English - SEBU8324
SEBU8324-00
August 2007
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
800D Series Industrial Engines
UK (Engine)
UL (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
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Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 72
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 7
Burn Prevention ...................................................... 8
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 9
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ......... 11
Mounting and Dismounting .................................... 11
Before Starting Engine ........................................... 11
Engine Starting ..................................................... 12
Engine Stopping ................................................... 12
Electrical System .................................................. 12
Product Information Section
Model Views ......................................................... 14
Product Identification Information ........................ 19
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 22
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 24
Features and Controls .......................................... 25
Engine Starting ..................................................... 26
Engine Operation .................................................. 29
Engine Stopping ................................................... 31
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 32
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 36
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 49
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 71
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
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Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine’s permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
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5
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i02697668
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on
an engine. The exact location of the hazards and
the description of the hazards are reviewed in this
section. Please become familiar with all warning
signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the pictures are not
visible. When the warning signs are cleaned, use a
cloth, water, and soap. Do not use solvent, gasoline,
or other harsh chemicals to clean the warning signs.
Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals could loosen
the adhesive that secures the warning signs. The
warning signs that are loosened could drop off of
the engine.
Replace any damaged warning signs or missing
warning signs. If a warning sign is attached to a part
of the engine that is replaced, install a new warning
sign on the replacement part. Any Perkins dealer
or any Perkins distributor can provide new warning
signs.
Do not work on the engine and do not operate the
engine unless the instructions and warnings in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual are understood.
Proper care is your responsibility. Failure to follow
the instructions or failure to heed the warnings could
result in injury or in death.
The warning labels that may be found on the engine
are illustrated and described.
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
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g01353473
Illustration 1
Typical example
(1) Universal Warning
(2) Warning label for the Starting Aid
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Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Universal Warning (1)
i02328435
The universal warning label (1) is located on the top
of the valve mechanism cover.
General Hazard Information
g01273386
Illustration 2
Do not operate or work on this engine unless you
have read and understand the instructions and
warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the
warnings could result in injury or death.
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you
repair the equipment.
Starting Aid (2)
The warning label for the starting aid (2) is located on
the side of the air inlet manifold.
Illustration 3
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
g01273387
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
8
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
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Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Pressure Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
Illustration 4
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
Fluid Penetration
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
i01480768
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
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Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Coolant
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
i02813488
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after
an emergency shutdown.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Illustration 5
g00704000
10
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
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Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed.
The lines and hoses must have adequate support
and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque.
Illustration 7
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Illustration 6
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent
or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the high
pressure lines.
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11
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks
can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
i02235492
Mounting and Dismounting
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
i01359666
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component properly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
i01805780
Before Starting Engine
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically.
If automatic shutdown does not occur, press the
emergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/or
air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
12
Safety Section
Engine Starting
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All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
Note: The engine is equipped with an automatic
device for cold starting for normal conditions of
operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
The 800 Series engine is equipped with a glow plug
starting aid in each individual cylinder that heats the
intake air in order to improve starting.
i01032808
Engine Stopping
i01933350
Engine Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator’s compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
properly, check the water temperature gauge and the
oil temperature gauge during the heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
To avoid overheating of the engine and accelerated
wear of the engine components, stop the engine
according to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Stopping” topic (Operation Section).
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped)
ONLY in an emergency situation. DO NOT use the
Emergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping.
After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine
until the problem that caused the emergency stop
has been corrected.
On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been serviced, make provisions to stop the
engine if an overspeed condition occurs. This may be
accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply and/or
the air supply to the engine.
i02176668
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” jump start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect
the jump start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. See
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
starting instructions.
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Grounding Practices
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
“-” battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to
handle the full charging current of the alternator.
13
Safety Section
Electrical System
14
Product Information Section
Model Views
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Product Information
Section
Model Views
i02697676
Model View Illustrations
g01264543
Illustration 8
Left side view of a naturally aspirated engine
This view is shown without one of the fuel injectors for clarity.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Fan
Fuel injector
Glow plug
Oil filler cap
Lifting eye
(6) Water drain plug or drain valve
(7) Oil level gauge
(8) Flywheel housing
(9) Oil filter
(10) Relief valve
(11) Oil drain plug
(12) Oil pressure switch
(13) Fuel injection pump
(14) Oil Filler
(15) Water pump
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Product Information Section
Model Views
g01264517
Illustration 9
(16) Oil filler cap
(17) Lifting eye
(18) Thermostat
(19) Alternator
(20) V-Belt
(21) Crankshaft vibration damper
(22) Starting motor
(23) Exhaust manifold
16
Product Information Section
Model Views
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g01353575
Illustration 10
Left side view of turbocharged engine
(1) Glow plug
(2) Inlet manifold
(3) Fuel injector
(4) Crankcase breather
(5) Water drain plug or drain valve
(6) Oil level gauge
(7) Fuel injection pump
(8) Oil filter
(9) Relief valve
(10) Oil drain plug
(11) Oil filler
(12) V-belt
(13) Oil cooler
(14) Fan
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Product Information Section
Model Views
Illustration 11
g01353864
Right side view of turbocharged engine
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
Turbocharger
Front lifting eye
Coolant switch
Alternator
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
Starting motor
Oil pan
Flywheel housing
Flywheel
(23) Exhaust manifold
(24) Rear lifting eye
(25) Top oil filler
18
Product Information Section
Model Views
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i02700110
• Water temperature regulators which regulate the
engine coolant temperature
Engine Description
• Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)
• Oil cooler
Table 1
Naturally Aspirated Specifications
Type
Four Stroke Cycle
Number of Cylinders
4 In-Line
Bore
94 mm (3.70 inch)
Stroke
120 mm (4.72 inch)
Aspiration
Naturally Aspirated
Compression ratio
Displacement
22:1
3.33 L (203 in3)
1-3-4-2
Firing Order
Rotation that is viewed
from the flywheel
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.25 mm (0.0098 inch)
Valve Lash Setting
(Exhaust)
0.25 mm (0.0098 inch)
Turbocharged Specifications
Number of Cylinders
Four Stroke Cycle
4 In-Line
Bore
94 mm (3.70 inch)
Stroke
120 mm (4.72 inch)
Aspiration
Turbocharged
Compression ratio 55 kW
(73.7 hp)
20.5:1
Compression ratio 62 kW
(83 hp)
19.5:1
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation that is viewed
from the flywheel
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
Engine Service Life
Table 2
Type
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear
type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and
the engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves
provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine parts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves
can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil
to the engine parts if the oil cooler should become
plugged or if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
3.33 L (203 in3)
1-3-4-2
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.25 mm (0.0098 inch)
Valve Lash Setting
(Exhaust)
0.25 mm (0.0098 inch)
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of
the engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of
operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced
throttle settings result in a lower average power
demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase
the length of operating time before an engine
overhaul is required.
