-1500-204-23-9.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1994 - 510-106-00002
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
C1
CHANGE
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 28 MAY 1993
NO. 1
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM)
AND
AVIATION INTERMEDIATE MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9, 31 July 1992, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar in the
margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages
Insert pages
i/(ii blank)
8-7 and 8-8
i/(ii blank)
8-7 and 8-8
2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
04405
DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 3302, requirements for TM 1-1500-204-23-9.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 July 1992
Change 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 May 1993
Change 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 February 1994
Change 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 June 1999
Change 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 March 2001
Change 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 January 2011
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 257, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
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*Change No.
Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
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Change 5
A
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Page No.
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES (Cont)
*Change No.
4-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-16 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
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4
4
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*Zero in this column indicates an original page.
B Change 5
Page No.
*Change No.
8-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-10.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-18 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
5
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5
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5
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TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Page No.
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES (Cont)
*Change No.
9-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-44.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-44.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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*Zero in this column indicates an original page.
Page No.
*Change No.
A-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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* TM 1-1500-204-23-9
TECHNICAL MANUAL
No. 1-1500-204-23-9
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 31 July 1992
AVIATION UNIT MAINTENANCE (AVUM) AND
AVIATION INTERMEDIATE
MAINTENANCE (AVIM) MANUAL
FOR
GENERAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
(TOOLS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT)
VOLUME 9
REPORTING ERRORS AND RECOMMENDING IMPROVEMENTS
You can improve this manual. If you .nd mistakes or if you know of a way to improve these
procedures, please let us know. Mail your letter or DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes
to Publications and Blank Forms) located at the back of this manual, directly to: Commander,
U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, ATTN: AMSAM-MMA-NP, Redstone Arsenal, AL
35898-5000. A reply will be furnished to you. You may also provide DA Form 2028 information
to AMCOM via e-mail, fax, or the World Wide Web. Our fax number is: DSN 788-6546 or
Commercial 256-842-6546. Our e-mail address is [email protected] Instructions for
sending an electronic 2028 may be found at the back of this manual immediately preceding the
hard copy 2028. For the World Wide Web use: https://amcom2028.redstone.army.mil.
OZONE DEPLETING CHEMICAL INFORMATION
This document has been reviewed for the presence of Class I Ozone Depleting Chemicals by the AMCOM G-4 (Logistics)
Environmental Division. As of the base document through C04, dated 15 March 2001, all references to Class I Ozone
Depleting Chemicals have been removed from this document by substitution with chemicals that do not cause atmospheric
ozone depletion EXCEPT Bromotri.uoromethane (CF3BR); Fire Extinguisher Agent (Halon 1301).
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL INFORMATION
This document has been reviewed for the presence of SOLVENTS containing hazardous materials as defined by the EPCRA
302 and 313 lists by the AMCOM G-4 (Logistics) Environmental Division. As of the base document through C04, dated
15 March 2001, all references to SOLVENTS containing hazardous materials have been removed from this document by
substitution with nonhazardous or less hazardous materials were possible.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 9
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY
INDEX
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
TOOL PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
MEASURING TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
GENERAL MAINTENANCE TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
PNEUMATIC TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
ELECTRICAL POWER TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
SPECIAL AIRCRAFT TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
TORQUE TOOLS AND TORQUE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary-1
............................................................................
Index-1
* This manual together with TM 1-1500-204-23-1 through TM 1-1500-204-23-8 and TM 1-1500-204-23-10, dated 31 July 1992, supersedes
TM 55-1500-204-25/1, dated 6 April 1970, including all changes.
Change 5
i/(ii Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1-1. Purpose. This volume provides general information
pertaining to tools and ground equipment used in aircraft
maintenance. The application of materials and
techniques used on specific aircraft is not covered in this
volume. Specific aircraft application, usage, and
substitution are found in the individual aircraft
maintenance manuals. This volume is of maximum
benefit to the mechanic who desires information about the
various types of tools and ground support equipment used
in aircraft maintenance. This volume furnishes the
mechanic a source of information about how to perform
various mechanical functions which are used on all
aircraft. This volume is not a requisitioning authority, and
applicable repair parts and special tools list should be
consulted to obtain the unit of issue and National Stock
Number of the items required for maintenance.
1-2. Scope. General information to guide aircraft
maintenance personnel is covered within this volume;
however, no attempt has been made to include special
parts or equipment which are applicable only to individual
or specific aircraft. General tool procedures and practices
are discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes
measuring tools, while basic tools are covered in Chapter
4. Pneumatic and electric tools are discussed in Chapter
5 and Chapter 6. Special aircraft maintenance tools are
covered in Chapter 7. Principles of torque and torque
tools are described in Chapter 8. Finally, Chapter 9
covers ground support equipment.
1-3. Consumable Materials. Refer to TM 1-150020423-6 for consumable materials in this volume.
1-1/(1-2 blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 2
TOOL PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES
2-1. GENERAL. This chapter discusses general care.
and upkeep of the tools and equipment used in aircraft
maintenance. It is important that the aircraft mechanic
is familiar with these guidelines, so that the aircraft unit
can experience continued mission reliability.
2-2. TYPES OF TOOLS USED IN ARMY AVIATION. The Army aircraft mechanic has a large variety
of tools at his disposal. There are basic hand tools,
measuring tools, power tools, special tools for aircraft,
and torque tools.
2-3. TOOL CARE. The efficiency of a mechanic and
the tools he/she uses is determined to a great extent by
the condition in which the tools are kept. Tools should be
wiped clean and dry before being placed in a tool box. If
their use is not anticipated in the near future, they should
be lubricated to prevent rust. This is especially true if
tools are stored under conditions of extremely humid or
salt air.
a. Cleaning. Proper cleaning is of prime importance in the care of the aircraft maintenance tools.
Listed below are a few simple procedures which are the
basis for proper care of aircraft maintenance tools.
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, is combustible and toxic to eyes, skin and respiratory
tract. Wear protective gloves and goggles/face
shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use
approved respirator as determined by local
safety/industrial hygiene personnel).
Keep
away from open flames or other sources of
ignition.
(1) Wash grease and dirt from tools with degreasing solvent, MIL-PRF-680, and wipe dry with
clean, dry cloth.
(2) Clean serrated jaw faces of pliers, vises,
etc., with a wire brush.
(3) Remove .lings from between teeth of .les
by use of a .le card.
When using air pressure, be extremely careful.
Do not blow stream of air toward yourself or any
other person. Users of air pressure and personnel within the immediate area shall wear safety
glasses, goggles, or face shield. Ear protection
may be required. Pressure will not exceed 30
psig. Failure to comply may result in injury to
personnel.
(4) Wipe excess lubricating oil or residue from
taps and dies. Use clean, dry cloth for wiping. Blow
clean with dry, compressed air.
b. Lubrication. Lubricate all working parts of
cleaned tools with engine oil, MIL-L-6082. Lightly coat
nonworking surfaces with a film of this oil.
c. Storage. Tools should always be kept in their
appropriate storage place, when not in use. A tool box
or case not only keeps the tool protected from dirt, it
also ensures that the tool can be found, as long as it is
returned to its place after use. The tool box should be
locked and stored in a designated area, and an inventory
list maintained for that box.
2-4. TOOL SELECTION. The selection of the proper
tool or size of tool to fit the job is of prime importance.
Using a tool not suited for the job or of incorrect size
can result in damage to the tool, damage to equipment
being maintained, or injury to maintenance personnel.
Proper choice of tools enables the mechanic to perform
his work quickly, accurately, and safely.
2-5. PROHIBITION AGAINST THE USE OF CADMIUM- AND ZINC-PLATED TOOLS ON ARMY AIRCRAFT. Use only chrome-plated steel or unplated steel
tools for disassembly or reassembly procedures. Use
of cadmium - or zinc-plated tools is not permitted since
these platings are prone to chipping and flaking. Should
these chips or flakes become embedded in aircraft
parts galvanic corrosion will result. Should these chips
or flakes enter fuel or oil wetted components they may
eventually clog the filter or produce intergranular attack
of nickel or titanium base alloys at elevated temperature. All tools regardless of type plating should be
serviceable and free of chipping.
Change 5
2-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
2-6. TOOL USE. The following paragraphs describe
general practices regarding the use of tools.
a. Tool Storage. Keep each tool in its proper storage place.
b. Tool Condition. Keep tools free of rust, nicks,
burrs, and breaks.
c. Tool Application. Use each tool only for the
use for which it was designed. For example, do not use
a screwdriver as a chisel, or pliers as a wrench. The
tool and/or the aircraft component may be damaged
beyond repair.
d. Tool Location During a Job. Keep tools within
easy reach and where they cannot fall on the floor or
on machinery. Avoid placing tools above machinery
or electrical apparatus. Serious damage will result if
the too! falls into the machinery after the equipment is
turned on or running.
e. Damaged Tools. Never use damaged tools. A
faulty screwdriver may slip and damage the screw slot
or cause injury to the user. A gauge stretched out of
shape will result in inaccurate measurements.
2-7. TOOL SAFETY. A tool may be efficient, essential
time-saving, and convenient. It can also be dangerous
when used incorrectly. ALWAYS use tools only for the
purpose for which they are designed. In addition to this
requirement, observe the following practices:
a. Inspect tools and equipment for unsafe conditions before starting work.
b.
ment.
Wear proper clothing and protective equip-
c. Mark and remove from service all unserviceable tools.
2-8. SHOP PRACTICES. The practices and procedures described in this chapter pertain to the manufacturing and repair functions of aviation activities and are
applicable to all levels of maintenance.
2-2
a. Shop Housekeeping. Housekeeping is the
yardstick by which the shops in the manufacturing
section are judged. A clean, well arranged shop is a
safe shop and reflects credit on all personnel concerned
with its operation. The following shop practices shall be
observed.
(1) Oil pans or drip pans shall be used where
leaking oil, grease, and similar materials may cause
hazardous accumulations on equipment or floors. All
spills shall be cleaned up immediately. Approved
sweeping compound may be used to remove these
materials from the floor.
Floors shall not be cleaned with volatile or
flammable liquids. A flammable film may remain and cause a fire hazard.
(2) Floors shall be maintained smooth and
clean, free of all obstructions and slippery substances.
Holes and irregularities in floors shall be repaired to
maintain a level surface free from tripping hazards.
(3) All unnecessary materials on walls shall be
removed and projections shall be kept to a minimum.
(4) Aisles shall be clearly defined and kept free
of hazardous obstructions. Where possible, aisles shall
be suitably marked by painting.
(5) All machines, work benches, aisles, etc.,
shall be adequately illuminated.
b. Shop Safety. Unsafe equipment and fire hazards are the main factors to be observed while planning
safety procedures.
(1) Equipment safety. Unsafe equipment shall
be reported immediately. The following equipment
safety practices shall be observed:
(a) Machines shall be located to provide operators with sufficient space to handle materials and perform job operations without interference.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(b)
Bolt down all machinery that can move or
walk due to vibration (drill press, bench grinder, etc.)
(a)
NO SMOKING signs shall be placed in
areas where smoking could create a fire hazard.
(c)
Substantial low resistance conductors
shall be used to ground all stationary and portable
machines, equipment, or other devices in which static
charge may be generated, or which require electrical
circuits of a hazardous nature.
(b)
Personnel shall be trained in the use,
knowledge, and location of shop fire fighting equipment.
(c)
Each shop shall be equipped with fire
extinguishers suited for type of fire most likely to occur.
(d)
Shop machinery shall be operated only
by qualified personnel observing safe practices.
(d)
fire as follows.
(e)
Safety devices, such as guards,
interlocks, automatic releases, and stops, shall always be
kept in operating condition.
(f)
Ensure that all unauthorized personnel
are clear of area before opening valves or energizing
electrical circuits for starting machinery.
(g)
Suitable mechanical guards, such as
enclosures or barricades, shall be permanently installed
on all machinery not already equipped with such to
eliminate danger of injury from moving parts.
(h)
Machinery shall not be adjusted, repaired,
oiled, or cleaned while machine is in operation or power is
on.
(i)
Personnel operating machinery shall wear
protective clothing as prescribed. A protective face shield
or goggles shall be worn when operating a grinder
regardless of whether grinder is equipped with attached
shields.
Use correct fire extinguisher for class of
*
Class A fire (wood, paper, trash, etc). Us
water fire extinguisher.
e
*
Class B fire (oil, paint, fuel, grease, etc).
Use bromotrifluromethane, carbon dioxide or
dry chemical extinguisher with Class B
rating.
*
Class C fire (electrical equipment). Use
bromotrifuoromethane, carbon dioxide or dry
chemical extinguisher with Class C rating.
*
Class D fire (combustible metalsmagnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium,
lithium, and potassium). Use dry powder
type fire extinguisher.
(e)
Oily waste, rags, and similar combustible
materials shall be discarded in self-closing metal
containers which shall be emptied daily.
(f)
in the shop.
(j)
Jewelry shall not be worn while
performing any maintenance.
(g)
(2) Fire safety. A constant vigilance must be
maintained to seek out fire hazards. Fire hazards are
constantly present in the shop where sparks, friction, or
careless handling can cause an explosion that may
destroy equipment or buildings, and injure or kill
personnel. Refer to AR 385-10, The Army Safety
Program and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of
1971. The following fire safety practices shall be
observed:
Flammable materials shall not be stored
Use only approved cleaning solvents.
2-9. Tool Boxes. Tool boxes are used for storing tools.
They are usually made of steel. Portable tool boxes are
used for carrying and storing a variety of hand tools. Tool
bags are usually made of canvas. Like the boxes, they
are available in a variety of sizes and serve similar
functions. Typical tool boxes are shown in figure 2-1.
2-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 2-1. Typical Tool Boxes
2-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 3
MEASURING TOOLS
(2)
Machinist's level. The machinist's level,
shown in figure 3-2, has an extra large vial. This
increases its accuracy and sensitivity. Some of these
levels have grooved bottoms which fit over pipes and
shafts. They are used in machine shops for leveling work
and equipment.
3-1. General. In the maintenance of Army aircraft, the
fabrication of many parts may be required. During this
process, accurate measurements must be made before
and during the fabrication procedure. A partly finished or
a finished part must also be checked for accuracy. This
inspection includes comparing the dimensions of the
workplace with the required dimensions shown on a
drawing or sketch. These measurements are made using
a variety of measuring tools. The accuracy of the
measurements will depend upon the types of tools used
and the ability of the aircraft repairer to use them
correctly.
(3)
Striding level. The striding level is a
machinist's level which is mounted on a raised base. This
level, shown in figure 3-3, is used to span existing
cabling, piping, or similar obstructions. It is extremely
useful in a machine shop for checking the true horizontal
of the flatway on a lathe.
3-2. Levels. Levels are tools designed to prove whether
a plane or surface is in the true vertical or true horizontal.
All levels consist of a liquid-filled glass tube or tubes
supported in a frame.
a. Types. There are many types of levels used in
aircraft maintenance. Some of these are described
below.
(1) Master precision level. The master
precision level, shown in figure 3-1, has a ground and
graduated main vial. The top and bottom of the level are
milled and ground to make sure both surfaces are
absolutely parallel. This level is used to determine the
true horizontal with the main vial. The true vertical is
determined by using the two smaller vials.
Figure 3-2. Machinist's Level
Figure 3-3. Striding Level
Figure 3-1. Master Precision Level
3-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(4)
Mechanic's level The mechanic's level,
shown in figure 3-4, has 3 vials which are mounted
horizontally, vertically, and diagonally.
Figure 3-4. Mechanic's Level
b. Use. To use a level, simply place it on the
surface to be checked. Inspect the vial which is nearest
to the horizontal. If the surface is level, the bubble will be
situated between the two etched lines on the vial. A level
condition is shown in figure 3-5.
Figure 3-6. Plumb Bobs
c. Care Handle plumb bobs with care. Do not use
a plumb bob as a hammer or lever. The following
guidelines are to be observed when storing plumb bobs.
(1) For short-term storage, lightly coat plumb
bobs and threads of removable caps with lubricating oil.
(2) For long-term storage, apply a heavy coat
of oil to the threads of removable caps, and to the body of
the plumb bob. Wrap the plumb bob in oil-soaked paper.
Figure 3-5. Level Condition
c. Care. Do not drop or handle a level roughly. To
prevent damage, store it in a rack or other suitable place
when not in use.
(3)
dry place.
Store plumb bobs in protective boxes in a
3-4. Scribers . A scriber is a sharp, hard steel pick. It is
used when laying out work on metal as a pencil is used
when drawing on paper. A scriber should not be used on
Alclad aluminum or aluminum alloy where the scribed line
will not later be removed.
d. Repair. Generally speaking, repair of damaged
levels is not cost-effective. They are usually replaced.
3-3. Plumb Bobs. A plumb bob is a precision instrument
used to establish a true vertical transfer and line-up
reference point.
a. Types. The two basic types of scribers are the
machinist's and the tungsten carbide scribers.
a. Types. Plumb bobs are usually made of brass or
solid steel, as shown in figure 3-6.
(1) Machinist's scriber. The machinist's scriber is used
to mark or score on steel, glass, aluminum, copper or
similar surfaces. There are two basic types of machinist's
scribers; single point pocket, and bent pointstraight point,
as shown in figure 3-7.
b. Use. The correct procedures for the use of the
plumb bob is described and illustrated in the applicable
maintenance manual.
3-2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
d. Repair. Scribers can only be repaired by sharpening. Sharpen scriber points with a small oil stone,
Federal Speci.cation SS-S-736, moistened with lubrication oil.
3-5. TAPES AND RULES. Tapes and rules are the
measuring instruments most often used for all general
measurements. They are graduated into fractions of an
inch that may be expressed as 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32,
and 1/64.
Figure 3-7. Mechanist’s Scribers
(2) Tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide tips
have extremely hard points and are used on hardened
steel or glass.
a. Tapes. There are several kinds and lengths of
tapes, but the one most often used is 6 feet long and
made of .exible steel. It is coiled in a circular case and
may or may not have one end fastened permanently to
the case. It is graduated on one side only in 1/16 and
1/32 inch divisions. A small lip on the end prevents the
tape from sliding completely inside the case and also
easily lines up the end of the tape with the end of a piece
of stock. Examples of typical tapes are shown in .gure
3-8.
b. Use. Following is the basic procedure for the
use of a scriber:
(1) Place material to be marked on a firm surface. Place a steel rule or straight edge on the work
beside the line to be scribed.
(2) Use fingertips of one hand to hold the
straight edge securely. Hold the scriber in your hand as
you would a pencil.
(3) Scribe the line by drawing the scriber along
the straight edge at a 45-degree angle and tipped in the
direction it is being moved.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care of scribers:
(1) Protect points by reversing them in the handle or placing a cork or a piece of soft wood over point.
(2) Keep the scribers clean and lightly oiled.
(3) Stow on a rack or in a box.
Figure 3-8. Typical Tapes
(4) Do not use scribers for other than intended
purposes.
Change 5
3-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
b. Rules. Rules are usually made of flexible or
rigid steel and are 4, 6, or 12 inches long. They are
graduated in 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, and 1/64 inch divisions.
When the total length of a measurement is not too
great, the rule should be used. It is more accurate and
easier to read than the tape. A typical rule is shown in
figure 3-9.
Figure 3-9. Typical Rule
c. Care of Tapes and Rules. To ensure that rules
and tapes will always produce reasonably accurate
measurements, keep them clean and dry. Store rules
and tapes where they will not become bent or damaged.
3-6. SQUARES. Squares are primarily used for testing and checking trueness of an angle or for laying out
lines on materials. Most squares have a rule marked on
their edge. As a result they may also be used for measuring.
a. Types. The common types of squares include
the carpenter’s, try, combination, sliding T-bevel, and
the bevel protractor squares.
(1) Carpenter’s
square. The
carpenter’s
square, shown in figure 3-10, is made up of two parts:
the body or blade, and the tongue. It has inches divided
into eighths, tenths, twelfths, and sixteenths.
(2) Combination
square. A
combination
square is made of the components shown in figure 3-11.
(a) Rule. The combination square has a slotted 12-inch stainless steel rule (9) which is graduated in
eighths, sixteenths, thirty-seconds, and sixty-fourths of
an inch. It can be used as a measuring scale by itself or
with any one of the following components.
(b) Center head. The center head (5), when
attached to the rule, bisects a 90-degree angle. It is
used for determining the center of cylindrical work.
3-4
Figure 3-10. Carpenter’s Square
(c) Protractor. The protractor (7) has a level
(6) and a revolving turret (4) which is graduated in degrees from 0 to 180 or 0 to 90 in either direction. It is
used to lay out and measure angles to within one degree.
(d) Square head. The square head (3) has a
level (6), a scribe (1), and 45-degree (8) and 90-degree
(10). It is used to lay out 45- and 90-degree angles and
to check levelness. It may also be used as a height or
depth gauge.
(3) Bevel protractor square. The bevel protractor is made up of an adjustable blade, and a
graduated dial which contains a vernier scale. The
bevel protractor is used to establish an angle and determine its relationship to other surfaces. The acute
angle attachment is used for measuring acute angles
accurately. This type of square is shown in figure 3-12.
b. Uses of Squares. The following paragraphs
describe the methods for using the various types of
squares.
(1) Carpenter’s square. In layout of sheet metal
or other flat material, the carpenter’s square is used to
mark a square line, as shown in figure 3-13. To mark a
square line, proceed as follows:
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
1.
SCRIBE
6.
LEVEL
2.
LEVEL
7.
PROTRACTOR
3.
SQUARE HEAD
8.
45 DEGREE SIDE
4.
REVOLVING TURRET
9.
RULE
5.
CENTER HEAD
10.
90 DEGREE SIDE
Figure 3-11. Combination Square
Figure 3-12. Bevel Protractor
Figure 3-13. Marking a Square Line
3-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(a) Place the blade or tongue of the square
against the side of the material with the square tilted
slightly so the blade or tongue of the square extends
across the work.
Do not mark on any metal surface with a
graphite pencil. Graphite is cathodic and will
establish the basic for galvanic corrosion.
(b) Mark a line across the work using a marking pencil, MIL-P-83953.
(2) Combination square. The uses of the various parts of the combination square are described in the
following paragraphs.
(a) Center head. The center head can be
used to locate and mark the diameter of a cylinder.
Figure 3-15. Locating Diameter of Cylinder
3 Mark the diameter on the cylinder using
a marking pencil, MIL-P-83953, by drawing a straight
line along the inside edge. Make sure the square does
not slip while marking. This is shown in figure 3-16.
1 As shown in figure 3-14, slide the center
head on the rule and fasten by tightening the setscrew.
Figure 3-16. Marking Diameter of Cylinder
Figure 3-14. Setting the Center Head
Do not mark on any metal surface with a
graphite pencil. Graphite is cathodic and will
establish the basic for galvanic corrosion.
2 Push the center head against the cylinder, as shown in figure 3-15.
3-6
Change 5
(b) Protractor head. The protractor head can
be used to determine the angle of a previously marked
line.
1 Slide the protractor head on the rule as
shown in figure 3-17, and tighten the setscrew.
2 Loosen the protractor adjustment
screws so the protractor may be pivoted about the rule,
as shown in figure 3-18.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-17. Installing Protractor Head on Rule
Figure 3-19. Checking Angle
Figure 3-18. Loosening Protractor Adjustment
Screws
3 Place the rule on the angle being
measured and pivot the protractor head against the
edge. Tighten adjustment screws. See figure 3-19.
protractor.
4 Read the measured angle on the
(c) Square head. The square head can be
used to determine depth.
1 Slide the square head on the rule.
2 Set the flat surface of the square head
above the edge and adjust the rule until it hits the
bottom, as shown in figure 3-20.
Figure 3-20. Determining Depth with the Square
Head
3 Tighten the setscrew.
4 Remove the square and read the
depth indicated on the rule.
3-7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
adjustments. The wing-type divider is available in 6, 8,
and 12 inch lengths, and is shown in figure 3-22.
(5) Bevel protractor. The bevel protractor is
used much the same as the protractor head of the
combination square.
c. Care of Squares. Squares can be maintained by
observing some common precautions:
(1) Make sure squares are kept clean.
(2) Apply a light coat of oil to all metal surfaces
after using.
(3) If a stock is loose, replace the square.
False measurements can be made if the stock is able to
move slightly.
3-7. Dividers. Dividers are tapered steel picks hinged
together on the blunt end. They are used to scribe arcs
and circles and to transfer measurements when laying
out work. They are also used to transfer or compare
measurements directly from a rule.
a. Types. The most common types of dividers are
the spring divider and the wing divider, which are
described in the following paragraphs.
Figure 3-22. Wing Divider
(1) Spring divider. A spring divider consists of
two sharp points at the end of straight legs, held apart
by a spring and adjusted by means of a screw and nut.
The spring divider is available in sizes from 3 to 10
inches in length. It is shown in figure 3-21.
b. Use of Dividers. Dividers can be used to scribe a
circle by using the following procedures (see figure 323):
(1) Set the desired radius on the dividers using
the appropriate graduations on a rule.
(2) Place the point of one of the divider legs on
the point to be used as the center.
(3)
Lean the dividers in the direction of
movement and scribe the circle by revolving the
dividers.
c. Care of Dividers. The following procedures
describe the care and maintenance of dividers:
(1) Keep dividers clean and dry.
Figure 3-21. Spring Divider
(2) Store dividers where they will not become
bent or broken.
(2) Wing divider. A wing-type divider has a
steel bar that separates the legs, a lock nut for setting a
rough measurement, and an adjustment screw for fine
3-8
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Spring-joint calipers. The spring-joint
calipers have the same type of legs, but are joined by a
strong spring hinge, screw, and adjustment nut. They
are shown in .gure 3-25.
Figure 3-23. Scribing a Circle with Dividers
(3) Sharpen divider points with a small oil stone,
Federal Specification SS-S-736, moistened with engine
oil, MIL-L-6082. Keep points toward inside of legs so
that points meet when legs are closed. Hold dividers
stationary and stroke with oil stone.
Figure 3-24. Simple Calipers
3-8. CALIPERS. Calipers are used to measure diameters. Outside calipers measure outside diameters. Inside calipers measure inside diameters. Simple calipers
are used along with a scale to find the measurement.
Slide calipers and vernier calipers have their own scales.
They are more accurate than a ruler, and when used
properly with a micrometer, they can be used to take
measurements to within 0.0001 inch.
a. Types of Calipers. There are a variety of
caliper styles available to the aircraft repairer. The
following paragraphs describe these types.
(1) Simple calipers. The simple outside
calipers are bowlegged. Those used for inside diameters have straight legs with feet turned outward.
Calipers are adjusted by pulling or pushing the legs to
open or close them. This type is shown in .gure 3-24.
Figure 3-25. Spring-Joint Calipers
Change 5
3-9
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Transfer calipers. Transfer calipers are
used for measuring chamfered grooves or .anges. A
screw attaches a small auxiliary leaf to one of the legs,
as shown in figure 3-26. The measurement is made as
with ordinary calipers. The leaf is locked to the leg. The
legs may be opened or closed as needed to clear the
obstruction. The legs are then brought back and locked
to the leaf, restoring them to the original setting.
bar has a scale on it and the frame has two index marks
labeled IN and OUT (see figure 3-28). To measure the
outside, diameter of a round bar or the thickness of a flat
bar, the jaws of the caliper are opened and placed over
the stock. The movable jaw is then slid forward until
the jaws just touch the stock. The calipers may then
be removed and the dimension opposite the OUT index
mark can be read. To take an inside measurement, the
jaws are placed inside and spread apart until they just
touch the stock. The dimension may then be read as
before, using the IN index mark.
Figure 3-26. Transfer Calipers
(4) Hermaphrodite calipers. The hermaphrodite calipers have one straight leg ending in a sharp
point, as shown in figure 3-27. On some models this
point is removable. This leg is usually bowlegged.
This caliper is used for finding shaft centers or locating
shoulders.
Figure 3-27. Hermaphrodite Calipers
(5) Slide calipers. Slide pocket calipers have a
fixed jaw fastened to the end of a bar and a movable
jaw fastened to a frame which slides on this bar. The
3-10
Figure 3-28. Slide Caliper
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(6) Vernier calipers. Vernier calipers work like
slide calipers. Shown in figure 3-29, vernier calipers
can make very accurate outside or inside
measurements.
(2) Move the movable jaw (5) along the rule
until the desired position is obtained.
(3) Retighten the locking screw (2) to secure
the movable jaw.
(4) Make fine adjustments to the vernier scale
(4) with the adjustment control (3).
(5) Tighten locking screw (1) and read caliper
in accordance with the following paragraphs.
c. Reading a Vernier Caliper. To read a vernier
caliper, the steel rule and the vernier scales must be
understood. These are shown in figure 3-32.
(1) Steel rule. The steel rule (1) is graduated
in 0.025 inch. Every fourth division (representing 1/10
inch) (3) is numbered.
Figure 3-29. Vernier Caliper
(7) Trammels. The trammel, shown in figure 330, measures distances beyond the range of calipers.
The instrument consists of a rod or beam to which trams
are clamped. The trams carry chucks. The trammel
can also be used as a divider by changing the points.
(2) Vernier scale. The vernier scale (2) is
divided into 25 parts and numbered 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and
25. These 25 parts are equal to 24 parts on the steel
rule (1). The difference between the width of one of the
25 spaces on the vernier scale (2) and one of the 24
spaces on the steel rule (1) is 1/1000 inch.
(3) Reading the measurement. Read the
measurement as outlined below:
Read the number of whole inches on the top
scale (5) to the left of the vernier zero index
(6) and record ........................... 1.000 inch
Read the number of tenths (4) to the left of
the vernier zero index (6) and record ....
.0.400 inch
Read the number of twenty-fifths (7)
between the tenths mark (4) and the vernier
zero index (6) and record 3 x 0.025 = 0.075 inch
Figure 3-30. Trammel
Read the highest line on the vernier scale
(2) which lines up with the lines on the top
scale (5) and record. (Remember that 1/25
= 0.001 inch) . ............... 11/25 = 0.011 inch
b. Use of Calipers. The operation of most calipers
is relatively straightforward. Vernier calipers, however,
can be finely adjusted to provide a very accurate
reading. The following paragraphs describe the
procedures used to make accurate measurements with
vernier calipers (see figure 3 -31):
Total all preceding measurements 1.486 inches
The measurement, therefore, is 1.486 inches.
(1) Loosen the two locking screws (1) and (2).
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
3-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-31. Operation of Vernier Calipers
Figure 3-32. Reading a Measurement on a Vernier Caliper
3-12
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(4) Conversion for inside measurement. Most
vernier calipers read OUTSIDE on one side and INSIDE
on the other side. If a scale is not marked, and an
inside measurement must be taken, read the scale as
for an outside measurement. Then add the measuring
point allowance by referring to the instructions of the
manufacturer or the following:
SIZE OF
CALIPER
ENGLISH
MEASURE
METRIC
MEASURE
6 inch or 150 mm
12 inch or 300 mm
24 inch or 600 mm
36 inch or 600 mm
0.250 inch
0.300 inch
0.300 inch
0.500 inch
6.35 mm
7.62 mm
7.62 mm
12.70 mm
(b) Vernier scale. The vernier scale (4) is
divided into 25 parts and is numbered 0, 5, 10, 15, 20,
and 25.
(c) Reading the measurement. Read the
measurement as outlined below:
Read the total number of millimeters (2) to
the left of the vernier zero index (6) and
record............................................ 32.00 cm
Read the number of quarters (5) between
the millimeter mark and the vernier zero
index (6) and record ....1 quarter = 0.25 mm
(5) Reading a metric caliper. The following
paragraphs describe the procedure for reading a metric
caliper (see figure 3-33).
Read the highest line on the vernier scale
(4) which lines up with a line on the top
scale (7) and record ......................0.18 mm
(a) Steel rule. The steel rule (3) is divided
into centimeters (cm) (1). The longest lines represent
10 millimeters (mm) each. Each millimeter is divided
into quarters.
Total all preceding measurements 32.43 mm
The measurement, therefore, is 32.43 millimeters
Figure 3-33. Reading a Metric Caliper
3-13
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(6) Conversion for inside measurement. If the
metric caliper is not marked for inside or outside
measurements, refer to (4) above for the measuring
point allowance for inside measurements.
from 1 inch to 2 inches, and will measure only work
between 1 and 2 inches thick. A 6-inch micrometer has
a range from 5 to 6 inches, and will measure only work
between 5 and 6 inches thick. It is necessary, therefore,
that the mechanic first find the approximate size of the
work to the nearest inch, and then select a micrometer
that will fit it. With inside and depth micrometers, rods
of suitable lengths, as shown in figure 3-37, are fitted
into the tool to get the approximate dimension within an
inch, after which the exact dimension is obtained by
turning the thimble, as shown in figure 3-38.
d.
Care of Calipers. Following are general
guidelines for the care of all calipers:
(1) Coat metal parts of all calipers with a light
coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2)
provided.
Store calipers in separate containers
(3) Keep graduations and markings on all
calipers clean and legible.
(4) Do not drop any caliper. Small nicks or
scratches can cause inaccurate measurements.
(5) Protect caliper points from damage.
3-9. Micrometers. The micrometer is the most
accurate of the adjustable measuring instruments. The
internal parts of a micrometer are not cut on a lathe, but
are ground to size on a machine grinder.
a. Types. There are three types of micrometers
which are most commonly used: the outside
micrometer; the inside micrometer; and the depth
micrometer.
(1)
Outside micrometer. An outside
micrometer, shown in figure 3-34, is used more often
than any other type. It is used to measure the outside
diameter of shafts, thickness of stock, and to make
other, similar measurements. It is also used to set
inside calipers to a given dimension.
(2) Inside micrometer. An inside micrometer is
used to measure the inside diameters of cylinders, the
width of recesses, and similar work. A typical inside
micrometer is shown in figure 3-35.
(3) Depth micrometer. A depth micrometer,
shown in figure 3-36, is used to measure the depth of
recesses or holes.
b. Selection. The types of micrometers commonly
used are made so that the longest movement possible
between the spindle and the anvil is 1 inch. This
movement is called the range. The size of a
micrometer indicates the size of the largest work it will
measure. Therefore, a 2-inch micrometer has a range
Figure 3-34. Outside Micrometer
3-14
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-35. Inside Micrometer
Figure 3-38. Using Inside Micrometer
Figure 3-36. Depth Micrometer
c. Use. The following paragraphs discuss the basic
use of the outside and inside micrometers.
(1) Outside micrometer. As shown in figure 339, the micrometer is held in one hand and the stock in
the other. The thimble is turned until the anvil and
spindle just touch the stock. The micrometer is then
read for an accurate measurement.
(2) Inside micrometer. The normal procedure in
using an inside micrometer is to set it across a diameter
or between the inside surfaces, remove it, and then read
the dimension. For this reason, the thimble on an inside
micrometer is much stiffer than on a micrometer caliper
it holds the dimension well. It is good practice to verify
the reading of an inside micrometer by measuring it with
a micrometer caliper.
Figure 3-37. Extension Rods for Inside and
Depth Micrometers
(a) Technique. Figure 3-40 shows an inside
micrometer with extension rod being used to check the
diameter of a bored hole. Note the arrows which
indicate the direction the operator is feeling for the
largest dimension horizontally and the smallest
dimension vertically. Inside micrometers have spherical
contact points which require more practice to feel the
full measurement of the diameter. One contact point is
generally held in a fixed position and the other rocked in
different directions to
3-15
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
be sure the tool is spanning the true diameter of a hole
or the correct width of a slot.
(b) Handle attachment. For probing a deep
hole or a restricted place, a handle attachment may be
used. The handle clamps on to the body of the
micrometer.
d. Reading a Standard Micrometer. Reading a
micrometer is a matter of reading the micrometer scale
or counting the revolutions of the thimble, and adding to
this any fraction of a revolution (see figure 3-41).
(1) Spindle movement. The micrometer screw
has 40 threads per inch. This means that one complete
and exact revolution of the thimble (3) moves the
spindle (2) toward or away from the anvil (1) exactly
1/40 or 0.025 inch.
(2)
Barrel measurements. The following
paragraphs describe the markings which are inscribed
on the micrometer barrel and thimble (see figure 3-42).
Figure 3-39. Using Outside Micrometer
(a) Barrel lines. The lines on the barrel (1)
conform to the pitch of the micrometer screw under the
Figure 3-41. Parts of a Micrometer
Figure 3-40. Using Inside Micrometer with
Extension Rod
3-16
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
thimble (3). Each line represents 0.025 inch (5), and
each fourth line is numbered, representing tenths of an
inch (2).
(b) Thimble lines. The beveled edge of the
thimble is graduated into 25 parts, each line representing 0.001 inch (4). One complete and exact revolution
of the thimble will indicate 0.025 inch. Every fifth line is
numbered to assist in reading these marks.
1.
BARREL
4.
0.001 INCH DIVISIONS
2.
0.1 INCH DIVISIONS
5.
0.025 INCH DIVISIONS
3.
THIMBLE
(3) Reading a measurement. A measurement
can be read as follows:
Figure 3-42. Reading a Measurement on a
Micrometer
Read the highest whole number visible on the barrel (2) and record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 = 0.200 inch
Count the number of lines visible between the 2 and the thimble edge (5) and record . . . . . . . . 1 = 0.025 inch
Locate the line on the thimble (3) that coincides with or has passed the horizontal line in the barrel (4) and
record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 = 0.016 inch
Total all preceding measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.241 inch
The measurement, therefore, is 0.241 inch.
e. Reading a Vernier Micrometer. Reading the
vernier micrometer is the same as reading the standard
micrometer. A vernier micrometer is shown in figure
3-43. An additional step must be taken, to add the
vernier reading to the dimensions. This allows for
precise measurements which are accurate to 1/10,000
(0.0001) of an inch. This scale furnishes the .ne readings between the lines on the thimble rather than making
an estimate as you would on a standard micrometer.
(1) Vernier scale. The ten spaces on the vernier
scale (2) are equivalent to 9 spaces on the thimble (3).
Therefore, each unit on the vernier scale is equal to
0.0009 inch and the difference between the sizes of the
units on each scale is 0.0001 inch.
(2) Reading the measurement. A measurement can be read as follows:
Read the highest whole number visible on the barrel (6) and record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 = 0.200 inch
Count the number of lines visible between the 2 on the barrel and the thimble edge (5) and record . . . 3
= 0.075 inch
Locate the line on the thimble (3) that coincides with or has passed the horizontal line in the barrel (4) and
record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 = 0.011 inch
Locate the line on the vernier scale (2) that coincides with a division line on the thimble (3) and record 2
= 0.0002 inch
Total all preceding measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2862 inch
The measurement, therefore, is 0.2862 inch
f. Reading the measurement. Reading a Metric
Micrometer. The same principle is applied in reading
the metric graduated micrometer, but some changes in
graduations are used. These graduations are shown in
.gure 3-44.
(1) Reading the measurement. Spindle movement. The pitch of the micrometer screw under the
3-17
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
thimble is 0.05 millimeters (mm). One revolution of the
thimble advances or withdraws the spindle a distance
equal to 0.5mm.
3-18
Change 5
(2) Barrel graduations. The barrel (1) is graduated in millimeters from 0 to 25. It takes two revolutions
of the thimble to move the barrel 1mm.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
1.
BARREL
2.
VERNIER SCALE
3.
THIMBLE
4.
0.001 INCH DIVISIONS
5.
0.0025 INCH DIVISIONS
6.
0.1 INCH DIVISIONS
Figure 3-43. Reading a Vernier Micrometer
Change 5
3-18.1/(3-18.2 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Thimble graduations. The thimble (3) is
graduated in 50 divisions with every .fth line being
numbered. Each line represents a distance of 1/100, or
0.01mm.
(4) Reading a measurement. A measurement
can be read as follows:
1.
BARREL
2.
0.01 MILLIMETER DIVISION
3.
THIMBLE
4.
1.0 MILLIMETER DIVISION
5.
5. MILLIMETER MULTIPLE DIVISIONS
Figure 3-44. Reading a Metric Micrometer
Read the highest whole number visible on the barrel (5) and record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 = 20.0mm
Count the number of lines visible between the 20 and the thimble edge (4) and record . . . . . . . . . . . 2 = 2.0mm
Locate the line on the thimble (3) that coincides with or has passed the horizontal line in the barrel (2) and
record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 = 36/100 = 0.36mm
Total all preceding measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.36mm
The measurement, therefore, is 22.36 millimeters.
g. Transferring Measurements from Inside
Caliper or Inside Micrometer to Micrometer
Caliper. When it becomes necessary to transfer a
measurement from an inside caliper to an outside
caliper, perform the following procedures:
(1) After setting inside caliper or inside micrometer to the work, hold the micrometer caliper in one hand
and the inside tool in the other hand.
(2) Turn the thimble of the micrometer caliper
with the thumb and forefinger until the inside tool legs
lightly contact the anvil and spindle of the micrometer
caliper.
(3) Hold the tips of the inside tool legs parallel
to the axis of the micrometer caliper spindle.
(4) The micrometer caliper will be accurately set
when the inside tool will just pass between the anvil and
spindle by its own weight.
h. Micrometer Adjustment and Testing. At times
it may become necessary to adjust and/or test the accuracy of a micrometer.
(1) Adjustment. Micrometer may be adjusted to
compensate for thread wear. Adjust as follows.
(a) Unscrew thimble from barrel.
(b) Tighten the thread play adjustment nut on
the fixed nut a fraction of a turn at a time.
(c) Test the fit of the micrometer screw in the
fixed nut.
(d) Repeat the tightening and test in the fixed
nut until the operation is free from binding and play.
(2) Testing. A micrometer is tested for accuracy
as follows:
(a) Clean the measuring faces with a soft
cloth and examine the faces for any lint left by the cloth.
Change 5
3-19
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(b) Measure the length of the micrometer test
gauge of the same length as the minimum capacity of
the micrometer.
(c) The micrometer should read the exact
measurement.
(d) For the 1-inch micrometer, screw the
thimble down until the spindle contacts the anvil. The
reading should be 0.000 inch.
(e) Measure the length of the micrometer test
gauge of the same length as the maximum capacity of
the micrometer.
(f) The micrometer should read its exact
maximum capacity.
i. Care of Micrometers. Observe the following
practices for the care and upkeep of micrometers:
(1) Coat metal parts of all micrometers with a
light coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2) Store micrometers in their separate containers provided by the manufacturer.
(3) Keep graduations and markings on all micrometers clean and legible.
(4) Never drop any micrometer. Small nicks or
dents can cause inaccurate measurements.
3-10. SURFACE GAUGE. A surface gauge is a measuring tool used to transfer measurements to work by
scribing a line, and to indicate the accuracy or parallelism of surfaces.
a. Description. As shown in figure 3-45, the surface gauge consists of a base with an adjustable spindle to which may be clamped a scriber or an indicator.
Surface gauges are made in several sizes and are classified by the length of the spindle. The smallest spindle
is 4 inches long, the average 9 to 12 inches, and the
largest 18 inches. The scriber is fastened to the spindle
with a clamp. The bottom and the front end of the base of
the surface gauge have deep V-grooves. The grooves
allow the gauge to measure from a cylindrical surface.
The base has two gauge pins. They are used against
the edge of a surface plate or slot to prevent movement
or slippage.
b. Adjustment. The spindle of a surface gauge
may be adjusted to any position with respect to the
base and tightened in place with the spindle nut. The
rocker adjusting screw provides for the finer adjustment
3-20
Change 5
of the spindle by pivoting the spindle rocker bracket.
The scriber can be positioned at any height and in any
desired direction on the spindle by tightening the scriber
nut. The scriber may also be mounted directly in the
spindle nut mounting, in place of the spindle, and used
where the working space is limited and the height of the
work is within range of the scriber.
c. Setting Height on a Surface Gauge. To set a
surface gauge for height, proceed as follows:
(1) Wipe off the top of a layout table or surface
plate and the bottom of the surface gauge.
(2) Place the squaring head of a combination
square on a flat surface as shown in figure 3-46.
NOTE
If a combination square is not available, use
a rule with a rule holder. A rule alone cannot
be held securely without wobbling, and consequently an error in setting generally results.
(3) Secure the rule in the squaring head so that
the end of the rule is in contact with the surface.
(4) Move the surface gauge into position, and
set the scriber to the approximate height required, using
the adjusting clamp that holds the scriber onto the spindle.
(5) Make the final adjustment for the exact
height required with the adjusting screw on the base of
the gauge.
d. Care of Surface Gauge. Observe the following
practices for the care and upkeep of surface gauges:
(1) Coat all metal parts of the gauge with a light
coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2) Carefully store the gauge in the separate
container provided by the manufacturer.
(3) Do not drop any surface gauge. Small nicks
and scratches can result in inaccurate measurements.
(4) Protect all pointed parts from damage.
3-11. DEPTH GAUGES. Depth gauges are used to
measure the distance from a surface to a recessed
point.
a. Types. The three common types of depth
gauges are the rule depth gauge, the micrometer depth
gauge, and the vernier depth gauge.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-45. Surface Gauge
head is especially designed to bridge holes and slots.
The vernier depth gauge has the range of the rule depth
gauge and not quite the accuracy of a micrometer depth
gauge. It cannot enter holes less than 1/4 inch in
diameter, whereas a micrometer depth gauge will enter
a 3/32-inch hole. However, it will enter a 1/32-inch slot,
whereas a micrometer depth gauge will not. The vernier
scale is adjustable and may be adjusted to compensate
for wear.
(1) Rule depth gauge. The rule depth gauge,
shown in figure 3-47, is a graduated rule with a sliding
head designed to bridge a hole or slot, and hold the rule
perpendicular to the surface from which the
measurement is taken. This type has a measuring
range from 0 to 5 inches. The sliding head has a
clamping screw so that it may be clamped in any
position. The sliding head is flat and perpendicular to
the axis of the rule and ranges in size from 2 to 2 5/8
inches wide and from 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick.
b. Operation of Depth Gauges. The following
paragraphs describe operating procedures for each of
the depth gauge types described above.
(2) Micrometer depth gauge. The micrometer
depth gauge, shown in figure 3-48, consists of a flat
base attached to the barrel of a micrometer head.
These gauges have a range from 0 to 9 inches,
depending on the length of extension rod used. The
hollow micrometer screw itself has a range of either 1/2
or 1 inch. Some are provided with a ratchet stop. The
flat base ranges in size from 2 to 6 inches. Several
extension rods are normally supplied with this type of
gauge.
(1) Rule depth gauge. To measure the depth of
a hole or slot with reasonable accuracy, proceed as
follows:
(3) Vernier depth gauge. The vernier depth
gauge, shown in figure 3-49, consists of a graduated
scale, either 6 or 12 inches long, and a sliding head
similar to the one on the vernier caliper. The sliding
3-21
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-48. Micrometer Depth Gauge
Figure 3-46. Setting Height on a Surface Gauge
Figure 3-49. Vernier Depth Gauge
(a) Hold the body of the depth gauge
against the surface from which the depth is to be
measured.
(b) Extend the rule into the hole or slot.
setting.
Figure 3-47. Rule Depth Gauge
(c)
Tighten the setscrew to maintain the
(d) Withdraw the tool from the work and
read the depth on the rule.
(2) Vernier depth gauge . To measure the depth
of a hole or slot with more accuracy than is possible with
a rule depth gauge, proceed as follows:
3-22
TM 1-1500-20423-9
(a) Place the vernier depth gauge over the
slot, as shown in figure 3-50.
the slot.
(a) Place the micrometer depth gauge over
(b) Adjust the thimble until the contact of the
spindle causes the ratchet stop to slip.
(c) Remove the micrometer from the work
and read in accordance with paragraph 3-9.
NOTE
If extension rods are used, the total depth
reading will be the sum of the length of
the rods plus the reading on the
micrometer.
c. Care of Depth Gauges . Observe the following
practices for the care and upkeep of depth gauges:
(1) Coat all metal parts of depth gauges
with a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2) Carefully store depth gauges in
separate containers provided by the manufacturer.
(3) Keep graduations and markings
clean and legible.
Figure 3-50. Using a Vernier Depth Gauge
(b) With clamping screws (1) and (3) loose,
slide the rule down into the slot being measured until it
is almost in contact.
(4) Do not drop a
ny depth gauge.
Small nicks and scratches can result in inaccurate
measurements.
(c) Tighten clamping screw (1) to make the
horizontal adjusting screw (2) operative.
3-12. Height Gauges. Height gauges are used to
measure the vertical distance of a point from a surface,
as shown in figure 3-51.
(d) With the horizontal adjusting screw (2),
adjust the rule to the first sense of contact between the
end of the scale and the bottom of the slot.
(3).
(e) Secure the setting with clamping screw
(f) Read the scale in accordance with
paragraph 3-8c.
(3) Micrometer depth gauge. To measure the
depth of a hole or slot with even more accuracy than is
possible with either the vernier or the rule depth gauges,
proceed as follows:
Figure 3-51. Typical Height Gauge
3-23
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
a. Operation. Height gauges usually have vernier
scales, and are operated similarly to depth gauges, as
outlined in paragraph 3-11b(2). The clamping screws
ensure that the measuring arm will not slip after the
gauge is removed from the object being measured.
b. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of height gauges:
(1) Coat all metal parts of height gauges with
a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2) Carefully store height gauges in separate
containers provided by manufacturer.
legible.
(3) Keep graduations and markings clean and
(4) Do not drop any height gauge. Small
nicks and scratches can cause inaccurate
measurements.
3-13. Thread Gauges. Thread gauges are used to
determine the pitch and number of threads per inch on
threaded fasteners. They consist of leaves whose
edges are toothed to correspond to standard threads. A
typical thread gauge is shown in figure 3-52.
Figure 3-53. Using Thread Gauges
(1) Coat metal parts of thread gauges with a
light film of oil to prevent rust.
(2) Store gauges in separate containers.
legible.
(3) Keep graduations and markings clean and
(4) Do not drop thread gauges. Small nicks
and scratches will result in inaccurate measurements.
Figure 3-52. Thread Gauge
3-14. Plug Gauges. Thread gauges provide a fast and
reliable method of determining whether internal and
external threads match. One disadvantage of their use
is that part of the thread tolerance must be built into the
thread gauge. For more precise measurement of thread
pitch, plug gauges are used.
a. Use. To measure the unknown pitch of a
thread, compare it with the standard of the thread
gauge. Various leaves are held to the threads until an
exact fit is found, as shown in figure 3-53.
b. Reading. The number of threads per inch is
indicated on the leaf which is found to exactly match the
threads being measured. Using this value as a basis,
correct sizes of nuts, bolts, screws, taps, and dies are
selected for use.
a. Use. GO and NO GO plug gauges are used to
inspect internal threads. They are available as separate
tools or with both ends combined in one tool, as shown
in figure 3-54. Threads are inspected as follows:
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of thread gauges:
(1) GO gauge. For an internal thread to be
accepted, the GO plug gauge must pass through the
entire length of the thread.
3-24
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-54. Plug Gauges
(2) NO GO gauge. An internal thread within
limits must not accept the NO GO gauge past 1 1/2
turns.
Figure 3-55. Ring Gauges
b. Care. Ensure that plug gauges are carefully
handled, as the threads are machined to within very fine
tolerances, and any damage will alter the accuracy of
the measurements. Observe the following additional
practices for the care and upkeep of plug gauges:
(1) Coat metal parts with a light film of oil to
prevent rust.
Figure 3-56. Flanged Ring Gauge
(2) Store gauges in separate containers
provided by the manufacturer.
3-15. Ring Gauges. Ring gauges, shown in figure 355, are used as standards to determine whether or not
one or more dimensions of a manufactured post are
within specified limits. They are nonadjustable, and
therefore called fixed gauges.
a. Description. The ring gauge is an external
gauge of circular form. For sizes between 0.059 and
0.510 inch, ring gauges are made with a hardened
bushing pressed into a soft body. The thickness of the
gauge ranges from 3/16 to 1 5/16 inches. Ring gauges
made for diameters of 0.510 to 1.510 inches are made
in one piece, without the hardened bushing. Gauges
ranging in diameter from 1.510 to 5.510 inches are
made with a flange, as shown in figure 3-56, which
reduces the weight and makes them easier to handle.
