Annual Report 2008
Research Institute Leiden Observatory
(Onderzoekinstituut Sterrewacht Leiden)
Annual Report 2008
Sterrewacht Leiden
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Leiden University
Niels Bohrweg 2
2333 CA Leiden
Postbus 9513
2330 RA Leiden
The Netherlands
April 6, 2009: The main dome of the Sterrewacht
building being lifted off the building in preparation
for a thorough restauration. This event marked the
start of the restauration project of the building, which
is expected to last two years. Once restored the
venerable telescopes will once again be available for
use by students and local amateur astronomers.
The crane operator (not visible in the picture) was
minister Plasterk of education, culture and science.
An electronic version of this annual report is available on the web at
Production Annual Report 2008:
A. van der Tang, F.P. Israel, A. van Genderen, J. Lub, E. van Uitert
Sterrewacht Leiden
(Directie Onderzoeksinstituut)
Director of Education
Executive Secretary
K. Kuijken
F.P. Israel
J. Lub
Wetenschappelijk Directeur
Onderwijs Directeur
Secretaris Instituut
Supervisory Council
(Raad van toezicht)
Prof. Dr. Ir. J.A.M. Bleeker (Chair)
Dr. B. Baud
Drs. J.F. van Duyne
Prof. Dr. Ir. W. van Saarloos
Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens
Part I
Review of major events
Theodore Walraven
A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
History and heritage
Planetary Systems
Solar System
Extrasolar Planets
Observing Protoplanetary Disks
Modelling Protoplanetary Disks
Star formation and circumstellar matter
Circumsteller gas
Embedded young stellar objects (YSO)
Observing the stars
Modelling binary stars
Compact objects
Nearby galaxies
The Milky Way
The local Group
Detailed studies
General Galaxy Properties
Distant galaxies
Models and simulations
Projects and instrumentation
Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory
Education, popularization and social events
Degrees Awarded in 2008
Courses and teaching
Popularization and Media Contacts
Univers Awareness Program
The Leidsche Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F. Kaiser’
Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
Werkgroep Leidse Sterrewacht
Part II
Observatory staff December 31, 2007
Committee membership
Observatory Commitees
University Committees
Science policy functions
Visiting scientists
Workshops, colloquia and lectures
Endowed lectures
Scientific colloquia
Student colloquia
Participation in scientific meetings
Observing sessions abroad
Working visits abroad
Colloquia given outside Leiden
Scientific publications
Ph.D. Theses and Books
Articles in Refereed Journals
Conference Papers, Review Articles, etc.
Astronomical Catalogues
Other Publications
major events
major events
1. Theodore Walraven
Theodore (Fjeda) Walraven passed away at his home near Pretoria
in South-Africa on Sunday, january 13 2008.
He was born on july 26 1916, joined the Leiden Observatory in
1946 and retired as a full professor in 1980. His last lectures in
Leiden were delivered during a visit from Souh Africa in the first
half of 1990.
His first big work was on variable stars. He wrote his thesis on the
'Line Spectrum of Delta Cephei' under the supervision of Anton
Pannekoek in Amsterdam, which was published as Publications of
the Astronomical Institute of the University of Amsterdam vol. 8
pp. 1-80 in 1948. Ever since he contributed to a wide variety of
observational astronomical projects and instruments.
Fjeda was a pioneer of high-precision photoelectric photometry
and a genius in instrumentation. He contributed in a fundamental
1.1 Theodore Walraven
way to our insight into variable stars. Together with Paul Ledoux
he wrote the famous article on stellar variability in the Handbuch
der Physik, Volume 51 pp. 353-604, published in 1958.
His observational efforts started with the remarkable studies using
the then recently built Zunderman 19" reflector of multiperiodic
variability of RR Lyrae. His observations and description of the
Blazhko effect were unsurpassed until recently. He invented
simple methods to achieve continuous registration of the star's
brightness, which he later applied impressively in his studies from
1.1 Theodore Walraven
the Leiden Southern Station at Johannesburg of SX Phoenicis and
AI Velorum, which both appeared to be double-mode pulsators.
His whole life he would remain fascinated by these stars,
improving until the last moment the special instrumentation he
built to study them.
During the mid 1950's he also developed a special photometerpolarimeter with which he studied in detail the polarization of the
Crab Nebula. Together with Jan Oort this led to the understanding
of the importance the synchrotron radiation in the Crab nebula.
The landmark paper by Oort and Walraven (B.A.N. 462, 1956)
stands to this day as a classical example of well-conducted
research. Remarkably, the first crucial observations of the Crab
were again made from Leiden in 1954, on the 13-inch refractor; the
bulk of the data were obtained later at the Observatoire de Haute
At the Leiden Southern Station a wide variety of photometric
programs were executed among which stands out the study with
Muller and Oosterhoff of the southern classical Cepheids. The
large number of photometric studies being considered led to the
design of the 36 inch reflecting telescope, the “Lightcollector”, at
the new site of the Leiden Southern Station near
Hartebeespoortdam, where it was erected in 1957. This telescope,
built by Rademakers in Rotterdam, was fast, versatile and
optimized for photoelectric photometry with small diaphragms.
Walraven’s great achievement was to build around this telescope a
multichannel photometer, based upon a polarization optics filter
which split the stellar spectrum into a set of regular bands which
could be measured simultaneously. This yielded a five-channel
photometric system of very high stability and efficiency that was
particularly suited for determination of the physical parameters of
1.1 Theodore Walraven
stellar photospheres. The bands were chosen as a photoelectric
analogue of the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan (BCD) classification based
upon photographic spectrum registrations (at the Observatoire de
Haute Provence).
In order to get the maximum of results from telescope and
photometer, Walraven went to live with his family at the Leiden
Southern Station. Several long visits to Leiden were made in order
to give his lectures and to do optical experiments. Together with
his wife Johanna, who was his close collaborator all his life and
who made most of the special optics needed in the various
spectrophotometric instruments, Walraven used the Lightcollector
and its 5-channel photometer for impressive studies of OB stars,
cepheids and the brightest stars in both Magellanic Clouds. He set
an example on how to use a photometric system, in this case his
own VBLUW system, for the determination of the physical
parameters of stars: effective temperature, surface gravity
(luminosity), metal abundance and the required interstellar
reddening corrections
Walraven’s long stays at the Leiden Southern Station, however,
also led to an increased isolation from his colleagues and students
in Leiden. Much of his work therefore remained unpublished and
circulated only through a few conference proceedings and drafts.
In the end his scientific impact was not as profound as he had
certainly deserved.
In the early sixties the Walravens left the Leiden Southern Station
to go to the Mount Stromlo Observatory (then led by Bart Bok), but
they returned to Leiden after only one year. After that Walraven
didn’t use his 5-channel photometer any more but until his
retirement he concentrated on developing new, more ambitious
spectrophotometric instruments.
1.1 Theodore Walraven
Even though Walraven formally had few students, he had a
profound influence on several Leiden-bred astronomers who
applied his teachings on instrumentation and observational
astronomy in their own work, like Dr. J. Tinbergen, who became a
well-known polarimetrist and Prof. Dr. J. W. Pel, who - at
Walraven’s instigation- first became a specialist on cepheids and
later became a succesful leader in optical astronomical
instrumentation in the Netherlands.
In the late sixties, working in his small optical laboratory in the
cellars of the old Leiden Observatory, Walraven developed a
unique radial velocity photometer. Unfortunately the Dutch
Science Foundation ZWO did not support further development of
this instrument. A missed opportunity, as the subsequent
development of this branch of astronomy has now shown.
Walraven also pursued his development of ingeneous polarization
optics, finally producing a 12-channel spectrum scanner, where the
stellar spectrum was split into nearly rectangular bands that could
be scanned and measured simultaneously by twelve
photomultipliers. Unfortunately the powerful prototype was never
developed into a general user instrument and its use remained
limited to the rather few observations made by the Walravens after
their final return to South-Africa in 1968.
After Fjeda’s retirement Fjeda and Jo Walraven moved in 1981 to
the small town of Cornelia, in the Orange Free State, where they
built their own fully automated 40-cm telescope, and used a
further development of the scanner to continue observations of
multiperiodic variable stars. During his last visit to Leiden in 1990
Fjeda brought with him beautiful multicolour observations of AI
Velorum, but after his beloved Jo had died the previous year he
had stopped observing.
1.1 Theodore Walraven
The conditions for observations at Hartebeespoort had meanwhile
much deteriorated and the scientific programs at the Leiden
Observatory became much more focused on ESO. Even so in the
seventies extensive programs were done on the southern cepheids,
RR Lyrae, X-ray binaries and the Magellanic Clouds by Pel, Lub
and van Genderen. In 1978/79 the Walraven photometer and
Lightcollector telescope were therefore moved to ESO in Chile to
start a new and very productive new life on La Silla. Among the
most important programs we mention only the preparatory work
for the Hipparcos input catalogue. After 32 years of operation the
photometer was finally decommissioned in 1991. It is now on show
at the Boerhaave Museum of the history of Science in Leiden, as a
tribute to a great instrumentalist.
Fjeda Walraven’s death leaves those whom he taught and those
whom he collaborated with and inspired with the sad feeling of
losing a brilliant instructor and a great role model in observational
Jan Lub
Rudolf S. Le Poole
1.2 Foreword
2. Foreword
Dear Reader,
This annual report describes the activitities of the Sterrewacht
Leiden in 2008. Once again, we have had a succesful and exciting
year, full of academic achievements by students and staff. I believe
it would have made a nice 200th birthday present for Frederick
Kaiser (1808-1872) —director of the Sterrewacht from 1837 to 1872
and responsible for the construction of 'the' sterrewacht building
on the Witte Singel.
2009 is the International Year of Astronomy, to commemorate the
fact that 400 years ago Galileo was the first to turn a telescope to
the heavens and record his discoveries. But in the Netherlands
2008 was also worth celebrating: it marked the 400th anniversary
of the (unsuccesful) application to patent the telescope, by the
Dutch optician Lippershey. In September the Sterrewacht
organized a week-long international conference “400 years of
astronomical telescopes” in Noordwijk, which brought together
historians and astronomers and provided a fascinating review of
the developments from the time of Lippershey to the present and
beyond. The conference also provided a unique photoopportunity: five of ESO's seven past and present directorsgeneral were among the attendants: four Dutch DGs, and one
Nobel laureate. You can find the picture elsewhere in this book.
The anniversary also sparked a beautiful exhibition at the
Boerhave Museum. In June the museum was also the site for a
symposium to celebrate Kaiser's 200th anniversary.
European astronomy is in the enviable position to be waiting for
quite a few new front-line observing facilities, and we are working
hard to be ready for them. I am therefore very happy with a
1.2 Foreword
number of new developments. In November NWO decided to
support the Dutch node of the European ALMA Regional Support
Center. This effort was started up by NOVA, but can now be
fleshed out and made more structural with this NWO funding. The
group will be hosted by the Sterrewacht. In December NOVA won
a 18.8 million euro grant for the development of optical/infrared
instrumentation for the European Extremely Large Telescope,
ESO's next flagship project. This 10-year grant will allow us to plan
into the future, and it is a crucial step towards major Dutch
involvement in the ELT project. Leiden astronomers participate
heavily in the on-going instrument concept studies that are
underway. In Drenthe the new radio telescope LOFAR is taking
shape, and this continues to generate much scientific activity in
anticipation of the first data: in Leiden we are particularly focusing
on the 'middle-ware' between the correlator output and the
scientific data, and on the low-frequency sky surveys that LOFAR
will conduct. And last but not least, 2009 should see the launch of
the Herschel observatory, a giant mid-infrared telescope
developed by ESA. A large group of Sterrewachters went and
visited the Herschel observatory as it was undergoing final testing
in ESTEC. Many of us are involved in the Herschel observing
programme, and are now eagerly awaiting the start of
On the scientific staff we have three newcomers. Jarle Brinchmann
and Henk Hoekstra joined us during 2008 as tenure-track assistent
professors. Jarle moved to Leiden from Porto, and fills a longstanding vacancy. He is an expert in galactic structure, particulary
using the Sloan Survey. He also has extensive experience in
instrument-related projects, and serves on ESA's Astronomy
Working Group. Henk's appointment was possible thanks to an
overlap appointment funded by NOVA, in anticipation of several
retirements in the coming years. Previously he was assistent
1.2 Foreword
professor at the university of Victoria in Canada. He is an expert in
gravitational lensing and cosmology, and is heavily involved in the
current set of wide-field imaging surveys that are mapping the
dark matter distribution in the universe.
Mike Garrett joined the Sterrewacht as an adjunct professor. Mike
is a radio astronomer and has been director of ASTRON in
Dwingeloo, the institute that is building LOFAR, since 2007. He
will teach a course on radio interferometry. In some sense he
succeeds Richard Schillizzi, whose appointment came to an end
coinciding with his move to Manchester as director of the SKA
project. Together with Thijs de Graauw, who became director of
the ALMA project in Chile, and Tim de Zeeuw at ESO, Leiden (ex-)
professors are now in charge of four of the world's major observing
On January 13, 2008, Fjeda Walraven passed away in South Africa,
where he had settled many years ago. Fjeda was a lector (senior
lecturer) at the Sterrewacht, and his famous now-retired
photometer is one of many astronomical pieces on exhibit in the
Boerhave Museum of the history of science in Leiden. An obituary
for him is included in this annual report.
Two Sterrewachters reached retirement age in 2008: George Miley,
who has been a very visible and important part of the scientific life
of the observatory for over 30 years, including a period of 7 years
as scientific director (1996-2003) before becoming one of the first
KNAW professors, and Jet Katgert who has supported Dutch
astronomy in many important ways over the years, including long
periods as secretary of the ASTRON board and editor for the
journal Astronomy and Astrophysics. She is also the author of a
very comprehensive book recording the manuscripts and
1.2 Foreword
correspondence of Jan Oort. I am pleased to report that neither
George nor Jet show any signs of slowing down or leaving.
Christine Gündisch left the Sterrewacht after two years of ably
assisting Jan Lub as assistant institute manager: she now works at
the Museon in the Hague.
Once again the Sterrewacht had a large number of visitors. The
2008 Oort professor was Simon White (Max Planck Institute for
Astrophysics), and it was a pleasure to host him and his many
visitors. This year's Sackler lecture was given by Didier Queloz
(Geneva). HongSheng Zhao (St. Andrews) arrived in September to
spend a sabbatical with us. In September Leiden was the home
base for a group of european science writers who spent a busy
week seeing most of what there is to see in Dutch astronomy.
Finally, 2008 was also a 'prize-winning year' for the Sterrewacht.
After winning the Kok jury prize as the faculty's discoverer of the
year 2007, Mariska Kriek (PhD 2007) won the Huygens prize,
which is awarded once every five years to a young researcher in
space sciences in the Netherlands. Minister Plasterk personally
handed her the prize in Voorburg in November. Ivo Labbé (PhD
2004) was the recipient of the first Van Marum prize, awarded by
the Koninklijke Hollandse Maatschappij in Haarlem, one of the
country's oldest physics societies. Ewine van Dishoeck was
inducted as a member of the American Association for Arts and
Sciences. Marijn Franx and Henk Hoekstra won important research
grants, an Advanced ERC grant and a VIDI grant respectively, and
the university was awarded several million euro from the culture
ministry for a much-needed restauration of the old observatory
building. Once the building is restored the plan is to start to use it
again in the astronomy curriculum. And for their discovery of an
exoplanet Ignas Snellen and BSc students Meta de Hoon, Frances
1.2 Foreword
Vuistje and Remco van der Burg won the popular vote in the
Faculty's 2008 discovery of the year competition.
And so life at the Sterrewacht goes on. 2009 will be challenging,
both scientifically but also organisationally. University funding is
changing as a result of external pressures. There is more and more
emphasis on temporary, project-based funding, threatening the
structural long-term funding that is needed as the basis of a
healthy scientific institute. Keeping up our success in funding
applications is therefore vital. A number of retirements on the
scientific staff are on the horizon, and finding excellent
replacements is always a challenge. Finding and housing a
growing number of graduate students is a significant but
worthwhile effort, and puts pressure on office space. But in spite
of such short-term worries, I firmly believe that with the current
complement of faculty, postdocs, students and support staff we are
in an excellent position to continue to do justice to the rich
tradition of our institute.
Koen Kuijken
February 2009
1.2 Foreword
Four Dutchmen and a Nobel Prize. Five ESO DG's, past and present, taken at the
Noordwijk conference in September 2008: Harry van der Laan, Lo Woltjer,
Adriaan Blaauw, Tim de Zeeuw and Ricardo Giacconi (in the middle). Only
ESO's first and sixth DGs, Otto Heckmann (deceased) and Catherine Cesarsky,
were missing.
1.3 A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
3 A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
Jet Merkelijn was born in 1943 in the middle of the second world
war. Her birth was at her grandparents’ house in the Hague, while
her father had gone into hiding to avoid being drafted to Berlin as
a doctor. After the war her father specialized in gynaecology and
moved to Vlissingen in the province of Zeeland. Her parents were
Dutch Calvinists (“gereformeerd”). Her faith has been important
for Jet throughout her life and it never affected her interest in
science. Jet attended school at the Middelburg Gymnasium,
matriculated in 1960 and decided to study astronomy at Leiden.
This decision was a well-considered choice.
She did well at university and served as an apprentice student to
Gart Westerhout, famed for his large radio surveys of the Milky
Way at 21 cm. After completing her “candidaats” examination in
1963 (roughly equivalent to a B.Sc.), she did a minor research
project with R. Steinitz (a visitor from Israel, who went on to do a
PhD in the field of magnetic stars) and then completed an excellent
major research project with Mike Davis, an American postgraduate
student of Oort’s.
In 1966 Jet was offered the opportunity of doing research in
Australia with John Bolton, one of the most renowned pioneers of
radio astronomy. She gladly accepted and participated actively in
the seminal radio surveys of the southern sky that were then being
carried out with the Parkes radio telescope, one of the largest in the
world. Her main work concerned the survey of extragalactic radio
sources at 2700 MHz (11 cm). After measuring the source positions,
she identified several hundreds of sources with optical objects. The
project was a great success. After returning to Leiden, she used
these data to determine the luminosity function of radio sources at
1.3 A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
400 and 2700 MHz and wrote a PhD thesis under the supervision
of Oort. She was awarded a PhD in 1970.
After completing her PhD, she continued for a few years as a
researcher at Leiden Observatory. This was the period when the
new Westerbork Radiotelescope was being commissioned. Jet
worked intensively with Peter Katgert and Rudolf Le Poole in
testing the underground cables for leakages. Her collaboration
with Peter resulted in more than just leak-free cables. At a meeting
of the International Astronomical Union at Brighton in August
1970 I noticed Peter and Jet walking hand in hand, clearly in love
with each other. The last article of Jeannette K. Merkelijn appeared
in 1972. Thereafter she wrote under the name of J.K. KatgertMerkelijn. In 1974 they left for Cambridge, England, where Peter
had secured a fellowship at the Institute of Astronomy. They both
managed to survive on the modest English stipend - no mean feat.
In 1975 their roles were reversed, with Peter accompanying Jet to
Bologna for a year’s visit to the Istituto di Radioastronomia. They
made many good friends there, learned to speak Italian and
acquired a love of Italy and Italians that remains with them to this
In 1976 they returned to Leiden, when Peter was appointed as a
permanent member of the Observatory staff. At Leiden Jet joined a
collaboration that had been established between Leiden and the
CfA at Harvard to carry out complementary radio observations of
X-ray sources detected by the satellite. This project progressed
with difficulty, partly because most of the newly detected X-ray
sources did not emit strong radio emission. Meanwhile, Jet had
become secretary of the Observatory Council, a structure that had
been initiated following the wave of democratic reforms in 1968.
1.3 A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
In 1980 the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
(NWO) set up a new organization, ASTRON, to serve branches of
astronomy that were not dealt with by the radio astronomy
institute at Dwingeloo (SRZM). Jet applied for the job of Executive
Secretary of ASTRON and was appointed to this job by Adriaan
Blaauw, the Chairman of ASTRON. The two worked well and
effectively together. A few years later SRZM and ASTRON were
fused by NWO into the present ASTRON organization and located
at Dwingeloo.
Meanwhile Peter en Jet had produced two young sons and Jet took
a few years off to look after them. In 1985 the whole family went to
La Palma. Peter worked there for a year as part of our contribution
to the new British-Netherlands Observatory there, with its large
4.2m William Herschel telescope. It was not a very happy time.
After their return to Leiden Jet occupied the position of Executive
Secretary of ASTRON once more in 1987 during a sabbatical of her
successor, Wilfried Boland.
In 1988, on the initiative of Butler Burton, a plan was made to set
up and catalogue Oort’s archive for the benefit of future science
historians. NWO agreed to fund this project and awarded Jet a
two-year contract to carry it out. However, this work could not be
fully completed within the allocated two years. After her contract
ceased, Jet took up a position as an English school teacher and
occupied this position from 1991 until 1994 (As hobby she had
previously obtained an English MO-A teaching diploma). In 1994
the Oort fund decided to fund the completion of the archive work
and from 1994 until 1996 Jet worked hard to organize the archive.
She published the results in a highly praised and highly cited
book, ‘The manuscripts and correspondence of Jan Hendrik Oort’.