SEBU8324
19
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the right
side of the cylinder block at the rear of the engine.
i02741945
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 13
g01094203
Serial number plate
i02164876
Reference Numbers
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Illustration 12
g01372283
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Location of serial number plate
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
An example of an engine number is UL*****J000001L.
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
UL __________________________________________Type of engine
Water Separator Element ________________________________
***** ____________________ The list number for the engine
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
J ______________________________________________Built in Japan
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
000001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
L _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Perkins distributors need all of these numbers
in order to determine the components that were
included with the engine. This permits accurate
identification of replacement part numbers.
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
20
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8324
Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________
Alternator Belt ______________________________________________
i02742745
Emissions Certification Film
Illustration 14
g01372645
Typical example
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency
• CARB California Air Resources Board
• EEC European Economic Community
The emissions label (1) is located on the top of the
valve mechanism cover. The 800D industrial engine
complies with worldwide emissions standards and
with EPA/CARB off road Tier iii engines. The 800D
industrial engine complies with EEC off road mobile
machinery that is at stage III.
SEBU8324
21
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Illustration 15
g01381011
Typical example
22
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8324
Operation Section
i02744521
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
i02513632
Product Lifting
If the engine is not started for a month or longer the
lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
walls. Rust on the cylinder walls will cause increased
engine wear and a reduction in engine service life.
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins distributor can assist in preparing the
engine for extended storage periods.
If an engine is out of operation and if use of the
engine is not planned for more than one month, a
complete protection procedure is recommended.
To help prevent excessive engine wear and corrosion
to the engine, use the following guidelines:
Illustration 16
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for
proper engine lifting.
1. Completely clean the outside of the engine.
2. Ensure that the vehicle is on level ground.
3. Drain the fuel system completely and refill
the system with preservative fuel. 1772204
POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be mixed with
the normal fuel in order to change the fuel into
preservative fuel.
If preservative fuel is not available, the fuel system
can be filled with normal fuel. This fuel must be
discarded at the end of the storage period together
with the fuel filter elements.
Personal injury can result from hot coolant. Any
contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components
to cool before the cooling system is drained.
4. Drain and refill the cooling system. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling
System coolant (Commercial Heavy Duty Change or Cooling System coolant (ELC) Change” for information on draining, flushing and
refilling the cooling system.
5. Operate the engine until the engine reaches
normal operating temperature. If necessary,
perform minor adjustments. Check for any leaks.
Stop the engine. Repair any leaks from the fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
systems.
SEBU8324
6. Drain the lubricating oil from the oil pan.
Renew the canister(s) of the lubricating oil filter.
Fill the oil pan to the Full Mark on the engine oil
level gauge with new, clean lubricating oil. Add
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 to the oil in
order to protect the engine against corrosion. If
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available,
use a preservative of the correct specification
instead of the lubricating oil. If a preservative is
used, this must be drained completely at the end
of the storage period and the oil pan must be
refilled to the correct level with normal lubricating
oil.
7. Operate the engine in order to circulate engine oil.
8. Disconnect the battery. Ensure that the battery is
in a fully charged condition. Protect the terminals
against corrosion. 1734115 POWERPART
Lay-Up 3 can be used on the terminals. Put the
battery into safe storage.
9. If equipped, replace the crankcase breather
element. Seal the end of the breather pipe.
10. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Spray
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 around the
rocker shaft assembly.
11. Remove the glow plugs. Slowly rotate the
crankshaft. By checking the valves, position the
piston at BDC. Spray 1762811 POWERPART
Lay-Up 2 for two seconds into the cylinder bore.
This procedure must be carried out on each
cylinder.
12. Install the glow plugs. Install the valve mechanism
cover.
13. Remove the pipes that are installed between
the air filter assembly and the turbocharger.
Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into
the turbocharger. The duration of the spray is
printed on the container. Seal the turbocharger
with waterproof tape.
14. Remove the exhaust pipe from the output side of
the turbocharger. Spray 1762811 POWERPART
Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The duration of
the spray is printed on the container. Seal the
turbocharger with waterproof tape.
15. Seal the vent of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap
with waterproof tape.
16. Remove the alternator drive belt and put the drive
belt into storage.
23
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
17. In order to prevent corrosion to the outside
of the engine, spray the engine with 1734115
POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray the area
inside the alternator.
24
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
SEBU8324
Gauges and Indicators
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02164190
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at rated
rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load
is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C
(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system at
48 kPa (7 psi) is 110°C (230°F). Higher temperatures
may occur under certain conditions. The water
temperature reading may vary according to load. The
reading should never exceed the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated
at high idle without damage, but should never be
allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the fuel
level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge
operates when the “START/STOP” switch
is in the “ON” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates
operating time of the engine.
SEBU8324
25
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Features and Controls
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order
to alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
i02672017
Engine Shutoffs and Engine
Alarms
Shutoffs
Shutoffs and alarms are electrically operated or
mechanically operated. The operation of all electric
shutoffs and alarms utilize components which actuate
switches in a sensing unit.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items: operating temperature, operating pressure,
operating level, and operating rpm. The particular
shutoff may need to be reset before the engine will
start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures must
be taken before the situation becomes an emergency
in order to avoid possible engine damage.