There are two types of ring gauges; the GO and the NO
GO gauges (see figure 3-57).
Figure 3-57. Ring Gauge Types
(1) GO ring gauges. GO ring gauges are
larger than NO GO gauges. The outer surface of the
ring is knurled.
3-25
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
c. Use. Ring gauges are used more often in the
inspection of finished parts than parts in process. The
reason for this is that the finished parts are usually
readily accessible; whereas, parts in a machine that are
supported at both ends would have to be removed to be
checked. A part such as a pivot stud is checked by
performing the following procedures (see figure 3-58):
(2) NO GO ring gauges. The NO GO gauges
are slightly smaller than GO gauges, and are
distinguished by an annular groove cut in the knurled
outer surface of the ring.
b. Tolerances. Depending on the use, ring gauges
are manufactured to different tolerances. The following
classes of gauges and their limits of accuracy are
standard for all makes:
Class X-
(1) Line the stud up with the hole in the GO
gauge, and gently press it in. If the stud will not go in,
the shank is too large. If it will go in, the stud is not
oversize.
Precision lapped to close tolerances
for many types of masters and the
highest quality working and
inspection gauges.
Class Y-
Good lapped finish to slightly
increased tolerances.
Class Z-
Commercial finish (ground and
polished, but not fully lapped) with
fairly wide tolerances.
(2) With the stud in the hole, check the piece
for taper and out-of-roundness by gently shaking it and
sensing any wobble.
(3) After checking the part in the GO gauge,
check it in the NO GO gauge. If the stud is within
desired limits, it will not go into the gauge.
NOTE
Class ZZ- Ground only to meet the demand for
an inexpensive gauge, with liberal
tolerances.
The GO ring gauge controls the
maximum dimension of a part and NO
GO plug gauges control the minimum
dimension of a hole. Therefore, GO
gauges control the tightness of fit of
mating parts and NO GO gauges control
the looseness of fit of mating parts.
Tolerances for ring gauges in each class are listed in
table 3-1.
Table 3-1. Ring Gauge Tolerances
To and
Above Including
0.029
0.825
1.510
2.510
4.510
6.510
9.010
0.825
1.510
2.510
4.510
6.510
9.010
12.010
x1
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.00010
0.00013
0.00016
0.00020
y2
0.00007
0.00009
0.00012
0.00015
0.00019
0.00024
0.00030
1 Precision lapped
2 Lapped
3 Ground or polished (grinding marks may be in evidence)
4 Ground only
3-26
z3
ZZ4
0.00010
0.00012
0.00016
0.00020
0.00025
0.00032
0.00040
0.00020
0.00024
0.00032
0.00040
0.00050
0.00064
0.00080
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
STEP 1. INSERT PART INTO GO GAUGE.
STEP 2. CHECK FOR LOOSENESS BY GENTLY SHAKING.
STEP 3. ATTEMPT TO INSERT PART INTO NO GO GAUGE.
Figure 3-58. Using Ring Gauges
3-27
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
d.
Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of ring gauges:
(1) Always make certain that the surfaces of
the parts gauged and the gauge itself are kept free from
abrasives, dirt, grit, chips, and all foreign matter.
(2) Always consider the abrasive action of
the part on the gauge. Cast iron, steel, and cast aluminum
are more abrasive than brass, bronze, and nonmetals such
as plastics. Use particular care when gauging cast iron,
steel, and cast aluminum.
(3) When gauges are stored, arrange them
neatly in a drawer or case so that they do not contact other
tools or each other.
(4) Always hold the gauges in your hands
when checking. Never clamp them in a vise.
(5) At frequent intervals, check all gauges
for accuracy and wear with gauge blocks or master gauges.
3-16. Snap Gauges. Snap gauges, shown in figure 3-59,
are used as standards to determine whether or not one or
more dimensions of a manufactured post are within
specified limits.
a.
Description. The snap gauge is made in two
general types, the nonadjustable and the adjustable.
(1) Nonadjustable. The nonadjustable type
is a solid construction, having two gauging members, GO
and NO GO, as shown in figure 3-60. The part to be
inspected is first tried on the GO side and then the gauge is
reversed and the part is tried on the NO GO side. Some
solid snap gauges, shown in figure 3-61, have combined
gauging members in the same set of jaws as shown above,
known as a progressive snap gauge. The outer member
gauges the GO dimension, and the inner member the NO
GO dimension.
Figure 3-59. Snap Gauges
(2) Adjustable. Three standard designs of
the adjustable type are available, consisting of a light, rigid
frame with adjustable gauging pins, buttons, or anvils.
These pins or buttons may be securely locked in place
after adjustment, and locking screws are tightened to hold
the gauging dimensions.
(a) First type. One type of adjustable
snap gauge is made in sizes that range from 1/2 to 12
inches. It is equipped with four gauging pins and is suitable
for checking the dimension between surfaces. It is shown
in figure 3-62.
Figure 3-60. Solid Nonadjustable Snap Gauge
3-28
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(b) Second type. Another type is
made in sizes that range from 1/2 to 11-1/4 inches. It is
equipped with four gauging buttons and is suitable for
checking flat or cylindrical work. This type is shown in
figure 3-63.
(c) Third type. The third type is
made in sizes from 1/2 to 11-5/8 inches. Shown in
figure 3-64, it is equipped with two gauging buttons and
a single block anvil, and is especially suitable for
checking the diameters of shafts, pins, studs, and hubs.
Good lapped finish to slightly
increased tolerances.
Class Z
Commercial finish (ground and
polished, but not fully lapped) with
fairly wide tolerances.
Tolerances for snap gauges in each class are listed in
table 3-2.
c.
Using an Adjustable Snap Gauge. The
following paragraphs describe the procedures for setting
the snap gauge, and measuring flat and cylindrical
parts.
b.
Tolerances. Depending on the use, snap
gauges are manufactured to different tolerances. The
following classes of gauges and their limits of accuracy
are standard for all makes:
Class X
Class Y
(1) Setting the snap gauge. Before an
adjustable snap gauge can be used to check parts, the
GO and NO GO buttons, pins, or anvils must be set to
the proper dimensions.
Precision lapped to close tolerances
for many types of masters and the
highest quality working and inspection
gauges.
Figure 3-61. Progressive Snap Gauge
Figure 3-63. Snap Gauge for Checking Flat or
Cylindrical Work
Figure 3-62. Snap Gauge for Checking Dimension
Between Surfaces
Figure 3-64. Snap Gauge for Checking
Diameters
3-29
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Table 3-2. Snap Gauge Tolerances
To and
Including
Above
0.029
0.825
1.510
2.510
4.510
6.510
9.010
0.825
1.510
2.510
4.510
6.510
9.010
12.010
X1
Y2
Z3
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.00010
0.00013
0.00016
0.00020
0.00007
0.00009
0.00012
0.00015
0.00019
0.00024
0.00030
0.00010
0.00012
0.00016
0.00020
0.00025
0.00032
0.00040
1
Precision lapped
Lapped
3
Ground or polished (grinding marks may be in evidence)
2
or a holder.
(a)
(d) Tighten the locking screws with
the master precision piece still in place.
Clamp the snap gauge in a vise
CAUTION
piece.
To prevent damage to the gauge from the
jaws of the vise, cover the jaws of the
vise with blocks of wood or sheets of soft
metal, such as brass.
(e)
Remove the master precision
(f)
Recheck the gauge to ma
ke
sure the dimensions have not changed before using the
gauge.
NOTE
This procedure describes adjusting the
GO dimension first; however, either the
GO or the NO GO dimension may be
adjusted first.
(b) As shown in figure 3-65, turn
the locking screw (2) and turn the adjusting screws (1)
until the dimension is set (3).
NOTE
The desired dimension may be taken
from a master disc, a precision gauge
block, or a master plug.
LEGEND
1. ADJUSTING
2. LOCKINGSCREW
3. GAUGEFOOT
(c) Turn the other adjusting screw
until the NO GO dimension is set.
Figure 3-65. Adjusting the Snap Gauge
3-30
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Gauging flat parts. Flat parts may be
measured as follows (see figure 3-66):
(a) Position the gauge so that the pins
or buttons are square with the flat surfaces on the part.
(b) Using a slight hand pressure, push
the gauge over the part.
NOTE
•
If the part is within limits, the
NO GO pins will stop the part.
•
If the part is undersized, it will
be possible to push it past the
NO GO pins.
MEASURING GO DIMENSION
(3) Gauging cylindrical parts. Cylindrical
parts may be measured as follows:
(a) Place the gauge on the part, with
the solid anvil on top, as shown in figure 3-67. Rock the
gauge as indicated by the shaded area.
NOTE
If the shaft is not oversized, the first button
will pass over it easily, as shown in figure 368.
(b) Move the gauge to the position
shown in figure 3-69. If the NO GO button stops the
gauge, the shaft is within limits.
NOTE
MEASURING NO GO DIMENSION
If the shaft can be moved onto or past the
NO GO position, the diameter is too small.
d.
Care of Snag Gauges. Observe the following
practices for the care and upkeep of snap gauges:
(1) Always make certain that the surfaces of
the parts gauged and the snap gauge itself are kept free
from abrasives, dirt, grit, chips, and all foreign matter.
(2) Always consider the abrasive action of
the part on the gauge. Cast iron, steel, and cast aluminum
are more abrasive than brass, bronze, and nonmetals such
as plastics. Use particular care when gauging cast iron,
steel, and cast aluminum.
UNDERSIZE PART
Figure 3-66. Gauging Flat Parts
3-31
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) When snap gauges are stored, arrange
them neatly in a drawer or case so that they do not contact
other tools or each other.
(4) Always hold the gauges in your hands
when checking. Never clamp them in a vise.
(5) At frequent intervals, check all gauges
for accuracy and wear with gauge blocks or master gauges.
3-17. Thickness Gauge. The thickness gauge consists of
thin leaves, each ground to a definite thickness which is
marked on the leaf. The leaves are usually in sets, with
one end of each leaf fastened in a case. Figure 3-70
shows a typical thickness gauge.
Figure 3-67. Placing Snap Gauge on Cylindrical
Part
a.
Use. The thickness gauge is used to measure
the clearance between two surfaces, such as checking
piston ring gap clearance in a cylinder bore. Another
typical use is shown in figure 3-71.
NOTE
•
Ensure that the leaf is clean before inserting it
into an opening.
•
If a leaf of the proper thickness is not
available, two leaves may be used, the dimensions of
which add up to the required clearance.
Figure 3-68. Correct GO Dimension for
Cylindrical Part
•
Exercise care when using thickness gauges to
measure clearance of knives and cutters on machines. Do
not lower knife on the leaf and then try to remove the
gauge. The leaf may be shaved off if it is too tight.
•
or holes.
Never use thickness gauges for cleaning slots
b.
Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of thickness gauges:
(1) Coat metal parts of thickness gauges
with a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2)
Store gauges in separate containers.
(3) Do not drop thickness gauges. Small
nicks and scratches will result in inaccurate measurements.
Figure 3-69. Correct NO-GO Dimension for
Cylindrical Part
3-32
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
b.
Use. As previously stated, sheet metal and
wire gauges can measure both sheet metal thickness
and wire diameter (see figure 3-72).
(1) Sheet metal. To measure the
thickness of a piece of metal, proceed as follows:
(a) Remove any burrs from the
location where the gauge will be applied.
CAUTION
Do not force the metal into the slot.
Damage to the metal can result.
Figure 3-70. Thickness Gauge
(b) Find the slot that refuses to
pass the metal without forcing.
(c) Try the next larger slots until
one is found that passes the metal. This is the correct
size.
NOTE
The decimal equivalent of the gauge
number is shown on the opposite side of
the gauge.
Figure 3-71. Using a Thickness Gauge
(2) Wire. To measure wire diameter,
proceed as follows:
3-18. Sheet Metal and Wire Gauge. The sheet
metal and wire gauge, shown in figure 3-72, is used for
measuring the diameters of wires or the thickness of
sheet metal.
CAUTION
Do not force the wire into the slot. The
wire can be crimped and possibly
rendered useless.
a.
Types. The type of sheet metal and wire
gauge
to be used depends on the type of material being
measured, as follows:
GAUGE
TYPE
English Standard
American Standard
US Standard
Steel wire gauge
MATERIALS
Iron wire, hot-and coldrolled sheet steel
Non-ferrous sheet metal
and wire
Sheet and plate iron
and steel
Steel wire
Figure 3-72. Measuring Sheet Metal and Wire
3-33
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(a) Find the slot that refuses to
pass the wire without forcing.
(b) Try the next larger slots until
one is found that passes the wire. This is the correct
size.
NOTE
•
Measurements are taken at the slot portion
rather than the cutout portion of the gauge.
•
The decimal equivalent of the gauge
number is shown on the opposite side of the gauge.
Figure 3-73. Fillet and Radius Gauges
c.
Care. Observe the following practices for
the care and upkeep of sheet metal and wire gauges:
(1) Coat metal parts of fillet and radius
gauges with a light film of oil to prevent rust.
(1) Coat metal parts of wire gauges with a
light coat of oil to prevent rust.
and legible.
(2)
Store gauges in separate containers.
(3)
Keep graduations and markings clean
and legible.
(2)
Store gauges in separate containers.
(3)
Keep graduations and markings clean
(4) Do not drop fillet and radius gauges.
Small nicks and scratches will result in inaccurate
measurements.
(4) Do not drop wire gauges. Small nicks
and scratches will result in inaccurate measurements.
3-20. Dial Indicators. A dial indicator is a precision
measuring tool designed for checking items such as
bearing radial and axial play, propeller shaft run out,
bushing and flight control system components for
excessive play. The dial indicator plays an important
part in deciding if a part is worn beyond an allowable
tolerance.
3-19. Fillet and Radius Gauges . Fillet and radius
gauges are used to check the inside or outside corners
(or fillets) of a machined part.
a.
Description. The blades of fillet and radius
gauges are made of hard-rolled steel. The double
ended blades of the gauge have a lock which holds the
blades in position. The inside and outside radii are on
one blade on one of the gauges shown in figure 3-73.
The other gauge has separate blades for inside and
outside measurements. Each blade of each gauge is
marked in 64ths. Each gauge has 16 blades.
a.
Description. The dial indicator consists of a
dial with reading needle and a graduated scale. The dial
indicator has a measuring range from 0.001 to 0.200 of
an inch. The dial is adjustable and has the reading
pointer located on the back of the dial. The indicator
can be mounted in various positions using a special
clamp and tool post holder which is provided in the dial
indicator kit. This assembly is shown in figure 3-75.
b.
Use. Fillet or radius gauges are used to
check the inside or outside corners of a machined part,
as shown in figure 3-74. These gauges can be used in
any position and at any angle for both inside and outside
radii.
b.
Use. Generally speaking, the dial indicator
measures variations from a perfectly circular condition.
Proceed with installation and use as follows:
c.
Care. Observe the following practices for
the care and upkeep of fillet and radius gauges:
3-34
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 3-74. Using Fillet and Radius Gauges
Figure 3-75. Dial Indicator Installed on Propeller
Shaft
NOTE
The following general procedures are used or checking propeller shaft runout. Refer to the applicable
aircraft maintenance manual for specific procedures to be used when use of a dial indicator is required.
(1)
Remove propeller.
(2) Remove one of the nuts securing thrust bearing cap to reduction gear assembly and install a reversible
type dial indicator on the long stud from which the nut was removed (see figure 3-76).
(3)
Adjust dial indicator so that arm point is on propeller shaft at front cone location.
(4) Rotate propeller shaft and note total indicator movement. The maximum allowable runout at front
cone location is found in the applicable aircraft maintenance manual.
(5)
Adjust dial indicator so that arm point is on propeller shaft rear cone location.
(6) Rotate propeller shaft and note total indicator movement. The maximum allowable runout at rear cone
location is found in the applicable aircraft maintenance manual.
c.
Care The dial indicator is a delicate measuring instrument and must be treated as such. Exercise care when
handling so that it is not damaged, as this may result in inaccurate measurements.
3-21. Telescoping Gauges . Telescoping gauges, shown in figure 3-77, are used for measuring the inside size of slots
or holes up to 6 inches in width or diameter. They are T-shaped tools in which the shaft of the T is used as a handle, and
the crossarm used for measuring. The crossarms telescope into each other and are held out by a light spring.
a.
Selection. These tools are commonly furnished in sets, the smallest gauge for measuring the distances from
5/16 to 1/2 inch, and the largest for distances from 3 1/2 to 6 inches.
3-35
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
b.
Use. To use the gauge, the arms are
compressed, placed in the hole to be measured, and
allowed to expand. A twist of the locknut on top of the
handle locks the arms. The tool may then be withdrawn
and the distance across the arms measured. To measure
the diameter of a hole from 1/2 to 6 inches in diameter,
select the tool with the proper range and proceed as
follows:
(1)
handle.
Loosen the knurled nut at the end of the
(2) Telescope the adjustable end of the
gauge of a size slightly smaller than the hole, and retighten
the nut.
(3)
in figure 3-78.
Insert the gauge into the hole as shown
(4)
Loosen the nut to permit the springloaded adjustable end to expand to the hole diameter, and
tighten the nut. The spring-loaded feature will assure
proper contact.
NOTE
Figure 3-76. Checking Propeller Shaft Run Out
Ensure that the gauge is held with the
telescoping end at right angles to the axis of
the hole to measure the true diameter.
(5) Remove the gauge and measure the
setting with an outside micrometer.
c.
Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of telescope gauges:
(1)
Coat metal parts of telescope gauges
with a light film of oil to prevent rust.
Figure 3-77. Telescoping Gauges
and legible.
(2)
Store gauges in separate containers.
(3)
Keep graduations and markings clean
(4) Do not drop telescope gauges. Small
nicks and scratches will result in inaccurate measurements.
3-22. Small Hole Gauges. For measuring smaller slots or
holes than the telescoping gauges will measure, small hole
gauges can be used. These gauges come in sets of four or
more and will measure distances of approximately 1/8 to
1/2 inch. They are shown in figure 3-79.
3-36
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
a. Use. The small hole gauge consists of a small,
split, ball-shaped member mounted on the end of a handle. A hole smaller than 1/2 inch is measured by the following procedures:
(1) Insert the proper size gauge in the hole, as
shown in figure 3-80.
(2) Expand the ball by turning the knurled knob
in the handle until there is a slight drag of the ball on
both sides of the hole.
(3) Withdraw the gauge and measure the ball
with an outside micrometer.
Figure 3-78. Measuring Hole With Telescoping
Gauge
NOTE
Some types of small hole gauges have flattened
ball ends to permit use in shallow holes and
recesses.
b. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of small hole gauges:
(1) Coat metal parts of small hole gauges with
a light .lm of oil to prevent rust.
Figure 3-79. Small Hole Gauges
(2) Store gauges in separate containers.
(3) Keep graduations and markings clean and
legible.
(4) Do not drop small hole gauges. Small nicks
and scratches will result in inaccurate measurements.
Figure 3-80. Measuring Hole with a Small Hole
Gauge
3-37/(3-38 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 4
GENERAL MAINTENANCE TOOLS
4-1. General. The general maintenance tools covered
in this chapter are those tools which are most commonly
used in the maintenance of Army aircraft. Regardless of
the type of work to be done, a mechanic must select and
use the correct tools in order to do his work quickly,
accurately, and safely. Without the correct tools and the
knowledge to use them, he wastes time, reduces his
efficiency, and may even injure himself. This chapter
explains the purposes, correct use, and proper care of
the more common tools.
4-2. Hammers and Mallets . Hammers are striking
tools which are composed of a head made of metal,
plastic, leather, or wood mounted on a handle. The
handle is usually made of wood, although some modern
hammers and mallets have handles made of fiberglass.
Figure 4-2. Body Hammer
a.
Types. The more common types of
hammers and mallets are described in the following
paragraphs.
(1) Ball peen hammer. The ball peen
hammer is the type most often used by mechanics. It
has a steel head and is usually available in 4-, 6-, 8-,
and 12ounces, and 1, 1 1/2-, and 2-pounds. As figure 41 shows, this hammer is identified by the ball-shaped
peen at the opposite end of the face.
Figure 4-3. Riveting Hammer
(4) Setting hammer. The setting hammer
has a square flat face on one end of the head and a
sloping beveled edge on the other end. It is used in
sheet metal work for leveling and bending edges and for
setting double seams. An example of this type of
hammer is shown in figure 4-4.
Figure 4-1. Ball Peen Hammer
(2) Body hammer. A body hammer,
shown in figure 4-2, is used to straighten and form
metal.
Figure 4-4. Setting Hammer
(3) Riveting hammer. The riveting
hammer, shown in figure 4-3, is used for driving rivets
and for light chiseling. One end of the head is cross
peened. The other end may have either a square or a
chamfered face.
4-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(5) Lead or copper hammer. The lead or
copper hammer is usually used for aligning steel
surfaces. Atypical hammer of this type is shown in figure
4-5. The working surfaces of this hammer can be filed
to restore even faces.
damaged by metal hammers. The following paragraphs
describe some of the more common types.
(a) Rawhide mallet. The rawh ide
mallet has a cylindrical head which is made by tightly
wrapping and staking a sheet of leather. It is used for
forming and shaping sheet metal, and is shown in figure
4-7.
Figure 4-5. Lead or Copper Hammer
(6) Soft-faced hammer. The soft-faced
hammer, shown in figure 4-6, is capable of delivering
heavy blows to machined, highly polished, or soft
surfaces without damage to those surfaces. On some of
these hammers, the faces can be removed and replaced
when damaged or when a different hardness or
toughness is required. These faces are color coded
according to their hardness or toughness, as shown in
the following listing:
HARDNESS
Soft
Medium
Tough
Medium-hard
Hard
Extra-hard
SYMBOL
S
M
T
N
H
XH
Figure 4-7. Rawhide Mallet
(b) Rubbermallet. The rubber
mallet shown in figure 4-8 has a cylindrical rubber head.
It is used for forming sheet metal, driving dowels, and
small stakes.
COLOR
Brown
Red
Green
Cream
Black
Yellow
Figure 4-8. Rubber Mallet
Table 4-1 shows which substances provide the required
hardness for a specific application.
(c) Tinner's mallet. The tinner's
mallet shown in figure 4-9 has a cylindrical wooden head
which is from 1 1/4 to 3 1/2 inches in diameter and from
3 to 6 inches in length. It is used to form and shape
sheet metal.
Figure 4-6. Soft-Faced Hammer
Figure 4-9. Tinner's Mallet
(7) Mallets. Mallets are generally made
of softer substances for working items which would be
4-2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-9. Tinner’s Mallet
Change 5
4-2.1/(4-2.2 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Table 4-1. Soft-Faced Hammer Face Substances
Type
Soft
Soft rubber
Wood
Rubber
Hard wood
Lead
Plastic
Rawhide
Micarta
Fiber
Copper
S
S
Medium
Tough
M
M
Medium
hard
Hard
Extra
hard
N
T
T
T
T
M
N
H
N
H
H
H
XH
XH
XH
XH
b.
Safety. The following precautions must be
kept in mind when using hammers:
(a) Check for cracks in the handle.
Replace the handle if cracked.
Do not use a hammer handle for bumping parts in an
assembly. Never use it as a pry bar. Such abuses will
cause the handle to split, which can result in bad cuts or
pinches to the hand. When a handle splits or cracks, do
not try to repair it by binding with string or wire. Replace
it.
(b) Check for a loose head.
Replace missing or temporary wedges to be sure the
head is tight. If the head is not tight, replace the handle.
(c) Periodically rub a small amount
of linseed oil, Federal Specification TT-L-190, into the
wood handle to prevent the wood from drying out and
shrinking.
• Ensure that the head fits tightly on the handle. If it is
loose, it can fly off during use and cause serious injury
to personnel.
worn or chipped.
• Do not strike a hardened steel surface with a steel
hammer. Small pieces of steel may break off and injure
someone in the eye or damage the work.
(d)
Replace hammer if the face is
(e) Lightly lubricate metal parts
when storing the hammer for a lengthy period of time.
(f)
Wipe oil and grease from
rubber mallets to prevent damage to rubber.
• When using metal hammers, always wear eye
protection to prevent metal particles from entering the
eyes.
(2) Care of inserted-face hammers.
Broken or chipped faces may be replaced as follows:
c.
Use When using a hammer or mallet,
ensure that the material will not be damaged by the tool.
The hammer should be gripped near the end of the
handle and should strike the surface evenly.
(a) Remove damaged face by
turning in a counterclockwise direction.
WARNING
d.
Care. Hammers and mallets are maintained
by general maintenance methods and by replacement of
parts. The following paragraphs describe these
procedures.
Use a pair of pliers or a rag on broken
faces to prevent injury to the hands.
(b) Wipe out the face seat in the
hammer head with a clean rag.
(1) General maintenance. Hammers
are inspected and maintained as follows:
4-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(c)
a clockwise direction.
Install the new face by turning in
2 Insert the handle in the head.
CAUTION
with a rubber mallet.
Exercise care when using tools to install
new faces, to prevent damage to the face
surfaces.
3 Seat the handle in the head
4 Drive the wooden wedge in
the handle face with a hammer, as shown in figure 4-12.
(3) Replacing a defective handle. A split
or cracked handle can be replaced using the procedures
in the following paragraphs.
5 Place the hammer in a vise.
Using a handsaw, remove the projecting end of the
wedge.
(a) Removal of old handle. To
remove the old handle, proceed as follows:
6 File the excess portion of the
wedge using a wood rasp.
from the head.
1 If the handle is loose, pull it
2 If the handle is too tight to
pull loose from the head, place the hammer in a vise.
3 Saw off the handle close to
the head, as shown in figure 4-10.
Figure 4-11. New Handle and Wedges
Figure 4-10. Removing Broken Handle
4 Drive the remainder of the
handle through the large end of the head. Save the
wedges.
(b) Installation of new handle. The
new handle is installed as follows:
Figure 4-12. Installing Wedge
1 Obtain a new handle and
wedges, as shown in figure 4-11.
4-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
7 Select the metal wedge and drive it into
the wooden wedge with a hammer.
(1) Common screwdriver. The common, or
standard, screwdriver, shown in figure 4-13, is suitable
for driving or removing slotted screws. The blade must
have sharp corners and fit the screw slot closely. The
size is designated by the length of the shank and blade.
WARNING
Wear eye protection when grinding
metal on a bench grinder. Failure to
comply may result in serious injury to
personnel.
(2) Phillips screwdriver. The Phillips screwdriver
has a blunt cross tip. The tip is ground to a 30-degree
angle, as shown in figure 4-14.
8 Remove the excess portion of the metal
wedge using a bench grinder.
NOTE
(4) Repairing uneven face wear. Uneven face wear
can be repaired by reshaping the worn faces, using the
following procedures:
The Phillips screwdriver is not interchangeable with the Reed and Prince
screwdriver. The use of the wrong type
screwdriver results in mutilation of the
screwdriver and the screw head.
(a) Determine the original shape of the face
by examining an unworn portion or comparing the
hammer to be repaired with another of the same type.
(3) Offset screwdrivers. The offset screwdriver
shown in figure 4-15 is composed of a shank with a
blade on each end. The blades are bent at right angles
to the shank. One is parallel to the shank, the other is
set at 90 degrees. This screwdriver is especially
usefully in performing close work. Some offset
screwdrivers are
WARNING
Wear eye protection when grinding
metal on a bench grinder. Failure to
comply may result in serious injury to
personnel.
(b) Grind the face to the original shape,
dipping in water frequently to avoid overheating.
NOTE
•
Remove only the amount of stock
necessary to repair the face.
•
When grinding mallets, remove equal
amounts of stock from both faces to
retain balance.
Figure 4-13. Common Screwdriver
Figure 4-14. Phillips Screwdriver
4-3. Screwdrivers.
Screwdrivers are tools used for
driving or removing screws. Generally, they consist of a
steel blade and shank set in a handle of wood or plastic.
However, they come in various other shapes, some
being adapted to a particular usage. A large variety of
sizes is available.
Figure 4-15. Offset Screwdriver
a. Types. There are many types of screwdrivers
used in the maintenance of Army aircraft. The following
paragraphs describe the types most commonly used.
4-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
available as ratchet-types, which allow the screw to be
driven without having to remove the tip from the screw
head.
(4) Ratchet screwdrivers. The ratchet, or spiral,
screwdriver shown in figure 4-16 is fast acting in that it
turns the screw when the handle is pulled back and then
pushed forward. It can be set to turn the screw either
clockwise or counterclockwise, or it can be locked in
position and used as a standard screwdriver. The
ratchet screwdriver is not a heavy-duty tool and should
be used only for light work.
•
Do not use a screwdriver for prying,
punching, chiseling, scoring, or scraping.
•
Do not use a screwdriver to check an
electric circuit since an electric arc will
burn the tip and make it useless. In some
cases, an electric arc may fuse the blade
to the unit being checked.
•
When using a screwdriver on a small
part, always hold the part in the vise or
rest it on a workbench. Do not hold the
part in the hand, because the screwdriver
may slip and cause serious personal
injury.
c. Use The following paragraphs describe the use
of various types of screwdrivers.
(1) Proper fit. Select a screwdriver large enough so
the blade fits closely in the screw slot. A loose fitting
blade can slip and cause burring of the screw slot and
damage to the blade. Proper and improper fits are
shown in figure 4-17. It is important that the screwdriver
be held firmly against the screw to prevent it from
slipping and possibly injuring the mechanic or scarring
the work.
(2) Use of screwdriver. A screwdriver is used as
follows:
Figure 4-16. Ratchet Screwdrivers
(a) Insert the screwdriver tip into the screw
slot of the screw.
NOTE
When using a spiral or ratchet
screwdriver, extreme care must be used
to maintain constant pressure and
prevent the blade from slipping out from
the slot in the screw head. If this occurs,
the surrounding structure is subject to
damage.
(b) Turn the screw as required. Keep the
screwdriver in line with the screw.
(3) Use of offset screwdriver. The procedure for
using an offset screwdriver is as follows (see figure 418):
(5) Nonmagnetic screwdriver. The nonmagnetic
screwdriver is shaped like a common screwdriver, but
the blade is made of brass so as to have no magnetic
effect. It is used for compensating compasses.
b. Safety. The following precautions must be kept
in mind when using screwdrivers:
Ensure that the handle of the screwdriver
is clean.
Figure 4-17. Proper Fit of Screwdrivers
4-6
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
d. Repair. Battered or nicked blades may be repaired by grinding to the original shape.
(1) Common screwdrivers. When grinding
common screwdrivers, the tip should be squared and
the sides parallel, as shown in figure 4-19.
(2) Cross-point screwdrivers. Phillips screwdrivers require special holding .xtures for grinding but
can be shaped in an emergency by .ling if the original
angles and bevels are maintained.
NOTE
Dip the screwdriver in water often during the
grinding process to preserve the temper.
Figure 4-18. Using Offset Ratchet Screwdriver
(a) Select the correct style and tip size for the
screw being used.
(b) Insert the tip in the screw slot.
(c) In tight places, alternate tips to complete
screw installation.
(4) Use of offset-rachet screwdriver. An offset-rachet screwdriver is used as follows: (see figure
4-18).
(a) Select the correct style and tip size for the
screw being used.
(b) Set the action selection lever in the
screwdriver for the direction of rotation required.
(c) Insert the tip in the screw slot of the screw
head. Pull the lever to the right or left, depending on
whether the screw is being installed or removed. The
tip does not have to be removed from the screw slot.
(3) Restoring temper. When the tempered portion of the blade has been broken off, ground away, or
overheated, the temper can be restored by the following
process:
(a) Heat about 1 1/2 inches of the blade to a
cherry-red color.
(b) Dip 3/4 inch of the tip into clean, cold water and quickly rub the hardened end with abrasive cloth,
Federal Speci.cation P-C-451, to brighten it.
(c) When a light blue color reaches the tip,
quench the screwdriver in water.
(d) Polish the blade with abrasive cloth, Federal Specification P-C-451.
e. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of screwdrivers:
(1) Do not expose a screwdriver to excessive
heat, because it may reduce the hardness of the blade.
(2) Replace a screwdriver that has a worn or
damaged handle or a rounded tip.
Figure 4-19. Screwdriver Tip Grinding
Change 5
4-7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) After use, wipe the screwdriver clean and
place in a rack or the tool box. For extended storage,
apply a light coat of oil to all metal surfaces and store it
in a dry place.
4-4. WRENCHES. Wrenches are used for tightening
or removing nuts, bolts, or cap screws, and also for gripping round objects such as pipe. They are made of a
relatively hard substance, such as chrome-molybdenum
steel, which enables them to withstand the rigors of normal use.
a. Types. Wrenches used in aircraft maintenance
can be generally categorized as open-end, box-end,
combination, adjustable, socket, hexagonal, and spanner wrenches.
Figure 4-20. Open-End Wrench
(1) Open-end wrenches. Open-end wrenches
have two parallel jaws at each end of a bar, as shown
in figure 4-20. The jaws of an open-end wrench are
usually machined 15 degrees from parallel to the centerline of the wrench, as shown in figure 4-21. The two
ends of each wrench fit consecutively-sized nuts such
as 3/8-and 7/16-inch, 1/2- and 9/16-inch, and so on.
Figure 4-21. Open-End Wrench Jaw Offset
(2) Box-end wrenches. Box-end wrenches
have a head on each end of a bar, as shown in figure
4-22. The head completely surrounds the nut or bolt,
which decreases the chances that the wrench will slip off
the work. Box-end wrenches are available with 6-point
and 12-point openings. These openings are offset from
the shank at a 15-degree angle to allow clearance, as
shown in figure 4-23. A box-end wrench should be
used whenever possible because it provides the best
protection to both the user and the equipment. These
wrenches are sized the same as open-end wrenches.
Figure 4-22. Box End Wrenches
(3) Combination wrenches. The combination
wrench shown in figure 4-24 combines the best features
of the open-end and box wrench into a single wrench.
The size opening on the wrench is the same on both
ends, but one end has a box head and the other end
has an open-end head. The length of the wrench varies
with the size of the head. The box-end opening is offset
from the shank by 15 degrees.
(4) Adjustable wrench. Adjustable wrenches
include crescent, auto, and pipe wrenches, shown in
figure 4-25. These wrenches are generally intended for
use on odd-sized nuts and bolts, and are adjusted by
a knurled worn gear, which moves the movable jaw to
fit the part. Adjustable wrenches are available in sizes
ranging from 4 to 24 inches in length. The jaw capacity
is proportional to the handle length.
4-8
Change 5
Figure 4-23. Box-End Wrench Offset
(5) Socket wrenches. Socket wrenches consist
of a socket and a handle.
(a) Sockets. Sockets are round metal
sleeves with a square opening in one end for insertion
of a handle, and a 6-point or 12-point wrench opening
in the other, as shown in figure 4-26. They are available
in common (short) and deep (long) lengths.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
The drive end can vary from 1/4- to 1-inch. Sockets are
driven by a wide variety of handles.
(b) Handles. There are many types of handles used to drive sockets. The following paragraphs
describe the more common types in use.
Figure 4-24. Combination Wrench
1 Ratchet handle. Ratchet handles may
have either a straight head or a flex head. The flex head
is used to go around objects. Both types have a selection lever on the top of the head to determine the direction of drive. A straight head type is shown in figure 4-27.
Figure 4-27. Ratchet Handle
2 Sliding T-bar handle. The sliding T-bar
handle shown in figure 4-28, has a single head which
may be adjusted along a bar handle. It has two springloaded balls, one for keeping the bar in the head and
the other for keeping the socket on the head. The sliding T-bar is used for increased leverage or for working
around other objects.
Figure 4-25. Adjustable Wrench
3 Hinged handle. A hinged handle has a
hinged adapter on one end which may be rotated in
90-degree steps. The hinged handle is used when additional leverage or torque is needed to loosen nuts or
bolts. This type of handle is shown in figure 4-29.
Figure 4-28. Sliding T-Bar Handle
Figure 4-26. Sockets
Change 5
4-9
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-29. Hinged Handle
4 Speed handle. The speed handle,
shown in figure 4-30, has a brace-type shaft with a
revolving grip on the top. It is used for rapid removal
and/or installation of nuts or bolts, which are out in the
open and have little or no torque.
Figure 4-31. Hexagonal Setscrew Wrench (Allen
Wrench)
suited for the job. Selecting a wrench larger than the nut
or bolt head will often result in rounded corners and additional maintenance time. Arrange work so a wrench
is pulled, not pushed. Never use pipe or other extensions to increase leverage. The following paragraphs
describe the various procedures involved with operating the previously described wrenches.
(1) Use of open-end wrenches. The 15-degree offset of the jaws from the centerline of the wrench
makes the open-end wrench appropriate for use in
some applications where there is room to make only
a part of a complete turn of a nut or bolt. A typical
procedure for this application is shown in figure 4-32
and outlined in the following:
NOTE
Where conditions make it impossible to use a
socket or box-end, an open-end wrench may be
used. The open-end wrench has fewer contact
points than either a socket or box-end and is
more likely to round off the corners of the nut.
Figure 4-30. Speed Handle
(6) Hexagonal wrenches. Hexagonal setscrew
wrenches (Allen wrenches) are L-shaped, headless,
hexagonal bars that range in size from 3/64-to 1/2-inch.
A typical Allen wrench is shown in figure 4-31. They
are used in tightening or removing screws that have
hexagonal recesses.
b. Uses. When using any type wrench, special attention should be given to choosing the one best
4-10
(a) Step 1 shows the wrench, with the opening sloping to the left, about to be placed on the nut.
(b) Position the wrench on the nut (step 2).
Note that space for swinging the wrench is limited.
(c) Move the wrench clockwise to tighten the
nut. The wrench will strike the casting which prevents
further movement (step 3).
(d) Remove the wrench from the nut and turn
counterclockwise to place it on the next set of flats on the
nut.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-32. Use of Open-End Wrench
4-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(h) Continue flipping the wrench as required
until the nut is completely tightened.
(2) Use of box-end wrenches. Box-end wrenches
are very good for final tightening of nuts. The following
procedures describe the typical use of box-end
wrenches:
or bolt.
(a) Select the size of wrench that fits the nut
(b) Place the wrench on the nut or bolt and
turn as required to loosen or tighten.
(c) If there is insufficient room to swing the
wrench in a full circle, as shown in figure 4-33, lift it
completely off the nut when it comes to the limit of the
swing, and place it in a new position, permitting another
swing. A swing through a 15-degree arc is usually
sufficient to continuously loosen or tighten a nut or bolt.
Figure 4-33. Use of Box-End Wrench
NOTE
The corner of the casting may prevent the
wrench from fitting on the nut (step 4).
(3) Use of socket wrenches. Where practical, a
socket wrench is best of loosening or tightening nuts and
bolts. Speed can be attained through the use of
ratchets and speed handles. Length of the handle used
is very important, as very little pressure is required to
strip threads of twist off a small bolt using a long handle.
Extension bars and universal joints enable a mechanic
to get at nuts or bolts that would otherwise be out of
reach or at a difficult angle. Figure 4-34 shows a typical
use of a ratchet wrench. The procedure is outlined as
follows:
(e) If this occurs, flip the wrench over so that
the opening will slope to the right (step 5).
(f) Position the wrench on the next two flats
on the nut (step 6).
(a) Select the size of the socket that fits the
nut or bolt to be turned. Push it onto the handle which is
best suited for the job.
(b) Turn the socket with the handle to tighten
or loosen the nut or bolt.
(4) Use of adjustable wrenches.
Adjustable
wrenches should be used only when wrenches of correct
size are unavailable. They should be properly adjusted
and pulled so the handle moves in the direction of the
adjustable jaw, as shown in figure 4-35. Place the
wrench on the nut so that the force used to turn it is
applied to the stationary jaw side of the wrench
c. Repair. Some repair is possible to certain types
of wrenches. Wrenches can damage nuts and bolts if
the fit is not just right. Generally speaking, repair of
Figure 4-34. Use of Socket Wrench
(g) Turn the wrench clockwise to further
tighten the nut (step 7).
4-12
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-36. Hook Spanner Wrench
(b) Pin spanner.
The pin spanner,
shown in figure 4-37, has a pin in place of the hook.
This pin fits into a hole on the outer edge of the nut.
Figure 4-35. Proper Procedure for Pulling
Adjustable wrenches
wrenches is impractical when compared with the
replacement cost.
d. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of wrenches:
(1) Clean all wrenches after each use.
Figure 4-37. Pin Spanner Wrench
(2) Wrenches that come in sets should be
returned to their cases after use.
(c) Face pin spanner. Face pin
spanners are designed so that the pins fit into holes in
the face of the nut, as shown in figure 4-38.
(3) Apply a thin film of oil to the metal parts
of all wrenches before storing them.
(4) For long-term storage, the wrenches
should be covered with a rust-preventive compound and
carefully stored in a dry place.
e. Spanner Wrenches. Many special nuts used in
propeller systems are made with notches or holes cut
into the outer edge or the face of the nut. These nuts
are designed to be driven with spanner wrenches.
Figure 4-38. Face Pin Spanner Wrench
a. Types. Spanner wrenches can generally be
classified as one of two types: solid and adjustable.
(2) Adjustable spanner wrench. Solid
spanner wrenches are sized for specific sizes of nuts.
The adjustable spanner wrench, shown in figure 4-39,
has a pivoting end which allows the wrench to fit several
nut sizes. The type of wrench shown is a hook spanner,
and is used the same way as the solid hook spanner.
(1) Solid spanner wrenches. The following
paragraphs describe the various types of solid spanner
wrenches.
(a) Hook spanner. Nuts with notches cut
into the outer edge are driven with the hook spanner, as
shown in figure 4-36. This wrench has a curved arm
with a lug or hook in the end. This lug fits into one of
the notches of the nut, and the handle is pulled to
tighten or loosen the nut.
(3) Pliers, Retaining Ring. The retaining ring
pliers (snap ring) are used to remove internal and
external retaining rings. It is shown in figure 4-40.
4-13
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
small, light objects such as wire, cotter pins, and similar
items. These pliers are not to be used to hold or grip
objects.
(3) Long-nose pliers. Long nose pliers,
shown in figure 4-43, are used to reach places
inaccessible to the fingers, such as inserting cotter pins
in close places. They are also used to bend small
pieces of metal.
Figure 4-39. Adjustable Hook Spannner Wrench
(4) Flat-nose pliers. The flat-nose pliers have
flat serrated jaws, a fixed pivot, and curved handles
which may have insulated sleeved. These pliers are
used to bend light sheet metal and wire, and are shown
in figure 4-44.
Figure 4-41. Slip-Joint Pliers
Figure 4-40. Pliers, Retaining Ring
4-5. Pliers . Pliers are so constructed that a force or
pressure applied to the handles is intensified through the
pivot point to the jaws. This leverage enables the
mechanic to hold materials which the hand alone is not
strong enough to hold.
a. Types. Pliers are made in various types for
various uses. The more common types and their uses
are listed in the following paragraphs:
Figure 4-42. Diagonal Cutting Pliers
(1) Slip-joint pliers. The slip-joint combination
pliers shown in figure 4-41 have serrated (grooved)
jaws, with a rod-gripping section, a cutting edge, and a
pivot. The serrated jaws and rod-gripping section are
used to hold objects. The cutting edge permits the
cutting of soft wire and nails. However, cutting hard
materials or large gauge wire will spring the jaws,
making the pliers useless. The pivot is used to adjust
the jaw opening to handle large or small objects.
Figure 4-43. Long-Nose Pliers
(2) Diagonal cutting pliers. The diagonal
cutting pliers, shown in figure 4-42, have a fixed pivot.
The jaws are offset by about 15-degrees and are shaped
to give enough knuckle clearance while making flush
cuts. The diagonal cutting pliers are used for cutting
4-14
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-44. Flat-Nose Pliers
Figure 4-45. Round-Nose Pliers
(5) Round-nose pliers. The round-nose pliers
are used to crimp flanges on sheet metal in the process
of shrinking, and for making loops in soft wire. It has
smooth, round jaws, a fixed pivot, and curved handles
which may have insulated sleeves. It is shown in figure
4-45.
c. Repair. Generally speaking, repair of pliers is
limited to grinding or filing cutting or holding surfaces.
Further repair of pliers is usually impractical when
compared with the replacement cost.
(1) Grinding. It is possible to grind or sharpen
some types of side cutting pliers. However, they should
be examined closely to see if they still close properly
after the material is ground away from the cutting edges.
Do not attempt to grind pliers not designed to be ground.
Grind cutting edges so that ground bevel is
approximately at right angles to inside machined bevel.
Grind sparingly, and remove the same amount of stock
from both jaws. Cool often in water to preserve temper.
(6) Crimping pliers. Crimping pliers have
practically the same design as ordinary round-nose
pliers. Because a crimp in sheet metal is made by
twisting rather than clamping, they are constructed of
heavier material to withstand heavy side loads induced
by the twisting motion.
(7) Water pump pliers. Water pump pliers,
sometimes referred to as channel lock pliers, are used
for their powerful grip and ability to adjust to several
different sizes. As figure 4-46 shows, there are two
adjustment methods used with this type of pliers.
(2) Renewing serrations. Jaw face serrations
may be renewed by placing pliers in a vise and renewing
serrations with a 4-or 5-inch, three-cornered file.
d. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of pliers:
(8) Vise-grip pliers. Vise-grip pliers have a
clamping action which allows them to be clamped onto
an object. They will stay there and free the other hand
for other work. These pliers, shown in figure 4-47, are
sometimes made with a clamp-type jaw which allows
them to be used for clamping sheet metal. The visegrip pliers can be adjusted by turning the knurled
adjustment screw until the desired jaw dimension is
reached.
(1) Remove dirt and grease with a clean rag
and apply a light coat of oil after each use.
(2) Store pliers in a tool box or hang on racks
when not in use.
(3) Do not remove insulation on handles or oil
handles which are insulated.
NOTE
(4) Do not use pliers for prying or for
removing nuts or bolts.
Vise-grip pliers should be used with care
since the teeth in the jaws tend to
damage the object on which they are
clamped. Do not use them on nuts, bolts,
tube fittings, or other objects which must
be reused.
(5) Replace all pliers which have broken
jaws, handles, or cutting edges.
4-6. Awls . Awls are used in aircraft maintenance to
align holes, as in the installation of a deicer boot, and to
place scribe marks on metal and plastic surfaces. A
typical awl is shown in figure 4-48.
b. Use. Pliers come in various sizes and should
be selected according to the job being performed. They
should never be used as a substitute for a wrench,
because this practice batters nut and jaw serrations
unnecessarily. Although there are several uses for
pliers, they are not an all-purpose tool and should not be
used as a pry bar or for hammering.
4-15
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-46. Water Pump Pliers
Figure 4-47. Vise-Grip Pliers
4-16
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Grinding and sharpening. Grind or
sharpen after tempering and hardening, or if the blade
has lost its shape from repeated sharpening.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of awls:
Figure 4-48. Awl
a. Use. The following steps provide procedures for
one use of an awl:
(1) Place the metal to be scribed on a flat surface. Place a ruler or straightedge on the guide marks
already measured and placed on the metal.
(2) Remove the protective cover from the awl.
(3) Hold the straightedge firmly . Hold the awl as
shown in .gure 4-49, and scribe a line along the straightedge.
(1) Keep points covered when not in use and
stow awls in racks or in tool boxes.
(2) Lightly oil metal parts before storing.
4-7. KNIVES. Most knives are used to cut, pare, and
trim wood, leather, rubber, and other soft materials.
a. Types. The types that the aircraft repairer will
probably encounter are the shop knife, pocket knife, and
the putty knife.
(1) Utility knife. The utility knife can be used to
cut cardboard, and paper. It has an aluminum handle,
and is furnished with interchangeable blades which are
stored in the handle. A typical utility knife is shown in
.gure 4-50.
Figure 4-50. Utility Knife
Figure 4-49. Scribing with an Awl
(4) Replace the protective cover on the awl.
b. Repair. The normal order for reconditioning an
awl blade is to harden, grind, and sharpen. Usually all
three operations are not needed.
(1) Hardening. Hardening and tempering are
only required if the tempered part has been broken
or ground away, or if the tool has been overheated.
Harden and temper in accordance with the hardening
and tempering instructions for screwdrivers in paragraph 4-3d (3).
(2) Pocket knife. Pocket knives are used for
light cutting, sharpening pencils, cutting string, and
whittling. They are not suitable for heavy work. There
are many styles and shapes as shown in .gure 4-51.
Some are multipurpose and have an assortment of
blades which are used for forcing holes, driving screws,
opening cans, as well as cutting. The blades are hinged
and contained within the case when not in use and are
spring loaded to keep them firmly in place when open
or closed.
(3) Putty knife. A putty knife is used for applying
putty compound, sealant and for scraping gasket material. The blade has a wide square point and is available
in different lengths and widths. A typical putty knife is
shown in figure 4-52.
b. Safety. It is common knowledge that knives are
usually sharp and can cause serious injury if improperly
used. Observe the following precautions when using
knives:
4-17
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Lightly coat all metal parts with a thin film of
oil to prevent rust.
(4) For long-term storage, apply a thin film of
rust-preventive compound on all metal parts and store
in a dry place.
4-8. CLAMPING DEVICES. Vises and clamps are
used to hold objects being worked to a definite size and
shape. The objects must be held firmly while the work
is being performed. The bench vise and the carriage
clamp are the clamping devices most widely used in
aircraft maintenance.
Figure 4-51. Pocket Knives
a. Bench Vise. The bench vise, shown in figure
4-53, is a large steel vise with rough jaws that prevent
the work from slipping. Most vises of this type have a
swivel base so that the upper portion can be rotated.
The bench vise is usually bolt-mounted onto a bench.
Figure 4-52. Putty Knife
•
Do not use knives which are larger than can
be handled safely to cut the work.
•
Use knives only for the purpose for which
they were designed.
•
•
•
Always cut away from the hands and body.
Do not carry open knives in pockets.
Do not leave knives in such a position that
they will cause injury to others.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of knives:
(1) Sharpen blades by stroking them with an oilstone moistened with a few drops of engine oil, MIL-L6082.
(2) Store knives in sheaths or other containers
to prevent the cutting edges from contacting other hard
objects.
4-18
Change 5
Figure 4-53. Bench Vise
(1) Use. The following steps are general procedures for using a bench vise:
Ensure that the vise is bolted securely to a
bench or table and that the swivel base is
locked before using. Failure to comply may
result in the vise falling off the surface and
causing damage to equipment and injury to
personnel.
(a) Open the jaws of the vise wide enough to
insert the object to be held.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CAUTION
b. Carriage Clamps. The carriage clamp,
commonly called a C-clamp, is constructed in the shape
of a large C, as shown in figure 4-55. It is tightened by
use of a screw threaded through one of the bars and has
a swivel plate to prevent the end of the screw from
turning against the item being clamped. C-clamps are
used to hold work which cannot be held in a vise, or
which has to be held for an extended period of time.
They are available in a variety of sizes.
Install brass or copper caps on the vise
jaws to prevent scratching and denting
of soft substances when clamping.
Highly polished surfaces may be
protected by pieces of rawhide or
leather.
(b) Insert the object to be clamped between the
vise jaws, and tighten the jaws by turning the handle, as
shown in figure 4-54.
Figure 4-55. Carriage Clamp
(1) Use. The following paragraphs contain general
procedures for the use of C-clamps:
(a) Select a clamp which has an opening
about 1 1/2 to 2 inches wider than the object to be
clamped.
(b) Open clamp as wide as it will go.
Figure 4-54. Using a Bench Vise
CAUTION
NOTE
Some items, such as glass and highly
polished objects, must be protected to
prevent localized stress and damage.
Use brass shims or wooden blocks to
provide this protection.
