COMPUTER NEWS Inside This Issue The Napa Valley Personal

COMPUTER NEWS Inside This Issue The Napa Valley Personal
Napa Valley
Personal Computer
Users Group
http://www.
nvpcug.org
P.O. Box 2866
Napa, California 94558
COMPUTER
NEWS
Volume 28, No. 8
Aug 2011
Inside This Issue
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NVPCUG Special Interest Groups
Annual Members Potluck Picnic
Officers List
NVPCUG Calendar
Converting Documents to PDF
Windows Explorer in Windows 7
(Vista, too)
Mac Tip of the Month - Hardware
Enercell
Drop it in the Box: Dropbox, what it
is, how it works
Outlook Express to Outlook Tip
Changing Settings in Your Browser
youSENDit: A Program to
Send Large Files
Pulse
Dick’s Clicks
Word 2007 – A few useful tips
Cyber Security Tip ST08-001 –
Using Caution with USB Drives
The Killer App of the 21st Century
Tips & Tricks | Tutorial
Better File Information with Windows Explorer
Remember to attend the
User Group Picnic,
Remember to attend the
User Group Picnic,
Software Review – UbuntuOne
P-Flip Power Dock
Who Really Owns Your Photos
in Social Media?
Good Fences Make Good Desktops
Membership Application/Renewal
The Napa Valley Personal
Computer Users Group will meet
Wednesday, Aug 17th,
7:00-9:00 P.M.
At the Napa Senior Activity Center,
1500 Jefferson Street, Napa, California
This meeting begins with the Computer Tutor topic
member Jeff Solomon again will be talking about
“Google Docs”? Google Docs is a FREE Webbased word processor, spreadsheet, slide show,
form, and data storage service offered by Google. If
you have an idea or question that the Computer Tutor Jeff Solomon
at [email protected]
Random Access, an open-floor question-andanswer period during which attendees can ask
questions about computers and computer-related
problems and receive helpful information from other
meeting attendees. Questions may be submitted
before the meeting by emailing them to Random
Access moderator Jerry Brown at
[email protected]
This month our main speaker will be long time
member Bernhard Krevet will introduce and demo
of internet radio. Program he will talk about include
USB (Aluratek) and one software (Pandora).
If you have a suggestion on which feature and topics
should discusses in the future, please contact
Susy Ball at s u s y b a l l @ a o l . c o m .
See ya all at the meeting.
*
Could you use some practical information that would help you
make better use of your computer? Come to this meeting! Guests
are always welcome. Admission is always free.
Interested in becoming a member? See page 24 for
application information.
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011
NVPCUG
SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS
& MAC GROUP
In SIG meetings you can learn
about a subject in greater detail
than is feasible at NVPCUG
general meetings. SIG meetings
are open to everyone. Meeting
times and locations occasionally
change, so for current meeting
information, See our Web site,
www.nvpcug.org, or contact
the leaders.
Investors Group
Meets: Monthly, second Monday
5:30 to 7:30 p.m
Jerry Brown’s home,
23 Skipping Rock Way, Napa
Leader: Jerry Brown
(707) 254-9607
bqandjbb
@sbcglobal.net
Napa Valley Mac User Group
Meets: Monthly, second Thursday
6:30 - 8:30 p.m.
Napa Senior Activity Center
1500 Jefferson St., Napa
Leader: Ron Rogers
(707) 226-5352
ronrogersnapamug
@gmail.com
Annual Members
Potluck Picnic:
August 20, 2011, 12:00 - 5:00 PM
Thank you to Dick and Sandy
Peterson for again hosting ourAugust
Members Potluck Picnic. The
location is in the redwood grove by
the pond at Peterson’s Family
Christmas Tree Farm, 1120 Darms
Lane, Napa. There will be games
and prizes. The group will provide
meat, nonalcoholic beverages & ice, paper plates, cups,
plasticware, & napkins.
Please signup by our August 17th meeting by e-mailing Dianne
Prior at [email protected] with “NVPCUG Picnic”
in the subject. Include the following information: member’s
name, guests attending with you, what you are bringing for
potluck (we need appetizers and desserts). The potluck picnic
is always a lot of fun. We hope to see you all there.
Let Dianne know it you can help with h setup at 11:30
or cleanup after or if you can help with the
games or cooking.
*
Coordinator Dianne Prior (252-1506),
[email protected]
Fun Site: Lefties
If you’re a lefty, you already know about the trials and tribulations
of finding left-handed baseball gloves or bats. And that’s just in
sports. There are a myriad of other inconveniences associated
with being left-handed. But take heart. There have been many
before who have dealt with it and come out ahead. And that’s
what we have here, famous left-handers. From presidents to
musicians to authors. There are other categories as well,
including miscellaneous individuals of note. You can even discuss
the problems lefties have. And if you think of someone not on any
of the lists, you can nominate them. The list is also available in
French, Spanish, and, of all things, Pig Latin.
Lefties can be found at: http://www.indiana.edu/
~primate/left.html
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart Computing can
do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 2
Napa Valley Personal Computer
Users Group Contact Information
Officers for 2011
Board of Directors
President
Jim Gray
unlisted
[email protected]
Vice President
Ron Dack
unlisted
[email protected]
Secretary
Marcia Waddell
252-2060
[email protected]
Treasurer
Roy Wagner
253-2721
[email protected]
Other Directors: Susy Ball, Julie Jerome, Bernhard Krevet , Dick Peterson, Bob
Simmerman, Raylene Thompson, Tom Uboldi and Dean Unruh
Appointed Officers
Computer Tutor Coordinator
Jeff Solomon
553-2114
[email protected]
Facility Arrangements Coordinator
Dianne Prior
252-1506
[email protected]
Greeter Coordinator
Raylene Thompson
unlisted
[email protected]
Greeter Coordinator
Bob Simmerman
259-6113
[email protected]
226-9164
[email protected]
Membership Director
Bob Simmerman
259-6113
[email protected]
Newsletter Editor
Susy Ball
337-3998
[email protected]
Product Review CoCoordinator
Susy Ball
Marcia Waddell
337-3998
252-2060
[email protected]
[email protected]
Co-Programs Director
Bernhard Krevet
Susy Ball
unlisted
337-3998
[email protected]
[email protected]
Librarian
Dean Unruh
Publicity Director
VOLUNTEER NEEDED
Random Access Moderator
Jerry Brown
254-9607
[email protected]
unlisted
[email protected]
Webmaster
Ron Dack
• All telephone numbers are in Area Code 707.
NVPCUG General Meetings
Held the third Wednesday of each month, 7:00 to 9:00 p.m.
Napa Senior Activity Center,
1500 Jefferson Street, Napa
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 3
NVPCUG
Computer News
Computer News (ISS
0897-5744) is published
monthly by the Napa
Valley Personal
Computer Users Group,
Inc. (NVPCUG), P.O.
Box 2866, Napa, CA
94558-0286.
Subscriptions: $30 for
one year (12 issues).
Editor: Susy Ball,
[email protected] The
material in Computer
News is intended for
noncommercial
purposes and may not
be reproduced without
prior written permission,
except that permission
for reproducing articles,
with authors properly
credited, is granted to
other computer user
groups for their internal,
nonprofit use only. The
information in this
newsletter is believed to
be correct. However, the
NVPCUG can assume
neither responsibility for
errors or omissions nor
liability for any damages
resulting from the use or
misuse of any
information.
The NVPCUG is an IRC
501(c)(3) tax-exempt
nonprofit educational
organization (EIN 680069663) and is a
member of the
Association of Personal
Computer User Groups
(APCUG), an
international
organization. Donations
to the NVPCUG are taxdeductible as charitable
contributions to the
extent allowed by law.
Copyright © 2011 by
NVPCUG.
As Program Coordinator, I would like your input for future programs for the Napa
Valley Personal Computer Users Group.
Here is a list of the meetings for the remainder of the year:
Sept 21 Beth Pickering will demo a browser alternative to Firefox, Chrome and
Internet Explorer. The program is called Opera and I invite you to try it on
your computer or mobile devise. Go to www.opera.com for your free
download; try it out before the meeting and then bring your questions to
the meeting in September.
Oct 19 The topic of this meeting will be tablets. Such as: the Samsung Gaxlary Tab
and the Motorola Xoom.
Nov 16 Jeff Solomon will share his further adventures with Dragon Dictate. The
makers of this program can be found at http://www.nuance.com/
P.S. a few other members of our user group are using this program also and
can add their input the discussion. Maybe you are one of them.
Dec 14 This will be our annual Christmas party held at Peterson’s Family
Christmas Tree Farm, 1120 Darms Lane, Napa.
One idea I had and would like to know if members of our group are interested in
finding out more about the company called Reallusion? They are the makers of
software used to create 3D Animation and 2D Cartoons and they make it simple!
www.reallusion.com/ . Some of their programs include CrazyTalk and iClone.
You can contact me by sending your ideas to me at [email protected]
NVPCUG Calendar
Aug 17
Aug 20
Sept 8
Sept 12
Sept 21
Oct10
Oct13
Oct19
Nov 5
Nov 10
Nov 14
Nov 16
Dec 8
Dec 12
Dec 14
7:00-9:00 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
6:30-8:30 p.m.
5:30-7:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
5:30-7:30 p.m.
6:30-8:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
10:00-11:30 am.
6:30-8:30 p.m.
5:30-7:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
6:30-8:30 p.m.
5:30-7:30 p.m.