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
A switch may be installed in the alarm while the
engine is stopped for repairs. Before the engine is
started, ensure that the switch is moved to the ON
position and that the warning lights are flashing. The
engine will not be protected if the switch is left in the
OFF position.
Testing the Shutoff and Alarm
System
Most control panels are equipped with a lamp test
switch. Turn the switch to the ON position in order
to check the indicator lights for proper operation.
Replace faulty bulbs immediately.
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated. Perform the tests correctly in order to help
prevent possible engine damage.
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
Alarms consist of a switch and a contactor. The
switches are wired to the contactors. The contactors
activate alarm circuits in an annunciator panel. Your
engine may be equipped with the following switches:
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
switch indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure.
Coolant level – The low coolant level switch
indicates when the coolant level is low.
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
switch indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature switch must be submerged in coolant
in order to operate.
Refer to the Service Manual for more information on
testing procedures or consult your Perkins dealer.
i02539718
Fuel Shutoff
The fuel shutoff solenoid is located on the fuel
injection pump.
When the fuel shutoff solenoid is activated, the
solenoid moves to the “Open” position.
When the fuel shutoff solenoid is deactivated, the
solenoid moves to the “Closed” position.
26
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8324
Engine Starting
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
i02194223
Before Starting Engine
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for more information.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make a
thorough inspection within the engine compartment
before the engine is started. Look for the following
items: oil leaks, coolant leaks, loose bolts, and
excessive dirt and/or grease. Remove any excess
dirt and/or grease buildup. Repair any faults that
were identified during the inspection.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve
(if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair
any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards
and/or missing guards.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that
is created when the electric starting motor is
engaged. Check electrical cables and check the
battery for poor connections and for corrosion.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
equipped).
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL”
mark on the engine oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level
in the header tank (if equipped). Maintain the
coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the header
tank.
• If the engine is not equipped with a header tank
maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level in the sight glass.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if
equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow
diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.
• Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the
engine has been disengaged from the engine.
Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads.
SEBU8324
27
Operation Section
Engine Starting
i01934161
Starting the Engine
i02177935
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 10 seconds.
Allow the starter motor to cool for 30 seconds before
cranking again. Do not engage the starter when the
flywheel is turning.
Refer to the “OEM Manual” for your type of controls.
1. Remove any load from the engine. Disengage any
driven equipment.
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason
for the starting failure. Make any necessary
repairs. If the engine will not start only due to
the condition of the battery, either charge the
battery, or start the engine with jump start cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked
after the engine has been switched OFF.
2. Crank the engine. Start the engine.
3. If the engine does not start, release the engine
start switch and allow the electric starting motor
to cool.
4. If the ambient temperature is low, activate the
glow plugs according to Table 3.
Table 3
Preheat Times
Temperature
Preheat Time
5 °C (41 °F)
10 seconds
−5 °C (23 °F) to 4 °C (40 °F)
20 seconds
Less than −5 °C (23 °F)
30 seconds
Continuous Preheat
60 seconds maximum
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
When using an external electrical source to start the
engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
5. Crank the engine. Start the engine.
6. Allow the engine to idle for 5 to 10 minutes before
applying a load to the engine. Check the oil
pressure gauge. The oil pressure gauge should
be at the proper value.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn off
all the engine’s accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
28
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8324
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
5. Immediately after the stalled engine is started,
disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
correct voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i02539705
After Starting Engine
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three to five
minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional
warm-up time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8324
29
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i01646335
i02176671
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine reaches operating temperature. The engine
will reach normal operating temperature sooner
during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a low
power demand. This procedure is more effective than
idling the engine at no load. The engine should reach
operating temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
i01929404
Engine Warm-up
1. Run the engine at low idle for three to five minutes,
or run the engine at low idle until the jacket water
temperature starts to rise.
More time may be necessary when the
temperature is below −18°C (0°F).
2. Check all of the gauges during the warm-up
period.
3. Perform a walk-around inspection. Check the
engine for fluid leaks and air leaks.
4. Increase the rpm to the rated rpm. Check for
fluid leaks and air leaks. The engine may be
operated at full rated rpm and at full load when
the temperature of the water jacket reaches 60°C
(140°F).
Engaging the Driven
Equipment
1. Operate the engine at one-half of the rated rpm,
when possible.
2. Engage the driven equipment without a load on
the equipment, when possible.
Interrupted starts put excessive stress on the drive
train. Interrupted starts also waste fuel. To get the
driven equipment in motion, engage the clutch
smoothly with no load on the equipment. This
method should produce a start that is smooth and
easy. The engine rpm should not increase and the
clutch should not slip.
3. Ensure that the ranges of the gauges are normal
when the engine is operating at one-half of
the rated rpm. Ensure that all gauges operate
properly.
4. Increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm. Always
increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm before
the load is applied.
5. Apply the load. Begin operating the engine at low
load. Check the gauges and equipment for proper
operation. After normal oil pressure is reached
and the temperature gauge begins to move,
the engine may be operated at full load. Check
the gauges and equipment frequently when the
engine is operated under load.
Extended operation at low idle or at reduced load
may cause increased oil consumption and carbon
buildup in the cylinders. This carbon buildup
results in a loss of power and/or poor performance.
30
Operation Section
Engine Operation
SEBU8324
i02330149
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently.
Keep the air cleaner elements clean.
• Maintain the electrical systems.
One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.
The drive belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
SEBU8324
31
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
Engine Stopping
i02176672
After Stopping Engine
i02334873
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine
to idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that
is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Coolant Specifications that are in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause
engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check
the coolant for correct antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
32
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8324
Cold Weather Operation
i02717265
Cold Weather Operation
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on
the following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Glow Plug
- Test”.
• Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by cold weather
operation
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
minimize starting problems and operating problems
when the ambient air temperature is between
0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This is because
of the following conditions:
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• Weather conditions
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather,
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in
this section provides guidelines for cold weather
operation.
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period of time and the engine can still
have the ability to start readily.