Work should be held firmly in place, but
the jaws should not be so tight that they
mar the finish.
(2) Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of bench vises:
(c) Align the work and the protective s hims (if
required).
(a) Clean with a rag after each use, and apply
a light coat of oil.
(d) As shown in figure 4-56, place the clamp
in position, and tighten the operating screw until contact
is made with the item being clamped.
(b) Keep the jaws in good condition.
NOTE
(c) Never oil the swivel base or the swivel
joint, because this decreases its holding power.
The above procedure should only obtain
a very light contact with the item.
(d) When not using a vise, bring the jaws
lightly together and leave the handle in a vertical
position. This will protect the jaws.
(e) Check the alignment of the item being
clamped. Ensure that the clamp is applying even
pressure over the entire surface.
4-19
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of C-clamps:
(a) Clean threads and swivel with a rag, and
lubricate with a light coat of oil.
(b) Store on a rack, on pins, or in a tool box.
(c) For long storage periods, apply a rustpreventive compound.
4-9. Cold Chisels . A chisel is a tool having a cutting
edge at the end of a metal blade and is used in
dressing, shaping, and working metal. The cold chisel
derives its name from the fact that it can be used to cut
metal that has not first been softened by heating. It is
usually made of carbon steel with a tempered cutting
edge.
Figure 4-56. Using Carriage Clamp
a. Types. The most common types of cold chisel
are the flat, cape, roundnose, and diamond types,
shown in figure 4-57.
CAUTION
Do not use wrenches or bars to tighten
clamps. Excessive pressure will result
in damage to the item being clamped.
(1) Flat chisel. The flat chisel is used to split
nuts, chip castings, and cut rivets and thin metal sheets.
(2) Cape chisel. The cape chisel is used for
special jobs like cutting keyways, narrow grooves, and
square corners.
(f) Tighten the clamp against the surface.
Figure 4-57. Chisels
4-20
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Round-nose chisel. Round-nose chisels
make circular grooves and chip inside corners with a fi
-llet.
(4) Diamond-point chisel. The diamond-point
chisel is used to cut V-grooves and sharp corners.
b. Repair. Nicked or battered chisels may be repaired by grinding. If necessary, temper can also be restored.
(1) Grinding. Chisels are usually ground to a
70-degree angle, but that may be as high as 90-degrees
for harder substances. Proceed as follows:
(a) Set the rest on the grinding wheel to adjust for the desired bevel.
Eye protection will be worn when grinding chisels. Failure to comply may result in serious injury to personnel.
(b) Move the chisel from side to side while
grinding so that the cutting edge will be slightly curved.
(c) Ensure that the bevels are kept centered
or the cutting edge will not be centered.
water.
(d) Preserve temper by dipping frequently in
(2) Retempering. If temper has been lost during
grinding, retemper as follows:
(a) Heat the entire chisel to cherry red in a
gas furnace or a charcoal fire.
(b) Grasp the chisel in the center with tongs
and dip the cutting end in clean, cold water to a depth of
1 1/4 inch.
(c) Turn the chisel and dip the head in the
water to a depth of about 1 inch.
(d) Quickly polish the hardened ends with a
.le or abrasive cloth, Federal Speci.cation P-C-451,
and observe the color returning from the heated center
of the chisel to the ends.
chisel.
(f) When the red disappears, dip the entire
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of chisels:
(1) Protect the cutting edges by installing protective covers.
(2) Store in racks or where they may not be
chipped or broken.
ing.
ing.
(3) Lubricate with a light coat of oil before stor(4) Regrind broken or chipped edges before us-
4-10. PUNCHES. Punches usually are made of carbon steel tempered on both ends. They generally are
classi.ed as solid punches and hollow punches and
are designed according to their intended use. Hollow
punches vary in size. Solid punches vary both in size
and in point design.
a. Solid Punches. Solid punches are named according to their shape and are designed for various purposes.
(1) Types and uses. The following paragraphs
describe the common types of punches used in aircraft
maintenance.
(a) Prick punch. A prick punch, shown in figure 4-58, is used to place reference marks in metal. It is
also often used to transfer dimensions from a paper pattern directly onto the metal. It is relatively slender and
is tapered to a point of about 30 degrees. The following
precautions should be taken when using a prick punch
•
Never strike a prick punch a heavy
blow with the hammer because it
could bend the punch or cause excessive damage to the item being
worked.
•
Do not use a prick punch to remove
objects from holes because the point
of the punch will spread the object
and cause it to bind even more.
(e) Dip the cutting end each time it becomes
purple, and the head each time it becomes blue.
Change 5
4-21
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-58. Prick Punch
(b) Center punch. A center punch, shown in
figure 4-59, is used to make large indentations in metal
of the kind needed to start a twist drill. This punch has a
heavier body than the prick punch and its point is ground
to an angle of about 60 degrees. The following precautions should be taken when using a center punch:
•
Never strike the center punch with
enough force to dimple the item
around the indentation or cause the
metal to protrude through the other
side of the sheet.
•
Like the prick punch and for the same
reason, a center punch must never be
used to remove objects from holes.
(c) Automatic center punch. The automatic
center punch, shown in figure 4-60, is used only to indent metal to make starting points for twist drills. It contains an inside mechanism that automatically strikes a
blow of the required force when the user places the
punch exactly where he wants it and pushes it by pressing on it with his hand. This punch has an adjustable
cap for regulating the stroke; the point can be removed
for regarding or replacement. Never strike an automatic
center punch with a hammer.
(d) Drive punch. The drive punch, shown in
figure 4-61, is often called a taper punch. It is used to
drive out damaged rivets, pins, and bolts, which sometimes bind in holes. Therefore, the drive punch is made
with a flat face instead of a point. The size of the punch is
determined by the width of the face, usually one-eighth
to one-quarter inch.
(e) Pin punch. A pin punch, shown in figure
4-62, is also often called a drift punch. It is similar
to a drive punch and is used for the same purpose.
The difference between the two is that the shank of a
drive punch is tapered all the way to the face, while
the pin punch has a straight shank. Pin punch points
4-22
are sized in thirty-seconds of an inch and range from
one-sixteenth to three-eights inch in diameter. The
usual method for driving out a pin or bolt is to start
working it out with a drive punch, which is used until the
shank of the punch is touching the sides of the hole. A
pin punch is then used to drive the pin or bolt the rest of
the way out of the hole. Pins and bolts or rivets that are
hard to dislodge may be started by placing a thin piece
of scrap copper, brass, or aluminum directly against
the pin and then striking it with a heavy hammer until it
begins to move.
(f) Transfer punch. The transfer punch
shown in figure 4-63 is used to transfer the holes
through the template or patterns to the item. This punch
is usually about 4 inches long. Its point is tapered at
the back and then turns straight for a short distance to
fit the drill-locating hole in a template. The tip ends in a
point like that of a prick punch.
Figure 4-59. Center Punch
Figure 4-60. Automatic Center Punch
Figure 4-61. Drive Punch
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Care. Observe the following practices for
the care and upkeep of solid punches:
after each use.
storing.
Figure 4-62. Pin Punch
(a) Clean punches with a clean rag
(b) Apply a light coat of oil before
(c) Store punches so that the edges will
not be damaged.
(d) Repair mushroomed heads in
accor-dance with paragraph (2), or replace if necessary.
b. Hollow Punches. Hollow punches are used to
cut holes in thin, soft metal or other items such as
rubber, cork, leather, or paper. Figure 4-64 shows a
typical hollow punch.
Figure 4-63. Transfer Punch
(1) Use. The following procedures describe
the process of cutting a hole in sheet metal. Proceed as
follows:
(2) Repair. Punches can be repaired by
grinding and retempering.
(a) Mark the center of the intended hole
with a prick punch.
(a) Grinding. Pin, drive, or other blunt end punches
must be ground so that the end is perfectly flat and at
right angles to the centerline of the punch. Center
punches and prick punches are ground to conical points
of 60 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively. To grind a
center or prick punch, proceed as follows:
(b) Inscribe a circle around the center
mark with a pair of dividers.
(c) Choose a hollow punch of the
correct size and place the cutting edge over the
inscribed circle.
WARNING
Eye protection will be worn when grinding
punches. Failure to comply may result in
serious injury to personnel.
(d) With the metal sheet resting on a
block of wood, strike the punch with a hammer until the
hole is cut through the metal.
1 Adjust the rest of the grinding wheel so
that the punch meets the face of the wheel at the
desired angle.
2 Rotate the punch while grinding in order to
make the point symmetrical.
water.
3 Preserve temper by dipping frequently in
(b) Retempering. Punches which have been
overheated or ground back past the hardened ends may
require tempering. The procedure for tempering
punches is the same as that for tempering chisels
outlined in paragraph 4-9b(2).
Figure 4-64. Hollow Punch
4-23
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Care. Observe the following practices for
the care and upkeep of hollow punches:
after each use.
storing.
(a) Clean punches with a clean rag
(b) Apply a light coat of oil before
(c) Store punches so that the edges will
not be damaged.
4-11. Files . Files are hardened steel tools for cutting,
removing, smoothing, or polishing metal. The cutting
edges (or teeth) are made by diagonal rows of chisel
cuts. The parts of a file are shown in figure 4-65.
Figure 4-65. File Nomenclature
a. Types. Files can be classified by grade and
shape.
(1) Grade. Files are graded according to
whether they have single or double-cut teeth, and the
degree of fineness.
(a) Single and double-cut teeth. The
difference between single and double-cut teeth is
apparent in figure 4-66.
Figure 4-66. Single-and Double-Cut File Teeth
1 Single-cut. Single-cut files have
rows of teeth cut parallel to each other. These teeth are
set at an angle of about 65 degrees from the centerline.
These files are used for sharpening tools, finish filing,
and draw filing. They are also the best tools for
smoothing the edges of sheet metal.
2 Double-cut. Double-cut files
have crossed rows of teeth. The double cut forms teeth
that are diamond-shaped and fast cutting. These files
are used for quick removal of metal, and for rough work.
(b) Degree of Fineness. Files are also
graded according to the spacing and size of their teeth,
or their coarseness and fineness. Shown in figure 4-67,
the usual grades of fineness are called bastard, second
cut, smooth, and dead smooth. The fineness or
coarseness is influenced by the length of the file.
(2) Shape. Files come in different shapes.
When selecting a file for a job, the shape of the finished
work must be considered. The more common file
shapes are described in the following paragraphs.
Figure 4-67. File Teeth Spacing and Fineness
(a) Triangular files. Triangular files are
tapered toward the point on all three sides, as shown in
4-24
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
figure 4-68. They are used to file acute internal angles,
and to clear out square corners. Certain triangular files
are used to file saw teeth.
Figure 4-70. Flat File
Figure 4-68. Triangular File
(b) Mill files. Mill files are tapered in both
width and thickness. One edge has no teeth and is
known as a safe edge. Mill files, like the one shown in
figure 4-69, are used for smoothing lathe work, draw
filing, and other precision work. They are always
singlecut.
Figure 4-71. Square File
Figure 4-69. Mill File
Figure 4-72. Round File
(c) Flat files. Flat files, shown in figure 4-70,
are general-purpose files and may be either single or
double-cut. They are tapered in width and thickness.
Double-cut files are usually used for rough work, and
single-cut, smooth files are used for finish work.
(d) Square files. Square files, shown in figure
4-71, are tapered on all four sides and are used to
enlarge rectangular holes and slots.
Figure 4-73. Half-Round File
(e) Round files. Round files serve the same
purpose for round openings. Atypical round file is
shown in figure 4-72. Small round files are often called
rattail files.
(3) Curved-tooth files. Curved-tooth files are
generally used on aluminum and sheet steel and on
both flat and curved surfaces. They are also used for
smooth, rapid work on bronze, lead, babbitt, zinc and
plastic. The teeth come standard-cut and smooth-cut.
This type of file is shown in figure 4-74.
(f) Half-round file. The half-round file is a
general purpose tool. The rounded side is used on
curved surfaces, and the flat side is used on flat
surfaces. When filing an inside curve, use a file whose
curve most nearly matches the curve of the work. This
file is shown in figure 4-73.
b. Safety. The following paragraphs discuss
several important safety considerations regarding the
use of files.
4-25
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-74. Curved Tooth File
* If the file is designed to be used with a
handle, do not attempt to use it without
the handle. Holding the tang of the file in
the hand while filing may result in serious
injury (see figure 4-75).
* Do not use a file for prying. The tang end
is soft and bends easily, while the body of
the file is hard and brittle, and will snap
under a very light bending force.
* Do not hammer on a file. This may cause
the file to shatter.
c. Selection. Certain file grades are most effective
on certain metals. Following are the suggested grades
of files that should be used on the applicable metals.
NOTE
* For heavy, rough cutting, use a large, coarse,
double-cut file.
* For finishing cuts, use a second- or smooth-cut,
single-cut file.
* For small work, use a short file. For mediumsized work, use an 8-inch file. For large work,
use a file that is most convenient.
(1) Cast iron. When working on cast iron, start with
a bastard-cut file and finish with a second-cut file.
Figure 4-75. Use of File Handle
(2) Soft metal. When filing soft metal, start with a
second-cut file and finish with a smooth-cut file.
(4) Brass or bronze. When filing brass or bronze,
start with a bastard-cut file and finish with a secondor
smooth-cut file.
(3) Hard steel When filing hard steel, start with a
smooth-cut file, and finish with a dead-smooth file.
(5) Aluminum, lead, or babbitt. When filing
aluminum, lead, or babbitt metal, use a standard-cut
curved tooth file.
d. Use. Using a file is an operation that is nearly
indispensable when working with metal. Most filing
operations can be classified as crossfiling and
drawfiling. There are some precautions, however, that
must be taken when filing.
* The strokes with the file should be long
and smooth and there should not be more
than 40 strokes per minute to prevent
overheating of the teeth.
4-26
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
•
There should be no pressure on the file as
it is being drawn back. The teeth slant forward and back stroke pressure will cause
them to break more readily than on the
forward stroke. However, when filing very
soft metal such as aluminum, a slight back
stroke pressure will aid in cleaning the
teeth.
(1) Using a new file. When a new .le will be
used, observe the following precautions:
•
Never use a new .le to remove the .ns
and scales on cast iron.
•
Do not use a new file on a narrow surface such as sheet metal, because the
narrow edge of the metal is likely to
break off the sharp points of the file
teeth.
•
A new file should be broken in by using
it first on brass, bronze, or smooth iron.
•
After using a new file, the teeth will clog
up with metal filings which will scratch
the work. One way to prevent this condition is to rub chalk between the teeth
before filing.
(2) Cross.ling. Crossfiling means that the file is
moved across the surface of the work in an approximate
crosswise direction. This is shown in figure 4-76. To use
this method, proceed as follows:
(a) Clamp the work securely in a vise so that
the area to be filed is horizontal and is parallel to and
projecting slightly above the vise jaws.
(b) File with slow, full-length, steady strokes.
(c) When an exceptionally flat surface is required, hold the file at an angle and file across the entire
length of the stock. Then, turn the file as shown in figure
4-77, and file across the entire length of the stock again.
Because the teeth of the file pass over the stock in two
directions, the high and low spots will be readily visible
after filing in both positions.
(d) Continue filing in one position and then
the other until the surface has been filed flat.
(e) Test the flatness with a straightedge or
with prussian blue and a surface plate.
Figure 4-76. Cross.ling
Figure 4-77. Filing for a Flat Surface
(3) Drawfiling. Drawfiling produces a finer surface finish and usually a flatter surface than crossfiling.
See figure 4-78 and proceed as follows:
(a) Install small parts in a vise.
(b) Hold the file as shown in figure 4-78. The
cutting stroke is away from the body when the file handle
is held in the right hand. If the handle is held in the left
hand, the cutting stroke will be toward the body.
NOTE
Hold the file at right angles to the direction of the
stroke, and keep hands relatively close together
to prevent bending the file.
(c) Keep the pressure light. The pressure
can remain the same for both the cutting stroke and the
return stroke. The speed of filing is not important.
(d) When drawfiling no longer improves the
surface texture, wrap a piece of abrasive cloth, Federal
Specification P-C-451, around the file and stroke in the
same manner.
Change 5
4-27
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Never strike the file against a vise or other
object to remove filings. Use the file cleaner.
(4) Do not oil files. This will cause the file to slide
across the work, preventing efficient cutting.
(5) Wrap each file in a waterproofed barrier
wrapping paper. Place the files in racks or boxes so that
the faces or edges of the files will not touch each other.
Figure 4-78. Drawfiling
e. Handle Installation. A file should never be
used without a firmly attached handle. The following
paragraphs describe the installation and removal procedures for file handles.
(1) Installation. Handles are installed on files as
follows:
(a) Select a handle that will fit the tang snugly.
(b) Wet the tang with water and insert it into
the handle.
Never hammer a file into its handle, because the
tang can bend or the file can break.
(c) Tap the end of the handle on a flat surface
until the file is properly seated.
(2) Removal. To remove the handle, proceed as
follows:
(a) Hold the file with the left hand and the
handle with the right hand.
(b) Pull the file from the handle while rapping
the ferrule end of the handle against the edge of a bench.
f. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of files:
(1) Break in a new file as discussed in paragraph 4-11 d(1).
(2) Clean files using the file cleaner shown in
figure 4-79.
4-28
Figure 4-79. File Cleaner
4-12. HAND DRILLS. Hand drills are used when electric or pneumatic power is not available. These drills
provide a somewhat slower drilling speed because they
are hand-powered.
a. Types. There are two types of hand drills used
in Army aircraft maintenance. They are the breast, and
hand drills.
(1) Breast drill. The breast drill has a base for
the user to lean against while using the drill. It has a
speed shifter which provides a means of selecting low or
high drill speeds. The low drill speed has a 1:1 gear ratio, and the high speed ratio is 3-1/2:1. This drill, shown
in figure 4-80, is used to drill holes in wood, plastic, and
small gauge sheet metal.
(2) Hand drill. The hand drill, shown in figure
4-81, has a handle to provide pressure by hand. This
drill is used to drill holes in wood and sheet metal, and
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
is generally the most common of the hand drills used in
Army aircraft maintenance.
b. Use. The following paragraphs describe the
techniques for using hand drills.
(1) Placing bit in chuck. To place the drill bit
in the chuck, proceed as follows:
(a) Hold the shell of the chuck while turning
the handle to open the jaws.
(b) When the jaws are apart far enough to
accept the drill bit, insert it until the end
seats in the bottom of the chuck.
(c) Tighten the chuck by turning the handle to
close the jaws. Ensure that the bit is
firmly seated within the V-grooves
machined into the jaws, as shown in figure
4-82.
(2) Breast drill. Proceed as follows:
Figure 4-80. Breast Drill
(a) Turn the crank handle with one hand while
holding the side handle with the other
hand.
(b) Apply feed pressure by leaning against
the breast plate.
(3) Drilling. When drilling with the hand drill,
operate the crank with one hand, and with the other
hand guide the drill by holding the handle on the end of
the drill.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of hand drills:
surfaces.
(1) Apply a light coat of oil to all metal
(2) With a rag, clean gear teeth of dirt, wood,
and metal shavings.
(3) Hang drills on a rack in a dry location.
4-13. Drill Bits . A drill bit is a pointed tool that is
rotated to cut holes in material. It is made of carbon
steel or harder alloy steels, depending upon the type of
work required.
Figure 4-81. Hand Drill
a. Description. A typical drill bit and its parts are
shown in figure 4-83. Some of these parts are
explained in the following paragraphs.
4-29
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
follows:
(2) Drilling. To drill the item, proceed as
(a) Place the drill in the center-punched
mark. When using a powerdrill, rotate the bit a few turns
before starting the motor.
Figure 4-82. V-Grooves in Drill Jaws
(1) Lips. The lips are the parts which actually
do the cutting.
(2) Flutes. The flutes allow the chips to
escape, give the correct rake to the lips or cutting
edges, and when it is necessary to use a lubricant, they
allow the lubricant to reach the cutting edges.
(3) Body. The body of the drill is ground
away slightly, except at the margin, to reduce the friction
of the drill as it rotates.
b. Sizes. The letter, number, fractional, and
decimal sizes of drill bits are shown in table 4-2.
c. Use. The following paragraphs outline the
procedures for laying out and drilling holes.
(1) Laying out. When laying out work, mark
hole locations as follows:
NOTE
Do not hit the center punch too hard
because it will dent the surrounding
metal. Place a bucking bar behind
the metal to prevent denting.
(a) Locate the exact center of the hole to be
drilled and mark with a prick punch.
(b) Enlarge the prick punch mark with acenter
punch so that the point of the drill can seat properly.
This is shown in figure 4-84.
Figure 4-83. Typical Drill Bit
4-30
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Table 4-2. Drill Sizes
WARNING
NOTE
Use eye protection when drilling.
Failure to comply may result in serious
injury to personnel.
The amount of pressure to be applied
while drilling depends on the size of the
drill and the hardness of the metal being
drilled.
(b) Hold the drill at a 90-degree angle to the
work and apply pressure while drilling.
(c) When the center punch mark has been
cut away, lift the drill and examine the cut to ensure that
it is in the required location. If it is not, the drill can be
made to lead in the desired direction by cutting a groove
in the side of the drilled portion with a cold chisel.
4-31
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
its arc.
(d) Swing the holder spindle slowly through
(e) Without changing the tailstock
adjustment, rotate the drill to bring the other cutting lip
into position and grind it in the same manner.
(2) Hand grinding. Drills may be ground by
hand, but only if a drill grinding machine is not available.
Proceed as follows:
Figure 4-84. Center Punch for Drilling
NOTE
The drill cannot be made to lead after
the entire point has entered the item.
(d) As the drill begins to emerge from the
stock, release pressure on the drill so that it does not
catch on the chips in the hole.
d. Grinding. When drills are worn or need to be
modified for certain metals, they can be reground. They
can be reground by machine or by hand.
(1) Machine grinding. The most accurate way
to grind a drill is to use a machine designed for this
purpose, shown in figure 4-85. This type of grinding is
accomplished as follows:
Figure 4-85. Machine Grinding a Drill Bit
(a) Adjust the machine to the desired cutting
edge angle, usually 59 degrees, and correct heel angle,
which is usually 12 to 15 degrees, as shown in figure 486.
(b) Place the drill bit on the V-blocks of the
holder, shown in figure 4-85, and turn so that the drill
cutting edge will contact the grinding wheel.
WARNING
Eye protection will be worn when
grinding drills. Failure to comply may
result in serious injury to personnel.
Figure 4-86. Usual Cutting Edge and
Heel Angles
(c) With the grinding wheel turnin g, advance
the tailstock until the drill makes contact with the wheel.
4-32
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(a) Adjust the grinding wheel rest to a convenient height for resting the back of the hand while grinding.
(b) Hold the drill between the thumb and the
index finger and grasp the body of the drill near the
shank with the other hand.
Eye protection will be worn when grinding drills.
Failure to comply may result in serious injury to
personnel.
(c) As shown in figure 4-87, place hand on
the wheel rest with the centerline of the drill forming the
desired angle with the cutting face of the wheel. Slightly
lower the shank end of the drill.
Figure 4-88. Hand Grinding of Heel to Cutting Edge
Figure 4-87. Hand Grinding of Cutting Edge
(d) Slowly place the heel of the drill against
the grinding wheel, as shown in .gure 4-88. Gradually
raise the shank end of the drill and rotate it in a counterclockwise direction while the grinding wheel approaches
the cutting edge.
(e) Cool the drill in water frequently while
grinding to preserve the temper.
(3) Testing angles. Test the results of grinding
with a drill grinding gauge to determine that the cutting
edges are the same length and the angles are correct.
This is shown in .gure 4-89. To determine heel angle,
proceed as follows:
(a) Cut a piece of paper 8-1/2 inches long and
2 inches wide.
Figure 4-89. Using Drill Grinding Gauge
(b) Place a mark 1-1/4 inches from the top
and wrap the paper around the drill.
(c) As shown in .gure 4-90, the edge of the
paper should coincide with the mark on the paper if the
heel angle is correct.
4-33
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
edge in the direction of rotation. Longitudinal channels
(flutes) in the body of the reamer are used for the
passage of lubricating fluid and chips.
b. Types. Reamers, as contained within the various aviation shop sets, conform to types, classes and
styles as specified in Federal Specification GGG-R-180.
Reamers have been classified according to construction
and/or method of holding. Only a few of the reamers
listed in the Federal Specification are used in Arm aviation shop sets. An explanation of reamers found in aviation shop sets follows:
(1) Adjustable, inserted blade, straight fluted
(hand), per GGG-R-180, type III, class 1, grade
A. These reamers are fitted with removable cutting
blades, which are adjustable for reaming holes of any
size within the range for which the reamer was designed. These reamers have straight, round shanks
with square ends and contain slots for holding the
blades. The reamer assembly is capable of reaming
round, straight, and smooth holes. This reamer is
shown in figure 4-92.
Figure 4-90. Measuring Heel Angle
e. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of drill bits:
(1) Keep drill bits in proper storage to prevent
sharp edges from striking each other.
(2) Remove foreign material with a clean rag after use.
(3) Apply a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
4-14. REAMERS. A reamer is a cutting tool with one
or more cutting surfaces used for enlarging to size and
contour a previously formed hole. A reamer functions
by removing a small amount of stock from the walls of a
hole. To ream effectively, the diameter of a reamer must
be greater than the hole to be reamed.
NOTE
(2) Jobbers (machine) reamer, per GGG-R180, type XII. These reamers are of grade A high
speed steel and have straight flutes and right hand cut,
as shown in figure 4-93. The cutting section of these
reamers is capable of cutting straight, round holes
of specific diameters. These reamers are normally
provided as a set.
(3) Brown and Sharpe taper socket (hand),
per GGG-R-180, type XIV. These reamers have a
fluted type section and straight round shank with
squared ends. The cutting section of these reamers is
tapered for reaming Brown and Sharpe 1/2 inch per foot
standard sockets. The Brown and Sharpe taper is used
for tools with B + S taper shanks. It is also used for
threaded taper pins. This type is shown in figure 4-94.
(4) Repairman’s T-handle (hand) reamer
GGG-R-180, type XIII. These reamers have straight
flutes and a solid handle. The cutting section tapers
1-1/4 inches per foot, as shown in figure 4-95.
Do not use the reamer to remove more than
0.002 to 0.003 inches of metal. If the hole is
too small, enlarge it with a drill before reaming
it.
c. Selection. As stated in paragraph 4-14 , the diameter of a reamer should be greater than the diameter
of the hole to be reamed. All reamers, except for adjustable reamers, are marked with their nominal size.
a. Description. Figure 4-91 shows the parts of
several types of reamers. The cutting face is the leading
d. Use. The following paragraphs provide procedures for using a typical reamer. Proceed as follows:
4-34
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-91. Identification of Parts of Reamers
4-35
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-92. Adjustable Reamer
NOTE
* A reamer should enter a hole at
right angles to the work surfaces
to permit all teeth to
simultaneously engage. On a
curving surface, the rotating axis
of the reamer is presumed to be
at right angles to a plane tangent
at the point of entrance.
Figure 4-93. Jobber's (Machine) Reamer
* Where possible, provisions should
be made for the reamer to pass
through the workpiece. Line
reaming is required for
concentricity and alignment of
holes.
Figure 4-94. Brown and Sharpe Tapered Reamer
* Work aids, which incorporate
bushings to guide the reamers,
are needed to produce holes that
are in parallel alignment at exact
distances from location points.
For long holes, it is preferable to
guide the reamers at both ends.
Work aids are locally fabricated.
* Reamers are operated at slower
speeds and higher feed rates than
drills of the corresponding
diameter. Reamer feed rates will
depend upon the type of metal
and the size or strength of the
reamer.
Figure 4-95. Repairman's Hand Reamer
(1) Secure the work in a vise so that the hole
to be reamed is perpendicular to the top of the vise
jaws.
(2) Install the reamer shank into a tap wrench
and tighten the handle to clamp the reamer in place.
CAUTION
Turn the reamer in the cutting direction
(direction of the cutting edges) only. Do not
turn reamer backwards at any time. To do so
will result in rapid wear and dulling of the
cutting edges.
4-36
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Position the reamer at the top of the hole.
(4) Turn the reamer very slowly in the cutting
direction (clockwise) until the reamer is in the center of
the hole.
NOTE
•
When reaming steel, use cutting oil or
machine oil to lubricate the tool.
•
When reaming soft iron, do not lubricate the tool.
•
Do not turn the reamer too fast or
too slowly, because this will cause the
reamer to chatter, producing an unevenly reamed hole.
4-16.
DELETED.
4-17. HACKSAWS. Hacksaws are used to cut metal
that is too heavy for snips or boltcutters.
a. Description. The two parts of the hacksaw are
the frame and the blade
(1) Frame. The frame may be solid or adjustable, as shown in figure 4-96. Adjustable frames
can be made to hold blades from 8 to 16 inches long,
while those with solid frames take only the length blade
for which they are made. This length is the distance
between the two pins that hold the blade in place. The
blade is installed in the frame with the teeth pointing
forward, and is tightened by turning the handle or a
wing nut.
(5) Turn the wrench in the cutting direction with
steady, firm pressure until the reamer has been turned
in the hole.
Turn the reamer in the cutting direction (direction of the cutting edges) only. Do not turn
reamer backwards at any time. To do so will
result in rapid wear and dulling of the cutting
edges.
(6) Remove the reamer from the hole by continuing to turn the reamer in the cutting direction and raising
the reamer at the same time.
e. Repair. Reamers or blades are usually
scrapped when the cutting edges become dull and
unserviceable.
f. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of reamers:
(1) Keep reamers absolutely clean in order to
do accurate work.
(2) If proper pressure is applied during use and
the reamer chatters, replace it to ensure accurate work.
(3) For short-term storage, wrap the reamer in
an oily cloth and store it in a box.
(4) For long-term storage, clean reamer thoroughly and coat with rust-preventive compound. Wrap
each reamer separately in oiled cloth and store in a dry,
safe place.
4-15.
Figure 4-96. Hacksaws
(2) Blades. Hacksaw blades are made of highgrade tool steel. They are about 1/2-inch wide, from 8to 16-inches long, and have a pitch (number of teeth per
inch) of 14, 18, 24, or 32.
(a) Temper. Hacksaw blades come in two
types: all-hard, and flexible. The all-hard blades are
hardened throughout, whereas only the teeth of the
.exible blades are hardened.
(b) Set. The set in a saw refers to how frequently the alternating teeth are set in opposite directions from the sides of the blade. The three different
kinds of set are alternate set, raker set, and wave set,
as shown in .gure 4-97.
b. Selection. Select a hacksaw blade based on
the thickness and hardness of the stock to be cut.
DELETED.
Change 5
4-37
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Install the blade in the hacksaw frame as
shown in figure 4-99. Ensure that the teeth point away
from the handle. Tighten the wing nut so that the blade
is under tension.
Figure 4-97. Hacksaw Blade Set
(1) Stock thickness. Heavy stock is usually cut
with the all-hard blade because it has less tendency to
wander. The flexible blade is less likely to break and is
used for thin stock.
(2) Stock hardness. Generally speaking, the
pitch of the blade depends on the hardness of the
stock. Figure 4-98 shows the typical applications for
the different saw blade pitches.
NOTE
When cutting any stock, there should always be
at least two teeth working on the stock. Therefore, for thin-walled stock, a finer blade than that
ordinarily used may be necessary.
Figure 4-99. Installing a Hacksaw Blade
(2) Place the stock to be cut in a vise. Maintain
a minimum of overhang to reduce vibration, give a better
cut, and lengthen the life of the blade. Ensure that the
layout line on the stock is outside of the vise jaw so that
the line is visible during sawing.
(3) Hold the hacksaw as shown in figure 4-100.
(4) When cutting, apply pressure on the forward
stroke, which is the cutting stroke. Do not apply pressure on the return stroke. Use long and smooth strokes.
Do not exceed 60 strokes per minute.
Figure 4-98. Application of Blade Pitch for Certain
Materials
c. Use. The following paragraphs provide general
procedures for the use of hacksaws:
4-38
4-18. TAPS AND DIES. Taps and dies are made of
hard, tempered steel, and are used to cut threads in
metal, fiber, or plastic. Four types of threads may be
cut with standard taps and dies. These are national
coarse, national fine, national extra fine, and national
pipe. The following paragraphs describe the types and
uses of taps, dies, and accessories.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(b) After the hole is drilled, the tap (held by
the tap wrench) is placed in the hole.
Figure 4-100. Proper Way to Hold a Hacksaw
a. Taps. Taps are used for cutting inside or female
threads.
(1) Types. The four types of taps are the taper,
plug, bottoming, and pipe taps, as shown in figure 4-101.
(a) Taper tap. The taper tap has a chamfer
length of 8 to 10 threads. This tap is used to start all
threads and to tap through holes.
(b) Plug tap. Plug taps have a chamfer length
of 3 to 5 threads and are used when one end of the hole
is closed, but a full thread is not required all the way to
the bottom of the hole.
(c) Bottoming tap. The bottoming tap is used
for cutting a full thread to the bottom of a closed hole.
(d) Pipe tap. Pipe taps are used for pipe fittings, grease fittings, and other places where an extremely tight fit is necessary. The tap diameter tapers
at the rate of 3/4 inch per foot.
(2) Use. The following paragraphs outline the
procedures for the use of taps:
(a) The hole that is to be tapped must be of
the correct size. Figure 4-102 shows a drill and wire
gauge index which gives the correct drill sizes for specific sizes and threads of taps.
Figure 4-101. Taps
NOTE
•
Plug taps or bottoming taps should
never be used to start a thread.
•
The wrench should be held in the center when starting the tap, and light
pressure should be applied for the first
two or three turns.
(c) Apply a cutting oil or lubricant from table
4-3 which corresponds to the type of metal being tapped.
Change 5
4-39
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(d) Turn the tap backwards about 1/3 turn for
every full revolution forward in order to break off the chip
and make cutting easier.
NOTE
After the tap is started, the threads will draw it
into the work.
(e) Clean threads with a rag and check
threads with a thread gauge before installing screw or
bolt.
(3) Removing broken tap. Even when used
with care, taps will sometimes break. A broken tap may
be removed with a pipe wrench when enough of the tap
protrudes to allow a grip. When the broken tap does not
protrude, it should first be started with a center punch
and then completely removed with a tap extractor, as
discussed in paragraph 4-20b(2).
(4) Tap wrenches. The two types of tap
wrenches commonly used are the straight-handled and
the T-handle tap wrench. These are shown in figure
4-103.
Figure 4-103. Tap Wrenches
(5) Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of taps:
(a) Do not attempt to sharpen taps.
(b) Keep cutting edges lightly oiled.
Figure 4-102. Correct Drill Sizes for Tapping
4-40
Change 2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(c) Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from
taps and tap wrenches.
(d) Store in a case or wrap individually in
cloths to protect cutting surfaces.
b. Dies. Dies are used for cutting outside or male
threads on a rod, bolt, or pipe.
(1) Types. The three types of dies commonly
used in the maintenance of Army aircraft are the solid,
adjustable-split, and pipe dies, shown in figure 4-104.
1 Screw-adjusting type. The adjustment
in the screw-adjusting type is made by a fine-pitch screw
which forces the sides of the die apart or allows them to
spring together. This adjustment is achieved by turning
the adjusting screw clockwise to increase thread diameter, and counterclockwise to decrease the thread diameter.
2 Open adjusting type. The adjustment
in the open adjusting type is made by means of three
screws in the diestock; one for expanding and two for
compressing the dies.
(a) Solid dies. Solid dies, also called
rethreading dies, are used mainly for restoring damaged or rusty threads on screws or bolts. They are
available in a variety of sizes for rethreading American
Standard Coarse and Fine threads. These dies are
usually hexagonal in shape and can be turned with
a diestock, socket, box-end, open-end, or any other
wrench that will fit.
(c) Pipe dies. Two-piece rectangular pipe
dies are used to cut American Standard Pipe threads.
They are held in ordinary or ratchet diestocks. The jaws
of these dies are adjusted by setscrews. An adjustable
guide serves to keep the pipe in alignment with the dies.
(b) Adjustable-split dies. Adjustable-split
dies can be used in either diestocks or machine holders.
These dies are either the screw adjusting type or the
open adjusting type.
(a) Secure the work firmly in a vise.
(2) Uses. Male threads are cut on a piece of
stock by the following procedures.
Figure 4-104. Dies
4-41
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
After assembling die to diestock, ensure that the
setscrew is tight. The die could fall out of the
diestock, causing damage to the die.
(f) Turn the die backwards about 1/4 turn for
every full revolution forward in order to break off the chip
and make cutting easier.
(g) When the desired length of thread has
been cut, slowly back the diestock off the work.
(b) Assemble the die to the diestock and
tighten the setscrew.
(h) Clean the threads with a clean rag and
check with a thread gauge before installing.
(c) Use a cutting oil from table 4-3 which corresponds to the type of metal being threaded.
(3) Diestocks. Figure 4-105 shows the ordinary
and ratchet-type diestocks normally used with dies. The
ratchet-type diestocks are usually used with rectangular
pipe dies.
Do not attempt to cut a thread with a die which
has a major diameter smaller than the diameter
of the part to be cut.
(4) Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of dies:
(d) Position the diestock over the work and
tighten the thumbscrews to secure the diestock to the
work.
(e) Rotate the diestock slowly but firmly, until
the die takes hold.
Table 4-3.
Material
(a) Do not attempt to sharpen dies.
(b) Keep cutting edges lightly oiled.
(c) Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from
dies and diestocks.
Lubricants for Tapping and Die-Cutting Threads
Speci.cation
Type
Mid steel
VV-C-846
Type I
High carbon and alloy steel
VV-C-846
Type II
Hard steel
VV-C-846
Type II
Brass
VV-C-846
Type I
Copper
VV-C-846
Type I
Aluminum
VV-C-846
Type I
Monel
VV-C-846
Type I
Cast iron
VV-C-846
Type I
4-42
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-105. Diestocks
(d) Store in a case or wrap dies individually
in cloths where they will not come in contact with other
tools.
4-19. THREAD CHASERS. Thread chasers are
threading tools that have several teeth and are used to
rethread (chase) damaged internal or external threads.
These tools are shown in figure 4-106. The internal
thread chaser has its cutting teeth located on a side
face, while the external thread chaser has its cutting
teeth on the end of the shaft. The handle end of the tool
shaft tapers to a point.
4-20. SCREW AND TAP EXTRACTORS. Screw and
tap extractors are made of hardened steel and are used
to remove broken screws and taps without damaging the
surrounding metal or the threaded hole.
a. Description. The following paragraphs describe these tools.
(1) Screw extractors. Some screw extractors,
as shown in figure 4-107, are straight. They have flutes
from end to end. These extractors are available in sizes
to remove broken screws having 1/4 to 1/2 inch outside
diameters. Spiral tapered extractors, shown in figure
4-108, are sized to remove screws and bolts from 3/16
inch to 2 1/8 inches outside diameter.
(2) Tap extractors. Tap extractors, shown in figure 4-109, are sized to remove taps with an outside diameter of 3/16 inch to 2 1/8 inches.
b. Use. The following paragraphs describe the use
of spiral extractors and tap extractors.
4-43
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-109. Tap Extractor
NOTE
Screws and taps can be removed with the spiral
screw extractor.
(1) Spiral extractor. To remove a broken screw
or tap with a spiral extractor, proceed as follows:
Figure 4-106. Thread Chasers
Always wear eye protection when drilling. Failure to comply may result in serious injury to personnel.
Figure 4-107. Straight Screw Extractor
(a) Center punch and drill a hole of the proper
size in the screw or tap. Use a drill size guide if available.
If one is not available, drill the hole slightly smaller than
the diameter of the extractor.
NOTE
Some extractors have the required drill size
stamped on them.
(b) Insert the extractor into the drilled hole.
(c) Place a tap wrench or an open-end
wrench on the extractor.
(d) Remove the broken screw by turning the
extractor counterclockwise.
(2) Tap extractor. If a tap has broken off at or
slightly below the surface of the work, proceed as follows:
(a) Apply a liberal amount of penetrating oil,
Federal Specification VV-P-216, to the broken tap.
Figure 4-108. Spiral Screw Extractors
4-44
Change 5
(b) Place the tap extractor over the broken
tap and lower the upper collar to insert the four sliding
prongs down into the four flutes of the tap, as shown in
figure 4-110.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
4-21. Double Cutting Shears. Double cutting shears
have a pointed lower blade which works into a slotted
upper jaw and is used for cutting light gauge pipes,
stacks, cylinders, and square ducts of sheet metal.
Most of these shears are equipped with a crimping
attachment on one side for crimping the ends of piping
or ducting when fitting several sections together. A
small strip is sheared away when a cut is made with
these shears. Maintenance for double cutting shears is
the same as that prescribed for snips.
WARNING
Cutting and nipping metal items may cause pieces of
metal to be thrown. Wear protective eye wear and
gloves.
4-22. Nippers and Pincers. Nippers are used to cut
protruding metal flush with a surface. They are also
used to cut wire, bolts, nails, and light metal bars to
specified dimensions. Nippers come in a variety of
styles and sizes. Figure 4-111 shows typical tools of this
type.
Figure 4-110. Use of Tap Extractor
(c)
Slide the bottom collar down to the
surface of the work so that it will hold the prongs tightly
against the body of the extractor.
(d)
and tighten.
a.
Use. Nippers and pincers, as previously stated,
are used to cut wire, bolts, rivets, nails, and other similar
items. Figure 4-112 illustrates the technique for cutting
wire, and figure 4-113 shows the procedure for cutting a
rivet or similar object flush with the surface.
Apply a tap wrench to the square shank
(e)
Loosen the tap by carefully working the
extractor back and forth.
NOTE
It may be necessary to remove the
extractor and strike a few sharp blows
with a small hammer and a pin punch to
jar the tap loose. Then reinsert the
extractor and carefully try to back the tap
out of the hole.
c.
Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of screw and tap extractors:
(1) Apply a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
(2) Wipe excess oil and metal shavings from
extractors.
(3) Store in the case provided or wrap
individually to protect the cutting edges.
Figure 4-111. Nippers and Pincers
4-45
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
a. Description. Pipe and tube cutters have a
cutting wheel and two rollers which are located in a
position so that a pipe or tube may be held between
them. The rollers may be adjusted toward or away from
the cutting wheel by a hand-adjusted screw. This action
places pressure against the tube being cut, thereby
forcing it against the cutting wheel. Pipe and tube
cutters are described in the following paragraphs.
(1) Pipe cutters. Pipe cutters are used to cut
pipe made of steel, brass, copper, wrought iron, and
lead. The two sizes of pipe cutters generally used in the
Army have capacities of 1/8 to 2 inches, and 2 to 4
inches. A typical pipe cutter is shown in figure 4-114.
Figure 4-112. Cutting Wire
Figure 4-114. Pipe Cutters
(2) Tube Cutters. Tube cutters are used to
cut tubing made of iron, steel, brass, copper, and
aluminum. They resemble pipe cutters, except that they
are of lighter construction. Some tube cutters have
built-in portions in the body which are rotated in the
tubing after it is cut to eliminate any burrs, shown in
figure 4-115.
Figure 4-113. Flush Cutting
b.
Use. Because the operation of pipe and tube
cutters is so similar, and tubing maintenance is most
common in the repair of Army aircraft, the following
steps will provide procedures for the cutting of tubing.
Proceed as follows:
b. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of nippers and pincers.
(1) Keep tools clean at all times. Lubricate
the pivot screw or bolt with a drop of light oil.
(2) Apply a thin coat of oil to prevent rust.
(3) Store so that the cutting edges will not
come in contact with other tools.
4-23. Pipe and Tube Cutters. Pipe and tube cutters
are used to cut pipe or tubing to the length required for
fabrication. Pipe and tube cutters are similar in
appearance and operation. The essential difference
between pipe and tubing is that tubing has considerably
thinner walls.
Figure 4-115. Tube Cutters
4-46
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Make a light line at the point where the
tube must be cut and allow for bend radius if required.
(6)
of the tube.
Clean all metal particles from the inside
(2) Place the tube to be cut into the cutter
and tighten the adjusting screw just until the cutting
wheels and the rollers touch the tube.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of pipe and tube cutters:
(1) Clean and lightly oil the cutter wheel,
roller guides, and the adjusting screw.
NOTE
(2) Store in a rack or a box which protects the
cutting wheel.
The cutting wheel must touch the exact
line where the tube is to be cut.
(3) Slightly tighten t he adjusting screw and
rotate the cutter toward its open side, as shown in figure
4-116.
4-24. Tube Benders. The tube bending tool shown in
figure 4-117 is used for bending a tube so that it can be
routed as required through an aircraft or a piece of
equipment.
Figure 4-117. Tube Bender
a. Description. This type of tube bender usually
comes in individual sizes of 3/16, 1/4, 5/16, 3/8, and
7/16 inches. It is marked from 0 to 180 degrees of
bend, which permits accurate bending to a specific
angle.
b. Use. The following steps provide procedures for
bending tubing (see figure 4-118):
Figure 4-116. Cutting Tube with Tube Cutter
(4) As the tube is being cut, slowly
adjust the cutting wheel.
(1) Raise slide bar upward and insert the
tubing to be bent.
NOTE
(2) Raise the locking clip and lock the tubing
into place.
Adjust the cutting wheel slowly, and only
while the cutter is being rotated, in order
to avoid forcing the tube out of round.
(3) Lower the slide bar until it rests on the
tubing. The zero mark on the slide bar should match up
with the zero mark on the block.
(5) After the tube is cut, remove the
burr on the inside with the reamer on the back of the
tube cutter or with a burnishing tool.
NOTE
4-47
If a tube has multiple bends, ensure that
each bend is made in the correct direction
in relation to the others.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-118. Bending Tube
4-48
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
slide bar.
(4) Apply downward pressu re on the
(1) Single-flare tools. There are two types of
flaring tools that produce single flares. They are the
combination and the individual flaring tools.
(5) When the desired angle of bend is
reached, as shown on the block, release pressure on the
slide bar.
(a) Combination flaring tool. The
combination flaring tools have a die block with
accommodations for tubing from 1/8 to 3/4 inches in
diameter. As shown in figure 4-120, the flare cone can
be activated by a T-handle, turning a screw, or by a
plunger that is tapped by a hammer.
(6) Raise the slide bar, release the
locking clip, and remove the tube from the bender.
NOTE
(b) Individual flaring tool. The
individual flaring tool is made for a specific tube
diameter, shown in figure 4-121. This tool uses the
sleeve and nut that will remain on the tube when it is
installed. The nut secures the tube to the tool. The
flare is made by tapping the plunger with a hammer.
Exercise care when bending stainless
steel tubing to avoid damage to the tube
bender.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of tube benders:
gripping surfaces.
(2) Double-flaring tool. The double-flaring
tool, shown in figure 4-122, has two punches which are
tapped by a hammer to produce the flare. Refer to TM
1-1500-204-23-2 for the applications of a double flare.
(1) Clean all grease and oil from
(2) Apply a light coat of oil to all nongripping surfaces.
4-25. Flaring Tools. Flaring tools are used to flare
the ends of tubing to provide a sealing surface. The
flare made by these tools measures 37 degrees on each
side.
NOTE
Flared tubing and fittings used on aircraft
have a 37-degree flare angle. Do not use
automotive flare tools, which have a flare
angle of 45 degrees. If automotive flare
tools are used, the tubing will not seal and
system failure will occur.
a. Types. The two general types of flaring tools
are the single and double. They produce flares as
shown in figure 4-119.
Figure 4-120. Combination Flaring Tools
Figure 4-119. Single and Double Flares
4-49
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
using a combination flaring tool, proceed as follows:
(a) Loosen the die block clamp screws
and open the die block.
(b) Insert the tubing to be flared into the
die block. Allow 1/16 inch to extend above the die
block, and tighten the die block clamp screws.
Figure 4-121. Individual Flaring Tool
tube.
(c) Place flare cone over the end of the
(d) If the flare cone is activated by a
screw, tighten it until the end of the tubing is forced into
the countersunk hole in the die block. If the tool has a
plunger, tap the plunger lightly with a hammer until the
metal assumes the shape of the countersunk hole.
NOTE
Rotate the plunger slightly after each
hammer blow to ensure a uniform flare.
(e) When the desired flare is reached,
remove the flare cone from the tube.
(f) Unscrew the die block clamp and
remove the tubing.
(g) Inspect the flare for cracks or
breaks. If a crack or a break is detected, the tubing
must be cut and reflared.
(2) Individual flaring tool. To flare a tube
using an individual flaring tool, proceed as follows:
(a) Place the sleeve (MS20819) into
the nut (AN818) and screw the nut onto the tool.
Figure 4-122. Double-Flaring Tool
b. Use. The following paragraphs provide
procedures for flaring tubing using the flaring tools
described
above.
(b) Insert the tube through the sleeve.
(c) Hold the tube and strike the head of
the plunger with a hammer.
NOTE
NOTE
Refer to TM 1-1500-204-23-2 for specific
flaring procedures and requirements. The
following instructions are general in
nature and are intended to illustrate the
operation of these tools.
Rotate the plunger slightly after each
hammer blow to ensure a uniform flare.
(d) Stop hammering when the flare
reaches the desired dimensions.
(1) Combination flaring tool. To flare a tube
4-50
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Double-flaring tool. To form a double
flare in a tube, proceed as follows:
(3)
Keep double-flaring tools in their cases
when not in use.
(a) Select the proper size die blocks
and place one half of the die block into the tool body
with the countersunk end towards the ram guide.
4-26. Tube Beading Tool. Tube is beaded when it will
be joined with flexible hose. The beading provides a
sealing surface against which the hose is pressed.
Beading may be accomplished on machine beaders, or
with the hand-beading tool. The hand-beading tool is
the most common beading tool used in the maintenance
of Army aircraft. A typical hand-beading tool set is
shown in figure 4-123.
(b) Install the sleeve (MS20819) and
the nut (AN818) on the tube, and lay the tube in the die
block with 1/2 inch extending beyond the countersunk
end.
a.
Use. The hand-beading tool is used with tubing
having 1/4 to 1 inch outside diameter. The bead is
formed by using the beader frame with the proper rollers
attached. It is important that the proper rollers are used
for a specific size of tubing. The operation of the tube
beading tool is shown in figure 4-124. The general
procedures are as follows:
(c) Place the other half of the die block
into the tool body and clamp it tightly.
tool body.
(d) Insert the upset flare punch in the
(e) Insert the ram and tap lightly with a
hammer or mallet until the upset flare punch contacts
the die blocks.
(1)
Lubricate the inside and the outside of
the tube with light oil to reduce the friction between the
rollers during beading.
(f) Remove the upset flare punch and
reinstall in the reverse position. Install the ram and tap
lightly until the upset flare punch contacts the die blocks.
(2)
figure 4-124.
(g) Remove the upset flare punch and
the ram.
(3)
As the tool is rolled around the tube,
intermittently screw down the roller until the desired
bead dimension is obtained.
(h) Insert the finishing flare punch and
the ram.
seat is formed.
Install the tool on the tube as shown in
NOTE
(i) Tap the ram slightly until a good
In some kits, a small vise or tube holder
is included to hold the tube steady and
ensure an even bead all the way around
the tube end.
NOTE
Check the flare at intervals during the finishing
operation to avoid overseating.
b.
Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of the tube beading tool:
(4) Inspection. Inspect completed flares by
pushing sleeve onto flared end. The flare should extend
1/16 inch beyond the end of the sleeve, but the outside
diameter of the flare will not be larger than the largest
outside diameter of the sleeve.
(1)
Ensure that the rollers are clean and
free of dirt and grit.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of flaring tools:
(1) Keep surfaces clean and lightly oiled.
(2) Close single-flaring tools and tighten the
cone into the die block for storage.
4-51
(2)
Apply a light coat of oil to prevent rust.