7:00-9:00 p.m.
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
NVPCUG Annual Picnic, + D
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
Investors SIG meeting + C
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
Investors SIG meeting + C
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
NVPCUG General Meeting, + A
Board of Directors meeting + D
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
Investors SIG meeting + C
NVPCUG General Meeting, +A
Napa Valley Mac User Group + A
Investors SIG meeting + C
NVPCUG Christmas Party, + D
Meeting Locations
A - Napa Senior Activity Center,
1500 Jefferson Street, Napa
B - Piner’s Nursing Home,
1800 Pueblo Ave., Napa
C - Jerry Brown’s home,
23 Skipping Rock Way, Napa
D - Peterson’s Family Christmas
Tree Farm,
1120 Darms Lane, Napa.
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 4
Converting Documents to PDF
By Wayne Comstock, Member, South Walton Computer & Technology Club (SWCTC), Florida,
http://southwalton.apcug.org/, [email protected]
One technique I frequently use to save an online article or
publication is to convert and save it as a PDF file. Once
converted, Adobe Reader software then becomes an
excellent way to open, view and read any converted
document off of your computer screen. PDF documents
can also be easily emailed to others as an attachment.
You can convert to PDF from any file you can print,
including Microsoft Word, Works, Excel, PowerPoint and
digital pictures. Rather than being printed ink to paper the
file becomes a PDF file. If the
document is already a paged PDF
file you can convert the file to just
the pages you select and select your
PrimoPDF printer to convert.
You will need PDF conversion software to accomplish
this. I recommend the Free PrimoPDF program. It’s free,
easily installed and available at: www.primopdf.com/
index.aspx
1. Browse Primo web site and download one of the
two installers available for 32 and 64-bit versions of
Windows. Ensure that the version you download
corresponds to your operating-system.
2. When prompted, select a download location which
you can find easily, such as your ‘Desktop’ or ‘My
Documents’ folder, and click OK.
3. When the download is complete, double-click the
file named FreewarePrimoPDFXX.exe (XX being
a 2-digit number) which would have appeared in the
location you selected in the previous step.
4. Follow the simple instructions to complete the
installation. A system-restart is NOT required.
PrimoPDF installs itself as a virtual printer in the Windows
Printers and Faxes device group. This allows any software
with print functionality to output files to PrimoPDF for
quick and easy PDF conversion.
To convert a document to PDF:
1. Open a document in any printable program (e.g.
Microsoft Word, Works etc.), and select File >Print.
2. In the printer dialog, select PrimoPDF from the
dropdown menu and click OK to complete the print,
and launch the PrimoPDF interface.
3. Select one of the Creation Profiles for the document
Quality you need to achieve. A detailed explanation
can be found in the PDF Creation profiles section of
this guide. Point your cursor at each button to define.
4. Select the Save As dropdown menu to set a name
and location for the created PDF.
Ask when creating PDF – Allows you to rename
the PDF and select a save-location.
Specific Folder – Allows you to select a savelocation while using the name of the document
which is being converted. This option returns you to
the PrimoPDF interface should you wish to change
other settings for the same conversion.
5. Click the Create PDF button to convert your
document.
6. Alternatively, if you wish to save the PDF under a
different name of directory, just click Cancel and
you will be returned to the Save As dialog.
There are many more options and features available.
(Appending a PDF) Go to the web site below and download
the PDF Primo detailed User Guide.
http://www.primopdf.com/pdfs/
PrimoPDF_V5_User_Guide.pdf
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 5
*
Windows Explorer in Windows 7 (Vista, too)
By Merle Nicholson, Secretary, Tampa PC Users Group, FL, May 2011 issue, Bits of Blue,
www.tpcug.org, [email protected]
Here are some tips on using Windows Explorer in Windows You may get other variations on a right-click, depending on
7 (Vista, too). The old “Up one directory” button that we the ûle type.
all loved is gone in Win 7. It is now (always was) the
keystroke Alt+Up (arrow). Although it’s not hard to
remember, I have it on a programmable key. I guess
there’s no point in making it a hotkey, since it IS a hotkey.
Anyway, use Alt+Up for “Up one directory.” Also, you can
traverse up with the mouse. In the image below, you can
click once on the text between the right arrows. In this
case I can click on “Boot,” “SSD-R0_117GB (C:)” or
“Computer,” and the Explorer will move to those locations.
Also you can click on the arrows themselves and get this,
dropdown list of ûle directories:
And while I’m at it, the in-context menu in Windows
Explorer is slightly different when you hold down the shift
key and right-click on a ûle: Two items are added as
indicated in the below image. The Copy as path is really
useful. It puts the entire drive, path and ûle name as text onto
the clipboard. And if you Shift+right-click on a blank area in
Windows Explorer, you get one with “Open Command
Window Here.” Less useful, but kind of interesting.
I also added a lot of items under Favorites,
because I ûnd the tree menu inadequate.
It’s not the entire tree, but it’s 99% of all the
places I go. This really works.
Also there are the Back and Forward
buttons and the “Recent pages” button
(see image below). The forward and back
buttons do not traverse up and down the
directory tree, but they have the history of
the views of where you’ve been. As does
the Recent pages button. You’ll have to try
the Recent pages button. It can be very
useful.
*
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 6
Enercell
A review by George Harding, Treasurer, Tucson Computer Society, AZ, April 2011 issue, TCS
eJournal, www.aztcs.org, [email protected]
One of the portable batteries devices, iPhone, iPad and iPod, a wire for devices that use
I received for review at the a mini-USB connection and one for those that use a microConsumer Electronics Show USB connection.
is the Enercell. The unit is
This is one of the smallest, most convenient portable
quite small, only about 2" X batteries I’ve seen. It would fit easily into a shirt pocket
3". It charges with a built-in or purse with room to spare. If you’re out of touch with
USB plug, which swings out power or don’t have your charging cable, the Enercell can
from the bottom of the top off your mobile device with ease. Whether it’s an
device. It charges its Li-On iPhone, MP3 player, digital camera, GPS receiver, you can
battery in a reasonable charge them all with an Enercell.
period. The top of the device
The warranty is fairly short, being only 90 days. Most
has a small, circular button electronics fail, if they’re going to, well within the 90 days.
and four very small LED
lights to indicate the degree About: Enercell
of charge. The battery is good for up to 8 hours. Once
Manufacturer: Radio Shack
charged, you turn it on with a very small slider switch on
www.radioshack.com
the side of the unit. You then attach the battery to your
Price: $30
mobile device with one of the wires that comes with the
unit. Connecting wires include one that fits the Apple
*
Mac Tip of the Month - Hardware
By Ernie Cox, Jr., Computer Club of Green Valley, AZ, Summer 2011
issue, Green Bytes, http://ccgv.apcug.org, [email protected]
1. Determine the Integrity of Your
Hardware.
If you suspect you have a hardware problem, not related
to your Mac’s hard drive, troubleshoot with these three
steps:
Run the Apple Hardware Test to confirm or deny your
suspicions. Follow these directions: h t t p : / /
support.apple.com/kb/ht1509.
[MacBook Air instructions: http://support.
apple.com/kb/ht2644].
Reset your SMC (System
Management Controller) to
alleviate common problems with
fans, power management,
sleep, or lights with these
steps:
http://
s u p p o r t .
a p p l e . c o m /
kb/ht3964.
Resetting your PRAM
and NVRAM (http:/
/
support.apple.com/
k b / H T 1 3 7 9 ) can
alleviate problems with volume,
screen resolution, and startup disk
selection.
2. Repair Your Hard
Drive.
If your computer is running slowly,
files are disappearing, or you get a question mark at startup
[this is usually not a good thing], the problem may be your
hard drive. Try these two things before buying a new one:
Use Apple’s free tools to repair your drive. Boot in Safe
Mode, run Disk Utility from your Mac OS X Install disc, or
run fsck. These functions are described in detail at http:/
/support.apple.com/kb/TS1417.
Use Disk Warrior ($100, http://www.alsoft.com)
to rebuild the drive’s directory, which can repair corruption
and prolong the life of your drive.
3. Reinstall Snow Leopard
When all else fails, try reinstalling Mac OS X 10.6 from the
original installation DVD, performing what was formerly
known as an “Archive and Install” of your operating
system. This doesn’t take too much time and can often
solve big problems that aren’t hardware related. Afterward,
be sure to update your software by choosing Apple Menu
> Software Updates.
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 7
*
Drop it in the Box: Dropbox, what it is, how it works
By Jo Grazide, Leader, Word Processing Workshop, Brookdale Computer Users Group, New
Jersey, February 2011 Issue, Bug Bytes, http://bcug.com, [email protected]
What is Dropbox?
Suppose you were able to save work without using a flash
drive, a disk (CD or DVD-R or RW), or an external drive,
or even email, and move files between your laptop and
desktop? For many years, I, like so many of us, had
developed methods and procedures to upload, download,
and save documents, music and pictures to a storage
device, only to have to rely on memory to locate it
afterwards. Another irritating problem for me, especially
when I was working, was to identify the “latest” version,
so that an older file would not overwrite my work during a
“Save As.”
Enter Dropbox, a useful application that eliminates lots
of work and uncertainty.
Dropbox is a free download that offers protection and
convenience and is easy to use. There is basically no
learning involved. You should, however, be familiar with
Drag & Drop and Move vs. Copy. Why not give Dropbox
a try and see whether this is for you.