1.3 A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
In 1996, when Jet completed her work on the Oort archive, I had
become one of the chief editors of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
The work as editor was considerable and relentless. My secretary,
Bernarda Smit and I were scarcely managing to cope. Frank Israel
suggested that I ask Jet if she would be willing to assist. I put the
question to her after a concert given at her home. She immediately
replied with the smallest number of words “Yes, please”. When I
subsequently asked André Maeder, Chairman of the A&A Board
whether he would agree to her appointment, his answer was:”Isn’t
she the person who has written that beautiful book about Oort? Of
course we must appoint her.”
We immediately agreed a division of work. Jet would work as an
independent editor, but would consult the Chief Editor before
refusing a manuscript or when a dispute arose between author and
referee. The following years were extremely enjoyable. The
editorial office occupied a large room in the Huygens Laboratory.
It was hard work to deal with the continuous stream of
manuscripts that we received, with typically 3 new papers per
working day. Bernarda Smit was our permanent secretary, helped
by a temporary assistant (filled successively by Hedy Versteege,
Marijke Wisse and Elise Lindhout) and a large number of paid
astronomy students (Arjen van der Meer, Fatima Samar, Mariska
Kriek, Sebastiaan van der Laan, Alexander Verpoorte, and Maaike
Damen). The atmosphere was almost always pleasant. We worked
hard but believed in the worth of what we were doing. There were
funny moments and we received some peculiar telephone calls (“I
am now walking with my son on the glacier, but assure you that I
will send you my article shortly”). Jet and Bernarda delighted the
Italian astronomers by dealing with them in Italian. There were
seldom any conflicts. Probably that is the reason that I remember
one hectic moment, when, after a tactless remark on my part, a
furious Jet threw a whole tray of files into the waste paper box,
1.3 A tribute to Jet Katgert on her 65th birthday
saying “Okay. That’s what I’ll do”. Fortunately, this was an
isolated incident.
In 2002 I retired and the A&A office left the Netherlands. Jet
continued for a year as language editor for A&A manuscripts,
copiously checking their English. Afterwards she spent two years
with the University library in a project to digitize Leiden PhD
theses and make them available on the web. Thereafter she retired.
Although Jet never had a permanent job and ceased doing research
in astronomy in 1980, throughout her career she has contributed
substantially to astronomy. Yet Jet is still working in the
Observatory, doing odd jobs: as a sideline from the Oort archive
work she set up an website with astronomical group photographs
(, and recently she acted as
associate editor for the proceedings on the conference on 400 years
of astronomical telescopes.
My favourite memory of Jet until now is from our A&A period. It
was a gray Dutch winter morning and it kept on pouring down
with rain. Suddenly Jet appeared, covered by a cape and dripping
with water. Her face shone triumphantly. “Here I am” she said. As
I kept looking at her, I thought about “A man for all seasons”, the
title of the well-known film about the English statesman Thomas
More, who as Lord Chancellor stood up to Henry the Eighth. This
recollection remains and frequently, when I think of Jet, I see the
title, the triumphant image and dripping cape. Intelligent,
dedicated, hard working, sincere loyal and reliable. Yes, a lady for
all seasons of life.
Harm Habing; translation George Miley
1. History and heritage
As part of the interdepartmental science history group effort, Baneke has started
a description of and initiated a conservation program for the Leiden
Observatory Archives. He finished the description of the papers of Willem de
Sitter (1872-1934). The archives will be digitalized and preserved in
collaboration with the Leiden University Library. The program is funded by the
Gratama Fonds and 'Metamorfoze', the Dutch government program for the
preservation of the national paper heritage.
2. Planetary Systems
2.1. The Solar System
The chemical composition of cometary ices
Hogerheijde, de Pater (UC Berkeley, USA), Blake (Caltech, USA), and six other
collaborators completed the analysis of millimeter-wave interferometric
observations of molecular line emission from the comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR).
Their observations were obtained simultaneously with two instruments, the
Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) array and the Berkeley-IllinoisMaryland (BIMA) array in Hat Creek (both California), and subsequently
combined. They detected emission from the molecules HCN and CH3OH. This
emission was well reproduced by a model in which both species evaporate off
the nucleus. They established rigorous error bars on the molecular productions
rate, taking into account uncertainties in the measurement, in the nonequilibrium excitation of the molecules, and of collision rates with water. In
spite of the uncertainties, the production rates of HCN (0.1 per cent of that of
water) are within the narrow range observed toward other comets while those of
CH3OH (0.7 per cent) are on the low end of the commonly observed range.
2.2. Extrasolar Planets
Discovery of sodium in an exoplanet atmosphere
Snellen, Albrecht, de Mooij and Le Poole obtained the very first detection of the
atmosphere of the famous transiting exoplanet HD209458b from the ground!
They re-analyzed archival Subaru data and found sodium in its transmission
spectrum. The radial-velocity technique has revealed the existence of more than
200 extrasolar planets. This technique allows good determination of their orbits,
but very little else. However, the case is very different when the orientation of a
planet is such that it transits its host star, regularly blocking off a fraction of the
star light. For these planets, the mass, radius, and average density can also be
determined, and their atmospheres can be probed through secondary eclipse
photometry and transmission spectroscopy.
Snellen also used the ESO Very Large Telescope to confirm the Leiden-studentplanet. This planet turned to have a mass of 4.5 Jupiters, and it was the first
exoplanet discovered around a hot and fast-rotating main sequence star.
No detection of GL86
Together with Lopez and Mather (both Nice, France) Jaffe reduced
MIDI/AMBER data on the exo-planet GL86. Detection from this data is unlikely
but the technical details have been submitted to SPIE. AMBER has been
improved and the experiment will be retried in 2009.
2.3 Observing Protoplanetary Disks
Molecular gas in two planet-forming disks
Panič, Hogerheijde, Wilner, and Qi (both CfA Boston, USA), analysed
millimeter-interferometric observations of molecular gas in the planet-forming
disks around two young stars: the solar-type star IM Lup and the more
luminous intermediate-mass star HD 169142. Both disks were clearly detected in
emission of 12CO and 13CO. The emission seen around the latter source, HD
169142, could be explained with the knowledge of the disk structure that had
already been obtained from broadband flux density measurements. Because the
brighter star keeps the disk's temperature above 20 K, CO does not freeze out
(unlike the case of IM Lup, see below). However, the attempts by Panič et al. to
to reconcile the gas emission lines with the thermal dust continuum emission
suggested that the disk around HD169142 is gas-poor, unless the dust particles
emit very efficiently at millimeter wavelengths,
Figure 1: Illustration of the spectro-astrometry technique. Left: sketch of a protoplanetary disk with
gas in Keplerian rotation seen at non-zero inclination. Middle: the velocity pattern of the rotating
gas, with the blue- (bottom) and red- (top) shifted emission offset from the central star. Right:
observed spectro-astrometry pattern for the source SR 21 with VLT-CRIRES, in which the location of
the peak emission in each velocity bin is recorded. In high signal/noise data, this location can be
determined much more accurately than the spatial resolution given by the slit and AO system. For
SR 21, an accuracy better than 1 milliarcsec is reached (Based on an ESO press release in september
2008 by Pontoppidan and coworkers.).
Mind the gap: imaging of gas in protoplanetary disk gaps
Pontoppidan, Blake (both Caltech, USA), van Dishoeck, Brown (MPE, Garching,
Germany) and collaborators presented the first velocity-resolved spectroastrometric imaging of the 4.7 micron ro-vibrational lines of CO gas in
protoplanetary disks, which they obtained with CRIRES on the VLT at a
resolving power of 100 000. They imaged three disks with known dust gaps out
to 45 AU and achieved an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.1-0.5 AU,
comparable to or better than that obtained in mid-infrared interferometry.
Keplerian disk models fitted to the position-velocity curves provided
geometrical parameters, including position angles and inclinations with
accuracies as good as one to two degrees. The detection of molecular gas well
inside the dust gaps in all three disks supports a scenario in which the dust gap
is caused by partial clearing by a massive planetary body (mass one to ten
Jupiters) and ruled out other clearing mechanisms such as photo-evaporation. In
one source (SR 21), the gas appeared to be truncated within about 7 AU, which
may be caused by complete dynamical clearing by a more massive companion.
The observations of TW Hya suggest the existence of a warp between the inner
and outer disks. Significant azimuthal asymmetries were found in the other two
inner disks.
Water and OH gas in the terrestrial planet-forming zones
Salyk, Pontoppidan and Blake (all Caltech, USA) worked with Lahuis, van
Dishoeck and Evans (UTexas, USA) to detect numerous emission lines from hot
water in the 10-20 micron range in Spitzer-IRS spectra of two protoplanetary
disks around T Tauri stars. Follow-up 3-5 micon observations with NIRSPEC on
the Keck Telescope confirmed the presence of abundant hot water and spectrally
resolved the lines. Lines from OH, CO and 13CO were also detected. Line shapes
and LTE models suggested that the emission from all three molecules originates
between radii of about 0.5 and 5 AU, and thus provided a new window for
understanding the chemical environment during terrestrial planet formation.
The high column densities of H2O and OH suggest physical transport of volatile
ices either vertically or radially in the disk.
2.4 Modelling Protoplanetary Disks
Coagulation of dust particles
Planet formation takes place in protoplanetary disks orbiting young stars as dust
grains collide and grow to ever larger bodies. However, this process ceases to be
efficient as the particles grow to sizes of a few decimeters, as such ‘rocks' have
very poor sticking properties. Johansen and Brauer, Dullemond, Klahr, and
Henning (all Heidelberg, Germany) investigated a scenario in which the rocks
grow in size by sweeping up small dust particles, rather than particles of the
same size. Collisions between a large and a small body leads to sticking under a
wide range of circumstances. By itself, the reservoir of small bodies is exhausted
very quickly, but it can be replenished by grains resulting from destructive
collisions between large bodies. In this scenario, a small fraction of rocks grow
quickly in mass, at the expense of the ones that collide with one nother and are
thus destroyed.
Modelling the two components, rocks and collisional
fragments, Johansen found that the rocks indeed grow very efficiently, but that
turbulent transport of solids away from the mid-plane of the disk strongly limits
the growth.
Planet Formation in dead zones
Protoplanetary disks are probably turbulent because of magnetorotational
This instability renders Keplerian disks unstable to small
perturbations in the presence of a weak magnetic field and leads to mass
migration through the disk. However, parts of a protoplanetary disk have such
a low ionisation fraction that the coupling with the magnetic field is too weak
for magnetorotational instability to develop. Johansen, Lyra, Piskunov (both
Uppsala, Sweden), and Klahr (Heidelberg, Germany) considered protoplanetary
disks with a magnetically dead zone. The migration of gas in the active zones
leads to a pile up of mass at the transition between active and dead zones. The
transition region in turn develops massive vortices and these vortices are very
efficient at concentrating rocks and boulders. The concentrations become so
strong that local regions contract gravitationally and form planets inside the
vortices, some of them more massive than Mars.
Debris disks and planet formation
Kospal, Ardila (Caltech, USA), Abraham, and Moor (Konkoly Observatory,
Hungary) studied debris disks in relation to planet formation. In debris disks,
dust is generated by collisions between planetesimals. The existence of these
planetesimals is a consequence of the planet-formation process, but the
relationship between these disks and planets is not yet clear. Kospal and her
colleagues studied it by comparing the incidence of debris disks in stars with
and without planets, using 24 and 70 micron observations with the Spitzer Space
Telescope to look for the thermal emission from cold dust. They analyzed the
largest such sample ever assembled consisting of 143 stars with planets revealed
by radial velocity methods. They used survival analysis, allowing the use of
non-detections as well, to compare the two samples. They found that there is a
marginal difference between the two samples: planet-bearing stars have debris
disks slightly more often than stars without planets. Analysing the correlation of
the excess emission (the sign of debris dust) with the stellar parameters, it
seemed that - similarly to the presence of planets - the incidence of debris disks
is related to the stellar metallicity, supporting the common origin of planets and
debris dust.
3. Star formation and circumstellar matter
3.1 Circumstellar gas
Ice survey of low-mass protostellar envelopes
Öberg, Boogert (IPAC, USA), Pontoppidan (Caltech, USA), van Dishoeck,
Lahuis and the ‘Cores to Disks' (c2d) IRS team continued their Spitzer Space
Telescope plus ground-based 3-38 micron spectral survey of a sample of 41 lowluminosity young stellar objects (YSOs) down to proto-brown dwarfs. The third
major paper in the series focussed on CH4 which is proposed to be the starting
point for making more complex organic molecules. Solid CH4 abundances have
previously been determined mostly toward high-mass star-forming regions. At
least half of the sources show an absorption feature at 7.7 micron, attributed to
the bending mode of solid CH4. The inferred solid CH4/H2O abundance ratio is
about 5 per cent. These abundances are consistent with models in which CH4 is
formed through sequential hydrogenation of atomic carbon grain surfaces. The
fact that low-mass young stellar object have equal or higher abundances than
high-mass objects, and correlation studies with other species support this
formation pathway. They do not support the two competing theories: formation
from CH3OH, and formation in gas phase with subsequent freeze-out.
Small-scale organic chemistry in the protobinary IRAS 16293 -2422
Bisschop, Jørgensen (Bonn, Germany), Bottinelli, and van Dishoeck investigated
the chemical relations between complex organic molecules in the low-mass
protobinary YSO IRAS 16293-2422 (Fig. 2) using the SubMillimeter Array (SMA)
at 5 arcsec angular resolution (corresponding to a linear resolution of 800 x 500
AU). For HNCO and CH3CN the compact emission arises mostly from source A,
whereas CH2CO and C2H5OH have comparable strength, and CH3CHO is seen
exclusively from source B. The relative abundances are very similar to those
found in high-mass YSOs illustrating that the chemistry appears to be
independent of luminosity and cloud mass. In contrast, larger abundance
differences are seen between the sources A and B which may be linked to
different initial ice abundances, with OCN-ice more abundant toward A.
Successive hydrogenation on surfaces is not sufficient to explain the
measurements of CH3CHO. The data illustrate the greater importance of
interferometric with respect to single dish data to test chemical models.
Figure 2: Interferometric line images of the low-mass protobinary object IRAS 16293 -2422 obtained
with the SubMillimeter Array. Different distributions of the oxygen and nitrogen-bearing complex
organic molecules are seen, even though the two sources are separated by only 800 AU (from:
Bisschop et al.).
Lack of PAH emission toward low-mass embedded YSOs
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in molecular
clouds and some young stars with disks, but not yet in embedded YSOs. Geers,
van Dishoeck, Pontoppidan (Caltech, USA), Lahuis and co-workers combined
high-sensitivity observations with ISAAC on the ESO Very Large Telescope
(VLT) and with the IRS on the Spitzer Space Telesco and searched for the 3.3, 7.7
and 11.3 micron bands of PAHs in a sample of 53 embedded YSOs. No
detections were obtained. They combined radiative-transfer codes from
Dullemond (Heidelberg, Germany) with a PAH-excitation module from Visser
and studied the sensitivity of the PAH emission to its abundance, the stellar
radiation field, the inclination of and the extinction by the surrounding
envelope. Under the assumption of typical stellar and envelope parameters, the
absence of PAH emission is best explained by the absence of emitting carrier.
This implies a PAH abundance at least an order of magnitude lower than in
molecular clouds but similar to that found in disks. Thus, most PAHs probably
enter protoplanetary disks frozen out in icy layers on dust grains, in coagulated
form, or both.
Modeling water emission from low-mass protostellar envelopes
Water vapor plays a key role in the chemistry and energy balance of starforming regions. Van Kempen, van Dishoeck, Hogerheijde, Doty (Denison
Univ, USA) and Jørgensen (Bonn, Germany) simulated the emission of
rotational water lines from low-mass YSO envelopes in preparation for
observations with the Herschel Space Observatory. A large number of
parameters influencing water line emission have been explored: luminosity,
density, density slope, and water abundances. The results show that lines can be
categorized in: (i) optically thick lines, including ground-state lines, mostly
sensitive to the cold outer envelope; (ii) highly excited (upper level energy 200 250 K) optically thin lines sensitive to the water abundance in the hot inner part;
and (iii) lines which vary from optically thick to thin depending on the
abundances. A correct treatment of the dust in the water excitation and line
formation is essential. Observations of H218O lines, although weak, provide the
strongest constraints on abundances.
3.2. Embedded young stellar objects (YSOs)
Characterizing the nature of embedded YSOs
Crapsi, van Dishoeck, Hogerheijde, Pontoppidan (Caltech, USA) and
Dullemond (Heidelberg, Germany) used 3-D axisymmetric radiative transfer
calculations of YSO models including envelope, disk and outflow cavity to show
the effects of different geometries on the main indicators of YSO evolutionary
stages. For systems viewed at intermediate angles (inclination between 25 and
70 degrees), all indicators (infrared colors, bolometric temperature and the
optical depth of silicate and ice features) are found to accurately trace envelope
column density, and all agree with each other. On the other hand, edge-on
system are misclassified for inclinations larger than 65 degrees. In particular,
silicate emission, typical of pre-main sequence stars with disks, turns into
silicate absorption when the disk column density along the line of sight reaches
1022 cm-2; similarly confusing effects are noticed in all other indicators. Such
misclassification has a large impact on conclusions regarding the nature of the
observed flat-spectrum infrared sources whose numbers can now be explained
by simple geometrical arguments without invoking evolution. The simplest and
most reliable classification scheme consists of comparing submillimeter fluxes
obtained with a single dish and an interferometer.
Protoplanetary disks and stars in the embedded phase
Lommen, Jørgensen (Bonn, Germany), van Dishoeck and Crapsi used the SMA
to study disks in the embedded Class I stage taking as examples the two sources
IRS 63 and Elias 29 in Ophiuchus. In combination with single-dish data, the
interferometer measurements yielded ratios of envelope to disk mass of 0.2 and
6, respectively, for the two objects. This is lower than the ratios in excess of ten
found for Class 0 sources, suggesting that this ratio is a tracer of the
evolutionary stage of a YSO. HCO+ J = 3-2 was detected toward both sources,
with position-velocity diagrams indicative of Keplerian rotation. For a fiducial
inclination of 30 degrees, stellar masses are 0.4 and 2.5 MSun, which indicates that
most of the stellar mass has been assembled before the Class I stage.
The disk around IM Lup offers a stark contrast: out to 400 AU the CO gas
emission was easily explained by previous knowledge of the disk's structure,
although significant CO depletion needed to be taken into account in this colder
disk around this fainter star. They found little evidence for dust beyond a
distance of 400 AU from the star, even though the CO emission clearly extends
to radii of 900 AU. Panič hypothesizes that radial dust migration has depleted
the outer disk of its grains, with significant amounts of (perhaps mostly atomic)
gas remaining.
Protostellar growth charts
Brinch and Hogerheijde, together with van Weeren and Richling (Paris, France),
finished two theoretical studies on the evolution of molecular-line emission
originating from protostellar cores during their collapse and subsequent
formation of a disk. The first study showed that observations of millimeterwavelength emission lines of a variety of species (CO, HCO+, HCN, 13CO,
H13CO+, ...) on a range of spatial scales (varying from 20 arcsec or 3000 AU
attainable with single-dish telescopes down to a few arcsec or 300 AU, obtained
with interferometers) can be used to uniquely characterize the dynamics of the
material, as in transitions from infall-dominated to rotation-dominated: a
protostellar growth chart. The second study showed that chemical processes
such as freeze-out of CO onto dust grains does not seriously limit the
applicability of these growth charts. This modeling involved a novel method to
follow the time dependent nature of the chemistry in the evolving core, and in a
separate study van Weeren, Brinch and Hogerheijde showed how this method
can be applied also to model the full gas-phase chemistry.
4. Stars
4.1. Observing the stars
Caught! A flare from the classical T Tauri star DQ Tau
Salter, Hogerheijde, and Blake (Caltech, USA) serendipitously detected a flare of
the classical T Tauri star DQ Tau at a wavelength of 3 mm. Over the course of
just a few hours, the star brightened by at least a factor 27, followed by a decay
over another eight hours (see Figure 3). Subsequent literature study revealed
that DQ Tau is an eccentric close binary with a 15-day orbit. The flare coincided
within the accuracy of the orbital parameters to the periastron passage of the
stars, when the respective magnetospheres overlap. Salter, Hogerheijde and
Blake put forward the hypothesis that the magnetic interaction accelerates
electrons to relativistic speeds and so creates a sudden burst of synchrotron
emission. Follow-up observations on December 28, 2008 showed that the flare
very likely repeats every periastron passage. During such a flare, DQ Tau may
easily outshine at 3 mm wavelength every other T Tauri in the Taurus starforming cloud.
Figure 3: The flux of DQ Tau vs time on April 19, 2008. For comparison, the fluxes of other sources
and calibrators observed at the same time with the same instrument are also shown. DQ Tau
brightens by at least a factor 27 over just a few hours. Salter et al. suggest that the overlapping
magnetospheres of this eccentric close binary cause the remarkable brightening. Follow-up
observations revealed that this flare repeats every 15 days near periastron passage of the system.
The infrared excess around lambda Bootis stars
Martinez-Galarza, Kamp (Groningen, NL) and four other colleagues presented a
model for stellar infrared excesses caused by the heating of dust by a hot star
passing through a diffuse interstellar cloud. They applied the model to six
lambda Boötis stars with infrared excesses. These are stars of type A to F with
large underabundances of Fe-peak elements. Their results were consistent with
the hypothesis that lambda Boötis stars owe their specific characteristics to
interaction with the ISM. Martinez-Galarza and colleagues invoke radiation
pressure from the star to repel the ISM dust, causing it to excavate a
paraboloidal dust cavity in the interstellar cloud, while the metal-poor gas is
accreted onto the stellar photosphere. Alternatively, the infrared excesses can
also be fit by planetary debris disk models. A more detailed consideration of the
conditions to produce lambda Boötis characteristics suggests that the majority of
infrared-excess stars within the Local Bubble have debris disks. Nevertheless,
Martinez-Galarza et al. expect the moving-star model to be applicable to most of
the more distant lambda Boötis stars.
