SEBU8324-00 August 2007 Operation and Maintenance Manual 800D Series Industrial Engines UK (Engine) UL (Engine) Important Safety Information Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly. Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result in injury or death. Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information. Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons. The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as “DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below. The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows: Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved. The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially presented. Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in this publication. Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you choose. The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available. When replacement parts are required for this product Perkins recommends using Perkins replacement parts. Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or death. SEBU8324 Table of Contents 3 Table of Contents Index Section Index ..................................................................... 72 Foreword ................................................................. 4 Safety Section Safety Messages .................................................... 5 General Hazard Information ................................... 7 Burn Prevention ...................................................... 8 Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 9 Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ......... 11 Mounting and Dismounting .................................... 11 Before Starting Engine ........................................... 11 Engine Starting ..................................................... 12 Engine Stopping ................................................... 12 Electrical System .................................................. 12 Product Information Section Model Views ......................................................... 14 Product Identification Information ........................ 19 Operation Section Lifting and Storage ................................................ 22 Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 24 Features and Controls .......................................... 25 Engine Starting ..................................................... 26 Engine Operation .................................................. 29 Engine Stopping ................................................... 31 Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 32 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities .................................................... 36 Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 49 Warranty Section Warranty Information ............................................ 71 4 Foreword Foreword Literature Information This manual contains safety, operation instructions, lubrication and maintenance information. This manual should be stored in or near the engine area in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read, study and keep it with the literature and engine information. English is the primary language for all Perkins publications. The English used facilitates translation and consistency. Some photographs or illustrations in this manual show details or attachments that may be different from your engine. Guards and covers may have been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing improvement and advancement of product design may have caused changes to your engine which are not included in this manual. Whenever a question arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the latest available information. Safety This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning situations. Read and understand the basic precautions listed in the safety section before operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and repair on this product. Operation Operating techniques outlined in this manual are basic. They assist with developing the skills and techniques required to operate the engine more efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques develop as the operator gains knowledge of the engine and its capabilities. The operation section is a reference for operators. Photographs and illustrations guide the operator through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating and stopping the engine. This section also includes a discussion of electronic diagnostic information. Maintenance The maintenance section is a guide to engine care. The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that follow. SEBU8324 Recommended service should be performed at the appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may be necessary. The maintenance schedule items are organized for a preventive maintenance management program. If the preventive maintenance program is followed, a periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation of a preventive maintenance management program should minimize operating costs through cost avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled downtime and failures. Maintenance Intervals Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the original requirement. We recommend that the maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also recommend that a maintenance record be maintained as part of the engine’s permanent record. Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can assist you in adjusting your maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your operating environment. Overhaul Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the interval and the maintenance items in that interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a major engine failure, there are also numerous after failure overhaul options available. Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for information regarding these options. California Proposition 65 Warning Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling. SEBU8324 5 Safety Section Safety Messages Safety Section i02697668 Safety Messages There may be several specific warning signs on an engine. The exact location of the hazards and the description of the hazards are reviewed in this section. Please become familiar with all warning signs. Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the words cannot be read or if the pictures are not visible. When the warning signs are cleaned, use a cloth, water, and soap. Do not use solvent, gasoline, or other harsh chemicals to clean the warning signs. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened could drop off of the engine. Replace any damaged warning signs or missing warning signs. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on the replacement part. Any Perkins dealer or any Perkins distributor can provide new warning signs. Do not work on the engine and do not operate the engine unless the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual are understood. Proper care is your responsibility. Failure to follow the instructions or failure to heed the warnings could result in injury or in death. The warning labels that may be found on the engine are illustrated and described. 6 Safety Section Safety Messages SEBU8324 g01353473 Illustration 1 Typical example (1) Universal Warning (2) Warning label for the Starting Aid SEBU8324 7 Safety Section General Hazard Information Universal Warning (1) i02328435 The universal warning label (1) is located on the top of the valve mechanism cover. General Hazard Information g01273386 Illustration 2 Do not operate or work on this engine unless you have read and understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the warnings could result in injury or death. g00104545 Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar warning tag to the start switch or to the controls before you service the equipment or before you repair the equipment. Starting Aid (2) The warning label for the starting aid (2) is located on the side of the air inlet manifold. Illustration 3 g00702020 Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other protective equipment, as required. Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag on controls or on other parts of the engine. g01273387 Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as ether. Such use could result in an explosion and personal injury. Make sure that all protective guards and all covers are secured in place on the engine. Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from walkways, and from steps. Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers. Drain all liquids into a suitable container. Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids. Use all cleaning solutions with care. 8 Safety Section Burn Prevention SEBU8324 Report all necessary repairs. Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the equipment. Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs. Perform maintenance on the engine with the equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the OEM information for the procedure for placing the equipment in the servicing position. Pressure Air and Water Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in personal injury. The direct application of pressurized air or pressurized water to the body could result in personal injury. When pressurized air and/or water is used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles or a protective face shield. Illustration 4 g00687600 Always use a board or cardboard when you check for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin, you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury. Containing Fluid Spillage The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below 275 kPa (40 psi). Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a suitable container before any compartment is opened or before any component is disassembled. Fluid Penetration • Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly. Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts until pressure has been relieved or personal injury may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic components or parts until pressure has been relieved or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM information for any procedures that are required to relieve the hydraulic pressure. fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting fluids. • Only use the tools that are suitable for containing fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing fluids. Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids. i01480768 Burn Prevention Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the cooling system before any lines, fittings or related items are disconnected. SEBU8324 9 Safety Section Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention Coolant All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures are flammable. When the engine is at operating temperature, the engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or to the engine contain hot coolant. Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause severe burns. Allow cooling system components to cool before the cooling system is drained. Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool. Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in order to relieve pressure. Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact the skin, the eyes, or the mouth. Oils Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the skin. Batteries Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended. i02813488 Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property damage. A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after an emergency shutdown. Determine whether the engine will be operated in an environment that allows combustible gases to be drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury, property damage, or engine damage could result. If the application involves the presence of combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your Perkins distributor for additional information about suitable protection devices. Remove all flammable combustible materials or conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible materials or conductive materials to accumulate on the engine. Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked containers away from unauthorized persons. Store oily rags and any flammable materials in protective containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for storing flammable materials. Do not expose the engine to any flame. Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line, a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed correctly. Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to welding or flame cutting. Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical wires must be correctly routed and securely attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all electrical connections. Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary. Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses and/or circuit breakers. Illustration 5 g00704000 10 Safety Section Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention SEBU8324 Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure connections, recommended wiring, and correctly maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing or sparking. Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must have adequate support and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires. Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed. The filter housings must be tightened to the correct torque. Illustration 7 g00704135 Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do not smoke in battery charging areas. Never check the battery charge by placing a metal object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a hydrometer. Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the Operation Section of this manual for specific instructions. Illustration 6 g00704059 Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always stop the engine before refueling. Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an explosion. The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the recommended cables, connections, and battery box covers when the engine is operated. Fire Extinguisher Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher. Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on the instruction plate. Lines, Tubes and Hoses Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent or damaged. Do not clip any other items to the high pressure lines. SEBU8324 11 Safety Section Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for repair or for replacement parts. Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not use your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque. Replace the parts if any of the following conditions are present: • End fittings are damaged or leaking. i02235492 Mounting and Dismounting Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean and keep these items in good repair. Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine. Face the engine in order to mount the engine or dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any controls as handholds. • Outer coverings are chafed or cut. • Wires are exposed. • Outer coverings are ballooning. Do not stand on components which cannot support your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the equipment will not move. • Flexible part of the hoses are kinked. • Outer covers have embedded armoring. • End fittings are displaced. Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields are installed correctly. During engine operation, this will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat. i01359666 Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention Support the component properly when work beneath the component is performed. Unless other maintenance instructions are provided, never attempt adjustments while the engine is running. Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance is performed. After the maintenance is performed, reinstall the guards. Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan blades will throw objects or cut objects. When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in order to avoid injury to the eyes. Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no one will be injured by flying debris. Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand line to raise and lower tools or supplies. i01805780 Before Starting Engine NOTICE For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel supply to the engine. Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically. If automatic shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine. Inspect the engine for potential hazards. Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on, underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the area is free of personnel. If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all lights work properly, if equipped. 12 Safety Section Engine Starting SEBU8324 All protective guards and all protective covers must be installed if the engine must be started in order to perform service procedures. To help prevent an accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work around the parts carefully. Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The circuits are also provided in order to help prevent engine damage. See the Service Manual for repairs and for adjustments. Note: The engine is equipped with an automatic device for cold starting for normal conditions of operation. If the engine will be operated in very cold conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with the correct type of starting aid for your region of operation. The 800 Series engine is equipped with a glow plug starting aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air in order to improve starting. i01032808 Engine Stopping i01933350 Engine Starting Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as ether. Such use could result in an explosion and personal injury. If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move the controls. Consult with the person that attached the warning tag before the engine is started. All protective guards and all protective covers must be installed if the engine must be started in order to perform service procedures. To help prevent an accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work around the parts carefully. Start the engine from the operator’s compartment or from the engine start switch. Always start the engine according to the procedure that is described in the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to prevent major damage to the engine components. Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent personal injury. To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped) and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working properly, check the water temperature gauge and the oil temperature gauge during the heater operation. Engine exhaust contains products of combustion which can be harmful to your health. Always start the engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent the engine exhaust to the outside. To avoid overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of the engine components, stop the engine according to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Stopping” topic (Operation Section). Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY in an emergency situation. DO NOT use the Emergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the problem that caused the emergency stop has been corrected. On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine that has been serviced, make provisions to stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs. This may be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to the engine. i02176668 Electrical System Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite. To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible gases that are produced by some batteries, the negative “−” jump start cable should be connected last from the external power source to the negative “−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect the jump start cable to the engine block. Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires before the engine is started. Repair all frayed electrical wires before the engine is started. See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific starting instructions. SEBU8324 Grounding Practices Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is necessary for optimum engine performance and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable electrical circuit paths. Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing journal surfaces, and to aluminum components. Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame ground straps can be damaged by electrical discharge. To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be used. This path may be provided by way of a direct engine ground to the frame. All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging current of the alternator. 13 Safety Section Electrical System 14 Product Information Section Model Views SEBU8324 Product Information Section Model Views i02697676 Model View Illustrations g01264543 Illustration 8 Left side view of a naturally aspirated engine This view is shown without one of the fuel injectors for clarity. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Fan Fuel injector Glow plug Oil filler cap Lifting eye (6) Water drain plug or drain valve (7) Oil level gauge (8) Flywheel housing (9) Oil filter (10) Relief valve (11) Oil drain plug (12) Oil pressure switch (13) Fuel injection pump (14) Oil Filler (15) Water pump SEBU8324 15 Product Information Section Model Views g01264517 Illustration 9 (16) Oil filler cap (17) Lifting eye (18) Thermostat (19) Alternator (20) V-Belt (21) Crankshaft vibration damper (22) Starting motor (23) Exhaust manifold 16 Product Information Section Model Views SEBU8324 g01353575 Illustration 10 Left side view of turbocharged engine (1) Glow plug (2) Inlet manifold (3) Fuel injector (4) Crankcase breather (5) Water drain plug or drain valve (6) Oil level gauge (7) Fuel injection pump (8) Oil filter (9) Relief valve (10) Oil drain plug (11) Oil filler (12) V-belt (13) Oil cooler (14) Fan SEBU8324 17 Product Information Section Model Views Illustration 11 g01353864 Right side view of turbocharged engine (15) (16) (17) (18) Turbocharger Front lifting eye Coolant switch Alternator (19) (20) (21) (22) Starting motor Oil pan Flywheel housing Flywheel (23) Exhaust manifold (24) Rear lifting eye (25) Top oil filler 18 Product Information Section Model Views SEBU8324 i02700110 • Water temperature regulators which regulate the engine coolant temperature Engine Description • Gear-driven oil pump (gear type) • Oil cooler Table 1 Naturally Aspirated Specifications Type Four Stroke Cycle Number of Cylinders 4 In-Line Bore 94 mm (3.70 inch) Stroke 120 mm (4.72 inch) Aspiration Naturally Aspirated Compression ratio Displacement 22:1 3.33 L (203 in3) 1-3-4-2 Firing Order Rotation that is viewed from the flywheel Counterclockwise Valve Lash Setting (Inlet) 0.25 mm (0.0098 inch) Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust) 0.25 mm (0.0098 inch) Turbocharged Specifications Number of Cylinders Four Stroke Cycle 4 In-Line Bore 94 mm (3.70 inch) Stroke 120 mm (4.72 inch) Aspiration Turbocharged Compression ratio 55 kW (73.7 hp) 20.5:1 Compression ratio 62 kW (83 hp) 19.5:1 Displacement Firing Order Rotation that is viewed from the flywheel Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and engine performance depend on adherence to proper operation and maintenance recommendations. Engine performance and efficiency also depend on the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more information on maintenance items. Engine Service Life Table 2 Type The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the engine parts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the engine parts if the oil cooler should become plugged or if the oil filter element should become plugged. 3.33 L (203 in3) 1-3-4-2 Counterclockwise Valve Lash Setting (Inlet) 0.25 mm (0.0098 inch) Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust) 0.25 mm (0.0098 inch) Engine Cooling and Lubrication The cooling system consists of the following components: • Gear-driven centrifugal water pump Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine performance depend on the adherence to proper operation and maintenance recommendations. In addition, use recommended fuels, coolants and lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance. Expected engine life is generally predicted by the average power that is demanded. The average power that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the engine over a period of time. Reduced hours of operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced throttle settings result in a lower average power demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase the length of operating time before an engine overhaul is required. SEBU8324 19 Product Information Section Product Identification Information Product Identification Information Serial Number Plate (1) The engine serial number plate is located on the right side of the cylinder block at the rear of the engine. i02741945 Plate Locations and Film Locations Illustration 13 g01094203 Serial number plate i02164876 Reference Numbers Information for the following items may be needed to order parts. Locate the information for your engine. Record the information in the appropriate space. Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the information for future reference. Record for Reference Engine Model _______________________________________________ Illustration 12 g01372283 Engine Serial number _____________________________________ Location of serial number plate Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________ Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial number. Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________ An example of an engine number is UL*****J000001L. Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________ UL __________________________________________Type of engine Water Separator Element ________________________________ ***** ____________________ The list number for the engine Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________ J ______________________________________________Built in Japan Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________ 000001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________ L _____________________________________Year of Manufacture Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________ Perkins distributors need all of these numbers in order to determine the components that were included with the engine. This permits accurate identification of replacement part numbers. Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________ Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________ 20 Product Information Section Product Identification Information SEBU8324 Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________ Alternator Belt ______________________________________________ i02742745 Emissions Certification Film Illustration 14 g01372645 Typical example • EPA Environmental Protection Agency • CARB California Air Resources Board • EEC European Economic Community The emissions label (1) is located on the top of the valve mechanism cover. The 800D industrial engine complies with worldwide emissions standards and with EPA/CARB off road Tier iii engines. The 800D industrial engine complies with EEC off road mobile machinery that is at stage III. SEBU8324 21 Product Information Section Product Identification Information Illustration 15 g01381011 Typical example 22 Operation Section Lifting and Storage SEBU8324 Operation Section i02744521 Product Storage Lifting and Storage i02513632 Product Lifting If the engine is not started for a month or longer the lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder walls. Rust on the cylinder walls will cause increased engine wear and a reduction in engine service life. Perkins are not responsible for damage which may occur when an engine is in storage after a period in service. Your Perkins distributor can assist in preparing the engine for extended storage periods. If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engine is not planned for more than one month, a complete protection procedure is recommended. To help prevent excessive engine wear and corrosion to the engine, use the following guidelines: Illustration 16 g00103219 NOTICE Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees. When it is necessary to remove a component at an angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for the weight. Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All supporting members (chains and cables) should be parallel to each other. The chains and cables should be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being lifted. Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to obtain proper balance and safety. To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that are on the engine. Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for proper engine lifting. 1. Completely clean the outside of the engine. 2. Ensure that the vehicle is on level ground. 3. Drain the fuel system completely and refill the system with preservative fuel. 1772204 POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be mixed with the normal fuel in order to change the fuel into preservative fuel. If preservative fuel is not available, the fuel system can be filled with normal fuel. This fuel must be discarded at the end of the storage period together with the fuel filter elements. Personal injury can result from hot coolant. Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause severe burns. Allow cooling system components to cool before the cooling system is drained. 4. Drain and refill the cooling system. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling System coolant (Commercial Heavy Duty Change or Cooling System coolant (ELC) Change” for information on draining, flushing and refilling the cooling system. 5. Operate the engine until the engine reaches normal operating temperature. If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Check for any leaks. Stop the engine. Repair any leaks from the fuel system and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems. SEBU8324 6. Drain the lubricating oil from the oil pan. Renew the canister(s) of the lubricating oil filter. Fill the oil pan to the Full Mark on the engine oil level gauge with new, clean lubricating oil. Add 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 to the oil in order to protect the engine against corrosion. If 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available, use a preservative of the correct specification instead of the lubricating oil. If a preservative is used, this must be drained completely at the end of the storage period and the oil pan must be refilled to the correct level with normal lubricating oil. 7. Operate the engine in order to circulate engine oil. 8. Disconnect the battery. Ensure that the battery is in a fully charged condition. Protect the terminals against corrosion. 1734115 POWERPART Lay-Up 3 can be used on the terminals. Put the battery into safe storage. 9. If equipped, replace the crankcase breather element. Seal the end of the breather pipe. 10. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 around the rocker shaft assembly. 11. Remove the glow plugs. Slowly rotate the crankshaft. By checking the valves, position the piston at BDC. Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 for two seconds into the cylinder bore. This procedure must be carried out on each cylinder. 12. Install the glow plugs. Install the valve mechanism cover. 13. Remove the pipes that are installed between the air filter assembly and the turbocharger. Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The duration of the spray is printed on the container. Seal the turbocharger with waterproof tape. 14. Remove the exhaust pipe from the output side of the turbocharger. Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The duration of the spray is printed on the container. Seal the turbocharger with waterproof tape. 15. Seal the vent of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap with waterproof tape. 16. Remove the alternator drive belt and put the drive belt into storage. 23 Operation Section Lifting and Storage 17. In order to prevent corrosion to the outside of the engine, spray the engine with 1734115 POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray the area inside the alternator. 24 Operation Section Gauges and Indicators SEBU8324 Gauges and Indicators 1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm. 2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. i02164190 Gauges and Indicators Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of the gauges that are described. For more information about the gauge package, see the OEM information. Gauges provide indications of engine performance. Ensure that the gauges are in good working order. Determine the normal operating range by observing the gauges over a period of time. Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may also be indicated by gauge readings that change even if the readings are within specifications. Determine and correct the cause of any significant change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for assistance. NOTICE If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP the engine. Engine damage can result. Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure should be greatest after a cold engine is started. The typical engine oil pressure with SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at rated rpm. A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the following procedure: 1. Remove the load. 2. Reduce engine speed to low idle. 3. Check and maintain the oil level. Jacket Water Coolant Temperature – Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C (160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable temperature with the pressurized cooling system at 48 kPa (7 psi) is 110°C (230°F). Higher temperatures may occur under certain conditions. The water temperature reading may vary according to load. The reading should never exceed the boiling point for the pressurized system that is being used. If the engine is operating above the normal range and steam becomes apparent, perform the following procedure: 3. Determine if the engine must be shut down immediately or if the engine can be cooled by reducing the load. Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever is moved to the full throttle position without load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is running at the full load rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full throttle position with maximum rated load. NOTICE To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious damage to the engine. The engine can be operated at high idle without damage, but should never be allowed to exceed high idle rpm. Ammeter – This gauge indicates the amount of charge or discharge in the battery charging circuit. Operation of the indicator should be to the right side of “0” (zero). Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge operates when the “START/STOP” switch is in the “ON” position. Service Hour Meter – The gauge indicates operating time of the engine. SEBU8324 25 Operation Section Features and Controls Features and Controls Engines may be equipped with alarms in order to alert the operator when undesirable operating conditions occur. i02672017 Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms Shutoffs Shutoffs and alarms are electrically operated or mechanically operated. The operation of all electric shutoffs and alarms utilize components which actuate switches in a sensing unit. Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following items: operating temperature, operating pressure, operating level, and operating rpm. The particular shutoff may need to be reset before the engine will start. NOTICE Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown. Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart the engine. Be familiar with the following items: • Types and locations of shutoff • Conditions which cause each shutoff to function NOTICE When an alarm is activated, corrective measures must be taken before the situation becomes an emergency in order to avoid possible engine damage. If corrective measures are not taken within a reasonable time, engine damage could result. The alarm will continue until the condition is corrected. The alarm may need to be reset. A switch may be installed in the alarm while the engine is stopped for repairs. Before the engine is started, ensure that the switch is moved to the ON position and that the warning lights are flashing. The engine will not be protected if the switch is left in the OFF position. Testing the Shutoff and Alarm System Most control panels are equipped with a lamp test switch. Turn the switch to the ON position in order to check the indicator lights for proper operation. Replace faulty bulbs immediately. NOTICE During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be simulated. Perform the tests correctly in order to help prevent possible engine damage. • The resetting procedure that is required to restart the engine Alarms Alarms consist of a switch and a contactor. The switches are wired to the contactors. The contactors activate alarm circuits in an annunciator panel. Your engine may be equipped with the following switches: Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure switch indicates when oil pressure drops below rated system pressure. Coolant level – The low coolant level switch indicates when the coolant level is low. Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature switch indicates high jacket water coolant temperature. Note: The sensing element of the coolant temperature switch must be submerged in coolant in order to operate. Refer to the Service Manual for more information on testing procedures or consult your Perkins dealer. i02539718 Fuel Shutoff The fuel shutoff solenoid is located on the fuel injection pump. When the fuel shutoff solenoid is activated, the solenoid moves to the “Open” position. When the fuel shutoff solenoid is deactivated, the solenoid moves to the “Closed” position. 