I first heard of Dropbox during a meeting of my camera
club. Some members seemed happy with it; there were no
negative comments, leading me to investigate. Having a
way to store photography files without worrying about loss
or corruption seemed an ideal solution to the problem of
travel pictures. I got to test this, when I maxed out the
Dropbox folder at around 2 GB during a vacation in
Boston. There are two ways to increase your storage
capacity – you can purchase the program on a monthly or
yearly basis, or you can have friends join the service and
be rewarded a few more MB’s up to a whopping 8 GB.
clicking on its icon, Dropbox will provide easy and helpful
commands.
In addition, I know that once I reach home, altered files
will be available and updated on my desktop machine.
They can be dragged into their proper locations on the
storage drives. This has been extremely useful. Instead of
dealing with two documents, a newer version and an older
version, there is only one synchronized version.
Another nice aspect is that I don’t have to worry about
misplacing storage disks or flash drives, which does happen.
I also would think that it lessens stress, as there is nothing
to lose!
On the Website
There is plenty of information on the Dropbox website.
There are videos and explanations of the synching process.
Basically, anything that is put into the local folder is also
recorded on the Internet. You can also access your files
and upload them directly onto the Dropbox server.
It can be compared to using GoogleDocs or Windows
Live Mesh. Collaboration, by the way, is possible. I haven’t
delved into this, because I simply need a way to move data
between computers. If you want to learn more, you need
to visit the Dropbox website and study this feature.
The Dropbox website has five tabs:
•
•
Get the App
To acquire Dropbox, you need to go to the website at
www.dropbox.com. The download is quick and easy. Just
run it, and follow the instructions. There are six initial steps:
1. Take the tour
2. Install Dropbox
3. Put files in your Dropbox folder
4. Install Dropbox on other computers
5. Share a folder with friends or colleagues
6. Invite friends to join
It is necessary to install the program on all computers that
you will be using. The setup is done on the website, and the
instructions are easy.
In my case, this is my laptop and my desktop. As I move
around with the laptop, to meetings or anywhere I use it,
I’m able to save files as they are created, directly into the
Dropbox folder, which sits in the system tray area. By
•
•
“Get Started” walks you through several chores
before you can earn some extra space. This is
simple and easy to understand.
“Files” is the online list of your current Dropbox
inhabitants, their sizes and the dates they were
modified. You can sort each column by clicking on its
heading. There are buttons here that let you do even
more. A basic knowledge of file management is all
you need to comprehend this part of the application.
“Events” is a listing of various edits, deletions, and
other information about your files.
“Sharing” allows you to create a new folder to share,
or share an existing folder. By following the prompts,
you can identify who you want to share the folder
with. In my case, I began typing my husband’s email
address, and it was prefilled for me. This would
make it easier for multiple shares in a business or
committee setting. Perhaps our next Board meeting
minutes will appear in a Dropbox folder! I also found
that once the shared folder appeared in my local
Dropbox folder, I could rename it and manage it
locally. A refresh caused the change to appear on the
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 8
website immediately. I like this type of efficiency.
There is no lag time, and information can be relayed
quickly between computers.
• Finally, “Help” is all the rest. It seems that the
Dropbox website is complete; you can spend much
time learning about it. I would suggest that you jump
in and try out the program; you can learn by doing as
well.
There are a couple of things I would warn you about as a
new user. If you simply drag and drop the file back and
forth, it copies the file. You may want to right-drag and
choose move to ensure you have the latest version of your
work or photograph. Also, having a comfort level with
storage online to some extent, and not adding things like
your Social Security number or banking information, goes
without saying. Aside from that, there are no problems I
can see with using this reliably.
•
Windows: Windows 2003, Windows XP, Windows
Vista, and Windows 7 (32 and 64-bit).
• Mac OS X: Tiger (10.4) or later.
• Linux: Ubuntu 7.10+ and Fedora Core 9+.
• Also iPhone iOS 3.1, Android 1.5 and Blackberry
4.5.
Pricing: Up to 2 gigabytes of free storage space; DropBox
50, up to 50GB storage for $9.99/month or $99/year;
Dropbox 100, up to 100GB storage for 19.95/month or
$199/year.
For more information: h t t p s : / / w w w .
dropbox.com/plansproducts/desktop
*
One Last Thing
I do have one favor to ask you if you do join Dropbox;
please use the link! It will enable both of us to get some
extra space, a great reward and well deserved! The link to
join on my behalf is http://db.tt/sHvgWQp. I
promise I will not waste that space!!!!!!
System Requirements
Hardware: At least 512MB of RAM; free space on your
computer equal to your Dropbox storage quota.
Software:
Outlook Express to Outlook Tip
By Gordon Giles, a member of the Perth PC Users Group Inc. Western Australia,
www.perthpcug.org.au, [email protected]
Just a small, tip for those people having problems migrating
from Outlook Express to Outlook:
1. Open Outlook express on the desktop
2. Drag the left edge to the right about ½ of the screen.
3. Right click on the clear area on the screen and
create a new Folder. Call it “My mail files”.
4. In the “My mail files” folder, create a matching
folder name for the each one in OE Look at all the
folder names in OE.
5. When you have completed this go back to OE and
start at the top of the folders list and open the first
one, click on just one email.
6. Hold down the “CTRL” key and press the letter “A”
on the keyboard. This will highlight all the emails in
this folder.
7. Using the left mouse button drag the blue highlighted
files all together and place your mouse pointer over
the corresponding folder on the left and let go.
8. After a few seconds open the new file and all the
emails from the OE folder will be in the new folder
9. Do this for all your OE folders including your
address box. Save it to a thumb drive and when
ready to run Outlook do the same in reverse if
you have personal folders in OE you will need to
make the new folder in Outlook. You can only
drag and drop the emails themselves you can’t
copy and paste.
I have never managed to master Import and Export from
Outlook Express to Outlook but have used this method so
later I can open the file and know I have an exact copy of
all my emails. It will work when going from Outlook
Express to Outlook and the other way.
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 9
*
Changing Settings in Your Browser
By Gini Pedersen, Instructor, FREE Internet and Computer Classes, San Diego Continuing
Education; Honorary Lifetime Member, Seniors Computer Group, for her outstanding work in
the community, http://www.iteachyou.com, [email protected]
3. Highlight Web address listed in Home Page
Address box
4. Type in new Web address, including the http:// portion
5. Click Apply (if available); click OK when done
Firefox
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click TOOLS - OPTIONS
Make desired changes
Click General
Click OK when done
Changing the Size of your Browser’s
Display Font
Every software application comes with preset options that
work most of the time for most folks. However, occasionally
you will want to change these default settings.
Following are approximate steps for changing settings in
most versions of Internet Explorer and Firefox:
If you’re having trouble reading the text displayed on
webpages, you might find it helpful to change the default
font display. When you do, the new setting may remain
active each time you open your browser.
To do this, go to http://www.iteachyou.com
and do the following:
Internet Explorer
1. Click VIEW-TEXT SIZE
2. Make your choice
Firefox
Internet Explorer
1. Click TOOLS (or VIEW) - INTERNET OPTIONS
2. Make desired changes
3. Click Apply (if available) and click OK when done
1. Click VIEW-TEXT SIZE
2. Make your choice
Note that changing text size may not work on
some Webpages.
Firefox
1. Click TOOLS - OPTIONS
2. Make desired changes
3. Click OK when done
Adjusting Starting Page in your
Browser
Every browser is preset to open a specific starting webpage
when you open the browser. If you’d prefer to have your
browser open to a specific starting webpage, you can
make this change within the settings of your browser. The
following steps should work exactly (or similarly) for many
versions of Internet Explorer and Firefox:
Internet Explorer
1. Click TOOLS (or VIEW) - INTERNET OPTIONS
2. Click General tab
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 10
*
youSENDit: A Program to Send Large Files
By Corinne Goeke, Computer Club of Green Valley, AZ, Green Bytes, Summer 2011,
, [email protected]
http://ccgv.apcug.org,
Have you ever had a large file you wanted to send it” button at the bottom.
someone? For example, you are a proud new grandparent
Again, you get another pop-up window—hey, they need
and want to share the digital video of the baby with all your to make a living! You are being asked if you want your files
family and friends. You could try attaching the file to an tracked (free 14-day trial). Just click on “No Thanks” and
email and send it that way. But most email programs have “Don’t Show This Message Again.”
a limit on how many megabytes of files you can send in a
Now, your file will be uploaded. When uploading is
single email message (typically ten megabytes).
finished, the recipient will get an email telling him or her
This is where the website, youSENDit comes in handy. there is a file waiting. The recipient can click on the link in
You can upload the large file to their website, and they will the email and download the file.
send an email to the lucky recipient(s) with a download
link. The recipient downloads the file, and you receive
accolades of how the new grandchild looks just like you.
Here’s how to navigate the program the first time.
Open your favorite web browser and go to http://
www.yousendit.com. Go to “Compare Plans” and
select the “Lite” account. This type of account is free. It
limits you to uploading one file at a time, and the file size
is limited to 100 megabytes. Hey, it’s a free account, you
have to accept some limitations. Sign on up.
You will have to confirm your new account via a
confirmation email sent to the email address you used. Click
on the link in the email, and your new account will be verified.
Once your free account has been created, locate that
large file you want to send someone. If you have multiple
files to send, zip them into a single big zip file. Go to the
“Overview” tab in the youSENDit browser window. Click
on the green “Send It Now” button.