4.2. Modelling binary stars
Binaries in young stellar clusters
Together with Kouwenhoven, Goodwin (Sheffield, UK), Kaper, and Portegies
Zwart (both Amsterdam, NL), Brown studied several modeling methods
Figure 4: Logarithm of the gas density in the equatorial plane of a massive binary with eccentricity
0.8 and mass ratio 1:3, shortly after periastron passage.
commonly used to pair individual stars into binary systems (so-called pairing
functions). These pairing functions are frequently used by observers and
computational astronomers, either for their mathematical convenience, or
because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process.
The group studied the consequences of each pairing function for the
interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. They found that the
observed binary fraction and mass ratio distribution in general depend strongly
on the range in primary spectral type used to select a sample. The mass ratio
distribution and binary fraction derived from a binarity survey among a masslimited sample of targets is therefore not representative for the population as a
whole. They also concluded that neither theory nor observations indicate that
random pairing of binary components from the mass distribution, the simplest
pairing function, is realistic.
Binary star misalignment
Albrecht conducted a study of the spin-orbital alignment in two binary star
systems using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, a technique also used for
transiting extrasolar planets. He found that in one double star system, DI Herc,
the orbital plane and the spin-axis are strongly misaligned, and thus solved the
twenty-year old mystery of the slow apsidal motion of this binary star system.
Colliding stellar winds in very eccentric binaries
In preparation for the Eta Carinae Project, Icke computed a survey of flow
patterns in highly eccentric binary stars in the case that both binaries lose gas
through a strong and dense stellar wind. The flow patterns turned out to be
relatively simple: near apastron, the interface between the stars builds up to an
almost stationary shock-contact-shock layer, while during periastron passage
the stars smash through that layer, creating a characteristic `yin-yang' double
shock pattern (see Figure 4). The free-free radiation computed from the shock
layers reproduces the typical asymmetric-peak shape seen in the X-ray light
curve of Eta Carinae.
4.3. Compact objects
Oscillations make no waves in neutron stars
Levin and Berkhout worked on the theory of Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs)
during type-I X-ray bursts, the thermonuclear explosions on the surfaces of
accreting neutron stars. One currently popular theory associates these QPOs
with the giant waves in the neutron-star ocean. However, Berkhout and Levin
have found errors in the theoretical QPO literature and as a consequence have
pointed out serious theoretical problems with the ocean-wave interpretation of
the QPOs. Levin and van Hoven worked out the theory of hydromagnetic waves
in the neutron star interior. They have applied this theory to the interpretation of
QPOs in magnetar flares, and also to the analysis of stability of precessing
neutron stars.
Dynamics of strongly magnetised black hole accretion disks
Johansen and Levin investigated the properties of strongly magnetized accretion
disks around black holes. The strong magnetisation of such disks cause new
Figure 5: Evolution of the Parker instability in a strongly magnetised disk. Overlaid on the density
are magnetic field streamlines (white lines) and velocity field vectors (white arrows). The initial
stratification (first panel) is unstable to magnetic buoyancy, and magnetic field arcs begin to rise
from the midplane. The arcs merge to form longer arcs, and eventually the system settles down into
a new equilibrium state with two superarcs and four dense pockets of matter in the midplane
(second panel).
dynamical phenomena not seen in their weakly magnetised counterparts.
Strong magnetic field confinement is not stable and huge arcs easily ariser by the
action of the Parker instability (see Figure 5). These arcs in turn are subject to
magnetorotational instability, which occurs in diffentially rotating systems such
as accretion disks. This causes disk gas to become turbulent and to transport
angular momentum very efficiently. Angular momentum transport is important
because it leads to mass accretion through the disk, feeding the black hole.
Contrary to previous believes, the magnetic field does not escape completely
from the disk, but is replenished by the tangling of field lines in the turbulent
Noise in gravitational wave interferometers
Levin developed a new method to calculate thermo-refractive noise in groundbased gravitational wave interferometers. This method is suitable for treating
realistic optical configurations and inhomogeneitied of the refractive medium.
5. Nearby galaxies
5.1. The Milky Way
Bulge dynamics: studying the nearest galactic bar
Kuijken, Soto and Rich (Los Angeles, USA) constructed a model of the stellar
kinematics in the Milky Way bulge and bar. It was based on new measurements
of proper motions and radial velocities with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
and the ground based ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), respectively. The VLT
observations use an integral field unit (IFU) to take spectra of very crowded star
fields in the bulge, from which stellar spectra are then extracted using the
precise position information that is measured on the HST images. Repeat HST
images separated by 3-5 years allowed accurate proper motions (equivalent to
30 km/s accuracy at the distance of the bulge) to be measured. The separate
analysis of a data set of K-giants revealed a significant vertex deviation in the
metal-rich stars, a clear signature of bar-like kinematics. Zeballos and
Astramaadja used their research projects to make proper motion measurements
from HST data for three new fields, at galactic longitudes between 5 and 10
Stellar dynamics around black holes
Hopman's research focused on stellar dynamical phenomena in the vicinity of
massive black holes, concentrating on a detailed study of many aspects of
dynamics of binaries near massive black holes, the results of which are
Hopman and Toonen (now at Nijmegen) calculated the contribution of fly-bys of
stars near massive black holes to the stochastic gravitational wave background
was calculated. They showed that this background will not be a problem for the
planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Hopman analyzed
numerical models of the rate at which stars spiral into massive black holes. This
yielded a simple expression for the dependence of the expected LISA event rate
on the massive black hole mass.
Hopman and Alexander (Weizmann Inst., Israel) studied mass segregation near
massive black holes. The concluded to the possibility of "strong mass
segregation": this is a segregation of massive and light stars much more
pronounced than considered possible by the classical 1977 paper by Bahcall and
Wolf. Together with Keshet (first Princeton, now Harvard, USA) they studied,
for the first time, mass-segregation for continuous mass functions and presented
a comprehensive analytical description.
Hopman, Madigan, and Levin discovered a new instability of eccentric stellar
disks around massive black holes. The nature of this instability is such that it can
drive eccentricities of stars to very high values, and it may have implications for
understanding the still unknown origin of the young stars in the Galactic center.
Dark matter distribution
Weijmans, with de Zeeuw, van den Bosch, Cappellari (Oxford), Kuntschner
(ESO) and van de Ven (Princeton) extracted stellar velocity profiles and line
strengths at 3 - 4 halflight or effective radii (Re), in two early-type galaxies (NGC
3379 and NGC 821). She developed a new technique to obtain spectra of these
faint outskirts of galaxies, using the SAURON integral-field unit as a 'photoncollector'. This way, she was able to double the radial extent over which stellar
kinematics and line-strengths were available in these galaxies. Analysis of the
line strengths showed that the stellar halo population is old and metal-poor, and
that the line strength gradients observed in the inner parts (< 1 Re) of these
galaxies, continue out to at least 4 Re. By constructing triaxial Schwarzschild
models she determined the dark matter content of these systems, showing that
even in the central parts dark matter is present.
Ciotti and L. Morganti (both Bologna) and de Zeeuw worked out the dynamical
properties of two-component spherical galaxy models with a 1/r2 distribution of
the dark matter and realistic luminosity profiles.
5.2. The Local Group
Dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud Tail
A large team, led by Gordon (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, US)
and including Israel, is using Spitzer Space Observatory data to study the dust
properties of the Magellanic Clouds. The Tail region of the Small Magellanic
Cloud (SMC) was imaged using the MIPS instrument as part of the SAGE-SMC
Spitzer Legacy. Diffuse infrared emission from dust was detected in all the MIPS
bands. The Tail gas-to-dust ratio was measured to be about 1200 using the MIPS
observations combined with existing IRAS and HI observations. This gas-to-dust
ratio is higher than the expected 500-800 from the known Tail metallicity
indicating possible destruction of dust grains. Two cluster regions in the Tail
were resolved into multiple sources in the MIPS observations. Their local gas-todust ratios of about 440 and 250, respectively, suggest that in these regions dust
formation occurs, or that they contain significant amounts of ionized gas, or
both. The results support the notion that the SMC Tail is a tidal tail recently
stripped from the SMC that includes gas, dust, and young stars.
5.3. Detailed studies
Zooming in on Centaurus A, the nearest AGN
Studying the strong radio source Centaurus A, hosted by the peculiar elliptical
galaxy NGC 5128, Israel, Raban, Booth (Onsala, Sweden) and Rantakyrö (ESO)
have determined the high-frequency (centimeter and millimeter wavelength)
continuum spectrum of the very extended — eight degrees on the sky — radio
source. From the maps obtained with the WMAP satellite for cosmological
purposes, they extracted flux densities pertaining to the object. They found that
the spatially integrated Cen A spectrum becomes somewhat steeper at
frequencies above 5 GHz, where the spectral index changes from -0.70 to -0.82.
Between 1989 and 2005, both the SEST in Chile and the JCMT in Hawaii were
used to obtain millimeter line spectra to measure various molecules in
absorption against the compact nucleus of Centaurus A. Israel and coworkers
used these spectra to extract the continuum emission from the active galaxy
nucleus at frequencies between 86 GHz (3.5 mm) and 345 GHz (0.85 mm) as a
function of time. In the period covered by the measurements, the millimeter
emission from the core of Centaurus A was clearly variable. They found that the
variability correlates appreciably better with the 20 - 200 keV than the 2 – 10 keV
X-ray variability. In its quiescent state, the core radio spectral index is -0.3, but it
steepens when the core brightens. The variability appears to be mostly
associated with the inner nuclear jet components that have been detected in
VLBI measurements. The densest innermost nuclear components are optically
thick below 45 - 80 GHz.
A team led by Espada (CfA Harvard, USA) and including Israel used the
Smitsonian Millimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii to obtain high resolution images
of the 12CO(-1) emission in the center of NGC 5128. For the first time, the team
could study at high resolution the distribution and kinematics of the molecular
gas in the circumnuclear region. The molecular gas distribution is elongated in a
position angle of 155 deg, perpendicular to the jet seen in radio and X-ray
Figure 6.
A sketch of the parsec scale structures near the nucleus of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068.
Red: the size and orientation of the warm dust disk mapped by the MIDI midIR interferometer.
Contours: 5 GHz free-free radio emission from hot gas. Black spots: H2O maser emission. The green
and blue larger contours indicate the orientation of the "large scale" [OIII] emission seen by HST (but
reduced in size here by a factor of 100), and the yellow "sand dial" a similarly reduced sketch of the
expected extent of the ionization cone. From "Resolving the obscuring torus in NGC 1068"by Raban,
Jaffe, Rottgering, Meisenheimer, Tristram 2009, MNRAS in press.
The molecular gas traced by CO coincides with the previously observed dust
continuum, as well as ionized gas and pure rotational H2 lines. Spatial and
kinematical asymmetries are apparent in both the circumnuclear and outer gas.
Adopting a warped disk model, the team confirmed the existence of a gap in
emission between the radii r = 200 - 800 pc (12'' - 50'') and explored the possible
contribution of a weak bi-symmetric potential which could explain the
IR interferometry of galactic nuclei
Jaffe, Raban, Röttgering, and colleagues at the Max Planck Insitutes in
Heidelberg and Bonn (Germany), and the NRAO (Charlottesville, USA) and
Bonn and NRAO continued their work on mid-infrared interferometric
observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with the ESO-VLTI instrument
MIDI. This resulted in two refereed publications on AGNs and several
important publications submitted or in the pipeline. In particular it should be
noted that the quasar 3C273 and the Sy 1 galaxy NGC 4151 have been detected
(see Figure 6). The latter is mostly resolved by the interferometer, showing that
the IR emission from Sy 1s is NOT dominated by the central hot accretion disk.
The Sombrero galaxy's dust ring
Vlahakis and her collaborators Baes (Gent, Belgium), Bendo (London, UK), and
Lundgren (ESO, Chile) used the LABOCA and MAMBO-2 bolometer cameras at
wavelengths of 870 micron and 1.2mm, respectively, to detect and image the
dust ring of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594) for the first time at (sub)millimeter
wavelengths. They constructed a model of the galaxy to separate the active
galactic nucleus (AGN) and dust ring components, and found that the ring
radius at both 870 micron and 1.2 mm agrees well with that determined from
optical absorption and atomic gas studies.
Molecules in galaxy centers
Israel presented and analyzed maps in the four lower 12CO transitions and
measurements of the three lower 13CO transitions from the central arcminute in
the nearby galaxies NGC 1068, NGC 2146, NGC 3079, NGC 4826, and NGC 7469
(see Figure 7). In all five objects, bright CO concentrations coincide with the
galaxy centers. Their line intensities invariably required two distinct gas
components before a satisfactory fit between models and data could be
obtained. The physical condition of the molecular gas was found to differ from
galaxy to galaxy. High kinetic temperatures of 125-150 K occur in NGC 2146 and
NGC 3079. Very high densities of 30 000 - 100 000 per cc occur also in NGC 2146
and NGC 3079, as well as in the more distant NGC 7469. The CO-to-H2
conversion factor X is typically an order of magnitude less than the `standard'
value in the Solar Neighborhood. This means that the central regions do not
contain as much molecular hydrogen as the strength of the CO emission would
suggest. The molecular gas is constrained within radii between 0.9 and 1.5 kpc
from the nuclei. Within these radii, H2 masses are typically 125-250 million solar
masses. The exception to this is the relatively nearby merger NGC 4826 (the Evil
Eye galaxy), where all gas occurs inside a radius of 300 parsec, with a mass of
only 30 million solar masses. In all five galaxies, the H2 mass is typically no
more than a few per cent of the dynamical mass in the same region.
Figure 7a: Compact J=3-2 CO concentrations in the centers of (from left to right) the galaxies NGC
660, NGC 1365, NGC 2146, NGC 432, and NGC 4826, as observed with the JCMT.
Figure 7b: Major axis position-velocity maps in the J=3-2 12CO transition of (clockwise from top left)
the galaxies NGC 660, NGC 1068, NGC 4826, and NGC 2146, as observed with the JCMT
Infrared studies of nearby starburst galaxies
Brandl, together with Groves, Beirao and colleagues at Cornell University
continued the research on the properties of starbursts in different environments.
The observational studies, mainly based on data from the Spitzer Space
Telescope, included samples of Galactic HII regions, classical starburst galaxies,
individual objects such as the Antennae, and low metallicity environments. In
parallel, modelling tools have been further developed that now allow the
comparison between observations and physical models. The goal of these
activities is the better understanding of the local properties (such as the structure
of the PDRs, the relative importance of ultra-compact HII regions, the role of
metallicity, and the IMF) in luminous starburst systems.
Powerful H2 emission from the interacting system Arp 143
Beirao, together with Brandl and colleagues at IPAC (USA), worked on mid-IR
(5 - 35 microns) and UV (154 - 232 nm) observations of the interacting galaxy
system Arp 143 obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the GALEX
observatory. The central nucleus was found to be surrounded by knots of
massive star-formation in a ring-like structure. Unusually strong emission from
warm H2, associated with an expanding shock wave between the nucleus and
the western knots, has also been found. Arp 143 is one of the most extreme
cases in that regard. The ring of star forming knots was formed almost
simultaneously in response to the shock wave. However, the knots can be
further subdivided in two age groups (approximately 3 and 7 Myr). The older
group shows very little PAH emission, which was attributed to an ageing effect
of the massive clusters.
Discovery of redshifted [CI] absorption at z = 0.9
Bottinelli, van Langevelde, van Dishoeck, Hogerheijde and Tilanus (JCMT,
Hawaii, USA), and colleagues from the SMA and the CSO, used the expanded
Smithsonian millimeter array (eSMA) at a wavelength of 1.1 mm and detected
redshifted neutral carbon absorption at z = 0.886 toward the remarkable lensed
quasar PKS 1830-211. At an angular resolution of 0.55 x 0.22 arcsec absorption is
seen toward the SW image but not toward the NE image. They also detected
CO in the J = 4-3 transition toward the SW component, but failed to see in the
same transition the isotopes 13CO and C18O. This was the first time that
extragalactic [CI] was detected in absorption, and it allowed a direct
determination of the abundance of neutral atomic carbon relative to CO in the
molecular clouds of a spiral galaxy at a redshift z > 0.1. The deduced C/CO
column density ratios ranged from <0.5 (representative of dense cores) to 2.5
(close to translucent clouds ratios) in the different velocity components. This
points to environments with different physical conditions or chemical evolution
of regions where C has not been completely converted into CO.
5.4. General Galaxy Properties
A new class of submm galaxy?
Vlahakis, Minchin, Dunne, and Eales (the lattter three from Cardif, UK) detected
three low redshift (z < 0.2) submm galaxies from the Canada-UK Deep
Submillimetre Survey in the CO and HI lines, confirming that these objects have
been correctly identified as low redshift sources. They found the HI, molecular
gas and dust properties of these galaxies in most respects to be similar to nearby
(z < 0.05) galaxies, with the main differences being that the mass ratio of
molecular gas to dust and the 60/850 micron emission ratio are lower than those
of nearby galaxies. They suggest that this implied a population of IR-faint, dustrich galaxies in the local Universe that hitherto had not been uncovered.
The total dust content of galaxies.
Vlahakis, Falony, Baes (both Gent, Belgium), Davies (Cardiff, UK), and Dale
(Laramie, USA) presented a sample of 28 galaxies with well-defined spectral
energy distributions (SED) over the entire far-infrared and submillimetre region,
selected from the Extended 12 Micron Galaxy Sample. They found that the SEDs
of most galaxies clearly indicate the presence of large quantities of cold dust,
and found no difference in the cold dust properties of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2
galaxies, in agreement with the unified model.
Modelling IR emission from galaxies
Groves concentrated on modelling emission lines from starburst galaxies and
quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in several wavelength regimes. Together with Allen
(Strasbourg, France) and several others, he created a new, updated library of
fast, radiative shocks. This work extended and improved earlier work by Dopita
and Sutherland to higher velocities and more emission lines, and should prove a
fundamental library for the interpretation of emission lines in the future.
Building on this work, Groves has started to create an easy-to-use tool for the
interpretation of emission lines, enabling the comparison of any emission line
ratios with the published MAPPINGS III models for HII regions, AGN narrow
line regions and shock excited regions. With this tool, he hopes to make the
comparison of models and observations simple and clear for any observer.
Groves, Brandl and Nefs also studied the use of the observed correlation
between mid-IR emission lines as a diagnostic and predictive tool.
Cooling Flows
Jaffe, Oonk, Hatch, Bremer (Bristol, UK) obtained observing time with the
Spitzer Space Telescope for detecting molecular hydrogen in high redshift
protoclusters, and obtained Hubble Space Telescope data to detect UV emission
in purported star-forming regions in cooling flows. In September, Jaffe
organized a Lorentz Workshop on cooling flows with large participation.
Dark matter in the outskirts of elliptical galaxies
Kuijken worked on the distribution of dark matter in the universe, principally
through analysis of stellar dynamics in galaxies, using the purpose-built
Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph (PN.S) on the William Herschel Telescope in
the Canary Islands (Spain). With the other members of the PN.S team (Douglas,
Arnaboldi, Capaccioli, Coccato, Freeman, Gerhard, Merrifield, Napolitano,
Noordermeer, Romanowsky) he continued the study of elliptical galaxy halos.
The PN.S finds, and measures velocities for, planetary nebulae (PNe) in external
galaxies from a single observation. The ongoing survey typically yielded 100-200
PNe per galaxy, mostly at large radii from the center where their motions are
dominated by the dark matter halo potential. A dozen galaxies now have good
datasets, and these were published in 2008. An observing run at the Herschel
telesope on La Palma was largely wiped out due to weather; however long-term
status for the project was confirmed and the observations are continuing.
Figure 8: Smoothed two-dimensional velocity (left-hand panels) and velocity dispersion (right-hand
panels) fields of six galaxies from PNe data. The photometric major axis is aligned along the vertical
axis. Crosses represent the locations of the PNe, while the colours represent the values of the
smoothed velocity (or velocity dispersion) field at those points. The colour scale is given at the
bottom of each panel. The dashed ellipses are located at 2 effective radii. From Coccato et al, MNRAS
394 1249.
AGN evolution
Continuing his work on the evolution of radio-loud active galactic nuclei,
Snellen, de Vries, and Schilizzi conducted a study of very young radio galaxies
that shed new light on the questions why certain galaxies become active and
how the central activity influences the surrounding galaxy. Multi-epoch VLBI
observations confirmed that the spectral turnovers in these sources are caused
by synchrotron self-absorption. They also found strong indications that lowluminosity young radio-loud AGN expand slower than highly-powered objects.
Mid-infrared spectra of lensed galaxies
In collaboration with Rigby (Carnegie, USA), Egami and Rieke (Steward
Observatory, USA), Van der Werf studied the mid-infrared spectra of strongly
lensed submillimetre galaxies (SMGs), using the IRS on the Spitzer Space
Telescope. A key object was the triple-lensed SMG behind the massive cluster
A2218, an earlier discovery of van der Werf and Knudsen, which was detected
with very high signal-to-noise ratio. All objects showed the well-known PAH
features characteristic of vigourous star formation. However, the PAH
luminosity with respect total infrared luminosity exhibited a modest evolution
from z = 2 to the present. Since the high aromatic-to-continuum flux ratios in
these galaxies rule out a dominant contribution by an active galactic nucleus,
this finding implied systematic evolution in the structure, the metallicity, or
both, of infrared sources with redshift. It also has implications for the estimates
of star-forming rates inferred from 24 micron measurements, in the sense that at
z ~ 2, a given observed frame 24 micron luminosity corresponds to a lower
bolometric luminosity than would be inferred from low-redshift templates of
similar luminosity at the corresponding rest wavelength.