(3)
Lubricate roller axles with a drop of oil.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 4-123. Tube Beading Tool
4-27. Hand Seamer and Groover . The hand seamer
and groover are sheet-metal working tools, described in
the following paragraphs.
a. Hand Seamer. The hand seamer is designed to
grip metal over a wide area of a proposed seam. The
desired height of the fold is adjusted by the use of two
thumb screws.
b. Hand Groover. The hand groover is used for
grooving or creasing sheet metal seams. Sizes range
from 3/32 to 5/16 inch in width.
Figure 4-124. Beading Large Tubing
4-52
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 5
PNEUMATIC TOOLS
coverage as the gun is moved back and forth parallel to
the surface being painted. The fan is vertical because
the wings on the nozzle are horizontal, as shown in
figure 5-3. To adjust the spray pattern from circular to
fan, proceed as follows (see figure 5-4):
5-1. Pneumatic Tools. Pneumatic tools look much the
same as electric tools, but they are driven by
compressed air. When some sort of air compressor is
available in the field, these tools can be used for a vast
variety of jobs that otherwise would be impossible to do
or would take too long to do by hand.
(a) To adjust the spray width, turn th e
spray width adjustment right for round, and left for fan.
5-2. Safety Precautions.
When operating or
maintaining air-driven tools, observe the following
precautions to prevent injury to personnel:
NOTE
As the width of the spray is increased,
more material must be allowed to pass
through the gun to achieve the same
coverage on the increased area.
a. Inspect the air hose for cracks or other defects.
Replace the hose if defects are found.
b. Before connecting an air hose to an air outlet,
open the shutoff valve momentarily to expel any
condensation.
(b) To increase or decrease the amount
of material, turn the material control screw right to
decrease flow, and left to increase flow.
c. Never point the hose at another person.
(2) Distance for spraying. Depending on the
desired width of the spray pattern, the gun is held six to
ten inches from the work. If all other adjustments are
correct, greater distance will result in dry spray or
dusting and excessive overspray. Holding the gun too
close to the work will result in coatings which are too
heavy and will have a tendency to sag or run.
d. Stop the flow of air to a pneumatic tool by
closing the shutoff valve before connecting,
disconnecting, adjusting, or repairing the tool.
e. Always wear eye protection when using
pneumatic tools.
5-3.
Paint Guns. The use of a paint gun permits a
fast and effective means of applying paint.
(3) Stroke technique. The technique of
proper stroking requires maintaining the same distance
between the gun and the work, the same speed, and
keeping the gun as near to a right angle to the surface
as possible throughout the entire pass.
a. Description. Figure 5-1 shows the basic parts of
a typical paint gun. Though the specific locations of
some parts may differ from type to type, the guns are
generally the same and the parts serve the same
purpose.
(a) Distance. The natural tendency for
spray painters, particularly when tired or in an
uncomfortable position, is to arc or wave the gun, as
shown in figure 5-5. This practice must be avoided at all
costs, because it causes a thicker coating to be applied
in the middle of a stroke than at the end.
b. Operation. The spray gun operates on
compressed air supplied from a compressor. The flow
of paint, is controlled by a needle valve when the trigger
on the spray gun is actuated.
(b) Speed. Maintain a constant speed
through the pass. If the motion is slowed at any point
and the paint output is not changed, an excessive
amount of paint will be deposited, causing it to run or to
sag.
c. Use. The correct use of a paint gun involves
setting the spray pattern, painting at the correct
distance, and using the correct technique in the stroke.
(1) Setting the spray pattern. The spray
pattern is variable from round to a vertical, flat, oval
pattern, with all patterns in between, as shown in figure
5-2. The vertical fan-shaped pattern gives maximum
5-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 5-1. Typical Paint Gun
Figure 5-3. Nozzle Position to Produce Vertical Fan
Figure 5-2. Spray Pattern
5-2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 5-3. Nozzle Position to Produce Vertical Fan
Figure 5-2. Spray Pattern
Change 5
5-2.1/(5-2.2 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(c) Angle. The gun should be held at a
right angle to the work when possible. Figure 5-6 shows
the defects in the finish which can occur if the paint is
applied from an angle.
d. Cleaning. A reasonable amount of care will
keep paint guns in top condition and prevent a majority
of spraying difficulties. The gun should be purged and
flushed after the use of each mixed batch to avoid
system stoppages and mixing of batches. The following
paragraphs describe some general procedures for
flushing and cleaning paint guns.
Figure 5-4. Adjustment of Spray Pattern
(1) Paint gun with cup. When the paint gun is
used with a cup, proceed as follows (see figure 5-7):
Figure 5-5. Correct and Incorrect Stroke Technique
5-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Soaking. As shown in figure 5-9,
place the nozzle and the fluid connection in thinner.
The vessel used should be shallow enough to prevent
the thinner from reaching the packing.
NOTE
It is extremely poor practice to place an
entire gun in thinner. When this is done,
the solvent dissolves the oil in the leather
packing and causes the gun to spit.
Figure 5-6. Effect of Applying Paint at an Angle
Figure 5-7. Flushing Paint Gun with Thinner or
Solvent (Cup)
Figure 5-8. Flushing Paint Gun with
Thinner or Solvent (Pressure Tank or
Gravity Bucket)
(a) Place a quantity of thinner or
suitable solvent in an open container.
(b) Place the paint gun suction tube
into the container of thinner or solvent and operate the
paint gun to thoroughly flush the passageway and to
clean the tip of the needle.
(2) Paint gun with pressure tank or gravity
bucket. When the gun is used with a pressure tank or a
gravity bucket, proceed as follows (see figure 5-8):
(a) Remove the hose from the gun.
(b) Turn the gun upside down.
(c) Pour thinner into the fluid opening
while pulling the trigger. This will flush all passageways.
Figure 5-9. Soaking a Paint Gun
5-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
e. Pattern Troubleshooting. Figure 5-10 shows
common faults associated with spray patterns.
5-4. OIL SPRAY GUNS. Oil spray guns operate on
the same principles as paint guns as discussed in paragraph 5-3.
a. Use. This type of spray gun employs nozzle fittings long enough to reach out-of-the-way places, and is
used to clean aircraft engines and parts or to apply pickling solution to an engine that is to be placed in storage.
A typical oil spray gun is shown in figure 5-11.
nection.
(a) Connect an air hose to the air inlet con-
(b) Insert the pickup tube into a container of
the appropriate solvent.
(c) Squeeze the trigger to expel the solvent
from the nozzle.
(2) Air blow cleaning gun. The air blow cleaning gun is operated as follows:
nection.
(a) Connect an air hose to the air inlet con(b) Point the nozzle at the work.
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, is combustible and toxic to eyes, skin and respiratory
tract. Wear protective gloves and goggles/face
shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use
approved respirator as determined by local
safety/industrial hygiene personnel).
Keep
away from open flames or other sources of
ignition.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the
care and upkeep of cleaning guns:
b. Care. To clean oil spray guns, use degreasing
solvent, MIL-PRF-680, and follow the procedures outlined in paragraph 5-3.d.
(2) Keep the nozzle clear so that the flow of solvent or air is not impeded.
5-5. CLEANING GUNS. Cleaning guns are used for
applying air or solvent under pressure to parts which
must be cleaned.
a. Types. There are two main types of cleaning
guns: the solvent cleaning gun and the air blow cleaning
gun.
(c) Press the lever to expel the air.
(1) On solvent cleaning guns, ensure that the
hose and pickup tube are not clogged or restricted in
any way.
5-6. PNEUMATIC VACUUM CLEANER. The pneumatic vacuum cleaner, shown in figure 5-14, is used to
clean up metal shavings which result from drilling and
filing jobs on aircraft and in shops. The attachments
give the vacuum cleaner versatility. These attachments
include a round brush, a crevice tool, a fan-shaped end,
and tube extensions of varying lengths. The bag should
be emptied regularly and replaced as necessary.
(1) Solvent cleaning gun. The solvent cleaning
gun, shown in .gure 5-12, is used for applying a spray
of solvent to engines and other structures which are
cleaned with solvent.
5-7. PNEUMATIC DRILL. Pneumatic drills are used
where sparks from an electric drill might become a fire
hazard.
(2) Air blow cleaning gun. The air blow cleaning gun, shown in .gure 5-13, is used for applying a direct blast of air to clear away dirt, dust, and metal shavings, or to air dry parts cleaned with solvent.
a. Types. Pneumatic drills that are available are
straight, set at 90 degrees, or rotate through 360 degrees, as shown in figure 5-15. These different types
allow a part to be drilled in just about any location.
b. Use. The following paragraphs describe the
procedures for using these cleaning guns.
b. Use. The following paragraphs describe the
procedures for using pneumatic drills:
(1) Solvent cleaning gun. The solvent cleaning
gun is operated as follows:
Change 5
5-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 5-10. Faulty Patterns and Suggested Corrections
5-6
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 5-11. Oil Spray Gun
Figure 5-14. Pneumatic Vacuum Cleaner
Figure 5-12. Cleaning Solvent Gun
Figure 5-15. Pneumatic Drills
WARNING
Figure 5-13. Air Blow Cleaning Gun
• Do not apply further pressure with pliers
or wrenches after the chuck is handtightened with the chuck key.
• Always remove the key immediately after
it is used. Otherwise, the key will fly
loose when the drill motor is started and
may cause serious injury to personnel.
Change 2
5-7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Insert the drill bit into the drill chuck.
(2) Install an air hose to the air inlet
connection.
b. Use. Procedures for using pneumatic grinders
are as follows:
NOTE
(1) Insert the grinding stone into the chuck.
(2) Install an air hose to the air inlet
connector.
A drill bit that wobbles or is slightly bent
should not be used because it will cause
enlarged holes.
NOTE
(3) Test the drill bit for trueness and vibration
by running the drill freely.
A grinding stone that wobbles or has a
bent shaft should not he used.
WARNING
(3) Test the grinding stone for trueness and
vibration by running the grinder freely. Grinding stones
which are glazed, out of true or out of round may be
reshaped with a dressing stick.
Wear eye protection when drilling.
Failure to comply may result in serious
injury to personnel.
WARNING
(4) Always hold the drill at right angles t o the
work regardless of the position or curvatures. Tilting the
drill at any time may cause elongation of the hole.
Wear eye protection when grinding.
Failure to comply may result in serious
injury to personnel.
c. Care. Consult the applicable operator's and
service manuals for inspection and maintenance
procedures for pneumatic drills.
(4) Perform grinding operations by holding
the grinder so that the proper edge of the grinding stone
is against the work.
5-8.
Pneumatic Grinder. A pneumatic grinder is
used where electrical power is not available or where
sparks from an electric motor could be a fire hazard.
c. Care. Consult the applicable operator's and
service manuals for inspection and maintenance
requirements.
a. Types. A typical pneumatic grinder is shown in
figure 5-16. The grinders are rated by no-load speeds,
which typically result in terms of light-, medium-, and
heavy-duty loads being used to describe the grinder.
The grinding stones come in numerous shapes and give
versatility to the grinder.
5-9.
Pneumatic Hammer. The pneumatic hammer,
shown in figure 5-17, is used for heavy-duty cutting,
shearing, punching, and chiseling and breaking joints.
The built-in air regulator varies speed and power.
Pneumatic hammers have strokes varying from 1 1/2 to
3 1/2 inches, at 2,000 to 4,500 blows per minute. This
hammer uses insertable chisels with different end
shapes, such as tapered punch, panel cutter, cut-off,
and weld buster.
Figure 5-16. Pneumatic Grinder
5-8
Figure 5-17. Pneumatic Hammer
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 6
ELECTRICAL POWER TOOLS
6-1. GENERAL. The power tools described within
this chapter are of the common types used to accomplish jobs in an efficient manner with less time involved.
These tools are usually used in a shop environment,
although they can be used in the field with an adequate
power supply.
Electric drills are authorized for use on Army Aircraft. Do not use electric drills in places where
.ammable gases or liquids are located or enclosed areas where gases can accumulate. At
no time will an electric drill be used when exposed explosive are present. Use pneumatic
tools in these areas were a potential hazard may
exist.
6-2. SAFETY. The following safety precautions will be
followed when operating electric power tools:
a. Never operate power tools unless they are
completely understood. When in doubt, consult the
applicable operator’s manual.
b. Inspect all power tools before use to ensure
their serviceable condition.
c. Prior to connecting the tool to its power source,
ensure that the power switch is in the OFF position.
d. Keep all safety guards in position and wear
safety shields or goggles when necessary.
e.
Fasten all loose clothing and aprons.
f. Never try to clear jammed machinery before disconnecting the tool from its power source.
Figure 6-1. Three-Prong Grounded Plug
j. Ensure that power cables are cared for according to the following precautions:
(1) Do not allow power cords to come in contact
with sharp objects, oil, grease, chemicals, or hot surfaces.
(2) Replace cords when they are damaged.
(3) Ensure that the power cord is of sufficient
length so that it will not be pulled taut to reach the work
location.
(4) Position power cords so that they will not be
tripping hazards.
6-3. ELECTRIC DRILLS. The electric drill is a hand
tool driven by a small, high-speed electric motor. The
motor is geared to the chuck through reduction gears.
The components of the drill are enclosed in a metal or
plastic pistol grip case to permit ease of handling. Although it is specially designed for drilling holes, it can
be adapted for different jobs by the addition of various
accessories. It can be used for sanding, buffing, polishing, wire brushing, and paint mixing. Typical electric
drills are shown in figure 6-2.
g. Before plugging a tool into a power source, ensure that the power source provides the correct voltage
required by the tool.
a. Sizes. The sizes of electric drills are classified
by the largest straight shank drills that they will hold.
Therefore, a 1/4 inch drill will hold straight shank drills
up to and including 1/4 inch, and a 3/8 inch drill will hold
bits up to and including 3/8 inch.
h. If the power cord has a ground pin as shown in
.gure 6-1, do not attempt to use it with an adapter. The
ground pin serves to decrease the possibility of electric
shock.
b. Speed. The drill is made to run at speeds which
will prevent the motor from burning out. For this reason,
large drills run at slower speeds than smaller drills. This
is because larger drills are designed to turn large
i. Do not use sparking electric tools in places
where .ammable gases or liquids or exposed explosives are present. Use pneumatic tools in these areas.
Change 5
6-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 6-3. Three-Jaw Chuck and Chuck Key
d. Care. Consult the applicable operator’s manual
for procedures for maintenance and inspection of electric drills.
Figure 6-2. Electric Drills
cutting tools or to drill heavy stock, both of which require
a slower speed. Therefore, to drill in a metal such as
steel, a 3/8 or 1/2 inch drill should be used, whereas for
drilling holes in wood or sheet metal, a 1/4 inch drill will
be sufficient.
c. Use. The operation of an electric drill involves
installing the drill bit and operating the drill.
(1) Installing the drill bit. The drill bit is installed
in the chuck on the drill. Nearly all electric drills are
equipped with a three-jaw chuck, which is tightened and
loosened by means of a chuck key, as shown in figure
6-3.
NOTE
•
Do not apply further pressure with
pliers or wrenches after the chuck is
hand-tightened with the chuck key.
•
Always remove the key immediately
after it is used. Otherwise, the key
will fly loose when the drill motor is
started and may cause serious injury
to personnel.
(2) Operating the drill. Stock is drilled as outlined in paragraph 4-13 of this volume or in TM 1-1500204-23-10.
6-2
6-4. ELECTRIC GRINDERS. To keep hand tools
in the best usable condition, cutting edges must be
sharpened frequently and certain other tools trued or
shaped for special purposes. Chisels, punches, drills,
snips, screwdrivers, and other hand tools are shaped
or sharpened on a grinder. There are two basic types
of grinders: a bench type and a pedestal type. These
grinders, shown in figure 6-4, consist of an electric
motor with a grinding wheel attached to each end of the
motor shaft. One wheel is coarse, for rough work; the
other is fine and is used for sharpening purposes.
a. Grinding Safety. The grinding wheel is a fragile
cutting tool which operates at high speeds. Great emphasis must be given, therefore, to the safe operation of
bench and pedestal grinders. The following procedures
are mandatory safety precautions for the safety of the
operator and the safety of personnel in the nearby vicinity:
(1) Secure all loose clothing and remove rings
and other jewelry.
(2) Inspect the grinding wheel, wheel guards,
toolrest, and other safety devices to ensure that they are
properly installed and in serviceable condition.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 6-4. Grinders
NOTE
(8) Do not hold the work so that the fingers
will touch the grinding wheel.
Do not use a metallic object for testing the soundness of
a grinding wheel.
grinder.
b. Description of Grinding Wheels . A grinding
wheel is composed of abrasive grains and a bonding
agent, and are graded for coarseness and hardness.
(3) Always wear eye protection when using a
(4) Stand aside when starting the grinder
motor until operating speed is reached. This prevents
injury if the wheel explodes from a defect that has not
been noticed.
(1) Abrasives. The two types of abrasives
are natural and manufactured abrasives.
(a) Natural abrasives. Natural
abrasives, such as emery, corundum, and diamond, are
used only in honing stones and in special types of
grinding wheels.
(5) Use light pressure when starting grinding;
too much pressure on a cold wheel may cause failure.
(6) Grind only on the face or outer
circumference of a grinding wheel unless the wheel is
specifically designed for side grinding.
work.
(b) Manufactured abrasives. The
common manufactured abrasives are aluminum oxide
and silicon carbide. They have superior qualities and
are more economical than natural abrasives.
(7) Use a coolant to prevent overheating the
6-3
(2)
Coarseness. Generally speaking, fine
grain wheels are preferred for grinding hard metals, as
they have more cutting edges and will cut faster than
coarse grain wheels. Coarse grain wheels are generally
preferred for rapid metal removal on softer metals.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Hardness. Hardness of a grinding wheel
is a measurement of the ability of the bond to retain the
abrasive grains in the wheel. Grinding wheels are said
to have a soft to hard grade, which indicate the wheel
has a large amount of bond (hard) or a small amount of
bond (soft).
c. Types of Grinding Wheels. The selection of
grinding wheels for precision grinding can be discussed
generally in terms of such factors as the physical
properties of the stock to be ground, the amount of stock
to be removed (depth of cut), the wheel speed and work
speed, and the finish required. Selection of a grinding
wheel is determined by considering one or more of
these factors. The following paragraphs describe the
types of wheels which can be used to grind metals with
certain general qualities.
(1) Wheel abrasive type. An aluminum oxide
abrasive is most suitable for grinding carbon and alloy
steel, high speed steel, cast alloys and malleable iron. A
silicon carbide abrasive is most suitable for grinding
nonferrous metals, nonmetallic substances, and
cemented carbides.
(2) Wheel coarseness. Generally, the softer
and more ductile the substance being ground, the
coarser the grain selected should be. Also, if a large
amount is to be removed, a coarse grain wheel is
recommended (except on very hard objects). If a good
finish is required, a fine grain wheel should be used.
Figure 6-5. Grinding Wheel Installation
(2) Ensure that the shaft and flanges are
clean and free of grit and old blotter.
(3) Install the inner flange on the shaft.
(3) Wheel hardness. For soft metals, small
depth of cut, or high work speed, use a soft grade wheel.
If the machine you are using is worn, a harder grade
may be necessary to help offset the effects of wear of
the machine. Using a coolant also permits the use of a
harder grade of wheel.
NOTE
The blotter thickness for paper must be
no thicker than 0.025 inch. A leather or
rubber blotter must be no thicker than
0.125 inch.
d. Wheel Installation. The wheel of a grinder must
be properly installed. If it is not, the wheel may operate
improperly, and an accident may occur. Install a grinder
wheel as follows (see figure 6-5):
(4) Place a blotter on the shaft and up against
the flange to ensure even pressure on the wheel, and to
dampen the vibration between the wheel and the shaft.
CAUTION
CAUTION
Do not use a metallic object for testing
the soundness of a grinding wheel. The
wheel may crack and disintegrate at any
time.
Never force the wheel on the shaft. This
may cause the wheel to crack, or be out
of alignment.
(1) Test the wheel for soundness by tapping it
lightly with a piece of hard wood. A good wheel gives
out a clear, ringing sound when tapped. If the wheel is
cracked, a dull thud will be heard.
6-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
are no grooves. Truing is the term used to describe the
removal of abrasive from the cutting face of the wheel
so that the resultant surface runs absolutely true to
some other surface such as the grinding wheel shaft.
NOTE
A 0.002 to 0.005 inch clearance should
be provided. This may be
accomplished by scraping or reaming
the lead bushing in the center of the
wheel.
(1) Dressing procedure. To dress a wheel, proceed
as follows (see figure 6-6):
(a) Start the grinder and let it come up to speed.
(5) Mount the wheel on the shaft, and ensure that it
fits without play.
(b) Set the wheel dresser on the tool rest as
shown in figure 6-6 and bring it in firm contact with the
wheel.
(6) Install another blotter and then the outer flange.
(7) Install the washer and the nut.
CAUTION
Do not overtighten the spindle nut.
Failure to comply may result in cracking
of the grinding wheel.
(8)
firmly.
Tighten the nut sufficiently to hold the wheel
(9) Operate the grinder for a minute or two in order
to test for breakage.
Figure 6-6. Dressing a Grinding Wheel
WARNING
•
(c) Move the wheel dresser back and forth across
the face of the wheel until the surface is clean and
approximately square with the sides of the wheel.
Always wear safety goggles when
using grinder. Failure to comply
may result in serious bodily injury.
•
Ensure that the abrasive wheels are
firmly attached to the spindles by
the flange nuts. If a wheel should
loosen or detach, serious bodily
injury could result.
•
Ensure that tool rests are firmly in
place. A loose tool rest could cause
the tool or piece of work to be
grabbed by the wheel and cause the
hand of the operator to contact the
wheel. Serious bodily injury may
result.
(2) Wheel re-balancing. If grinding wheels get out
of balance because of out-of-roundness, dressing the
wheel will usually remedy the condition. A grinding
wheel can get out of balance by being left sitting with
part of the wheel immersed in the coolant; if this
happens, the wheel should be removed and dried out by
baking. If the wheel gets out of balance axially, it
probably will not affect the efficiency of the wheel. This
unbalance may be remedied simply by removing the
wheel and cleaning the shaft spindle and spindle hole in
the wheel and the flanges.
WARNING
Do not attempt to make any adjustment
to the tool rest until the grinder is shut
down and the power disconnected.
Failure to comply may result in serious
injury to the operator.
e. Dressing and Truing. Grinding wheels, like other
cutting tools, require frequent reconditioning of cutting
surfaces to perform efficiently. Dressing is the term
used to describe the process of cleaning the periphery
of grinding wheels. This cleaning breaks away dull
abrasive grains and smooths the surface so that there
6-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Resetting the tool rest. Each time that a wheel
is dressed, check the clearance between the tool rest
and the wheel. Reestablish the clearance at 1/16-inch
as required.
speed. When a wheel becomes worn in this manner, it
should be discarded and a new one installed.
f. Operation of Electric Grinder. The grinder can be
used to dress points on chisels, screwdrivers, and drills.
It can be used for removing excess metal from work and
smoothing metal surfaces.
Under no condition shall the wheel,
when used in wet grinding, stand
partially immersed in water. This will
cause the water-soaked portion of the
wheel to become heavy and the wheel
to become thrown out of balance.
CAUTION
(1) Use of other types of wheels. The grinding
wheels are removable. The grinders are usually
designed so that wire brushes, polishing wheels, or
buffing wheels can be substituted for the abrasive
wheels.
(3) Use of water. Some grinders are equipped with
water pumps which pump a steady stream of water over
the work. When grinder is not equipped with a water
pump, the work should be immersed in water often
enough to prevent overheating.
WARNING
(4) Grinding soft materials. Do not grind soft
substances such as aluminum or brass as these
materials will clog the pores of the grinding wheel and
stop its cutting action. A clogged or glazed wheel
should be dressed to obtain proper cutting action.
Do not use side of wheel for grinding.
(2) Use of side of wheel. As a rule, it is not good
practice to grind work on the side of an abrasive wheel.
When an abrasive wheel becomes worn, its cutting
efficiency is reduced because of a decrease in surface
6-6
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 7
SPECIAL AIRCRAFT TOOLS
(1) Indicating surface. The indicating surface of the
protractor is the bottom edge opposite the upper curved
edge.
7-1. General. The tools described in this chapter are
all used in specific applications on Army aircraft. Some
of these tools, such as inspection mirrors, make basic
tasks simpler, and others are used for critical
maintenance tasks, like the cable tensiometer.
(2) Primary level. The level at the lower left corner
of the protractor is the primary level and is parallel with
the indicating surface. This level has two positions:
against the face, and at the right angle to the face.
7-2. Protractor. The protractor assembly may be used
to measure propeller blade angle, control surface
movement, or any other angle.
(3) Secondary level. The level at the center of the
protractor is a secondary level functioning with the inner
and vernier dials.
a. Description. The protractor, shown in figure 7-1,
consists of an aluminum frame in which a steel ring and
a disk are mounted. Spirit levels are mounted on both
the frame and disk. Locks are provided for locking the
ring to the frame or the disk. Scales are marked on the
disk and the ring. Zeros of the scales provide reference
marks between which the angle may be read. Hand
adjusting screws are provided so that the ring and the
disk may be rotated in relation to the housing and to
each other. Functioning parts of the protractor are
described in the following paragraphs.
(4) Lock assembly. The lock assembly detents and
engages the inner protractor dial with the vernier scale
at zero alignment only.
(5) Ring-to-frame lock. The knob locks, by tension,
the other vernier scale at any rotary position in relation
to the indicting surface of the protractor.
Figure 7-1. Protractor
7-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(6) Ring adjuster. The knob at the upper right side
is used for fine rotation adjustment of the vernier scale.
(7) Unlock the disk from the ring with the disk-toring lock.
(7) Disk adjuster. The knob at ninety degrees left
of the zero on the vernier dial is used for fine rotation of
the inner protractor dial.
(8) Turn the disk adjusting screw until the bubble is
centered in the level, as shown in figure 7-3.
b. Use. The following steps outline the procedures for
measuring the angle of a control surface in an extreme
position:
(9) Read the control surface throw in degrees.
(1) Align the control surface in the neutral position.
The angle is read by reading the degrees on
the inner dial that correspond to the zero on
the vernier scale. The vernier scale
indicates tenths of a degree.
NOTE
(2) Lock the ring to the disk at zero by dropping the
lockpin in the deepest slot.
(3) Place the protractor in the approximate middle
of the control surface next to a rib.
c. Care. Observe the following practices for the care
and upkeep of protractors:
(4) Using the ring adjusting screw, turn the ring to
center the bubble in the level, as shown in figure 7-2.
(1)
Protractors are precision measuring
instruments. Do not drop or otherwise mistreat
protractors, because some damage may render them
useless.
(5) Lock the ring to the frame with the ring-to-frame
lock.
(2) Store protractors in protective boxes.
(6) Move the control surface to an extreme limit of
movement.
Figure 7-2. Setting Protractor with Flight Control Surface in Neutral Position
7-2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 7-3. Measuring Control Surface Angle at Full Throw
7-3. Cable Tensiometer. Control surface movements
must be synchronized with the movements of the
cockpit controls. To accomplish this, the flight controls
must be rigged. To properly rig control surfaces, a
protractor must be used to check the throw of the
surfaces, and a cable tensiometer is used to check the
tension of the flight control cables. The use of a
protractor is discussed in paragraph 7-2. The following
paragraphs describe the cable tensiometer and the
techniques for its use.
(3) Read the force indicated on the dial.
a. Description. Several manufactures make a variety
of tensiometers. Each type is designed for different
kinds of cable, cable sizes, and cable tensions. A
typical tensiometer is shown in figure 7-4. Cable tension
is determined by measuring the amount of force needed
to make an offset in the cable between two hardened
steel blocks, called anvils. A riser or plunger is pressed
against the cable to form the offset.
b. Use. The following steps outline the general
procedures for measuring cable tension with a
tensiometer (see figure 7-5):
Figure 7-4. Tensiometer
(1) With the trigger lowered, place the cable to be
tested under the two anvils.
(2) Close the trigger. Movement of the trigger
pushes up the riser, which pushes the cable at right
angles to the clamping points under the anvils.
7-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
is used to convert the dial reading to pounds. The
conversion table is very similar to that shown in figure 76. The dial reading is converted to pounds of tension as
follows:
NOTE
Figure 7-5. Using a Tensiometer
NOTE
•
•
When taking a reading, it may be
difficult to see the dial. Therefore a
pointer lock is present on the
tensiometer. Push it in to lock the
pointer. Then remove the
tensiometer from the cable and
observe the reading. After
observing the reading, pull the lock
out and the pointer will return to
zero.
•
The conversion table shown in
figure 7-6 is only an example to
illustrate the process of conversion.
Consult the table included with the
tensiometer being used for the
correct tension values.
•
Note that the risers are specified for
use with specific cable diameters.
Since this particular tensiometer is
not designed for use in measuring
7/32- or 1/4-inch cable, no values
are shown in the column for the
number 3 riser.
(1) Using a number 2 riser to measure the tension
of a 3/16 inch cable, a reading of 48 is obtained.
(2) As shown in figure 7-6, read across to the
tension column for a reading of 70 pounds. Therefore,
the actual tension of the cable is 70 pounds.
d. Cable Rigging Tension Charts. Cable rigging
tension charts are graphic tools used to compensate for
temperature variations. They are used when
establishing cable tensions in flight control systems,
landing ear systems, or any other cable-operated
systems. A typical chart is shown in figure 7-7. To use
the chart, proceed as follows:
Different risers are used with
different sizes of cable. Each riser
has an identifying number and is
identified in the tensiometer kit.
Risers are easily inserted into the
tensiometer.
c. Conversion of Tensiometer Reading to Pounds.
Each tensiometer comes with a conversion table which
Figure 7-6. Conversion of Tensiometer Reading in Pounds
7-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Determine the size of the cable to be tested and
the ambient air temperature. For this example, assume
that the cable is 1/8 inch in diameter, that it is a 7 x 19
cable, and the ambient air temperature is 85 °F.
(2) Follow the 85 ° F line upward until it intersects
the curve for the 1/8-inch cable.
(3) Extend a horizontal line from this point of
intersection to the right edge of the chart. The value at
this point indicates the required tension to be
established on the cable. The required tension in this
example is 70 pounds.
e. Care. Observe the following practices for the care
and upkeep of cable tensiometers:
(1) Cable tensiometers are precision measuring
instruments. Exercise extreme care when handling
them, because some types of damage may render them
useless.
(2)
Store tensiometers in separate boxes to
prevent damage.
7-4. Tumbuckle. Wrench. The tumbuckle wrench
shown in figure 7-8 is used for ease in adjusting
tumbuckle. It is a short bar curved on each end to fit the
body of a turnbuckle. Each curved surface has a short
steel peg which fits into the hole in the center of the
tumbuckle.
7-5. Valve Stem Fishing Tool. The valve stem fishing
tool, shown in figure 7-9, consists of a chain with a cap
fastened to one end and a small T-handle fastened to
the other end. The cap is threaded to fit a valve stem.
When replacing tires on wheels this tool is used in order
to prevent the valve stem from slipping inside the tire.
7-6. Valve Repair Tool. The valve repair tool shown in
figure 7-10 is used for reconditioning air valves. The tap
is used on the inside threads, and the die is used on the
outside threads. The end opposite the tap is designed
for removing and installing the valve core.
7-7. Cotter Pin Extractor . The cotter pin extractor,
shown in figure 7-11, is a steel bar with a curved taper
on one end and a curved wedge on the other.
Figure 7-7. Typical Cable Rigging Tension Chart
Change 2
7-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 7-10. Valve Repair Tool
Figure 7-8. Turnbuckle Wrench
Figure 7-11. Cotter Pin Extractor
Figure 7-9. Valve Stem Fishing Tool
a. Use. A cotter pin can be removed by inserting the
point of the taper into the eye of the cotter pin. With the
outside of the curved portion bearing on a supporting
structure, the cotter pin is removed by prying it out. The
curved wedge end may be used to bend or straighten
the ends of the cotter pin.
CAUTION
Mechanical fingers should not be used as
a substitute for wrenches or pliers. The
fingers are made of thin sheet metal or
spring wire and can be easily damaged by
overloading.
b. Care. If damaged, the wedge or the taper can be
repaired by grinding. Observe all safety precautions
when performing this repair.
b. Care. Observe the following precautions for the
care and upkeep of mechanical fingers:
7-8. Mechanical Fingers. Mechanical fingers are used
to retrieve small articles which have fallen into places
where they cannot be reached by hand. They are also
used to start nuts or bolts in difficult areas.
(1) Apply a light coat of oil to metal parts to prevent
rust.
(2) Store mechanical fingers so that exposed
springs are not damaged or binding within the tube.
a. Description. The mechanical fingers, shown in
figure 7-12 and 7-13, is a flexible or fixed cable or tube
with long flat springs running thru it. Applying or
releasing pressure on the plate operates the mechanical
fingers for retrieving hard to reach objects.
7-9. Telescoping Magnet.
The telescoping magnet
shown in figure 7-14 is used to retrieve magnetic objects
which have fallen into locations not accessible by hand.
It is similar in principle to the mechanical fingers, but
instead of the fingers, it has a magnet at the end of a
telescoping tube. The tube is simply extended to reach
the object, and the object is held by the magnet as it is
pulled out.
7-6
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
7-10. FLANG NUT WRENCH. Flang nut wrenches
are used to tighten nuts which secure tubing. The
handle-type nut wrench is shown in figure 7-15. When
the handle-type wrench shown in figure 7-15 is not
available, one may be fabricated by removing a section
of a box-end wrench allowing it to slip over the tubing.
NOTE
In an emergency, an open-end wrench may be
used on brass or steel nuts, but it is likely to
round off corners and distort the shape of an
aluminum nut.
7-11. LOCKWIRE PLIERS. Lockwire pliers, shown in
.gure 7-16, are pliers which hold, twist, and cut. They
are designed to reduce the time used in twisting lockwire.
a. Operation. To apply lockwire with these pliers,
proceed as follows:
During twisting operation keep the wire tight
without over stressing it or allowing it to become
nicked, or otherwise mutilated.
Figure 7-14. Telescoping Magnet
Figure 7-12. Mechanical Fingers
Figure 7-15. Flang Nut Wrench
Figure 7-16. Lockwire Pliers
Figure 7-13. Flexible Mechanical Fingers
Change 5
7-7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Grasp the wire between the jaws, and apply
the locking sleeve with the thumb.
(2) Pull the knob to twirl the pliers which make
uniform twists in the wire.
(3) If further twisting is required, push the knob
back into the pliers and pull the knob again.
(4) When the wire is twisted as required,
squeeze the handles together to unlock the jaws and
release the wire.
(5) Cut the wire to the desired length with the
side cutter.
b. Care. Lubricate the spiral twister occasionally,
and apply a coat of light oil to all surfaces to prevent
rust.
Under no circumstances should an attempt be
made to cut holes in metal with leather punch.
b. Use. To properly locate deicer boot holes, hold
deicer boot and fairing strip together. Punch holes directly thru holes in fairing strip.
7-14. DEICER BOOT ROLLER. The deicer boot roller
is used to roll the .aps of the deicer boot when cementing them to the wing, as shown in figure 7-19. Occasionally lubricate the roller axle to allow smooth rolling.
7-15. CROWFOOT
WRENCHES. The
crowfoot
wrench is an open-end wrench head which is turned
with a socket handle. It is used to remove and install
bolts or nuts where an obstruction would prevent the
use of a regular socket. A typical crowfoot wrench is
shown in figure 7-20.
7-12. DEICER BOOT PLIERS. When a deicer boot is
installed, it usually is pulled on over rivnut studs to hold it
in place while the rivnut screws are started. To provide
a larger gripping surface to prevent tearing the deicer
boot, deicer boot pliers are used. These pliers have two
rods, about one inch long, welded perpendicularly to the
jaws and wrapped with tape. Figure 7-17 shows deicer
boot pliers being used.
Figure 7-18. Using Leather Punch
Figure 7-17. Using Deicer Boot Pliers
7-13. LEATHER PUNCH. The leather punch is used
to cut holes in the deicer boot for rivnut screws, as
shown in .gure 7-18.
a. Description. The leather punch is shaped like a
pair of pliers, but has a selection of sharp-edged tubes
(for different sized holes) mounted on one jaw, and a
plate on the other.
7-8
Change 5
Figure 7-19. Using Diecer Boot Roller
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Apply a coat of light oil to wrenches to prevent
rust.
a. Use. Figure 7-21 shows a typical use of a crowfoot
wrench, where a bolt is installed in a location where an
obstruction does not allow the use of a socket or a
wrench. The wrench is attached to an extension, which
is then attached to a socket handle which is in this case
a ratchet.
7-16. Soldering Tools.
Soldering is a metal-joining
process in which a lower melting-point metal (called
solder) is heated to the point where it melts and wets the
joint surface and then is allowed to solidify in place.
These types are shown in figure 7-22.
NOTE
Ensure that the wrench being used is of
the right size. Use of a wrench larger
than the head of the bolt or nut will
result in rounding of the faces.
a.
Types.
soldering guns.
The following paragraphs describe
(1)
Electrical soldering guns.
The electrical
soldering guns operates from a standard 115 volt outlet.
The guns operate in a temperature range of 500 to
600°F (260 to 316°C).
b. Care. Observe the following practices for the care
and upkeep of crowfoot wrenches:
CAUTION
(1) Clean wrenches after each use.
Never use a soldering gun when
working on solid state equipment
Serious damage to diodes, transistors,
and other solid state components can
result.
(2) Cordless soldering gun. The cordless soldering
gun operates off a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery.
The gun has a tip performance up to 50 watts and over
700°F tip temperature.
Figure 7-20. Crowfoot Wrench
b.
Safety.
The following precautions must be
observed when using these tools:
Figure 7-21. Using a Crowfoot Wrench
7-9
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 7-22. Soldering Tools
7-10
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Keep soldering irons away from flammable
objects.
(2) In order to avoid burns, always assume that
the tip is hot.
(3) Never rest a heated iron anywhere but on a
metal surface or on a rack provided for this purpose.
(2) Securely join the parts to be soldered before
any soldering is done.
(3) As shown in figure 7-23, hold the soldering
iron beneath the splice being soldered with as much mechanical contact as possible to permit maximum heat
transfer.
(4) Never swing an iron to remove solder.
(4) Apply the solder, Federal Specification
QQ-S-571, to the splice.
(5) When cleaning an iron, use a cleaning cloth
or damp sponge .
NOTE
(6) Hold small soldering jobs with your pliers or
a suitable clamping device.
c. Tinning. If a soldering iron is new or the tip coating is deteriorated, it must be tinned (coated with solder).
To accomplish this procedure, proceed as follows:
(1) Hold the iron in a vise and file the point to its
correct shape.
(2) Heat iron tip.
(3) While hot, file lightly to remove scale and old
solder.
(4) Dip the point into a .ux and apply solder,
Federal Speci.cation QQ-S-571, to the tip of the iron.
The coating of solder will be bright and shiny and very
thin. This aids in the rapid transfer of heat to the work.
Before the solder itself melts, the rosin core will
have melted and run out over the splice to flux
the area.
(5) When the solder has coated the splice completely, the job is finished. A good, well-bonded connection is clean, shiny, smooth, and round. It approximately
outlines the terminal and the wire.
e. Care. The following paragraphs describe procedures for the care and upkeep of the different types of
soldering tools.
(1) Soldering gun. The tip of a soldering gun
should be removed occasionally to permit cleaning away
the oxide scale. If for any reason the tip does become
damaged, replacement tips are available.
(2) Soldering iron. Observe the following practices for the care of soldering irons:
d. Soldering Procedure. The following procedures must be performed in order to ensure a firmly
soldered joint.
(a) Ensure that removable tips are securely
fastened into the heater unit.
(1) Ensure that the parts to be soldered are absolutely clean. While cleaning these parts, take care not
to produce cuts or nicks which greatly reduce the mechanical strength of the wire, especially under vibration.
oxide.
NOTE
The joint should be prepared just prior to soldering.
(b) Keep the tips clean and free from copper
(c) After completing a job, disconnect the
powercord and, when the iron has cooled off, stow it in
its proper storage area.
(d) When storing irons for long periods of
time, coat the shaft and all metal parts with rust-preventive compound and store in a dry place.
Change 5
7-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
7-17.
SAFETY CABLE APPLICATION TOOLS.
a. Pre-Set Tension Tool (Figure 7-23.) Insert the
free end of the cable into the cable entrance and continue to push the cable into the cavity. When the free
end of the cable appears at the bottom of the tool, grip
the cable and pull the slack from the cable by repeatedly
closing the tool handle allowing the handle to open fully
before closing again. When all slack is removed from
the cable, snug the tool against the fastener by using
several short strokes of the handle. Release the handle to the full open position and fully close the handle to
crimp securely and cut flush.
NOTE
It is important on this final stroke to hold the
tool as steady and perpendicular to the cable
as possible while completing a full stroke. This
assures consistent tensioning of the cable.
Do not over tighten safety cable. It is a good
practice to find a tension setting, which removes
the slack from the cable, (in order to meet the
flex limit requirement) without overstressing the
safety cable components.
(1) Completely close the handles to crimp and
cut the cable. Hold the tool steady and perpendicular to
the cable to maintain constant cable tension. Release
the handle and remove the tool from the crimped ferrule.
Remove the excess cable segment from the tool prior
to the next application. If it is more convenient to use
the adjustable tension tool with the tension wheel on the
opposite side, you may remove the retaining ring located
on the opposite side from the tension wheel, slide the
tension wheel assembly out of the tool body, reinsert
it from the opposite direction, and replace the retaining
ring. The tension wheel is now located on the opposite
side of the tool.
NOTE
When using a hand tool, the tool handles are to
remain fully open during the cable entry process
(in both tool models).
Figure 7-23. Pre-set Tension Safety Cable
Application Tool
b. Adjustable Tension Tool (Figure 7-24.)
Thread the safety cable through the fastener, ferrule,
and tool nose in the same way as with other models.
Wrap the cable one full revolution (clockwise) around
the tension wheel, and with slight pressure applied by
pulling the cable, secure the cable into the slot. Rotate
the tension knob until several clicks are heard and felt.
If additional tension is required, adjustment can be
made with the tension adjuster on the opposite side of
the tool.
7-12
Change 4
Figure 7-24. Adjustable Tension Safety Cable Tool
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
c. Pneumatic Safety Cable Tool. (Figure 7-25.)
Confirm that the tool is set-up correctly and calibrated.
Connect the pneumatic safety cable application tool to a
clean dry air supply of 80 to 100 psi.
(1) Install the safety cable through the components, which are to be secured.
(2) The tool nose can be rotated to any convenient position.
(3) Insert the free end of the cable through the
ferrule in the cartridge, and remove the ferrule by pulling
the cable away from the end of the cartridge. Insert the
free end of the cable through the nose of the tool, and
slide the tool along the cable to the desired position.
(4) Rotate the cable tension wheel clockwise if
necessary to move the cable entry slot to an accessible
position. Align the nose such that the ferrule is pressed
square against the component being secured. Make certain the ferrule is fully seated in the tool nose. Insert the
free end of the cable into the cable entry slot of the cabletensioning wheel. When the end of the cable exits the
wheel, grip the slack from the cable. Do not leave more
than 1 1/2 inch of total slack in the cable.
(5) Press the trigger and hold. The tool will
apply tension to the cable, crimp and cut. When the trigger is released, the crimp mechanism will retract (after
the cycle is completed). The tool nose can then be
removed from the ferrule, and the excess cable discarded.
d. Safety Cable Application Tool Maintenance and
Calibration. The safety cable tools should be stored in a
clean, dry place when not in use. Clean any debris (especially in the crimp cavity in the tool nose) from the tool with
a small brush and solvent if necessary. Lubricate the tool
nose (into the crimp cavity) with a drop of oil on a regular
basis.
e. Tool calibration verification with the torque verification fixture, or the electronic pull tester.
NOTE
Indenter calibration must be checked
frequently, and must be checked each
time the nose assembly has been
removed or changed.
f. Use the torque verification fixture (Figure 7-26.)
and a calibrated torque wrench (0-155 inch-pound scale)
to verify the safety cable tool indenter adjustment.
Thread a new piece of safety cable into the torque verification fixture and crimp a ferrule onto the cable with the
safety cable application tool being tested. This process
is the same for all hand and pneumatic tool models.
Apply approximately 2 pounds force to the cable with
your finger at the point marked “test area”. The cable
should not touch the side of bottom wall of the fixture.
g. Place a calibrated 3/8 inch drive torque wrench
(capable of indicating 30 inch-pounds for .020 cable, 70
inch-pounds for .032 cable, and 110 inch-pounds for .040
cable) into the square drive hole. Orient the verification
fixture and the torque wrench on a stable surface, slowly
and steadily apply the force until the required torque is
indicated. Do not apply additional pressure after the
required force is indicated. Release and remove the
torque wrench.
Figure 7-25. Pneumatic Safety Cable
Application Tool
Repeat the application of a 2 pound force to the area
marked “test area”. The safety cable should not touch the
wall of the verification fixture. Upon the successful
completion of this test, the tool can be used to apply
safety cable.
Change 4
7-13
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
h.
If the safety cable does touch the wall of the
fixture, the tool should not be returned to service, and
must be adjusted or serviced. Follow the instructions in
the next section of this manual.
8-32 socket head cap screws with a 9/64 inch hex wrench
(see Figure 7-28).
Figure 7-26. Torque Verification
Fixture and Torque Wrench
i.
Tool calibration verification with an electronic
tester. It may be required in some applications to use an
electronic pull tester to test safety cable to destruction. If
this is required, the tester (Figure 7-27) should have digital readout capability, and a two (2) inch/minute pull rate.
Figure 7-28. Removal of Safety Cable
Tool Nose Assembly
k.
Unlock the jamnut using the SCT32084 tool
(supplied by the manufacturer). Adjust the pushrod
adjustment screw using a 1/4 inch straight edge screwdriver (see Figure 7-29). Turn the screw clockwise to
loosen the crimp (enlarge the gaging dimension), or
counterclockwise to tighten the crimp (reduce the gaging
dimension). After each adjustment, securely tighten the
jam nut using the SCT32084 tool (while holding the
adjustment screw tight with the screwdriver). Reinstall
the tool nose being sure to tighten the 8-32 socket cap
screws securely.
CAUTION
Do not adjust the pushrod
adjustment screw more than
one quarter turn at a time. Radical adjustments may cause
damage to the tool.
Figure 7-27. Electronic Safety Cable
Pull Tester
j.
Safety Cable tool Indenter Adjustment/Calibration. Remove the nose assembly by removing the two
7-14
Change 4
l.
Retest the tool using the procedures previously
defined. Accept or reject the tool on the basis of the
pass/fail criteria stated above, and repeat adjustment
process if necessary to achieve passing results.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 7-29. Adjustment of Safety
Cable Indenter (Same for hand and
pneumatic tool models)
m. Replacing the tool nose. If satisfactory results
cannot be achieved by adjusting the tool as defined
above, it may be necessary to replace the tool nose with
a new assembly. Should this be necessary, obtain the
new nose assembly, and follow steps as defined in paragraphs j - l.
SEE APPENDIX “F” & “H” FOR TOOLING
IDENTIFICATION LIST.
Change 4
7-15/(7-16 blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 8
TORQUE TOOLS AND TORQUE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES
(b) Rigid frame torque wrench. The deflecting element
of the' rigid frame torque wrench shown in figure 8-3, is
enclosed in a rigid frame which functions as the lever.
The deflecting element actuates a needle on a
graduated dial that indicates the applied torque.
8-1. General. This chapter discusses the various types
of torque tools available to the aircraft repairer.
8-2. Types of Torque Tools. The torque tools which
are used in the maintenance of Army aircraft is as
follows.
(c) Audible-indicating torque wrench. The audibleindicating torque wrench, shown in figure 8-4, has a
micrometer-type barrel for presetting the desired torque.
The deflecting element is a compression spring that
applies pressure to a lever in a detent. When the preset
torque is reached, the lever slips out of the detent with
an audible click which can also be felt in the handle.
a. Manual Torque Tools. Threaded fasteners can be
tightened by the following manual torque tool.
(1) Torque screwdriver. The preset screwdriver,
shown in figure 8-1, is preset to the desired torque. A
device in the tool limits the applied torque to the preset
torque by allowing the handle to turn free of the driven
bit when the preset torque is reached.
b. Power Torque Tools. The two common types of
powered torque tools are the nutrunner and screwdriver.
(2)
Torque Wrenches.
Torque wrenches are
divided into three types: deflecting beam, rigid frame
and audible indicating.
(a) Deflecting beam torque wrench.
On the
deflecting beam torque wrench shown in figure 8-2, the
deflecting element is the beam itself. When a load is
applied, the beam bends (deflects). A pointer attached
to the socket end remains straight and indicates the
applied load as torque on a graduated plate attached to
the handle end. Other wrenches of this type may have
a graduated dial instead of the indicator plate. Audible
sensory indicators are sometimes provided in addition to
the indicator plate or dial. On the deflecting beam
wrench, the location of the grip on the handle determine
the length of the lever, and the accuracy of the torque
reading. For this reason, some flexible beam wrenches
are provided with a pivoted grip to insure that the point
of load application is maintained at the proper distance
from the socket drive.
Figure 8-2. Deflecting Beam Torque Wrench
Figure 8-3. Rigid Frame Torque Wrench
Figure 8-1. Preset Torque Screwdriver
Figure 8-4. Audible-Indicating Torque Wrench
8-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
and the impact wrench. These tools operate on
compressed air at a pressure of 90 (+10) psi. The air
supply hose must be a minimum 5/16 inch inside
diameter and should not be more than 15 feet long.
Observe all standard precautions for the use of airpowered tools.
NOTE
The torque that the tool will apply to a
fastener at a given torsion bar setting is
dependent to some extent on the bolt
diameter and length, the type of nut,
and the compression characteristics of
the metal in the joint. The shutoff
torque of the tool must be checked and
the torsion bar adjusted as required
when there is any change in any of
these conditions, even though the
required torque remains the same.
8-3. Torque Wrench Selection.
The appropriate
torque wrench can be selected for a specific job, based
on the type desired, the range of the tool, and the
appropriate torque units.
a. Types. In aircraft maintenance applications, the
rigid frame with the indicating dial and the audible
indicating torque wrenches are used in preference to the
flexible beam-type wrench. The audible-indicating
torque wrench is preferred since it can be used in places
of limited accessibility where it would be difficult to read
a dial or scale while performing the tightening operation.
For the combinations of features available in torque
wrenches, see figures 8-5 through 8-14.
b. Range. When selecting a torque for a particular
application, the range of the wrench must be
considered. When practical, the required torque value
should be between the 30- and 80-percent points of the
torque wrench range. The accuracy of most torque
Figure 8-5. Type I, Class 1, Style A Torque Wrench - Deflecting Beam with Indicator Plate (Direct Reading)
Figure 8-6. Type I, Class 1, Style B Torque Wrench - Deflecting Beam with Indicator Plate
(Direct Reading with Feel Impulse and Audible Signal)
8-2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
wrenches trends to decrease at the extremes of the
torque range. The best accuracy is obtained between
the 30- and 80-percent points of the range. The graduation increments on the torque wrench should not
be greater than 10 percent of the torque value being
measured. Refer to table 8-1 for the accuracy limits for
torque tools.
c. Appropriate Units. The torque wrench should
be calibrated in the same torque units (inch- pounds,
foot-pounds, etc.) as are used to specify the torque for
the fastener.
8-4. DETERMINING
CORRECT
TORQUE
VALUE. There is a correct torque value for tightening
every fastener except those which are smaller than the
fasteners shown in Table 8-2. In some instances, the
torque value will be given in the maintenance manual
with the detailed instructions for the assembly or the
installation of the components. In most instances, the
torque value will be obtained from a table, similar to
table 8-2, in the general instructions section of the
aircraft maintenance manual. Table 8-2 is a standard
table of recommended torque values for tightening
different types of standard nuts. This table, or its
equivalent, should be consulted for the correct torque
value for any fastener that does not have a torque value
specified in the assembly instructions.