Type in the email address of the person to whom you
wish to send the large file. Fill in the subject and include a
message telling the recipient what you are sending them.
Now click on the “Select File” button, and pick the file you
want to upload. It’s your choice. I just click on “No thanks.”
You can also click on “Don’t show this message again.”
At this point you have three choices. You can 1) Set an
expiration date for the file (one week is the default); 2) Set
the file to be downloaded a certain number of times, or 3)
Never have the file expire and always be available to
download. Pick your option and click on the green “Send
Finally, you get a “File Sent Successfully” message. You
can also share the download link on Facebook or on
Twitter by clicking on the appropriate button. Then all the
world could see that beautiful grandchild!
A few caveats—never click on an unknown link in an
email. You may want to warn your recipients that you are
sending them a large file via youSENDit. Also, sharing
copyrighted music and movies is illegal. But I am sure you
all knew that!
*
Editors Note: I have used this program several times
myself. I have sent files. to more than ine reciprient, that are close to
100 MB with no problem. Works great!
Budgeting
Include room in your budget for all the extras your
new CE device may require. When considering an
HDTV, for example, items such as universal remotes,
calibration, and wall mounts add up quickly. Keep
the 50/50 rule in mind: Put half your budget toward
accessories and the other half on the television
itself. Also, remember to research upgrading your
signal to a high-def one—providers do tend to run
specials on service and any equipment upgrades
your setup might necessitate.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 11
Pulse
A review by George Harding, Treasurer, Tucson Computer Society, AZ, April 2011 issue, TCS
eJournal, www.aztcs.org, [email protected]
Pulse is a wireless digital photo frame by Kodak. Its purpose pictures are displayed very clearly. The resolution is in part
is to display a series of photos in several ways, without a function of the display itself and in part the resolution of
human interaction. The frame is about the size of today’s the picture itself. The display’s native resolution is 800 X
tablet devices. It has a receptacle for power, a cord with a 600. Internal memory is 512 MB.
wall plug and an on/off button. The back has a panel that
Another built-in feature is the ability to have the unit turn
opens to allow access from a flash drive or memory cards. itself on and off at preset times each day.
There are other versions of this product, varying in size.
This one is 7" diagonally. It has a one year warranty. A
forthcoming version will have a motion sensor so that the
Pulse will turn itself off until it senses motion nearby, saving
electricity.
About: Pulse
Manufacturer: Kodak
www.kodakpulse.com
Price: About $130
*
Updating Antivirus Software
When you first turn on the Pulse, you get a step-by-step
process for setting up the device, connecting to a network
and establishing an account at Kodak’s Pulse web site.
Once the account is set up, the site sends an email to the
address you entered during setup. When you receive the
email, you click on a link to confirm. Once confirmed, your
account can then be used to upload pictures from your
computer, from Kodak’s site or by use of a memory card
or flash drive.
I uploaded quite a few pictures directly from my laptop.
The photos go first to the Pulse web site, then to the Pulse
unit. There are other ways to upload pictures. For example,
any email-enabled device may upload pictures to the web
site. Mobile phones can be a source and so can Facebook.
When new pictures are added to your Facebook account,
the Pulse is automatically updated.
Once you have photos loaded, they will automatically
display one by one. The order of display is not the same
as the order in which uploaded. It seems to be a sort of
shuffle pattern.
There are a couple of options as to display. The default
is to display one by one, full screen. Another is to fill an
array of four pictures of different sizes in one screen (a
collage). Each of these can be modified by time, such as
3 seconds, 10 seconds or 30, as well as various ways of
switching from one picture to the next.
This device is very easy to use. The screen is touchenabled so there is no need for a remote or keypad. The
How often you update can depend on how you use your
PC. Antivirus software developers frequently update their
applications and signature files, so it’s worth your time to
check the antivirus software’s site every one to two weeks
for updates. If you hear about a dangerous new virus
outbreak, check for emergency or priority updates right
away. Many antivirus applications include an automatic
updater or utility that checks the software’s site for you.
For example, Norton AntiVirus provides a Live-Update
feature that will prompt you to download updates as they
become available. As for scanning your system, most
users only perform a complete system scan once when
they initially install an antivirus application. After that, the
antivirus application resides in system memory where it
continues to scan downloads, emails, macros, and other
potential sources of infection on the fly. Even so, if your
antivirus software runs in memory, you should think about
performing a complete system scan at least once per
month, as well as when there’s a major update to the
software and/or if the system starts behaving strangely. If
you don’t run the antivirus software in memory (maybe
you have a limited amount of system RAM), you’ll need
to perform a complete system scan much more frequently,
such as once a week.
Smart Computing Term: diffuse
In an image-editing program, this is a technique used
to displace colors in an image, giving it an
impressionistic look.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 12
Dick’s Clicks
By Dick Ramette, President, Computer Club of Green Valley, AZ, Summer 20l1 issue, Green
Bytes, ccgv.apcug.org, [email protected]
I’m still gob smacked by Time Magazine’s Feb. 21 cover reticent about expressing opinions.
article, “2045 - The Year Man Becomes Immortal.” Since
I think CCGV members will find The Singularity
these ideas have been around for a few years I’m surprised is Near fascinating, even though most of us will
to be thus surprised.
miss the predicted excitement. You can find a
Just imagine - according to this vision, in a few decades Wikipedia article on Singularitarianism, here:
ultracomputers and human brains will be at one with each h t t p : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i /
other. Our descendants will be able to live free of disease, Singularitarianism
in regenerated bodies of any desired condition, until they’re
But, oh, what big questions come to mind. If one’s life
ready to “log out.” All this will follow explosive advances ends only by accident, murder or suicide, what will that
in GNR (genetics, nanotechnology and robotics).
mean for retirement, birth rate and population? In a world
If you missed this, you can read it online at: http:// that offers perfect virtual reality will anyone bother with
www.time.com/time/health/article/ movies, restaurants, cruise ships, football games, or
0,8599,2048138,00.html
recreational sex?”
Unfortunately, this online version omits a truly exciting
Will nations accept world government by artificial
graphical summary of computer evolution since 1900 and intelligence, or will there be international cyberwars? Will
projections to 2045, which you can find at: http:// the new benefits be shared only by the rich and elite? Will
w w w . t i m e . c o m / t i m e / i n t e r a c t i v e / it be possible to download, say, Yo-Yo Ma’s cello genius
into, say, Sarah P’s brain? What will the word “education”
0,31813,2048601,00.html
The recognized guru for this prognostication is Ray come to mean if knowledge can be downloaded?
If nearly everything is perfectly run by Ultra-AI, where
Kurzweil who, at age five had the idea he would become an
inventor. He holds 39 patents and 19 honorary doctorates. will biological humans find ambition and personal
He received the National Medal of Technology in 1999 from inspiration? Might biological humans be forced into robot
President Clinton, and is called by Bill Gates “the best person roles, subservient to vastly greater machine intelligences?
I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence.”
Singularitarianism is a matter of understanding, not of Quote of the Month:
faith. However, its “bible” is Kurzweil’s 2005 book, “The “Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a
Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology machine that can far surpass all the intellectual
(Amazon, paper, $13.78) the title invoking both curiosity activities of any [person] however clever. Since the
and apprehension. By “Singularity” Kurzweil means the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities,
achievement of highly advanced human capabilities through an ultraintelligent machine could design even better
interfaces between the human brain and supercomputers machines; there would then unquestionably be an
that exceed today’s capabilities by factors of billions. We ‘intelligence explosion,’ and the intelligence of [humans]
will “reverse engineer” the brain. On p. 127: “Ultimately, would be left far behind. Thus, the first ultraintelligent
we will be able to port our mental processes to a more machine is the last invention that [humans] need ever
suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t make.” Irving John Good, 1965
have to stay so small.”
Photo IDs
Bloodstreams will be suffused with swarming nanobots
Get the little ones in on the action of gift giving. Instead
that fix all sorts of ills, receiving wireless instructions to
of using a traditional To/From tag, get creative. Print
eradicate diseases, including the disease of aging, By
out a few of your favorite digital photos and ask the
“Near,” he means within our grown children’s lifetimes.
kids to cut out pictures of the recipient and your
“Immortal” includes the possibility that human brains and
family. Then, paste the cutouts onto the package to
minds will be uploaded and stored digitally, as well as living
display the giver and receiver. This is especially great
indefinitely in perfect health.
if you have a niece or nephew graduating and want to
In early chapters Kurzweil summarizes the evidence
involve your kids. Even if your little princess is still
that all the key factors in technology are racing toward the
learning her ABCs, she’ll know who the gift is for by
future at a steadily increasing rate. Human beings have
“reading” the picture tag.
evolved to think linearly, and therefore greatly underestimate
the power of exponential changes that will affect us
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart
profoundly, naively dismissing them as “Not anytime soon!”
Computing can do for you and your user group!
IMHO, those who have not read the book should be
*
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 13
Word 2007 – A few useful tips
By Lynn Page, Editor, Crystal River Users Group, Florida, February 2011 issue, CRUG
newsletter, www.crug.com, [email protected]
row of buttons next to the Microsoft Office Button above the
The Ribbon
With Office 2007 Microsoft introduced a totally new interface Ribbon. By default, the QuickAccess Toolbar contains buttons
that has carried forward into Office 2010. The new Ribbon for Save, Undo, and Repeat (Redo). In addition, the toolbar can
interface provides access to program features organized into be customized to contain personal favorites.