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to
crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended coolant mixture.
SEBU8324
33
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
Engine Block Heaters
• Pushrods may become bent.
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the
engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This provides the following functions:
• Other damage to valve train components can
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once
the engine is stopped. An effective block heater
is typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more
information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 82 °C (179.6 °F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should
be performed before the engine is returned to full
operation. During operation in very cold temperature
conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can
result from engine operation for short intervals. This
can happen if the engine is started and the engine is
stopped many times without being operated in order
to warm up completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at
normal engine operating temperatures.
When the engine is started and the engine is stopped
many times without being operated in order to warm
up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.
This can cause the following problems:
• Valves become stuck.
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started,
the engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 71 °C (160 °F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in
order to keep other engine parts in better condition
and the service life of the engine will be generally
extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be
less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the
engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
Note: Perkins discourages the use of all air flow
restriction devices such as radiator shutters.
Restriction of the air flow can result in the following:
high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive
fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.
34
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8324
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the
cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss
to the outside air.
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
of the engine, the engine’s maximum power, and the
engine’s fuel efficiency.
Insulating the Air Inlet and Engine
Compartment
When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
When temperatures below −18 °C (−0 °F) will be
frequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet that
is located in the engine compartment may be
specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine
compartment may also minimize the entry of snow
into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the
engine helps to warm the intake air.
• Glow plugs, which are standard equipment on all
Additional heat can be retained around the engine by
insulating the engine compartment.
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
i01935225
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
800 Series engines
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
There are three major differences between Group
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
• A lower cloud point
• A lower pour point
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.
The following fuels can be used for the Perkins 800
Series engine.
• Group 1
• Group 2
• Group 3
• Special Fuels
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in 800 Series engines. Group 3 fuels include Low
Temperature Fuels and Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.
Special fuels include Biofuel.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
• A higher rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel
The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud of
wax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystals
can cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point is
the temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. The
diesel fuel becomes more resistant to flow through
fuel pumps and through the fuel lines.
Be aware of these values when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine’s application. Engines
that are fueled in one climate may not operate well if
the engines are moved to another climate. Problems
can result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the type of fuel that
is being used.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures. Wax in the fuel may prevent the flow
of the fuel through the fuel filters.
For more information on cold weather operation, see
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold Weather
Operation and Fuel Related Components in Cold
Weather”.
SEBU8324
35
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
i01903588
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,
and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent
water and/or sediment from being pumped from the
fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.
Fuel Filters
It is possible that a primary fuel filter is installed
between the fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet. After
you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel
system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual in the Maintenance Section for more
information on priming the fuel system.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold weather operation. The
primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most
common components that are affected by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, disconnect an electric type
of fuel heater in warm weather in order to prevent
overheating of the fuel. If the type of fuel heater is a
heat exchanger, the OEM should have included a
bypass for warm weather. Ensure that the bypass is
operational during warm weather in order to prevent
overheating of the fuel.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
36
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8324
Maintenance Section
Table 5
Approximate Refill Capacity of the Cooling System
Compartment or System
Refill Capacities
Engine Only
i02555319
Refill Capacities
Liters
Pints
5.5
9.7
External Cooling System (OEM
Recommendation)(1)
Total Cooling System(2)
(1)
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
Approximate Refill Capacity of the
Lubrication System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
i02521225
Fluid Recommendations
General Lubricant Information
Table 4
Compartment or System
The external cooling system includes a radiator or an
expansion tank with the following components: The heat
exchanger, the aftercooler, and the piping Refer to the Perkins
specifications and/or the OEM specifications. Enter the value
for the external cooling system capacity in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System includes the capacity for the engine
cooling system plus the capacity for the external cooling
system. Enter the total in this row.
Liters
Pints
10
17.6
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump which include the standard factory installed oil filters.
Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer
to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil
filter.
Cooling System
To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling
System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity for the engine cooling system is listed.
External System capacities will vary among
applications. Refer to the OEM specifications for the
External System capacity. This capacity information
will be needed in order to determine the amount of
coolant or antifreeze that is required for the Total
Cooling System.
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)
Oils
The “Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, “EMA DHD -1”.
API Oils
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
SEBU8324
37
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• EMA DHD-1 multigrade oil (preferred oil)
• API CH-4 multigrade oil (preferred oil)
• ACEAE3
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
g00546535
Illustration 17
Typical API symbol
Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have
not been API authorized classifications since 1
January 1996. Table 6 summarizes the status of the
classifications.
Table 6
API Classifications
(1)
Current
Obsolete
CF-4, CG4, CH-4,
CE
CF
CC, CD
CF-2(1)
CD-2(1)
The classifications CD-2 and American Petroleum Institute
CF-2 are for two-cycle diesel engines. Perkins does not sell
engines that utilize CD-2 and API CF-2 oils.
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
The performance of commercial diesel engine
oils is based on American Petroleum Institute
(API) classifications. These API classifications are
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at
various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:
EMA DHD-1 – The Engine Manufacturers
Association (EMA) has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils
are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API
CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API
CF-4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
the finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base
Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for
DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
38
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
SEBU8324
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil
must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is
defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 18
demonstrates the TBN.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
control of sludge.
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
Illustration 18
g00799818
(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.
Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
exceed 1.5 percent:
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4
oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API
CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended
for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
• Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.
Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
of the cylinder bore.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.
of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a
wear metal analysis.
NOTICE
Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate
wear protection.
SEBU8324
39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 7
Percentage of Sulfur in
the fuel
Oil change interval
Lower than 0.5
Normal
0.5 to 1.0
0.75 of normal
Greater than 1.0
0.50 of normal
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 8 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.
Refer to Table 8 (maximum temperature) in order to
select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Table 8
Engine Oil Viscosity
Ambient Temperature
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
SAE 0W30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 5W30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W30
−20 °C (−4 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 15W40
−10 °C (14 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in
these engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
Re-refined Base Stock Oils
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the
performance requirements that are specified by
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with
new base stock oils. The US military specifications
and the specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that
are in the used oil. The process that is used to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.