Table 8-1.
Torque Tool Accuracy Limits
Test instrument
parameters
Performance specification
Torque Wrenches
Range: 0 to 1000
foot-pounds Accuracy:
(±4 percent) of reading from
20 percent of full scale to full
scale.1
Torque Screwdriver
Range: 0 to 100 inch-pounds
Accuracy: (±3 percent)
1
No accuracy requirement from 0 to 20 percent of
full scale or wrench
Possess a basic knowledge of essential related details,
and must exercise a reasonable amount of care and
skill.
a. Force Application. A smooth, steady force
must be applied to obtain accurate torque values. Rapid
or jerky force can result in considerable error in the
torque applied.
8-5. TORQUE WRENCH OPERATION AND USE. To
properly use a torque wrench, the mechanic must
Figure 8-7. Type I, Class 2, Style A Torque Wrenches - De.ecting Beam with Indicating Dial (Direct
Reading)
Change 5
8-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-8. Type I, Class 2, Style B Torque Wrench - De.ecting Beam with indicating Dial (Direct Reading
with Audible Signal)
Figure 8-9. Type II, Style A Torque Wrench - Rigid Case with Indicator Dial (Direct Reading)
Figure 8-10. Type II, Style B Torque Wrench-Rigid Case with Indicator Dial, Presetting Torque Dial (Direct
Reading with Audible Signal)
8-4
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-11. Type II, Style C Torque Wrench-Rigid Cases with Presetting Dial (Direct
Reading with Flashlight Signal)
Figure 8-12. Type III, Class 1 Torque Wrench-Rigid Case, Micrometer-Style Torque
Presetting, Audible Signal, Plain Head
Figure 8-13. Type III, Class 2 Torque Wrench-Rigid Case, Micrometer-Style Torque
Presetting, Audible Signal, Ratchet Reversible Head
8-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-14. Type V Torque Wrench-Rigid Case, Preset Torque, Audible Signal
b. Reading the Torque Value. With the indicating
dial-type wrench, the torque value is read on the dial as
the force is applied. With the audible-indicating torque
wrench, the torque value is preset on the wrench by
releasing the lock in the end of the handle and rotating
the grip to the desired torque setting. When the preset
torque value is reached during the tightening operation,
the handle will automatically release or break, producing
approximately 15 to 20 degrees of free travel. This
release is distinct, easily detected by the mechanic, and
indicates completed torquing action on the fastener.
Table 8-2. Recommended Torque Values
Size
and
Thread
8 - 36
10- 32
1/4 - 28
5/16 - 24
3/8 - 24
7/16 - 20
1/2 - 20
9/16 - 18
5/8 - 18
3/4 - 16
7/8 - 14
1 - 14
11/8 - 12
11/4 - 12
c. Use of Attachments and Extensions. Many torque
wrench applications will require the use of attachments
such as adapters and extensions to reach fasteners in
places of limited accessibility or to position the torque
wrench so that the dial is more easily read. In some
cases, the use of such attachments may greatly affect
the actual torque applied to the fastener.
(1)
Concentric attachments.
The use of an
attachment which operates in line with the drive square
of the wrench presents no particular problem, since the
effective length of the wrench is not lengthened or
shortened. The torque applied to the fastener will
therefore be the torque value indicated on the dial.
Figure 8-15 illustrates typical attachments of this type.
These attachments may also be used on the audible
indicating torque wrenches without affecting the torque
setting.
Fine Thread
Plain &
Thin Plain &
Castellated Steel
Castellated Steel
Hex Nuts
Hex Nuts
Average
Average
12 - 15
20 -25
50 - 70
100 - 140
160 - 190
450 - 500
480 - 690
800 - 1000
1100 - 1300
2300 - 2500
2500 - 3000
3700 - 5500
5000 - 7000
9000 - 11000
7- 9
12 - 15
30 -40
60 - 85
95 - 110
270 -300
290 - 410
480 - 600
600 - 780
1300 - 1500
1500 - 1800
2200 - 3300
3000 - 4200
5400 - 6000
Coarse Thread
8- 32
10 -24
1/4 - 20
5/16 - 18
3/8 - 16
7/16 - 14
1/2 - 13
9/16 - 12
5/8 - 11
3/4 - 10
7/8 - 9
(2)
Nonconcentric attachments.
For some
tightening applications, an attachment can be used on
the torque wrench that does not operate concentrically
with the drive square. An attachment of this type has
the effect of lengthening or shortening the lever length,
and the torque value shown on the dial is not the torque
that is applied to the fastener. When using these
attachments, it is necessary to calculate the effect of the
lever length to determine the correct torque reading.
8-6
12 - 15
20 - 25
40 - 50
80 - 90
160 - 185
235 -255
400 - 480
500 - 700
700 - 900
1150 - 1600
2200 - 3000
7- 9
12 -15
25 - 30
48 - 55
95 - 100
140 - 155
240 - 290
300 - 420
420 - 540
700 - 950
1300 - 1800
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Therefore, the torque wrench must indicate 214 inchpounds in order for the desired torque of 300 pounds to
be obtained on the fastener.
(b) Shortening lever length. In the previous
case of added lever length, the indicated torque value
is smaller than the actual torque value. Attachments,
when used as shown in figure 8-17, shorten the effective
lever length. In these instances, the attachment length
A is subtracted in the formula and the indicated torque
value is greater than the actual torque value.
Figure 8-15. Concentric Torque Wrench
Attachments
(a) Extending lever length. Figure 8-16
shows an attachment that adds to the lever length with
the applicable formula for obtaining the correct torque
reading. The formula is as follows:
(c) Importance of proper technique. When
using these formulas, the lever length L is a critical factor. On a flexible beam-type wrench with a pivoted grip,
this dimension is .xed, and the pivot point of the grip
determines the point of force application and therefore
the length of the lever. On the rigid frame and audible-indicating torque wrenches, the point of force application must be in the center of the grip as shown in .gure
8-18. In .gure 8-18, using the 10-inch lever length, 107
inch-pounds of torque, as read on the torque wrench,
results in 150-pounds of torque on the fastener when
the force is applied correctly to the center of the grip. If
the force were applied to the torque wrench at the tip
end or the root of the grip, as shown in figure 8-19, at
the same 107 inch-pounds reading, the torque applied
to the fastener would be 142.6 inch-pounds and 160.5
inch-pounds, respectively.
(3) Angle attachments. Attachments will not always extend straight from the end of the torque wrench.
In instances where the centerline of the adapter is not in
line with the centerline of the torque wrench, as shown
in figure 8-20, the length of the adapter is not used. The
effective length used to calculate the torque reading is
the distance A in figure 8-20.
For example, if the length of the torque wrench is 10
inches, the length of the attachment is 4 inches, and
the desired torque to be applied is 300 inch-pounds, the
formula would be completed as follows:
8-6. CARE OF TORQUE TOOLS. A torque tool is a
precision measuring tool and, when handled and used
with reasonable care, will remain accurate and serviceable for a considerable period of time. Observe the following practices for the care and upkeep of torque tools:
a. Never toss a torque tool carelessly among other
tools. Stow it in a clean, dry place where it will not be
subjected to shock or damage.
b. On audible-indicating torque wrenches, return
the micrometer-type barrel to lowest setting after each
use and before returning to storage.
Change 1
8-7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-16. Nonconcentric Attachments to Torque Wrench
8-8
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-18. Proper Application of Force When
Using Extension
Figure 8-17. Torque Wrench Attachment-Offset
Reverse Extension
Change 5
8-8.1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-19. Improper Application of Force
8-8.2
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
a. Description. A torque wrench tester consists of
a force resisting element to absorb the load applied by
the tool and a dial or scale to indicate the magnitude
of the applied load in torque units. A maximum reading
pointer is provided that remains at the point of maximum
applied torque and holds the reading when the load is
released until reset to zero by the operator.
Figure 8-20. Angle Extension Torque Wrench
Attachment
c. Never drop a torque tool on the floor. If this
does happen, the wrench should be checked for accuracy before its use.
d. Do not file, mark, or etch the beam of a flexible
beam wrench. This structure is the measuring element
of the wrench. Any alteration will seriously affect the
accuracy of the wrench.
e. Do not load a tool in excess of its capacity.
Overloading a torque tool can result in permanently deforming the torque-sensing element and damaging the
tool.
f. Before use, check all nonadjusting torque
wrenches for minimum torque indication. If they do not
indicate minimum torque, tag them for calibration.
8-7. TESTING OF TORQUE TOOLS. A torque
wrench is subject to wear and other factors which can
be detrimental to the accuracy of the tool. Periodic testing in accordance with applicable directives is essential
to ensure continued accuracy. Several different types of
torque wrench testers are manufactured and, to ensure
their proper use, some understanding of their operating
principles is desirable.
b. Indication. The force resisting element may be
a weight, a steel spring, a torsion bar, or strain gauge
load cells. The movement of deflection of the force resisting element resulting from the application of the load
applied by a torque wrench is relatively small and must
be magnified in order to indicate the small variations in
the amount of the applied load. Magnification is accomplished on mechanical-type tester by a gear segment and pinion or a mechanical linkage. Other types
of testers use optical magnification or electronic amplifiers.
8-8. REPAIR AND CALIBRATION. The repair and
calibration of torque tools is normally the responsibility
of the Area TMDE Support Team (ASTS) (TMDE is
Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment). TB
9-5120-202-24 contains the procedures for repair and
calibration of torque wrenches for local units.TMDE
tools and equipment used to repair/install aircraft and
components designated CSI (Critical Safety Items)
that have installation critical (Torque) characteristics,
must be tracked using Aircraft Maintenance Forms and
Records. Should the tool or equipment fail local testing,
or being coded unserviceable by your ASTS (TMDE
Support). Tracking documentation will assist in identifying aircraft and CSI components, that unserviceable
TMDE tools were used on.
8-9. TORQUE MULTIPLIERS. The direct application
of torque to a fastener is limited by the force that can
be applied and by the length of the wrench. The force
varies to some extent but is approximately 100 pounds.
With a wrench 30 inches long, the torque that can
Change 5
8-9
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
be applied is 100 x 30 or 3000 inch-pounds (250
foot-pounds). Higher torque values are possible with
longer wrenches; however, there is a limit to the size
of a wrench that can be used effectively by one man.
Torque multipliers are used for the high torque values,
such as those specified for engine thrust nuts, propeller
nuts, and helicopter rotor hub nuts. Figure 8-21 and
8-22 show typical torque multipliers.
a. Use. Torque multipliers are available in ratios
ranging from 3:1 to 11.1:1. Multipliers must be anchored
or secured to a structure relative to the fastener being
tightened, or be fitted with a reaction bar to prevent the
multiplier from turning. For this reason, their use is usually restricted to special applications.
b. Determining Torque. When using a torque
multiplier, the torque to be applied with the torque
wrench is determined by dividing the specified torque
for the fastener by the multiplier ratio. For example: If
the torque specified for the fastener is 3000 foot-pounds
and a torque multiplier with an 11.1 to 1 ratio is going to
or 270-pounds is the torque applied
be used, then
by the torque wrench. In this case, a 350 foot-pound capacity torque wrench or a wrench up to a 900 foot-pound
capacity would be used to apply 270 foot-pounds of
torque to the input of the torque multiplier. In this range
Figure 8-21. General Use Torque Multiplier
Figure 8-22. Hub Nut Torque Multiplier
of torque wrenches, the applied torque is between the
desired 30- to 80-percent range.
8-10. TORQUE
MULTIPLIER
POWER
WRENCH. Utilizing a powerful gear train, the torque
multiplier power wrench, shown in figure 8-23, is
completely mechanical in its operation.
This tool
operates on the same principle as the general purpose
torque multipliers described in paragraph 8-9. The
wrench is operated by turning a small hand crank, but
power tools (including air or electric drills, nut runners,
etc.), may be used for speedier operation. A balanced
features of the drive gearing prevents snap-back should
the input crank be released.
a. Description. Output torque of the torque multiplier power wrench, can be read directly. The torque indicator is calibrated in foot-pounds or inch-pounds. The
operator can also read degree-of-turn on a protractor on
the input face of the unit. Wrench output is a standard
size square female drive. A ratchet assembly controls
the direction of rotation and provides for quick take up
and alignment. Counter torque is absorbed by two pins
located on the back of the wrench. This reaction force
is transferred to the load cells and then to the gauge for
direct output torque reading.
b. Use. As a general rule, always turn the input
handle in the direction that the output drive must turn.
Refer to the applicable aircraft maintenance manual for
specific uses for this tool.
NOTE
Do not use impact wrenches of any kind to operate this wrench.
8-11. TORQUE PROCEDURES WITHOUT A
TORQUE WRENCH. In certain instances, when a
torque wrench is not available, the aircraft maintenance
8-10
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
manual may prescribe an alternate method for determining that a fastener is properly torqued. The two methods
which are commonly used are the wrench-arc method of
tightening, and the use of preload-indicating washers.
(1) Preliminary steps. The following paragraphs provide preliminary steps that must be accomplished before performing this operation:
a. Wrench-Arc Method of Tightening. The
wrench-arc method of tightening will be used only when
specified in applicable aircraft maintenance manuals.
Change 5
8-10.1/(8-10.2 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
1.
POWER WRENCH INDICATOR
2.
INPUT CRANK HANDLE
3.
KNURLED RATCHET INDEXER
4.
POWER WRENCH PD 1201
5.
DRIVE BAR PD 1240
6.
SOCKET PD 2659
7.
REACTION TORQUE ADAPTER PD 2660
8.
MAST NUT
9.
WASHER
10.
TRUNNION
Figure 8-23. Torque Multiplier Power Wrench
8-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(a) Before tightening, be sure that all threads,
sealing and mating surfaces are clean and free of nicks,
burrs, and scratches.
(b) Install fittings (except as specified below) with antiseize compound, Federal Specification
TT-S1732.
1
Install hydraulic system fittings using
hydraulic oil as both a lubricant and
antiseize compound .
2
Use thread compound, MIL-T-5542,
as both an antiseize and a sealing
measure while installing oxygen system fittings.
(c) Get the proper size open-end wrench with
15-degree offset heads to snug the nut.
NOTE
The snug (no torque) condition is reached
when, using an open-end wrench, a positive
increase in resistance (on the nut) to turning
is felt (greater than run-on torque), when parts
appear to be properly seated, and when no
looseness between mating parts is noted.
(2) Tightening to 15-degree wrench arc. Proceed as follows:
(a) Using an open-end wrench, snug the nut.
(b) With wrench still positioned on nut, establish a line of sight using wrench handle, as shown in figure 8-24.
(c) Use angular difference between handle
and wrench flats (15 degrees) to visually measure
amount that nut will have to be turned.
(d) Turn wrench until flats on nut (engaged
by wrench) are aligned with line of sight established by
handle in figure 8-24.
(3) Alternate method for tightening to 15-degree wrench arc. Proceed as follows:
(a) Using an open-end wrench, snug the nut.
(b) With wrench still positioned on nut, use
engaged nut flats to establish a line of sight, as shown
in figure 8-25.
8-12
Change 5
(c) Turn wrench until handle is aligned with
line of sight.
(4) Tightening to 60- or 120-degree wrench
arc. In this method of tightening, primarily used for tube
fittings, the flats on the union are used as a reference.
Wrenches other than open-end wrenches (crowfeet or
tubing wrenches) may be used. Proceed as follows:
(a) Using an open-end wrench, snug the nut.
(b) Use the corners of coupling nut and of
mating union to gauge amount that coupling nut will
have to move, as shown in figure 8-26.
(c) Turn coupling nut 1 flat for 60 degree
wrench arc.
(d) Turn coupling nut 2 flats for 120 degree
wrench arc.
(5) Tightening to 30-degree wrench arc. Proceed as follows:
(a) Using an open-end wrench, snug the nut.
(b) With wrench still positioned on nut, note
position of wrench handle, and pick out point of reference in line with handle, as shown in figure 8-27.
(c) Invert wrench using same nut flats. Angular difference between center-lines of wrench in the two
positions is 30 degrees.
ure 8-27.
(d) Turn wrench to position established in fig-
(6) Tightening to 90-degree or 180-degree
wrench arc. In this procedure, wrenches other than
open-end (box, tubing, crowfeet) may be used. Any
local reference, such as the engine or component
centerline, may be used to judge wrench travel.
(a) Using an open-end wrench, snug the nut.
(b) For 90 degree arc, turn wrench until handle is perpendicular (at a right angle) to its starting position, as shown in figure 8-28.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-24. Tightening to 15-Degree Wrench Arc
Figure 8-25. Alternate Method for Tightening to 15-Degree Wrench Arc
8-13
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-26. Tightening to 60- or 120-Degree Wrench Arc
(c) For 180 degree arc, turn wrench until handle
points in opposite direction.
(2) Installation of preload washer on a bolt. To
install preload washers on a bolt, see figure 8-32.
b.
Preload indicating Washers. The preload
indicating washer, shown in figure 8-29, consists of two
plain washers, one inner preload washer, and one outer
preload washer. The plain washers mash the inner
preload ring into the outer preload ring. When this has
occurred, the nut or bolt is properly tightened (see figure
8-30).
(3) Tightening. To tighten preload washers on a
stud or a bolt, see figure 8-33 and proceed as follows:
NOTE
An aircraft inspector or supervisor may be
required to be present during tightening of
the preload indicating washers to verify
that the preload washer has been properly
tightened.
(1) Installation of preload washer on stud. To install
preload washers on a stud, see figure 8-31 and proceed
as follows:
(a) Place a ratchet handle wrench with socket on
the nut.
(a) Install plain washer.
(b) Install inner preload washer.
(b) Place a scribe in one of the preload indicating
outer ring holes.
(c) Install outer preload washer.
(c) Move the preload ring with the scribe and
tighten the nut. As soon as the preload washer can no
(d) Install plain washer.
8-14
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-27. Tightening to 30-Degree Wrench Arc
Figure 8-28. Tightening to 90- or 180-Degree Wrench Arc
8-15
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
longer be move with the scribe, stop tightening the nut.
The proper load (or torque) has been reached.
(d) The tightening procedure is the same whether
the preload washer is used on a stud or with a bolt.
Figure 8-29. Preload Indicating Washers
Figure 8-31. Installation of Preload
Washers on a Stud
Figure 8-30. Action of Preload Indicating
Washers
Figure 8-32. Installation of Preload
Washer on a Bolt
8-16
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 8-33. Tightening Preload Washers
Change 5
8-17/(8-18 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
CHAPTER 9
GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
9-1. GENERAL. This chapter will familiarize all personnel with equipment used to support aircraft maintenance. Practices and procedures in this chapter are
relative to common types of ground support equipment
used by the Department of the Army. General information contained herein should be used as a guide for
inspection and maintenance of ground support equipment. For operational and maintenance instructions on
a particular piece of equipment, consult the applicable
operation and service instructions manual.
a. Inspection. The various types of inspections in
this chapter are a general guide for maintaining ground
support in a serviceable condition. The most common
type inspection performed by using organizations are
daily and periodic inspections. The regularity with
which these inspections are performed is determined
by frequency of operation and conditions under which
the equipment is operated.
b. Maintenance. Maintenance requirements outlined in this chapter provide the reader with a general
overall picture of maintaining operable ground support
equipment. To obtain the highest degree of serviceability, equipment should be kept clean, and scheduled
maintenance performed as necessary.
9-2. SAFETY
PRACTICES
AND
PROCEDURES. The shop safety practices and procedures
outlined in Chapter 2, paragraph 2-8 , also apply to
ground support equipment. However, there are hazards
associated with painting ground support equipment that
require special safety measures. These are described
in the following paragraphs.
All painting personnel shall take all requisite
safety precautions with regard to toxicity and
other health hazards, and flammability hazards
in accordance with existing instructions and regulations. All safety precautions regarding personnel health, fire prevention, ventilation, handling of equipment, electrical grounding, storage of coatings, area preparation, use of vapor
proof lights, etc., are mandatory.
Federal and state environmental regulations are
applicable to all chemicals used in painting processes. Precautionary measures shall be taken
to prevent paint and paint removal waste from
contaminating lakes and streams. Some of the
chemicals utilized for painting and paint removal
require treatment or other special control prior
to disposal. Disposal of materials shall be accomplished under the direction of the installation facility engineer and MEDDAC Health and
Environment Activity in accordance with applicable directives, and in a manner that will not
result in violation of local, state and federal pollution criteria. Guidelines for disposal are cited
in AR 200-1.
Change 5
9-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
a. Safety and Health Aspects of Painting. Painting operations present hazards that require control or
preventive measures. Vapors produced, particularly in
spray painting, are highly .ammable, as are the accumulated dried coatings deposited on walls, .oors and
equipment in painting areas. Coatings and their thinners
very often contain toxic substances which are injurious
to health by inhalation and, to a less degree, by physical contact. Painting operations also involve hazards
resulting from the improper use of work stands, ladders,
hoists, etc.
The following measures are minimum requirements for personal safety:
9-2
•
Wear protective clothing to prevent contamination of ordinary clothing.
•
Aprons and clothing that become saturated with paint should not be worn in
shop. Saturated clothing shall not be
hung in lockers or other similar confined
spaces that might induce spontaneous
combustion.
•
All personnel should wear non-sparking
shoes, which are free from metal nails
in soles and heels.
•
Full skin covers, i.e., gloves or skin protective creams shall be applied to exposed skin areas prior to painting to
guard against injurious effects of paints,
and to allow ready removal of paints by
washing the area with water. Skin areas
shall be clean and dry before cream is
applied.
•
Personnel engaged in stripping or
cleaning with methylethylketone (MEK),
acetone or toluene and the spray application of paints shall wear protective
clothing and approved organic vapor
cartridge respirator approved by the
Operational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Paint respirator shall
be worn during all spray painting operations.
•
Wash thoroughly after painting and before eating, and do not carry food into
spraying areas.
•
Spray paint only when adequate exhaust or general ventilation is available.
•
Personnel having histories of skin or
respiratory ailments should be excluded
from paint crews applying two component polyurethane or epoxy paints .
When there is doubt, appropriate medical tests must be administered.
•
Individuals who engage in mixing and
applying plural component paints containing isocyanates will be subjected to
appropriate pre-placement surveillance
and periodic job related medical tests.
•
All indoor spray painting shall be accomplished in a vehicular paint spray
room equipped with spray booths having a minimum face air velocity of 120
feet per minute.
•
Preparations containing benzene (benzol), will not be used for spraying. Inhalation of these fumes is extremely injurious to health.
•
Never use flammable solvents to clean
walls of spray booths or any part of
equipment.
•
Smoking is prohibited in paint shop.
Mist from spray gun is highly flammable
and spark or flame of any type will
cause it to flash or explode.
•
Accumulations of paint spray dust in
spray booths, and in cracks and corners
of the paint shop, are both hazardous
and undesirable.
Accumulations of
paint spray dust are highly flammable
and thick coatings are subject to spontaneous combustion. Dust may also
cause deposits on newly painted surfaces when exposed to sudden drafts.
To eliminate these conditions, paint
shops must be kept clean. Walls of
paint shops and paint spray booths
should be covered with booth plastic
which should be replaced when dirty.
Paint or paint residue removed from
booth shall be taken from building and
safely disposed of immediately.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
•
Keep dirty rags and paper refuse in separate metal containers with self-closing
lids and appropriate markings. Remove
and dispose of contents at end of each
operating shift.
•
Keep all authorized supplies of paint,
thinners, etc., in paint room in metal
cabinets with vent holes to prevent
accumulation of vapors. Keep thinners, solvents, and other highly volatile flammable agents in approved safety
cans.
•
Electric motors used to drive exhaust fans
or other equipment in storage places shall
be of the type approved for explosive atmospheres. If such motors are not available,
substitutes shall be located outside the
room or building. Motor housings, fan
frames, and the like shall be properly,
grounded to prevent possible static sparks,
and all electric wiring shall be enclosed in
conduits.
•
All electric light bulbs used within storage area shall be enclosed in vapor-proof
globes, mounted in keyless sockets.
•
Motor starting devices and switches in
all electrical circuits, if not of the explosive-proof type and approved by an established underwriter, shall be located outside
room or building to prevent fire hazards
from flammable vapors.
•
Keep all paint spraying equipment
clean, and inspect frequently to ensure
that serviceable condition is maintained.
•
Frequent inspections of electrical equipment shall be made by qualified electricians to ensure proper operation and to
eliminate .re hazards caused by short
circuits, defective electric switches, or
improper maintenance.
•
Personnel engaged in acid or caustic
cleaning operations shall wear rubber
gloves, aprons, boots, goggles, and approved protective equipment.
Tools used to open containers shall be
non-spark producing types. All electrically-driven portable tools used in this
area shall be explosion proof and properly
grounded.
•
Ample fire extinguishers of the form, dry
chemical, or carbon dioxide type will be provided.
•
•
No acid or other oxidizing agents shall
be permitted in paint room or stored
where they might contact painting supplies.
•
Certain paint solvents and pigments
may cause dermatitis on coming in contact with the skin. Some solvents may
penetrate skin, or may be inhaled as
vapors, and lead to systemic poisoning. Care must be taken to avoid skin
contact or breathing vapors to avoid
systemic poisoning.
b. Fire Precautions. Most paints contain highly
.ammable constituents, which, under suitable conditions, can form explosive mixtures with air. As a result,
the following precautions shall be taken:
9-3. PAINTING REQUIREMENTS. Ground support
equipment is painted primarily for protection against
rust and corrosion. Other considerations include camouflage or organization identification.
a. General. The safety precautions and shop practices given in Chapter 2 will be adhered to during the
repainting of ground support equipment. Procedures
for preparation and application of paint on various surfaces are covered in a general nature in paragraphs
9-3 through 9-5. All ground support equipment when
painted or repainted will be top coated with MIL-DTL64159, Water Dispersible, Chemical Agent Resistant,
Aliphatic Polyurethane Coating. Conditions which warrant painting of ground support equipment are as follows:
Change 5
9-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) All ground support equipment having a top
coat other than MIL-DTL-64159, Water Dispersible,
Chemical Agent Resistant, Aliphatic Polyurethane
Coating, will be converted to MIL-DTL-64159when it
is determined that inadequate protection is afforded
against rust or corrosion and not merely painted to
convert to MIL-DTL-64159 top coat.
(2) Spot paint any areas that require touchup
with the same topcoat that is applied to the ground support equipment in lieu of complete re.nishing, provided
that not more than 25 percent of the entire surface is affected.
(3) Immediately spot paint any areas which
have become bare and exposed due to deterioration
of the topcoat or an accident to provide protection and
prevent further deterioration.
b. Authorized Colors. The authorized colors for
various categories of equipment are speci.ed in the following paragraphs.
34094, per MIL-DTL-64159, except for those items in table 9-1. The equipment in table 9-1 will be painted with
the three color camouflage pattern in accordance with
, Painting Instruction for Army Materiel. Small pieces
of GSE such as optical test equipment may be painted
Black, No. 37030, per MIL-DTL-64159. GSE utilized
by TDA units in non-tactical locations such as permanent airfields in continental United States when safety is
the prime factor may be painted Yellow, No. 33538, per
TT-E-527.
(2) Engines, engine accessories, and components. Paint engines, engine accessories and components where temperatures are below 350°F (177°C) and
exposed to exhaust gases, corrosive fluids, and areas
known to be subject to corrosive attacks and temperatures do not exceed 350°F (177°C). Apply two coats
of Green 34094, per MIL-DTL-64159. Do not paint aircooled engine cylinder fins. Paint engine exhaust manifolds with Enamel, Heat Resisting, Black, No. 17038
per TT-E-496.
(1) Ground support equipment. Ground Support Equipment (GSE) will be top coated with Green
Table 9-1.
Nomenclature
Aviation Ground Power Unit (AGPU)
MD3 Generator
Hydraulic Test Stand
Shelter, Air Mobile
9-4
Change 5
GSE — Three Color Camou.age Pattern.
NSN
1730-01-144-1897
6115-00-843-8501
4920-00-904-9612
4920-00-738-6588
4920-00-882-6401
4920-00-832-5491
4920-00-144-5581
4920-00-573-6168
4920-01-119-8795
4920-01-173-5812
4920-01-173-5813
4920-00-900-8378
4920-00-900-8377
4920-00-950-9141
4920-00-849-4102
4920-00-477-2065
4920-00-169-6092
4920-00-148-7448
LIN No.
P44627
J40698
W00221
96176
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
NOTE
Paint exhaust manifold only during overhaul or
when processing equipment for storage.
(3) Battery compartments. Battery compartments should be neutralized, surface stripped, and
cleaned prior to painting.
(a) Neutralization
of
acid
electrolyte. Exercise care to prevent acid from spreading
to adjacent areas. Wash areas affected by battery acid
with 20 percent solution of sodium bicarbonate, Federal
Specification O-S-576, in water.
Neutralization is
completed when bubbling ceases. After neutralization,
remove all traces of sodium bicarbonate solution with
generous quantities of water to prevent corrosion.
(b) Neutralization
of
alkaline
electrolyte. Exercise caution to prevent acid from
spreading to adjacent areas. Wash areas affected by
electrolyte with 3 percent solution of boric acid in water.
Neutralization is completed when bubbling ceases.
After neutralization, remove all traces of boric acid with
generous quantities of water.
(c) Treatment after neutralization. Treat
affected area by swabbing with 5 percent solution of
chromic acid, Federal Specification O-C-303, or 5 percent of potassium dichromate, Federal Specification
O-P-559. Follow by flushing with water, thorough drying
and mechanical stripping of any areas that may require
stripping. Thoroughly clean and dry the affected area in
accordance with TM 1-1500-344-23-series.
(d) Painting. After neutralization, stripping
and cleaning, apply the following paint system:
1 Apply two coats of epoxy polyamide
primer, MIL-PRF-23377 , type 1 or MIL-P-85582.
2 Apply over these coats one coat of
primer coating epoxy, MIL-P-52192.
NOTE
MIL-PRF-23377 is yellow,MIL-P-85582 is green
and MIL-P-52192 is red. When wear, scratching or topcoat damage occurs, yellow, green,
or red primer undercoats will expose, indicating
that repainting is necessary. This is essential to
protect the substrate structures.
3 Apply a topcoat of Lacquer, Acid Resistant for Aluminum, Federal Specification TT-L-54,
or Varnish, Asphalt, Federal Specification TT-V-51, for
other than aluminum substrates.
•
Military Specification may be used on
aluminum or magnesium substrates.
remover contains highly volatile methylene chloride as a constituent. Its vapors are hazardous to breathe and/or
will cause skin burns. Although methylene chloride is not flammable, other
constituents are. When the blanketing effect of methylene chloride is lost
through its volatility, the remaining constituents may, under certain conditions,
become ignitable.
•
Any paint remover on the skin or in the
eyes must be flushed immediately and
thoroughly with water. In addition, medical treatment should be sought promptly
in the case of contact with eyes.
•
Protective clothing and equipment such
as rubber gloves, aprons, boots, approved organic vapor cartridge respirators, appropriate eye shields and goggles shall be used as necessary to provide adequate protection for personnel.
•
The painting operation should be reviewed by the installation safety office
and MEDDAC Health and Environment
Activity to determine the presence of
any operational hazards and to make
recommendations for either eliminating
or controlling those hazards found.
c. Cleaning and Stripping of Surfaces. The
only chemical paint remover authorized for use on
ground support equipment surfaces is . Other chemical
removers cannot be used unless authorized by AMSAV-EIG.
Change 5
9-5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
NOTE
•
Avoid contamination of lakes and
streams, with paint and paint removal
waste. Some of the chemicals utilized
for painting and paint removal require
treatment or other special control prior
to disposal.
•
Disposal of materials shall be accomplished under the direction of the installation facility engineer and MEDDAC
Health and Environment Activity in accordance with applicable directive, and
in a manner that will not result in violation of local, state, and federal pollution
criteria. Guidelines for disposal are
cited in AR 200-1.
(1) General preparations. The following actions will prepare the equipment for cleaning and
stripping:
•
Place equipment on a wash rack, preferably in shaded area, attach a static
ground.
•
For best results, ambient temperature
should be approximately between 50
and 100°F (10 and 37°C). Do not attempt to accomplish paint removal in
rain, or on surfaces which are not dry.
•
When painted surface is exceptionally
dirty or coated with fuel, oil, grease,
mud or other foreign matter, clean in accordance with TM 1-1500-344-23-series
before applying remover.
•
After equipment has been cleaned,
allow sufficient time for surfaces and
crevices to dry thoroughly. Water remaining on surfaces and in crevices has
a detrimental effect on paint removers.
(2) Chemical Removal from Metals. The use
of MIL-R-81924 paint remover is described in the following paragraphs.
Prolonged breathing of remover fumes must be
avoided as serious health problems may result.
Use only in well ventilated areas.
9-6
Change 5
Removers must be well mixed before use as
they tend to segregate on standing. Do this
by agitating with a wooden paddle if mechanical mixers are not available. Rolling a drum
will not mix its content very effectively. At temperatures below 60°F, the removal power of removers will be noticeably slower than at higher
temperatures.
(3) Applying removers. Beginning at the highest point of any vertical or sloping surface, apply a coat
of remover with a suitable brush. Barrel pump and spray
gun may be used for application of removers. In no case
should the spray be highly atomized. Agitate with a stiff
fiber brush, if necessary, to loosen paint. A wet film
of remover should be maintained on the surface being
stripped to obtain efficient removal. This may require
additional application of the remover. Areas should be
treated progressively, kept wet, and allowed sufficient
time for the stripping action. Best results are obtained by
applying removers in shaded areas since sunlight dries
the remover quickly.
(4) Painted surfaces. Enamel surfaces should
wrinkle within 5 to 15 minutes after application. Most
surfaces with lacquer or polyurethane paint will not wrinkle but will merely be softened by the remover; allow remover to remain 8 to 20 minutes, keeping a wet surface
by applying another coat of remover if necessary.
NOTE
Zinc chromate primed surface, where topcoat material has not been applied, should be
washed down as soon as possible after initial
loosening of primer. If the surface becomes dry,
another application of remover is required since
zinc chromate tends to become redeposited on
the surface.
(5) Cleanup of stripped surfaces. Flush the
stripped surfaces, using warm water at 150 to 250 psi
maximum. If high pressure warm water is not available,
cold water at usual hydrant pressure may be used. This
will require a longer time to accomplish the washing.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Lifted paint will be flushed by starting at the bottom and
working upward, keeping the flushing liquids, off the unwashed parts. After flushing thoroughly, continue cleaning in accordance with TM 1-1500-344-23-series. Tape
and loosened paint may be removed by hand or by using water under pressure.
(6) Stripping in Con.ned Locations. On occasion, it may be impractical to use emulsified paint remover because of complexities of assembly and rinsing difficulties. In these cases, remove acrylic paint with
solvent materials such as ethyl acetate, Federal Specification TT-E-751, lacquer thinner, Federal Specification TT-T-266, or dichloromethane, Military Specification MIL-D-6998. Remove polyurethane paint by mechanical means.
eral Specification P-P-101, No. 400, abrasive paper. Do
not use steel wool.
The use of goggles or face shield is mandatory
since paint particles can break loose and fly off.
Do not use steel brush or steel wool on aluminum surfaces. Metal particles will become
embedded in the aluminum, causing corrosion
by galvanic action between dissimilar metals.
(b) A hand-operated, air-powered, drill motor
with rotary brass wire brush or abrasive flap brush may
be used on heavy structural non-clad aluminum alloys.
Prolonged breathing of solvent fumes must be
avoided as serious health problems may result.
Use only in well ventilated areas.
(c) Wipe area with clean damp cloth followed
by wiping dry, with a clean, dry, lint-free cloth. Areas may
be blown with warm, oil-free air or gaseous nitrogen.
(a) Application of solvents. After appropriate masking, apply solvents with soft bristle brush or
clean cloth. Allow solvent to remain on surface until
paint has softened and lifted. To keep the area wet with
solvent, it may be necessary to keep a cloth on the surface and keep the cloth saturated with solvent .
(2) Stainless steel. Normally stainless steel
parts are not painted. However, if paint is present, it
may be necessary to remove it before recoating or prior
to corrosion removal using the following procedures:
(b) Removal of solvents. Wipe all of the solvent away with a clean damp cloth, frequently rinsing
cloth in clean water. Repeat steps (1) through (3) in
paragraph d as necessary until all paint and residue
have been removed from metal surface including recesses and around rivets, bolts, etc. Wipe clean and dry
with clean, lint-free cloth, Federal Specification CCCC-46.
The use of goggles or face shield is mandatory
when using motor driven brushes.
(7) Special Conditions. Where difficulty is encountered on magnesium surfaces, paint may be removed by following instructions in Military Specification
SAE AMS-M-3171.
d. Mechanical Removal from Metals. Mechanical removal of paints is recommended on non-clad aluminum alloys, steel, copper, and titanium where chemical removal would be impractical because of structural
complexities or rinsing difficulties.
Isopropyl alcohol, TT-I-735, is flammable and
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Wear
protective gloves and goggles/face shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only
in well-ventilated areas (or use approved respirator as determined by local safety/industrial
hygiene personnel). Keep away from open
flames, sparks, or other sources of ignition.
(1) Aluminum and aluminum alloys. The mechanical removal method is recommended on all nonclad aluminum alloys. Procedures are as follows:
(a) Mechanical methods include abrasive
blasting, grinding, and wire brushing. (Obviously, the
severe abrasive action of abrasive blasting or grinding
cannot be used to remove paint from thin wall items).
Do not use common steel wool or wire brushes on
stainless steel. Wire particles may become embedded
in the surface and may later corrode. Use only stainless
steel wool or wire brushes. Nonmetallic abrasive such
as clean silica sand shall be used for abrasive blasting.
(a) Remove paint from non-clad aluminum alloy extrusions, tubing, and ducts with an abrasive nylon
mat, MIL-A-9962; Aluminum wool, FF-W-1825, or Fed-
(b) After completing mechanical removal,
polish the surface first with Aluminum Oxide, Abrasive
Cloth P-C-451, grit size 80 and finish with grit size 240.
Change 5
9-7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Copper and copper base alloys. Mechanical removal of paint is recommended on copper and
copper alloys where chemical removal would be impractical because of structural complexities and rinsing difficulties. Proceed as follows:
DEGREASING SOLVENT, MIL-PRF-680
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, is combustible and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory
tract. Wear protective gloves and goggles/face
shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use
approved respirator as determined by local
safety/industrial hygiene personnel).
Keep
away from open flames or other sources of
ignition.
ALIPHATIC NAPHTHA
Aliphatic Naphtha is extremely flammable and
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Wear
protective gloves and goggles/face shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only
in well-ventilated areas (or use approved respirator as determined by local safety/industrial
hygiene personnel). Keep away from open
flames, sparks, or other sources of ignition.
(a) Remove oil, grease, and dirt with degreasing solvent, MIL-PRF-680, or aliphatic naphtha,
TT-N-95.
(b) Remove paint with brass wire brush or
400 grit abrasive paper. Sand blast with extremely fine
grit if necessary.
NOTE
Do not sand blast braided copper flexible lines.
(c) Remove loose particles of paint with bristle brush. Wipe area with cloth, moistened with aliphatic
naptha, TT-N-95.
e. Surfaces to be painted will be cleaned prior to
painting and prior to the application of the chemical treatment process or processes listed in TM 1-1500-344-23series. Cleanness is determined by the following steps:
(1) The water break test is a method of evaluating the degree of cleanliness of a metal surface. It is
based on the ability of a clean surface to sustain an unbroken film of water. Test representative areas of the
surface to be painted by projecting distilled water on it
9-8
Change 5
using an atomizing device such as a nasal atomizer. Do
not use a paint sprayer for this pulse as the excessive
pressure will defeat this test. Read results as follows:
•
If water gathers into separate droplets
within 25 seconds (that is, if the surface
shows a water break) the surface has
failed the cleanliness test.
•
If, on the other hand, the water suddenly flashes out into a film over a large
area, an impurity such as alkali detergent, etc., is on the surface and it has
failed the test.
•
If the water merges into a continuous
film without a sudden flashout, the surface has passed the water break test.
(2) Insufficient rising after cleaning may leave
an unacceptable surface. For best adhesion of coatings, metallic surfaces should give either a neutral or a
slightly acid reaction when alkaline cleaners are used.
Moistened red litmus paper, when applied to surface,
shall not react by turning blue. If such color changes occur, apply a 0.20 to 0.25 percent chromic acid O-C-303
solution until a piece of blue litmus paper applied to the
treated surface turns red, which indicates an acid surface. Permit the acid solution to remain on the surface
from two to five minutes. Follow with a water rinse and
then wipe dry with clean, lint-free cloths.
(3) Determine whether the surface has appropriate surface treatment in accordance with TM 1-1500344-23-series.
HFE-71DE
HFE-71DE is toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory
tract, and decomposes into other hazardous
products when exposed to extreme heat. Wear
chemical protective gloves and goggles/face
shield. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact.
Use only in well-ventilated areas. If ventilation
is not adequate, use approved respirator as
determined by local safety/industrial hygiene
personnel. Keep away from open flames, welding, or other sources of extreme heat.
(4) When a special solvent cleaning requirement exists in painting operations, use a hand solvent
wipe down consisting of aliphatic naphtha, TT-N-95.
Additionally, each time the painting sequence of equipment is broken overnight or longer, this same procedure
shall be performed immediately prior to application of
further coats to insure cleanliness and proper paintability of the surface.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(5) Examine for presence of corrosion or foreign matter retained in seams and crevices, etc., and
for oily films or deposits which may have accumulated
after cleaning. If any of these are present, remove or
treat as directed in TM 1-1500-344-23-series.
(6) Assure that all metal surfaces and all seams
and crevices are dry prior to application of paint. Pressurized filtered air may be used to dry these areas.
(7) Nonmetallic surfaces should be dry, free of
contamination; all pores sealed and scuff sanded with
an abrasive nylon mat in accordance with MIL-A-9962.
f. Pretreatment and Sealing of Bare Metal Surfaces. The following paragraphs describe treatment
requirements for aluminum, magnesium, copper and
steel.
(1) Aluminum bare metal areas will be alodine
treated per MIL-C-5541, Classes 1 or 2, prior to applying
the first primer.
(2) Bare magnesium metal areas will be dichromate treated perSAE AMS-M-3171 , Type 6, prior to applying the first primer.
NOTE
Paint will not bond to the brown powdery surface
of excessively treated magnesium or aluminum,
nor will paint bond to treated aluminum surfaces
which are too dark.
(3) Steel substrates will be treated with zinc
phosphate per TT-C-490, Type I, prior to applying the
first primer.
(4) All missing or deteriorated skin sealant will
be replaced using MIL-S-81733, Type II, Class B, sealing compound.
(5) Copper and copper base alloys are quite resistant to atmospheric corrosion. Protective coatings
are seldom required because of the inherent resistance
of the metal. Corrosion attack on such components
will usually be limited to staining and tarnish. Generally such change in surface conditions is not dangerous
and should ordinarily have no effect on the function of
the part. See TM 1-1500-344-23-series. Paint finishes
may be applied for decorative purposes.
g. Mating Surfaces. The use of primers on similar
and dissimilar metal mating surfaces and on attaching
parts is presented in the following paragraphs.
(1) Application on similar metals. All seams in
which the mating (faying) surfaces are similar metals will
be protected by applying two coats of primer to each sur-
face being joined. Welded faying surfaces shall not be
primed prior to assembly. Faying surfaces that are to
be adhesively bonded will be surface treated and processed as specified in the approved bonding procedures
prescribed for the assemblies concerned. In addition to
the required primer coatings, faying surfaces of magnesium alloys will be filled with an approved sealing compound.
(2) Application on dissimilar metals. Each
surface to be joined will receive a minimum to two coats
of the appropriate primer, and, in addition, the following
precautions will be taken:
(a) Where magnesium is one of the metals of
dissimilar metal faying surfaces, the metals will be separated by use of an approved barrier tape. The tape
will extend not less than 1/4 inch beyond the joint edges
to prevent moisture from bridging between the dissimilar
metals. Sealing compounds conforming to MIL-S-81733
be used as moisture barriers in lieu of tape and when
used, the sealing compound will be applied between the
surfaces and squeezed out of all boundaries and the
excess removed in a manner that will fillet all edges.
The fillet width will be not less than 1/4 inch. Joint areas which would retain water will be filled with a sealing
compound conforming to MIL-S-81733 or MIL-S-7124.
When the use of a barrier tape or sealing compound
is impractical because of mechanical or other factors,
a primed 5356 aluminum alloy shim extending 1/4 inch
will be used in lieu of the tape or sealing compound.
(b) Butt joints consisting of a riveted magnesium sheet and a riveted dissimilar metal sheet will be
protected by grooving the seam to a width of not less
than 1/8 inch and filling with sealing compound conforming with MIL-S-81733. The depth of the groove will be
sufficient to retain the sealing compound conforming to
MIL-S-81733, which will be subsequently applied and
smoothed flush with the surfaces of adjacent dissimilar
metals.
(c) Butt joints consisting of a magnesium
sheet and a dissimilar metal sheet, neither of which is
secured by mechanical means other than riveting, will
be protected by use of an approved adhesive barrier
tape or a primed 5052 aluminum alloy foil which covers
the cut ends of either or both dissimilar metal sheets
and extends not less than 1/4 inch beyond the joint
edge.
(d) Organic adhesive barrier tapes or metal
foils will not be used on exterior surfaces.
(3) Attaching parts. Parts, such as nuts,
bushings, spacers, washers, rivets, high shear rivets,
screws, self-tapping screws, sleeves for shakeproof
fastener studs, self-locking nuts, speed nuts, clamps,
Change 5
9-9
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
and the like, do not need to be painted in detail except
when dissimilar metals or wood contacts are involved
in the parts being joined. Such parts will receive a
coat of epoxy primer, MIL-PRF-23377(wet or dry, at
installation). Rivets (5056) in magnesium alloy need
not be installed with epoxy primer. For magnesium
dissimilar combinations, follow the general requirements. Close tolerance bolts passing through dissimilar
metals will be coated before installation with a zinc
chromate compound conforming to MIL-C-11796, Class
3,MIL-C-16173, Grade I, or a wet epoxy primer in accordance with MIL-PRF-23377. Aluminum alloy washers
(5356) of suitable design will be used under machine
screws, countersunk fasteners, boltheads, and nuts
that would otherwise contact magnesium.
h. Masking. Masking of specific areas is required
in painting operations on large assemblies or structures
either for protective reasons, as in the precautionary
note below, or for purposes of delineation. Masking conditions are as follows:
NOTE
Care should be taken to ensure that paint is not
applied to certain surfaces where paint will interfere with a function. The following should be
masked or otherwise protected during painting:
machined surfaces that move with respect to
each other such as threads, slip rods, bearing
contacts and gear teeth; electrical parts, such
as contacts, relays, insulators, sockets, plugs,
connector, wiring and terminals; plastic and rubber (natural and synthetic) mounts, spacers,
etc., and lubrication fittings, cups, oil holes, etc.
(1) Mask areas such as windows large openings, etc., with combinations of barrier papers:
•
Military Specification MIL-PRF-121,
usually a treated paper which is oil and
moisture resistant.
•
Military Specification MIL-PRF-131,
usually a laminated foil and cloth or foil
and paper with good water vapor resistance.
NOTE
Both types above are heat sealable.
•
Crepe backed paper masking tape, MILT-21595, Type I.
(2) Cover small or irregularly shaped parts with
tape alone.
(3) In repetitive spraying of the same or similar
structures, it is advisable to have available predesign
bandages, socks, etc, of barrier paper or cloth.
9-10
Change 5
(4) Avoid using tape in such a way as to leave
a paint edge on surfaces unless feathering by sanding
can be done safely.
(5) Use only approved masking tapes in varying
widths required by the job. A complex or curved area
is better masked initially at the paint edges with nanow
(1/2 inch) tape. Wider tape may then be applied over
the narrow, if required.
(6) Use only approved masking paper for large
area masking. Coating solvents may dissolve and deposit printing ink from newspapers, etc, on the surface
of the area being masked.
(7) When spray painting, mask or cover surfaces at a distance from the area being painted which
might receive overspray or paint drift.
(8) Masking tapes should be removed as soon
as possible after coating application.
(9) Press tape firmly at the masking edge when
applying it to prevent paint bleeding under it by capillary
action.
i. Application Equipment. Application systems
and components of application equipment are described
in the following paragraphs.
(1) Application
systems. The
application
equipment plays a key role in the overall success of
painting equipment and components. Selection of
application systems and care thereafter are essential
(robotics) or a manual type. No description or details
are provided herein because of the wide variances between equipment manufacturers and local conditions.
Each manufacturer’s instructions and other details must
be consulted. Special consideration should be given
equipment with which plural components are to be
applied. Problems may be encountered, i.e, required
accuracy of mixtures, pot life of mixtures and effects
resulting from non-adherence to prescribed application
procedures.
(2) Components of application equipment. The following paragraphs describe application
equipment.
(a) Automated systems (robots). Such systems include, but are not limited to, metering and mixing
equipment, air compressors, air cleaners, electrostatic
generators, spray booths, feed lines and tanks, regulators, and computerized automated components.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Hoses should always be thoroughly cleaned by
purging and flushing with solvent appropriate to
the coating material used. When the material is
a catalytic system (epoxy or polyurethane), this
must be done immediately after use and before
the prescribed pot life limit has been reached to
prevent the material from gelling in the system.
(b) Hoses. Because of friction losses in hose,
it is essential that the proper sizes be used. Do not use
hoses longer than 50 feet except in the case of high
pressure air hoses leading to the regulator or tank. Extra
lengths of hose may be attached for this use but should
be removed when no longer needed. The high pressure
air hose should have a minimum inside diameter of 7/16
inch. No less than 3/8 inch ID fluid hose should be used
from the tank to the gun and no less than 5/16 ID air hose
from the regulator to the tank and from the tank to the
gun. Any reduction in size or increase in length from the
forestated may produce unsatisfactory results. Air and
paint hoses are furnished in various standard lengths.
Determine the length required for use in a spray booth
measuring the width of the booth and add two feet for
the total required length of the hose.
(c) Spray guns for manual applications. MIL-DTL-64159 paints shall be applied only
in approved and qualified facilities. No application of
MIL-DTL-64159 shall be accomplished in open air.
(d) Paint booths and application equipment. No description or details is provided for painting
facilities due to the variance of equipment and local
conditions. For automated robotic equipment, manufacturer’s instructions should be consulted.
(e) Paint brushes. Paint brushes should be
used during touchup procedures in open air when applying MIL-DTL-64159 paint. Consult paragraph 9-3p
on touchup procedures for details.
j. Primers. Primers and their uses are described
in the paragraphs that follow.
(1) General use. Primers are used on metals
to provide a coating to which subsequent coatings will
firmly adhere and provide protection for the substrate
metal against corrosion. The pigment portion of primers
for ferrous base metals usually consists of iron oxide,
lead chromate, red lead, zinc chromate, zinc oxide, zinc
dust, or a mixture of these. Zinc olstrontium chromate
is the pigment in some primers used on substrates of
magnesium, aluminum and their alloys. Other primers
which are lead and chromate free are desirable for most
applications and required in applications where lead
and zinc chromate are prohibited.
(2) Use
on
ground
support
equipment. Primers are used as corrosion inhibiting coatings
on metal surfaces to inhibit corrosion and provide
good adhesion for the topcoat. Primers will conform to
MIL-PRF-23377or MIL-P-85582.
(3) MIL-PRF-23377 primer. This is an epoxy
polyamide primer furnished as a two component kit
wherein the two components are mixed prior to use. It is
intended for application to clean aluminum and magnesium substrates. One component contains the pigment,
mixed in an epoxy vehicle, while the other component
consists of a clear polyamide solution which functions
as a hardener for the epoxy resin. These components
are packaged separately and have excellent storage
stability. When mixed, storage pot life is eight hours.