Click the down arrow beside the toolbar to open the Customize
logical groups on tabs relating to a type of activity. Some tabs
Quick
Access Toolbar drop down menu. In the drop down
appear only when needed like the Picture Tools tab, shown
menu,
click
a command to select it for inclusion in the toolbar.
when a picture is selected.
For
more
versatility,
add commands directly from the Ribbon.
When a tab is selected the Ribbon becomes a graphical
Find
the
command
on
the Ribbon, right click it and clickAdd to
presentation of the program commands in that group.
Quick Access Toolbar.
So commands are readily available and noticeable making it
easy to see things you may not have known existed or were too A Few Useful Commands
much trouble to find.
Paste Special
Office Button
One problem with the Ribbon interface was finding the old
File drop down menu commands. The Office Button replaced
the File drop down menu and Options dialog box. Clicking
the Office button at the top left of the application window
opens a drop down menu. From the menu you can create a
new document, open an existing document and save or print
the current document. It also provides a list of recently
accessed documents. The Word Options dialog box is also
accessed from the menu.
The Paste Special command controls the format of pasted text.
This is good when copying text or a graphic from another
document or a web page to paste into a Word document. The
Paste Special dialog box gives options for the format of text or
graphic being pasted. The “Unformatted text” option cleans up
pasted text. It pastes bare, unformatted text only. All other
formattinginformationisstrippedout,includingbold,underlining,
italics, indents, bullets etc.
Character Spacing
Character spacing found on the font dialog box is useful in final
editing to eliminate orphans and widows.
Quick Preview
Areally great feature is quick preview. It lets you see formatting
changes before applying them. With the movement of the
mouse over the proposed formatting, you see how the document
looks with that formatting.
Mini Toolbar
When working within a Tab, the Commands available on others
are not visible. However some formatting commands are so
important they are available all the time through the Mini toolbar.
With text selected point at the selection and the Mini toolbar
appears near the selected text in a faded fashion. Pointing to the
Mini toolbar makes it become solid. Click a formatting option on
the toolbar to apply the format.
Quick Access Toolbar
The Mini toolbar is great for formatting options, but doesn’t
offer other commands. For these the Quick Access Toolbar is
a solution makes frequently used commands available for easy
access, regardless of which tab of the Ribbon is active. It is the
Change Case
Change Case is accessed from the Home Tab in the Font
Group. It is not in the Font dialog box. Select the text and Click
the Change Case icon in the Font group on the Home tab. Select
Sentence case, lowercase, UPPERCASE, Capitalize Each
Word and tOOGLE cASE in the drop down menu.
Text Wrapping Break
Text Wrapping breaks along with text wrapping control how
text is placed with respect to graphics. Add a Text Wrapping
Break to start the next line of text below the graphic.
Any type of break is added from the Page Layout tab. In
the Page Setup group click Breaks. From the drop down
menu select the appropriate break. Page, Column and Text
Wrapping breaks are in the Page Breaks section. The
different types of Section breaks are available in the Section
Breaks section. They include next Page, Continuous, Even
Page and Odd Page.
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 14
*
Cyber Security Tip ST08-001 –
Using Caution with USB Drives
Author: Mindi McDowell, Produced 2008, 2011 by US-CERT, a government organization,
http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/STYY-XXX.html
Note: This tip was previously published and is being
• Take advantage of security features – Use
re-distributed to increase awareness.
passwords and encryption on your USB drive to
USB drives are popular for storing and transporting data,
protect your data, and make sure that you have the
but some of the characteristics that make them convenient
information backed up in case your drive is lost (see
also introduce security risks. What security risks are
Protecting Portable Devices: Data Security for
associated with USB drives?
more information).
Because USB drives, sometimes known as thumb drives,
• Keep personal and business USB drives separate –
are small, readily available, inexpensive, and extremely
Do not use personal USB drives on computers
portable, they are popular for storing and transporting files
owned by your organization, and do not plug USB
from one computer to another. However, these same
drives containing corporate information into your
characteristics make them appealing to attackers.
personal computer.
One option is for attackers to use your USB drive to
• Use and maintain security software, and keep all
infect other computers. An attacker might infect a computer
software up to date - Use a firewall, anti-virus
with malicious code, or malware, that can detect when a
software, and anti-spyware software to make your
USB drive is plugged into a computer. The malware then
computer less vulnerable to attacks, and make sure
downloads malicious code onto the drive. When the USB
to keep the virus definitions current (see
drive is plugged into another computer, the malware
Understanding Firewalls, Understanding Anti-Virus
infects that computer.
Software, and Recognizing and Avoiding Spyware
Some attackers have also targeted electronic devices
for more information). Also, keep the software on
directly, infecting items such as electronic picture frames
your computer up to date by applying any necessary
and USB drives during production. When users buy the
patches (see Understanding Patches for more
infected products and plug them into their computers,
information).
malware is installed on their computers.
• Do not plug an unknown USB drive into your
Attackers may also use their USB drives to steal
computer – If you find a USB drive, give it to the
information directly from a computer. If an attacker can
appropriate authorities (a location’s security
physically access a computer, he or she can download
personnel, your organization’s IT department, etc.).
sensitive information directly onto a USB drive. Even
Do not plug it into your computer to view the
computers that have been turned off may be vulnerable,
contents or to try to identify the owner.
because a computer’s memory is still active for several
• Disable Autorun – The Autorun feature causes
minutes without power. If an attacker can plug a USB
removable media such as CDs, DVDs, and USB
drive into the computer during that time, he or she can
drives to open automatically when they are inserted
quickly reboot the system from the USB drive and copy the
into a drive. By disabling Autorun, you can prevent
computer’s memory, including passwords, encryption keys,
malicious code on an infected USB drive from
and other sensitive data, onto the drive.
opening automatically. In How to disable the
Victims may not even realize that their computers
Autorun functionality in Windows, Microsoft has
were attacked.
provided a wizard to disable Autorun. In the
“More Information” section, look for the Microsoft
The most obvious security risk for USB drives, though,
Fix it icon under the heading “How to disable or
is that they are easily lost or stolen (see Protecting Portable
enable all Autorun features in Windows 7 and
Devices: Physical Security for more information). If the
other operating systems.”
data was not backed up, the loss of a USB drive can mean
hours of lost work and the potential that the information
Get Help Quickly
cannot be replicated. And if the information on the drive is
not encrypted, anyone who has the USB drive can access
Get help with the press of a button. Pressing the F1 key
all of the data on it.
while in most applications with open the Help files
associated the application.
How can you protect your data? There are steps you can
take to protect the data on your USB drive and on any
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
computer that you might plug the drive into:
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart
*
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 15
The Killer App of the 21st Century
By Vinny LaBash, Contributing Columnist, Sarasota PCUG, Florida, June 2011 issue,
Sarasota PC Monitor, www.spcug.org, labashspcug.org
It’s tempting to get started quickly, but
Over the years, and more than once, my wife has said
“Until computers work the way they do on Star Trek, they to get the best results you need to setup
are not ready for prime time”. She has a point. While your microphone properly. Access the
computers, smart phones, laptops, tablets, and other close Configure Your Speech Recognition
relatives of PCs have certainly become ubiquitous in our dialog box, and select Set up
society, they are among the most complex devices ever Microphone. Tell Windows what kind
developed by human beings. Their internal complexity of microphone you’re using and the
rivals that of the most advanced F-22 fighter planes. No Setup Wizard will tell you how to position
one expects grandma to climb into the cockpit of one of your equipment and set your audio level.
these things and be an expert after a few lessons because
Now comes the hard part. Bring up the Configure Your
no one expects an F-22 fighter to be easy to use.
Speech Recognition dialog box again and select Train
Despite what you have been hearing for years, computers Your Computer to Understand You. The Wizard will
are not easy to use, and they are anything but intuitive. If now guide you through some phrases which give Windows
Isaac Newton were suddenly transported from the 17th the information it needs to understand how to interpret and
century to the present and handed a smart phone, he would execute your commands. Training the computer may be
have no idea what to do with it. The ability to make a annoying, but it is nowhere near as irritating as trying to get
computer do something useful has nothing to do with your dog to fetch, heel, roll over, and play dead.
intelligence and everything to do with familiarity. Twelve
Microsoft has thoughtfully provided a reference card
year olds have no problems with smart phones or other which explains how you tell Windows to handle common
devices controlled by microchips because these objects speech recognition commands, keyboard shortcuts,
have always been a part of their young lives. Most adults punctuation marks, and other special characters. You can
have not enjoyed a similar advantage, and many feel that print it out from the Control Panel’s Speech Recognition
technology often works against them.
dialog box. Windows will not respond to “Go jump in the
The problem is that people have had to adjust to the Lake”, nor will it attempt to perform any anatomically
needs of technology rather than the other way around. impossible acts. Keep your requests reasonable, and
That is the basis of my wife’s complaint about computers. Windows will get along with you just fine.
She thinks they should adjust to her, and I believe she is
Smart phones are also getting into the voice activation
right. In the 1982 movie “Firefox”, Clint Eastwood played business. Newer Android models have a neat application
a character sent on a covert mission to the Soviet Union to that does some very useful things. Google Voice Search is
steal an advanced aircraft that could be controlled by the nothing short of amazing. I spoke into my recently purchased
pilot’s thoughts through a neural link. This was and still is Android driven HTC Thunderbolt “Pictures of Ringling
science fiction, but it’s also a good example of digital Causeway Bridge” and the result was four pictures of the
technology adjusting to the needs of analog beings like us. bridge, including a map of how to get there from my
The “Killer App” of the 21st century will be a tool that Sarasota location.
makes computers and other complex devices adapt to us.