26 Operation Section Engine Starting SEBU8324 Engine Starting • Do not start the engine or move any of the controls i02194223 Before Starting Engine if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or similar warning tag attached to the start switch or to the controls. • Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are clear. Before the engine is started, perform the required daily maintenance and any other periodic maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more information. • For the maximum service life of the engine, make a thorough inspection within the engine compartment before the engine is started. Look for the following items: oil leaks, coolant leaks, loose bolts, and excessive dirt and/or grease. Remove any excess dirt and/or grease buildup. Repair any faults that were identified during the inspection. • Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and for loose clamps. • Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for cracks, breaks, and other damage. • Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for worn wires or frayed wires. • Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped). NOTICE All valves in the fuel return line must be open before and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing failure or other damage. If the engine has not been started for several weeks, fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information on priming the fuel system. Engine exhaust contains products of combustion which may be harmful to your health. Always start and operate the engine in a well ventilated area and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside. • All of the guards must be put in place. Check for damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards and/or missing guards. • Disconnect any battery chargers that are not protected against the high current drain that is created when the electric starting motor is engaged. Check electrical cables and check the battery for poor connections and for corrosion. • Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if equipped). • Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL” mark on the engine oil level gauge. • Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level in the header tank (if equipped). Maintain the coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the header tank. • If the engine is not equipped with a header tank maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant level in the sight glass. • Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red piston locks in the visible position. • Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the engine has been disengaged from the engine. Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical loads. SEBU8324 27 Operation Section Engine Starting i01934161 Starting the Engine i02177935 Starting with Jump Start Cables Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as ether. Such use could result in an explosion and personal injury. NOTICE Do not crank the engine for more than 10 seconds. Allow the starter motor to cool for 30 seconds before cranking again. Do not engage the starter when the flywheel is turning. Refer to the “OEM Manual” for your type of controls. 1. Remove any load from the engine. Disengage any driven equipment. Improper jump start cable connections can cause an explosion resulting in personal injury. Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start cable ends to contact each other or the engine. Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the starting failure. Make any necessary repairs. If the engine will not start only due to the condition of the battery, either charge the battery, or start the engine with jump start cables. The condition of the battery can be rechecked after the engine has been switched OFF. 2. Crank the engine. Start the engine. 3. If the engine does not start, release the engine start switch and allow the electric starting motor to cool. 4. If the ambient temperature is low, activate the glow plugs according to Table 3. Table 3 Preheat Times Temperature Preheat Time 5 °C (41 °F) 10 seconds −5 °C (23 °F) to 4 °C (40 °F) 20 seconds Less than −5 °C (23 °F) 30 seconds Continuous Preheat 60 seconds maximum NOTICE Using a battery source with the same voltage as the electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage the electrical system. Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove first. When using an external electrical source to start the engine, turn the generator set control switch to the “OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the jump start cables. Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started. 5. Crank the engine. Start the engine. 6. Allow the engine to idle for 5 to 10 minutes before applying a load to the engine. Check the oil pressure gauge. The oil pressure gauge should be at the proper value. 1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn off all the engine’s accessories. 2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to the positive cable terminal of the discharged battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump start cable to the positive cable terminal of the electrical source. 28 Operation Section Engine Starting SEBU8324 3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable to the negative cable terminal of the electrical source. Connect the other negative end of the jump start cable to the engine block or to the chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent potential sparks from igniting the combustible gases that are produced by some batteries. 4. Start the engine. 5. Immediately after the stalled engine is started, disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order. After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged. The batteries must be replaced or charged to the correct voltage with a battery charger after the engine is stopped. Many batteries which are considered unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”. i02539705 After Starting Engine Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately three to five minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up time may be required. When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the following conditions: • Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine) before operating the engine under load. This is not possible in some applications. • Operate the engine at low idle until all systems achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges during the warm-up period. Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the data should be recorded frequently while the engine is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to determine normal readings for each gauge. Comparing data over time will also help detect abnormal operating developments. Significant changes in the readings should be investigated. SEBU8324 29 Operation Section Engine Operation Engine Operation i01646335 i02176671 Engine Operation Correct operation and maintenance are key factors in obtaining the maximum life and economy of the engine. If the directions in the Operation and Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be minimized and engine service life can be maximized. The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the engine reaches operating temperature. The engine will reach normal operating temperature sooner during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a low power demand. This procedure is more effective than idling the engine at no load. The engine should reach operating temperature in a few minutes. Gauge readings should be observed and the data should be recorded frequently while the engine is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to determine normal readings for each gauge. Comparing data over time will also help detect abnormal operating developments. Significant changes in the readings should be investigated. i01929404 Engine Warm-up 1. Run the engine at low idle for three to five minutes, or run the engine at low idle until the jacket water temperature starts to rise. More time may be necessary when the temperature is below −18°C (0°F). 2. Check all of the gauges during the warm-up period. 3. Perform a walk-around inspection. Check the engine for fluid leaks and air leaks. 4. Increase the rpm to the rated rpm. Check for fluid leaks and air leaks. The engine may be operated at full rated rpm and at full load when the temperature of the water jacket reaches 60°C (140°F). Engaging the Driven Equipment 1. Operate the engine at one-half of the rated rpm, when possible. 2. Engage the driven equipment without a load on the equipment, when possible. Interrupted starts put excessive stress on the drive train. Interrupted starts also waste fuel. To get the driven equipment in motion, engage the clutch smoothly with no load on the equipment. This method should produce a start that is smooth and easy. The engine rpm should not increase and the clutch should not slip. 3. Ensure that the ranges of the gauges are normal when the engine is operating at one-half of the rated rpm. Ensure that all gauges operate properly. 4. Increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm. Always increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm before the load is applied. 5. Apply the load. Begin operating the engine at low load. Check the gauges and equipment for proper operation. After normal oil pressure is reached and the temperature gauge begins to move, the engine may be operated at full load. Check the gauges and equipment frequently when the engine is operated under load. Extended operation at low idle or at reduced load may cause increased oil consumption and carbon buildup in the cylinders. This carbon buildup results in a loss of power and/or poor performance. 30 Operation Section Engine Operation SEBU8324 i02330149 Fuel Conservation Practices The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel economy. Perkins design and technology in manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all applications. Follow the recommended procedures in order to attain optimum performance for the life of the engine. • Avoid spilling fuel. Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed. • Be aware of the properties of the different fuels. Use only the recommended fuels. • Avoid unnecessary idling. Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of time. • Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently. Keep the air cleaner elements clean. • Maintain the electrical systems. One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator. This will consume excess power and excess fuel. • Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted. The drive belts should be in good condition. • Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are tight. The connections should not leak. • Ensure that the driven equipment is in good working order. • Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat from the jacket water system and the exhaust system, when possible. Keep cooling system components clean and keep cooling system components in good repair. Never operate the engine without water temperature regulators. All of these items will help maintain operating temperatures. SEBU8324 31 Operation Section Engine Stopping Engine Stopping i02176672 After Stopping Engine i02334873 Stopping the Engine Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to return to the oil pan. NOTICE Stopping the engine immediately after it has been working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components. • Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on the engine oil level gauge. Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down. • If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life. • If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter, Note: Individual applications will have different control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures are understood. Use the following general guidelines in order to stop the engine. 1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine. 2. Stop the engine after the cool down period according to the shutoff system on the engine and turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If necessary, refer to the instructions that are provided by the OEM. i01903586 Emergency Stopping NOTICE Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or controls for normal stopping procedure. The OEM may have equipped the application with an emergency stop button. For more information about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM information. Ensure that any components for the external system that support the engine operation are secured after the engine is stopped. any leaks and tighten any loose bolts. note the reading. Perform the maintenance that is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”. • Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill the fuel tank. NOTICE Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in the Coolant Specifications that are in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause engine damage. • Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level. • If freezing temperatures are expected, check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection. The cooling system must be protected against freezing to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary. • Perform all required periodic maintenance on all driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in the instructions from the OEM. 32 Operation Section Cold Weather Operation SEBU8324 Cold Weather Operation i02717265 Cold Weather Operation • Install the correct specification of engine lubricant before the beginning of cold weather. • Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc) weekly. • Check all electrical wiring and connections for any fraying or damaged insulation. Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the following items: • The type of fuel that is used • The viscosity of the engine oil • The operation of the glow plugs • Optional Cold starting aid • Keep all batteries fully charged and warm. • Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift. • Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily. Check the air intake more often when you operate in snow. • Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order. Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Glow Plug - Test”. • Battery condition This section will cover the following information: • Potential problems that are caused by cold weather operation • Suggest steps which can be taken in order to Personal injury or property damage can result from alcohol or starting fluids. Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury or property damage. minimize starting problems and operating problems when the ambient air temperature is between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F). The operation and maintenance of an engine in freezing temperatures is complex . This is because of the following conditions: Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as ether. Such use could result in an explosion and personal injury. • Weather conditions • For jump starting with cables in cold weather, • Engine applications Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor are based on past proven practices. The information that is contained in this section provides guidelines for cold weather operation. Hints for Cold Weather Operation • If the engine will start, operate the engine until a minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F) is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves from sticking. • The cooling system and the lubrication system for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut down for a period of time and the engine can still have the ability to start readily. refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions. Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity affects the amount of torque that is needed to crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for the recommended viscosity of oil. Recommendations for the Coolant Provide cooling system protection for the lowest expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for the recommended coolant mixture. SEBU8324 33 Operation Section Cold Weather Operation In cold weather, check the coolant often for the correct glycol concentration in order to ensure adequate freeze protection. • Free operation of the valves is prevented. Engine Block Heaters • Pushrods may become bent. Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion chambers. This provides the following functions: • Other damage to valve train components can • Startability is improved. • Warm up time is reduced. An electric block heater can be activated once the engine is stopped. An effective block heater is typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more information. Idling the Engine When idling after the engine is started in cold weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended periods will be easier with the installation of a hand throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to speed up the warm up process. While the engine is idling, the application of a light load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the minimum operating temperature. The minimum operating temperature is 82 °C (179.6 °F). Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should be performed before the engine is returned to full operation. During operation in very cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can result from engine operation for short intervals. This can happen if the engine is started and the engine is stopped many times without being operated in order to warm up completely. When the engine is operated below normal operating temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems. Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and the deposits are burned off during operation at normal engine operating temperatures. When the engine is started and the engine is stopped many times without being operated in order to warm up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This can cause the following problems: • Valves become stuck. result. For this reason, when the engine is started, the engine must be operated until the coolant temperature is 71 °C (160 °F) minimum. Carbon deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum and the free operation of the valves and the valve components will be maintained. In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in order to keep other engine parts in better condition and the service life of the engine will be generally extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and unnecessary fuel consumption. The Water Temperature Regulator and Insulated Heater Lines The engine is equipped with a water temperature regulator. When the engine coolant is below the correct operating temperature jacket water circulates through the engine cylinder block and into the engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This ensures that coolant flows around the engine under cold operating conditions. The water temperature regulator begins to open when the engine jacket water has reached the correct minimum operating temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature rises above the minimum operating temperature the water temperature regulator opens further allowing more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess heat. The progressive opening of the water temperature regulator operates the progressive closing of the bypass passage between the cylinder block and head. This ensures maximum coolant flow to the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat dissipation. Note: Perkins discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow can result in the following: high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy. 34 Operation Section Cold Weather Operation SEBU8324 A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the outside air. Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life of the engine, the engine’s maximum power, and the engine’s fuel efficiency. Insulating the Air Inlet and Engine Compartment When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following components provide a means of minimizing problems in cold weather: When temperatures below −18 °C (−0 °F) will be frequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet that is located in the engine compartment may be specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine compartment may also minimize the entry of snow into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the engine helps to warm the intake air. • Glow plugs, which are standard equipment on all Additional heat can be retained around the engine by insulating the engine compartment. • Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option i01935225 Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather 800 Series engines • Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM option • Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option There are three major differences between Group 1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels. • A lower cloud point • A lower pour point Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”. The following fuels can be used for the Perkins 800 Series engine. • Group 1 • Group 2 • Group 3 • Special Fuels Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for use in 800 Series engines. Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and Aviation Kerosene Fuels. Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins warranty. Special fuels include Biofuel. Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels are usually less available than Group 2 fuels. Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder climates during the winter. Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1). • A higher rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud of wax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant to flow through fuel pumps and through the fuel lines. Be aware of these values when diesel fuel is purchased. Consider the average ambient air temperature for the engine’s application. Engines that are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the engines are moved to another climate. Problems can result due to changes in temperature. Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor performance in the winter, check the type of fuel that is being used. Low temperature fuels may be available for engine operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low temperatures. Wax in the fuel may prevent the flow of the fuel through the fuel filters. For more information on cold weather operation, see Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather”. SEBU8324 35 Operation Section Cold Weather Operation i01903588 Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather Fuel Tanks Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks. Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine. Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks. Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is equipped with this system, regular maintenance of the fuel system filter is important. Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes, and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank. Fuel Filters It is possible that a primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet. After you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in the Maintenance Section for more information on priming the fuel system. The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most common components that are affected by cold fuel. Fuel Heaters Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel heaters. If this is the case, disconnect an electric type of fuel heater in warm weather in order to prevent overheating of the fuel. If the type of fuel heater is a heat exchanger, the OEM should have included a bypass for warm weather. Ensure that the bypass is operational during warm weather in order to prevent overheating of the fuel. For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped), refer to the OEM information. 36 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities SEBU8324 Maintenance Section Table 5 Approximate Refill Capacity of the Cooling System Compartment or System Refill Capacities Engine Only i02555319 Refill Capacities Liters Pints 5.5 9.7 External Cooling System (OEM Recommendation)(1) Total Cooling System(2) (1) Lubrication System The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Section” for more information on Lubricant Specifications. Approximate Refill Capacity of the Lubrication System Crankcase Oil Sump(1) (1) i02521225 Fluid Recommendations General Lubricant Information Table 4 Compartment or System The external cooling system includes a radiator or an expansion tank with the following components: The heat exchanger, the aftercooler, and the piping Refer to the Perkins specifications and/or the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the external cooling system capacity in this row. (2) The Total Cooling System includes the capacity for the engine cooling system plus the capacity for the external cooling system. Enter the total in this row. Liters Pints 10 17.6 These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase oil sump which include the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Cooling System To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling System capacity must be known. The approximate capacity for the engine cooling system is listed. External System capacities will vary among applications. Refer to the OEM specifications for the External System capacity. This capacity information will be needed in order to determine the amount of coolant or antifreeze that is required for the Total Cooling System. Because of government regulations regarding the certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the lubricant recommendations must be followed. Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) Oils The “Engine Manufacturers Association Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is recognized by Perkins. For detailed information about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA publication, “EMA DHD -1”. API Oils The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized by Perkins. For detailed information about this system, see the latest edition of the “API publication No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are authorized by API. SEBU8324 37 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities • EMA DHD-1 multigrade oil (preferred oil) • API CH-4 multigrade oil (preferred oil) • ACEAE3 In order to make the correct choice of a commercial oil, refer to the following explanations: g00546535 Illustration 17 Typical API symbol Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have not been API authorized classifications since 1 January 1996. Table 6 summarizes the status of the classifications. Table 6 API Classifications (1) Current Obsolete CF-4, CG4, CH-4, CE CF CC, CD CF-2(1) CD-2(1) The classifications CD-2 and American Petroleum Institute CF-2 are for two-cycle diesel engines. Perkins does not sell engines that utilize CD-2 and API CF-2 oils. Terminology Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of “SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183” abbreviations, and some classifications follow the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section). Engine Oil Commercial Oils The performance of commercial diesel engine oils is based on American Petroleum Institute (API) classifications. These API classifications are developed in order to provide commercial lubricants for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at various conditions. Only use commercial oils that meet the following classifications: EMA DHD-1 – The Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) has developed lubricant recommendations as an alternative to the API oil classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may be used in Perkins engines when the following oils are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API CF-4. DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many applications. The tests and the test limits that are used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also meet the requirements for diesel engines that require low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter. These oils will also provide superior piston deposit control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons or aluminum pistons. All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of the finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in performance that can occur when base stocks are changed in commercial oil formulations. DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil change interval programs that optimize the life of the oil. These oil change interval programs are based on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals. 38 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to meet the requirements of the new high performance diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria: deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control, and corrosion. SEBU8324 Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 18 demonstrates the TBN. Three new engine tests were developed for the API CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston. This test (piston deposit) also measures the control of oil consumption. A second test is conducted with moderate oil soot. The second test measures the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third new test measures the following characteristics with high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train, resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and control of sludge. In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that generate high soot. The oils also have improved oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is also established for engines that operate in areas with high sulfur diesel fuel. Illustration 18 g00799818 (Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896” (X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight (1) TBN of new oil (2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of the original TBN. Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that exceed 1.5 percent: All of these improvements allow the API CH-4 oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals. • Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one Some commercial oils that meet the API classifications may require reduced oil change intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear metal analysis. Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing of the cylinder bore. NOTICE Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or excessive wear. of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4. • Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a wear metal analysis. NOTICE Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate wear protection. SEBU8324 39 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities Table 7 Percentage of Sulfur in the fuel Oil change interval Lower than 0.5 Normal 0.5 to 1.0 0.75 of normal Greater than 1.0 0.50 of normal Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined by the minimum ambient temperature during cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient temperature during engine operation. Refer to Table 8 (minimum temperature) in order to determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold engine. Refer to Table 8 (maximum temperature) in order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated. Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is available to meet the requirement for the temperature at start-up. Table 8 Engine Oil Viscosity Ambient Temperature EMA LRG-1 API CH-4 Viscosity Grade Minimum Maximum SAE 0W20 −40 °C (−40 °F) 10 °C (50 °F) SAE 0W30 −40 °C (−40 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) SAE 0W40 −40 °C (−40 °F) 40 °C (104 °F) SAE 5W30 −30 °C (−22 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) SAE 5W40 −30 °C (−22 °F) 40 °C (104 °F) SAE 10W30 −20 °C (−4 °F) 40 °C (104 °F) SAE 15W40 −10 °C (14 °F) 50 °C (122 °F) Synthetic Base Stock Oils Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in these engines if these oils meet the performance requirements that are specified for the engine. Synthetic base oils generally perform better than conventional oils in the following two areas: • Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low temperatures especially in arctic conditions. • Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation stability especially at high operating temperatures. Some synthetic base oils have performance characteristics that enhance the service life of the oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic extending of the oil change intervals for any type of oil. Re-refined Base Stock Oils Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the performance requirements that are specified by Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with new base stock oils. The US military specifications and the specifications of other heavy equipment manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base stock oils that meet the same criteria. The process that is used to make re-refined base stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals that are in the used oil and all the additives that are in the used oil. The process that is used to make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of high quality, re-refined base stock oil. Lubricants for Cold Weather When an engine is started and an engine is operated in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low temperatures. These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE 0W or SAE 5W. When an engine is started and operated in ambient temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F). The number of acceptable lubricants is limited in cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions: First Choice – Use oil with an EMA DHD-1 Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40 lubricant viscosity grade. Second Choice – Use an oil that has a CH-4 additive package. Although the oil has not been tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40. 40 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities SEBU8324 • The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the NOTICE Shortened engine service life could result if second choice oils are used. Aftermarket Oil Additives Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket additives in order to achieve the engine’s maximum service life or rated performance. Fully formulated, finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial additive packages. These additive packages are blended into the base oils at precise percentages in order to help provide finished oils with performance characteristics that meet industry standards. There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not be compatible with the finished oil’s additive package, which could lower the performance of the finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of aftermarket additives in finished oils. To achieve the best performance from a Perkins engine, conform to the following guidelines: • Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification. • See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your engine. • At the specified interval, service the engine. Use new oil and install a new oil filter. • Perform maintenance at the intervals that are specified in the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”. Oil analysis Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil analysis will complement the preventive maintenance program. The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to determine oil performance and component wear rates. Contamination can be identified and measured through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the following tests: engine’s metals. The amount of wear metal and type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear metal in the oil. • Tests are conducted in order to detect contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel. • The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of the oil’s lubricating properties. An infrared analysis is used to compare the properties of new oil to the properties of the used oil sample. This analysis allows technicians to determine the amount of deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis also allows technicians to verify the performance of the oil according to the specification during the entire oil change interval. Fuel Specifications Fuel Recommendations To get the correct power and performance from the engine, use a fuel of the correct quality. The recommended fuel specification for Perkins engines is shown below: • Cetane number___________________________45 minimum • Viscosity___________ 2,0 to 4.5 cSt at 40 °C (104 °F) • Density________________________0.835 to 0.855 Kg/liter • Sulfur_______________________0.2% of mass, maximum • Distillation___________________85% at 350 °C (662 °F) • Lubricity______________________________460 micrometers maximum wear scar on “ISO 12156 - 1” Cetane number This indicates the properties of ignition of the fuel. Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause of problems during cold start. This will affect combustion. Viscosity This is the resistance to flow of a fluid. If this resistance is outside the limits, the engine and the engine starting performance in particular can be affected. Sulfur SEBU8324 High sulfur content of the fuel is not normally found in Europe, North America or Australasia. This can cause engine wear. When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used in the engine or that the lubricating oil change interval is reduced. Distillation This is an indication of the mixture of different hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of combustion. Lubricity This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear. Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety of fuels. These fuels are divided into four general groups: • Group 1 (preferred fuels) • Group 2 (permissible fuels) • Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels) • Other fuels Group 1 (preferred fuels): Specification “DERV to EN590” Note: Only use Arctic fuels when the temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F). Do not use Arctic fuels when the ambient temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F). To ensure that the time period between cranking the engine and first fire is kept to a minimum, only use fuel of the correct viscosity and at the correct temperature. Gas oil to “BS2869 Class A2” “ASTM D975 - 91 Class 2D” This can only be used if the fuel has the correct specification of lubricity. “JIS K2204 (1992) Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade 3” This can only be used if the fuel has the correct specification of lubricity. Note: If low sulfur or low sulfur aromatic fuels are used, then fuel additives can be used to increase lubricity. 