Wolf-Rayet galaxies - the largest sample of the most extreme stars
One of the most spectacular events in stellar evolution is the Wolf-Rayet (WR)
phase, when a strong stellar wind has exposed the inner, hotter layers of
massive stars. Stars in this phase present strong constraints on stellar evolution
but are rare in the Milky Way. However, apparently large numbers of these stars
are found in the so-called Wolf-Rayet galaxies where the spectral signatures of
WR stars show up in the integrated spectra of galaxies.
Until recently only about 130 of these galaxies were known, but together with
Kunth and Durret (both IAP, France), Brinchmann has used the Sloan Digital
Sky Survey (SDSS) to carry out the largest, and most homogeneous, search to
date for WR galaxies. They succeeded in assembling a sample of WR galaxies
several times larger than the total number of these galaxies previously known,
with 570 secure and 1115 tentative detections of Wolf-Rayet spectra.
Figure 9: This figure shows the ratio of the luminosity due to optical Wolf-Rayet emission lines to
that of the Hydrogen Beta Balmer line as a function of the metal abundance of the interstellar gas in
the galaxies. The ratio on the y-axis is approximately proportional to the number of Wolf-Rayet stars
to that of O stars. Since the abundance of Wolf-Rayet stars is connected to the strength of stellar
winds and stellar winds decrease towards lower metallicity, the ratio declines as well. But note that
the at very low metallicity the ratio appears to level off and reach a plateau, indicating the presence
of an additional channel for formation of Wolf-Rayet stars, either binary evolution or significant
rotation in massive stars. The different symbols indicate different line-widths in the Wolf-Rayet stars
and the red symbols indicate the location of the galaxies whose images are shown above the plot.
The dashed line indicate the approximate detection limit of the survey.
They used this unprecedentedly large sample to put constraints on the evolution
of WR stars and to empirically identify trends in the abundance of WR stars
based on the statistics of the galaxies. They also found, for the first time,
evidence of enrichment of the surrounding interstellar medium by winds from
WR stars by showing that galaxies with Wolf-Rayet features on average have
higher nitrogen abundances than similar galaxies without WR features.
Star formation laws and numerical simulation
When averaged over large scales, star formation in galaxies is observed to follow
the empirical Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law for surface densities above a constant
threshold. While the empirical law involves surface densities, theoretical models
and simulations generally work with volume density laws (i.e. Schmidt laws).
Schaye and Dalla Vecchia derived analytic relations between star formation laws
expressed in terms of surface densities, volume densities, and pressures and
showed how these relations depend on parameters such as the effective
equation of state of the multiphase interstellar medium. Their analytic relations
enabled them to implement observed surface density laws into simulations.
Because the parameters of their prescription for star formation are observables,
they were not free to tune them to match the observations. They tested their
theoretical framework using high-resolution simulations of isolated disc galaxies
that assume an effective equation of state for the multiphase interstellar
medium. They were able to reproduce the star formation threshold and both the
slope and the normalization of arbitrary input KS laws without tuning any
parameters and with very little scatter, even for unstable galaxies and even if
they used poor numerical resolution. Moreover, they could do so for arbitrary
effective equations of state. Their prescription therefore enables simulations of
galaxies to bypass our current inability to simulate the formation of stars. On the
other hand, the fact that they can reproduce arbitrary input thresholds and KS
laws, rather than just the particular ones picked out by nature, indicates that
simulations that lack the physics and/or resolution to simulate the multiphase
interstellar medium can only provide limited insight into the origin of the
observed star formation laws.
Emission lines in galaxies from the mundane to the extreme
Galaxies in the distant universe show emission line properties that offsets from
the locus of nearby galaxies. Why that is, has so far been an open question.
Brinchmann, Pettini (IoA, UK), and Charlot (IAP, France) have examined the
emission line properties of galaxies at low redshift in detail using the Sloan
Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The large SDSS sample enabled to identify trends in
the emission line properties of low-redshift galaxies and to identify a subsample
of galaxies that match the properties of the high-redshift Universe.
They showed that, for the extreme galaxies in the local Universe, the main offset
is caused by a systematic shift towards higher ionization parameters and
reasoned that by analogy this is also the case in the distant Universe. They
tenatively identified this shift to be due to a higher electron density. They
caution that these systematic differences between typical galaxies in the local
and distant Universe might cause relationships calibrated using local Universe
data to lead to systematic errors when applied at high redshift.
Brinchmann also participated in a related work, led by Liu and Shapley (both
Princeton, USA), which independently confirmed these results. The main
uncertainty in the results of either effort is the presence of active galaxy nuclei
(AGN). The two groups have now joined forces to obtain integral-field
spectroscopy of a subsample of these galaxies to further understand the physical
nature of these offsets.
6. Distant galaxies, clusters, and large-scale
Optical appearance of radio galaxies
Holt continued her work on radio galaxies at optical wavelengths, in
collaboration with Tadhunter (Sheffield, UK) and Morganti (Dwingeloo, NL),
among others. They presented results on the fast nuclear outflows in compact
(young) radio galaxies. Results on the physical conditions and ionisation
mechanisms in the nuclear regions of these sources will follow. In addition, Holt
presented a review on the host galaxy properties of compact radio galaxies.
Work has also continued on the stellar populations in radio galaxies,
particularly in radio galaxies with evidence for a young stellar population.
Massive galaxy and cluster formation
Miley, Röttgering, Hatch, Maschietto, Kuiper and many external collaborators
continued their studies of high-redshift radio galaxies and their use as
laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and
rich clusters at high redshifts (z > 2), a field pioneered at the Sterrewacht. An
extended review of the field was published by Miley and De Breuck (ESO,
Chile). A highlight of this Leiden research on massive galaxy evolution was the
study of diffuse emission from the huge merging Spiderweb Galaxy at z = 2.2.
Approximately half of the observed UV radiation from this galaxy is in the form
of "intergalactic light" extended over about 60 kpc. The most probable origin of
this light is a multitude of young stars with a star formation rate of more than 80
solar masses per year. A project was begun to extend studies of z > 2
protoclusters to older stellar populations using the new HAWK-IU infrared
imager on the VLT, with Miley as PI.
Radio relics in distant clusters
Figure 10: Observations of ZwCl 2341.1+0000 (z = 0.27), a complex merging structure of galaxies. The
image indicates X-ray emission as observed by Chandra satellite in the 0:5 - 3:0 keV energy band.
The solid contours represent the radio emission at 610 MHz from the GMRT radio telescope. The
dashed-contours show the galaxy distribution from SDSS.
Diffuse radio emission in clusters, radio "relics" and "halos", trace regions with
shocks an turbulence created by cluster merger events. van Weeren, Röttgering,
Bruggen (Bremen, Germany) and Cohen (NRL, USA) have been carrying out
low-frequency radio observations of diffuse ultra-steep spectrum sources with
the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610 MHz. These sources are
thought to trace (i) old long-lived shock fronts, or (ii) less energetic cluster
merger events. They used the observations used to construct the first sample of
diffuse ultra-steep spectrum sources. In this sample there are several radio relics
with spectral indices steeper than those currently known.
Hierarchal models of large-scale structure (LSS) formation predict that galaxy
clusters grow via gravitational infall and mergers of (smaller) mass
concentrations, such as clusters and galaxy groups. Van Weeren, Röttgering,
Joydeep (Pune, India), Raychaudhury (Birmingham, UK) and others have
analyzed deep low-frequency (150, 235, 610 MHz) GMRT observations of the
complex merging cluster ZwCl 2341.1+0000.
After combining these
observations with X-ray imaging by the Newton and Chandra satellites, they
discovered two radio relics, with a separation of 2.2 Mpc, located on either side
of the cluster center. The relativistic electrons responsible for the radio emission
are probably accelerated in a large shock-system created by the merger of two
massive clusters.
Radio galaxies at high redshifts
High-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) are rare objects in the cosmos, residing at
the very brightest end of the radio luminosity function. Wide-area surveys have
identified powerful radio galaxies out to very early cosmic epochs. However,
since flux-limited surveys probe increasingly luminous objects with increasing
redshift, knowledge of lower-luminosity HzRGs at high redshift is limited.
Croft, van Breugel (LLNL, USA), Röttgering and others used the Keck I
telescope to obtain Ks-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio
galaxies they selected by using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep WideField Survey in Boötes. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggested that three
of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break.
Two of those exhibit diffuse morphologies in Ks-band, suggesting that they are
still in the process of forming.
The Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources (CENSORS) is a 1.4-GHz
radio survey selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and complete to
a flux density of 7.2 mJy. It targeted the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) Patch D.
Brookes, Best, Peacock (all Edinburgh, UK), Röttgering, and Dunlop (Edinburgh,
UK) carried out spectroscopic observations of 143 of the 150 CENSORS sources.
The observations resulted in secure spectroscopic redshifts for 63 per cent of the
sample and probable redshifts (such as those based on a single emission line) for
a further 8 per cent. Following the identification of the quasars and star-forming
galaxies in the CENSORS sample, estimated redshifts were calculated for the
remainder of the sample via the K - z relation for radio galaxies.
Tasse, Röttgering and Best (Edinburgh, UK) identified the optical and infrared
counterpart of the point-like X-ray sources in the XMM-LSS field, and selected a
subsample of Type-2 AGNs. The X-ray luminosity function of these sources
were in good agreement with previous studies. The fraction of galaxies that are
X-ray AGN is a strong function of the host galaxy stellar mass and the shape of
that relation is in good agreement with the fraction of galaxies that are emission
line AGN, while it significantly differs from the same relation for the radio
selected AGN. The AGN in the sample showed a strong infrared excess, at
wavelength as short as 3.5 micron, suggesting the presence of hot dust, while
they are preferentially found in underdense environment, were galaxy mergers
and interaction are likely to occur. Tasse and colleagues suggested that the X-ray
selection probes a population of AGN that have actively accreting black holes
(quasar mode), due to a galaxy merging event, in contrast to the conclusion they
had reached for the sample of radio loud objects in the XMM-LSS field. For
those objects they argued that the radio loudness in the most massive galaxies
had their AGN activity be triggered by the cooling of the hot gas that observed
in their atmospheres.
High redshift galaxies: Lyman Alpha Blobs
Weijmans, with Bower and Swinbank (both Durham) analysed deep SAURON
integral-field data of a Lyman Alpha emission halo at redshift 3.1. With these
new observations, taken in addition to an earlier shallower dataset with the
same instrument, she found that the emission halo consists of four separate,
smaller blobs. By overplotting optical data from STIS/HST and IRAC data of the
Spitzer Telescope, it was shown that the blobs have different origins, as one is
identified as a Lyman Break galaxy, one as an IRAC source and the other two
are not detected in either image. This hints to different ionisation mechanisms,
and further analysis is on-going.
Galaxy Clustering and dark matter
Quadri and colleagues have obtained the most precise measurement thus far of
the clustering of massive, red galaxies at z ~ 2-3. These galaxies have a very
large correlation length, which suggests that they occupy the most massive dark
matter halos, and that some physical process that is largely confined to the most
massive halos makes galaxies red. However, the clustering may be too strong,
since it is difficult to reconcile with models of dark matter halos. The biggest
uncertainty in this analysis comes from the use of photometric redshifts. We
have begun a new survey which will improve photometric redshift accuracy by
a factor or 3-4 and will allow us to check whether there is tension between the
observations and the models.
Galaxy bimodality
It has long been known that galaxies in the local universe follow bimodal
distributions in many of their properties, such as optical color. How this
bimodality evolved over cosmic time is an important open question.
Addressing this question requires deep multiwavelength data over large fields
and accurate photometric redshifts. A complication is that the bimodality in
optical color may seem to disappear because of a change in the dust properties
of distant galaxies, whereas the underlying bimodality of specific star formation
rates remains. Quadri and colleagues checked this by incorporating rest-frame
near-infrared color, and established that the bimodality is present to at least z ~
Huge star-forming regions in high-redshift galaxies
Van der Werf and van Starkenburg continued their study of the dynamical
properties of infrared-selected high-redshift galaxies, which led to the
completion of Van Starkenburg's PhD thesis at the end of the year. A highlight
of the work was the discovery that strongly star-forming disk galaxies at high
redshift have very high gas velocity dispersions. This leads to a greatly
increased Jeans length, which in turn provides a natural explanation for the
observation that these galaxies are dominated by a small number of huge
(several kpc size) star-forming regions. One galaxy from the sample was
revealed to have an exceptionally large gas-to-stellar mass ratio of 2.5,
underlining its nature as a galaxy that is still in formation.
Unusually compact massive galaxies at the high redshift z = 2.3
Van Dokkum (Yale, USA), Franx, and collaborators studied massive galaxies at a
redshift z = 2.3 with little apparent star formation. Earlier, Kriek and coworkers
had determined, from deep spectroscopy in the near-infrared, that about 45% of
all massive galaxies around z = 2.3 have evolved stellar populations and little or
no ongoing star formation. Van Dokkum et al used deep, high-resolution
images obtained with HST/NIC2 and with the laser guide star (LGS)-assisted
Keck/adaptive optics (AO) system to determine the sizes of these quiescent
galaxies. Considering that they have a median (stellar) mass of 170 billion solar
masses, comparable to the mass of the Milky Way, the galaxies are remarkably
small, with a median effective radius of only 0.9 kpc. With a similar mass,
galaxies in the nearby universe have typical sizes of 5 kpc, and their average
Figure 11: van Dokkum, Franx, Kriek, and collaborators studied quiescent, massive galaxies at z=2.4
with NICMOS. The resulting images are shown above. The galaxies have stellar masses of more than
1011 solar masses, but are nearly unresolved in the high quality NIC2 imaging. Each box shown is
3.8x3.8 arcsec. The solid bar indicates a length of 10 kpc. The small panels below each galaxy show
the best-fitting Sersic model (convolved with the PSF) and the residual after subtraction of the bestfitting model. The red ellipses are constructed from the best-fitting effective radii, axis ratio s, and
position angles. Note that the ellipses are significantly smaller than 10 kpc, which is the effective
diameter of typical massive elliptical galaxies in the nearby universe. Gemini GNIRS spectra from
Kriek et al. (2006) are also shown. Insets show Keck LGS/AO images of three galaxies. The typical
effective radius of the galaxies is 1 kpc, 5 times smaller than the size of nearby galaxies of the same
mass. Hence these passive galaxies have grown in size by nearly a factor of 5.
stellar densities are thus two orders of magnitude lower than those of the
galaxies at z = 2.3. These results extend earlier work on galaxies at a redshift
around z = 1.5 and confirm previous studies of galaxies at z > 2 that lacked
spectroscopic redshifts and imaging of sufficient resolution to resolve the
galaxies. These findings also demonstrate that fully assembled early-type
galaxies make up at most a tenth of the population of K-selected quiescent
galaxies at z = 2.3, and effectively rule out simple monolithic models for their
formation. The galaxies must evolve significantly after the epoch corresponding
to z = 2.3. They may do so through dry mergers or other processes, consistent
with predictions from hierarchical models.
Kriek (Princeton, USA), Franx, and collaborators studied the red sequence at a
redshift of 2.3 in a sample drawn from their near-infrared spectroscopic survey
for massive galaxies. The color distribution shows a statistically significant red
sequence, which hosts ~60% of the stellar mass at the high-mass end. The redsequence galaxies have little or no ongoing star formation, as inferred from both
emission-line diagnostics and stellar continuum shapes. Their strong Balmer
breaks and their location in the rest-frame (U-B), (B-V) plane indicate that they
are in a post-starburst phase, with typical ages of 0.5-1.0 Gyr. In order to study
the evolution of the red sequence, Kriek and coworkers compared their highredshift sample with massive galaxy samples in the Local Universe (0.02 < z <
0.045) and at modest redshifts (0.6 < z < 1.0). The rest-frame (U-B) color of a
galaxy of given mass reddens by about 0.25 mag from z = 2.3 to the present.
Kriek, Franx, and collaborators also published their spectroscopic catalogue of
galaxies around z = 2.3 observed in the rest-frame near-infrared with GNIRS on
the Gemini-South telescope.
Galaxy evolution
Van der Wel (Heidelberg, D), Franx, and collaborators analyzed the size
evolution of galaxies at fixed velocity dispersion. Using measured dispersions
and sizes, they found significant evolution to z = 1, consistent with the trend
observed out to z = 2 and beyond based on masses derived from stellar
population fits.
Damen, Franx and collaborators investigated the evolution of star formation of
massive, mid-infrared selected galaxies from redshift z ~ 1.8 to z = 0. They found
that the highest-mass galaxies have the lowest specific star formation rates and
that the average specific star formation rate increases with redshift at a rate that
is similar for all masses. The fraction of massive galaxies with quenched star
formation decreases with redshift out to z ~ 1.8, where they take up at least
~19% of the population. This number can serve as a constraint for models of
galaxy evolution.
Deep fields
Franx and collaborators published an analysis of galaxies in the Chandra Deep
Field (CDF) South. To a redshift of three, they found a tight relation between
color and size at a given mass, red galaxies being small and blue galaxies being
large. They showed that the relation is driven by stellar surface density or
inferred velocity dispersion: galaxies with a high surface density are red and
have low specific star formation rates, and galaxies with a low surface density
are blue and have high specific star formation rates. Surface density and
inferred velocity dispersion are better correlated with specific star formation rate
and color than stellar mass. This implies that stellar mass by itself is not a good
predictor of the star formation history of galaxies. In general, galaxies at a given
surface density have higher specific star formation rates at higher redshift.
Specifically, galaxies with a surface density of the order of two billion solar
masses ‘’red and dead’’ at low redshift, about half of them are forming stars at a
modest redshift of one, and almost all are forming stars at redshifts of two. This
provides more direct evidence for the late evolution of galaxies onto the red
sequence. At a given mass, the size of a galaxy evolves as 1/(1+z)0.6. Hence,
galaxies experience significant upsizing in their history. The size evolution is
fastest for the highest mass galaxies and for quiescent galaxies. The persistence
of the structural relations from redshifts of zero up to redshifts z = 2.5, and the
upsizing of galaxies imply that a relation analogous to the Hubble sequence
exists over this full redshift range, and possibly at redshifts beyond. Starforming galaxies at redshifts larger than z = 1.5 are quite different from starforming galaxies in the Local Universe, as they probably have very high gas
mass fractions, and have star formation timescales comparable to orbital times.
Wuyts (CfA, USA), Franx, and collaborators published multi-wavelength
photometry of the CDF-South. The catalogue spans wavelengths ranging from
the U band through 24 microns in the infrared.
Holt worked on the preparations for the UltraVISTA survey, a deep near-IR
survey of the COSMOS field to start in 2009, led by Franx, Dunlop (Victoria,
Canada), Fynbo (Copenhagen, Denmark) and Le Fevre (Marseille, France). Her
work included selection and testing of data reduction pipelines and
investigations into observing strategy and the exact positioning of the survey in
the field.
Williams, Quadri, Franx, and collaborators investigated the bimodal (starforming versus quiescent) galaxy population in a large near-IR selected sample
from the ultra-deep subfield of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey. They
found that the bimodality seen locally persists at least up to z = 2, and that
quiescent galaxies are more strongly clustered (and hence inhabit more massive
halos) than those which are actively forming stars.
Dark matter halo concentrations in the WMAP year 5 cosmology
Duffy (Manchester), Schaye, Kay (Manchester) and Dalla Vecchia used a
combination of three large N-body simulations to investigate the dependence of
dark matter halo concentrations on halo mass and redshift in the Wilkinson
Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 5 (WMAP5) cosmology. They found that the
median relation between concentration and mass is adequately described by a
power law for halo masses in the range 1011-1015 Msolar/h and redshifts z < 2,
regardless of whether the halo density profiles are fitted using Navarro, Frenk &
White or Einasto profiles. Compared with recent analyses of the Millennium
Simulation, which uses a value of sigma8 that is higher than allowed by
WMAP5, z = 0 halo concentrations are reduced by factors ranging from 23 per
cent at 1011 Msolar/h to 16 per cent at 1014 Msolar/h. The predicted concentrations
are much lower than infer ed from X-ray observations of groups and clusters.
The abundance of oxygen in the intergalactic medium
Figure 12: Edge-on projections of the gas temperature (left) and pressure (right) for a model disc
galaxy in a 1012 Mo halo. The image shows a snapshot of the simulation 250 Myr after winds driven
by supernovae were turned on. The image is 45 kpc/h on a side. The color coding is logarithmic in
pressure. Energy from supernovae drives a bi-conical outflow perpendicular to the disk. By the time
shown, thermal instabilities in the hot wind fluid are starting to result in the formation of dense
clouds. Many of these clouds are in fact falling in rather than flowing out. The figure was taken from
Dalla Vecchia & Schaye (2008).
Abundances in the InterGalactic Medium
Aguirre, Dow-Hygelund (both UCSC, USA), Schaye, and Theuns (Durham, UK)
have studied the abundance of oxygen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by
analyzing O VI, C IV, Si IV, and H I pixel optical depths derived from a set of
high-quality VLT and Keck spectra of 17 quasars at redshifts 2.1 < z < 3.6.