I then tried “How far from the earth is the Moon?” This
It already exists, but it’s still in its infancy or perhaps even brought up a selection of web sites, one informing me of the
its embryonic stage. Wherever it is on the evolutionary distance in miles, and a second of the distance in kilometers.
scale, it has not yet moved much beyond the multi-cellular There were loads of additional astronomical information
level. We’re talking about present day speech recognition, about our nearest planetary neighbor, far too much to
a considerable distance from Star Trek where machines explore in one session, but lots of reasons for a return visit
understand natural language and react to it as another for the curious.
person would.
Next was “Directions to Starbucks”. I instantly knew
Windows 7 has speech recognition built-in. You don’t the location of all the Starbucks in Sarasota, and I had my
have to pay extra for it. Using it can be quite entertaining choice of getting directions by public or private
as well as educational. Set it up on your computer with a transportation. The application even offered directions by
three step process accessed within Windows Control bicycle or foot.
Panel. You will need either a stand-alone microphone or
In an effort to stump it I asked “How can we get rid of
one attached to a headset. The headset-microphone Khadafi?” Incredibly, the thing gave me an answer that
combination is the better option. It’s comfortable, and the might actually work. The Pentagon should be informed.
headset filters out extraneous noise better than most
It effortlessly translated units of measurement from one
standalone mikes.
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 16
system to another such as miles to kilometers, and yards to
centimeters. It told me a gallon of water weighs
approximately 8.35 pounds, and on and on. I finally stopped
it cold when I asked it to change miles per hour into
furlongs per fortnight, but that was probably unfair.
Google is doing a great job with getting technology to
adapt to us. There is still a long way to go, but the future
looks promising which brings us back to Star Trek.
Whenever Captain Picard wants tea, he always asks for
it the same way. He says “Tea, Earl, Grey, hot.” Why can’t
he say something like “Tea, my usual?” I suspect the
computer is smart enough, and the fault lies in the
scriptwriter’s lack of imagination.
*
Tips & Tricks | Tutorial
Better File Information with Windows Explorer
Sort your files more intelligently with a few simple clicks.
By Les Townsing, a member of the Melbourne PCUG, Australia
April 2011 issue, PC UPDATE, www.melbpc.org.au, [email protected]
There is often a lot of information automatically
recorded when you save a file. This information can
be easily displayed and can prove to be useful when
sorting/categorizing files.
Normally, when you open Windows Explorer (rightclick on the Start button and select ‘Explore’) you get
displays indicating the file name, size, date modified,
and other general information (see below).
If, however, we right-click anywhere on the Column
Heading bar we get a lot of additional columns we
can add. Depending on the type of files you can
select some meaningful columns. If we are looking at
picture files (jpg) some appropriate columns may be
Date Taken, Dimensions or file size.
If you right-click on a file and select properties, you
get to view all the possible information as well as the
ability to edit some of the fields.
You can now sort your files by any of the columns
(just left click on the column heading).
If we right-click on a file, we can select Rename
and change the name to a more meaningful title
rather than a bunch of numbers. These features
may be more meaningful if we use music files as
an example.
Unfortunately, some of the “Ripper” programs
(programs that copy CDs and often convert the files
to MP3s) get it wrong or leave a lot of stuff out, which
can be quite annoying, particularly if it is the artist’s
name or the title of the song.
When selecting a CD Ripper program this is one
item worth checking.
Extra Tip
If you select a file (click on it) then hold down the
shift key whilst clicking on another file then the
system will select all the files in between and including
the first and last file you clicked on. Now, if you rightclick on any one of the selected files and choose
properties, you can edit a field for all the selected
files. This is no good for titles as every file must have
a different name. However, it is good when you want
to edit the album title or artist for a number of tracks.
Extra Extra Tip
Often the files you want to select are not consecutive
in a list. No problem, hold down the control key then
click on the files you want. As you click on the files
they become marked as selected. You can then rightclick on any selected file to edit the properties of all
the selected files.
*
Remember to attend the
User Group Picnic,
see page 2 for details
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 17
Software Review – UbuntuOne
By Drew Kwashnak, Director, Danbury Area Computer Society, CT, January 2011 issue,
DACS.doc, a Computer and Technology Newsletter, www.dacs.org, [email protected]
Computers are great, aren’t they? What else can help you don’t have Internet access then, then it will synchronize
lose so many files, pictures and home videos so easily? the next time it is able to connect.
When you have more than one computer, then you have
All the while, you still have a web interface available that
double the chance of losing anything (plus your sanity)!
allows you to upload files, add directories and delete files
That’s where the Internet comes to help. The folks who from any computer with a browser, and have it automatically
bring you the Ubuntu Linux distribution have made a great update your Ubuntu systems the next time they synchronize.
product that helps organize and keep your files where you You can even download or publish files from your
can find them. They call it …
UbuntuOne account through this interface. Published files
are accessible to other people, without having to grant
them access to all of your files.
This is where UbuntuOne pulls ahead of the other sites
with features they just don’t have. Ubuntu synchronizes
more than just files.
If your monitor is outlined by sticky notes like a lion’s
mane, you will be happy to learn that Ubuntu includes a
note taking application, Tomboy. Tomboy notes, combined
with UbuntuOne, synchronize just as easily as your files.
For those times you are not in front of your Ubuntu Linux
machines, you can use the web interface to add, update
and delete your notes, which will be updated on your
systems the next time they are synchronized.
Despite the “One” in its name, UbuntuOne is two
Have you ever wanted to send an email and find you
components; the installed application that comes installed
have it on your other machine? Just as Notes can be
on each Ubuntu Linux release since 8.04 LTS, and the site
synchronized with UbuntuOne and edited through a web
located on Canonical servers on the Internet. The real
browser, so are your contacts stored in Ubuntu’s default
magic, though, is where these two components meet.
email client, Evolution. Evolution is an email, calendar, task
Typically, online file storage requires you to install their and contacts application similar to Microsoft’s Outlook,
application and set a single directory to synchronize with except the address book can be automatically synchronized
your account. UbuntuOne, on the other hand, is already with UbuntuOne.
installed on Ubuntu. Instead of selecting a single directory
Even better, UbuntuOne now offers UbuntuOne Mobile
to synchronize with your online space, you can select a
that allows you to synchronize your contacts with your
number of existing or new directories to synchronize. In
iPhone, Android, Blackberry or any of the 1,000 of phones
this way, you can keep your documents in your Documents
supported. One address book to rule them all!
directory, pictures in your Pictures directory and anything
With a Firefox Add On called
you want in any directory. When a file is added, deleted or
Bindwood,
your bookmarks can
updated, the system automatically synchronizes the changes
be
synchronized
with your
with your online location, depending on Internet access.
UbuntuOne account. So by
The beauty of this stands out when you have more than
signing into one simple account
one Ubuntu system connected to your UbuntuOne account.
you can get your files, notes,
First, when you point Ubuntu to your UbuntuOne account,
contacts and bookmarks
whatever directories you had set to synchronize before
automatically synchronized
will be automatically set to synchronize on your new
across multiple machines, or
system as well. No need to remember which directories
all of your information put
are set and which ones are not.
back onto a fresh installation or upgrade. Yet UbuntuOne
Afterward, whichever system modifies a file in a flagged does more than just file storage and synchronization.
directory, that change will automatically be updated in all
With version 10.04 LTS, Lucid Lynx, the people from
other systems connecting to your account. So you can
UbuntuOne introduced the UbuntuOne Music Store. This
make a slide show presentation on your desktop and have
combines the default music player Rythmbox with an
it automatically updated on the laptop the next time it logs
online music store so you can browse, buy and play your
in to UbuntuOne over the Internet, and vice versa. If you
music, through the same application. Songs bought are
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 18
high quality 256 kbps or higher DRM-free MP3s and are
placed in your UbuntuOne account. It is then accessible
and downloadable by all of your Ubuntu Linux systems.
Don’t worry about running out of space either, there is no
storage limit to the music you purchase.
Not only can you buy, store and access your music from
any of your Ubuntu Linux systems, UbuntuOne Mobile
allows you to stream your own music from your account,
uploaded and purchased, to your iPhone or Android phone.
So now your music can be stored in one location, and
accessed by your computers and your phone.
Don’t think they are done adding features, either.
Currently the UbuntuOne team is working on a beta
version that runs on Microsoft Windows as well as adding
to UbuntuOne Mobile the ability to automatically
synchronize pictures taken with your smart phone.
I know what you are thinking, how much does all of this
cost? The free basic account gives you 2 GB of space free.
This allows you to synchronize your files, contacts, bookmarks
and tasks between all of your Ubuntu Linux systems and to
use the web interface. More space can be purchased as a
20-pack; 20 GB blocks of additional storage space for $2.99
per month or $29.99 per year. Purchased music synchronizes
with all accounts, and if the combination of music and files
puts you over your limit, it doesn’t stop you from buying more
music. You are not able to add any more files to your
UbuntuOne account until either your combined files and
music are removed to fit within your storage space, or your
storage space is increased to more than the combined files.
UbuntuOne Mobile includes the Contact synchronization as
well as music streaming capabilities for $3.99 per month or
$39.99 per year.