Only that amount which can be used in an eight hour
period should be mixed.
(4) MIL-P-85582 primer. MIL-P-85582 primer is
a water reducible, multicomponent, epoxy type, chemical and solvent resistant primer coating. The primer is
intended for use on metal surfaces as a corrosive inhibitive, chemical resistant, strippable, epoxy primer that
is equivalent to MIL-PRF-23377 primer and compatible
with MIL-C-85285, MIL-C-83286, and MIL-DTL-64159,
polyurethane topcoats. Type II primer is intended for
use where low infrared reflectance is required.
k. Opening of Containers. Containers must be
opened slowly to allow the pressure to escape before
completely removing the seal.
•
Containers of paint may develop internal pressure during storage and should
be opened cautiously. Failure to follow
this procedure may result in paint being
spattered in the eyes and surrounding
areas.
•
Respirator must be worn. Fumes generated can cause sickness or permanent damage if exposure is prolonged.
Change 5
9-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Open containers, sealed with bungs, by
slowly turning bung out until a hissing sound is heard.
When hissing stops (an indication that pressure in and
out of drum is equal) completely remove bung.
Use a fine, non-spark producing tool and a soft
head hammer (rubber or plastic, to puncture
drum.
(2) Containers which are bulged or distorted
due to internal pressure shall have a small hole punctured in top to release pressure. After pressure is
released, container may be opened in usual manner.
l. Mixing. Procedures for mixing paints are described in the following paragraphs.
(1) Painting supplies shall be prepared for application under dry and clean conditions with dry and clean
equipment.
(2) Paint shops shall be equipped with continuous mechanical paint agitators of suitable capacity. The
proper sequence for preparing packaged materials prior
to each use is as follows:
(a) Break up sediment remaining in original
container with a clean wood or metal paddle; stir until a
smooth, uniform, heavy paste forms.
(b) Proportion paint in clean mixing container
to the two to one ratio specified. (This applies only to
MIL-DTL-64159.)
(c) Catalytic action begins immediately on
mixing. An eight hour pot life can be anticipated after
mixing. Ideally, mixed paint should be used in six hours,
to assure the capability for complete system purging
and cleaning to preclude equipment damage.
(d) Assure complete mixing when manual
mixing is used.
(e) To avoid the possibility of incompatibility
of paints under the same specification but of different
manufacturers, such paints shall not mixed. Primers
and topcoats from different manufacturers, under the
same specification, will not be mixed, but may be applied
separately to areas which are to be overcoated. Every
effort shall be made, however, to assure that an entire
topcoat is restricted to the product of a single manufacturer and, where possible, to the same batch in order to
maintain uniformity of color, finish, etc.
(a) Allow paints to come to room tempera-
(f) Application and mixing equipment must be
thoroughly purged and cleaned after use.
(b) Remove lids and inspect contents for skinover, gelling, lumps, etc. Skins, if present, shall be
carefully removed and discarded, retaining liquids which
drain from them. Gelled, lumpy, or otherwise deteriorated paints shall not be used, but properly discarded.
m. Thinning. The following paragraphs describe
thinning techniques.
ture.
NOTE
Cans of the pigmented component of MIL-DTL64159 paint with non-resealable lids should not
be opened and inspected until after the original
mechanical agitation, if practical.
(c) Thoroughly agitate all component containers, using a mechanical agitator prior to mixing or
thinning and again prior to and during application. Agitation must be continuous during application to assure
uniformity of pigment.
(3) Use automatic mixing and proportioning devices, if possible. When automatic equipment, is not
available, mix paint as follows:
9-12
Change 5
NOTE
The wrong thinner may destroy certain characteristics of a coating material without immediately giving visual evidence in the wet state.
(1) When thinning is necessary, always add
thinner to the coating. Adding coating to thinner may
result in an irreversible separation or degradation of
some of the coating ingredients. Thinner should be
added slowly with continual stirring to obtain complete
mixing. For all thinning, use only thinners authorized
in applicable instructions in this technical manual or
pertinent specifications or, in the absence of these
instructions, those recommended by the manufacturer.
Methyl ethyl ketone, Federal Specification TT-M-261,
can be used in cold weather. Other thinners may be
needed in hot weather. Reduced coating which has
increased in
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
viscosity due to evaporation will require corrective additions. However, some coatings which undergo
chemical processes, such a polymerization to create a
film, cannot be thinned beyond a certain point and remain usable; nor can they be brought back to the correct viscosity by thinning after the chemical action has
progressed beyond a critical point. This is the case with
epoxy and polyurethane.
(2) Thinning shall be controlled by weight, volume, or viscosity measurement to obtain and maintain
proper and uniform consistency. If there is no specification covering the coating, thin according to manufacturer’s instructions.
NOTE
Do not mix coatings of the same specification
but supplied by different manufacturers during
application. This will avoid problems of incompatibility in the liquid and curing phases.
(3) Strain all material to be used in spray equipment through clean 60-90 mesh metal strainers in accordance with paint or equipment manufacturer’s instructions.
n. Painting Dif.culties and Remedies. Common
painting difficulties and ways to fix them are described
in the following paragraphs.
(1) Coating troubles. Coating troubles may be
divided into six groups: (1) Inadequate surface preparation (including temperature), (2) incorrect methods or
techniques of application, (3) unusual and unsuitable
climatic and atmospheric conditions, (4) unsuitable
and improperly adjusted equipment, (5) faulty finishing
surface or improperly mixed or agitated components
and (6) systems not purged of previously mixed materials. An experienced finisher may be capable of
adjusting to obtain proper results with faulty materials,
but this is an emergency measure only and must be
with the cognizance and authority of the quality control
facility. The practice is not advised. Incorrect methods
of application should be discontinued upon discovery
of the discrepancy. Areas painted prior to the discovery of such discrepancies must be inspected and
remedial measures taken when necessary. Brushing
and roller coating on certain surfaces must be used
in confined areas. Remedying incorrect applications,
however, also calls for training. The practice of allowing inadequately trained personnel to apply Military
Specification MIL-DTL-64159 coatings is unauthorized
and dangerous. Unusual or unsuitable climatic and
atmospheric conditions are normally not a problem
since manual spray painting must be accomplished
in an approved facility which usually compensates for
such conditions. Unsuitable or faulty equipment can
only be remedied by obtaining proper equipment or
repair. TM 55-1500-345-23 shows common troubles of
spray coating operations with suggested remedies or
methods of avoidance.
(2) Spray patterns. Faulty spray patterns and
suggested corrections are shown in TM 55-1500345-23.
(3) Blushing. Blushing of coatings is the result
of water condensation from the atmosphere within, or
on, an applied organic film. It occurs when the temperature of the work surface falls below the prevailing dew
point. (It shall always be looked for in production coating
whenever other than average atmospheric conditions
prevail.) It shows as a lighter than normal or bleached
discoloration or increased opaqueness of the film. It
may occur to the extent that a surface powder develops
which can be removed by fingernail or by light rubbing.
(Rubbing will not cure the condition.) It may be almost
imperceptible, and blushing inducing conditions may escape notice on test panels sprayed prior to production
coating due to the temperature differences between test
and production environment. Though MIL-DTL-64159
painted items are not susceptible to water or moisture
damage immediately after proper application to items,
great care must be taken to avoid surface condensation prior to coating or water induction, in any form, into
unmixed components or the mixture prior to or during
application. Water will not affect the cure process after
proper application. Water will affect paints other than
plural component catalytic paints.
o. Finish Painting. MIL-DTL-64159 is the Army
standard tactical topcoat for ground support equipment.
(1) Preparation
of
MIL-DTL-64159
polyurethane paint. Preparation of this paint is
detailed in the following procedures:
(a) Polyurethane, MIL-DTL-64159 paint is a
plural component, low reflective paint formulated to be
lead and chromate free. The components of this paint
must be thoroughly mixed prior to pouring into the application container when transfer is necessary. Care
Change 5
9-13
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
should be taken that all of the pigment matter has been
included in the mixture.
(b) Mixing requirements for the two component polyurethane paint, when applying by conventional
air atomized or airless spray, are to mix four parts of
Component A, which is the polyester portion, to one part
of Component B, which is the catalyst or isocyanate portion. After the two components are mixed, the total mixture is left to stand for at least 30 minutes to deaerate.
The mixture (batch) is then thinned to the proper viscosity depending upon the spray equipment. The mix at
the specified ratio will produce a pot life of eight hours.
Therefore, no more paint should be mixed than can be
used in an eight hour shift or period.
(c) MIL-DTL-64159 paint must be thinned to
spraying viscosity, determined by the user and the type
of spraying equipment to be used. A suggested starting
point is obtained by mixing approximately three volumes
of mixed MIL-DTL-64159 paint and one volume of water or follow manufacturer’s recommendations for proper
thinning. The paint must be thoroughly mixed with the
thinner and continuously agitated during application.
(d) Where quantities permit, and to eliminate
the 30 minute deaeration time and potential waste, plural component spray units can be used which automatically and proportionally mix the two components directly
at the spray gun nozzle. Since the two components are
kept separate, the pot life consideration is also eliminated.
(e) The polyurethane paint can also be applied by conventional, airless, or electrostatic spray
equipment. In cases where this type of equipment is
used, the viscosity can change. The applicator should
check with the paint company and equipment supplier
for the exact criteria for viscosity, thinning and the best
application processes.
(f) Whatever spray equipment is used, it is
necessary that all spray guns, lines and nozzles, when
applicable, be thoroughly cleaned after use to prevent
hardening of the coating system. If the coating hardens
in the system, the system cannot be cleaned. That portion of the unit in which the paint has gelled or hardened
must be discarded.
(g) MIL-DTL-64159 paint may be applied
over a wide range of temperatures. Temperatures from
50 to 90°F (10 to 32°C) are recommended for best
results.
9-14
Change 5
NOTE
MIL-DTL-64159 paint is a catalytic paint and will
cure under most atmospheric conditions after
application. However, at very low temperature,
curing is retarded.
(h) Test the mixture, pressure, and spray
equipment settings by applying a test coating to masking paper or similar smooth surfaces prior to application
to aircraft or components. Adjust paint and/or equipment until proper test coating is achieved. Paint and
equipment are then ready for application to the equipment or components.
(2) Procedures for application of MIL-DTL64159 paint to bare metal substrates. The total
paint system for the polyurethane coating, as with all
other paint systems, requires cleaning, a pretreatment
coating, an anticorrosive primer, and the polyurethane
topcoat. This applies to painting of bare metal substrates.
(a) Cleaning. The substrate should be thoroughly cleaned of all oil, grease and other contaminants
by appropriate methods cited elsewhere herein or as
specified in TT-C-490.
(b) Pretreatments. Finishing documents,
e.g., MIL-STD-193, MIL-STD-186, MIL-T-704, etc.,
provide appropriate directions for surface preparation.
For steel substrates, the pre-treatments to use are
zinc phosphate per TT-C-490 Type I or wash primer
conforming to DOD-P-15328. For aluminum substrates,
the pretreatment is alodine, MIL-C-5541.
(c) Anticorrosive primers. The anticorrosive primers to be used with the MIL-DTL-64159 paint
system are of the epoxy type. The epoxy primer to
use with steel, aluminum and magnesium substrates is
MIL-PRF-23377or MIL-P-85582.
(d) Topcoat. MIL-DTL-64159 coating is applied at 1.8 to 3.0 mils dry film thickness in two coats.
The first coat should be applied within one to four hours
of the application of the primer. The second coat may
be applied within a few minutes of the first coat or
anytime thereafter. The total thickness of the topcoat
should not exceed 3.0 mils. There is no maximum time
between the application of the first and second coats,
ideally within two hours. No surface preparation, except
for cleaning, will be necessary as long as the surface
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
has not become contaminated, e.g. with dirt or grease:
MIL-DTL-64159 coating fully cures in 7 days.
p. Touchup of Polyurethane System. Closely
inspect candidate areas for extent of damage and/or
touchup required. If inspection reveals major paint or
primer failure or damage, such as chipped or peeled
paint, the involved section should be prepared and
touched up. If only minor damage is found, e.g., paint
chipped or missing from screw/rivet heads and on
outer edges of skin panel(s) the specific area may be
prepared and touched up. Prepare damaged area(s)
and paint as follows:
NOTE
This must be accomplished with full adherence
to provisions of health and safety cited elsewhere and herein.
(1) Thoroughly clean area to be repainted.
(2) Feather edges of coating adjacent to peel
section and scuff sand the other area(s) to be coated.
Use 280 grit paper or nylon abrasive matting, MIL-A9962, very fine for scuff sanding.
(2) Test panel. Prior to spraying operations, the
suitability of materials for the entire system shall be determined experimentally on a panel approximately 10
to 32 inches in size. The panel shall be coated under
prevailing conditions with the finish system that is to be
applied. If the finish system applied to the experimental panel is satisfactory, full scale operations may begin.
Defects found in the experimental application such as
blushing, poor adhesion, excessive orange peel, sagging, etc., shall be corrected prior to large scale application.
(3) Adhesion test. See MIL-F-18264.
(4) Gloss test. Not applicable to MIL-DTL64159 paints. See MIL-F-18264 .
(5) Smoothness test. See MIL-F-18264.
r. Storage of Painting Supplies. To prevent fire,
spoilage, and waste arising from improper storage
and surplus stock, the following precautions shall be
observed:
•
Space heaters or other direct fired
heaters shall not be used to heat storage areas. Paints and thinners are
flammable.
•
Floors should be concrete and drained
to one point; drain shall run to sump or
detached cistern and have deep trap.
The runoff from spilled paint, thinners,
or catalysts can cause contamination to
soil and water if not properly contained.
•
Ventilation shall utilize screened inlets
6 inches above floor and screened vent
through roof. Fumes from thinners and
catalysts can cause sickness and may
be explosive in concentrated amounts.
ALIPHATIC NAPHTHA
Aliphatic Naphtha is extremely flammable and
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Wear
protective gloves and goggles/face shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only
in well-ventilated areas (or use approved respirator as determined by local safety/industrial
hygiene personnel). Keep away from open
flames, sparks, or other sources of ignition.
(3) Solvent wipe scuffed area(s) with aliphatic
naphtha, TT-N-95.
(4) Apply one thin coat of epoxy primer, MILPRF-23377on area to be touched up. Power Pak spray
unit, MIL-S-22805, may be a valuable aid in accomplishing field touchup.
(5) Apply one full wet coat of thoroughly mixed
polyurethane topcoat. If required, apply a second coat
after allowing 1 to 4 hours curing period for the first coat.
(6) Touch-up shall be accomplished with brush
and rollers only in open areas.
q. Inspection. The following tests provide a measure of the quality of the painting job.
(1) Viscosity test. See MIL-F-18264.
(1) Paint and thinners shall be stored where
possible in dry, fire resistant, well drained and well
ventilated structures, preferably separated from other
buildings, and under automatic sprinkler protection.
(2) To avoid possible leakage arising from corrosion of containers, protection shall be provided against
wetting by rain, snow, steam leaks, or other sources of
water.
(3) Supplies shall not be stored in the proximity
of steam lines or other sources of heat to avoid direct
heat. It is recommended that steam heat be used with
Change 5
9-15
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
coils above stock and screened to prevent contact with
drums or containers.
(4) Storage shall not be on floors below grade
and first tier of containers shall be laid at least 2 inches
above floor level to provide for suitable ventilation and
drainage. Sills shall be provided at openings to storage
areas, approximately 6 inches above floor.
(5) Paint components and thinners packaged in
55 gallon steel drums may be stored outdoors provided
containers are protected against rusting by painting
of bare metal areas and are set on dunnage so as to
provide approximately 2 inch clearance above ground.
Drums stored out of doors shall be laid on their sides to
protect loss of markings stencilled on the heads through
weathering action of rain, snow, and sun.
(6) Handling of stock shall be conducted in a
manner to avoid damage to labels. Relabeling of drums
where labels have been obliterated may result in mislabeling, with consequent incorrect use of waste of contents. Drums with obliterated labels should be properly
discarded.
(7) Care should be taken to assure protection of
the paint or components from moisture. Particular care
should be exercised to prevent water entering containers as paint is opened.
(8) Containers of paint shall be readily accessible at all times. Other supplies shall not be stacked on
top of paint.
(9) Containers shall be stored and issued in order of dates of manufacture shown on respective labels.
Containers bearing oldest date shall be used first. In
the event that date of manufacture is not shown on container, date or receipt shall be considered as approximate date of manufacture for purpose of storage and
issue.
(10) To give best results, temperature of paint
should be between 60 and 85°F (18 and 29°C) at time of
use. Storage conditions that result in paint temperatures
below 55°F (13°C) or above 95°F (35°C) require storage
of paint at room temperature for approximately 25 hours
prior to use.
(11) In closed containers, temperature and humidity will not affect the stability of either component
of two part coatings. Although the paint manufacturers
only guarantee two part coatings for one year, both components will remain stable for 2 to 3 years, as long as
9-16
Change 5
the component B, the catalyst portion, remains in closed
and sealed containers. Where it is necessary to extract
a portion of the component B, it should be done in a cool
location and the lid resealed as rapidly and as tightly, as
possible.
9-4. REFLECTORIZING
AND
CHECKERED
FLAGS. Ground support equipment and vehicles used
on the flightline and other areas where aircraft may be
must be highly visible for safety. The following paragraphs outline reflectorizing or flag requirements and
installation location and procedures.
To insure high visibility during flight line/airfield
operations, all aircraft ground support equipment (vehicle or pieces of equipment used to
direct support of aircraft/airfield operations) will
be striped with reflectorized tape or will display
a white-orange checkered flag.
a. Reflectorized Tape Use. All non-tactical
ground support equipment (which is normally painted
yellow) will be outlined with reflective tape to insure
high visibility during lowlight level operations. Striping
shall be in accordance with materials and instructions
specified in paragraphs b and c.
b. Reflectorized Tape Location. Equipment shall
be marked in a manner to outline the entire piece of
equipment, so that during periods of low visibility the
entire outline of the equipment will be obvious. Outline
the equipment as follows:
NOTE
If area to be striped can not accommodate 4
inch wide tape, use the widest width possible.
(1) Outline the equipment with 4 inch wide silver-white tape conforming to Federal Specification L-S300, NSN 9390-00-949-8047.
(2) Compound surfaces (corners, large bolts,
rivets, etc.) may be left unmarked.
c. Reflectorized Tape Installation. The following
procedures shall be used to apply reflectorizing sheeting, Federal Specification L-S-300:
(1) Clean surfaces of all loose scale and dirt by
brushing or applying cleaning compound, Federal Specification P-C-437. Remove deposits of cleaning
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
compound by washing with clear water. Dry surfaces
with high-pressure compressed air.
(2) Measure reflectorizing sheeting, and cut to
desired lengths.
(3) Start removal of protective paper liner from
adhesive by holding the tape reflective side in and flick
one corner sharply in toward reflective face. When corner is loosened lay the reflective side of tape down on
smooth surface and jerk the paper liner off to half the
length of strip. Fold loosened paper liner.
NOTE
9-5. MARKING. Ground support equipment has
markings on it in addition to refectorized tape. The following paragraphs highlight and explain the markings.
a. General. Ground support equipment is required
to bear identification marking to the greatest extent considered practical consistent with safe practice, types and
models, and the availability of the space required for
such marking.
b. Marking Requirements. Marking requirements
for ground support equipment are described in the following paragraphs.
•
Apply only when equipment surface
temperature is above 60°F (16°C), activate adhesive lightly with a solvent
activator as recommended by the reflective tape manufacturer.
(1) Ready-made markings. Prefabricated plastic film symbols, letters, numbers and instructional placards may be used in lieu of stencil paint. The plastic
film shall meet requirements of MIL-F-8799, with an adhesive which will permit positioning of marking without
pre-adhesive, at temperatures up to 100°F (38°C).
•
The reflective tape cannot be subjected to paint oven baking process.
(2) Types of markings. The following paragraphs describe the types of markings.
(4) Position on equipment and adhere one edge
with finger. Hold unapplied portion slightly away from
surface to prevent premature adhesion. Wipe tape to
surface with firm pressure, using a plastic squeegee.
Remove remaining liner and apply remainder of tape.
Any air bubbles should be pricked with pinpoint and air
worked out with squeegee.
(5) Apply clear edge sealer, as recommended
by reflective type manufacturer, to edges of tape to prolong life of marking.
(6) Repair to damaged reflective areas can be
made without stripping of original sheet. Abrade any
rough edges, clean damaged area thoroughly and apply
a new piece of reflective tape over damaged area.
d. Checkered Flag Use. For all aircraft/airfield
support equipment which cannot be taped (i.e. tactical
vehicles, tractors, sweepers, occasional use vehicles,
etc.) will display a white-orange checkered flag conforming to MIL-F-40047, NSN 8345-00-027-3704.
(1) Flying the flag. The flag will be flown while
on the flight line or any area which aircraft may be
present.
(2) Mounting the flag. The flag shall be
mounted to facilitate easy removal when departing
airfield area or when entering into a tactical condition.
NOTE
•
Letters and numbers shall be sharply
defined Gothic style conforming to
MIL-STD-642 or as amended. Unless
otherwise specified, the size selected
shall be the largest size practical for
available space, consistent with good
appearance and visibility.
•
The national symbol shall not be used
on equipment operated in CONUS.
(a) National symbol. The national symbol,
which is a white, five-pointed star, may be applied to
ground support equipment operated by the Department
of the Army in overseas theaters by direction of the
theater commander concerned.
(b) Letters and numerals. Gothic type letters and numerals of 1/2 inch, 1 inch, 2 inch, 3 inch, or
4 inch shall be used for marking.
(c) Safety markings. Safety markings, shall
be applied to all ground support equipment where
necessary to prevent injury to personnel or damage to
equipment.
Change 5
9-17
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
1 Requirements. These markings will indicate danger areas, voltage and power ratings, towings
instructions, and similar precautions. Major safety precautions shall be placed in a conspicuous location on
the equipment.
2 Color of markings. All safety markings
shall have letters and numerals in white on red surfaces.
(d) Operational
markings. Operational
markings shall be applied to all ground support equipment to instruct operating personnel of duties and
maintenance, such as tire pressure, fuel octane rating,
oil grade, and operational controls.
9-18
(e) Agency markings. Agency identification
markings shall be applied to indicate that the unit of
equipment belongs to the Department of the Army.
(f) Reconditioning
markings. Reconditioning markings shall be applied to
indicate of overhaul and reconditioning activity.
(g) Location of markings. The various types
and models of ground support equipment prohibit the
establishment of detailed instructions for the application
of marking for each type or model.
(h) Colors and sizes of markings. Color,
style, and size of markings will be as follows:
•
Equipment without adequate operational nameplates on the operator’s
compartment may have the name or
duty performed by the lever, switch,
valve, or pedal, stenciled near each,
and the use or direction of movement
if needed.
•
The stencil shall be the smallest readable size. Understandable abbreviations may be used.
•
2 Block type letters and numerals of 1/2inch, 1-inch, 2-inch, 3-inch, or 4- inch size shall be used
for marking.
Such items as TIRE PRESSURE, NO
STEP, SPEED LIMIT, etc., shall be
stenciled immediately adjacent to the
particular part involved.
(i) Maintenance of markings. Markings
shall be clearly maintained on all items of equipment at
all times, with the following exceptions:
•
Special towing instructions shall be
stenciled near the towing attachment.
1 Upon transfer within the Department of
the Army, all organizational markings shall be removed.
•
Safety markings shall be positioned in
an easily observed area and shall be
of such size to be legible at a minimum distance.
2 Upon assignment under bailment contracts to private contractors, all exterior markings shall
be removed.
•
Danger areas
marked.
•
Where fire extinguishers are carried
in concealed locations, the locations
shall be adequately marked.
•
Equipment with an exhaust system
which is a hazard to personnel shall
be adequately marked.
•
Lifting capacities of aircraft jacks and
similar lifting devices will have capacity legibly marked.
Change 5
shall
be
clearly
1 Stencil markings shall be accomplished
using black paint, color number 37038, Federal Specification A-A-1558, on yellow or gray surfaces. However, letters and numerals for all safety markings shall
be accomplished using white paint, Federal Specification A-A-1558, on red surfaces.
3 Upon permanent transfer to disposal
agencies or upon sale to commercial contractors, all
Department of the Army markings shall be obliterated
or removed.
NOTE
When the requirements for camouflage or concealment outweigh the requirement for identification, the markings prescribed herein may,
by direction of the major command concerned,
be obliterated by some readily removable substance.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
9-6. STORAGE OF GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT. Guidance pertaining to storage, inspection, and
preservation will be covered in the following paragraphs.
a. General. The information contained herein
provides instructions for processing serviceable and
economically reparable ground support equipment for
storage or shipment, and that equipment presently
in storage. These instructions pertain to all ground
support equipment assigned to the Department of the
Army. Equipment which is to be placed in service or
repaired within ninety days shall not be processed for
storage, but shall require sufficient protection to prevent
further deterioration.
b. Safety Practices and Procedures. In addition
to the safety precautions given in Chapter 2, paragraph
2-8, the following safety practices and procedures apply:
(1) When moving ground support equipment,
do not tow at speeds over 5 mph.
(2) Apply hand brakes or install chocks to keep
ground support equipment from moving unintentionally.
(3) Avoid sparks at battery terminals when connecting or disconnecting battery cables.
(4) Promptly investigate any liquid leaks.
c. Storage Instructions. Ground Support Equipment shall be stored under cover, in buildings as required or as specified by the applicable technical manual
for that specific piece of equipment.
d. Time Limit. Equipment preserved for long term
storage in accordance with paragraph 9-7 and inspected
in accordance with paragraph 9-6e will be depreserved,
exercised and represerved within 12 months of preservation date.
e. In-storage Inspection: Equipment preserved
in accordance with paragraph 9-7 an in-storage inspection will be conducted at 90 day intervals.
(1) The following guide shall be used for inspection of equipment in storage:
(a) Condition of painted surfaces.
(b) Effectiveness of preservation applied.
(c) Evidence of rust or corrosion.
(d) Shortages of parts or accessories (other
than those listed in DA FORM 1574 or , if applicable.)
(e) Air pressure in tires.
(f) Leakage of lubricants.
(g) Review and update all applicable forms
and records.
(h) Enter on material condition tag, in pencil,
"Inspected" followed by the date and the initials of the
inspector.
(2) Calibration of Equipment in Storage. Ground support equipment in storage does not
require periodic calibration. Enter "CBU" (Calibrate
Before Use) on the DA Label 80 either at the time the
equipment is placed in storage or on the date indicated
on the label as the calibrated due date.
(3) Represervation. Deterioration noted during
inspection shall be repaired and the affected area represerved. Damage or pilferage shall be noted on DA
FORM 2404 as appropriate and reported in accordance
with local procedures.
9-7. PRESERVATION OF AVIATION GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT FOR LONG TERM STORAGE. All
serviceable or economically repairable ground support
equipment which will not be in service or repaired within
90 days shall be processed in accordance with this paragraph.
a. Forms and Records. Preservation of items in
accordance with this paragraph requires the following
entries on forms prepared in accordance with DA PAM
738-750.
(1) DD FORM 314 Preventive Maintenance
Schedule and Record. Annotate, in pencil, the remark blocks to read "Preserved..." followed by the
date of preservation and "Preserved if not activated
by..." followed by the date 12 months from the date of
preservation.
(2) Materiel Condition Tags. Each item preserved in accordance with this section will have attached
to it in a conspicuous place a DD FORM 1577 serviceable tag. Materiel or DD FORM 1577-2 unservicable
(Repairable) Tag-Materiel as appropriate. Annotate the
remarks block of the tag (in pencil) to read "Preserved..."
followed by the date of preservation and "Preserved if
not activated by..." followed by a date 12 months from
the preservation date.
(3) DA Label 80. For equipment requiring calibration, annotate the DA Label 80 as required in paragraph 9-6 e (2).
Change 5
9-19
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(4) DA FORM 2404. Prepare DA FORM 2404 as
required in accordance with paragraph 9-7 b.
b. Preventative Maintenance Service. Prior to
preserving a piece of equipment for storage perform
the next scheduled major preventative maintenance
service (quarterly, semi-annual, etc.) in accordance
with applicable technical manuals, lubrication orders,
and technical bulletins. Equipment discrepancies will be
listed on DA FORM 2404 in accordance with DA PAM
738-750. For equipment faults that create a Not Mission
Capable Supply (NMCS) equipment status, enter the
document number(s) of the associated requisition(s) in
Column C.
c. Cleaning. An essential first step in the preservation of AGSE is cleaning and drying. Cleaning removes corrosive deposits such as soil, chemicals, bird
dropping and exhaust residue and materials such as
oil and grease that will attract corrosive deposits. After
cleaning, the item will be thoroughly dried by draining
and/or blowing with compressed air. AGSE will be thoroughly cleaned and dried prior to the application of the
preservation procedures in applicable equipment publications and this paragraph.
d. Applicability. AGSE will be preserved in accordance with the applicable equipment technical manuals,
lubrication orders, and technical bulletins. The information provided in this paragraph is supplemental to the
information contained in the applicable equipment publications.
e. Processing. In the absence of guidance in specific equipment publications, ground support equipment
will be preserved by applying the techniques indicated
below for equipment components applicable to the item
being preserved.
(1) Painted Metal Surfaces.
DEGREASING SOLVENT, MIL-PRF-680
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, is combustible and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory
tract. Wear protective gloves and goggles/face
shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use
approved respirator as determined by local
safety/industrial hygiene personnel).
Keep
away from open flames or other sources of
ignition.
9-20
Change 5
CLEANING COMPOUND, MIL-PRF-87937
Cleaning compound, MIL-PRF-87937 Type II,
can irritate eyes and skin. Wear protective
gloves and goggles. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact.
(a) Cleaning. Clean surfaces using, MILPRF-87937, cleaning compound. Clean stubborn or
exceptionally oily areas with MIL-PRF-680 type II degreasing solvent. Dry equipment.
(b) Preservation. Inspect surfaces for corrosion and treat in accordance with the procedures in TM
1-1500-344-23-series, aircraft weapons systems cleaning and corrosion control, applicable to the type of metal
affected. Bare spots and treated areas will be.
(2) Non Painted Metal Surfaces.
(a) Cleaning. Clean unpainted metal surfaces in accordance with paragraph 9-7e (1)(a).
Through drying is particularly important for unpainted
surfaces.
(b) Preservation. Inspect surfaces for corrosion and treat in accordance with the procedure in TM
1-1500-204-23-series applicable to the type of metal affected. Coat unpainted metal areas such as frames,
rods, springs, and pintle assemblies with corrosion preventative compound MIL-C-16173, Grade 3. Coat light
metal surfaces such as the inside of cowls and access
panels with lubricating oil MIL-L-21260, Type I, grade 10
.
(3) Air Compressors. Clean and preserve exterior surfaces of air receivers and compressors in accordance with paragraph 9-7a. When compressor lubricating system is separate from the associated power
unit, drain and service to operating level with lubrication
oil as specified in the equipment publications. Remove
and service the air cleaner in accordance with paragraph
9-7e(8) With the compressor running, spray lubricating
oil MIL-L-21260, Type I, grade 10 into intake until oil appears at the final stage discharge. Drain air receivers
and lines of condensation. Leave drain cocks open and
attach UU-T-81 warning tag to operating controls stating "Close Drain Cocks Prior to Use." If the air receiver
is located down stream of air oil separators, fog the receiver with MIL-L-21260, Type I, grade 10 oil. Coat interior steel surfaces of the pressure regulator system
with MIL-L-21260, Type I , grade 10 lubricating oil. Reinstall air filter and seal all compressor opening with
MIL-PRF-131, Class 3 barrier material and PPP-T-60,
Type IV, class 1 tape.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(4) Reciprocating Engines - Operable.
(5) Reciprocating Engines (Inoperable).
(a) Cleaning. Clean inoperable engines in
accordance with paragraph 9-7e(4)(a)
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL
Isopropyl alcohol is flammable and toxic to
eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Wear protective gloves and goggles/face shield. Avoid
repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in
well-ventilated areas or use approved respirator as determined by local safety/industrial
hygiene personnel). Keep away from open
flames, sparks, or other sources of ignition.
DEGREASING SOLVENT, MIL-PRF-680
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, is combustible and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory
tract. Wear protective gloves and goggles/face
shield.
Avoid repeated or prolonged contact. Use only in well-ventilated areas (or use
approved respirator as determined by local
safety/industrial hygiene personnel).
Keep
away from open flames or other sources of
ignition.
(a) Cleaning. Clean engine exteriors with
MIL-PRF-680, Type II, degreasing solvent in accordance with TM 1-1500-204-23-1. For cleaning air temperature below 20°F use isopropyl alcohol, TT-I-735.
(b) Preservation of Liquid Cooling Systems. Completely drain engine cooling system including radiator and block. Refill cooling system in accordance with equipment publications. Test anti-freeze for
desired protection after running the engine sufficiently
to insure thermostat opening and thoroughly mixing
of coolant. Coat cooling system hoses with O-G-491
glycerol.
(c) Lubrication. Operate engine to warm oil.
Drain oil and clean or replace filter as applicable. Service engine with clean oil to operating level in accordance with the appropriate equipment publications.
(d) Intake System - Gasoline Engine. Drain
fuel tank and add a mixture of 1 1/2 pints of MIL-L-21260,
Type 1, grade 10 oil to one ounce W-G-800 gum preventative compound to five gallons of gasoline (gasoline/oil mixture for two cycle engines). Start and operate engine, varying rpm. After engine has warmed,
open throttle to approximately 2/3 operating rpm and
very slowly pour oil in engine and allow to cool. Seal
all openings with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier material
and PPP-T-60, Type IV, class 1 tape.
(b) Preservation of Liquid Cooling Systems. Check anti-freeze solution for adequate protection. If protection. If protection is not adequate,
completely drain cooling system and refill with the appropriate anti-freeze indicated in paragraph 9-7e(4)(b)
The engine thermostat may have to be removed to allow
complete draining and insure refilling of the engine block
cooling jacket. Coat all hoses with O-G-491glycerol.
(c) Lubrication. Drain oil and clean or replace oil filters as appropriate. Remove valve covers,
oil pan and covers from accessory drives. Spray all
accessed areas with MIL-C-6529 Type 2. Corrosion
preventative compound. Reinstall all covers with new
gaskets and tighten hold down nuts to specific torque
value. Remove all spark plugs and spray interior of
each cylinder with MIL-C-6529, Type 2, corrosion preventative compound . Spray each cylinder with piston
at bottom dead center. Proceed in firing order until all
cylinders have been treated. Without rotating crank
shaft, provide a final spray of all cylinders. Clean spark
plugs and reinstall. Seal all intake, exhaust vents, and
breather openings with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier
material and PPP-T-60, Type 5, class 1, tape.
(6) Turbine Engines. Clean and preserve turbine engines in accordance with the applicable equipment maintenance manual. Clean inlet area of turbine
engines of dirt and debris. Install intake and exhaust
covers and seal with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier material and PPP-T-60Type 4, grade 1, tape.
(7) Fuel Systems. Drain fuel tank, lines, sediment bowl, and fuel filter. Clean or replace fuel filter
as appropriate. Remove corrosion from underside of
metal fuel caps and apply TT-P-664 primer. Inspect
metal fuel tanks for corrosion. If excessive corrosion
is present, treat in accordance TM 1-1500-344-23-series. After inspection and/or treatment, fog interior of
tank with MIL-C-6529, Type 2, corrosion preventative
compound.
(8) Air Cleaners.
(a) Oil Bath. Clean and service oil bath air
cleaners in accordance with MIL-L-21260, Type 1, grade
10 lubricating oil and seal the openings with MIL-PRF131, class 3 barrier material and PPP-T-60, Type 5,
class 1 tape.
(b) Dry Type. Clean and/or replace filters as
appropriate. Seal all openings with MIL-PRF-131, class
3 barrier material and PPP-T-60 Type 4, class 1 tape.
Change 5
9-21
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(9) Exhaust Systems. Coat exposed portions
of exhaust system with MIL-C-16173, grade 3, corrosion preventative compound, seal openings with
MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier material and PPP-T-60,
Type 4, class 1 tape.
(10) Ignition Systems. Lubricate distributor or
magnets as specified in equipment publication. Coat
electrical cables and leads with O-G-491glycerol.
Electrolyte and corrosion products from both
lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries will
cause injury. Wear safety goggles, gloves, or
apron. If electrolyte or corrosion products, contact eyes, skin or clothing, flush immediately
with large quantities of cold water. In the case
of eye contact, see a physician immediately.
(11) External Drives. Release tension on drive
belts. Clean pulleys and spray with TT-P-664 primer.
Coat exposed gears with MIL-C-16173, grade 3, corrosion preventative compound.
Keep nickel-cadmium batteries away from leadacid batteries. Do not handle or service them
with the same tool.
(12) Gearboxes. Clean and treat exterior surfaces of gearboxes in accordance with paragraph
9-7e(1). Service to operating level with the lubrication
specified in the applicable equipment publications.
(16) Batteries. The processing of batteries will
vary with the type of battery. All batteries, including
dry cell type will be removed from equipment being preserved. When removing batteries disconnect negative
cable first to avoid arcing
(13) Operating Mechanisms. Lubricate hinges
and latches with MIL-L-21260, Type 1, grade 10, lubricating oil . Apply a light coat of O-G-491glycerol on rubber seals and bumper blocks.
Insure that tape does not contact polished surface of actuator rod.
(14) Hydraulic Systems. Service hydraulic
system in accordance with the applicable equipment
publications. Clean and treat metal hydraulic components except actuator rods, in accordance with
paragraph 9-7e(1). Clean and coat hydraulic actuator
shafts with the type of hydraulic fluid specified for the
system in the applicable equipment publications. Wrap
the actuator rods with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier
material secured with PPP-T-60 Type 4, class 1 tape.
(15) Brake Systems. Exterior unpainted or
threaded surfaces such as cables, clevises, and linkages of service and parking brakes will be coated
with MIL-C-16173, grade 4, corrosion preventative
compound. Hydraulic brakes will be serviced to the
operating level with the fluid specified in equipment
publications.
Both lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries
produce gasses that can explode. Do not
smoke, use open flames, or make sparks
around batteries.
9-22
Change 5
Lead-acid battery cleaning solution (sodium bicarbonate) will damage battery if allowed inside
battery cells. Use care to prevent solution from
entering through or around caps.
(a) Lead-Acid Batteries. Remove battery
from equipment. Clean battery using a H-B-643 acid
swabbing brush or equivalent and a solution of 1/2
pound of O-S-576 sodium bicarbonate to one gallon of
water in accordance with TM 9-6140-200-14 Operators,
Organizational, Direct Support and General Support
Maintenance Manual for lead-acid storage batteries.
Clean and neutralize battery cables, clamps, supports,
retainers, and battery box using the above sodium
bicarbonate solution. After cleaning, paint battery box
area as required in accordance with paragraph 9-3,
TM 1-1500-204-23-9. Coat battery terminals and cable
clamps with VV-P-236 petrolatum. Wrap cable ends
with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier material secured
with PPP-T-60, Type 5, class 1, tape and secure to
battery holder.
(b) Dry Cell Batteries. Remove batteries
from equipment and store in cool dry place.
(17) Fire Extinguishers. All portable type fire
extinguishers shall be serviceable and remain in place
on the equipment.
(18) Keys and Locks. Tie together all keys,
not fixed in locks; place in envelope and store with
forms and records. Locks shall be treated with grease,
molybdenurn sulfide, MIL-G-21164, and openings shall
be sealed with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier material,
secured with PPP-T-40, Type 4, class 1 tape.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(19) Generators, Alternators, and Electric
Motors. Clean and preserve exterior surfaces in accordance with paragraph 9-7 a. Blow accumulation
of dust from interior surfaces with compressed air directed through ventilation openings. Cover openings
with MIL-PRF-131, class 3, barrier material, sealed
with PPP-T-60, Type 4, class 1 tape. Securely attach
UU-T-81 warning tag to operating controls stating "Remove Packaging Tape Prior to Use."
(20) Data Plates. Spray data plates, MIL-V-173,
in exposed locations on instrument panels, bodies etc,
with a thin coat of varnish insulation compound. Control
overspray to avoid coating adjacent surfaces.
f. Depreservation. Depreserve equipment as follows:
(1) Protective Covering. Remove all protective
covering materials to include polyethylene film, barrier
materials, and tape.
(2) Preservatives. Remove external preservatives with approved solvents as necessary.
(3) Tires. Inflate tires to prescribed pressure
(when applicable).
(4) Fire Extinguishers. Inspect fire extinguishers as required.
(5) Batteries. Install serviceable batteries as required.
(6) Brakes. Check and service hydraulic brakes
systems to operating lever with the fluid specified in
equipment.
(7) Hydraulic System. Check and service hydraulic systems to operating level with fluid specified in
the equipment publications.
(8) Gear Boxes. Service gear boxes to operating level with the lubricant specified in the equipment
publications.
(9) External Drives. Check drive belts for serviceability and adjust to tension specified in the equipment publications.
(10) Fuel Systems. Service with operating fuel
specified in the equipment publications.
(11) Turbine Engines. Depreserve turbine engines as specified in the equipment publications.
(12) Gasoline Engines.
(a) Lubrication. Service engine as required
with the operating oil specified in the equipment publications.
(b) Liquid Cooling System. Service system
as required and test coolant for desired anti-freeze protection.
(13) Air Compressors. Service as required with
the operating oil specified in the equipment publications.
Close the air receiver drain cocks and inspect as required.
(14) Cleaning. Clean equipment in accordance
with paragraph 9-7e(1) and treat corrosion as required.
(15) Preventive Maintenance Service. Perform any remaining items of the annual preventative
maintenance service.
(16) Calibration. Calibrate equipment as required.
(17) Forms and Records. Update equipment
forms and records to preservation data on material
condition tags.
g. Represervation. When equipment in storage is
to be represerved for storage, proceed as follows:
(1) Depreserve. Depreserve equipment in accordance with paragraph 9-7f.
(2) Exercise. Operate equipment and all systems in accordance with equipment publications.
(3) Preserve. Preserve equipment in accordance with paragraph 9-7e. When preserving an item
previously prepared for storage in accordance with
paragraph 9-7e, lubricant and engine do not need to be
drained.
9-8. SHIPPING AND RECEIVING GROUND
SUPPORT EQUIPMENT.
a. Preservation for Shipment. Equipment will be
preserved for shipment in accordance with paragraph
9-7
b. Packing and Crating. Guidance on packaging
and crating equipment for shipment is provided in TM
38-230-1, TM 38-230-2, and TM 746-10. For assistance
in obtaining additional information on packaging.
9-9. TYPES OF GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT. The following paragraphs will describe various
types of ground support equipment used to perform aircraft maintenance. In general, principles of operation,
Change 5
9-23
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
safety practices and procedures, operating procedures,
inspection, and maintenance will also be covered.
•
a. General. Ground support equipment is both
powered and nonpowered. It can be as simple and
small as a hand-powered, level-operated grease (lubricating) gun to as large and complex as an aircraft
towing vehicle. Whatever the size, shape, or intricacy,
each piece of ground support equipment has a function
and needs to be maintained to perform that function.
Lower and engage the immobilizing jacks to keep the platform from
rolling.
•
Use the handrails when ascending or
descending the stairs.
•
Leave the handrails on the maintenance platform in place unless they
interface with the work area.
b. Maintenance Workstands. Maintenance
workstands are used wherever aircraft maintenance
is performed, both on the flightline and in hangars.
Workstands come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Four types of workstands will be discussed herein.
(d) Operating procedures. The following
procedures pertain to the operation of the B-1 platform:
(1) Maintenance platform, type B-1. The B-1
maintenance platform, as shown in figure 9-1, is a
portable, variable-height, stair and platform assembly.
The work platform is hydraulically raised and lowered,
and is accessed by an adjustable stair assembly.
2 Depress the levers of the immobilizing
jacks to the locked position.
(a) Purpose. The B-1 maintenance platform
has a working range of 3 to 10 feet. It will support a
maximum of 500 pounds on the work platform.
4 Operate the pump handle until the platform is at the required height.
(b) Principles of operation. The maintenance platform consists of a main base and a platform
surface. The platform surface is above and connected
to the base by a stair assembly. A hand-operated hydraulic pump is used to draw fluid from a reservoir and
force it into the hydraulic cylinder assembly, causing the
cylinder to extend. The cylinder assembly is connected
to the stair assembly and as it extends, causes the
platform surface to raise. When the platform is raised
to the desired height, the cylinder assembly is manually
locked by turning the cylinder lock assembly. The
platform is lowered to the down position by normally
opening the bypass valve, allowing the fluid from the
cylinder assembly to bypass the hand pump and return
to the reservoir, causing the upper structure to lower.
(c) Safety practices and procedures. The
following special precautions should be observed when
using the B-1 maintenance platform:
•
9-24
Change 5
Rotate the hydraulic cylinder lock so
the fingers engage the slots in the
cylinder barrel before ascending the
platform.
1 Place the maintenance platform in the
location where it is to be used.
3 Close the hand pump by-pass valve by
turning it in a clockwise direction.
5 Engage the hydraulic cylinder lock on
the hydraulic barrel.
6 Climb the stairs and do the task.
7 Reverse these procedures to lower the
platform when the task is complete.
(e) Inspection. Detailed inspection requirements can be found in the applicable maintenance
manual. The following operator inspections should be
made before using the maintenance platform.
1 Visual inspection. Look over the entire
maintenance platform to see if it is in good condition,
correctly assembled, and secure.
2 Leaks. Inspect the hydraulic fittings and
lines for leaks.
3 Hydraulic fluid. Check the fluid level and
service if necessary.
4 Tampering. Inspect the maintenance
platform for signs of tampering or damage.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-1. Type B-1 Maintenance Plafform
9-25
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(f) Maintenance. Consult the
applicable maintenance manual for preventive and
scheduled maintenance requirements.
release valve.
3 Open th e vent plug and close the
4 Operate the hand pump until the
platform is at the required height.
(2) Folding maintenance stand, type B-4A.
The B-4A maintenance stand, shown in figure 9-2, is an
adjustable platform and ladder assembly mounted on a
caster-equipped base. The maintenance stand is
hydraulically raised and lowered. .
5
Install the two safety lockpins.
6 Climb the ladder and do the task.
(a) Purpose. The B-4A maintenance
stand has a working height of 3 to 7 feet. It will support
a maximum weight of 500 pounds on the platform.
stand.
7 Upon task completion, dismount the
8 Open the vent plug and raise the
platform slightly to make removing the safety lockpins
easier.
(b) Principles of operation. The
maintenance stand consists of a main base and a
platform surface. The platform is above and connected
to the base by a scissors assembly. A hand-operated
hydraulic pump is used to transfer fluid from a reservoir
to a piston assembly, causing the piston to extend. The
piston assembly is connected to the scissors and as it
extends, causes the platform to raise. When the
platform is raised to the desired height, it is manually
locked with lockpins. The platform is lowered to the
down position by manually opening a release valve on
the pump, allowing the fluid to return to the reservoir
and the piston to retract.
9 Remove the safety lockpins.
10 Slowly turn the release valve lever
in a counterclockwise direction until the stand begins to
lower.
11 When the platform is fully down,
close the vent plug and the release valve.
(e) Inspection. The following operator
inspections should be made before using the folding
maintenance stand.
(c) Safety practices and procedures.
The following special precautions should be observed
when the using the folding maintenance stand:
1 Pump reservoir. Check the fluid
level and service if necessary.
• Do not stand on the ladder while raising
or lowering the platform.
2 Hydraulic hoses. Inspect for
security and signs of damage.
• Apply the caster brakes when the stand
is in position.
3 Actuating
evidence of leaking.
• Install the two platform safety pins when
the platform is at the desired height.
cylinder. Look for
4 Swivel casters and brakes. Check
for proper operation, adequate lubrication, and broken or
chipped wheels.
• Leave the platform rails in place unless
they interfere with the work area.
5 Roller channels, ladder guides, and
scissors pivot points. Look for cleanliness and adequate
lubrication.
(d) Operating
procedures. The
following procedures pertain to the operation of the B-4
folding maintenance stand:
(f) Maintenance. Consult the
applicable maintenance manual for preventive and
scheduled maintenance requirements.
1 Position the maintenance stand in
the desired location.
2 Lock the casters on all four wheels
and apply the brakes on the two rear casters.
9-26
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-2. Type B-4A Maintenance Stand
9-27
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(3) Aircraft engine maintenance stand. The
aircraft engine maintenance stand, shown in figure 9-3,
provides an essentially nonmovable work station for
repair of aircraft engines.
(a) Purpose. The engine maintenance stand
is designed to allow disassembly and reassembly of aircraft engines. The rails allow easy transition of the engine between the engine stand and the engine trailers.
Adapters make the stand useful for several types of engines.
•
Push the engine slowly, as its weight
will make the stand hard to stop if it
rolls too fast.
•
Keep the rails level from end to end so
the engine will not have a tendency to
roll.
(d) Operating procedures. The following
procedures pertain to the operation of the engine maintenance stand:
(b) Principles of operation. The engine
maintenance stand has two rails which allow the engine
to be transferred from the engine trailer to the stand.
There are spring-loaded stops at the ends of each rail
to prevent the engine from accidentally rolling off the
stand. The rails are vertically adjustable to accommodate height difference in engine trailers.
1 Align the engine trailer rails with the
maintenance stand, both longitudinally and vertically.
(c) Safety practices and procedures. The
following special precautions should be observed when
using the engine maintenance stand:
adapters.
•
2 Slowly push the engine from the trailer
to the stand, retracting the rail stops at the union of the
rails as the engine adapters go past this point.
3 Position the engine and secure the
Be sure the rail steps are up unless
an engine is being transferred.
Figure 9-3. Engine Maintenance Stand
9-28
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
4 Using adapters and a hoist if necessary,
disassemble the engine as required.
5 After the engine is reassembled, it may
be removed from the engine maintenance stand by reversing these procedures.
(e) Inspection. The operator should visually
look at the welds for cracks and check the rail stops for
proper operation prior to using the stand.
(f) Maintenance. Consult the applicable
maintenance manual for scheduled and preventive
maintenance requirements.
(g) Sweeney adapters. Consult the applicable engine maintenance manuals for adapters that can
be used.
(4) Self-propelled elevated maintenance
workstand. The Self-Propelled Elevated Maintenance
(SPEM) workstand, shown in figure 9-4, is driven by a
gasoline engine. The stand is self-propelled at 2 mph
and can be driven from the workbasket.
(a) Purpose. The SPEM stand is useful for
reaching areas of an aircraft that are not accessible from
a type B-1 or Type B-4A stand. The extendable arm
allows the workbasket to go over the aircraft and to a
height of 40 feet.
(b) Principles of operation. The SPEM
stand is counterbalanced and propelled by a gasoline
engine. The rear drive wheels are equipped with hydraulic brakes that engage automatically when the drive
control is released. The front steering wheels have
electric brakes which are operated from the workbasket. The turntable is hydraulically-operated and cab be
rotated 350 degrees from the workbasket.
Figure 9-4. SPEM Stand
Change 2
9-29
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(c) Safety practices and procedures. The
following special precautions should be observed when
using the SPEM stand:
•
Do not exceed the weight capacity of
the workbasket.
•
Check the area before lowering the
workbasket or rotating the turntable.
•
Do not try to propel the stand from
the workbasket with the hand parking
brake engaged.
4 Reverse these procedures to stow the
stand when the work is complete.
(e) Inspection. The following general operator inspection apply to the SPEM stand.
1 Visual inspection. Look over the entire
stand for obvious damage or leaks.
2 Batteries. Check electrolyte level.
3 Hydraulic reservoir. Check fluid level.
Service if necessary.
(d) Operating procedures. The following
procedures pertain to the operation of the SPEM stand:
1 Tow the stand to the work site.
2 Use the self-propelling motor to locate
the stand in a working position.