Comparing ratios of oxygen and carbon optical depths to those in realistic,
synthetic spectra drawn from a hydrodynamical simulation and comparing to
existing constraints on [Si/C], they were able to place strong constraints on the
ultraviolet background (UVB) model using weak priors on allowed values of
[Si/O]: for example, a quasar-only background yields [Si/O] ~ 1.4, which is
highly inconsistent with the [Si/O] ~ 0 expected from nucleosynthetic yields and
with observations of metal-poor stars. Assuming a fiducial quasar+galaxy UVB
consistent with these constraints yielded the primary result that [O/C] = 0.66.
Subdividing the sample revealed no evidence for evolution, but low and high HI
optical depth samples were inconsistent, suggesting either density dependence
of [O/C] or-more likely-prevalence of collisionally ionized gas at high density.
The ultraviolet luminosity fuction a very high redshifts
Bouwens (Santa Cruz, USA), Franx, and collaborators analyzed the observations
of very high redshift galaxies in deep HST-imaging data. They found eight z =
7.3 dropouts in their search fields, but no z = 9 J-dropout candidates. A careful
consideration of a wide variety of different contaminants suggested an overall
contamination level of just 12% for their z-dropout selection. They performed
detailed simulations to accurately estimate the selection volumes, and derived
constraints on the ultraviolet luminosity functions at both z = 7 and z = 9. Their
search results for z = 9 J-dropouts set a one-sigma lower limit on M(UV) of -19.6
mag, 1.4 mag fainter than their best-fit value at redshift z = 4. This suggests that
the ultraviolet luminosity function has evolved substantially over this time
period. In fact, no-evolution is ruled out verry high confidence levels.
Gravitational lensing studies
Hoekstra continued his work on several large imaging surveys, carried out with
the Canadian-French-Hawaiian Telescope (CFHT). His work on the multiwavelength study of 50 massive clusters, the Canadian Cluster Comparison
Project is nearing completion. This project involves a careful comparison of
masses derived from a weak gravitational lensing analysis to those derived from
X-ray and radio observations. Weak lensing masses have been derived, and
Mahdavi (San Francisco, USA) is finalizing the determination of hydrostatic Xray masses. Once completed, this will be the largest study of its kind. Earlier
results have already attracted much attention from the cluster community and
have helped improve constraints on cosmological parameters.
The study of large scale structure through weak gravitational lensing forms
another important component of Hoekstra's research. The main survey used to
this end is the CFHT Legacy Survey, which involves a large number of
collaborators across the globe. The acquisition of data is now complete and a
full scale analysis of the data is underway. The lensing group in Leiden is
providing a large effort. Current work focusses on improving the corrections for
observational distortions and the determination of adequate photometric
The second generation Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2) is a large, shallow
imaging survey. The weak lensing analysis of these data forms the basis of the
van Uitert's PhD thesis. Scientific aims include the measurement of cosmological
parameters using cluster counts and the study of dark matter halos using weak
gravitational lensing.
7. Models and simulations
Radiative transfer algorithms
Icke formulated Ritzerveld's SimpleX algorithm for radiative transfer on a
Voronoi-Delaunay grid as a stationary Markov process. In this algorithm,
parcels of radiation are shuttled along lines connecting points (nodes) that
represent the scattering medium. By choosing suitable connections between
sources and boundary points, this problem can be cast into the form of a
classical Markov process. Inversion of the Markov matrix then yields the
stationary solution of the corresponding radiative transfer problem. By making
judicious use of the sparseness of the matrix, this method was made to run
extremely fast.
Kruip investigated and quantified error properties of Ritzerveld's SimpleX
radiative transfer method. Analytical descriptions of the error-generating
phenomena due to anisotropies in the irregular grid, intrinsic to the SimpleX
algorithm, have been verified by means of numerical simulations. Kruip showed
that unphysical behaviour can be corrected with a computationally cheap
weighting scheme. Furthermore, several improvements of the method in both
accuracy and efficiency have been made. Most notably, a means of controlling
Figure 13: Markov solution of a radiative test problem of a point source in a homogeneous
atmosphere, using 1000 points representing the gas.
the amount of diffusion of the radiative transfer has been developed. The work
presented gives users of SimpleX a direct handle on the area of applicability of
the method and helps assess the accuracy of obtained results.
Radiative transfer on parallel, dynamic, unstructured grids
Paardekooper extended Ritzerveld's SimpleX method for use on distributed
memory architectures. This resulted in both a faster method and, more
importantly, the opportunity to do larger simulations that are no longer limited
by the available memory on one node.
Furthermore, Paardekooper modified the SimpleX code to work on a dynamic
grid, instead of the static grid that was used before. Updating the grid
significantly reduces the numerical scatter that was inherent to the method.
Results of test problems show a better resemblance to the analytical solution (if
available) and the results of other, more conventional radiative transfer
methods, while the advantages of SimpleX, being the high computational speed
and the independence on the number of sources thereof, remain.
Figure 14: The reionisation of a realistic cosmological density field at different times and the
corresponding grid. The image shows the neutral fraction, cut through the middle of the box (zplane) at t = 0.05 Myr (left), t = 0.2 Myr (middle) and t = 0.4 Myr (right). The grid is updated
according to the changing local optical depth.
TRAPHIC - radiative transfer for SPH simulations
Pawlik and Schaye finished developing TRAPHIC, a novel radiative transfer
scheme for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. TRAPHIC is
designed for use in simulations exhibiting a wide dynamic range in physical
length-scales and containing a large number of light sources. It is adaptive both
in space and in angle and can be employed for application on distributed
memory machines. The commonly encountered computationally expensive
scaling with the number of light sources in the simulation is avoided by
introducing a source merging procedure. The (time-dependent) radiative
transfer equation is solved by tracing individual photon packets in an explicitly
photon-conserving manner directly on the unstructured grid traced out by the
set of SPH particles. To accomplish directed transport of radiation despite the
irregular spatial distribution of the SPH particles, photons are guided inside
cones. They presented and tested a parallel numerical implementation of
TRAPHIC in the SPH code GADGET-2, specified for the transport of
monochromatic hydrogen-ionizing radiation. The results of the tests were in
excellent agreement with both analytic solutions and results obtained with other
state-of-the-art radiative transfer codes.
Numerical Simulations of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium
Bertone (UCSC, USA), Schaye, and Dolag (MPA, Heidelberg, Germany)
reviewed the current predictions of numerical simulations for the origin and
observability of the warm hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), the diffuse gas
that contains up to 50 per cent of the baryons at z = 0. During structure
formation, gravitational accretion shocks emerging from collapsing regions
gradually heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) to temperatures in the range of a
hundred thousand to ten million Kelvin. The WHIM is predicted to radiate most
of its energy in the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray bands and to contribute a
significant fraction of the soft X-ray background emission. While O VI and C IV
Absorption systems arising in the cooler fraction of the WHIM with
temperatures of a few hundred thousand Kelvin are seen in FUSE and Hubble
Space Telescope observations, models agree that current X-ray telescopes such
as Chandra and XMM-Newton do not have enough sensitivity to detect the
hotter WHIM. However, future missions such as Constellation-X and XEUS
might be able to detect both emission lines and absorption systems from highly
ionised atoms such as O VII, O VIII and Fe XVII.
Simulating galactic outflows with kinetic supernova feedback
Feedback from star formation is thought to play a key role in the formation and
evolution of galaxies, but its implementation in cosmological simulations is
currently hampered by a lack of numerical resolution. Dalla Vecchia and Schaye
presented and tested a subgrid recipe to model feedback from massive stars in
cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The energy is
distributed in kinetic form among the gas particles surrounding recently formed
stars. They studied the impact of the feedback using a suite of high-resolution
simulations of isolated disk galaxies embedded in dark haloes with total mass
1010 and 1012 Msolar/h. They focused in particular on the effect of pressure forces
on wind particles within the disk, which they turned off temporarily in some of
their runs to mimic a recipe that has been widely used in the literature. They
found that this popular recipe gives dramatically different results because (ram)
pressure forces on expanding superbubbles determine both the structure of the
disc and the development of large-scale outflows. Pressure forces exerted by
expanding superbubbles puff up the disk, giving the dwarf galaxy an
irregular morphology and creating a galactic fountain in the massive galaxy.
Hydrodynamic drag within the disk results in a strong increase in the effective
mass loading of the wind for the dwarf galaxy, but quenches much of the
outflow in the case of the high-mass galaxy.
8. Projects and instrumentation
8.1. Projects
KiDS and CFHTLS: studying dark matter with light rays
Weak gravitational lensing can be used to study the mass distribution around
galaxies, as well as on larger scales. Kuijken is the Prime Investigator (PI) of the
KiDS project, which was conceived with this in mind, and is a large
collaboration of nine institutes in Europe. The KiDS project will map 1500
square degrees of sky in good seeing conditions from Paranal with OmegaCAM
on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). Unfortunately, the telescope construction
Figure 15 The Kilo-Degree Survey, to be carried out with OmegaCAM as soon as it can be installed
on the VLT Survey Telescope, and with VISTA. The survey is divided in two regions, of total area
1500 square degrees, which will each be covered in 9 bands, from u to K. The KIDS areas have
already been the target of extensive spectroscopic redshift surveys, using 2DF on the AAT (both
regions, fat dots) and Sloan (KIDS-N, small dots).
A larger area, wide-i, will be covered in i band only, in order to search for high redshift quasars in
combination with the UKIDSS near-IR survey.
has been long delayed, with start of operations in 2009 considered likely at the
time of writing. During 2008 preparations for KiDS continued in algorithm
development for multi-colour photometry and for weak lensing measurement.
Since 2007 the KiDS project has benefited from Leiden's participation in a
European training network, ‘DUEL’, built around the scientific challenges in
determining the cosmological model with weak lensing measurements. The
lensing group in Leiden now consists of postdocs Schrabback and Hildebrandt,
PhD students Smit, Welander and van Uitert, and new faculty member
Hoekstra, as well as several MSc students. A major development was the
involvement in the analysis of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy
Survey (CFHTLS), currently the most powerful data set for weak lensing
measurements. THe CFHTLS comprises 170 square degrees of sky imaged in
five bands. Subsets of the survey have already been used in weak lensing
studies, also under the lead of Hoekstra.
After an independent reduction of 37 square degrees of CFHTLS-Wide data by
Erben (Bonn, Germany), Hildebrandt, Schrabback, and collaborators, the efforts
of the different teams were joint in the creation of the 'CFHTLS Systematics
Collaboration' in April 2008, with local members Kuijken, Hoekstra,
Hildebrandt, Schrabback, Smit, van Uitert, and Velander. This team of
European and Canadian scientists currently conducts a thorough weak lensing
analysis of the complete CFHTLS-Wide data, which includes careful corrections
for residual systematics and full utilization of the available photometric redshift
(photo-z) information. This analysis will enable the full scientific exploitation of
the survey and is expected to both yield substantial new insight into the relation
of luminous and dark matter, and place tight constraints on cosmological
As part of the CFHTLS-Wide analysis, Schrabback developed a new tool for the
interpolation of the image point-spread function using principal component
analysis. This tool has also been successfully applied to the HST COSMOS data,
where it efficiently removes systematics present in earlier studies, allowing for a
clean measurement of the cosmological lensing signal.
The photo-z catalogues for the CFHTLS-Wide, which are also used by the
'Systematics Collaboration', were provided by Hildebrandt. He compared these
photo-z's to other catalogues available for the CFHTLS-Wide in collaboration
with Coupon (Paris) in order to understand the limitations and improve the
accuracy of the current dataset. This photo-z knowledge is also used on the
Deep part of the CFHTLS where Hildebrandt studied the clustering of Lymanbreak galaxies at redshifts z = 3-5 constraining their relationship to the
underlying dark matter field.
The SAURON project
De Zeeuw, van den Bosch and Weijmans are members or associates of the
SAURON team that has built a panoramic integral-field spectrograph for the
4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma, in a collaboration which involves
groups in Lyon (Bacon) and Oxford (Davies). SAURON was funded in part by a
grant from NWO to de Zeeuw, and was built at Observatoire de Lyon.
SAURON was used to measure the kinematics and linestrength distributions for
a representative sample of 72 nearby early-type galaxies (ellipticals, lenticulars,
and Sa bulges, in clusters and in the field). The entire survey was completed in
2003, and since then several follow-up projects were carried out on specific
targets. In parallel with the data taking, the team developed a number of tools
that are key to analyse all the resulting maps.
The ATLAS 3D Project
The Atlas 3D Survey (PIs: McDermid (Gemini), Emsellem (Lyon), Cappellari
and Krajnovic (Oxford)) of a complete, volume-limited sample of early-type
galaxies using the integral-field spectrograph SAURON on the WHT, continues
to gather momentum. 2008 saw the completion of the four observing runs and
finalisation of the data reduction. The project also launched an observational
campaign to measure molecular and neutral gas components of these galaxies
using the IRAM 30m telescope (PI Combes, Paris) at Pico Veleta, Spain and the
Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (PI Morganti, ASTRON) at Dwingeloo,
the Netherlands. Together with complementary imaging data from the Sloan
Digital Sky Survey and Isaac Newton Telescope, and archival data from
Chandra, GALEX and Spitzer, this project aims to provide a broad but detailed
view of our local early-type galaxy population, creating a local benchmark for
studies of galaxy formation and evolution.
This survey obtained Large Program status at the WHT, and as such constitutes
a legacy survey for the WHT community. Reduced data and derived products
will be made publicly available 12 months after the final data are taken, creating
the world's largest available database of fully-calibrated integral-field
spectroscopic data. The collaboration includes Leiden co-investigators de
Zeeuw, van den Bosch and Weijmans, as well as additional international
8.2 Facilities
The eSMA
The eSMA ("expanded SMA") combines the Smithsionan Millimeter Array
(SMA), the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and the Caltech
SubmillimeterObservatory (CSO) into a single facility, providing greater
sensitivity and spatial resolution owing to the increased collecting area at the
longest baselines. Until the early science observing with the Atacama Large
Millimeter Array (ALMA), expected to occur in 2011), the eSMA will be the
facility with the highest angular resolution obtainable at the frequency 345 GHz
(0.8 mm wavelength). The gain in sensitivity and resolution will bring new
insights in a variety of fields, such as protoplanetary disks and transition disks,
high-mass star formation, solar system bodies, nuclei of nearby and high-z
galaxies. Progress towards making the eSMA into a working interferometer
involved Bottinelli, Tilanus (JCMT, Hawaii, USA), van Langevelde, Hogerheijde,
and van Dishoeck and many colleagues from SMA and CSO. It included (i) new
345-GHz receivers installed at the JCMT and CSO; (ii) numerous tests performed
for receiver, correlator and baseline calibrations in order to determine the effects
arising from the differences between the three types of antennas; (iii) first fringes
and images at 345 GHz. The scientific results obtained during the initial science
verification observations at 260 GHz included the first absorption measurement
of the C/CO ratio in a galaxy at a redshift z = 0.89 and imaging of the
vibrationally excited HCN line towards IRC+10216.
ALLEGRO: the ALMA Regional Center node in the Netherlands
The past year saw significant progress in the construction of he Atacama Large
Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). In Chile, the construction of the
Operations Support Facilities (OSF) just outside San Pedro de Atacama at 2900
m, and the building at the Array Operations Site (AOS) on the 5000 m high
Llano de Chajnantor were completed. The first segments of the correlator were
installed at the AOS, and the first ALMA antenna was delivered by industry to
the project and has started commissioning at the OSF. At Leiden Observatory,
the ALMA Regional Center node (Allegro, ALMA Local Expertise Group) took
( and the hiring of its first postdoc, Frieswijk
(stationed at the Kapteyn Institute, Groningen). One of Frieswijk's activities is
the exploitation of the enhanced SMA (the link-up of the Submillimeter Array
with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech Submillimeter
Observatory) as a testbed for future ALMA observations. The next several years
will see a significant expansion of the Allegro activities in Leiden.
An important goal driving the development of the Low-Frequency Array
(LOFAR) since its inception is the exploration of the low-frequency radio sky by
means of a series of unique surveys. Low-frequency radio telescopes are ideally
suited for carrying out large-sky surveys, because of their huge instantaneous
fields of view and the all-sky nature of their calibration. Four topics in particular
have been identified for the proposed surveys. Three of these involve
fundamental areas of astrophysics for which LOFAR is likely to make
substantial contributions.
These are: (i) Formation of massive galaxies, clusters and black holes using z ~ 6
radio galaxies as probes, (ii) Intercluster magnetic fields using diffuse radio
emission in galaxy clusters as probes, (iii) Star formation processes in the early
Universe using starburst galaxies as probes.
Because LOFAR is the first radio synoptic telescope that will open up a new
observational spectral window, the fourth topic is: (iv) Exploration of new
parameter space for serendipitous discovery.
In 2008, LOFAR underwent an important transition from its design phase to the
rollout of the actual station and central processing hardware. All tenders for
station hardware have been closed and orders for the various components were
placed with industry. Groundwork in the LOFAR core has been underway
since mid-July in preparation for the placement of the first stations. Similarly,
vendors for the central processing (CEP) systems including the wide-area
network (WAN) equipment and post-processing cluster have been selected and
hardware has started to arrive. Most spectacularly, the project also completed
the upgrade of the LOFAR correlator to a BG/P supercomputer over the
Despite the activity surrounding the delivery of the new hardware,
development and commissioning work on the LOFAR control software and
science pipelines has continued unabated.
The Leiden Survey Key Project Team (Röttgering, Snellen, Miley, Mohan,
Pandey, Omar, Usov, van Bemmel, and Intema) has continued to push ahead
with their pipeline to produce high-quality all-sky mosaics and catalogues of
extracted source properties. First versions of their source extraction software
were completed and successfully integrated into an Astro-WISE pipeline
framework. Prototypes for tools to create simulated radio sky images based on
the Global-Sky-Model database and make wide-field image mosaics have also
been produced. The Surveys KSP team has also been studying the effects of the
ionosphere on LOFAR observations. A first ionospheric model (based on
Intema's PhD work - see below) has been developed and is in the process of
being incorporated into the standard LOFAR software pipeline.
Figure 15: Example of an ionospheric phase screen model fit. The color map represents an
ionospheric phase screen at 200 km altitude that was fitted to the phase solutions of eight calibrator
sources at time-interval n = 206 of 10 seconds during a VLSS observing run of the 74 MHz VLA in
BnA-configuration. The axes represent angular distances as seen from the center of the Earth,
relative to the phase screen’s pierce point along the line-of-sight from array center to pointing center,
with East- and Northward offsets being positive. The overall phase gradient (depicted in the
bottom-left corner) was removed to make the higher order terms more clearly visible. The collection
of pierce points from all array antennas to all peeling sources are depicted as small circles., The color
in the circle represents the measured peeling phase. The size of the circle scales with the magnitude
of the estimated phase residual after model correction.
Ionospheric phase errors are one of the most limiting factors for existing and
new high-resolution, low-frequency radio telescopes like LOFAR, LWA, EVLA
and GMRT. Intema developed, in collaboration with van der Tol (Delft, NL),
Cotton (Charlottesville, USA), Cohen (NRL, USA), van Bemmel and Röttgering
(Leiden), a new calibration method for the suppression of direction-dependent
ionospheric phase errors in wide-field, low-frequency (below ~300 MHz) radio
interferometric observations. The method measures a discrete number of
ionospheric phase errors by calibrating on individual bright sources in the fieldof-view (peeling technique). It interpolates the calibration results towards
arbitrary viewing directions by fitting a quasi-physical ionospheric model.
Initial tests on several VLA 74 MHz data sets demonstrated a significant
improvement in image quality as compared to the previously existing selfcalibration and field-based calibration techniques. A reduction of the sidelobe
noise by ten to forty per cent, combined with an increase in source peak flux by
ten to twentifive per cent results in a dynamic range improvement by fifty to a
hundred per cent. Furthermore, reduction of the sidelobe noise significantly
reduces the number of false source detection at the five-sigma level.
8.3 Instrumentation
MATISSE: mid-infrared VLTI spectrometry
Jaffe is the Dutch PI for the mid-infrared, spectro-interferometric instrument
(MATISSE), which has been accepted as a 2nd generation VLTI instrument by
ESO. The Cold Optical Bench for MATISSE will be built in Dwingeloo. Jaffe is
on the Science Team and the Instrument team with special responsibility for
real-time data processing and polarization characterisation. MATISSE should be
mounted on the VLT at Paranal (Chile) in 2014.
The Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a 2nd generation instrument
designed for use on the VLT. It features Wide-Field, Adaptive Optics Assisted
Integral Field Spectroscopy. MUSE is currently in its final design phase and its
team is preparing for a Final Design Review in early 2009. The MUSE
consortium currently comprises seven institutes, led by the Observatory of
Lyon. The Dutch national research school (Toponderzoekschool) NOVA is,
represented by Leiden Observatory, primarily involved in the interface of MUSE
and its Adaptive Optics system (GALACSI), the preparation for scientific
operation (ETC and Operation, Calibration of MUSE) and the MUSE observation
template effort.
The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator (ASSIST) is the test
system for the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) and it will allow verification
of the operation of the various hardware and software systems for the AOF
without the need for burdensome on-the-sky testing. ASSIST, designed by
Deep, Hallibert, Jolissaint, Kendrew, Stuik and Wiegers is preparing for the
Final Design Review, expected to take place in March 2009.