Support for Windows is still in the early stages of Beta,
but if you are interested in getting involved, more information
is available at https://wiki.ubuntu.com/
UbuntuOne/Windows.
It’s very early, and only allows synchronizing the Ubuntu
One folder manually unless you make it a scheduled task.
The ability to synchronize other folders, contacts, bookmarks
and notes are on the project’s To Do list.
If nothing else, UbuntuOne makes it easy to backup and
store files, music and pictures while at the same time
making it so simple to restore these to a replacement, new
or updated system. On a personal note, I have been using
UbuntuOne to keeps files on my desktop and laptop in sync
and it has been doing a wonderful job. This and other
articles have been saved in a synchronized folder and I
have had no problems accessing and updating the files
from one system to the other. With the basic version and
Ubuntu Linux free of charge, why not give it a spin and try
it out for yourself?
For more information, go to h t t p s : / /
one.ubuntu.com/
*
Drew Kwashnak has been using Ubuntu off-and-on for over 5 years
now, and with the way UbuntuOne is helping keep his files accessible
and in check, it looks like he may be sticking with Ubuntu for a
while now.
P-Flip Power Dock
A review by George Harding, Treasurer, Tucson Computer Society, AZ, April 2011 issue, TCS
eJournal, www.aztcs.org, [email protected]
This is a compact portable battery you can use to charge all 3 for fully charged. The battery
your MP3 player, mobile phone, camera or whatever when stores enough to provide up to 8
you run out of power. It’s frustrating to find out you forgot hours of talk time, and provides 2,000
to charge your phone when you need to make an important mAh of power. The battery is lithium
call, or your camera when you have the opportunity for a polymer. If your phone is connected
great shot. The device is attractively designed to sit upright to a laptop, you can sync your iPhone
when your phone is connected to it. The unit I received for data with iTunes. So, this is a dualreview works with the iPhone 3G/3GS and iPod 2G/1G. function charger, updating your
There are other versions of the device that work with saved data as well as charging the
phone. A version of the device
Blackberry units.
The charger base contains the battery and is about 2" X charged by solar energy is also
3" and has a hinged holder for the device to be charged. available from the manufacturer.
The accompanying cable has a mini-USB plug on one end
About: P-Flip Power Dock
and a USB plug on the other. Charging is solely by a USB
Manufacturer: Dexim
port in your laptop or other unit . There is a small button on
www .dexim .net
one side that allows you to check the charge status. The
Price: $30 from AT&T.com
three LED lights on the top light up: 1 or 2 for partial charge,
*
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 19
Who Really Owns Your Photos in Social Media?
Twitter CEO Dick Costolo announced June 1 that the
company
was
partnering
(http://
allthingsd.com/20110601/twitter-ceodick-costolo-live-at-d9) with Photobucket
(http://photobucket.com/twitter) to make
it easy to share photos at Twitter.com (http://
blog.twitter.com/2011/06/
searchphotos.html). With a “Twitter native photosharing experience,” he said, “users will own their own
rights to their photos.” The implication? That this might not
be the case with third-party services.Therein lies the real
battle over photo-sharing sites: Who owns what?
Twitter’s Sean Garrett (@sg) echoed Costolo’s message
in a tweet (http://twitter.com/#%21/SG/
status/76072211756232705): “What’s yours is
yours - you own your content on Twitter. Your photos will
be part of that content.”
Costolo and Garrett were alluding to a virtual dust-up last
month (http://www.thinq.co.uk/2011/5/11/
twitpic-signs-deal-sell-users-photos/)
in which World Entertainment News Network (WENN)
announced that it had partnered (h t t p : / /
www.nytimes.com/2011/05/23/technology/
23terms.html) with Twitpic to “sell images posted”
on the site and “to pursue legal action against those who
use such images commercially without its permission.”
Although WENN said it was interested only in photos
posted to celebrity accounts, the outcry caused Twitpic to
back-pedal and revise its terms of service (http://
twitter.com/#%21/TwitPic/status/
68031514629251072) the next day.
by Kathy E. Gill, June 6, 2011
Incidents like this have prompted Seattle attorney Katherine
Hendricks to advise photographers to “think carefully
about the risk of losing control” over their photographs.
There’s serious, painstakingly Photoshopped professional
photography and then there’s the cellphone photo of an
airplane in the Hudson River (http://twitpic.com/
135xa). Copyright is an exclusive right that applies to
both types of photos, but according to Kraig Baker
( h t t p : / / w w w . h l l a w . c o m /
professionalsKHendicks.php), a license is also
a form of ownership. And almost every photo-sharing site
claims a non-exclusive license to all content posted there.
Baker, a lawyer and adjunct professor at the University of
Washington, said those licenses “have subtle differences”
that can have significant material impact on the copyright
holder. One such difference is non-commercial versus
commercial exploitation, the kind WENN claimed.
WHAT TRIPPED UP TWITPIC?
Twitpic got into trouble when it moved from simple TOS to
a more complicated one (http://j.mp/photosharing-tos):
You retain all ownership rights to Content uploaded to
Twitpic. However, by submitting Content to Twitpic, you
hereby grant Twitpic a worldwide, non-exclusive, royaltyfree, sublicenseable and transferable license to use,
reproduce, distribute, prepare derivative works of, display,
and perform the Content in connection with the Service
and Twitpic’s (and its successors’ and affiliates’) business,
including without limitation for promoting and redistributing
part or all of the Service (and derivative works thereof) in
any media formats and through any media channels.
How does that compare with Twitter’s TOS (http:/
/j.mp/photo-sharing-tos)? (Highlighted phrases
are the same or equivalent):
You retain your rights to any Content you submit, post or
display on or through the Services. By submitting, posting
or displaying Content on or through the Services, you grant
us a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-free license (with
the right to sublicense) to use, copy, reproduce, process,
adapt, modify, publish, transmit, display and distribute such
Content in any and all media or distribution methods (now
known or later developed).
You agree that this license includes the right for Twitter
to make such Content available to other companies,
organizations or individuals who partner with Twitter for
the syndication, broadcast, distribution or publication of
such Content on other media and services, subject to our
terms and conditions for such Content use.
Such additional uses by Twitter, or other companies,
organizations or individuals who partner with Twitter,

NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 20
may be made with no compensation paid to you with
respect to the Content that you submit, post, transmit or
otherwise make available through the Services.
If the language makes your eyes cross, you aren’t alone.
Baker agrees that the agreements are hard to understand.
There are three main areas to check. First, Twitpic claims
transferability; Twitter does not. Thus Twitpic reserves
the right to transfer its ownership (license) rights to
another entity. Second, both extend their rights to their
partners. Third, Twitter acknowledges that this license is
free; that is, don’t expect compensation if your content is
used elsewhere.
ADVICE FOR PHOTOGRAPHERS
Baker advises photographers to think about these things
when reviewing a license:
• the reach (Twitpic and Twitter are both global
licenses, worldwide, non-exclusive, sublicensable),
• the scope (both Twitpic and Twitter claim broad
rights to modify and display photos) and
• any restrictions, such as a prohibition on commercial
use (neither explicitly prohibits commercial use and
Twitter tacitly acknowledges commercial use is
possible in its statement about compensation).
In a blog post last month (h t t p : / / b l o g .
twitpic.com/2011/05/your-content-yourcopyrights/), Twtipic’s founder said that the intent
of the TOS change was to protect Twitpic photographers:
As we’ve grown, Twitpic has been a tool for the spread
of breaking news and events. Since then we’ve seen this
content being taken without permission and misused.
We’ve partnered with organizations to help us combat this
and to distribute newsworthy content in the appropriate
manner. This has been done to protect your content from
organizations who have in the past taken content without
permission.
Indeed, in mid-May Mashable reported (http://
mashable.com/2011/05/17/space-shuttletwitpic/) that photos that Stephanie Gordon (http:/
/twitpic.com/4yg6hs) took of the space shuttle
Endeavour — and that she uploaded to Twitter via Twitpic
— had been appropriated by ABC and CBS without credit
(or compensation). But the Associated Press paid her
$500 for each photo. Gordon wasn’t the first to have a
tweeted photo make its way into mainstream media
channels without compensation.
Twitter details “display guidelines” (http://
support.twitter.com/entries/114233) in its
Help Center:
We welcome and encourage the use of Twitter in
broadcast. The requirements below are in place to ensure
that Twitter users receive attribution for their content, and
to help provide the best experience for those watching
your broadcast.
But if credit for your work is important to you, take
another look at Flickr, which is about seven times larger (in
unique visitors) than Twitpic.
ALL LICENSE AGREEMENTS ARE
NOT CREATED EQUAL
Flickr, launched in 2004, has the most constrained terms of
the major photo-sharing sites. It also has the most unique
visitors of the photo-sharing sites reviewed.
With respect to photos, graphics, audio or video you
submit or make available for inclusion on publicly accessible
areas of the Yahoo Services other than Yahoo Groups, the
license to use, distribute, reproduce, modify, adapt, publicly
perform and publicly display such Content on the
Yahoo Services solely for the purpose for which such
Content was submitted or made available. (emphasis
added)
Unlike Twitter or Twitpic, Yahoo limits its license claim
to the Yahoo site and further limits the license to the original
use. In other words, if someone uploads a photo to Flickr,
Yahoo is not saying that the license gives it the right to put
the photo on its news site. Because Yahoo has an API that
allows third-party sites to display Flickr photos, this relatively
limited license does not prohibit out-of-site sharing.