41 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities “ASTM D975 - 91 Class 1D” “JP7, Mil T38219” “NATO F63” NOTICE These fuels should have a wear scar value of 650 micrometers maximum *HFRR to ISO 12156 - 1.* Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels): Specification These fuels need additives to achieve lubricity of 650 micrometers wear scar and the reliability of the fuel pump and fuel injectors will be reduced. The fuel injection pump is not covered by a warranty, even when the additives are included. “JP5 MIL T5624 (Avcat FSII, NATO F44” “JP8 T83133 (Avtur FSII, NATO F34” “Jet A” “Jet A1, NATO F35, XF63” Low temperature fuels Special fuels for use in cold weather may be available for engine operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel oil at low temperatures. If wax forms in the fuel oil, this could stop the flow of fuel oil through the filter. Note: These fuels that lack lubricity may cause the following problems: • Low engine power • Difficult starting in hot conditions or in cold conditions • White smoke • Deterioration of emissions and misfire at certain operating conditions Biofuel: Specification Biofuel: A 5% mix of RME to EN14214 in conventional fuel is permitted. Group 2 (permissible fuels): Specification NOTICE Water emulsion fuels: These fuels are not permitted These fuel specifications are considered acceptable for issues of warranty. However,these fuels may reduce the life of the engine, the engine’s maximum power and the engine’s fuel efficiency. Refer to the following fuel specifications for North America. 42 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities SEBU8324 The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service life and performance. The preferred fuels are distillate fuels. These fuels are commonly called diesel fuel or gas oil. The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels. Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance costs and in reduced engine service life. Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in Table 9 will help to provide maximum engine service life and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that is identified as No. 2-D in “ASTM D975” generally meets the specifications. Table 9 is for diesel fuels that are distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from other sources could exhibit detrimental properties that are not defined or controlled by this specification. (Table 9, contd) Copper Strip Corrosion Distillation Flash Point API Gravity Pour Point Table 9 Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel Specifications Requirements ASTM Test Sulfur No. 3 maximum 10% at 282 °C (540 °F) maximum 90% at 360 °C (680 °F) maximum legal limit 30 minimum 45 maximum 6 °C (10 °F) minimum below ambient temperature 0.2% maximum (1) “D130” “D86” “D93” “D287” “D97” “D3605” or “D1552” Aromatics 35% maximum Ash 0.02% maximum (weight) “D482” Carbon Residue on 10% Bottoms 0.35% maximum (weight) “D524” Water and Sediment 0.1% maximum Cetane Number 40 minimum (DI engines) “D613” Water 0.1% maximum “D1744” Sediment 0.05% maximum (weight) “D473” Cloud Point The cloud point must not exceed the lowest expected ambient temperature. 10 mg per 100 mL maximum “D381” 0.38 mm (0.015 inch) maximum at 25 °C (77 °F) “D6079” “D1319” - (continued) Kinematic Viscosity (2) Gum and Resins (3) Lubricity (1) (4) 2.0 cSt minimum and 4.5 cSt maximum at 40 °C (104 °F) “D445” “D1796” Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulfur fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5 percent may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, see this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section). (2) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain a 1.4 cSt viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to bring down the viscosity to a 20 cSt viscosity. (3) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor). (4) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use either the “ASTM D6078 Scuffing Load Wear Test (SBOCLE)” or the “ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in the fuel system. SEBU8324 43 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities Cooling System Specifications NOTICE Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine. NOTICE Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuel, or Blended fuel must NOT be used in Perkins diesel engines. Severe component wear and component failures will result if HFO type fuels are used in engines that are configured to use distillate fuel. In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the distillate fuels that are specified in Table 10. However, the fuel that is selected must meet the requirements that are specified in Table 9. These fuels are intended to be used in operating temperatures that are down to −54 °C (−65 °F). Table 10 Distillate Fuels (1) General Coolant Information NOTICE Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first. NOTICE If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage. NOTICE Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection. Clean the cooling system for the following reasons: • Contamination of the cooling system • Overheating of the engine (1) Specification Grade “MIL-T-5624R” JP-5 “ASTM D1655” Jet-A-1 “MIL-T-83133D” JP-8 The fuels that are listed in this Table may not meet the requirements that are specified in the “Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel” Table. Consult the supplier for the recommended additives in order to maintain the correct fuel lubricity. These fuels are lighter than the No. 2 grades of fuel. The cetane number of the fuels in Table 10 must be at least 40. If the viscosity is below 1.4 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F), use the fuel only in temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). Do not use any fuels with a viscosity of less than 1.2 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F). Fuel cooling may be required in order to maintain the minimum viscosity of 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump. There are many other diesel fuel specifications that are published by governments and by technological societies. Usually, those specifications do not review all the requirements that are addressed in this specification. To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete fuel analysis should be obtained before engine operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the properties that are listed in Table 9. • Foaming of the coolant NOTICE Never operate an engine without water temperature regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators. Many engine failures are related to the cooling system. The following problems are related to cooling system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers. These failures can be avoided with correct cooling system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is as important as maintenance of the fuel system and the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating oil. Coolant is normally composed of three elements: Water, additives, and glycol. Water Water is used in the cooling system in order to transfer heat. Distilled water or deionized water is recommended for use in engine cooling systems. 44 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities SEBU8324 DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling systems: Hard water, softened water that has been conditioned with salt, and sea water. If distilled water or deionized water is not available, use water with the properties that are listed in Table 11. Table 11 Acceptable Water Property Maximum Limit Chloride (Cl) 40 mg/L Sulfate (SO4) 100 mg/L Total Hardness 170 mg/L Total Solids 340 mg/L Acidity pH of 5.5 to 9.0 Glycol Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection against the following conditions: • Boiling • Freezing • Cavitation of the water pump For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution. Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection against the lowest ambient temperature. Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F). • Local water utility company Most conventional coolants and antifreezes use ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide similar protection against freezing and boiling. See Tables 12 and 13. • Agricultural agent Table 12 For a water analysis, consult one of the following sources: Ethylene Glycol • Independent laboratory Additives Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or insufficient amounts of additives enable the following conditions to occur: • Corrosion • Formation of mineral deposits • Rust • Scale Concentration Freeze Protection Boil Protection 50 Percent −36 °C (−33 °F) 106 °C (223 °F) 60 Percent −51 °C (−60 °F) 111 °C (232 °F) NOTICE Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol’s reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol in conditions that require additional protection against boiling or freezing. Table 13 Propylene Glycol • Foaming of the coolant Many additives are depleted during engine operation. These additives must be replaced periodically. Additives must be added at the correct concentration. Overconcentration of additives can cause the inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can enable the following problems to occur: • Formation of gel compounds Concentration Freeze Protection Anti-Boil Protection 50 Percent −29 °C (−20 °F) 106 °C (223 °F) To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant, measure the specific gravity of the coolant. Coolant Recommendations • Reduction of heat transfer The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel engines: • Leakage of the water pump seal Preferred – Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC) • Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages SEBU8324 45 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty coolant and antifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications NOTICE Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications. Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide optimum heavy-duty performance as a coolant and antifreeze. This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if extra freezing protection is required. Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze/coolant that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require a treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of the product. In stationary engine applications and marine engine applications that do not require anti-boil protection or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent to eight percent concentration of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water is preferred. Water which has the recommended properties may be used. Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature above 43 °C (109.4 °F) must use SCA and water. Engines that operate in an ambient temperature above 43 °C (109.4 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) due to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the correct level of protection. Table 14 Coolant Service Life Coolant Type Service Life Perkins ELC 6,000 Service Hours or Three Years Commercial Heavy-Duty coolant or antifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” 3000 Service Hours or Two Years Perkins POWERPART SCA 3000 Service Hours or Two Years Commercial SCA and Water 3000 Service Hours or Two Years • Heavy-duty diesel engines • Automotive applications The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has been formulated with the correct amount of these additives in order to provide superior corrosion protection for all metals in engine cooling systems. ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F). The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for topping off the cooling system. ELC Concentrate is also available. ELC Concentrate can be used to lower the freezing point to −51 °C (−60 °F) for arctic conditions. Containers of several sizes are available. Consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the part numbers. ELC Cooling System Maintenance Correct additions to the Extended Life Coolant NOTICE Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants. Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system component life unless appropriate corrective action is performed. In order to maintain the correct balance between the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the recommended concentration of Extended Life Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits. Extended Life Coolant (ELC) NOTICE Do not use conventional coolant to top-off a cooling system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC). Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for use in the following applications: Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive (SCA)in cooling systems that are filled with ELC. • Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines 46 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities NOTICE When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA’s or SCA filters. ELC Cooling System Cleaning Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC, cleaning agents are not required to be used at the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents are only required if the system has been contaminated by the addition of some other type of coolant or by cooling system damage. Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required when ELC is drained from the cooling system. After the cooling system is drained and after the cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while the cooling system filler cap is removed. Operate the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal operating temperature and until the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the specified level. Changing to Perkins ELC To change from heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze to the Perkins ELC, perform the following steps: NOTICE Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids. Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates. 1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container. 2. Dispose of the coolant according to local regulations. 3. Flush the system with clean water in order to remove any debris. SEBU8324 NOTICE Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system can result in damage to copper and other metal components. To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the cleaning agent are gone. 7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container and flush the cooling system with clean water. Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling system. 8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is completely clean. 9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed ELC. ELC Cooling System Contamination NOTICE Mixing Extended Life Coolant (ELC) with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life. Use only Perkins Products for pre mixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life. ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of the following procedures: • Drain the cooling system into a suitable container. Dispose of the coolant according to local regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill the system with the Perkins ELC. • Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable 4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow the instruction on the label. container according to local regulations. Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should lower the contamination to less than 10 percent. 5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush the cooling system with clean water. • Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty 6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and operate the engine until the engine is warmed to 49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F). Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change the coolant at the interval that is recommended for the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant. SEBU8324 47 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities Commercial Heavy-Duty antifreeze/ coolant and SCA NOTICE Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains Amine as part of the corrision protection system must not be used. NOTICE Never operate an engine without water temperature regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators. Check the coolant or antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to ensure adequate protection against boiling or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at 500 hour intervals for the concentration of Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA). Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test. An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour intervals. Refer to Table 15 for part numbers and for quantities of SCA. Table 17 Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill Total Volume of the Cooling System (V) Multiplication Factor Amount of SCA that is Required (X) 15 L (4 US gal) × 0.045 0.7 L (24 oz) Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance Heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic additions of an SCA. Test the coolant or antifreeze periodically for the concentration of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the concentration of SCA. Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test. The size of the cooling system determines the amount of SCA that is needed. Use the equation that is in Table 18 to determine the amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary: Table 18 Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance Table 15 Perkins Liquid SCA Part Number Quantity 21825735 10 Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at the Initial Fill Commercial heavy-duty coolant or antifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of the product. Use the equation that is in Table 16 to determine the amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the cooling system is initially filled. Table 16 Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill V × 0.045 = X V is the total volume of the cooling system. X is the amount of SCA that is required. Table 17 is an example for using the equation that is in Table 16. V × 0.014 = X V is the total volume of the cooling system. X is the amount of SCA that is required. Table 19 is an example for using the equation that is in Table 18. Table 19 Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance Total Volume of the Cooling System (V) Multiplication Factor Amount of SCA that is Required (X) 15 L (4 US gal) × 0.014 0.2 L (7 oz) 48 Maintenance Section Refill Capacities Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty coolant or antifreeze Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed to clean the cooling system of harmful scale and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil contamination and sludge. • Clean the cooling system after used coolant is drained or before the cooling system is filled with new coolant. • Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming. SEBU8324 SEBU8324 49 Maintenance Section Maintenance Interval Schedule i02704642 Maintenance Interval Schedule 51 52 56 56 58 62 67 Daily Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ Driven Equipment - Check .................................... Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ................................................................... Walk-Around Inspection ........................................ 54 55 59 59 64 69 Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 65 Every 500 Service Hours or 6 Months Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust/ Replace ............................................................... 50 Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace .................................................... Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................ Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace .................. Radiator - Clean .................................................... 51 55 56 60 63 65 66 Every 1000 Service Hours Alternator - Inspect ............................................... Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................ Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change ............................................................... 52 Every 3000 Service Hours When Required Battery - Replace .................................................. Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect .................. Engine - Clean ...................................................... Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace .................................................... Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace .................................................. Fuel System - Prime ............................................. Severe Service Application - Check ..................... Every 2 Years 50 61 68 68 Every 2000 Service Hours Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 59 Water Pump - Inspect ........................................... 70 Initial Oil Change Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 61 50 Maintenance Section Alternator - Inspect SEBU8324 i02322311 Adjustment Alternator - Inspect Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose connections and correct battery charging. Check the ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in order to ensure correct battery performance and/or correct performance of the electrical system. Make repairs, as required. Check the alternator and the battery charger for correct operation. If the batteries are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be very near zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The batteries should be kept warm because temperature affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold, the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more easily than a battery with a full charge. i02554823 Alternator and Fan Belts Inspect/Adjust/Replace Inspection To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are worn or damaged. For applications that require multiple drive belts, replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to carry more load because the older belt is stretched. The additional load on the new belt could cause the new belt to break. If the belts are too loose, vibration causes unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose belts may slip enough to cause overheating. To check the belt tension, apply 45 N (10 lb ft) of force midway between the pulleys. A correctly adjusted belt will deflect 10 mm (0.39 inch). Illustration 19 g01264847 Typical example (1) (2) (3) (4) Mounting bolts Bracket Belt Alternator 1. Loosen mounting bolts (1). 2. Move the alternator (4) in order to increase or decrease the belt tension. To check the belt tension, apply 45 N (10 lb ft) of force midway between the pulleys. A correctly adjusted belt will deflect 10 mm (0.39 inch). 3. Tighten mounting bolts (1). Replacement Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “V-Belts Remove and Install”. When new belts are installed, check the belt tension again after 20 hours of engine operation. SEBU8324 51 Maintenance Section Battery - Replace i01878164 Battery - Replace 8. Connect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” terminal on the starter motor to the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal. i02747977 Batteries give off combustible gases which can explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death. Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are serviced. The battery cables or the batteries should not be removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted. Removing the battery cables or the batteries with the cover in place may cause a battery explosion resulting in personal injury. 1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all electrical loads. Battery Electrolyte Level Check When the engine is not run for long periods of time or when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be very near zero, when the engine is in operation. All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face shield and protective clothing when working on or near batteries. 1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte level to the “FULL” mark on the battery. If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled water. If distilled water is not available use clean water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially softened water. 2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any battery chargers. 2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a suitable battery tester. 3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal on the starter motor. Disconnect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal. 3. Install the caps. 4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal. Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate recycling facility. 5. Remove the used battery. 6. Install the new battery. Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that the engine start switch is OFF. 7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal. 4. Keep the batteries clean. Clean the battery case with one of the following cleaning solutions: • Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water. • Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide. Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water. 52 Maintenance Section Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect SEBU8324 i02323088 Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect The battery cables or the batteries should not be removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted. Removing the battery cables or the batteries with the cover in place may cause a battery explosion resulting in personal injury. 1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position and remove the key and all electrical loads. 2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative connection must be disconnected. 3. Remove the positive connection. 4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery terminals. 5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT remove material excessively. Excessive removal of material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly. 6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent accidental starting. 7. Proceed with necessary system repairs. 8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive connection before the negative connector. i02554793 Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change (Commercial Heavy Duty) NOTICE Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids. Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and mandates. NOTICE Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life. Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling system before the recommended maintenance interval if the following conditions exist: • The engine overheats frequently. • Foaming is observed. • The oil has entered the cooling system and the coolant is contaminated. • The fuel has entered the cooling system and the coolant is contaminated. Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only clean water is needed. Note: Inspect the water pump and the water temperature regulator after the cooling system has been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace the water pump, the water temperature regulator and the hoses, if necessary. SEBU8324 53 Maintenance Section Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change Drain NOTICE Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L (1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks. Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until the cooling system components are cool. Loosen the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure. 1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling system filler cap. Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage. 3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the cooling system filler cap. 4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F). 5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean water. Fill 1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the radiator. g00987502 NOTICE Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L (1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks. 2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1) on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage. Illustration 20 Allow the coolant to drain. NOTICE Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant. For information regarding the disposal and the recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor. Flush 1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order to remove any debris. 2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the radiator. 2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount, refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for more information. Do not install the cooling system filler cap. 3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high idle for one minute in order to purge the air from the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine. 4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level. 54 Maintenance Section Cooling System Coolant Level - Check SEBU8324 5. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not damaged, use a suitable Pressurizing Pump in order to pressure test the cooling system filler cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap does not retain the correct pressure, install a new cooling system filler cap. 6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for leaks and for correct operating temperature. i02335378 Cooling System Coolant Level - Check Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank Note: The cooling system may not have been provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM information for the correct procedures. Illustration 21 g00103639 4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks. Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats up during normal engine operation. The additional volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank during engine operation. When the engine is stopped and cool, the coolant will return to the engine. Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped and cool. Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped and cool. 1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL” mark on the coolant recovery tank. Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until the cooling system components are cool. Loosen the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure. 2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the filler cap. 3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for information on the correct mixture and type of coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL” mark. Illustration 22 g00285520 Cooling system filler cap Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until the cooling system components are cool. Loosen the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure. 1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in order to relieve pressure. SEBU8324 55 Maintenance Section Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add 2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant level to the correct level in the sight glass. 3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure, install a new filler cap. 4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. i02556092 Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali. To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system coolant additive. Test for SCA Concentration Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA NOTICE Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration. Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check the concentration of the SCA. Add the SCA, If Necessary NOTICE Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration can form deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the cooling system, reducing the engine’s heat transfer characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration could also result in radiator tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped) at the same time. The use of those additives together could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum. Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until the cooling system components are cool. Loosen the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure. 1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling system filler cap. Note: Always discard drained fluids according to local regulations. 2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling system into a suitable container in order to allow space for the extra SCA. 3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for more information on SCA requirements. 4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If the gaskets are damaged, replace the old cooling system filler cap with a new cooling system filler cap. Install the cooling system filler cap. i00174798 Driven Equipment - Check Refer to the OEM specifications for more information on the following maintenance recommendations for the driven equipment: 56 Maintenance Section Engine - Clean SEBU8324 • Inspection i02334355 Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace • Adjustment • Lubrication • Other maintenance recommendations Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment which is recommended by the OEM. i01936072 Engine - Clean Personal injury or death can result from high voltage. Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity. Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO NOT OPERATE”. NOTICE Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine. Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended. Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following benefits: • Easy detection of fluid leaks • Maximum heat transfer characteristics • Ease of maintenance Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent electrical components from being damaged by excessive water when the engine is cleaned. Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical components such as the alternator, and the starter. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in order to wash the engine. NOTICE Never run the engine without an air cleaner element installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet. NOTICE Never service the air cleaner element with the engine running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine. Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements Note: The air filter system may not have been provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM information for the correct procedure. If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air can split the material of the air cleaner element. Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the correct air cleaner elements for your application. • Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt and debris, as needed. • Operating in dirty conditions may require more frequent service of the air cleaner element. • The air cleaner element should be replaced at least one time per year. This replacement should be performed regardless of the number of cleanings. Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner elements should be thoroughly checked for tears and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage. Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements for replacement purposes. Dual Element Air Cleaners The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element. SEBU8324 57 Maintenance Section Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace The primary air cleaner element can be used up to six times if the element is properly cleaned and properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element should be replaced at least one time per year. This replacement should be performed regardless of the number of cleanings. The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable. Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order to replace the secondary air cleaner element. When the engine is operating in environments that are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require more frequent replacement. Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements Refer to the OEM information in order to determine the number of times that the primary filter element can be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner element is cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material. The primary air cleaner element should be replaced at least one time per year. This replacement should be performed regardless of the number of cleanings. NOTICE Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element. Do not wash the primary air cleaner element. Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pressurised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary air cleaner element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air cleaner elements. Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Illustration 23 (1) (2) (3) (4) g00736431 Cover Primary air cleaner element Secondary air cleaner element Air inlet Refer to the OEM information in order to determine the number of times that the primary air cleaner element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary air filter element more than three times. The primary air cleaner element must be replaced at least one time per year. 1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air cleaner element. Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life of the air filter element. 2. The secondary air cleaner element should be removed and discarded for every three cleanings of the primary air cleaner element. Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and the outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner element. Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements”. 3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt out. 4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body with a clean, dry cloth. 5. Remove the tapefrom the air inlet. Install the secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary air cleaner element that is new or cleaned. 