Lubricants for Cold Weather
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
0W or SAE 5W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited in
cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the
following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions:
First Choice – Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has
an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,
SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
lubricant viscosity grade.
Second Choice – Use an oil that has a CH-4
additive package. Although the oil has not been
tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil
must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,
SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.
40
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8324
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
NOTICE
Shortened engine service life could result if second
choice oils are used.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engine’s maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the finished oil’s additive
package, which could lower the performance of the
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets
the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel
Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis
includes the following tests:
engine’s metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oil’s lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
Fuel Specifications
Fuel Recommendations
To get the correct power and performance from
the engine, use a fuel of the correct quality. The
recommended fuel specification for Perkins engines
is shown below:
• Cetane number___________________________45 minimum
• Viscosity___________ 2,0 to 4.5 cSt at 40 °C (104 °F)
• Density________________________0.835 to 0.855 Kg/liter
• Sulfur_______________________0.2% of mass, maximum
• Distillation___________________85% at 350 °C (662 °F)
• Lubricity______________________________460 micrometers
maximum wear scar on “ISO 12156 - 1”
Cetane number
This indicates the properties of ignition of the fuel.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root
cause of problems during cold start. This will affect
combustion.
Viscosity
This is the resistance to flow of a fluid. If this
resistance is outside the limits, the engine and the
engine starting performance in particular can be
affected.
Sulfur
SEBU8324
High sulfur content of the fuel is not normally found
in Europe, North America or Australasia. This can
cause engine wear. When only high sulfur fuels
are available, it will be necessary that high alkaline
lubricating oil is used in the engine or that the
lubricating oil change interval is reduced.
Distillation
This is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Lubricity
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear.
Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety
of fuels. These fuels are divided into four general
groups:
• Group 1 (preferred fuels)
• Group 2 (permissible fuels)
• Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels)
• Other fuels
Group 1 (preferred fuels): Specification
“DERV to EN590”
Note: Only use Arctic fuels when the temperature is
below 0 °C (32 °F). Do not use Arctic fuels when the
ambient temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F). To ensure
that the time period between cranking the engine and
first fire is kept to a minimum, only use fuel of the
correct viscosity and at the correct temperature.
Gas oil to “BS2869 Class A2”
“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 2D” This can only be used if
the fuel has the correct specification of lubricity.
“JIS K2204 (1992) Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade
3” This can only be used if the fuel has the correct
specification of lubricity.
Note: If low sulfur or low sulfur aromatic fuels are
used, then fuel additives can be used to increase
lubricity.
41
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 1D”
“JP7, Mil T38219”
“NATO F63”
NOTICE
These fuels should have a wear scar value of 650
micrometers maximum *HFRR to ISO 12156 - 1.*
Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels): Specification
These fuels need additives to achieve lubricity of 650
micrometers wear scar and the reliability of the fuel
pump and fuel injectors will be reduced. The fuel
injection pump is not covered by a warranty, even
when the additives are included.
“JP5 MIL T5624 (Avcat FSII, NATO F44”
“JP8 T83133 (Avtur FSII, NATO F34”
“Jet A”
“Jet A1, NATO F35, XF63”
Low temperature fuels
Special fuels for use in cold weather may be available
for engine operation at temperatures below 0 °C
(32 °F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the
fuel oil at low temperatures. If wax forms in the fuel
oil, this could stop the flow of fuel oil through the filter.
Note: These fuels that lack lubricity may cause the
following problems:
• Low engine power
• Difficult starting in hot conditions or in cold
conditions
• White smoke
• Deterioration of emissions and misfire at certain
operating conditions
Biofuel: Specification
Biofuel: A 5% mix of RME to EN14214 in conventional
fuel is permitted.
Group 2 (permissible fuels): Specification
NOTICE
Water emulsion fuels: These fuels are not permitted
These fuel specifications are considered acceptable
for issues of warranty. However,these fuels may
reduce the life of the engine, the engine’s maximum
power and the engine’s fuel efficiency.
Refer to the following fuel specifications for
North America.
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Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8324
The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service
life and performance. The preferred fuels are distillate
fuels. These fuels are commonly called diesel fuel
or gas oil.
The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels.
Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance
costs and in reduced engine service life.
Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in Table
9 will help to provide maximum engine service life
and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that
is identified as No. 2-D in “ASTM D975” generally
meets the specifications. Table 9 is for diesel fuels
that are distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from
other sources could exhibit detrimental properties
that are not defined or controlled by this specification.
(Table 9, contd)
Copper Strip
Corrosion
Distillation
Flash Point
API Gravity
Pour Point
Table 9
Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel
Specifications
Requirements
ASTM Test
Sulfur
No. 3 maximum
10% at 282 °C
(540 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C
(680 °F)
maximum
legal limit
30 minimum
45 maximum
6 °C (10 °F)
minimum
below ambient
temperature
0.2% maximum
(1)
“D130”
“D86”
“D93”
“D287”
“D97”
“D3605”
or
“D1552”
Aromatics
35% maximum
Ash
0.02% maximum
(weight)
“D482”
Carbon Residue
on 10% Bottoms
0.35% maximum
(weight)
“D524”
Water and
Sediment
0.1% maximum
Cetane Number
40 minimum (DI
engines)
“D613”
Water
0.1% maximum
“D1744”
Sediment
0.05% maximum
(weight)
“D473”
Cloud Point
The cloud
point must not
exceed the
lowest expected
ambient
temperature.
10 mg per 100
mL maximum
“D381”
0.38 mm
(0.015 inch)
maximum at
25 °C (77 °F)
“D6079”
“D1319”
-
(continued)
Kinematic
Viscosity (2)
Gum and Resins
(3)
Lubricity
(1)
(4)
2.0 cSt minimum
and 4.5 cSt
maximum at
40 °C (104 °F)
“D445”
“D1796”
Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate
on high sulfur fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust
emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential
for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels
above 0.5 percent may significantly shorten the oil change
interval. For additional information, see this publication, “Fluid
Recommendations/Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
(2) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel
is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. If a fuel with a low
viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain
a 1.4 cSt viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to bring down the
viscosity to a 20 cSt viscosity.