Moreover, in a document outlining the process for
permissions requests (h t t p : / / p r e s s r o o m .
yahoo.net/pr/ycorp/permissions.
aspx#photos), Yahoo makes it clear that its license is
not as broad as the Twitter or Twitpic license:
Photos and/or images found on Yahoo Images or Flickr
are the property of the users that posted them. Yahoo
cannot grant permission to use third party content. Please
contact the user directly.
Contrast this license with Photobucket, owned in part by
News Corp (http://photobucket.com/about).
and similar in both age and audience reach to Flickr. The
Photobucket terms of service are among the least favorable
(http://j.mp/photo-sharing-tos) of any
of the photo-sharing sites. Photobucket grants other site
users the same non-exclusive rights as it claims for itself.
Moreover, the Photobucket TOS legitimizes using someone
else’s photo (differences highlighted):
Photobucket does not claim any ownership rights in the
text, files, images, photos ... By displaying or publishing
(“posting”) any Content on or through the Photobucket
Services, you hereby grant to Photobucket and other
users a non-exclusive, fully paid and royalty-free,
worldwide, limited license to use, modify, delete from, add
to, publicly perform, publicly display, reproduce and translate
such Content, including without limitation distributing part
or all of the Site in any media formats through any media
channels, except Content marked “private” will not be
distributed outside the Photobucket Services. Photobucket
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 21
Photos cont. on page 22
Photos cont. from page 21
and/or other Users may copy, print or display publicly
available Content outside of the Photobucket
Services, including without limitation, via the Site or
third party websites or applications (for example,
services allowing Users to order prints of Content or
t-shirts and similar items containing Content). After
you remove your Content from the Photobucket Website
we will cease distribution as soon as practicable, and at
such time when distribution ceases, the license to such
Content will terminate.
Both Twitter and Photobucket representatives say that
any Twitter photos hosted there will be subject to Twitter’s
TOS, not Photobucket’s.
Another player with a scale similar to Twitpic, yFrog
(ImageShack) quietly changed its TOS after the Twitpic
controversy. In a non-dated agreement, the yFrog TOS
gives a nod to Yahoo 9 (http://j.mp/photosharing-tos):
The content that you distribute through the ImageShack
Network is owned by you, and you give ImageShack
permission to display and distribute said content exclusively
on the ImageShack Network.
ImageShack will not sell or distribute your content to
third parties or affiliates without your permission.
However, Yahoo has another ace up its sleeve: the ability
for photographers to customize their rights using Creative
Commons licenses. None of the newer, mobile/Twitter
affiliated photo-sharing sites offer this option. But in
response to the Twitpic controversy, Amsterdam-based
MobyPicture told its customer base that a Creative
Commons
licensing
scheme
(http://
mathys.vanabbe.com/your-content-isyours/) is in the works. There’s a downside to using
Moby, however. Currently Twitter does not offer image
preview for Moby photos on Twitter.com like it does for
Flickr, Twitpic and yFrog.
Most of Twitter’s traffic comes from third-party
applications ( h t t p : / / a l l t h i n g s d . c o m /
20110601/twitter-ceo-dick-costololive-at-d9/?mod=tweet), not its website.
Therefore, at least in the short term, Twitter’s partnership
with Photobucket will affect only a fraction of its customer
base. In the meantime, read the fine print and check your
photo-sharing site TOS often. Many have no dates, and it’s
common for them to change without notice.
Then think about what the word “ownership” means to
you. In an age of user-generated content, the tensions that
underpin the Twitpic controversy will not go quietly into the
night.
Go to https://spreadsheets.google.com/
spreadsheet/pub?hl=en_US&hl=en_US&key=
0AnXSzfUpz7nXdGJGNjVmNlpiMk
JHcTRUT2pvV1hMamc&output=html for a detailed
comparison of the terms of service for 16 photo sharing
sites and see additional statistics below.
Kathy Gill has been online since the early 1990s, having discovered
CompuServe before Marc Andreessen launched Mosaic at the
University of Illinois in 1993. In 1995, she built and ran one of the
first political candidate websites in Washington state. Gill then
rode the dot-com boom as a communication consultant who could
speak web, until the crash. In 2001, she began her fourth career as a
full-time academic, first teaching techies about communications
and now teaching communicators about technology. At the
University of Washington, she teaches undergraduate digital
journalism as well as classes in the Master of Communication in
Digital Media program. For almost five years, she covered politics
for About.com; for three years, she covered agriculture.
*
Keep It Simple
Vacations are meant for relaxing, so don’t saddle
yourself with so much equipment that you spend half
the time worrying about where everything is and end up
with a dent in your shoulder from hauling it all around.
Let’s say you’re a photography buff, and you have all
sorts of expensive filters and lenses for that new digital
SLR. Before hauling a heavy camera bag to every
museum, ball park, or point of interest, think realistically
about what you’ll have the chance to photograph, pack
accordingly, and just have fun.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 22
Good Fences Make Good Desktops
(Apologies to Robert Frost)
By Joe Asling, Columnist, Monterey Bay Users Group – PC,
California, June 2011 issue, mbug-pc newsletter, www.mbug.org,
[email protected]
OK, now to the fences.
I like a neat desktop. In XP, I would right-click on the
desktop to get a context menu, then click New/Folder and There are files I don’t use
name it “Internet” or “Utilities” or whatever. I would open all the time (backup
scanner
it and fill it with shortcuts to all the applicable programs. program,
This way, any program (or other file) I needed was two software, manuals for
double-clicks away. But in Windows 7, when you create a hardware I haven’t played
new folder, it is a nasty double-columned Windows Explorer with a lot yet) but don’t
folder, and if you accidentally click in the left column, you want to go digging for in
lose all your nice shortcuts (you can get them back with the Windows Explorer. Stardock makes a free program called
left arrow in the upper corner, but...). So I needed another “Fences” h t t p : / / w w w . s t a r d o c k . c o m /
way to organize icons.
products/fences/).
Now, the Start Menu in W7 is an improvement. You can
Essentially, it creates shaded areas on the desktop into
right-click on any program icon and select “pin to Start which you can drag shortcuts, just like with XP’s folders.
Menu” or “pin to toolbar.”
When you first install it, there are some wizards you can
The programs you use all the time (Internet browser, use to configure your fenced areas, or you can just go
mail client) can sit on the toolbar and be up in one click, and freeform. You can name them, resize them, and move
programs you use frequently are a click of the Start button them. You cannot minimize them as you could folders in
(the circle with the windows flag in the lower left-hand XP, but–almost as good–just double-click on the desktop,
corner) away. You can customize how the Start menu and and voilà, they disappear. Double-click again and, voilà,
the toolbar look by right clicking on the toolbar or Start they come back. (Curiously, other desktop icons, such as
the Recycle Bin, disappear also, but you can right-click on
button and clicking on “Properties.”
The best thing about the W7 Start Menu is that each the icon and select “Exclude this Item from Fences’ quickprogram you have used has a little right-pointing arrow at hide.”) You can do a lot of other stuff, like resize icons,
the right side; hover the mouse arrow over it and you will from the context menu when you right-click on the desktop.
see, and can open, the files you have recently opened with So, happy fencing in Windows 7!
*
that program–admirable!
Smart Computing Term: amateur packet radio
Packet radio technology, which is used to send Internet
data via radio waves, has been standardized since the
1960s and was used to create one of the first wireless
networks in Hawaii (known as Alohanet), but it was not
authorized for use by amateur radio operators in the
United States until 1980. Since that time, many
hobbyists have embraced the technology, using it to
transmit e-mail, documents, and other files wirelessly
through their radio sets.
To connect to a packet radio network, amateur radio
operators must hook a computer and a special packet
radio modem to their radio rig. For years these modems
were limited to speeds between 1200 baud and 9600
baud, but amateur packet radio systems exist today
that can reliably send and receive data at 56Kbps
(kilobits per second).
The system works something like CB radio, as only
one person on a channel can transmit at one time. If
anyone else tuned to that channel tries to transmit at
that same time, the packets collide and both
transmissions are lost. This is called a half-duplex
system, as opposed to a full-duplex system used by
modern dial-up modems and telephones, in which the
parties at both ends can transmit and receive
simultaneously. To compensate for this limitation,
packet radios use a protocol called AX.25 (Amateur
X.25), which monitors a channel and only lets the radio
send packets when no other computers are transmitting.
This cuts down on the overall speed of a packet radio
network, but virtually eliminates packet collisions,
meaning fewer packets must be resent to their
destinations, thereby making the network more efficient.
Reprinted with permission from Smart Computing. Visit
www.SmartComputing.com/Groups to learn what Smart
Computing can do for you and your user group!
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 23
Offering Financial Services throughout the
Napa Valley; with offices in American
Canyon, Calistoga,
Napa, St. Helena
and Yountville
947 Lincoln Avenue
Napa, CA 94559-5066
800-869-3557 www.wellsfargo.com
(707) 299-1000
www.napanet.net • [email protected]
Napa Valley Personal Computer Users Group
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Make check payable to:
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Attn.: Membership Director, P.O. Box 2866
Napa, CA 94558-0286.
The NVPCUG is an accredited IRC 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Your dues payment may be tax-deductible as a
charitable contribution.
* To request a Corporate Membership Application / Renewal form, e-mail:
[email protected]
NVPCUG Computer News, Aug 2011, Page 24
Revised 2-14-2010
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