4 Tires. Check for proper pressure.
(f) Maintenance. Consult the applicable
maintenance manual for preventive and scheduled
maintenance requirements.
c. Deleted
3 Enter the workbasket and position it as
necessary using the extendable arm, self-propelling,
and turntable capabilities.
Figure 9-5. Deleted
9-30
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
d. Aircraft jacks. Aircraft jacks consist essentially
of a pump assembly, a cylinder and ram assembly, and
a base assembly. Depending on the design and lifting
capacity of the jacks, the base assembly can be flat or
a tripod style, mounted on casters.
(1) Purpose. Aircraft jacks are designed to raise
the entire aircraft or a speci.c portion of the aircraft so
that maintenance can be performed. Jacks come related with different lifting capacities, ranging from 3 tons
to over 25 tons.
(2) Principles of operation. A generalized jack
hydraulic schematic diagram is shown in .gure 9-6. The
pump handle is moved up and down to raise the cylinder
and rams. On the up stroke of the pump handle, the
pump piston draws hydraulic fluid from the reservoir. On
the down stroke, the piston pushes the hydraulic fluid
under pressure through the spring-loaded check valve
Change 5
9-31
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-6. Jack Hydraulic Schematic Diagram
into the cylinder. As more fluid is pumped into the cylinder, the fluid pushes the rams upward. By opening the
release valve, pressure is released and the rams retract.
The safety valve becomes operative when the load to
the rams exceeds the maximum allowable load of the
jack.
(3) Types. Aircraft jacks vary by weight lifting capacity, style of assembly, and intended use. Two common styles of jacks are tripod and flat base. Aircraft
jacks with weight lifting capacities from 3 to 12 tons will
be described in the following paragraphs.
keeps the base of the jack foot assembly about 2 inches
from the grounds.
(d) Aircraft landing gear jack. The aircraft
landing gear jack, shown in figure 9-10, will lift 10,000
pounds vertically. It has a collapsed height of 5 1/2
inches and a lift of 9 inches from the rams. When fully
extended, the extension screwlift provides another 3
inches of lift.
(a) Tripod jack, 12-ton. The 12-ton tripod
jack, shown in figure 9-7, will lift 24,000 pounds vertically. It has a closed height of 14 inches and a lift of
23 inches. The casters depress and the jack rests on 3
feet when a load is applied.
(b) Tripod jack, 5-ton. The 5-ton tripod jack,
shown in figure 9-8, will lift 10,000 pounds vertically. The
jack is designed to provide 5 tons of lifting effort through
a range of 23-9/16 inches collapsed to approximately
75-9/16 inches when fully extended. The spring-loaded
casters retract when under a load.
(c) Tripod jack, 3-ton. The 3-ton tripped jack,
shown in figure 9-9, will lift 6,000 pounds vertically. It
has a closed height of 14 inches. The tripod legs are
equipped with swivel castered wheels. Until a load is
applied to the jack, a spring-loaded yoke and spindle
9-32
Figure 9-7. Tripod Jack, 12-Ton
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-8. Tripod Jack, 5-Ton
9-33
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(g) To lower the jack, slowly open the
release valve and slowly lower the load.
(e) Self-contained jack, 10-ton. The 10ton self-contained jack, shown in figure 9-11, will lift
20,000 pounds vertically. The rams provide 13 inches
of lift, with another 4 inches available from the extension
screw lift. The overall height ranges from 8 inches
collapsed to 25 inches fully extended.
supports itself.
(h) Withdraw jack when the load
(i) Lower the extension screw.
(4) Safety practices and procedures. The
following special precautions should be observed when
using aircraft jacks:
(j) Close and tighten the release valve.
(k) Close the vent assembly vent
• Do not try to adjust or defeat the safety valve.
screw.
• If the jack will not raise the aircraft high enough,
get a jack that will. Do not use a block of wood
or similar object to get more lift.
(6) Inspection. The following general
operator inspections should be made on aircraft jacks.
Detailed inspection requirements can be found in the
applicable maintenance manual.
• Use the safety locks, if e quipped. Lower the
ram locknut as the ram is extended.
• Keep fingers from between the ram locknut and
the cylinder assembly.
(a) Visual inspection. Look over the
entire jack for obvious discrepancies such as leaks,
loose or missing hardware, and loose hose connections,
if applicable.
• Clean the area under the aircraft before
lowering and then lower slowly.
as necessary.
(c) Leaks. Check the pump assembly,
ram and cylinder assembly, and hose connections, if
applicable, for signs of leaks.
(5) Operating procedures. Detailed operating
procedures are found in the applicable maintenance
manual. The following general procedures pertain to the
operation of the aircraft jack:
(d) Foot assemblies (if applicable).
Check the casters for free movement, rotation, and
condition of the tread.
(a)
Close the release valve and partially
open the vent assembly vent screw.
(7) Maintenance. Consult the applicable
maintenance manual for preventive and scheduled
maintenance requirements.
(b)
Be sure the jack is seated or resti ng on
a level foundation.
handle.
(c)
Partially raise the ram with the jack
(d)
Position the jack.
(b) Oil level. Check reservoir and refill
e. Engine Trailer. The engine trailer, shown in
figure 9-12, is a 4-wheeled, towable trailer with two rails
mounted on it. Various engines can be loaded on and
transported by using different adapters.
(e)
If necessary, partially screw out the
extension screw to contact the load.
(1) Purpose. The engine trailer transports
engine for and during engine maintenance. It can be
loaded and unloaded by sliding the load to or from
another trailer, can also be towed together with other
trailers.
(f)
After jack is firmly positioned, operate
the jack handle with long, smooth strokes until the load
is lifted.
(2) Rail trailer airmobile. The tiedown rings
on the engine trailer make it suitable for air
transportation with an engine loaded on it. The 2,500
pound load capacity allows the majority of Army aircraft
engines to be transported .
9-34
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-10. Aircraft Landing Gear Jack
Figure 9-9. Tripod Jack, 3-Ton
Figure 9-11. Self-Contained Jack, 10-Ton
9-35
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-12. Engine Trailer
(3) Principles of operation. The rails on the
trailer can be mounted two ways, either 30 or 48 inches
apart. There are rail stop assemblies at both end of
each rail to prevent the load from sliding off. The rail
stops are spring-loaded to the up position. The towbar
allows the engine trailer to be moved by a tow vehicle.
The pintle hook on the rear of the trailer permits the
trailers, to be joined together for towing by a single tow
vehicle. Two brake assemblies which are set by
depressing the pedal assemblies are located at the right
and left rear axles. The brakes prevent the trailer from
rolling when parked or while being loaded or unloaded.
The front wheels are steerable by using the towbar.
• Do not tow the trailer faster than 20 mph.
Remember that the momentum of a loaded,
moving trailer will try to keep the trailer moving.
(d) When towing two or more engine
trailers together, allow for a decreasing turn radius.
(5) Operating procedures. The following
procedures pertain to the operation of the engine trailer:
(a) Move the trailer into position for
loading. The trailer may be moved and steered by hand
if fine adjustments to positioning are required. Set the
brakes.
(4) Safety practices and procedures. The
following special precautions should be observed while
using the engine trailer:
(b) Install the load.
(c) Position the load to keep the center
of gravity at the midway point between the axles.
• Do not put fingers on the rails when sliding loads
on or off.
• Set the brakes so the trailer does not roll.
9-36
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(d) Secure the load to the rails. Also, check
that the rail stop assemblies are up.
(e) Connect the trailer to a tow vehicle.
(f) Release the trailer brakes and tow the
trailer to the work site.
trailer.
(g) Set the trailer brakes and unhook the
(h) To unload by sliding the load off, release
the securing device and slide toward the rail ends.
(i) Pull the rail stop assemblies down when
the load is near the stops and ready to the unloaded.
(j) Slide the load off.
(6) Inspection. Detailed inspection requirements can be found in the applicable maintenance
manual. The following general operator inspections
should be made on the engine trailer.
(a) Visual inspection. Look over the entire
trailer for obvious discrepancies, such as loose or missing hardware or flat tires.
(b) Tires. Visually check for apparent correct
pressure. If in doubt, check with a gauge.
(c) Brakes. Check that they set and release
without sticking.
(7) Maintenance. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for scheduled and preventive maintenance requirements.
(8) Adapters available. The adapters that can
be used with the trailer allow it to be used with many
different types of engines. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for the engine repaired locally.
f. Aviation Ground Power Unit. The Aviation
Ground Power Unit (AGPU), MEP 83-360A and MEP
83-360D/E, is a gas turbine engine-driven, wheel
mounted, self-propelled (up to 3 mph on .at surface),
enclosed unit. The AGPU can be towed (20 mph maximum on improved surfaces and 10 mph maximum on
unimproved surfaces) and is air transportable.
(1) Purpose. The AGPU provides AC/DC electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic power. The power is
available individually, or in any combination. The AGPU
provides the ground power requirements for aircraft
such as the following: AH-64, C-12, OH-58, UH-60,
AH-1 and UH-1
(2) Principles of Operation. Control and regulation of the AGPU electrical and pneumatic systems
is semiautomatic. Electronic devices monitor and regulate electrical voltage, frequency, and current, as well
as pneumatic outputs. Control of the hydraulic system
is semiautomatic, in that the operator must set hydraulic
pressure and select operating modes.
(a) Engine/Gearcase. The Gas Turbine Engine (GTE), provides pneumatic power in the form of
clean compresses air for operation of the aircraft main
engine start system, environmental system, and other
equipment or systems. The engine also provides mechanical power in the form of rotational shaft power for
driving a generator and hydraulic power. The engine
delivers pneumatic and shaft power simultaneously or
independently. Once started, the engine runs up to 100
percent governed speed of 58, 737 RPM (+300 RPM,
-570 RPM) and automatically maintains that speed until shutdown. Constant speed is maintained by the fuel
control unit which varies fuel supplied to the combustion chamber via the fuel nozzle. Engine speed is determined by a speed sensor which supplies electrical
pulses to an electronic control. The electronic control
unit sends electrical commands to the fuel control until
to increase or decrease fuel to the combustion chamber. Engine power is developed through compression
of outside air by a single entry centrifugal compressor.
The compressed air, when mixed with fuel and ignited,
drives a radial inward-.ow turbine rotor. The rotating
shaft power of the turbine drives the compressor and
the output drive shaft to the gear case assembly.
(b) Deleted
(c) Propulsion System. The propulsion system provides suspension, steering, brakes, and drive
power for the AGPU. A speed/direction control assembly mounted on a tow bar allows the operator to control
the forward/reverse directions and speed (up to 3 mph
on .at surface) in self-propulsion mode. The tow bar
is also used to steer the AGPU when using self-propulsion mode. Drive power is provided by a dc traction motor driving a conventional rear axle assembly. An electric brake assembly is provided. The electric brake prevents the rear wheels turning with the clutch engaged
until electrical power is applied to the traction motor and
electric brake. Application of dc drive power to the traction motor is controlled by a motor controller and relays
located on the upper tray in the electrical compartment.
The motor controller receives signals from the speed/direction control assembly. The drive train consists of a
gear box, a chain drive, a manual clutch, and a rear
axle assembly. A dead man switch on the speed/direction control assembly must be held in while operating
the propulsion system. If the switch is released (intentionally or accidentally) during operation,
Change 5
9-37
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
1.
LIFTING EYE (4)
11.
ACCESS DOOR, ENGINE PRE-HEAT
2.
ACCESS DOOR, CONTROL PANEL
12.
ACCESS DOOR, ENGINE
3.
FUEL FILL
13.
FORKLIFT POCKET (2)
4.
TIEDOWN (4)
14.
COVER, AUX FUEL PUMP/FILTER
5.
GROUND STUD
15.
COVER, AIR CLEANER EXHAUST
6.
ACCESS COVER, BATTERY CHARGER
16.
COVER, AIR INTAKE
7.
CONVENIENCE OUTLETS (400 HZ)
17.
ACCESS DOOR, HYD FILTERS
8.
SLAVE RECEPTACLE
18.
ACCESS DOOR, HYD CONTROL PANEL
9.
ACCESS DOOR, ELECTRICAL TRAYS
19.
ROOF
10.
ACCESS DOOR, BATTERY
20.
EXHAUST FLAPPER
Figure 9-13. Aviation Ground Power Unit
9-38
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
power is removed from the traction motor and the electric brake. Removing electrical power applies the electric brake. Additionally, the speed/direction control assembly contains a mercury switch which deactivates the
propulsion system when the tow bar is raised. Conventional drum brakes are provided by the rear wheels, The
brakes are set by a lever on the front of the AGPU, which
is connected to the brake assemblies by a cable assembly.
(d) Hydraulic System. The hydraulic system
consists of a hydraulic pump, interconnecting lines and
hoses, and a hydraulic module. The hydraulic pump is
mounted on an engine gearcase pad, and is driven by
the engine. The hydraulic pump output pressure is controlled by a switch on the hydraulic control panel. The
hydraulic module controls the application of hydraulic
.uid to an aircraft for power, fueling, or .ushing requirements. The hydraulic module contains a control panel,
a reservoir, an accumulator, a cooler (heat exchanger),
a manifold, filters (2), and hydraulic lines, fittings, and
valves.
(e) Generator. The generator is a selfcooled, continuous duty, ac/dc, self-excited, brushless
unit. It includes a permanent magnet stator and rotor, an
exciter stator and rotor, and a main dc rotating field and
ac stator. The main ac stator incorporates three sets of
three phase windings. One set of main stator windings
provides the 115/200 vac output. The ac outputs of the
other two windings are full-wave rectified to provide 28
vdc output. The permanent magnet provides a three
phase output whenever the generator is driven by the
engine. When the engine reaches 95 percent speed,
a relay connects the permanent magnet output to the
generator control unit (GCU), located behind the control
panel. The GCU rectifies this ac voltage to provide dc
control voltage for the GCU and dc excitation voltage for
the generator exciter field. The exciter provides a three
phase output which varies in magnitude with the field
excitation. The exciter voltage is half-wave rectified
and applied to the generator main dc rotating field. The
magnitude of the three phase voltage generated in the
main stator windings is a function of the ampere turns
of the field windings which is, in turn, a function of the
exciter field excitation. The GCU monitors the generator ac or dc output (depending upon which output is
selected at the AGPU control panel) and controls the
exciter field as required to keep the selected output
within limits.
(f) Pneumatic System. The pneumatic system provides pneumatic power (70 pounds/minute, at 40
psig). The pneumatic system consists of a load control
valve (LCV) mounted on the engine, ducts, and a pneumatic hose. An optional deicer kit is supplied with some
units. The kit consists of a fifty-foot hose assembly, a
supply valve, and a deicer nozzle assembly. The supply
valve connects to a normally capped outlet on the left
interior bulkhead of the AGPU.
(3) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using the aviation ground power unit.
•
Depressurize the hydraulic hoses before connecting or disconnecting them.
•
Be aware of the hazards associated with
a fluid in a hose under high pressure.
•
Check for foreign matter before connecting hydraulic hose.
•
Never attempt to connect or disconnect
power cables to/from aircraft with power
applied, or without a proper ground on
the APGU ground stud and aircraft.
•
A ground guide is required when operating AGPU in reverse.
•
Remain clear of downgrade side of
AGPU if operating on a slope.
(4) Operating procedures. For detailed instructions, consult the applicable maintenance manual.
(5) Inspection. The following general operator
inspections apply to the aviation ground power unit. Detailed inspection requirement are contained in the applicable maintenance manual.
(a) Liquid Levels. Check the gas tank, reservoir, and crankcase for proper levels, refill as required.
(b) Brakes. Check operation of handbrake
lever and cable.
damage.
(c) Tires. Check for proper inflation, cuts and
(d) Leaks. Check for fuel, engine oil and hydraulic fluid leaks.
(e) Ground Stud. Inspect ground stud for secure mounting.
9-39
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
g. Reservoir Servicing Unit. The Reservoir Servicing Unit (RSU) provides a quick and easy means of
filling aircraft reservoirs with hydraulic fluid that is clean,
dry, and air free.
(1) Purpose. The RSU is sealed to allow storage of the hydraulic fluid over extended periods without
picking up moisture from the surrounding air. This eliminates the need to dispose of unused fluid.
(2) Principles of Operation. Up to 2-gallon of
hydraulic fluid is added to the RSU in a clean dry area.
A dual check valve in the fill cap prevents overpressure,
limits vacuum, and control entry of water into fluid. Fluid
is dispensed from the RSU using a manual pump with
a 200 PSI maximum output pressure rating. The output
hose is fitted with a 2-micron filter to control solid contamination. A bulkhead connector and a return tube is
provided to allow the output hose to be flushed prior to
connecting to an aircraft. The return tube is transparent
so that the fluid can also be checked for air bubbles. The
aircraft reservoir is filled by pumping the fluid through the
Ground Support Return Port for the hydraulic system to
be serviced.
(3) Operating Procedures. The RSU is filled
and used as follows:
(a) The unit has a 2-inch fill cap for gravity
filling from 1-quart or 1-gallon cans. A can opener is
provided to assist in opening these cans. The unit can
also be filled with a pressure fill unit through the aircraft
quick disconnect nipple mounted on the handle of the
unit.
(b) The filling operation must be accomplished in a dry area. The fill cap must always be kept
securely closed when the reservoir is not being filled to
prevent humid air from contaminating the fluid. This fill
cap automatically vents the unit to allow the fluid to be
dispensed but prevents exchange of the hot dry air with
cool humid air during daily temperature changes.
(c) Connect hose end coupling to the mating
nipple on the bullhead on the handle.
(d) Stroke the pump several times (at least 5
strokes) prior to each servicing operation. Check to see
that no air bubbles are visible in the clear hose that is
returning the fluid to the reservoir.
(e) Remove the dust cap from the GSE Return Port of the system to be serviced. The outboard fill
valve can be in any position.
(f) Remove the output hose quick disconnect
from the nipple mounted on the handle and secure it to
the GSE Return Port.
(g) Fill the Reservoir to the proper level. Unit
dispenses 4CU. in per (17 strokes per quart).
(h) Remove the hose quick disconnect from
the GSE Return Port and immediately re-secure it to the
mounting half the handle.
Port.
(i) Re-install dust cap on aircraft GSE Return
(4) Inspection. Check to be sure the filler cap is
secured. Check hose and tube for cuts or cracks.
(5) Maintenance. The only maintenance requirement is replacement of the filter element in the
output hose. High handle force while in the recirculating
condition indicated the need for filter element replacement.
Figure 9-14. Deleted
h. Aircraft Preheater. The aircraft preheater,
shown in figure 9-15, will deliver 40,000 to 400,000
BTUs/hour within the specified operating condition limits. The preheater will deliver uncontaminated air with a
regulated discharge air temperature of 160 to 280°F (71
to 138°C) at an adjustable air delivery rate of 1600 scfm
+/-5%. Flexible ducts are used to direct the heated air
where it is needed.
(1) Purpose. The HDU-43 burns Multi-Fuel
(JP-8, JP-8+100, DL-2, JET A, JET A-1 and Bio Diesel).
The HDU-43’s primary purpose is to provide heated
air for the aircraft’s maintenance and personnel providing aircraft and flight line support maintenance. A
secondary purpose is to provide heated air for ground
vehicles, maintenance shelters, portable hangers, and
9-40
Change 5
other similar uses. The HDU-43 can also provide forced
fresh ventilation without heating. The heater is unsafe
for operation in explosive atmosphere.
(2) Principles of Operation. The basic HDU-43
design features electric power transmission with no direct mechanical contact between the engine and the
heating unit, a separate electric motor-driven oil burner
with separate blower for combustion air, and an electric
motor-driven heater fan. The combustion air supply to
the oil burner is drawn through the power pack compartment. The following characteristics and capabilities are
applicable to the HDU-43:
(a) Fully enclosed, self-contained unit.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(b) Trailer-mounted, ground portable
be towed in tandem on a single pintle
hook at any time. Only units equal to or
less than size and weight of a HDU-43
will be towed behind HDU-43. Failure to
comply may result in serious equipment
damage.
(c) Multi-fuel engine and heater
(d) Alternator
(e) Two (HIGH/LOW) temperature settings
(3) Safety Practices and Procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using the aircraft preheater:
•
If HDU-43 is operated inside a building, exhaust gases must be conducted
to outside open air by means of a suitable exhaust vent system. Do not apply a forced-draft (suction) type exhaust
system directly to heat exchanger exhaust. Utilize an exhaust hood (Table 2-1) or locally manufactures and exhaust vent adapter to mate the facilities
exhaust venting system. The exhaust
vent adapter must provide a minimum
of 6 inches of free air space prior to entrance of forced draft exhaust vent system. Failure to comply may result in
equipment damage, serious personal injury or death.
•
When using a forklift to move HDU-43
ensure tines are the pockets provided
and extend completely to the other side
of HDU-43. Do not lift from rear or front.
Use boxes only. Failure to comply may
result in serious equipment damage.
•
Inspect HDU-43 for obvious damage
or missing parts. Inspect for damaged
gauges, meters, loose connections or
mountings, loose or missing hardware,
and frayed insulation or wiring. Check
all tubing and hoses for secure connections and for any damage.
•
Open engine access door and ensure
battery cables are properly routed and
securely connected.
•
Do not smoke or have an open flame
near HDU-43 while servicing fuel supply. Failure to comply could result in
serious injury. Do not add fuel until
heater has been shutdown and flame
extinguished for at least three minutes.
Do not add fuel until heater has been
properly cooled and engine stopped according to instructions.
•
Towing speed for HDU-43 restricted to
15 mph. No more than four heaters will
•
Move HDU-43 to location of intended
use. Install ducts and adapters as required for mission. Ducts are secured to
adapters by a slight clockwise rotation.
•
Use emergency SHUT-OFF switch for
emergencies only. Do not use to shutdown the heater in normal use. Failure
to comply will result into severe equipment degradation/damage.
•
The fuel pressure shall never be adjusted above given value of 175 psi.
Failure to comply will result in serious
equipment degradation/damage.
(4) Operating Procedures. For detailed operating instructions consult the applicable maintenance
manual and/or to 35E7-2-3-1.
(a) Description. The HDU-43 multi-fuel engine burns diesel or JET fuel and drives A 110/120 volt,
60 hz alternator that powers a separate oil burner and
combustion air blower. When heat is called for, the
burner starts and maintains combustion in the combustion chamber. Hot gases are routed through the heat
exchanger and through the exhaust stack into the open
atmosphere. Upon reaching operating temperature, a
control thermostat activates an electric blower motor
forcing a stream of heated, uncontaminated air through
flexible ducts to the space to be heated.
(b) Burner Chamber and Heat Exchanger. Combustion air and fuel are mixed at the
burner head. The burner utilizes a separate fan for
combustion air which allows for optimal adjustments
of air/fuel ratio independent from the main air fan
and air duct back pressure. The fuel/air mixture is
burned inside a large combustion chamber allowing
all fuel particles to be burned before entering the heat
exchanger, and ensuring a clean combustion with
virtually no coking. Heated air is delivered by the main
air fan around the combustion chamber and through
the heat exchanger ports, completely separated from
combustion fumes. Heated air is delivered to the
duct adapter while combustion fumes exit through the
exhaust outlet at the HDU-43’s top.
(c) Burner Unit (Burner combustion air
blower, high pressure fuel pump, electronic igniter, ignition points, nozzle, and controls). The
burner is rated at 3450 rpm and features a unique
Change 5
9-41
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
combustion head that assures positive flame retention
under a variety of operating conditions. The solid-state,
high-voltage igniter receives power from the alternator.
Heater control unit and burner control unit air located
inside the control panel box. These parts control the
cycling of the burner unit and main fan motor. The
igniter, located on top of the burner unit. The arc ignites
and atomized fuel spray produced by the high-pressure
fuel pump and fuel nozzle.
(d) Main Air Fan/Motor. The main air fan
is powered by a 3400-rpm electric motor rated at
120v/60hz. The motor receives power from the alternator. The heater control unit controls the fan motor.
Normally, the fan will not start before the temperature
inside the heater has reached a set level, allowing for
9-42
Change 5
a rapid temperature rise in the heater air. However, an
electric timer function is also programmed in the control
unit to ensure that the fan operation starts at a predetermined time. The heater control unit also controls the
after-cooling function of the main air fan after turning
off the heater, the fan will run until the heater cools to a
safe level than stop automatically.
(5) Inspection. The operator should perform the
following general inspections before using the aircraft
preheater. Detailed inspection requirements are found
in the applicable maintenance manual.
(a) Gas tank. Check the level and refill as
necessary.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-15. HDU-43 Front and Rear Views
(b) Leaks. Check for leaks in the fuel system.
Look for gas on top of the tank.
(c) Tires. Check for cuts and proper inflation.
(6) Maintenance. Consult to the 35E7-2-3-21
and applicable maintenance manual for preventive and
scheduled maintenance requirements.
i. Towbar. A towbar, show in figure 9-16, is used
for ground movement of aircraft. It can be attached to
gear struts, axles, and helicopter skids. A towbar has
two round or rectangular tubes which are joined at one
end by a steel pivot plate and lunette eye. The lunette
eye attaches to the tow vehicle. The other ends of the
tubes contain the aircraft attachment fittings and wheels
with solid rubber tires for towing the towbar when empty.
(1) Purpose. The towbar is designed to aid in
ground handling of aircraft by providing a link between
the aircraft and a tow vehicle. There are two basic
classes of towbars: the universal and the special. The
universal towbar will accommodate several different
Change 5
9-43
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
models of aircraft. The special towbar is designed for
use with only one model of aircraft.
(2) Principles of operation. The towbar is attached to the aircraft by hooks which fit towing rings
on the aircraft or by pins which fit in landing gear axle
holes. The hooks are held in place in the towing rings
by spring-loaded locking pins. The axle pins are held in
the towbar by quick-release pins.
(3) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using a towbar:
•
Take extreme care when putting the
lunette assembly in the pintle hook to
avoid pinched fingers.
•
Be sure the correct towbar is being
used.
•
Do not use a towbar that is defective.
Figure 9-16. Towbar
•
Do not tow a towbar unless the arms are
secured properly.
(4) Operating procedures. Consult the applicable aircraft maintenance manual for detailed
guidance. The following general procedures pertain to
the operation of the towbar:
(a) Connect towbar to aircraft.
(b) Confirm that attaching pins are properly
engaged.
(c) Connect towbar to tow vehicle.
(d) Tow aircraft to desired location.
(e) Disconnect towbar from tow vehicle.
(f) Disconnect towbar from aircraft.
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Change 5
(5) Inspection. The following general operator
inspections apply to towbars. Detailed inspection requirements are contained in the applicable maintenance
manual.
(a) Visual inspection. Look for broken or
loose hardware.
(b) Aircraft attaching devices. Check for
proper operation.
(6) Maintenance. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for preventive and scheduled maintenance requirements.
j. Nitrogen Servicing Unit. The two-wheeled,
hand truck mounted nitrogen servicing unit, shown in
figure 9-17, is used to service aircraft nitrogen systems.
The cylinders are restrained on the hand truck by a
chain. The controls are mounted on the cylinders.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
The assembly consists of an air chuck, an adapter and
valve, a hose, an air and nitrogen purifier cylinder, and
a high pressure oxygen regulator.
(1) Purpose. The nitrogen servicing unit is designed to recharge the nitrogen system installed in an
aircraft. The cylinders and flow controlling mechanism
can be easily wheeled to the aircraft by one person. The
aircraft system can be charged by a flexible hose.
(2) Principles of operation. The cylinders are
manifolded together and can be used individually or at
the same time. The nitrogen flow is controlled by a
shutoff valve. The pressure regulator restricts the outlet
pressure from 0 psi to the operating pressure of the aircraft system. The outlet pressure is read on a gauge.
(3) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using the nitrogen servicing unit:
•
Be careful not to knock over the high
pressure cylinders.
•
•
Open all valves slowly.
•
Close all valves when moving the hand
truck.
•
Do not exceed the aircraft system pressure or quantity limit when servicing.
Protect the fittings from contamination.
(4) Operating procedures. Consult the applicable servicing unit and aircraft maintenance manual for
detailed instructions. The following general procedures
pertain to the operation of the nitrogen servicing unit:
(a) Position the cylinder so the hose is at full
length but not stretched.
Figure 9-17. Nitrogen Servicing Unit
viced.
(b) Determine pressure of system to be ser(c) Open shutoff valve.
sure.
(d) Set pressure regulator to correct pres(e) Use hose and service system.
(f) On completion of servicing, close shutoff
valve, set pressure regulator to 0 psi, and roll up hose.
(5) Inspection. The operator should perform the
following general inspections before using the nitrogen
servicing unit. Detailed inspection requirements are in
the applicable maintenance manual.
truck.
(a) Cylinders. Check for security on hand
(b) Hose and .ttings. Check for tightness
and leaks.
(6) Maintenance. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for scheduled and preventive maintenance requirements.
k. Hoists. Hoist shown in figure 9-18, can be categorized as fixed height. The fixed height apparatus, normally referred to as a hoist, is made of a welded, tubular
steel, truss-type construction. The legs on the hoists are
spreadable to straddle the equipment and provide
Change 5
9-44.1/(9-44.2 Blank)
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
balance while lifting. Casters provide mobility, allowing
two people to handle the positioning of the hoist.
(2) Types. Two general types of hoists are described in the following paragraphs.
(1) Purpose. Hoists are designed to remove
and replace aircraft components during scheduled and
unscheduled maintenance. These components include
engines, transmissions, propellers, rotor blades and
rotor hubs. The amount of weight that can be lifted is
determined by the type, size of construction and the
size of the cable.
(a) Manually-operated. On this type of hoist,
the winch is operated by hand. It main benefit is the ability to be used at locations where power is not available.
Typically, the hoist will lift 5,000 pounds over 20 feet. It
must be used on a paved surface.
Change 5
9-45
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-18. Typical Hoists (Sheet 1 of 2)
9-46
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-18. Typical Hoists (Sheet 2 of 2)
9-47
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(b) Electrically-operated. This type of hoist
is similar to the manually-operated hoist in lifting capacity and lifting distance. However, it requires an outside source of power, typically 28 vdc to run the electrically-operated winch.
(3) Principles of operation. The topmost pulley
is positioned over the object to be lifted. The block which
contains a pully and hook is lowered to the object and
connected by means of a lifting adapter, sling, or chain.
The cable is wound up on the winch, which in turn raises
the block through a system of pulleys. As the lifted object clears the aircraft, the hoist must be moved away
from the aircraft before the object can be lowered.
(4) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using hoists:
•
Do not exceed the lifting capacity of the
structure, the cable, or the winch.
•
•
•
Never stand under a loaded hoist.
•
If using hand signals, be sure each person knows and understands the signals.
Do not leave a loaded hoist unattached.
Always use enough people to safely
move and control a loaded hoist.
(5) Operating procedures. Consult the applicable equipment maintenance manual, aircraft
maintenance manual, and local operating instructions
or procedures for detailed guidance. The following
general procedures pertain to the operation of hoists.
(a) Move the hoist into position.
(b) Stabilize the unit by setting the caster
brakes, lowering the leveling pads.
(c) Lower the block to the object to be lifted.
(d) Connect the hook to the object and lift it.
(e) Release the brakes or raise the leveling
pads, carefully move the hoist away from the aircraft,
and lower the object.
9-48
Change 5
(f) Reinstallation of the object using a hoist
requires completion of steps (a) through (d) and (f), except move the hoist toward the aircraft.
(g) On job completion, release the caster
brakes or raise the leveling pads and move the hoist
away from the aircraft.
(6) Inspection. The following general operator
inspections apply to hoist. Detailed inspection requirements are contained in the applicable maintenance
manual.
(a) Cable. Look at exposed cable for knots,
kinks, corrosion, and broken wires.
ing.
(b) Casters. Check for flat spots and swivel(c) Hook. Check safety latch for serviceabil-
ity.
groove.
(d) Pulleys. Check that the cable is in the
l. Deleted.
m. Lubricating Equipment. Lubricating equipment, shown in figure 9-20, is commonly called grease
guns. Grease guns are used to lubricate various moving parts on an aircraft. This paragraph will cover
hand-operated grease guns.
(1) Purpose. Grease guns are designed to inject a lubricating substance between two metal surfaces
that move against each other. The lubricant is injected
through a fitting, designed with a check ball to prevent
the lubricant from coming back through the fittings.
(2) Type. The most common type of grease gun
is the lever operated. This type of grease gun is cylindrical, holds 14 ounces of lubricant, and requires two
hands to operate. The lubricant is spring-primed and is
delivered at 6,000 psig.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-19. Deleted
(a) Hand-operated,
level-operated. This
type of grease gun is cylindrical, holds 14 ounces of
lubricant, and requires two hands to operate. The
lubricant is spring-primed and is delivered at 6,000 psig.
(4) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using a grease gun:
(b) Hand-operated, mini-lube. This type of
grease gun has a gun-shaped dispensing handle, holds
5 pounds of lubricant, and is operated with one hand.
A7 1/2 foot long hose allows the unit to sit on the ground
while using the dispensing handle.
(3) Principles of operation. Lubricant in the
container portion, under spring-primed pressure, is
allowed to fill a chamber as the lever or handle is moved
in the fill direction. Moving the lever or handle in the
dispense direction forces the lubricant through a hose or
tube and out through the coupler. A checkball prevents
the lubricant from returning to the container portion.
•
Be sure the grease gun contains clean
grease of the correct grade and type
specified for the job.
•
Keep the coupler clean to avoid contamination and introduction of abrasive substances.
(5) Operating procedures. Consult the applicable aircraft maintenance manual for exceptions and
special directions. The following general procedures
pertain to the operation of the grease gun:
bricant.
(a) Check the grease gun for the proper lu-
9-49
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-20. Lubricating Equipment
(b) Clean the fitting on the aircraft.
(c) Attach the coupler to the fitting.
(d) Operate the lever or handle until new
grease appears at the part being lubricated.
(e) Detach the coupler from the fitting.
(6) Inspection. The following general operator
inspections apply to grease guns.
(a) Coupler. Check for cleanliness. Clean as
necessary.
(b) Contents. Determine that lubricant, is the
proper one for the job. If uncertain, load with correct
lubricant or get another grease gun.
(c) Hose. Check for leaks.
(7) Maintenance. Little maintenance can be
accomplished on grease guns. Consult the applicable
maintenance manual for availability of parts.
n. Aircraft Towing Vehicle. The aircraft tow vehicle, shown in figure 9-21, is used to move an aircraft
from one spot to another. A towbar is the connection
between the two vehicles and the aircraft.
9-50
Change 5
(1) Purpose. The MT3 SATS us an all weather
towing vehicle capable of repositioning army aircraft
while transporting two crew members, a standard aircraft towing bar, aircraft ground handling wheels, and
two Nats toolboxes (or equivalent).
(2) Principles of operation. The Tow Vehicle is
a four-wheel drive towing tractor. The power form of
the engine is transmitted to the automatic 4 speed electronic shift transmission through a torque converter. An
input clutch assembly contains two hydraulically operated clutches; one clutch provides a forward low ratio
drive and the other a forward high ratio drive. A three
position solenoid is energized by the shift lever to direct
pressurized oil to either the forward low or the forward
high clutch.
(3) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when
operating the aircraft tow vehicle.
•
Be sure there is sufficient air pressure
for braking before operating the tractor.
•
When towing in a hangar, be alert for the
presence of carbon monoxide gas.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-21. Standard Aircraft Towing System
(4) Operating procedures. Allow the engine to
cool for 3-5 minutes at idle. Turn off ignition switch and
turn off all lights.
(a) Set parking brake and place transmission
lever into park position.
(b) Start engine and allow it to warm up.
(c) Select desired gear for the operation.
(d) Press on and hold service brake pedal
and release park brake. Position shift lever to the desired gear.
(e) For aircraft towing operation, refer to the
respective aircraft Organizational Maintenance Manual
for proper towing instructions.
(f) Apply brake lever while still holding the
service brake on. Place the shift lever into park position.
(5) Inspection. The following operator inspections apply to the MB-4 tow vehicle.
(a) Liquid levels. Check the steering system
oil reservoir, gas tank, radiator, and crankcase. Service
as necessary.
(b) Tires. Check for proper inflation. Service
if needed.
(c) Leaks. Check steering system oil lines,
fuel lines, water pump, water hoses, crankcase, and
brake lines.
(6) Maintenance. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for preventive and scheduled maintenance requirements.
o. Universal Wash Unit. The universal wash unit
shown in figure 9-22, is used for aircraft cleaning. The
wash unit has two wheels and a single on which the unit
is supported and moved about.
(g) Place all other switches in OFF position.
Change 5
9-51
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-22. Universal Wash Unit
9-52
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(1) Purpose. The water wash unit is designed to
dispense water and cleaning compound . It contains automatic temperature and pressure controls which maintain a constant output of a heated solution at the established pressure.
(2) Principle of Operation. The universal wash
unit operates on either 115 volts ac, 50-400 Hz, single
phase or 28 volts dc. The wash unit utilizes a power supply, motor driven pump, spray nozzle, strainer/filter and
wand. An external cleaning solution supply is connected
to the wash unit by the strainer. The motor driven pump
will deliver approximately 2.5 gallons of cleaning solution per minute at 30 psig through the wand and nozzle
when the wash unit is set to the wash configuration.
(3) Safety Practices and Procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using the universal wash unit.
•
Keep the cleaning compound away from
the eyes.
•
Do not aim the pressurized water at another person.
(4) Operating Procedures. The following general procedures pertain to the operation of the universal
wash unit.
(h) Press the stop or remote switch to stop
the unit from operating.
(5) Inspection. General operator inspections
for the universal wash unit are contained in the following
paragraph. Detailed inspection requirements are in the
applicable maintenance manual.
(a) Inspect power cable and connectors for
bent or broken connector pins, damaged connector
sockets, frayed or cracked insulation and bent or loose
connectors.
(b) Inspect suction and discharge hoses for
damaged connectors, and cut hose surfaces.
(c) Examine the wand for damaged pipe surface, damaged connectors and connector threads.
p. Portable Power Supply. The portable power
supply, shown in figure 9-23, is commonly called an
inverter. The unit produces ac power output from dc
power input and is approximately 12 inches long, 8 1/2
inches wide, and 4 1/4 inches high. It functions in a
temperature range of -65 to +160°F (-54 to +7°C).
(1) Purpose. The inverter is designed to convert
28 vdc to 115 vac, 400 Hz, sine wave power at 39 amps.
(a) Position the wash unit at the aircraft.
hose.
(b) Connect the strainer unit to the intake
(c) Connect the wand and nozzle spray to the
output (discharge) hose or connect the discharge quick
disconnect to the aircraft wash manifold quick disconnect.
(d) Insert the strainer unit into a container of
water or cleaning solution.
(e) Press the start or remote start switch; observe the pressure gage. It should immediately indicate
an increase in pressure.
(f) After the pressure reaches approximately
10 psig, release the start switch. The unit should continue to operate.
(g) The unit will deliver approximately 2.5
gallons per minute at 30 psig.
Figure 9-23. Portable Power Supply
Change 5
9-53
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(2) Principles of operation. A dc motor drives
an ac generator. A solid state voltage regulator controls
the voltage output while the speed of the generator determines the hertz of the ac output.
(3) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using an inverter:
•
Turn the inverter before connecting or
disconnecting a plug to or form the receptacle.
•
Keep liquids, such as coffee or soda,
away from the unit to avoid spilling them
on or in the unit.
•
Do not override or try to defeat built-in
safety devices.
(4) Operating procedures. The following general procedures pertain to the operation of the inverter:
(a) Connect the plug to the receptacle.
(b) Turn the inverter power switch on.
(c) After use, turn the power switch off.
(d) Disconnect plug from receptacle.
(5) Inspection. General operator inspections
for the inverter are contained in the following paragraphs. Detailed inspection requirements are found in
the applicable maintenance manual.
(a) Input cord. Check for cuts or cracks in
rubber covering.
(b) Case. Look for obvious damage, such as
dents, which may indicate internal damage to components.
(6) Maintenance. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for scheduled and preventive maintenance requirements.
q. Oxygen Servicing Unit. The oxygen servicing
unit, shown in figure 9-24, will provide oxygen at a maximum pressure of 3,000 psig. Each of the eight bottles
will hold 224 cf of oxygen. The flow capacity of the regulator is 1,500 scfh at 2,300 psig delivered.
9-54
Change 5
(1) Purpose. The oxygen servicing unit is designed to provide a means of carrying standard highpressure oxygen bottles and of interconnecting them to
provide regulated single output which can be adjusted
for pressure. It is used to service aircraft and other
equipment which requires pressurized oxygen.
(2) Principles of operation. The oxygen servicing unit consists of eight cylindrical tubes, each of which
can house a standard high-pressure oxygen bottle lying
on its side. Pigtails and a manifold are used to interconnect the oxygen bottles to provide a single output. Each
pigtail is connected to a check valve to prevent backflow.
A manual control valve, connected to the manifold, is
used to supply the oxygen directly from the oxygen bottles to the receiving equipment. An adjustable, dual-indicator regulator controls the oxygen output at the desired
pressure. The oxygen supply is transferred through a 25
foot flexible output service hose.
(3) Safety practices and procedures. The following special precautions should be observed when using the oxygen servicing unit:
•
Personnel operating the unit must be familiar with the safety regulations regarding the handling of oxygen.
•
Do not smoke within 50 feet of the oxygen servicing unit.
•
All open connectors must be protected
with plastic protectors (dust covers) to
prevent contamination.
(4) Operating procedures. The following general procedures pertain to the operation of the oxygen
servicing unit:
(a) Connect the filler line to the equipment
being serviced.
(b) Open the bottle pressure outlet valve.
(c) Open the regulator pressure outlet valve
to the desired amount of pressure.
(d) Open the receiving vessel input valve and
transfer oxygen.
(e) When the desired amount of oxygen has
been transferred, close the receiving vessel input valve.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Figure 9-24. Oxygen Servicing Unit
9-55
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
(f) Close the bottle pressure outlet valve and
the regulator pressure outlet valve.
(g) Disconnect the filler line from the equipment being serviced.
(5) Inspection. The following general operator
inspections apply to the oxygen servicing unit. Detailed
inspection requirements are contained in the applicable
maintenance manual.
(a) Regulator pressure outlet valve. Verify
that the valve is fully closed.
(b) Bottle pressure outlet valve. Verify that
the valve is fully closed.
(6) Maintenance. Consult the applicable maintenance manual for scheduled and preventive maintenance requirements.
h. Hydraulic Fluid Dispenser-Bleeder.
This machine must be used only by properly
trained and qualified personnel.
This type construction requires special procedures in filling the dispenser and charging it with
compressed air. Read and understand all labels
on the machine before operating. Never exceed
50 PSI when charging fluid dispenser bleeder.
into a hydraulic system thereby insuring that no air or
condensation will contaminate the hydraulic fluid or
brake system.
(2) Operating procedures. To fill the dispenserbleeder proceed as follows:
(a) Depress bleeder valve located UNDER
THE PRESSURE GAUGE. Do not tamper with the
pressure relief valve. This bleeder valve drains the
bladder air cavity of pressure.
(b) To deflate the bladder completely, while
continuing to press bleeder valve, put no more than 10
PSI of air pressure into the fluid cavity of the tank through
the air valve located in the filler cap. This will reduce the
size of the bladder to allow maximum oil capacity in the
tank and all air in the bladder will be ejected through the
bleeder valve.
(c) When all air stops coming from the bladder bleeder valve, thus indicating that the bladder is flat,
release the bleeder valve.
(d) Release the air pressure in the oil cavity of the tank by pressing TANK bleeder valve. Only if
pressure gauge reads zero and no further air flows from
TANK bleeder valve and bleeder valve located UNDER
THE PRESSURE GAUGE, remove the filler cap.
Never operate machine if filler cap (NSN 491001-127-7365) is not in place.
(e) Pour up to 5 gallons of hydraulic fluid into
the tank. Replace filler cap and tighten with wrench.
(f) Inflate bladder through the AIR valve located UNDER THE PRESSURE GAUGE to 10 PSI.
Check all controls before each use. If any alterations or substitutions have been made, DO
NOT USE THE MACHINE.
NOTE
NSN 4910-00-245-1832 Formerly NSN 492000-245-1832)
(1) Purpose. The hydraulic fluid dispenserbleeder (NSN 4910-00-245-1832) contains a Buna-N
bladder in which air pressure is maintained in order
to eject oil from the machine. This special bladder is
approximately the same size as the tank and when
filled with air approximately fills the tank’s volume. The
purpose of the bladder is to separate the hydraulic fluid
in the tank from the compressed air used to expel fluid
9-56
Change 3
Protect eyes from oil spray.
(g) Bleed all trapped air from the fluid cavity
by pressing the TANK bleeder valve and holding it until
a clear stream of hydraulic oil ejects.
(h) Inflate bladder through AIR valve under
pressure gauge. Do not exceed 50 PSI. Should PRESSURE RELIEF valve open, stop inflating immediately.
(i) Recharge the bladder as required. If 3 1/2
to 4 gallons of oil are used to charge the tank, a sufficient
air cavity will be left to expel the liquid charge with a
single air charge.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
i. Reservoir Servicing Unit.
(1) Purpose. The Reservoir Servicing Unit
(RSU) provides a quick and easy means of filling aircraft
reservoirs with hydraulic fluid that is clean, dry, and
air free. The RSU is sealed to allow storage of the
hydraulic fluid over extended periods without picking up
moisture from the surrounding air. This eliminates the
need to dispose of unused fluid.
(2) Principles of Operation. Up to 2-gallon of
hydraulic fluid is added to the RSU in a clean dry area.
A dual check valves in the fill cap prevents overpressure, limits vacuum, and controls entry of water into the
fluid. Fluid is dispensed from the RSU using a manual
pump with a 200 psi maximum output pressure rating.
A bulkhead connector and a return tube are provided to
allow the output hose to be flushed prior to connecting
to an aircraft. The output hose is fitted with a 2-micron
filter to control solid contamination. The return tube is
transparent so that the fluid can also be checked for air
bubbles. The aircraft reservoir is filled by pumping the
fluid through the ground support return port for the hydraulic system to be serviced.
(3) Operating Procedures. The RSU is filled
and used as follows:
(a) The unit has a 2-inch fill cap for gravity
filling from 1-quart or 1-gallon cans. A can opener is
provided to assist in opening these cans.
(b) The filling operation must be accomplished in a dry area. The fill cap must always be kept
securely closed when the reservoir is not being filled
to prevent humid air from contaminating the fluid. This
fill cap automatically vents the unit to allow the fluid to
be dispensed but prevents exchange of hot dry air with
cool humid air during daily temperature changes.
(c) Connect hose end coupling to the mating
nipple on the bulkhead on the handle.
(d) Stroke the pump several times (at least 5
strokes) prior to each servicing operation. Check to see
that no air bubbles are visible in the clear hose that is
returning the fluid to the reservoir.
(e) Remove the dust cap from the GSE return
port of the system to be serviced. The onboard fill valve
can be in any position.
(f) Remove the output hose quick disconnect
from the nipple mounted on the handle and secure it to
the GSE return port.
(g) Fill the reservoir to proper level. Unit dispenses 4 cu. in per stroke (17 strokes per quart).
(h) Remove the hose quick disconnect from
the GSE return port and immediately resecure it to the
mounting half on the handle.
port.
(i) Reinstall dust cap on aircraft GSE return
(4) Inspection. Check to be sure the filler cap is
secured. Check hose and tube for cuts or cracks.
(5) Maintenance. The only maintenance requirement is replacement of the filter element in the
output hose. High handle force while in the recirculating condition indicates the need for filter element
replacement. The RSU is supported by a commercial
manual with an illustrated parts list. With only a couple
of exceptions, all repair parts will have to be ordered
through the supplier. The output hose, clear return tube,
and associated fitting are stocked under the following
NSNs:
•
Output Hose Assembly, TRONAIR P/N
Z-1698-01, PARKER P/N 801-4, NSN
4720-00-484-5765
•
Clear PVC Return Tubing, TRONAIR
P/N TF-1136-10*10.5, PARKER P/N
PV84-1, NSN 4720-01-038-2651, (This
tubing is a lot heavier than the original
but should work fine.)
•
Swivel Nut Fittings (Push-Lock) for hose
and tube, PARKER P/N 30682-4-4,
NSN 4730-00-472-4093
(6) Con.gurations. All RSU for initial issue have been configured to the helicopter model
supported.
Aero quip type quick disconnect fittings have been added for the RSU supporting
AH-64/UH-60/OH-58/UH-1 (NSN 1730-01-505-9157)
or for the CH-47 (1730-01-504-1936). An adapter
with a snap-type quick disconnect coupling has been
shipped with each initial issue RSU which is used to
fill the AGPU reservoir. Only a basic configuration with
the hose and bulkhead 1/4-inch flare less fittings is
being stocked (NSN 1730-01-504-5279). While this
configuration will mate with the 1/4-inch fluid fill port on
the Apache all other quick disconnect fittings will have
to be ordered separately and installed by the user.
(a) The fittings for different aircraft and the
AGPU are listed below:
Change 5
9-57
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
AH-64/UH-60/OH-58D:
CH-47D:
AGPU FILL ADAPTER
4730-01-541-1115, NIPPLE ACFT MOUNTING HALF
1 EA
4730-00-540-1268, COUPLING, HOSE-HALF
1 EA
4730-00-729-5736, NIPPLE ACFT MOUNTING HALF
1 EA
4730-00-585-0469, COUPLING, HOSE-HALF
1 EA
4730-01-449-9702, QD COUPLING, HOSE-HALF
1 EA
4730-00-719-2789, REDUCER
1 EA
4730-00-808-6848, CAP
3 EA
5340-00-790-8423, QD PLUG
1 EA
4730-00-825-0587, 45 DEG BULKHEAD UNION ELBOW
1 EA
NOTE
On CH-47 assembly QD Nipple, 4730-00-7295736, is mounted on the handle of the hydraulic
fluid dispenser and the mating hose half, 473000-585-0469, is installed on the output hose.
CH-47 reservoirs are serviced by connecting
hose to the GSE return port for each system.
On AH-64/UH-60/OH-58 assembly QD Nipple,
4730-00-541-1115 is mounted on the handle
of the hydraulic fluid dispenser and the mating
hose half, 4730-00-540-1268, is installed on the
output hose. AH-64/UH-60 reservoirs are serviced by connecting hose to the GSE return port
for each system.
9-58
Change 5
The AGPU adapters are used to fill AGPU
through aircraft return port or through reservoir
top fill/vent tube.
To use AGPU fill adapter, disconnect hose at the
3/4 to 1/4 tube end reducer and reconnect to the
adapter. Install cap provided with the adapter
on tube end reducer.
(7) Other Uses. The RSU is fully capable of replacing the filler and bleeder unit, P/N AF5, NSN 491000-245-1832, (R2D2) but servicing personnel need to
ensure that the RSU, which is labeled with MIL-PRF83282 is relabeled and adequate controls are in place
to insure MIL-PRF-5606is not inadvertently added to the
helicopter flight.
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
APPENDIX A
REFERENCES
29 CFR 1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational Safety and Health Standards
A-A-1558 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paint Stencil
AR 200-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Protection And Enhancement
AR 385-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Army Safety Program
CCC-C-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloth, Cleaning, Nonwoven Fabric
DA FORM 1574 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Report of Proceedings by Investigating Officer/Board of Officers
DA Form 2028 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms
DA FORM 2404 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet
DA PAM 738-750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS) Users
Manual.