(3) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(4) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur fuel. To
determine the lubricity of the fuel, use either the “ASTM D6078
Scuffing Load Wear Test (SBOCLE)” or the “ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a
fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your
fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel
supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
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43
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Cooling System Specifications
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
NOTICE
Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuel, or Blended fuel
must NOT be used in Perkins diesel engines. Severe
component wear and component failures will result if
HFO type fuels are used in engines that are configured
to use distillate fuel.
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
distillate fuels that are specified in Table 10. However,
the fuel that is selected must meet the requirements
that are specified in Table 9. These fuels are intended
to be used in operating temperatures that are down
to −54 °C (−65 °F).
Table 10
Distillate Fuels
(1)
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
(1)
Specification
Grade
“MIL-T-5624R”
JP-5
“ASTM D1655”
Jet-A-1
“MIL-T-83133D”
JP-8
The fuels that are listed in this Table may not meet the
requirements that are specified in the “Perkins Specifications
for Distillate Diesel Fuel” Table. Consult the supplier for the
recommended additives in order to maintain the correct fuel
lubricity.
These fuels are lighter than the No. 2 grades of fuel.
The cetane number of the fuels in Table 10 must be
at least 40. If the viscosity is below 1.4 cSt at 38 °C
(100 °F), use the fuel only in temperatures below
0 °C (32 °F). Do not use any fuels with a viscosity
of less than 1.2 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F). Fuel cooling
may be required in order to maintain the minimum
viscosity of 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not
review all the requirements that are addressed
in this specification. To ensure optimum engine
performance, a complete fuel analysis should be
obtained before engine operation. The fuel analysis
should include all of the properties that are listed in
Table 9.
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
44
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8324
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
11.
Table 11
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
• Local water utility company
Most conventional coolants and antifreezes use
ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used.
In a 1:1 mixture with water, ethylene and propylene
glycol provide similar protection against freezing and
boiling. See Tables 12 and 13.
• Agricultural agent
Table 12
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
Ethylene Glycol
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
111 °C (232 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol’s
reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
in conditions that require additional protection against
boiling or freezing.
Table 13
Propylene Glycol
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Anti-Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• Reduction of heat transfer
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
• Leakage of the water pump seal
Preferred – Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
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Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty coolant and
antifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a coolant and
antifreeze. This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water
to glycol if extra freezing protection is required.
Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze/coolant
that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require
a treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the
label or the instructions that are provided by the OEM
of the product.
In stationary engine applications and marine engine
applications that do not require anti-boil protection
or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water
is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent
to eight percent concentration of SCA in those
cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water
is preferred. Water which has the recommended
properties may be used.
Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) must use SCA and water.
Engines that operate in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) due
to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for the correct level of
protection.
Table 14
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
coolant or antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D4985”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Perkins POWERPART
SCA
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Commercial SCA and
Water
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution
with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides
freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F). The Premixed
ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling
system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for
topping off the cooling system.
ELC Concentrate is also available. ELC Concentrate
can be used to lower the freezing point to −51 °C
(−60 °F) for arctic conditions.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the
part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system component life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of antifreeze
lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the
ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting,
from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
NOTICE
Do not use conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for
use in the following applications:
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA)in cooling systems that are filled with ELC.
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
46
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA’s
or SCA filters.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
After the cooling system is drained and after the
cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while
the cooling system filler cap is removed. Operate
the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal
operating temperature and until the coolant level
stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant mixture in
order to fill the system to the specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze to
the Perkins ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
SEBU8324
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing Extended Life Coolant (ELC) with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life. Use only Perkins Products
for pre mixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened
cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
coolant or antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination
exceeds ten percent of the total system capacity,
perform ONE of the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label.
container according to local regulations. Then, fill
the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
SEBU8324
47
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Commercial Heavy-Duty antifreeze/
coolant and SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrision protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the coolant or antifreeze (glycol concentration)
in order to ensure adequate protection against
boiling or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested
at 500 hour intervals for the concentration of
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA).
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Refer to Table 15 for part numbers and for quantities
of SCA.
Table 17
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze of all types
REQUIRE periodic additions of an SCA.
Test the coolant or antifreeze periodically for the
concentration of SCA. For the interval, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 18 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 18
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Table 15
Perkins Liquid SCA
Part Number
Quantity
21825735
10
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Commercial heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require
an addition of SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
the product.
Use the equation that is in Table 16 to determine the
amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the
cooling system is initially filled.
Table 16
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 17 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 16.
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 19 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 18.
Table 19
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
48
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
coolant or antifreeze
Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
contamination and sludge.
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
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SEBU8324
49
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i02704642
Maintenance Interval Schedule
51
52
56
56
58
62
67
Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ...................................................................
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
54
55
59
59
64
69
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 65
Every 500 Service Hours or 6 Months
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust/
Replace ............................................................... 50
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
51
55
56
60
63
65
66
Every 1000 Service Hours
Alternator - Inspect ...............................................
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ......................
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................
Turbocharger - Inspect ..........................................
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ............................................................... 52
Every 3000 Service Hours
When Required
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ..................................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................
Every 2 Years
50
61
68
68
Every 2000 Service Hours
Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 59
Water Pump - Inspect ........................................... 70
Initial Oil Change
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 61
50
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect
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i02322311
Adjustment
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
i02554823
Alternator and Fan Belts Inspect/Adjust/Replace
Inspection
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are
worn or damaged.
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the
new belt to break.
If the belts are too loose, vibration causes
unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose
belts may slip enough to cause overheating.
To check the belt tension, apply 45 N (10 lb ft) of force
midway between the pulleys. A correctly adjusted
belt will deflect 10 mm (0.39 inch).
Illustration 19
g01264847
Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Mounting bolts
Bracket
Belt
Alternator
1. Loosen mounting bolts (1).
2. Move the alternator (4) in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension. To check the belt
tension, apply 45 N (10 lb ft) of force midway
between the pulleys. A correctly adjusted belt will
deflect 10 mm (0.39 inch).