MICADO: a near-IR wide-field imager for the ELT
As Dutch PI for the MCAO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations (MICADO),
Kuijken was involved in one of the ESO Extremely Large Telescope (ELT)
instrument-design studies. The instrument is meant to provide diffractionlimited imaging behind the multi-conjugate adaptive-optics focus of the ELT,
over a wide field of between 30 and 60 arcsec. It operates at near-IR
wavelengths, from 0.8 to 2.5 micron.
Franx, Kuijken and Tolstoy (Groningen. NL) contributed to the science case for
the instrument, and Droste and Navarro (Dwingeloo, NL) took part in the
design work, specifically the mechanical and cryogenic aspects. The instrument
is of interest as a potential first-light instrument, with interesting applications in
high-precision astrometry (dynamics of the galactic center and globular clusters,
and dwarf spheroidal galaxies), resolved stellar population studies and imaging
of high-redsift galaxies. The study is due to report to ESO at the end of 2009.
METIS: Instrumentation for the ELT
The ELT, an 42m optical/infrared telescope, will be ESO's most challenging
project for the next decade. Several conceptual (phase A) studies for scientific
instruments for the ELT have started in 2008. Brandl is the Principal Investigator
for METIS, the Mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph. The Dutch-led
project is performed by an international consortium, including institutes in
Germany, France, Belgium and the UK. The work includes contributions from
Molster, Stuik and Kendrew in Leiden and from many people at ASTRON. For
more information see
8.4 Space
The Leiden Gaia group, led by Brown, is involved in the preparations for the
data processing for ESA's Gaia mission. Scheduled for launch in 2011, Gaia aims
at providing a stereoscopic census of the Milky Way galaxy by measuring highly
accurate astrometry (positions, parallaxes and proper motions), photometry and
radial velocities for 1 billion stars and other objects to 20th magnitude. The
group's main activities in 2008 were:
Brown, Busso, and Marrese continued their work on the development of the
data processing software for the photometric instrument of Gaia in collaboration
with groups in Italy (Rome, Teramo), the UK (Cambridge), and Spain
(Barcelona). The photometric data for Gaia will be collected through low
dispersion spectrophotometry with prisms and the group in Leiden is
responsible for developing the algorithms that extract the spectra from the raw
data. Busso and Marrese developed a first version of the code that evaluates the
crowding conditions in dense stellar fields and they also further developed the
corresponding code that takes care of the disentangling of the spectra. In
addition modules for isolated stars were developed. The software was delivered
to the group in Cambridge where everything will be integrated into the
photometric processing pipeline for testing on simulated data.
Marrese and Brown developed a robust description of the shape of the prism
spectra which can be used as colour-like parameters in the Gaia data processing.
These are important especially for correctly handling the chromaticity effects in
the astrometry.
A major concern for the Gaia mission is the effect of radiation damage to the
CCDs (due to Solar wind and cosmic ray protons). The consequence will be an
increased level of charge transfer inefficiency which will cause a loss of signal as
well as a distortion of the image. The latter will cause systematic errors in the
astrometry if not carefully controlled. In this context Prod'homme is doing his
PhD research on the theoretical and empirical modelling of radiation damage
effects. During 2008 he completed the development of a platform called CEMGA
(CTI Effects Model for Gaia) which reproduces in detail the CCD operations for
Gaia. This platform can handle a variety of models, of which two are already
implemented, a fast analytical model and a very detailed Monte Carlo model.
The results of the models have been validated against experimental data from
real Gaia CCDs, measured by EADS-Astrium.
In order for Gaia to reach its astrometric accuracy goals the highest quality for
the attitude knowledge of the spacecraft is needed. It is thus important to
incorporate a complete physical understanding of the dynamics of a
continuously rotating space platform into the attitude modelling for Gaia. In
this context Risquez is developing detailed simulations of Gaia's attitude,
incorporating all of the relevant physical effects. This model is developed in
collaboration with van Leeuwen and Keil (Cambridge, UK). Risquez has
finished the module that simulates the expected torque acting on the Gaia
satellite due to solar photons.
Figure 16: The top right image is a simulation of a crowded stellar field as observed by the
photometric instruments on board the Gaia spacecraft (left). These overlapping dispersed images
have to be disentangled into one dimensional Blue Photometer (BP) and Red Photometer (RP)
spectra. Simulated versions of the latter are shown in the bottom right image. The two panels show
BP (left) and RP (right) spectra for a range of main sequence stars (O5 to M5). From these spectra all
sources observed by Gaia can be classified and parametrized in terms of astrophysical parameters.
Wavelength calibration for JWST-MIRI
The Mid InfrarRed Instrument (MIRI) will provide the James Webb Space
Telescope(JWST) with medium (R ~ 3000) resolution integral field unit (IFU)
spectroscopic capabilities in the range from 5 micron to 28 microns. A good
calibration of the instrument on the ground is essential to ensure high quality
data early after launch. Martinez-Galarza, together with Kendrew and Brandl,
has been working on the wavelength calibration and resolving power of the
instrument using data obtained during tests at the Rutherford Appleton Labs.
The results show a good agreement with the model predictions. In addition,
software tools for spectral extraction have been also developed by Lahuis
(SRON) and Martinez-Galarza.
9. Raymond and Beverly Sackler
The work in the Sackler laboratory for Astrophysics provides information
needed to interpret and guide astronomical observations and as input for
astrochemical models. In 2008, 'water in space' has been a research focus.
The making of water
Even though water is the main constituent in interstellar icy mantles, its
chemical origin is not well understood. The team around SURFRESIDE (Ioppolo,
Romanzin and Cuppen) succeeded in studying hydrogenation reactions of
oxygen ice. For this purpose O2 ice is bombarded by H or D atoms under ultra-
high vacuum conditions at astronomically relevant temperatures ranging from
12 to 28 K, close to the desorption temperature of O2. With both spectroscopic
and mass spectrometric methods it was possible to show that O2 efficiently
converts into H2O via hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, with a rate that is surprisingly
temperature independent. It should therefore be considered as a relevant
channel for interstellar water ice formation.
Reactions with water
The team around CESSS (Bouwman, Allamandola, Paardekooper, and Cuppen)
was able to study the photo physical and photo chemical processed induced by
VUV irradiation of PAHs trapped in water ice. Using an incoherent broad band
direct absorption optical technique, spectroscopic information was obtained that
reflects a varied and rich chemistry in water ice at astronomically relevant
temperatures. This is demonstrated in the figure where a typical baseline
corrected spectrum is shown after 1200 seconds of VUV irradiation of a 1:10000
diluted pyrene: H2O ice mixture at 10 K. The negative signals indicate
destruction (the pyrene starts reacting away), the positive signals show the
reactants. These show that also the water is involved in the reaction scheme.
The dissociation and desorption of water
At the high densities and low temperatures prevalent during most stages of star
formation, freeze-out of gas-phase molecules onto interstellar dust particles is
fast and hence no gas is exspected at detectable levels toward such objects. Yet
astronomical observations of star forming regions have revealed significant
abundances of cold molecular gas. This can only be understood in the light of an
efficient non-thermal ice desorption mechanism. Employing the ultra-high
vacuum set-up CRYOPAD Oberg has experimentally simulated the VUV
induced photodesorption of the most abundant ices observed in space: CO, CO2
and particularly H2O. These ices have all high photodesorption yields around
10-3 per VUV photon. The photodesorption mechanisms were constrained
through extensive parameter searches within the experimental set-up and were
found to be fundamentally different for CO on one hand and CO2 and H2O on
the other. The latter exhibit dissociation (eg. OH + H) and photodesorption
behaviour that is in full agreement with the PAH chemistry observed in the ice.
The understood dependencies of these yields on physical conditions allow for
the incorporation of photodesorption into astrochemical models. Such models
have now revealed that photodesorption plays a large role in determining the
gas phase abundances of different molecules in cold and dense regions, such as
protostellar envelopes and protoplanetary disks.
Photodesorption of water ice: a molecular dynamics study
Absorption of UV radiation by water ice may lead to dissociation and
desorption of the ice molecules, a process thought to be important in the gasgrain chemistry of clouds and disks. Andersson and van Dishoeck computed
photodesorption efficiencies of amorphous water ice using a classical molecular
dynamics method and elucidated the mechanisms by which desorption occurs.
The probability for H2O desorption per absorbed UV photon is found to be 0.5-1
per cent in the top three monolayers, then decreases to 0.03 per cent in the next
two monolayers, and is negligible deeper into the ice. The main H2O removal
mechanism is through separate desorption of H and OH fragments. The
probability of any removal of H2O per incident photon is estimated to be about
0.04 per cent, within a factor of two of values found by Oberg and colleagues in
laboratory experiments.
Photodissociation and small carbonaceous molecules in PDRs
Van Dishoeck and van Hemert (ULeiden Chemistry Dept.) have carried out ab
initio quantum-chemical calculations of the vertical excitation energies,
transition dipole moments and oscillator strengths for a number of
astrophysically relevant carbonaceous molecules: C3, C4, C2H, l- and c-C3H, land c-C3H2, HC3H, l-C4H and l-C5H. They used these data to calculate
photodissociation rates in the unattenuated interstellar radiation field by
assuming that all absorptions above the dissociation limit lead to dissociation.
The resulting rates are large, typically an order of magnitude more rapid than
found for other small hydrides. This implies that the small carbonaceous
molecules observed in photon-dominated regions most likely result from
fragmentation of larger molecules rather than synthesis from smaller species.
Molecule formation on interstellar grains
Many important molecules such as H2, H2O and CH3OH do not have efficient
gas phase formation routes under the cold, dilute conditions of the interstellar
medium. Instead, they form on the surfaces of dust. The chemical networks
which include the intermediate species as well as the role of the surface are still
unclear in most cases. Laboratory experiments are a powerful way to explore the
chemical reactions that can lead to abundant interstellar molecules in a welldefined and controllable environment. However, the results of these
experiments are not always straightforward to interpret and they are performed
under pressures and fluxes which are several orders of magnitude away from
interstellar conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are a tool to both help with the
interpretation by disentangling different formation mechanisms and with the
extrapolation to interstellar conditions. Cuppen succesfully such simulations to
model the formation of H2, H2O and CH3OH over a range of different
temperatures and pressures, both under laboratory and interstellar conditions.
She found a good example to be the formation of H2 in relatively warm regions
like PDRs and shocks. Monte Carlo simulations showed that only by the
introduction of a mechanism that was not considered before, experimental
results from two different laboratories could be explained. This has implications
for H2 in PDRs and shocks, since this new mechanism increases the regime in
which H2 is formed.
and social events
and social events
3.1. Education
3.1.1. Organisation
Education and training of students is a major priority of Leiden Observatory. In
2007, 27 freshmen started their studies in astronomy., The total number of
students registered at the Observatory was 127, including Bachelors, Masters,
and Old-style Doctoral Students. Several students from Delft Technical
University (from the applied physics department) took courses of the Leiden
astronomy curriculum as part of the requirements for a minor in astronomy.
Twelve students passed their propedeutical exam, and 7 students took their BSc
Three staff members acted (part-time) as study advisers. Hogerheijde took over
from Snellen as the freshman-student adviser. Snellen remained as coordinator
of the various activities directed at secondary school students, such as preuniversity college and LappTop courses, open days, guest lectures etc. Linnartz
was study adviser for the remainder of the Bachelor programme, while
Röttgering acted as master-programme study advisor. Oosthoek was hired as a
badly needed education coordinator to take care of the daily running of tasks.
In addition to regular counseling by the student advisor, incoming students
were assigned to small groups meeting at regular intervals with a staff mentor
(Schaye and Linnartz) and a student mentor. In the tutor program, the majority
of physics and astronomy freshman students are provided, on a voluntary but
regular basis, with coaching by senior students.
As part of the introductory astronomy course, students were taken to the Artis
Planetarium in Amsterdam for a lesson in coordinate systems, time and
constellations in the sky (Hoekstra). As part of the second-year training in
practical astronomy, 12 honors students were offered the opportunity to take
part in a specially arranged observing trip to the Isaac-Newton-Telescope on La
Palma, Canary Islands (Snellen, Le Poole).
The parallel course Analysis 3NA, provided by the mathematics department at
the specific request of both astronomy and physics, was very successful. In this
course, (astro)physical applications of the mathematical tools iare emphassized
more than in the regular course which emphasizes mathemetical rigour. Unlike
the regular course Analysis 3, this parallel course does not prepare for Analysis
At the end of the year, there were 5 old-style 'doctoraal' students and 20 master
students, nine of them from outside The Netherlands. In 2008, 9 students began
their master study, whereas 9 students obtained their master's degree and 7
students their 'doctoraal' degree.
All master students now have their
individually tailored study plan.
The astronomy curriculum is monitored by the ‘Opleidingscommissie’
(education committee), which advises the Director of Education on all relevant
matters, and which was chaired by Van der Werf. Other members are Icke,
Schaye, Intema and Damen, as well as de Valk, van den Broek, Straatman,
Langelaan and Pijloo representing the student body. Under the authority of the
Opleidingscomissie, the lecture course monitoring system (SRS) was continued.
In this system, students provide feedback to lecturers during and after the
The quality of curriculum and exams is guarded by the ‘Examencommissie’
(Exam Committee) chaired by Lub and with Israel, Aarts (physics), Snellen and
Van der Werf as members.
Admission to the master-curriculum for students without a BSc in astronomy
from a Netherlands university requires a recommendation by the
Toelatingscommissie (admissions committee) chaired by Schaye and having
Israel and Linnartz as members.
3.2. Degrees awarded in 2008
3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees
A total of seven graduate students successfully defended their Ph.D.
theses in 2008 and were duly awarded their Ph. D. degree: They are:
Cyril Tasse
Titel thesis:
Host galaxies and environment of active galactic
George Miley
Peter Katgert
Dominic Schnitzeler
Titel thesis:
Faraday tomography of the galactic ISM with the
George Miley, Get de Bruin
Paul van der Werf
Lottie van Starkeburg
Titel thesis:
Dynamics of high redshift disk galaxies
Marijn Franx
Paul van der Werf
Remco van den Bosch
Titel thesis:
Giant elliptical galaxies
Tim de Zeeuw
Christian Brinch
Titel thesis:
The evolving velocity field around protostarts
Ewine van Dischoeck
Michiel Hogerheijde
Tim van Kempen
Titel thesis:
Probing Protostars
Ewine van Dischoeck
Michiel Hogerheijde
Simon Albrecht
Titel thesis:
Stars and planets at high spatial and spectral
Andreas Quirrenbach
Ignas Snellen
3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s)
The following 16 students were awarded Master’s/Doctoral degrees in 2008:
Susan Brown
Patrick Herfst
Pascal Baars
Freeke van de Voort
Marten Hamelink
Reinier Tan
George van Hal
Hester Schouten
Martijn van Riet
Silvia Toonen
Akila Jeeson Daniel
Hugo Zeballos Pintos
Stephanie Prianto Rusli
Liviu Stirbat
Tri Astraatmadja
Evelyn Caris alias Reynders
Feb 26
Feb 27
Mar 25
Mar 25
Mar 25
Mar 25
June 24
June 24
Aug 26
Aug 26
Aug 26
Aug 26
Aug 26
Aug 26
Aug 26
Nov 25
Present Position
Ortec Logistics
Ortec Finance
Ph.D. Leiden Observatory
Trainee Rijksoverheid
Gemeente Den Haag Finance/Control
Ph.D. Radboud U., Nijmegen
Ph.D. Munchen, Germany
Returned to Chile
Ph. D. Munchen, Germany
Assistant, EU Parliament, Brussels
Ph. D. Univ. of Amsterdam
Ph. D. Swinburn U, Melbourne,
3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees
A total of 7 students obtained their Bachelor's degree:
Ilja Rosenbrand
Wouter Schrier
Aleksandar Shulevski
Sander de Kievit
Marcel van Daalen
Renske Smit
Arjon Severijnen
Mar 13
Mar 28
June 17
July 1
July 13
September 4
December 12
3.3 Courses and teaching
3.3.1. Courses tought by Observatory curriculum staff
2008 - 2009
Elementary courses:
Course title
Introduction astrophysics
Astronomy lab 1
Modern astronomical research
Astronomy lab 2
Observational techniques 1
Radiative processes
Bachelor research project
Introduction observatory
F.P. Israel
P.P. van der Werf
A.C.A. Brown
H.V.J. Linnartz
I. Snellen
R.S. Le Poole
M.R. Hogerheijde
W.J. Jaffe
E.R. Deul
Advanced Courses (Keuzevakken; semesters 7, 8, 9, 10):
Stellar structure and evolution
Active galaxy nuclei
Detection of Light
Spacebased Astronomy
Stellar Dynamics
Computational Dynamics
Adaptive Optics
J. Lub
E. F. van Dishoeck
H.J.A. Röttgering
V. Icke
B. Brandl
R.S. Le Poole/Th. de
C. Hopman
V. Icke
L. Jolissaint
Pre University Program
LAPP-Top, the Leiden Advanced Pre-University Program for Top Students, is
aimed at enthusiastic and ambitious 5th and 6th grade high-school students.
Candidates are selected on the basis of their high-school performances and their
enthusiasm to participate. The LAPP-Top students have taken part in 8 meetings
from January till May, following the program of their own choice.
The Sterrewacht has been participating in the LAPP-TOP program since its start
in 2001. In that pilot year five students participated, in 2002/3 six, in 2003/4
eleven, in 2004/5 thirty-three, in 2005/6 seventeen, in 2006/7 twenty seven, in
2007/8 sixteen and in 2008/9 twenty.
The astronomy LAPP-TOP program was developed by van der Werf from 2002
onward. From 2005-2008 the project was coordinated by Snellen. Since 2008 it is
coordinated by Franx. In eight sessions the following subjects were treated:
Extrasolar planets – I. Snellen
The Milky Way and other galaxies – J. Schaye
Practicum: distances in the Universe
Gas and Radiation - V. Icke
Quasars, black holes and active galactic nuclei – H. Röttgering
Practicum: The black hole in the center of our Milky Way
Cosmology - P. Katgert
Excursion to the radio telescopes in Westerbork and Dwingeloo
After successfully completing the program participants have been awarded with
a certificate from the University of Leiden. High-school students are allowed to
use this project as part of their final exams.