DD FORM 314 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preventive Maintenance Schedule and Record
DD FORM 1577 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unserviceable (Condemned) Tag-Material
DD FORM 1577-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unserviceable (Reparable) Tag-Material
DOD-P-15328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primer (Wash), Pretreatment (Formula No. 117 for Metals) (Metric)
FF-W-1825 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wool and Gauze, Metallic
GGG-R-180 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reamers, Hand and Machine Arbors, Shell Reamer: And Pilots, Adjustable Hand Reamer
L-S-300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheeting and Tape, Re.ective:Nonexposed Lens
MIL-C-5541 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
MIL-L-7808 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil, Aircraft Turbine Engine, Synthetic Base
MIL-A-9962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abrasive mats, Non-Woven, Non-Metallic
MIL-C-11796 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Preventive Compound, Petrolatum Hot Application
MIL-C-16173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Preventive Compound, Solvent Cutback, Cold Application
MIL-L-23699 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil, Aircraft Turbine Engine, Synthetic Base, Nato Code
Number O-156
MIL-C-46168 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coating, Aliphatic Polyurethane, Chemical Agent Resistant
MIL-C-83286 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coating, Urethane, Aliphatic, Isocyanate, for Aerospace Applications
MIL-C-85285 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coating:Polyurethane, Aircraft and Support Equipment
MIL-D-6998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dichloromethane, Technical
MIL-DTL-64159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coating, Water Dispersible Aliphatic Polyurethane, Chemical agent Resistant
MIL-F-18264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finishes: Organic, Weapons System, Application And Control Of
MIL-F-40047 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flag, Signal, Red, Vehicle, Danger
Change 5
A-1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
MIL-G-21164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grease, Molybdenum Disul.de, for Low and High Temperatures, Nato
Code Number G-353
MIL-L-6082 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil, Aircraft Piston Engine (Nondispersant Mineral Oil)
MIL-L-21260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricating Oil, Internal Combustion Engine, Preservative Break-in
MIL-PRF-23377 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primer Coatings, Epoxy HIgh-Solids
MIL-P-52192 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primer Coating, Epoxy
MIL-P-85582 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primer Coatings: Epoxy, Waterborne
MIL-PRF-121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barrier Materials, Greaseproof, Waterproof, Flexible, Heat-Sealable
MIL-PRF-131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barrier Material, Watervaporproof, Greaseproof, Flexible, Heat-Sealable
MIL-PRF-680 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Degreasing Solvent
MIL-PRF-5606 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic Fluid, Petroleum Base; Aircraft Missile, and Ordnance
MIL-PRF-87937 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning Compound, Aerospace Equipment
MIL-R-81294 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remover, Paint, Epoxy, Polysul.de, and Polyurethane systems
MIL-T-21595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tapes, Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive, Masking, Non-Staining- For Aircraft Painting Applications
MIL-T-5542 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thread Compound, Anti-Seize oxygen Systems
MIL-C-6529 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion-Preventive Aircraft Engine
MIL-P-83953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pencil, Aircraft Marking
MIL-S-7124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sealing Compound, Polysulfide, Accelerator Required, For Aircraft
Structures
MIL-S-22805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spray Kit, Self Pressurized
MIL-S-81733 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sealing and Coating Compound, Corrosion Inhibitive
MIL-STD-186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protective Finishing for Army Missile Weapon Systems
MIL-STD-193 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting Procedures and Marking for Vehicles, Construction Equipment,
Material Handling Equipment and Spare Parts
MIL-STD-642 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification Marking of Combat and Tactical Transport Vehicle
MIL-T-704 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Treatment and Painting of Materiel
MIL-V-173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Varnish, Moisture and Fungus Resistant (For Treatment of Communications, Electronics, and Associated Equipment
O-C-303 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chromium Trioxide, Technical
O-G-491 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glcerol, Technical (High Gravity)
O-P-559 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potassium Dichromate: (Potassium Bichromate Technical Grade
O-S-576 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Bicarbonate
P-C-437 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleaning Compounds, High Pressure (Steam Cleaner)
P-C-451 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coated Abrasive, Cloth, Aluminum Oxide or Silicon Carbide
P-P-101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paper, Abrasive, Silicon Carbide, Waterproof
PPP-T-60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tape, Packaging, Waterproof
A-2
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
QQ-S-571 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solder, Electronic (96 To 485 DEG. C)
TB 9-5120-202-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration Procedure for Torque Wrenches and Torque Screwdriver
TB MED 502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational and Environmental Health Respiratory Protection Program
(DALM 1000.2)
TM 1-1500-204-23-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Unit Maintenance (AVUM) And Aviation Intermediate Maintenance (AVIM) Manual For General Aircraft Maintenance Volume 1
TM 1-1500-204-23-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Unit Maintenance (AVUM) And Aviation Intermediate Maintenance (AVIM) Manual For General Aircraft Maintenance Volume 2
TM 1-1500-204-23-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Unit Maintenance (AVUM) And Aviation Intermediate Maintenance (AVIM) Manual For General Aircraft Maintenance
TM 1-1500-204-23-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Unit Maintenance (AVUM) And Aviation Intermediate Maintenance (AVIM) Manual For General Aircraft Maintenance Volume 9
TM 1-1500-204-23-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Unit Maintenance (AVUM) And Aviation Intermediate Maintenance (AVIM) Manual For General Aircraft Maintenance, Volume 10
TM 1-1500-204-23-series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aviation Unit Maintenance (AVUM) And Aviation Immediate Maintenance
(AVIM) Manual For General Aircraft Maintenance, Series 1–10
TM 1-1500-344-23-series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Control for Army Aircraft
TM 9-6140-200-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operator’s, Unit, Direct Support and General Support Maintenance Manual for Lead-Acid Storage Batteries
TM 38-230-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packaging of Materiel - Preservation (Vol I)
TM 38-230-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packaging of Materiel - Packing (Vol II)
TM 43-0139 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting Instructions for Army Materiel
TM 55-1500-345-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting and Marking of Army Aircraft
TM 746-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Packaging Instructions For Field Units
TT-C-490 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Conversion Coatings and Pretreatment for Ferrous Surfaces
(Base for Organic Coatings
TT-E-496 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enamel, Heat-Resisting
TT-E-527 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enamel, Alkyd, Lusterless, Low VOC, Content
TT-E-751 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethyl Acetate, Technical
TT-I-735 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isopropyl Alcohol
TT-L-54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lacquer: Spraying, Acid-Resistant (for Aluminum surfaces around storage batteries
TT-L-190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linseed Oil, Boiled (For Use in Organic Coatings)
TT-M-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Technical
TT-N-95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naphtha; Aliphatic
TT-P-664 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primer Coating, Alkyd, Corrosion Inhibiting, Lead and Chromate Ree,
VOC-Complaint
TT-S1732 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sealing Compound; Pipe Joint and Thread, Lead Free General Purpose
TT-T-266 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thinner, Dope and Lacquer (Cellulose Nitrate)
Change 5
A-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
SAE AMS-M-3171 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnesium Alloy Processes for Pretreatment and Prevention of Corrosion on
SS-S-736 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stones, Sharpening
UU-T-81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tags, Sipping, and Stock
VV-P-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Penetrating Oil, (For loosing frozen metallic parts).
VV-P-236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petrolatum Technical
A-4
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
GLOSSARY
ACUTE-
Ending in a sharp point: as being or forming an angle
less than 90 degrees.
AMBIENT -
An encompassing atmosphere.
ANNULAR-
Forming a ring.
AXIAL-
Situated around, in the direction of, on, or along an axis.
AXIS -
A straight line about which a body or a geometric figure
rotates or may be supposed to rotate.
BABBITT -
A metal alloy used to line bearings.
BEVEL -
An instrument consisting of two rules or arms jointed
together and opening to any angle for drawing angles or
adjusting surfaces to be given a bevel.
CONICAL -
Resembling a cone in shape or fashion.
DETENT-
Device for positioning and holding one mechanical part
in relation with another.
FERRULE-
Ring or cap put around the tool handle to prevent splitting.
FLUX -
A substance (as rosin) applied to surfaces to be joined by
soldering, brazing, or welding to clean and free them from
oxide and promote their union.
GALVANIC CORROSION -
Metal corrosion due to direct current of electricity.
INTERGRANULAR CORROSION -
Severe loss of ductility of a metal.
KERF-
The width of a cut or notch made by a saw or cutting torch.
KNURLED -
Series of beads or ridges on a metal surface to aid in
gripping.
LAPPING -
To provide a gas-and-liquid-tight seal.
LONGITUDINAL -
Placed or running lengthwise.
NEUTRALIZATION -
To make chemically neutral.
OXYCHLORIDE -
A compound of oxygen with chlorine.
Glossary 1
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
GLOSSARY-CONT
PEEN-
Hemispherical or wedge-shaped end of the head of
a hammer.
PERPENDICULAR -
Being at right angles to a line or plane.
PNEUMATIC -
Moved or worked by air pressure.
PRUSSIAN BLUE RADIAL -
A dark blue crystalline hydrated ferric ferrocyanide used
as a test for ferric iron.
Developing uniformly around a central axis.
RESINOID -
Thermosetting synthetic resin.
SILICATE -
Insoluble metal salt used in building materials.
SOLDER -
A metal or metallic alloy used when melted to join metallic
surfaces.
STAKING -
To fasten up or support with stakes.
SWAGE-
Metal working tool for shaping.
TANGENT -
The trigonometric function that for an acute angle is the
ratio between the leg opposite to the angle and the
adjacent leg when it is considered part of a right triangle.
VERNIER-
Small auxiliary device used with a main device to obtain
fine adjustments.
Convert into glass or glassy substance by heat and fusion.
VITRIFY-
Glossary 2
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
A
Accuracy Limits, Torque Tool ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
Action of Preload Indicating Washers................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Adjustable Hook Spanner Wrench................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Adjustable Reamer................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Adjustable Wrench ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Adjusting the Snap Gauge................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
Adjustment of Spray Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
Air Blow Cleaning Gun ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
Air Compressors, Typical ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Aircraft Landing Gear Jack................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
Aircraft Pre-Heater ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Alternate Method for Tightening to 15 Degree Wrench Arc................................ ................................ ........
Angle Extension Torque Wrench Attachment ................................ ................................ ............................
Angle, Checking................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Application of Blade Pitch for Certain Materials ................................ ................................ .........................
Application of Force, Improper ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Applying Paint at an Angle, Effect of ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Army Aviation, Types of Tools Used in ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
Attachment-Offset Reverse Extension, Torque Wrench ................................ ................................ ............
Audible-Indicating Torque Wrench ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
Automatic Center Punch ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
Awl ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
Awl, Scribing with an ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .
T8-1
F8-30
F4-39
F4-92
F4-25
F3-65
F5-4
F5-13
F9-14
F9-10
F9-15
F8-25
F8-20
F3-19
F4-98
F8-19
F5-6
2-2
F8-17
F8-4
F4-60
4-6, F4-48
F4-49
B
Ball Peen Hammer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Beading Large Tubing................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................
Bench Vise................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Bench Vise, Using a................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
Bender, Tube ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
Bending Tube Tool................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Bending Tube................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
Bevel Protractor ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Bits, Drill ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
Blade Set, Hacksaw ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
Bobs, Plumb ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Body Hammer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Box-End Wrench Offset ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................
Box-End Wrenches ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Boxes, Tool................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
Boxes, Typical Tool................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Breast Drill ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Brown and Sharpe Tapered Reamer................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Index 1
F4-1
F4-124
F4-53
4-54
F4-117
4-123
F4-118
F3-12
4-13
F4-97
3-3, F3-6
F4-2
F4-23
F4-22
2-9
F2-1
F4-80
F4-94
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX-CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
C
Cable Rigging Tension Chart, Typical ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
Cable Tensionmeter................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
Calibration, Repair and................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
Calipers................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
Slide ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
Vernier................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Calipers, Hermaphrodite ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
Calipers, Simple................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Calipers, Spring-Joint................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
Calipers, Transfer................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
Care of Torque Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
Carpenters Square................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Carriage Clamp................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Carriage Clamp, Using................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
Center Head, Setting the................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
Center Punch................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
Center Punch for Drilling ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
Check and Chuck Key, Three-Jaw................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Checkered Flags, Reflectorizing and................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Checking Angle................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Checking Diameters, Snap Gauge for ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
Checking Dimension Between Surfaces, Snap Gauge for ................................ ................................ .........
Checking Flat or Cylindrical Work, Snap Gauge for................................ ................................ ...................
Checking Propeller Shaft Run Out................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Chisels................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
Chisels, Cold................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Clamp, Carriage................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Clamping Devices ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....
Bench Vise ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Cleaner, File ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Cleaning Gun, Air Blow ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
Cleaning Guns ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
Cleaning Solvent Gun ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................
Cold Chisels................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
Combination Flaring Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
Combination Square ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .
Combination Wrench ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
Common Screwdriver................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
Concentric Torque Wrench Attachments ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Consumable Materials................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................
Control Surface Angle, Measuring at Full Throw................................ ................................ ........................
Conversion of Tensiometer Reading in Pounds................................ ................................ .........................
Correct and Incorrect Stroke Technique ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Correct Drill Sizes for Tapping ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Correct GO Dimension for Cylindrical Part ................................ ................................ ................................
Correct NO-GO Dimension for Cylindrical Part................................ ................................ ..........................
Cotter Pin Extractor................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Index 2
F7-7
7-3
8-8
3-8
F3-28
F3-29
F3-27
F3-24
F3-25
F3-26
8-6
F3-10
F4-55
F4-56
F3-14
F4-50
F4-84
F6-3
9-4
F3-19
F3-64
F3-62
F3-63
F3-76
F4-57
4-9
F4-55
4-8
F4-53
F4-79
F5-13
5-5
F5-12
4-9
F4-120
F3-11
F4-24
F4-13
F8-15
1-3
F7-3
F7-6
F5-5
F4-102
F3-68
F3-69
7-7, F7-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX — CONT
Paragraph,
Figure, Table,
Number
Subject
C
Cranes and Hoists, Typical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crossfiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crowfoot Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crowfoot Wrench, Using a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crowfoot Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curved Tooth Foe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutters, Pipe.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CuttersTube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting Edge and Heel Angles, Usual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting Edge, Hand Grinding of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting Edge, Hand Grinding of Heel to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting, Flush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting Tube with Tube Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder, Locating Diameter of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder, Marking Diameter of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylindrical Part, Correct GO Dimension for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylindrical Part, Correct NO-GO Dimension for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylindrical Part, Placing Snap Gauge on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D
Deflecting Beam Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deicer Boot Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deicer Boot Pliers, Using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deicer Boot Roller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth Gauge, Micromete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth Gauge, Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth Gauge, Vernier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description
Leather Punch.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........................................................
Determining Correct Torque Value
Determing Depth with the Square Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F9-18
F4-76
F7-20
F7-21
7-15
F4-74
F4-114
F4-115
F4-86
F4-87
F4-88
F4-113
4-23
F4-112
F3-15
F3-16
F3-68
F3-69
F3-67
F8-2
7-12
F7-19
7-14
F3-48
F3-47
F3-49
3-11
F3-36
7-13
8-4
F3-20
Index 3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX — CONT
Paragraph,
Figure, Table,
Number
Subject
D — Continued
Diagonal Cutting Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....................................................
Dial Indicator Installed on Propeller Shaft
Dial lndicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dies, Tapsand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diestock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dispenser-Bleeder (Hydraulic Fluid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Divider, Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Divider, Wing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dividers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dividers, Scribing a Circle with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double Cutting Shears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double-FlaringTool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawfiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dressing a Grinding Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill Bit, Machine Grinding a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill Bit,Typical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill Grinding Gauge, Using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill Jaws, V-Grooves in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill, Breast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill, Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drill, Pneumatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drilling, Center Punch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drills, Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drills, Hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drills, Pneumatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drive Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index 4
Change 3
F4-42
F3-75
3-20
F4-104
4-18
F4-105
9-9h
F3-21
F3-22
3-7
F3-23
4-21
F4-122
F4-78
F6-6
F4-85
F4-83
4-13
F4-89
F4-82
T4-2
F4-80
F4-81
5-7
F4-84
6-3
4-12
F5-15
F4-61
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX -CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
E
Effect of Applying Paint at an Angle ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
Electric Drills ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Electric Grinders ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
Engine Maintenance Stand ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
Engine Trailer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Equipment, Lubricating ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
Extension Rods for Inside and Depth Micrometers ................................ ................................ ....................
Extension, Proper Application of Force When Using ................................ ................................ .................
Extractor, Cotter Pin................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
Extractor, Tap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Extractors, Spiral Screw ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................
Extractors, Straight Screw................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
F5-6
6-3, F6-2
6-4
F9-3
F9-12
F9-20
F3-37
F8-18
7-7, F7-11
F4-109
F4-108
F4-107
F
Face Pin Spanner Wrench ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
Faulty Patterns and Suggested Corrections................................ ................................ ...............................
File Cleaner ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
File Handle, Use of ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
File Nomenclature................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....
File Teeth Spacing and Fineness ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
File Teeth, Single- and Double-Cut ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
File, Curved Tooth ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
File, Flat................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
File, Half-Round ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
File, Mill ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
File, Round ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
File, Square ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
File, Triangular ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
Files ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Filing for a Flat Surface ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
Fillet and Radius Gauges ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Fillet and Radius Gauges, Using ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
Fingers, Mechanical ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
Fishing Tool, Valve Stem ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Flanged Ring Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .
Flares, Single and Double ................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
Flaring Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Index 5
F4-38
F5-10
F4-79
F4-75
F4-65
F4-67
F4-66
F4-74
F4-70
F4-73
F4-69
F4-72
F4-71
F4-68
4-11
F4-77
F3-73, 3-19
F3-74
7-8, F7-12
7-5, F7-9
F3-56
F4-119
4-25
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX -CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
F-Continued
Flat File................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
Flat Parts, Gauging ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Flat Surface, Filing for a ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................
Flat-Nose Pliers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Flush Cutting................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
Flushing Paint Gun with Thinner or Solvent (Cup) ................................ ................................ .....................
Flushing Paint Gun with Thinner or Solvent (Pressure Tank or Gravity Bucket)................................ .........
F4-70
F3-66
F4-77
F4-44
F4-113
F5-7
F5-8
G
Gauge Tolerances, Ring................................ ................................ ................................ ............................
Gauge Tolerances, Snap................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
Gauge Types, Ring ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Gauge, Flanged Ring ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
Gauge, Plug................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
Gauge, Surface................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Gauge Thread................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Gauges, Ring................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
Gauges, Snap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Gauges, Snap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Gauges, Thread ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Gauging Flat Parts ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
General
Electrical Power Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
General Maintenance Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Ground Support Equipment................................ ................................ ................................ .................
Measuring Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .
Special Aircraft Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Storage of Ground Support Equipment ................................ ................................ ...............................
Tool Procedures and Practices ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Torque Tools and Torque Principles and Procedures................................ ................................ ..........
Use Torque Multiplier................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
General, Ground Support Equipment ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Grinder, Pneumatic ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Grinders................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
Grinding Wheel Installation ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
Grinding Wheel, Dressing a ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
Grinding, Screwdriver Tip................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
GSE-Three Color Camouflage Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
Guns, Paint ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
Index 6
T3-1
T3-2
F3-57
F3-56
3-14
F3-45, 3-10
F3-52
F3-55, 3-15
F3-59, 3-16
F3-59, 3-16
3-13
F3-66
6-1
4-1
9-1
3-1
7-1
9-6
2-1
8-1
F8-21
9-1
5-8
F6-4
F6-5
F6-6
F4-19
T9-1
5-3
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX — CONT
Paragraph,
Figure, Table,
Number
Subject
H
Hacksaw Blade Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hacksaw Blade, Installing a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hacksaw, Proper Way to Hold a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hacksaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Half-Pound File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer Face Substances, Soft-Faced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer, Ball Peen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer, Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer, Lead or Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer, Riveting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer, Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammer, Soft-Faced.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hammers and Mallets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Grinding of Cutting Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Grinding of Heel to Cutting Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Seamer and Groover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handle and Wedges, New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handle, Hinged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handle, Ratchet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handle, Removing Broken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handle, Sliding T-Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handle, Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heel Angle, Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Height Gauge, Typical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Height Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hermaphrodite Calipers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hexagonal Setscrew Wrench (Allen Wrench) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hinged Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hole Gauges, Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hollow Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hook Spanner Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hub Nut Torque Multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydraulic Fluid Dispenser-Bleeder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 3
F4-97
F4-99
F4-100
4-17, F4-96
F4-73
T4-1
F4-1
F4-2
F4-5
F4-3
F4-4
F4-6
4-2
F4-81
4-12
F4-87
F4-88
4-27
F4-11
F4-29
F4-27
F4-10
F4-28
F4-30
F4-90
F3-51
3-12
F3-51
F3-27
F4-31
F4-29
3-22, F3-79
F4-64
F4-36
F8-22
9-9h
Index 7
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX — CONT
Paragraph,
Figure, Table,
Number
Subject
I
Identification of Parts of Reamers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improper Application of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Individual Flaring Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inside Micrometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation of Preload Washer on a Bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation of Preload Washers on a Stud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Hacksaw Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Protractor Head on Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Wooden Wedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-91
F8-19
F4-121
F3-35
F8-32
F8-31
F4-99
F3-17
F4-12
J
Jack Hydraulic Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jack, 3-TonTripod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jack, 5-Ton, Tripod - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jack, 10-Ton, Self-Contained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jack, 12-Ton, Tripod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jack, Aircraft Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jobber’s (Machine) Reamer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F9-6
F9-9
F9-8
F9-11
F9-7
F9-10
F4-93
K
F4-52
F4-50
4-7
F4-51
Knife, Putty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knife, Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knives, Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L
Laying Out Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lead or Copper Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leather Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Level Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Level
Machinist’s Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Precision Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanic’s Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Striding Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locating Diameter of Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lockwire Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Long-NosePliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loosening Protractor Adjustment Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lubricants for Tapping and Die-Cutting Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lubricating Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index 8
F3-24
F4-5
7-13
F3-5
F3-2
F3-1
F3-4
F3-3
3-2
F3-15
7-11, F7-16
F4-43
F3-18
T4-3
F9-20
PIN: 070467-003
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Cleaning and Stripping of Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c
Applying removers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(3)
Chemical Removal from Metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(2)
Cleanup of stripped surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(5)
General preparations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(1)
Painted surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(4)
Special Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(7)
Stripping in Con.ned Locations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.c.(6)
Finish Painting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.o
Preparation of MIL-DTL-64159 polyurethane paint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.o.(1)
Procedures for application of MIL-DTL-64159 paint to bare metal substrates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.o.(2)
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.a
GSE — Three Color Camou.age Pattern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T_
_9-1
Battery compartments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.b.(3)
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.q
Adhesion test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.q.(3)
Gloss test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.q.(4)
Smoothness test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.q.(5)
Test panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.q.(2)
Viscosity test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.q.(1)
Masking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.h.(3)
Mating Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.g
Application on dissimilar metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.g.(2)
Application on similar metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.g.(1)
Attaching parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.g.(3)
Mechanical Removal from Metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.d
Aluminum and aluminum alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.d.(1)
Copper and copper base alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.d.(3)
Stainless steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.d.(2)
Mixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.l.(3)
Opening of Containers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.k
Painting Dif.culties and Remedies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.n
Blushing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.n.(3)
Coating troubles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.n.(1)
Spray patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.n.(2)
Pretreatment and Sealing of Bare Metal Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.f.(1)
Primers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.j
General use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.j.(1)
MIL-P-85582 primer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.j.(4)
MIL-PRF-23377 primer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.j.(3)
Use on ground support equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.j.(2)
Storage of Painting Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.r.(1)
Thinning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.m.(2)
Touchup of Polyurethane System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3.p.(5)
Pipe and Tube Cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23.c
Cutting Tube with Tube Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23.b.(6)
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23.a
Pipe cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23.a.(1)
Pipe Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-114
Tube Cutters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23.a.(2)
Tube Cutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-115
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23.b
Pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4-45
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.d.(2)
Diagonal Cutting Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-42
Flat-Nose Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-44
Crimping pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(6)
Round-nose pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(5)
Change 5
Index-9
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Vise-grip pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(8)
Water pump pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(7)
Long-Nose Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-43
Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.c
Grinding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.c.(1)
Renewing serrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.c.(2)
Round-Nose Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-45
Slip-Joint Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-41
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a
Diagonal cutting pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(2)
Flat-nose pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(4)
Long-nose pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(3)
Slip-joint pliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.a.(1)
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5.b
Plug Gauges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14.b.(2)
Plug Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_3-54
NO GO gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14.a.(2)
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14.a
GO gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14.a.(1)
Plumb Bobs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 3-6
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.c.(1)
Plumb Bobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_3-6
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.a
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.b
Pneumatic Drill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 5-13
Air Blow Cleaning Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-13
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7.c
Cleaning solvent Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-12
Faulty Patterns and Suggested Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-10
Oil Spray Gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-11
Pneumatic Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7.b.(4)
Pneumatic Vacuum Cleaner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-14
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7.a
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7.b
Pneumatic Grinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 5-16
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8.c
Pneumatic Grinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-16
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8.a
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8.b
Pneumatic Hammer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Pneumatic Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_5-17
Pneumatic Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Pneumatic Vacuum Cleaner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Preservation of Aviation Ground Support Equipment for Long Term Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Applicability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.d
Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.c
Depreservation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f
Air Compressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(13)
Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(5)
Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(6)
Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(16)
Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(14)
External Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(9)
Fire Extinguishers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(4)
Forms and Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(17)
Fuel Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(10)
Gasoline Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(12)
Gear Boxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(8)
Index-10
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Hydraulic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(7)
Preservatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(2)
Preventive Maintenance Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(15)
Protective Covering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(1)
Tires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(3)
Turbine Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.f.(11)
Forms and Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.a
DA FORM 2404. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.a.(4)
DA Label 80. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.a.(3)
DD FORM 314 Preventive Maintenance Schedule and Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.a.(1)
Materiel Condition Tags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.a.(2)
Preventative Maintenance Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.b
Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e
Air Cleaners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(8)
Air Compressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(3)
Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(16)
Brake Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(15)
Data Plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(20)
Exhaust Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(9)
External Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(11)
Fire Extinguishers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(17)
Fuel Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(7)
Gearboxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(12)
Generators, Alternators, and Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(19)
Hydraulic Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(14)
Ignition Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(10)
Keys and Locks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(18)
Non Painted Metal Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(2)
Operating Mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(13)
Painted Metal Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(1)
Reciprocating Engines - Operable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(4)
Reciprocating Engines (Inoperable). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(5)
Turbine Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.e.(6)
Represervation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.g
Depreserve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.g.(1)
Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.g.(2)
Preserve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7.g.(3)
Prohibition Against the Use of Cadmium- and Zinc-Plated Tools on Army Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Protractor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.c
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a
Indicating surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(1)
Lock assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(4)
Primary level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(2)
Ring-to-frame lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(5)
Secondary level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(3)
Measuring Control Surface Angle at Full Throw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-3
Protractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-1
Disk adjuster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(7)
Ring adjuster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.a.(6)
Setting Protractor with Flight Control Surface in Neutral Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-2
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2.b.(9)
Punches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4-59
Automatic Center Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-60
Center Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-59
Drive Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-61
Hollow Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-64
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.b.(2)
Hollow Punches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.b
Change 5
Index-11
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.b.(1)
Pin Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-62
Prick Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-58
Solid Punches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.a
Types and uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.a.(1)
Transfer Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-63
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.a.(3)
Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10.a.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
R
Reamers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4-94
Adjustable Reamer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-92
Brown and Sharpe Tapered Reamer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-94
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.f
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.a
Identi.cation of Parts of Reamers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-91
Jobber’s (Machine) Reamer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-93
Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.e
Repairman’s Hand Reamer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.d.(6)
Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.c
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.b
Adjustable, inserted blade, straight .uted (hand), per GGG-R-180, type III, class 1, grade A. . . . . . . 4-14.b.(1)
Brown and Sharpe taper socket (hand), per GGG-R-180, type XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.b.(3)
Jobbers (machine) reamer, per GGG-R-180, type XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.b.(2)
Repairman’s T-handle (hand) reamer GGG-R-180, type XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.b.(4)
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14.d
Reflectorizing and Checkered Flags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Checkered Flag Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4.d
Flying the flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4.d.(1)
Mounting the flag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4.d.(2)
Reflectorized Tape Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4.c.(1)
Reflectorized Tape Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4.b
Reflectorized Tape Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4.a
Repair and Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Ring Gauges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 3-55
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15.d.(3)
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15.a
GO ring gauges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15.a.(1)
Flanged Ring Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_3-56
Ring Gauge Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T_
_3-1
Ring Gauge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_3-57
NO GO ring gauges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15.a.(2)
Ring Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_3-55
Tolerances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15.b
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15.c.(3)
Using Ring Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_3-58
S
Safety Cable Application Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.f
Adjustable Tension Safety Cable Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-24
Adjustable Tension Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.b.(1)
Adjustment of Safety Cable Indenter (Same for hand and pneumatic tool models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-29
Electronic Safety Cable Pull Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-27
Pneumatic Safety Cable Application Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-25
Pneumatic Safety Cable Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.c
Pre-set Tension Safety Cable Application Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_7-23
Index-12
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX — CONT
Subject
Paragraph,
Figure, Table,
Number
R - Continued
Repair
and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tool, Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rigid Frame Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rigid Gauge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ring Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ring Gauges, Using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Riveting Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roller, Deicer Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Round File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Round-Nose Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rubber Mallet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rule Depth Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rule, Typical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rules, Tapes and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8
7-6, F7-10
F8-3
F3-57
3-15
T3-1
F3-58
F4-3
7-14
F4-72
F4-45
F4-8
F3-47
F3-9
3-5
S
Safety
Safety Cable Application Tools Pre-Set Tension Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17a, F7-23
Adjustable Tension Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17b, F7-24
Pneumatic Safety Cable Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17c, F7-25
Safety Cable Application Tool Maintenance and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-17d,
7-17e, 7-17f
F7-26
7-17g, 7-17h
Tool Calibration Verification with an electronic tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17i, F7-27
Safety Cable Tool Indenter Adjustment/Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17j, F7-28
7-29
Unlock the Jamnut using the SCT32084 Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17k, F7-30
Retest Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-17l
Replacing The Tool Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-17m
Electrical Power Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-7
Safety Practices and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-2
Schematic Diagram, Jack Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F9-6
Scope of Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
Screwdriver Tip Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-19
Screwdriver, Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-15
Screwdriver, Phillips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-14
Screwdriver, Preset Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F8-1
Screwdrivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
Screwdriver, Common . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-13
Screwdrivers, Proper Fit of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-17
Screwdrivers, Ratchet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F-4-16
Scribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-4
Scribers, Mechanist’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F3-7
Scribing a Circle with Dividers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F3-23
Scribing with an Awl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4-49
Selection, Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-3
Self-Contained Jack, 10-Ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F9-11
Servicing Unit, Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F9-17
Servicing Unit, Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F9-24
Change 4
Index 13
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX - CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
S - Continued
Setscrew Wrench (Allen Wrench) Hexagonal ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
F4-31
Setting Hammer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
F4-4
Setting Height on a Surface Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 3-10c, F3-46
Setting Protractor with Flight Control Surface in Neutral Position ................................ ................................ ....
F7-2
Setting the Center Head ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
F3-14
Shears and Double Flares ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................
F4-119
Shears, Double Cutting ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
4-21
Sheet Metal and Wire Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... F3-72, 3-18
Sheet Metal and Wire, Measuring ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
F3-72
Shop Practices ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
2-8
Simple Calipers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
F3-24
Single- and Double-Cut File Teeth ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
F4-66
Sizes, Drill ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
T4-2
Slide Caliper ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
F3-28
Sliding T-Bar Handle ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
F4-28
Slip-Joint Pliers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
F4-41
Small Hole Gauge, Measuring Hole with a ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
F3-80
Small Hole Gauges ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... F3-79, 3-22
Snap Gauge for Checking Diameters ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
F3-64
Snap Gauge for Checking Dimension Between Surfaces ................................ ................................ ................
F3-62
Snap Gauge for Checking Flat or Cylindrical Work ................................ ................................ ..........................
F3-63
Snap Gauge, Adjusting the ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
F3-65
Snap Gauge, Progressive ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................
F3-61
Snap Gauge, Solid Nonadjustable ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
F3-60
Snap Gauges................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... F3-59, 3-16
Tolerances ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
T3-2
Soaking a Paint Gun ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
F5-9
Sockets ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
F4-26
Soft-Faced Hammer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
F4-6
Soft-Faced Hammer Face Substances ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
T4-1
Soldering Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... F7-22, 7-16
Solid Nonadjustable Snap Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
F3-60
Solid Steel Plumb Bobs ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
F3-6
Solvent, Cleaning Gun ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
F5-12
Spacing and Fineness, File Teeth ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
F4-67
Special Aircraft Tools, General ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
7-1
Speed Handle ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
F4-30
SPEM Stand ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
F9-4
Spiral Screw Extractors ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
F4-108
Spray Gun, Oil ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
F5-11
Spray Guns, Oil ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
5-4
Spray Pattern ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
F5-2
Spray Pattern, Adjustment of ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
F5-4
Index 14
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX - CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
S - Continued
Spring Divider ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Spring-Joint Calipers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
Square
Carpenter's ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Combination ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Square File ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
Square Head, Determining Depth with the ................................ ................................ ................................ .......
Square Line, Marking a ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Squares ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
Stand, SPEM ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Stand, Type D5B Hydraulic Test ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
Storage of Ground Support Equipment ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
Straight Screw Extractor ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
Striding Level ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Stroke Technique, Correct and Incorrect ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Suggested Corrections, Faulty Pattern and ................................ ................................ ................................ .....
Surface Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Setting Height on a ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
F3-21
F3-25
F3-10
F3-11
F4-71
F3-20
F3-13
3-6
F9-4
F9-5
9-6
F4-107
F3-3
F5-5
F5-10
3-10
F3-46
T
Tap Extractor ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
F4-109
Tap Extractor, Use of ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
F4-110
Tap Wrenches ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
F4-103
Tapes and Rules ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............
3-5
Tapes Typical ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
F3-8
Tapping and Die-Cutting Threads, Lubricants for ................................ ................................ .............................
T4-3
Tapping, Correct Drill Sizes for ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
F4-102
Taps and Dies ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
4-18
Taps ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
F4-101
Telescoping Gauge, Measuring Hole with ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
F3-78
Telescoping Gauges ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 3-21, F3-77
Index 15
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX - CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
T- Continued
Telescoping Magnet................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 7-9, F7-14
Tensiometer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
F7-4
Tensiometer Reading in Pounds, Conversion of ................................ ................................ ..............................
F7-6
Tensiometer, Cable ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
7-3
Tensiometer, Using a ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
F7-5
Testing of Torque Tools ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
8-7
Thickness Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 3-17, F3-70
Thread Chasers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4-19, F4-106
Thread Gauge ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
F3-52
Thread Gauges ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
3-13
Three-Jaw Chuck and Chuck Key................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
F6-3
Three-Prong Grounded Plug ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................
F6-1
Tightening Preload Washers ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
F8-33
Tightening to 15-Degree Wrench Arc ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
F8-24
Tightening to 30-Degree Wrench Arc ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
F8-27
Tightening to 60- or 120-Degree Wrench Arc ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
F8-26
Tightening to 90- or 180-Degree Wrench Arc ................................ ................................ ................................ ..
F8-28
Tinner's Mallet ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
F4-9
Tolerances
Ring Gauges ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 3-15, T3-1
Snap Gauges................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
T3-2
Tool Boxes................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................
2-9
Tool Care ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
2-3
Tool Safety ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
2-7
Tool Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
2-4
Tool Selection ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
10-2f
Tool Use ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
2-6
Tool, Double Flaring ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
F4-122
Tool, Individual Flaring Tool ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
F4-121
Tool, Tube Bending................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..........
4-26
Tools, Combination Flaring ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
F4-120
Tools, Flaring ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
4-25
Tools, Pneumatic ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
5-1
Tools, Soldering ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. F7-22, 7-16
Torque Multiplier Power Wrench ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 8-10, F8-23
Torque Multiplier, General Use................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
F8-21
Torque Multiplier, Hub Nut ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
F8-22
Torque Multipliers ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
8-9
Torque Procedures Without a Torque Wrench ................................ ................................ ................................
8-11
Torque Tool Accuracy Limits ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
T8-1
Torque Tools, Care of ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
8-6
Index 16
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Tightening to 30-degree wrench arc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11.a.(5)
Tightening to 60- or 120-degree wrench arc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11.a.(4)
Tightening to 90-degree or 180-degree wrench arc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11.a.(6)
Wrench-Arc Method of Tightening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11.a
Preliminary steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11.a.(1)
Torque Wrench Operation and Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 8-15
Concentric Torque Wrench Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-15
Angle attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5.c.(3)
Force Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5.a
Reading the Torque Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5.b
Recommended Torque Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T_
_8-2
Torque Tool Accuracy Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T_
_8-1
Type I, Class 2, Style A Torque Wrenches - Deflecting Beam with Indicating Dial (Direct Reading) . . . . . . . . F_
_8-7
Type I, Class 2, Style B Torque Wrench - Deflecting Beam with indicating Dial (Direct Reading with Audible
Signal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-8
Type II, Style A Torque Wrench - Rigid Case with Indicator Dial (Direct Reading) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-9
Type II, Style B Torque Wrench-Rigid Case with Indicator Dial, Presetting Torque Dial (Direct Reading with Audible
Signal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-10
Type II, Style C Torque Wrench-Rigid Case with Presetting Dial (Direct Reading with Flashlight Signal) . . F_
_8-11
Type III, Class 1 Torque Wrench-Rigid Case, Micrometer-Style Torque Presetting, Audible Signal, Plain
Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-12
Type III, Class 2 Torque Wrench-Rigid Case, Micrometer-Style Torque Presetting, Audible Signal, Ratchet
Reversible Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-13
Type V Torque Wrench-Rigid Case, Preset Torque, Audible Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-14
Use of Attachments and Extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5.c
Concentric attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5.c.(1)
Nonconcentric attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5.c.(2)
Torque Wrench Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Appropriate Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3.c
Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3.b
Type I, Class 1, Style A Torque Wrench - Deflecting Beam with Indicator Plate (Direct Reading) . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-5
Type I, Class 1, Style B Torque Wrench - De.ecting Beam with Indicator Plate (Direct Reading with Feel Impulse
and Audible Signal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-6
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3.a
Tube Beading Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4-124
Beading Large Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-124
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26.b.(1)
Tube Beading Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-123
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26.a.(3)
Tube Benders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4-118
Bending Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-118
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24.c.(1)
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24.a
Tube Bender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-117
Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24.b.(1)
Turnbuckle Wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Types of Ground Support Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 9-23
Aircraft jacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(1)
Aircraft Landing Gear Jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-10
Aircraft Preheater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(5)
Operating Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(4)
Principles of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(1)
Safety Practices and Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(3)
Aircraft Towing Vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n.(2)
Change 5
Index-17
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n.(1)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n.(3)
Aviation Ground Power Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-13
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.f.(5)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.f.(4)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.f.(3)
Aviation Ground Power Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.f
Principles of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.f.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.f.(1)
Deleted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-5
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(5)
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(3)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(4)
Deleted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.l
Engine Maintenance Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-3
Self-propelled elevated maintenance workstand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.b.(4)
Engine Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-12
Adapters available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(8)
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(6)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(7)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(5)
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(3)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(4)
Engine Trailer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(1)
Rail trailer airmobile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.e.(2)
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.a
HDU-43 Front and Rear Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-15
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(6)
Hoists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k.(1)
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k.(2)
Hydraulic Fluid Dispenser-Bleeder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.h.(1)
Jack Hydraulic Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-6
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(3)
Lubricating Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-20
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(6)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(7)
Lubricating Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(1)
Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.m.(2)
Maintenance Workstands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.b
Maintenance platform, type B-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.b.(1)
Nitrogen Servicing Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-17
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j.(5)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j.(6)
Nitrogen Servicing Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j.(4)
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j.(1)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.j.(3)
Oxygen Servicing Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-24
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q.(5)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q.(6)
Oxygen Servicing Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q.(4)
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q.(2)
Index-18
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q.(1)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.q.(3)
Portable Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-23
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p.(5)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p.(6)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p.(4)
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p.(2)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p.(3)
Portable Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.p.(1)
Reservoir Servicing Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.g
Con.gurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(6)
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(4)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(5)
Operating Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(3)
Other Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(7)
Principles of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(1)
Self-Contained Jack, 10-Ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-11
SPEM Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-4
Standard Aircraft Towing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-21
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n.(5)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n.(6)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.n.(4)
Towbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-16
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(5)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(6)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(4)
Towbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(1)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.i.(3)
Tripod Jack, 12-Ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-7
Tripod Jack, 3-Ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-9
Tripod Jack, 5-Ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-8
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(6)
Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(7)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(5)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.d.(4)
Type B-1 Maintenance Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-1
Folding maintenance stand, type B-4A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.b.(2)
Type B-4A Maintenance Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-2
Aircraft engine maintenance stand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.b.(3)
Typical Hoists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-18
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k.(6)
Operating procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k.(5)
Principles of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k.(3)
Safety practices and procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.k.(4)
Universal Wash Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_9-22
Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.o.(5)
Operating Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.o.(4)
Principle of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.o.(2)
Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.o.(1)
Safety Practices and Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.o.(3)
Universal Wash Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9.o
Types of Tools Used in Army Aviation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Types of Torque Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 8-3
Audible-Indicating Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-4
Deflecting Beam Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-2
Index-19
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
Manual Torque Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.a
Torque screwdriver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.a.(1)
Torque Wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.a.(2)
Power Torque Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2.b
Preset Torque Screwdriver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-1
Rigid Frame Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_8-3
V
Valve Repair Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Valve Stem Fishing Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
W
Wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F 4-22
Adjustable Hook Spanner Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-39
Adjustable Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-25
Box End Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-22
Box-End Wrench Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-23
Socket wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a.(5)
Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.d.(3)
Combination Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-24
Face Pin Spanner Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-38
Adjustable spanner wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.e.(2)
Pliers, Retaining Ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.e.(3)
Hexagonal Setscrew Wrench (Allen Wrench) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-31
Use of open-end wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.b.(1)
Hinged Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-29
Hook Spanner Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-36
Open-End Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-20
Open-End Wrench Jaw Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-21
Pin Spanner Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-37
Pliers, Retaining Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-40
Proper Procedure for Pulling Adjustable Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-35
Ratchet Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-27
Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.c
Sliding T-Bar Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-28
Sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-26
Spanner Wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.e
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.e.(1)
Speed Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-30
Hexagonal wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a.(6)
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a
Adjustable wrench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a.(4)
Box-end wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a.(2)
Combination wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a.(3)
Open-end wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.a.(1)
Use of Box-End Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-33
Use of Open-End Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-32
Use of Socket Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F_
_4-34
Use of adjustable wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.b.(4)
Use of box-end wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.b.(2)
Use of socket wrenches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.b.(3)
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4.b
Index-20
Change 5
TM 1-1500-204-23-9
INDEX - CONT
Subject
Paragraph
Figure, Table
Number
W - Continued
Wrench, Adjustable Hook Spanner ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................
Wrench, Combination ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....
Wrench, Crowfoot ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........
Wrench, Face Pin Spanner ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
Wrench, Hook Spanner ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...
Wrench, Open-End ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........
Wrench, Pin Spanner ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......
Wrench, Torque Multiplier Power ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................
Wrench, Turnbuckle ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Wrench, Use of Box-End ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .
Wrench, Use of Open-End ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
Wrench, Use of Socket ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....
Wrenches................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
Wrenches, Box-End ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Wrenches, Crowfoot ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........
Wrenches, Proper Procedure for Pulling Adjustable ................................ ................................ ........................
Wrenches, Tap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................
Index 21/(Index 22 blank)
F4-39
F4-24
F7-20
F4-38
F4-36
F4-20
F4-37
8-10
7-4, F7-8
F4-33
F4-32
F4-34
4-4
F4-22
7-20
F4-35
F4-103
These are the instructions for sending an electronic 2028
The following format must be used if submitting an electronic 2028. The subject line must be
exactly the same and all fields must be included; however only the following fields are
mandatory: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 27.
From: “Whomever” [email protected]
To: [email protected]
Subject: DA Form 2028
1
From: Joe Smith
2
Unit: home
3
Address: 4300 Park
4
City: Hometown
5
St: MO
6
Zip: 77777
7
Date Sent: 19--OCT--93
8
Pub no: 55--2840--229--23
9
Pub Title: TM
10
Publication Date: 04--JUL--85
11
Change Number: 7
12
Submitter Rank: MSG
13
Submitter FName: Joe
14
Submitter MName: T
15
Submitter LName: Smith
16
Submitter Phone: 123--123--1234
17
Problem: 1
18
Page: 2
19
Paragraph: 3
20
Line: 4
21
NSN: 5
22
Reference: 6
23
Figure: 7
24
Table: 8
25
Item: 9
26
Total: 123
27
Text:
This is the text for the problem below line 27.
Use Part II (reverse) for Repair Parts and
Special Tool Lists (RPSTL) and Supply
Catalogs/ Supply Manuals (SC/SM)
RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO PUBLICATIONS AND
BLANK FORMS
DATE
8/30/02
For use of this form, see AR 25--30; the proponent agency is ODISC4.
TO: (Forward to proponent of publication or form)(Include ZIP Code)
FROM: (Activity and location)(Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
MSG, Jane Q. Doe
ATTN: AMSAM--MMA--NP
1234 Any Street
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
Nowhere Town, AL 34565
PART 1 - ALL PUBLICATIONS (EXCEPT RPSTL AND SC/SM) AND BLANK FORMS
PUBLICATION/FORM NUMBER
DATE
TM 9-1005-433-24
ITEM
NO.
1
PAGE
NO.
WP0005
PG 3
PARAGRAPH
16 Sep 2002
LINE
NO. *
FIGURE
NO.
TABLE
NO.
2
TITLE Organizational, Direct Support, And
General Support Maintenance Manual for
Machine Gun, .50 Caliber M3P and M3P
Machine Gun Electrical Test Set Used On
Avenger Air Defense Weapon System
RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND REASON
Test or Corrective Action column should identify a different WP number.
E
L
P
M
A
X
E
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
* Reference to line numbers within the paragraph or subparagraph.
MSG, Jane Q. Doe, SFC
DA FORM 2028, FEB 74
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/
AUTOVON, PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
788-1234
REPLACES DA FORM 2028, 1 DEC 68, WHICH WILL BE USED.
USAPA V3.01
TO: (Forward direct to addressee listed in publication)
FROM: (Activity and location) (Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
MSG, Jane Q. Doe
ATTN: AMSAM-MMA-NP
1234 Any Street
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
Nowhere Town, AL 34565
DATE
8/30/02
PART II - REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOL LISTS AND SUPPLY CATALOGS/SUPPLY MANUALS
PUBLICATION NUMBER
PAGE
NO.
COLM
NO.
LINE
NO.
DATE
NATIONAL STOCK
NUMBER
REFERENCE
NO.
TITLE
FIGURE
NO.
ITEM
NO.
TOTAL NO.
OF MAJOR
ITEMS
SUPPORTED
RECOMMENDED ACTION
E
L
P
M
A
PART III - REMARKS (Any general remarks or recommendations, or suggestions for improvement of publications and
blank forms. Additional blank sheets may be used if more space is needed.)
X
E
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
MSG, Jane Q. Doe, SFC
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/AUTOVON,
PLUS EXTENSION
788-1234
SIGNATURE
USAPA V3.01
Use PartII(reverse) for Repair Parts and
Special Tool Lists (RPSTL) and Supply
Catalogs/ Supply Manuals (SC/SM)
RECOMMENDED CHANGES TO PUBLICATIONS AND
BLANK FORMS
DATE
For use of this form, see AR 25--30; the proponent agency is ODISC4.
TO: (Forward to proponent of publication or form)(Include ZIP Code)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command ATTN:
AMSAM-MMA-NP Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898
FROM: (Activity and location)(Include ZIP Code)
PART 1 --ALL PUBLICATIONS (EXCEPT RPSTL AND SC/SM) AND BLANK FORMS
PUBLICATION/FORM NUMBER
ITEM
NO.
PAGE
NO.
PARAGRAPH
LINE
NO. *
DATE
FIGURE
NO.
TABLE
NO.
TITLE
RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND REASON
* Reference to line numbers within the paragraph or subparagraph.
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
DA FORM 2028, FEB 74
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/
AUTOVON, PLUS
EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
REPLACES DA FORM 2028, 1 DEC 68, WHICH WILL BE USED.
USAPA V3.01
TO: (Forward direct to addressee listed in publication)
Commander, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
ATTN: AMSAM-MMA-NP Redstone Arsenal, AL
35898
FROM: (Activity and location) (Include ZIP Code)
DATE
PART II --REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOL LISTS AND SUPPLY CATALOGS/SUPPLY MANUALS
PUBLICATION NUMBER
PAGE
NO.
COLM
NO.
LINE
NO.
DATE
NATIONAL STOCK
NUMBER
REFERENCE
NO.
TITLE
FIGURE
NO.
ITEM
NO.
TOTAL NO.
OF MAJOR
ITEMS
SUPPORTED
RECOMMENDED ACTION
PART III --REMARKS (Any general remarks or recommendations, or suggestions for improvement of publications and blank forms.
Additional blank sheets may be used if more space is needed.)
TYPED NAME, GRADE OR TITLE
TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/AUTOVON,
PLUS EXTENSION
SIGNATURE
USAPA V3.01
The Metric System and Equivalents
Linear Measure
Liquid Measure
1 centiliter = 10 milliters = .34 fl. ounce
1 deciliter = 10 centiliters = 3.38 fl. Ounces
1 liter = 10 deciliters = 33.81 fl. ounces
1 dekaliter = 10 liters = 2.64 gallons
1 hectoliter = 10 dekaliters = 26.42 gallons
1 kiloliter = 10 hectoliters = 264.18 gallons
1 centimeter = 10 millimeters = .39 inch
1 decimeter = 10 centimeters = 3.94 inches
1 meter = 10 decimeters = 39.37 inches
1 dekameter = 10 meters = 32.8 feet
1 hectometer = 10 dekameters = 328.08 feet
1 kilometer = 10 hectometers = 3,280.8 feet
Weights
Square Measure
1 sq. centimeter = 100 sq. millimeters = .155 sq. inch
1 sq. decimeter = 100 sq. centimeters = 15.5 sq. inches
1 sq. meter (centare) = 100 sq. decimeters = 10.76 sq. feet
1 sq. dekameter (are) = 100 sq. meters = 1,076.4 sq. feet
1 sq. hectometer (hectare) = 100 sq. dekameters = 2.47 acres
1 sq. kilometer = 100 sq. hectometers = .386 sq. mile
1 centigram = 10 milligrams = .15 grain
1 decigram = 10 centigrams = 1.54 grains
1 gram = 10 decigram = .035 ounce
1 decagram = 10 grams = .35 ounce
1 hectogram = 10 decagrams = 3.52 ounces
1 kilogram = 10 hectograms = 2.2 pounds
1 quintal = 100 kilograms = 220.46 pounds
1 metric ton = 10 quintals = 1.1 short tons
Cubic Measure
1 cu. centimeter = 1000 cu. millimeters = .06 cu. Inch
1 cu. decimeter = 1000 cu. centimeters = 61.02 cu. Inches
1 cu. meter = 1000 cu. decimeters = 35.31 cu. feet
Approximate Conversion Factors
To change
inches
feet
yards
miles
square inches
square feet
square yards
square miles
acres
cubic feet
cubic yards
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons
ounces
pounds
short tons
pound-feet
pound-inches
To
Multiply by
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
square hectometers
cubic meters
cubic meters
milliliters
liters
liters
liters
grams
kilograms
metric tons
Newton-meters
Newton-meters
2.540
.305
.914
1.609
6.451
.093
.836
2.590
.405
.028
.765
29,573
.473
.946
3.785
28.349
.454
.907
1.356
.11296
To change
To
ounce-inches
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
square centimeters
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
square hectometers
cubic meters
cubic meters
milliliters
liters
liters
liters
grams
kilograms
metric tons
Newton-meters
inches
feet
yards
miles
square inches
square feet
square yards
square miles
acres
cubic feet
cubic yards
fluid ounces
pints
quarts
gallons
ounces
pounds
short tons
Temperature (Exact)
°F
Fahrenheit
temperature
5/9 (after
subtracting 32)
Celsius °C
temperature
Multiply by
.007062
.394
3.280
1.094
.621
.155
10.764
1.196
.386
2.471
35.315
1.308
.034
2.113
1.057
.264
.035
2.205
1.102
PIN: 070467-000
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