3. Tighten mounting bolts (1).
Replacement
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “V-Belts Remove and Install”.
When new belts are installed, check the belt tension
again after 20 hours of engine operation.
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Maintenance Section
Battery - Replace
i01878164
Battery - Replace
8. Connect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starter motor to the NEGATIVE “-” battery
terminal.
i02747977
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starter motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
3. Install the caps.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
52
Maintenance Section
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
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i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
i02554793
Cooling System Coolant
(Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change
(Commercial Heavy Duty)
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
SEBU8324
53
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
Drain
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with
clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
g00987502
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
Illustration 20
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” for more information.
Do not install the cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
54
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
SEBU8324
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is not damaged, use a suitable Pressurizing Pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i02335378
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Illustration 21
g00103639
4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the
filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL” mark.
Illustration 22
g00285520
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
SEBU8324
55
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02556092
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine’s heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on SCA
requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If the
gaskets are damaged, replace the old cooling
system filler cap with a new cooling system filler
cap. Install the cooling system filler cap.
i00174798
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
56
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
SEBU8324
• Inspection
i02334355
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i01936072
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, and the starter.
Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in order
to wash the engine.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
correct air cleaner elements for your application.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element.
SEBU8324
57
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
The primary air cleaner element can be used up
to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary filter element can
be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
NOTICE
Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.
Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.
Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.
Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air
cleaner elements.
Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals.
Illustration 23
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
g00736431
Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Air inlet
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary
air filter element more than three times. The primary
air cleaner element must be replaced at least one
time per year.
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air
cleaner element.
Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
of the air filter element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and
the outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt
out.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tapefrom the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary
air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
primary air cleaner element:
• pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
58
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
Pressurized Air
SEBU8324
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
Illustration 25
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Illustration 24
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
air cleaner elements.
i01897734
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the
dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
SEBU8324
59
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
Test the Service Indicator
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
proper procedure to replace the air cleaner.
i02335405
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when
the engine is accelerated to the engine rated
speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i01897042
Illustration 26
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
60
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8324
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Illustration 27
g00986928
(Y) minimum “MIN” mark. (X) maximum “MAX” mark.
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
1. Maintain the oil level between minimum “MIN”
mark (Y) and the maximum “MAX” mark (X) on oil
level gauge (1). Do not fill the crankcase above
“MAX” mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil’s lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
i02701631
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Oil
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil
to drain.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should
be cleaned and installed. Tighten the oil drain plug
to39 N·m (28.7648 lb ft).
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are built to Perkins specifications.
Use of an oil filter not recommended by Perkins could
result in severe engine damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger waste
particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended by
Perkins.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as
part of the preventive maintenance program.
SEBU8324
61
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Perkins distributor in order
to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on
lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the
proper amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer’s recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
2. Start the engine and operate the engine at LOW
IDLE for two minutes. Inspect the oil filter for oil
leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of ten minutes.
Illustration 29
g00986928
4. Remove the oil level dipstick in order to check the
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN”
and “MAX” marks on the oil level dipstick.
Illustration 28
g01354727
3. Clean sealing surface (1). Ensure that all of the
old seal is removed.
i01937238
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
4. Apply clean engine oil to the new O ring seal (2).
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter until the O
ring seal contacts the base. Rotate the oil filter
¾ of a full turn.
The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines,
rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines is
recommended at the first scheduled oil change. The
adjustment is necessary due to the initial wear of
the valve train components and to the seating of the
valve train components.
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
62
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8324
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with improper valve adjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This reduced
efficiency could result in excessive fuel usage and/or
shortened engine component life.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,
allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is
performed.
Refer to the Service Manual for more information.
i02700135
Fuel System - Prime
Illustration 30
g01372204
Typical example
1. Open vent screw (1). Turn the keyswitch to the
RUN position until fuel free from air flows from
the connection. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF
position.
2. Tighten the vent screw to 7 N·m (61 lb in).
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
3. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position for 1 minute.
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
Note: Damage to the fuel injection pump, to the
battery, and to the starting motor can occur if the
starting motor is used excessively to purge the air
from the fuel system.
partially drained.
• The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter is replaced.
Use the following procedure in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
4. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
SEBU8324
63
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Filter - Replace
i02702079
Fuel System Filter - Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Illustration 31
g01354358
Typical example
5. Loosen the flare nuts (1) for the high pressure fuel
lines on all of the fuel injectors.
Turn the fuel supply valve to the OFF position before
performing this maintenance. Place a tray under the
fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 10 seconds.
Allow the starting motor to cool for 30 seconds before
cranking again.
Do not engage the starting motor when the flywheel is
turning.
6. Operate the starting motor and crank the engine.
Observe the loosened connections.
7. When fuel free from air flows from the connection
tighten the connections.
8. Tighten the flare nuts to a torque of 29 N·m
(21 lb ft).
9. The engine is now ready to start. Operate the
engine at low idle for a minimum of five minutes
immediately after air has been removed from the
fuel system.
Note: Operating the engine for this period of time will
help ensure that the pump is completely free of air.
Illustration 32
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Electric fuel priming pump
Fuel filter base
Quick release collar
Fuel filter
Sediment bowl
Drain valve for fuel filter
1. Close the fuel supply valve.
g01355125
64
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8324
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Open
drain valve (6) and allow the fluid to drain into a
suitable container.
3. Remove sediment bowl (5).
NOTICE
Do not use a tool in order to remove the fuel filter.
Attempting to remove the fuel filter with a filter wrench
or a filter strap could damage the locking ring.
4. Hold fuel filter (4) and rotate quick release collar
(3) counterclockwise. Remove quick release collar
(3). The used element should be removed and
discarded.
NOTICE
Do not fill fuel filters with fuel before installing them.
Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel
system parts.
5. Ensure that the fuel filter base is clean. Push a
new fuel filter fully into the fuel filter base.