6. Install the air cleaner cover. 7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator. Two methods may be used in order to clean the primary air cleaner element: • pressurized air • Vacuum cleaning 58 Maintenance Section Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace Pressurized Air SEBU8324 Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner Elements”. Personal injury can result from air pressure. Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner Elements Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing. Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes. Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not remove deposits of carbon and oil. Illustration 25 g00281693 Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element. Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element. Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element for light that may show through the filter material. If it is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air cleaner element that has the same part number. Illustration 24 g00281692 Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side (outside). Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use a primary air cleaner element with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary air cleaner elements. i01897734 Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim the air directly at the face of the paper pleats. Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner Elements”. Vacuum Cleaning Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner elements which require daily cleaning because of a dry, dusty environment. Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”. NOTICE Never run the engine without an air cleaner element installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet. SEBU8324 59 Maintenance Section Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect Test the Service Indicator NOTICE Never service the air cleaner element with the engine running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine. A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the proper procedure to replace the air cleaner. i02335405 Service indicators are important instruments. • Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator should reset in less than three pushes. • Check the movement of the yellow core when the engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest vacuum that is attained. Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum, the service indicator should be replaced. If the new service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service indicator may be restricted. Some engines may be equipped with a different service indicator. The service indicator may need to be replaced frequently in environments that are severely dusty. Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet air pressure displays the difference in the pressure that is measured before the air cleaner element and the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty, the pressure differential rises. If your engine is equipped with a different type of service indicator, follow the OEM recommendations in order to service the air cleaner service indicator. The service indicator may be mounted on the air cleaner element or in a remote location. i02323089 Engine Mounts - Inspect Note: The engine mounts may not have been supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information for further information on the engine mounts and the correct bolt torque. Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused by the following conditions: • Incorrect mounting of the engine • Deterioration of the engine mounts • Loose engine mounts Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the recommended torques. i01897042 Illustration 26 g00103777 Typical service indicator Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element should be replaced when one of the following conditions occur: • The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone. • The red piston locks in the visible position. Engine Oil Level - Check Hot oil and hot components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to contact the skin. 60 Maintenance Section Engine Oil and Filter - Change SEBU8324 NOTICE Keep all parts clean from contaminants. Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life. Illustration 27 g00986928 (Y) minimum “MIN” mark. (X) maximum “MAX” mark. NOTICE Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped. 1. Maintain the oil level between minimum “MIN” mark (Y) and the maximum “MAX” mark (X) on oil level gauge (1). Do not fill the crankcase above “MAX” mark (X). NOTICE Operating your engine when the oil level is above the “FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft dipping into the oil reduces the oil’s lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power. 2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary. Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap. i02701631 Engine Oil and Filter - Change Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the oil warm. This draining method allows the waste particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained properly. Failure to follow this recommended procedure will cause the waste particles to be recirculated through the engine lubrication system with the new oil. Drain the Engine Oil After the engine has been run at the normal operating temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil: • If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve. • If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve, remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil to drain. After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should be cleaned and installed. Tighten the oil drain plug to39 N·m (28.7648 lb ft). Hot oil and hot components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to contact the skin. NOTICE Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids. Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates. Replace the Oil Filter NOTICE Perkins oil filters are built to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by Perkins could result in severe engine damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended by Perkins. 1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool. Note: The following actions can be carried out as part of the preventive maintenance program. SEBU8324 61 Maintenance Section Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust 2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending failure. Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine. Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of the engine. Parts that may be affected include the following items: main bearings, rod bearings, turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads. Due to normal wear and friction, it is not uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the oil filter. Consult your Perkins distributor in order to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive amount of debris is found in the oil filter. Fill the Engine Crankcase 1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for more information on lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the proper amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for more information on refill capacities. NOTICE If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer’s recommendations. Under filling or overfilling the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage. NOTICE To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds. 2. Start the engine and operate the engine at LOW IDLE for two minutes. Inspect the oil filter for oil leaks. 3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to the oil pan for a minimum of ten minutes. Illustration 29 g00986928 4. Remove the oil level dipstick in order to check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the oil level dipstick. Illustration 28 g01354727 3. Clean sealing surface (1). Ensure that all of the old seal is removed. i01937238 Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust 4. Apply clean engine oil to the new O ring seal (2). NOTICE Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them. This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to engine components. 5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter until the O ring seal contacts the base. Rotate the oil filter ¾ of a full turn. The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines, rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines is recommended at the first scheduled oil change. The adjustment is necessary due to the initial wear of the valve train components and to the seating of the valve train components. This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance schedule in order to help provide maximum engine life. 62 Maintenance Section Fuel System - Prime SEBU8324 NOTICE Only qualified service personnel should perform this maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure. Operation of Perkins engines with improper valve adjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This reduced efficiency could result in excessive fuel usage and/or shortened engine component life. Ensure that the engine can not be started while this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor to turn the flywheel. Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance. Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement, allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is performed. Refer to the Service Manual for more information. i02700135 Fuel System - Prime Illustration 30 g01372204 Typical example 1. Open vent screw (1). Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position until fuel free from air flows from the connection. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. 2. Tighten the vent screw to 7 N·m (61 lb in). If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged from the fuel system before the engine can be started. Air can enter the fuel system when the following events occur: 3. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the keyswitch in the RUN position for 1 minute. • The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been Note: Damage to the fuel injection pump, to the battery, and to the starting motor can occur if the starting motor is used excessively to purge the air from the fuel system. partially drained. • The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected. • A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system. • The fuel filter is replaced. Use the following procedure in order to remove air from the fuel system: 4. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position. SEBU8324 63 Maintenance Section Fuel System Filter - Replace i02702079 Fuel System Filter - Replace Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when changing fuel filters or water separator elements. Clean up fuel spills immediately. NOTICE Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly clean the area around a fuel system component that will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component. Illustration 31 g01354358 Typical example 5. Loosen the flare nuts (1) for the high pressure fuel lines on all of the fuel injectors. Turn the fuel supply valve to the OFF position before performing this maintenance. Place a tray under the fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately. NOTICE Do not crank the engine for more than 10 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for 30 seconds before cranking again. Do not engage the starting motor when the flywheel is turning. 6. Operate the starting motor and crank the engine. Observe the loosened connections. 7. When fuel free from air flows from the connection tighten the connections. 8. Tighten the flare nuts to a torque of 29 N·m (21 lb ft). 9. The engine is now ready to start. Operate the engine at low idle for a minimum of five minutes immediately after air has been removed from the fuel system. Note: Operating the engine for this period of time will help ensure that the pump is completely free of air. Illustration 32 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Electric fuel priming pump Fuel filter base Quick release collar Fuel filter Sediment bowl Drain valve for fuel filter 1. Close the fuel supply valve. g01355125 64 Maintenance Section Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain SEBU8324 2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Open drain valve (6) and allow the fluid to drain into a suitable container. 3. Remove sediment bowl (5). NOTICE Do not use a tool in order to remove the fuel filter. Attempting to remove the fuel filter with a filter wrench or a filter strap could damage the locking ring. 4. Hold fuel filter (4) and rotate quick release collar (3) counterclockwise. Remove quick release collar (3). The used element should be removed and discarded. NOTICE Do not fill fuel filters with fuel before installing them. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel system parts. 5. Ensure that the fuel filter base is clean. Push a new fuel filter fully into the fuel filter base. 6. Hold the fuel filter in place. Install locking ring (3) into position. Rotate the locking ring clockwise in order to fasten the fuel filter to the fuel filter base. 7. Thoroughly clean sediment bowl (5). Inspect the O-ring seals. Install new O-ring seals, if necessary. Install the sediment bowl to the new element. Hand tighten the sediment bowl. Hand tightening is the only method that should be used. 8. Prime the fuel system. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”. i02702128 Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when changing fuel filters or water separator elements. Clean up fuel spills immediately. NOTICE The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should never be allowed to run with the water separator more than half full. Engine damage may result. Illustration 33 g01355190 (1) Filter (2) Drain 1. Open the drain valve (2) and allow the fluid to drain into a suitable container. 2. Close the drain valve (2). Dispose of the drained fluid in a safe place. NOTICE The water separator is under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel system. SEBU8324 65 Maintenance Section Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain i02335436 Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain NOTICE Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids. Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates. Fuel Tank Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause excessive wear to the fuel system. Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the fuel tank is being filled. Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water in the fuel. Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is equipped with this system, regular maintenance of the fuel system filter is important. Fuel Storage Tanks Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel storage tank at the following intervals: • Weekly • Service intervals • Refill of the tank This will help prevent water or sediment from being pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel tank. If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel. When possible, water separators should be used. i02641587 Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace Drain the Water and the Sediment Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining water and draining sediment from the bottom of the fuel tanks. Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the following conditions: • Cracking Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the drain valve. • Softness Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel tank has been filled before draining water and sediment from the fuel tank. Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any loose clamps. Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may overflow. • Loose clamps NOTICE Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque. Check for the following conditions: 66 Maintenance Section Radiator - Clean SEBU8324 • End fittings that are damaged or leaking 1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool. • Outer covering that is chafed or cut 2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling system filler cap. • Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement • Outer covering that is ballooning locally • Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed • Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard clamp. Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps. Each installation application can be different. The differences depend on the following factors: • Type of hose • Type of fitting material • Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose • Anticipated expansion and contraction of the fittings Replace the Hoses and the Clamps Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Oil Cooler - Remove and Oil Cooler - Install” for further information on removing and replacing the oil cooler hoses. Refer to the OEM information for further information on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped). The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The following text describes a typical method of replacing coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for further information on the coolant system and the hoses for the coolant system. Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until the cooling system components are cool. Loosen the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure. Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean container. The coolant can be reused. 3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level that is below the hose that is being replaced. 4. Remove the hose clamps. 5. Disconnect the old hose. 6. Replace the old hose with a new hose. Note: Tighten the hose clamps securely. Also refer to the OEM information for further information on torques for hose clamps. 7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench. Note: For the proper coolant, see Operation and Maintenance Manual, “General Coolant Information and Coolant Recommendations”. 8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM information for further information on refilling the cooling system. 9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the cooling system filler cap’s seals. Replace the cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap. 10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. i02335774 Radiator - Clean The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The following text describes a typical cleaning procedure for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for further information on cleaning the radiator. Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to the effects of the operating environment. Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins, corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary. SEBU8324 67 Maintenance Section Severe Service Application - Check • Performance such as power range, speed range, and fuel consumption Personal injury can result from air pressure. • Fuel quality Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing. • Operational Altitude Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes. • Oil selection and maintenance Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction to the fan’s air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris that is between the tubes. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both sides. Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the core with clean water. If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling system. After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This will help in the removal of debris and the drying of the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if necessary. Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition: Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary. i02335775 Severe Service Application Check Severe service is the application of an engine that exceeds the current published standards for that engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following engine parameters: • Maintenance intervals • Coolant type and maintenance • Environmental qualities • Installation • The temperature of the fluid in the engine Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to determine if the engine is operating within the defined parameters. Severe service operation can accelerate component wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions may need more frequent maintenance intervals in order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of full service life. Due to individual applications, it is not possible to identify all of the factors which can contribute to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique maintenance that is necessary for the engine. The operating environment, incorrect operating procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures can be factors which contribute to a severe service application. Environmental Factors Ambient temperatures – The engine may be exposed to extended operation in extremely cold environments or hot environments. Valve components can be damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently started and stopped in very cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces engine performance. Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to extended operation in an environment that is dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components. Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can contain corrosive chemicals. Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive chemicals and salt can damage some components. 68 Maintenance Section Starting Motor - Inspect SEBU8324 Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended settings for that application. Necessary adjustments should be made. Incorrect Operating Procedures If the turbocharger fails during engine operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder head. NOTICE Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems. Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine damage. • Extended operation at low idle • Frequent hot shutdowns • Operating at excessive loads Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred. • Operating at excessive speeds • Operating outside the intended application Incorrect Maintenance Procedures • Extending the maintenance intervals • Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and coolant/antifreeze i02177969 Starting Motor - Inspect Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine may not start in an emergency situation. Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check the electrical connections and clean the electrical connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for assistance. i01938674 Turbocharger - Inspect (If Equipped) Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side). Any fumes from the crankcase are filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil and from combustion can collect in the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can contribute to loss of engine power, increased black smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency. When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or replaced. An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential damage to other engine parts. Note: Turbocharger components require precision clearances. The turbocharger turbine and compressor assembly must be accurately balanced due to high operational rpm. Severe Service Applications can accelerate component wear. Severe Service Applications require more frequent inspections of the compressor. Removal and Installation For options regarding the removal, installation, repair and replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Turbocharger - Remove and Turbocharger - Install” for further information. Cleaning and Inspecting 1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt from entering during reassembly. SEBU8324 69 Maintenance Section Walk-Around Inspection • Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is 2. Gently turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel with a finger. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for contact with the turbocharger housing. There should not be any visible signs of contact between the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing, the turbocharger must be renewed. NOTICE For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be unwarranted. 3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness. If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering system. If oil is found only on the back side of the wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal. NOTICE Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information. The presence of oil may be the result of extended engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil may also be the result of a restriction of the line for the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the turbocharger to slobber. 4. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for corrosion. 5. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard shop solvents and a soft bristle brush. 6. Replace the compressor cover. Turn the compressor gently in order to check that the compressor turns freely and does not contact the compressor cover. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet pipe to the turbocharger housing. i02177973 Walk-Around Inspection Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose Connections A walk-around inspection should only take a few minutes. When the time is taken to perform these checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided. For maximum engine service life, make a thorough inspection of the engine compartment before starting the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed: • The guards must be in the correct place. Repair damaged guards or replace missing guards. serviced in order to reduce the chance of system contamination. • Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly clamped and that the cooling system hoses are tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all pipes. • Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks. Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and the parts contract. Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of the water pump and the installation of water pump and/or seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more information or consult your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor. • Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover. • Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps. • Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure that hoses and tubes are not contacting other hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc. • Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage. Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will carry more load than the belts that are not replaced. The older belts are stretched. The additional load on the new belt could cause the belt to break. 70 Maintenance Section Water Pump - Inspect SEBU8324 • Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean fuel enters the fuel system. • Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for loose connections and for worn wires or frayed wires. • Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and for good condition. • Disconnect any battery chargers that are not protected against the current drain of the starting motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with a maintenance free battery. • Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that can not be calibrated. i02537160 Water Pump - Inspect A failed water pump may cause severe engine overheating problems that could result in the following conditions: • Cracks in the cylinder head • A piston seizure • Other potential damage to the engine Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and parts contract. Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew the water pump if there is an excessive leakage of coolant. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and Install” for the Disassembly and Assembly procedure. SEBU8324 71 Warranty Section Warranty Information Warranty Section Warranty Information i01903596 Emissions Warranty Information This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust emission standards and gaseous emission standards that are prescribed by the law at the time of manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order to determine if your engine is emissions certified and if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty. 72 Index Section SEBU8324 Index A After Starting Engine ............................................. After Stopping Engine............................................ Alternator - Inspect ................................................ Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect/Adjust/ Replace................................................................ Adjustment ......................................................... Inspection........................................................... Replacement...................................................... 28 31 50 50 50 50 50 B Battery - Replace................................................... 51 Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 51 Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 52 Before Starting Engine ..................................... 11, 26 Burn Prevention....................................................... 8 Batteries............................................................... 9 Coolant................................................................. 9 Oils....................................................................... 9 C Cold Weather Operation........................................ 32 Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 32 Idling the Engine ................................................ 33 Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 33 Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 32 Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 32 Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) Change (Commercial Heavy Duty) ...................... 52 Drain .................................................................. 53 Fill ...................................................................... 53 Flush .................................................................. 53 Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 54 Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 54 Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 54 Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 55 Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 55 Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 55 Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ......... 11 D Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 55 E Electrical System ................................................... Grounding Practices .......................................... Emergency Stopping ............................................. Emissions Certification Film .................................. 12 13 31 20 Emissions Warranty Information............................ 71 Engaging the Driven Equipment............................ 29 Engine - Clean....................................................... 56 Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ..................................................... 56 Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 57 Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 56 Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................... 58 Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 59 Test the Service Indicator................................... 59 Engine Description ................................................ 18 Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 18 Engine Service Life ............................................ 18 Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 59 Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 60 Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 60 Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 61 Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 60 Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 59 Engine Operation................................................... 29 Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms...................... 25 Alarms................................................................ 25 Shutoffs.............................................................. 25 Testing the Shutoff and Alarm System............... 25 Engine Starting ................................................ 12, 26 Engine Stopping .............................................. 12, 31 Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 61 Engine Warm-up.................................................... 29 F Features and Controls ........................................... 25 Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 9 Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 10 Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 10 Fluid Recommendations........................................ 36 Cooling System Specifications........................... 43 ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 45 Engine Oil .......................................................... 37 Fuel Specifications............................................. 40 General Lubricant Information ........................... 36 Foreword ................................................................. 4 California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4 Literature Information........................................... 4 Maintenance ........................................................ 4 Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4 Operation ............................................................. 4 Overhaul .............................................................. 4 Safety................................................................... 4 Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 34 Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 30 Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 35 Fuel Filters ......................................................... 35 Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 35 Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 35 Fuel Shutoff ........................................................... 25 SEBU8324 Fuel System - Prime .............................................. Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................. Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ Fuel Tank ........................................................... 73 Index Section 62 63 64 65 65 65 65 R Radiator - Clean .................................................... Reference Numbers .............................................. Record for Reference......................................... Refill Capacities..................................................... Cooling System.................................................. Lubrication System ............................................ 66 19 19 36 36 36 G S Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 24 General Hazard Information .................................... 7 Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 8 Fluid Penetration.................................................. 8 Pressure Air and Water........................................ 8 Safety Messages ..................................................... 5 Safety Section ......................................................... 5 Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 67 Environmental Factors ....................................... 67 Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 68 Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 68 Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 68 Starting the Engine ................................................ 27 Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 27 Stopping the Engine .............................................. 31 H Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 65 Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 66 T I Important Safety Information ................................... 2 Table of Contents..................................................... 3 Turbocharger - Inspect (If Equipped)..................... 68 Cleaning and Inspecting .................................... 68 Removal and Installation.................................... 68 L Lifting and Storage ................................................ 22 M Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 49 Maintenance Section ............................................. 36 Model View Illustrations......................................... 14 Model Views .......................................................... 14 Mounting and Dismounting..................................... 11 O Operation Section.................................................. 22 P Plate Locations and Film Locations....................... Serial Number Plate (1) ..................................... Product Identification Information .......................... Product Information Section .................................. Product Lifting........................................................ Product Storage..................................................... 19 19 19 14 22 22 W Walk-Around Inspection ........................................ Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose Connections ..................................................... Warranty Information ............................................. Warranty Section ................................................... Water Pump - Inspect ............................................ 69 69 71 71 70 74 Index Section SEBU8324 Product and Dealer Information Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Delivery Date: Product Information Model: Product Identification Number: Engine Serial Number: Transmission Serial Number: Generator Serial Number: Attachment Serial Numbers: Attachment Information: Customer Equipment Number: Dealer Equipment Number: Dealer Information Name: Branch: Address: Dealer Contact Sales: Parts: Service: Phone Number Hours Copyright ©2007 Perkins Engines Company Limited All Rights Reserved Printed in U. K.
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