Other Courses:
Sep 26
Oct 31
Speaker (affiliation)
F.H. van Lunteren
(Universiteit Leiden,
F.H. van Lunteren
(Universiteit Leiden,
Natuurkunde als vakgebied: ontstaan,
ontwikkeling en toekomst (College
Fysica en Samenleving)
Quantummechanica en
Weimarcultuur (College Fysica en
3.4. Popularization and Media Contacts
3.4.1. Public Lectures and Media Interviews
‘Astronomy in the ruimte en in het laboratorium’ (Haagse Hogeschool, Den Haag)
‘Weighing and measuring galaxies’, Nov 18
‘The Science and Technology of the James Webb Space Telescope’ (Colombian
Astronomical Network, Pererira, Colombia, Aug 20)
‘Gaia - Een stereoscopische kaart van de Melkweg’ (KNVWS Overveen, Jan 17)
Idem (KNVWS Delft, Jan 22)
Idem (KNVWS Den Helder, Mar 21)
Idem (KNVWS Putten, Mar 31)
Idem (KNVWS Almere, Apr 22)
Idem (KNVWS Eefde, Nov 13)
Idem (KNVWS Amsterdam, Nov 25)
Idem (KNVWS Hilversum, Dec 12)
Idem (KNVWS Leiden, Dec 16)
‘Information event for high school girls through VHTO’ (Vlaardingen, Nov 25)
van Delft
‘Dirk van Delft wil collecties verrijken door samenwerking’ (interview Academische
Nieuwsbrief; Feb 19)
‘Instrument om verre te sien’ (interview Volkskrant; March 8)
Radio interview (OVT Hilversum; March 23)
‘Museum Boerhaave en Evenbeeld: een prikkelende samenwerking’ (Evenbeeld
Angerlo; March 26)
Radio interview (Desmet Live Amsterdam; April 1)
‘Vloeibaar helium en de Big Science van Heike Kamerlingh Onnes’ (Natuurkundig
Gezelschap te Leiden; May 16)
‘Nut en noodzaak van wetenschap in musea’ (ICOM Nederland Amsterdam; May
‘Wie was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes’ (NVvK, uitreiking Kamerlingh Onnes
Medaille Leiden; May 21)
‘Kranenvet en kwartsdraad. Wetenschap, techniek en samenleving in het museum’
(Stichting Academisch Erfgoed Delft; May 27)
‘Preventing Theft. The Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory during World War II’
(Excursion Instituut Lorentz Leiden; June 13)
‘Ehrenfest letters surface’ (interview Physics Today; June)
‘Wie was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes’ (Leids Volkshuis Leiden; June 22)
Radio interview (Tros Nieuwsshow Hilversum; July 5)
‘Buffelen voor eem theekopje helium’ (interview Volkskrant; July 5)
‘Een familie in kou en kunst’ (interview Leids Dagblad; July 5)
Radio interview (VRT Brussel; July 9)
Radio interview (Met het oog op morgen Hilversum; July 9)
Openingstoespraak tentoonstelling ‘Jacht op het absolute nulpunt’ (Museum
Boerhaave Leiden; July 10)
‘Kalt und Kostbar’ (interview Physik-Journal; July)
TV interview (NOS journaal; July 13)
‘De blauwe jongens. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Leidse Instrumentmakers
School’ (LIS Leiden; July16)
‘Quest for Absolute Zero, or how Museum Boerhaave tries to tell a story about cold’
(TU Delft; Sept 9)
‘Wie was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes?’ (Museum Boerhaave Leiden; Sept 10)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Koude’ (NVvK Arnhem;
Sept 23)
‘Jacht op het absolute nulpunt’ (Studium Generale Leiden; Oct 8)
‘Temperatuur en thermometers’ (HOVO lecture, Leiden; Oct 22)
‘Dat mag in de krant!’ (Fysica & samenleving, Leiden; Oct 24)
‘Wie was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes?’ (Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters Leiden;
Oct 25)
‘Wie was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes?’ (Rotary Holiday Inn Leiden; Nov 3)
‘De Leidse cascade’ (HOVO lecture Leiden; Nov 5)
‘Waterstof en helium’ (HOVO lecture Leiden; Nov 12)
‘Einstein in Leiden, Debye in Berlijn’ (Cleveringalezing Nice; Nov 21)
‘Koude & kunst en het museum’ (HOVO lecture Leiden; Nov 26)
‘Nut en noodzaak van wetenschap in een museum’ (Fysica & Samenleving Leiden;
Nov 28)
‘Toepassingen’, (HOVO lecture Leiden; Dec 10)
‘Salon ‘Boerhaave wordt salonfähig’(interview Volkskrant; Dec 13)
‘Salon Boerhaave wil ‘ huiskamer’ zijn voor wetenschapshistorici’ (interview
Academische Nieuwsbrief; Dec 16)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Second Dutch Golden Age’ (Nederlands Instituut
Sint-Petersburg; Dec 17)
Van Dishoeck
‘Van moleculen tot planeten (Societeit voor culturele samenwerking, Nieuwspoort’
(Den Haag; March 3)
‘Spitzer, ALMA en de toekomst van de infrarood telescoop (Boerhaave museum’
(Leiden; March 5)
‘Moleculen bouwen in het heelal: fatal attraction onder extreme condities’ (PAC
Symposium, VU, Amsterdam)
‘Oorsprong van ons zonnestelsel’ (Olympiade, Utrecht; June 4)
‘Astrochemistry’ (interview ScienceWatch; April 2008)
‘Water in the Universe’ (Interview Euronews Space Magazine tv special; May
‘Foreign Honorary Member AAA&S’ (Interview Leiden University press release;
June 2008)
`Dit geeft bredere kijk op leven' (Interview Mare; June 19 2008)
‘Water in the Universe’ (ESA educational movie/DVD for high schools;
September 2008)
‘Ogen in de ruimte’ (National Geographic, p. 36-45; October 2008)
Ruimtetelescopen zijn onmisbaar (Economische Zaken brochure; October 2008)
De ruimte als reageerbuis (Natuur, wetenschap & techniek, p.41-44; October 2008)
Leermeesters en leerlingen (KNAW tentoonstelling; November 2008)
"Stervorming: clusters of losse sterren?" KNVWS lezing, Leiden; Nov 25
Article on LISA for "Eureka!" (magazine of the science faculty of Leiden
Sputnik 50 Jaar Later (Pre-University College, Leiden; 7 April)
Sputnik 50 Jaar Later (V-OS, Leiden; 17 Mei)
De Nieuwe Leidsche Sterrewacht (Museum Boerhaave, Leiden; 10 Juni)
van Langevelde
Radio-astronomy, a telescope larger than Europe at EC even "GEANT, a global
leader", Bled, Slovenia; Mar 4
Een telescoop zo groot als Europa public lecture, Middelburg; Jun 27
VLBI, e-VLBI and astronomy, visit journalists VWN, JIVE Dwingeloo; Oct 1
JIVE, een telescoop zo groot als Europa STRON/JIVE open dag, Dwingeloo; Oct 19
Observatory representative press releases. Press releases 2008:
Astronomisch trio breekt submillimeter record
Astronomen ontwikkelen groeicurve voor ster-embryo?s
Zonnebaden rondom jonge sterren
Astronoom Ivo Labbe wint de eerste van Marum prijs
Astronomen zien planeten in gas rond jonge sterren
Marijn Franx gaat vroegste sterrenstelsels bekijken
Subsidie voor behoud Leids Sterrewacht archief
Leidse astronomen zien dampkring exoplaneet vanaf de Aarde
Babystelsels gaan gebukt onder overgewicht.
Natuur, Wetenschap & Techniek, De ruimte als reageerbuis (Oct issue)
Presentation "Machten van tien" for a group of 50 first-year highschool students
(Mar 4)
Presentation "Stervende sterren" for a group of 94 fifth- and sixth-year highschool
students (Mar 6)
Presentation "Machten van tien" for a group of 10 highschool teachers (May 13)
Lecture "Afstanden in de ruimte" for fifth- and sixth-year highschool students
(Nov 21)
van Lunteren
Sterren kijken achter de dijken: 400 jaar sterrenkunde in Nederland', Vereniging
Sacculina (Leiden; Feb 6)
'De tragikomische geschiedenis van de meter', Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
(Leiden; May 17)
'Tweehonderd jaar Nederlandse sterrenkunde', opening tentoonstelling 'Van ver-siende
bril tot radiotelescoop', UB Leiden (Leiden; Sep 15)
'Kaiser als popularisator', Leidse Weer en Sterrenkundige Kring (Leiden; Sep 30)
'Nederland, de Meter en het Internationale Bureau voor Maten en Gewichten',
donateursdag De Hollandse Cirkel (Den Haag; Oct 9)
Organisatie expositie in UB over de geschiedenis van de telescoop met nadruk op de
Leidse sterrenkunde Radio-interview over Teylers Museum voor Verre Verwanten
Teleac Radio, uitzending 7 juni
Medewerking Film over Buys Ballot, t.b.v. Universiteitsmuseum Utrecht
Martinez Galarza
The Science and Technology of the James Webb Space Telescope (Colombian
Astronomical Network, Pererira, Colombia; Aug 20)
Leidse astronomen zien dampkring exoplaneet vanaf de aarde (20 mei) (press release)
"Exoplaneten en de ontdekking van nieuwe werelden" Symposium NNGC, Leiden;
28 Maart
"Extrasolaire Planeten" AWSV Metius, Alkmaar; Sept 26.
Students Discover Unique Planet (4 Dec) (press release)
Also a handful of school-visits.
The Interstellar Medium - Spectroscopy in Space and Laboratory, for visiting students
King’s College London, Leiden; Oct 20.
Donkere materie: duisternis in het heelal, KNVWS Zwolle; Jan 17
idem, KNVWS Venlo; March 28
idem, KNVWS Zutphen; Sep 18
Donkere materie in sterrenstelsels, KNVWS ’t Gooi; Sep 19
vd Voort
Talk at the old observatory: "Stars and galaxies" (Oct. 21)
Tours at the Old Observatory: In february 2008, Saskia van den Broek took over
the organization of tours at the Old Observatory from Freeke van der Voort. In
2008 students and promovendi have given about 20 tours at the Old
Observatory. Half of these tours have been given to highschools, each for 25 to
90 pupils. Furthermore tours have been given to scouts, children's birthday
parties, and small groups of interested people. Tours include a presentation on
astronomy, usually the "Powers of 10", and a visit to two telescopes. The history
and concepts of telescopes are explained, and in case of good weather, visitors
can observe the Moon and planets.
For children up to 12 years a new presentation has been developed. During a
"yes/no-quiz" questions on astronomy are asked to the children, who have to sit
down in a square on the floor with yes or no in it. In this way the children learn
about astronomy in a funny and entertaining manner, which keeps their
attention. This kind of presentation turned out to be a great success for small
children. )
3.5 Universe Awareness Program
Odman, Miley and S. Levin continued their work on the Universe Awareness
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme instigated by
Miley to expose underprivileged young children aged from 4 to 10 years to the
inspirational aspects of astronomy. By raising awareness about the scale and
beauty of the Universe, UNAWE attempts to broaden the mind and awaken
curiosity in science, at a formative age when the value system of children is
developing. A goal of UNAWE is to stimulate their development into curious,
tolerant and internationally minded adults.
Since its initiation by Miley in 2004, UNAWE has grown from a concept to a
thriving network of more than 150 UNAWE volunteers and experts active in 17
partner countries worldwide. Some important achievements of UNAWE during
2008 were:
The addition of several new partner countries to the programme
The organization of many international UNAWE events for young
Preparation for UNAWE as a global cornerstone programme of the UNdesignated International Year of Astronomy in 2009
Development of a range of international UNAWE materials and
activities, instigation of a
sustained development of new materials
Lobbying for acquisition of EU funding
3.6 The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F.
Kaiser started the year with a board change. The new members of the board are:
Jesse van de Sande, Saskia van den Broek, Gilles Otten and Tri Laksmana
Astraatmadja. Starting off all bright and shiny, the movie Sunshine was shown.
And although most of the board members are Dutch, there was a free dinner as
To prove to the universe we had a darker side, observing nights were organised.
This initiative was taken, because a lot of the astronomy students have no basic
observing skills. Despite the fact that they took telescope introduction. Under
the supervision of our highly trained observing team, people were taught the
basics of telescopes one on one. Unfortunately the weather was less than
supportive, but we are certain that 2009 cannot possibly be any worse.
In 2008 we also celebrated the 200th birthday of our all time favourite
astronomer F. Kaiser, by organising the annual barbeque (again for free!). There
was a huge turn-up, which may also have been due to our promise to show the
European championships soccer match Holland-France (4-1) on a large screen.
The promise of free drinks might also have helped.
In an attempt to prove that time travel is indeed possible, Kaiser crossed a line
by showing the movie Donnie Darko. As we are still convinced of the possibility
of time travel, we will try to prove this again in 2009 with yet another movie. In
September Kaiser said goodbye to Tri, but welcomed Alireza Rahmati to it's
inner circle. With the chair away in November, Kaiser's inner youth emerged
and the movie Wall-E was shown. Although the Old Observatory will go into
renovation in the beginning of 2009, we still hope to organise all sort of activities
throughout the year.
3.7 Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
The 'Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters' (VO-S; is the
official association of Sterrewacht/Observatory (ex-)affiliates. It has been in
existence for over 15 years now and has seen another active year. As usual, the
145 members were offered a variety of activities. The highpoint of the year was a
succesful reunion held in may. This was an activity also open to non-members
as it was jointly organized with the institute. Later in the year the activities
included a social drink prior to the Oort Lecture and an annual meeting. This
year, the annual meeting was held in Leiden and involved, among others, a visit
of Museum Boerhaave and the exhibition "The telescoop, 400 years". VO-S
members also received a newsletters with Sterrewacht news and were offered an
electronic member dictionary.
Observatory staff
December 31, 2008
Observatory staff
December 31, 2008
Names, e-mail addresses, room numbers, and telephone numbers of all
current personnel can be found on the Sterrewacht website:
Telephone extensions should always be preceded by (071) 527 …
(from inside The Netherlands) or by +31-71-527 … (from abroad)
Full Professors:
E.F. van Dishoeck
M. Franx
V. Icke
F.P. Israel
K. Kuijken
G.K. Miley (0.0)
A.G.G.M. Tielens
P.T. de Zeeuw (0.0)
Full Professors by Special Appointments:
D. van Delft*
(Museum Boerhaave, Stichting tot beheer
Museum Boerhaave)
M. Garrett
(ASTRON, Sterrewacht, Faculty W&N)
H. Linnartz
(Stichting Fysica, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
F. van Lunteren
(UL (0.5)/VU (0.3), Teijler’s Hoogleraar
H.A. Quirrenbach
(Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Faculty W&N)
* Director Boerhaave Museum;
Associate Professors and Assistant Professors / Tenured Staff:
B.R. Brandl
J. Lub
A. Brown
R.S. Le Poole (0.0)
M. Hogerheijde
S. Portegies Zwart (0.0)
W.J. Jaffe
H.J.A. Röttgering
P. Katgert (0.0)
J. Schaye
H.J. van Langevelde (0.0)**
I.A.G. Snellen
Y. Levin (0.8)
R. Stuik (NOVA Muse)
P.P. van der Werf
NOVA office:
E. van Dishoeck
W.H.W.M. Boland
T. Brouwer
K. Groen
Science director
Managing director
financial controller (0.2)
management assistant (0.8)
Management Support and Secretaries:
J.C. Drost
A. van der Tang
K. Groen (0.2)
L. van der Veld
P. Oosthoek
B. de Kanter (voluntary)
Computer staff:
E.R. Deul
D. J. Jansen
T. Bot
A. Vos
manager, computer group
scientific programmer
Visiting Scientists:
S. Albrecht
M.J. Betlem
P. Ehrenfreund (LIC)
M. Jourdain de Muizon
J.K. Katgert-Merkelijn
R. Mathar
M. Spaans (RUG)
R. Stark (NWO)
D. Stinebring (Oberlin College, USA)
J.A. Stüwe
A. Blaauw (also: Groningen)
W.B. Burton
A.M. van Genderen
H.J. Habing
I. van Houten-Groeneveld
** Staff, JIVE, Dwingeloo
R.S. Le Poole
G.K. Miley
A. Ollongren
C. Van Schooneveld
J. Tinbergen
Postdocs and Project Personnel:
R. Alexander
S. Anderson
D. Baneke
I. van Bemmel
C. Booth
S. Kendrew
L. Kristensen
A. Kospal
P. Marrese
H. Masso-Gonzalez
G. Busso
F. Molster
H. Cuppen
C. Dalla Vecchia
A. Deep
E. Gaburov
B. Groves
N. Hatch
H. Hildebrandt
J. Holt
C. Hopman
A. Johansen
L. Jolissaint
C.J. Ödman
M. Pandey
R. Quadri
N.M. Ramanujam
D. Rizquez-Oneca
C. Romanzin
T. Schrabback
D. Serre
O. Usov
C.E. Vlahakis
R. Williams
Ph.D. Students:
N. Amiri
J. Bast
P. Beirao
J. Bouwman
Y. Cavecchi*
M. Damen
M. Haas
R. van Haasteren
M. van Hoven
H. Intema
S. Ioppolo
K.M. Isokoski*
C. Kruip
E. Kuiper
D.J.P. Lommen
A.M. Madigan*
J.R. Martinez Galarza
F. Maschietto
E. Micelotta
E. de Mooij
M. Mosleh*
K.I. Oberg
I. Oliveira
R. Oonk
J.-P. Paardekooper
O. Panic
A.H. Pawlik
F. Petrignani
T. Prod’homme
D. Raban
O. Rakic
H. Rampadarath
D. Salter
D.M. Smit
M.H. Soto Vicencio
K. Torstensson
E.N. Taylor
F. van de Voort*
E. van Uitert
M. Velander
L. Vermaas
R. Visser
N. de Vries
R. van Weeren
N. Wehres
A. Weijmans
M. Weiss*
R. Wiersma
U. Yildiz*
Funding notes:
1. funded by Leiden University; 2. funding through NOVA program; 3. funded by
NWO, via Leiden University; 4. funding from Spinoza award; 5. funding by EU; 6.
funding from KNAW; 7. funding by SRON; 8. employed by FOM; 9. funded by
NOVA2 OPTICON; 10. funded from VICI Quirrenbach; 11. funded from EU
Excellence grant; 12. funded by JIVE – EU ESTRELA netwerk; 13, funded by
Groningen – EU Molecular Universe Network; 14. funded by Teyler’s Foundation.
* denotes employment for only part of the year - see section staff changes.
Senior Students (doct.):
B. van Dam
M. van den Berg
N. ter Haar
S. de Kievit
C.H. van der Sluis
Msc Students:
S. van den Broek
R. van der Burg
M. van Daalen
J.D. Delgado Diaz
E. Fayolle
E.G. Gavardi
D. Harsono
T.D.J. Kindt
M.T.A.L. Lambrechts
A.N.G. Mortier
S.V. Nefs
A. Rahmati
J. van de Sande
C. Schonau
W. Schrier
A. Shulevski
S. Shah
R. Smit
D. Szomoru
C.H.M. de Valk
F. Vuijsje
Bsc Students:
A. H. Bakker
K.A.J.B. Beemster
B. Berwanger
T.C.N. Boekholt
Y.O. van Boheemen
P.C.J. Bol
Y.H. Bonnema
N.A. Bremer
R.W.C. Buurman
S.R. Chander
H. Chellaney
S. Crezee
M.S. van Deen
G. van Doorn
M.N. Drozdovskaya
I.A.D. Engelhardt
R.T. Feld
J. Franse
A.V. Freudenreich
J. Hanse
L.M. Harms
S. Heeres
R.C. Heinsbroek
R.T.L. Herbonnet
S.D. Hiltemann
H.J. Hoeijmakers
S. Levie
R.H.M. van Loo
M.J. Luitjens
N. van der Marel
M. Meijer
S. Metafuni
T.W. Nak
T.E. Nota
V.C.M. Oomen
G.P.P.L. Otten
H.C. Overweg
J.T. Pijloo
S.D. van der Ploeg
W.M. de Pous
E.D.M. Schreuders
M.C. Segers
R. van der Smeede
S. Smeets
J. Sprangers
P. Stout
C.M.S. Straatman
L.V. Swiers
R. Tatch
F.P. Treurniet
M. Uri
P.G. vandevelde
M.L.R. van’t Hoff
D. Huijser
J.G.J. Hulshof
I.C. Icke
M.P.H. Israel
O. Jaïbi
A. Karisli
A.E. Klaassens
J. Kloek
N.F. Kouwenhoven
M.L. van Kralingen
O.J. Landman
P.G.C. Langelaan
K. Lebbink
C.J.M. Lemmens
N.R. Verhart
S.H. Vlaar
J.A.T. Voorn
R.M.J. Vooys
A.W. de Vries
A.J. Vromans
I.A. Walstra
S. Weersma
M.R.J. Weterings
A.W.P. Wijnakker
N.N.D. Wisse
M.C. van Woerden
S.T. Zeegers
D. Zoetemelk
Staff changes in 2008:
Name (funded by)
S. Albrecht (NWO)
S. Andersson (NWO)
D. Baneke (Gratama St.)
S. Bottinelli (NWO)
B. Brandl (NOVA)
B. Brandl (UL)
J. Brinchmann (UL)
A.G.A. Brown (NWO)
A.G.A. Brown (UL)
R. van den Bosch (NWO)
C. Brinch (EU,UL)
G. Busso (NOVA-GAIA)
Y. Cavecchi (NOVA, UL)
G. Fuchs (NOVA)
E. Gaburov (NWO)
B. Groves (UL)
B. Groves (NOVA)
C. Guendisch (UL)
P. Hallibert (NOVA)
T. Hill (NOVA)
H. Hoekstra (UL)
J. Holt (NWO)
K.>m Isokoski (NOVA)
A. Johanssen (NWO)
T. van Kempen (NWO)
A. Kospal (NWO)
L. Kristensen (UL)
S. Levin O'Donnell (UNAWE)
H.V.J. Linnartz (UL,NOVA)
H.V.J. Linnartz (UL)
P. Marrese (NWO)
P. Marrese (NOVA)
H. Masso Gonzalez (NWO)
R.J. Mathar (NWO)
G.K. Miley (UL)
M. Mosleh (EU)
A. Omar (NWO)
P. Oosthoek (UL)
D. Rizquez Oneca (EU)
L. van Starkenburg (NOVA)
D.H.F.M. Schnitzeler (NWO)
D. Serre (NOVA)
C. Tasse (UL)
A.G.G.M. Tielens (UL)
H.E. Verbraak (FOM)