6. Hold the fuel filter in place. Install locking ring (3)
into position. Rotate the locking ring clockwise in
order to fasten the fuel filter to the fuel filter base.
7. Thoroughly clean sediment bowl (5). Inspect the
O-ring seals. Install new O-ring seals, if necessary.
Install the sediment bowl to the new element.
Hand tighten the sediment bowl. Hand tightening
is the only method that should be used.
8. Prime the fuel system. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.
i02702128
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should
never be allowed to run with the water separator more
than half full. Engine damage may result.
Illustration 33
g01355190
(1) Filter
(2) Drain
1. Open the drain valve (2) and allow the fluid to
drain into a suitable container.
2. Close the drain valve (2). Dispose of the drained
fluid in a safe place.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.
SEBU8324
65
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
i02335436
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02641587
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
• Softness
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
• Loose clamps
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
66
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
SEBU8324
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Oil
Cooler - Remove and Oil Cooler - Install” for further
information on removing and replacing the oil cooler
hoses.
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
Note: Tighten the hose clamps securely. Also refer
to the OEM information for further information on
torques for hose clamps.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the proper coolant, see Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General Coolant Information
and Coolant Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap’s seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
i02335774
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
SEBU8324
67
Maintenance Section
Severe Service Application - Check
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
• Fuel quality
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
• Operational Altitude
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
• Oil selection and maintenance
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
to the fan’s air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow
the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to
five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This
will help in the removal of debris and the drying of
the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle
and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02335775
Severe Service Application Check
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Maintenance intervals
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
68
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU8324
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred.
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
i01938674
Turbocharger - Inspect
(If Equipped)
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended
for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side).
Any fumes from the crankcase are filtered through
the air inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil
and from combustion can collect in the turbocharger
compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can
contribute to loss of engine power, increased black
smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Note: Turbocharger components require precision
clearances. The turbocharger turbine and compressor
assembly must be accurately balanced due to
high operational rpm. Severe Service Applications
can accelerate component wear. Severe Service
Applications require more frequent inspections of the
compressor.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair
and replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install” for further information.
Cleaning and Inspecting
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes
in order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
SEBU8324
69
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
2. Gently turn the compressor wheel and the turbine
wheel with a finger. The assembly should turn
freely. Inspect the compressor wheel and the
turbine wheel for contact with the turbocharger
housing. There should not be any visible signs of
contact between the turbine wheel or compressor
wheel and the turbocharger housing. If there is
any indication of contact between the rotating
turbine wheel or the compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing, the turbocharger must be
renewed.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness.
If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger
oil seal.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
4. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion.
5. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard
shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
6. Replace the compressor cover. Turn the
compressor gently in order to check that the
compressor turns freely and does not contact
the compressor cover. Fasten the air intake pipe
and the exhaust outlet pipe to the turbocharger
housing.
i02177973
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
the water pump and the installation of water pump
and/or seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
information or consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
70
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8324
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i02537160
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew
the water pump if there is an excessive leakage of
coolant. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and Install” for the
Disassembly and Assembly procedure.
SEBU8324
71
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
72
Index Section
SEBU8324
Index
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust/
Replace................................................................
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Replacement......................................................
28
31
50
50
50
50
50
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 51
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 51
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 52
Before Starting Engine ..................................... 11, 26
Burn Prevention....................................................... 8
Batteries............................................................... 9
Coolant................................................................. 9
Oils....................................................................... 9
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................ 32
Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 32
Idling the Engine ................................................ 33
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 33
Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 32
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 32
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change (Commercial Heavy Duty) ...................... 52
Drain .................................................................. 53
Fill ...................................................................... 53
Flush .................................................................. 53
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 54
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 54
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 54
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 55
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 55
Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 55
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ......... 11
D
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 55
E
Electrical System ...................................................
Grounding Practices ..........................................
Emergency Stopping .............................................
Emissions Certification Film ..................................
12
13
31
20
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 71
Engaging the Driven Equipment............................ 29
Engine - Clean....................................................... 56
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ..................................................... 56
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 57
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 56
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................... 58
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 59
Test the Service Indicator................................... 59
Engine Description ................................................ 18
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 18
Engine Service Life ............................................ 18
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 59
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 60
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 60
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 61
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 60
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 59
Engine Operation................................................... 29
Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms...................... 25
Alarms................................................................ 25
Shutoffs.............................................................. 25
Testing the Shutoff and Alarm System............... 25
Engine Starting ................................................ 12, 26
Engine Stopping .............................................. 12, 31
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 61
Engine Warm-up.................................................... 29
F
Features and Controls ........................................... 25
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 9
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 10
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 10
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 36
Cooling System Specifications........................... 43
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 45
Engine Oil .......................................................... 37
Fuel Specifications............................................. 40
General Lubricant Information ........................... 36
Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 34
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 30
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 35
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 35
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 35
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 35
Fuel Shutoff ........................................................... 25
SEBU8324
Fuel System - Prime ..............................................
Fuel System Filter - Replace .................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ....................................................................
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain .................
Drain the Water and the Sediment.....................
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................
Fuel Tank ...........................................................
73
Index Section
62
63
64
65
65
65
65
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Reference Numbers ..............................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Lubrication System ............................................
66
19
19
36
36
36
G
S
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 24
General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 8
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 8
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 8
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 67
Environmental Factors ....................................... 67
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 68
Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 68
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 68
Starting the Engine ................................................ 27
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 27
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 31
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 65
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 66
T
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect (If Equipped)..................... 68
Cleaning and Inspecting .................................... 68
Removal and Installation.................................... 68
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 22
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 49
Maintenance Section ............................................. 36
Model View Illustrations......................................... 14
Model Views .......................................................... 14
Mounting and Dismounting..................................... 11
O
Operation Section.................................................. 22
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Serial Number Plate (1) .....................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Product Storage.....................................................
19
19
19
14
22
22
W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections .....................................................
Warranty Information .............................................
Warranty Section ...................................................
Water Pump - Inspect ............................................
69
69
71
71
70
74
Index Section
SEBU8324
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
Copyright ©2007 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U. K.
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