F. van de Voort (NWO)
M. Weiss (Teijler's St.)
U. Yilmiz (UL)
II.1. Observatory Committees
(As on December 31, 2008)
(Directie onderzoekinstituut)
K. Kuijken (director of research)
F.P. Israel (director of education)
J. Lub (institute manager)
Observatory management team
(Management Team Sterrewacht)
K.H. Kuijken (chair)
E.R. Deul
K. Groen (minutes)
F.P. Israel
J. Lub
Oversight council
(Raad van Toezicht)
J.A.M. Bleeker (chair)
B. Baud
J.F. van Duyne
W. van Saarloos
C. Waelkens
Research committee
(Onderzoek-commissie OZ)
M. Franx (chair)
H. Cuppen
A.G.A. Brown
W. Jaffe
Y. Levin
P.P. van der Werf
Research institute scientific council
(Wetenschappelijke raad onderzoekinstituut)
W. Boland
H.J. van Langevelde
B. Brandl
R.S. Le Poole
A.G.A. Brown
Y. Levin
D. van Delft
H.V.J. Linnartz
E.R. Deul
J. Lub
E.F. van Dishoeck
F. van Lunteren
M. Franx
G.K. Miley
M. Garrett
M. Perryman
T. de Graauw
A. Quirrenbach
H. Habing
H.J.A. Röttgering
M. Hogerheijde
J. Schaye
V. Icke
I. Snellen
F.P. Israel
R. Stuik
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
P.P. van der Werf
P. Katgert
P.T. de Zeeuw
K.H. Kuijken
Institute council
E. Deul (chair)
J. Drost
F.P. Israel
W.J. Jaffe
M. Smit
Astronomy education committee
(Opleidingscommissie OC)
P.P. van der Werf (chair)
M.C. Damen
C. de Valk
P. Oosthoek (minutes)
M. Franx
V. Icke
P. Langelaan
H. Linnartz
J.T. Pijloo
J. Schaye
H. Röttgering
S. van den Broek
Astronomy board of examiners
J. Lub (chair)
E. Groenen (Physics)
F.P. Israel
I. Snellen
P.P. van der Werf
Oort scholarship committee
F.P. Israel
H. Röttgering
J. Schaye
Mayo Greenberg prize committee
G. Miley (chair)
E.F. van Dishoeck
P. Katgert
H. Linnartz
J. Lub
MSc admission advisory committee
M. Franx (chair)
F.P. Israel
K. Kuijken
H.J. Röttgering
Graduate student review committee (2008 Cttee)
(Commissie studievoortgang promovendi)
M. Franx (chair)
H. Linnartz
W. Boland
J. Schaye
Colloquia commitee
Y. Levin
J. Schaye
Computer committee
A.G.A. Brown (chair)
B. Brandl
C. Dalla Vecchia
K. Groen
C. Hopman
M. Smit
R. Williams
Library committee
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
F.P. Israel
J. Lub
Public outreach committee
F.P. Israel (chair)
V. Icke
M. Damen
T. van Kempen
N. de Vries
Social committee
M. Smit (chair)
J. Bast
D. Raban
E. Caris alias Reynders (left Nov 1)
C. Gündisch (left Oct 1)
C. Hopman
I.A.G. Snellen
II.2. Membership of University
(As on december 31, 2008)
Member Begeleidings Commissie ICT projecten
Chair Institute Counsil
Chair Facultair Overleg ICT
Member Facultair Beleids Commissie ICT
Member Observatory Management Team
van Dishoeck
Chair, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Member, Raad van Toezicht, Leiden Institute of Physics (LION)
Member, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Director, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Foundation
Director, Leids Sterrewacht Foundation
Director, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member CFHT Science Advisory Committee until 12/2008
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member, Opleidngscommissie ex oficio as study adviser First-year BSc
Member, Advisory Council, Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts
Member, Belvédère Committee
Member, Committee of Education Directors, School of Sciences
Member, Board of Graduate School, School of Sciences
Member, Observatory Research Committee
Chairman, Observatory Scientific Council (Wetenschappelijk Raad)
Member, Faculty Science Committee (WECO) (-Jun)
Chair, Observatory Research Committee (-Jun)
Member, Chair, Observatory Management Team
Study Advisor BSc students (-Jul)
Chair, search Committee astronomy professor
Member, search Committee director Lorentz Centre
Member, search Committee Teylers professor of history of science
Member, search Committee Boerhave professor
Member, board of directors Leidsch Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, board International Center
Chairman, board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Chairman, board of directors Oort Fonds
Study advisor bachelor students (2nd/3rd year) astronomy
Member astronomy education committee
Member, FMD/ELD user committee
Member, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize Committee
Observatory representative national science day
Observatory representative press releases
Van Lunteren
Member, Board Stichting Historische Commissie voor de Leidse
Member, Scientific Board, Scaliger Instituut
Member, Committee ‘Eerste-jaars-boek-project’
Chairman, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize
Chairman, PhD Guidance Committee ADD
Member, Science team MID-infrared Interferometric instrument for VLTI
Member, XMM Large Scale Structure Survey Consortium
Member, Science team Omegacam, a wide field imager for the VLT
Survey Telescope PI, DCLA (Development and Commissioning of
LOFAR for Astronomy) & project for the scientific preparation of
science with & LOFAR at 4 partaking Netherlands universities
Member, ASTRON Science Advisory Committee
Member, Spitzer warm legacy survey preject SERVS
Member, Leiden International Student Fund (LISF) committee
Member, Facultair Wervingsoverleg
Member, PR committee Physics/Astronomy
Van der Werf
Chairman, Education Committee Astronomy
Member, Joint Education Committee Physics and Astronomy
Member, Research Committee
Member, Examination Committee
Organist of the Academy Auditorium
Deputy workpackage manager, ELT Design Study WP11000 (Instrumentation)
"Principal Investigator of the E-ELT METIS phase A study"
Deputy Co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium
Co-Investigator, Spitzer-IRS
Chair, Scientific Organizing Committee of the Conference on ‘400 Years of
Astronomical Telecopes’
Member, NOVA Instrument Steering Committee (ISC)
Instrument scientist of JWST-MIRI Spectrometer
Member, Herschel ’KINGFISH’ Key Program
Member, ELT Design Study WP 5000 (Science preparations)
Member, IAU Commissions 8, 37
Member, Gaia coordination unit 5 ’Photometric processing’ management team
Member, EU Marie-Curie RTN European Leadership in Space Astrometry
van Delft
Member commissie ‘Duizend meesterwerken’, Digitale Bibliotheek der
Nederlandse Letteren
Member commissie wetenschapsgeschiedenis KNAW
Member jury Annual Prize Wetenschap en maatschappij
Member Interdisciplinary Program Board Lorentz Center / NIAS
Member organisatie KunstWetenschapSalon
Member adviesraad tijdschrift NWT (Natuur, Wetenschap en Techniek)
Member Raad van Advies Jaarboek KennisSamenleving
Member jury P.C. Hooftprijs 2008.
Ambassador Platform bètatechniek
Member begeleidingscommissie Digitaal Wetenschapshistorisch Centrum,
Huygens Instituut
Member comité van aanbeveling Science Café Leiden
van Dishoeck
Scientific Director, Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA)
Associate Editor, Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Member, ALMA Board
Member, SRON Board
Member, MPIA-Heidelberg Fachbeirat
Member, SMA Advisory Committee
Member, Spitzer Time Allocation Committee GO4
Member, Herschel-HIFI Science team
Member, ASTRONET Science Vision Panel-C
Member, VICI committee EW
Co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium
Chair, IAU Working Group on Astrochemistry
Member, IAU Commission 14, working group on ‘molecular data’
Coordinator, Herschel-HIFI WISH Key Program
Member, Search committee Wykeham Professor of Physics, Oxford University
Chair, SRON Science Advisory Committee
Member, National Committee on Astronomy (NCA)
Member, Scientific Organising Committee, New light on young stars: Spitzer's
view of circumstellar disks, Pasadena
Member, Scientific Organising Committee, Lorentz Center workshop on
Interstellar surfaces, Leiden
Member, Search committee SRON director
Member, Search committee chair in star- and planet formation, ETH Zurich
Chair, Nova network 1 science team
Member, MUSE science team
Member, JWST-NIRSPEC science team
Member, JWST Science Working Group
Member, ACS science team
Chair, ESO-ELT Science Working Group
Member, ESO-ELT Science and Engineering Core Working Group
Member, NL-PC Allocation Committee
Member, ALMA Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA European Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA Science Integrated Project Team
Member, ALMA Regional Center Coordinating Committee
Member, IRAM Programme Committee
Member, NWO VENI selection committee
Member, NWO/Vrije Competitie selection committee
Member, Review committee JCMT Science Archive ADP Requirements
Project scientist for CHAMP+/Netherlands
Co-Coordinator, JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey
Member, SOC/LOC workshop ‘Scientific Exploitation of the Enhanced-SMA‘
(Leiden, NL; Feb 1-2)
Member, SOC NAASC workshop ‘Transformational Science with ALMA:
Through Disks to Stars and Planets‘ (Charlottesville, USA; Jun 22-24)
Member, National Committee on Astronomy Education
Member, Minnaert Committee (NOVA Outreach)
Member, Netherlands Astronomical Society Education Committee
Member, Editorial Council Natuur & Techniek
Member, Advisory Council, Technika 10
Member, Board of Directors, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde
Member, Jury ‘Rubicon’ (NWO)
Member, Jury, Annual Prize ‘Wetenschap en Maatschappij’
Member, NWO Selection Committee for VIDI Awards
Member, NWO Selection Committee for Free Competition Awards
Member, IAU Commissions 28, 40 and 51
Member, Science Team Herschel-HIFI
Member, Science Team JWST-MIRI
Member, Science Team APEX-Champ+
Member, Editorial Board Europhysics News
Coordinator-NL SCUBA2 Legacy Survey Nearby Galaxies
Director, NEVEC
Member, IAU Commission 40, 28
Chairman, ESO User's Committee
Member ESO Contact Committee
Member FITS Working Group
Secretary/Treasurer, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Secretary/Treasurer, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Secretary/Treasurer, Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
Advisor to National Delegate, ESO Council (Sep-)
Chair, ESO contact committee (Sep-)
Member, board of directors Kapteyn fonds
Member, board NOVA (Jul-)
Key researcher, NOVA Dieptestrategie
Member, ESO KMOS Instrument Science Team
Member, astronomy programme board Lorentz Centre
Principal Investigator, ESO KiDS Survey
Principal Investigator, OmegaCAM project
Co-investigator, ESO VIKING Public Survey
Co-investigator, Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph project
Deputy coordinator, DUEL EU-FP6 Network
Local coordinator, EVALSO EU-FP7 programme
Member, board EARA
Member, board MICADO E-ELT instrument design study
External member, FWO-Flanders astronomy & physics programme committee
External member, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Faculty tenure commitee
Member, National commission for astronomy (NCA)
Member, ESA Concept Advisory Team European Dark Matter Mission
Member, board Physics society 'Diligentia', The Hague (April-)
van Langevelde
Member board of directors Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha Fonds
Member board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member board of directors Jan haendrik Oort Fonds
NWO I-science program committee
SKA klankbordgroep NL
Allegro steering committee
IAU, division X, comission 40
NL-URSI committee
Member, ESO STC
Member, ESO VLTI overview committee
Member, ESO contactcommissie
Member, NOVA Instrumentation Steering Committee
Member EVN board
Member, RadioNet Board and Executive Board
PI, ALBUS project (RadioNet)
Coordinator EXPReS, board member and member management team
PI, FABRIC project (EXPReS)
PI, SCARIe project (NWO STARE program)
Member, ESTRELA board
Member SKADS board
Member PrepSKA board
Member European SKA Consortium
Special chair for Molecular Laboratory Astrophysics, Laser Centre VU
Workgroup leader FOM group FOM-L-027
Workgroup leader FP6 RTN program 'The Molecular Universe'
Member, FOM-NWO working group 'COMOP'
Member, CW-NWO working group 'Spectroscopy and Theory'
Member, HRSMC research school
Member international scientific committee for ?Workshop on infrared plasma
Editor, CAMOP / Phys. Scripta
Secretary, Netherlands Committee for Astronomy
Member, Board Astronomy & Astrophysics
van Lunteren
Member, Huizinga Instituut, The Netherlands Research School for Cultural
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, Lorentz Centre Workshop 'Artificial
Member, Selection Committee Program 'Philosophical Foundations of the
Historiography of Science', Department of Philosophy, Leiden University
Member, Commissie Dijkgraaf voor de Bètacanon
Vice President, International Astronomical Union responsible for Education and
Chair, International Universe Awareness Steering Committee
Chair, LOFAR Research Management Committee
Chair, Selection Committee, Christiaan Huygens Wetenschapsprijs 2008 ADD
Chairman, LOFAR Survey Science Group, Highest Redshift Objects
Member Executive Committee International Astronomical Union
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee
Member, Board of Governors of the LOFAR Foundation
Member, Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie Fachbeirat
Member, Board EU SKADS Project
Member, Core Team, LOFAR Surveys Key Project
In his capacity as Vice President of the IAU with the portfolio of development
and Education, Miley was charged with producing a decadal plan for global
astronomy development for discussion by the IAU General Assembly in Rio de
Janeiro in 2009. He organized a brainstorm of stakeholders and a first draft of an
ambitious decadal strategic plan was completed.
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee (ARC)
Member, Curatorium of the professorship at Leiden University ‘’Experimental
Astroparticle physics’’
Key researcher NOVA research school
Member, ESO OPC
Member, Spitzer TAC
Member, ASTRON Science Advisory Committee
Initiator NL contribution to Euclid spectrographic instrument.
Co-Organiser conference: Astrophysics with E-LOFAR (Hamburg, Germany,
Sept 16-19)
Member of the steering committee, Virgo Consortium for Cosmological
Supercomputer Simulations
Co-Investigator, MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer)
Member, ISTOS (Imaging Spectroscopic Telescope for Origins Surveys)
Key researcher, NOVA (the Dutch research school for astronomy)
Member, LOFAR epoch of reionization science team
Member, MUSE science team
Member, ISSI team on Non-virialized X-ray components in clusters of galaxies
NL-representative, Euro-VO Data Center Alliance, Theoretical astrophysics
expert group
PI, Marie Curie Excellence Team
PI, OWLS collaboration
Co-Investigator, ERASMUS (Elt Ready Available Super MUSe)
Member, Xenia science team (A probe of cosmic chemical evolution)
Chair, Organizing Committee, LC workshop ‘’The chemical enrichment of the
intergalactic medium’’
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, ‘’Galaxies in real life and
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, ‘’Theory in the Virtual Observatory’’
Member, PhD committee G. Worseck, Potsdam
Member, NWO Rubicon grant allocation committee
Member Astron (WSRT/LOFAR) Programme Committee
Member NWO Vrije Competitie, subcommissie astronomie
Chair LOC 400 years of Astronomical Telescopes
Associate member of the OPTICON Key Technologies Network
Member of the FP7 Network “Wide field imaging at the E-ELT: from GLAO to
diffraction limit”
van der Werf
Member, JCMT Board
Chairman, JCMT Survey Oversight Committee (JSOC)
Principal Investigator, SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey
Co-investigator, HIFI
Co-investigator, MIRI
Member, SAFARI Science team
Member, Far-InfraRed Interferometer (FIRI) study team
Member, METIS Science Team
Member, ING/JCMT Time Allocation Committee
Member, STFC Herschel Oversight Committee
P. Woitke
D. Serre
L. Sales
A. Duffy
Jan 8-12
Jan 21
Jan 31-Feb 1
Feb 4-Feb 8
A. Stolte
M.R. Merrifield
O. Gerhardt
M. Arnaboldi
N. Douglas
N. Capaccioli
N. Napolitano
L. Coccato
A. Cortesi
F. di Lorenzi
T.R. Gull
A. Youdin
J. Allamandola
Feb 4
Feb 5
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 7-8
Feb 17-Feb 23
March 3-7
March 15- May
April 7-11
June 7-30
June 13
June 23-26
June 25- July 8
August 1-15
University St. Andrews, Scotland
Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France
Kapteyn Institute, Netherlands
Manchester University, UK
Astrophysical Institute Potsdam,
University of Nottingham, UK
Groningen, Netherlands
Naples, Italy
Naples, Italy
Nottingham, UK
Basel, Switzerland
NASA Goddard, USA
G. Ogrean
M. Realdi
A. Duffy
J. Cuadra
D. Whelan
S. Bertone
Jacobs University, Germany
University of Padova, Italy
Manchester University, UK
JILA, University of Colorado, USA
University of Virginia, USA
K. Holhjem
H.S. Zhao
C. Bildfell
L.J. Allamandola
K. Finlator
P. Abraham
G. v.d. Ven
T.R. Gull
L. Burscher
A. Duffy
L. Pulone
A. Youdin
M. Schirmer
C. Heymans
M. Lerchster
L.V. Waerbeke
K. Holhjem
Y. Mellier
L. Miller
T. Kitching
E. Sembolini
T. Erben
L. Fu
M. Hudson
A. S. Cohen
S. Brown
R.C.E. v.d. Bosch
A. Gurkan
August 21-29
Sep 8-16
Sep 15-Nov 15
Sep 22
Sep 24-29
Oct 1-3
Oct 1-6
Oct 6-Nov 7
Oct 13-17
Oct 27-31
Oct 27-31
Nov 10-14
Nov 18-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Nov 20-22
Dec 8-12
Dec 8-19
Dec 15-31
many visits
throughout the
Bonn University, Germany
St. Andrews, UK
University of Victoria, USA
University of Arizona, USA
Konkoly Observatory, Hungary
IAS Princeton, USA
NASA Goddard, USA
MPIA Heidelberg, Germany
Manchester University, UK
INAF-Rome, Italy
INAF-Rome, Italy
CITA, U of Toronto, Canada
Bonn University, Germany
Edinburgh, UK
Munich, Germany
Britisch Columbia
Paris, France
Naval Research Lab, Washington, USA
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK
University of Texas at Austin, USA
UvA, Amsterdam, Netherlands
and colloquia
in Leiden
lectures and
colloquia in Leiden
V.1. Workshops
Most of the workshops were held in the Lorentz Center, an international center
which coordinates and hosts workshops in the sciences. In 2007 the Leiden
astronomers contributed to the following workshops there:
January 28 – February 1
Galaxy evolution from mass-selected samples
M. Franx
February 4-6
Meeting of the DUEL Network, Lorentz Center, 2008 DUEL meeting
K.H. Kuijken, H.J. Hildebrandt, M.B.M. Velander, T. Schrabback, E. van
Uitert, D.M. Smit
February 7-8
Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph team meeting
K.H. Kuijken
March 18 – 20
Ultravista Science team meeting
M. Franx
March 31- April 3
Astro-WISE workshop
K.H. Kuijken, E.R. Deul
June 27–July 2
SPIE - astronomical telescope and instrumentation
L. Jolissaint
August 4-8
Artificial Cold and International Cooperation in Science, Lorentz Centre 'The
Metric Convention and its aftermath: rivalries, loyalties and controversies'
F.H. van Lunteren
August 19-22
Pencil Code Meeting 2008
A. Johansen
September 8-12
Member SOC and chairman LOC of Lorentz Workshop: Cool, Cooler, Cold-Cluster Cooling Flows in a new Light
W.J. Jaffe
September 15-19
Galaxies in real life and simulations
A. Cimatti, P. van Dokkum, M. Kriek, N.M. Forster Schreiber, J. Schaye,
R. Somerville
October 6-10
Interstellar surfaces, from laboratory to models
H.M.Cuppen, H. Linnartz, E.F. van Dishoeck, E. Herbst, S. Viti
September 29 - October 2
400 years of Astronomical Telescopes - A review of History, Science and
B. Brandl, R. Stuik
November 20-22
Canada-France-Hawaii Legacy Survey weak lensing working group meeting
K.H. Kuijken, H. Hoekstra, H.J. Hildebrandt, M.B.M. Velander, T. Schrabback,
E. van Uitert, D.M. Smit
November 21-27
Fitting the Spectral Energy Distributions of Galaxies
B. Groves, J. Walcher, 48 Attendees
Website (Including talks):
December 10-12
The first Science with LOFAR surveys
H.J.A. Röttgering
December 11
The national JWST-MIRI discussion day took place in Leiden, attended by about
20 scientists. The main topics of the meeting were an overview and status of
JWST and its instruments, the status of MIRI hardware, testing, calibration,
operations and plans for data reduction, and the possibilities for Dutch scientists
to get involved in the MIRI guaranteed time observing program.
E.F. v. Dishoeck.
V.2. Endowed Lectures
Apr 23
Speaker (affiliation)
Simon White
Dec 8
Didier Queloz
All from Nothing; the structuring of
our Universe (Oort lecture)
The amazing zoo of extrasolar planets
(Sackler lecture)
V.3. Scientific Colloquia
Jan 24
Speaker (affiliation)
Peter Jonker (SRON)
Jan 31
David Spergel (Princeton)
Feb 2
Ralf Bender (MPE/LMU)
Feb 2
Eli Waxman (Weizmann
Ted Gull (NASA GSFC)
Feb 21
Feb 28
Milos Milosavljevic
(University Texas)
Neutron Stars in X-ray binaries: what
can we learn from them?
The microwave background as a
blacklight for astronomy
The supermassive black hole and
circumnuclear disk in the center of M31
High Energy neutrino & cosmic-ray
astronomy (NOVA colloquium)
Eta Carinae: an astrophysical laboratory
(NOVA colloquium)
Aspects of the co-evolution of massive
black holes and galaxies
Mar 3
Martin Asplund (MPA)
Mar 13
Justin Kasper (MIT)
Mar 20
Frits Paerels (Colombia)
Mar 27
Apr 3
Håkan Svedhem (ESA)
Andrew Blain (Caltech)
Apr 10
Malcolm Fridlund (ESA)
Apr 17
Apr 18
Apr 24
Simon White (MPA)
Richard Schillizi (SKA)
Nahum Arav (University of
May 5
May 13
Pavel Kroupa (University of
Dominic Schnitzeler (Leiden)
May 15
Julian Krolik (Johns Hopkins)
May 29
Martin McCoustra
Xander Tielens (NASA Ames)
Remco v.d. Bosch (Leiden)
June 9
Sep 5
Sep 9
Sep 18
Lottie van Starkenburg
Gary Ferland (University of
Alice Shapley (UCLA)
Sep 23
Tim van Kempen (Leiden)
Sep 11
Lithiumin the early Universe:
signatures of physics beyond the
standard model?
Low frequency radio exploration of the
heliosphere (NOVA colloquium)
The high ionization intergalactic
Venus and Venus express
The astrophysics and evolution of dustenshrouded galaxies (NOVA
Recent exo-planetary results from the
CoRoT space mission
Galaxy halos at (very) high resolution
The square kilometer array
Measuring kinetic luminosity of quasar
outflows: results from VLT observations
and implications for AGN feedback
Dense stellar systems: The fundamental
building blocks of galaxies
Faraday tomography of the Galactic
ISM with the WSRT (PhD thesis
Dynamics of accretion discs around
black holes (NOVA colloquium)
Shining a little light on astronomical
PAHs and star formation
Giant Elliptical Galaxies (PhD student
Dynamics of high redshift disk galaxies
(PhD student colloquium)
The Orion environment and its
magnetic field
The Metallicities and Physical
Conditions in Star-forming Galaxies at
Probing Protostars: The physical
structure of gas and dust during lowmass star formation (PhD student
Sep 25
Okt 2
Okt 10
Okt 16
Joshua Bloom (University of
California, Berkeley)
Guy Worthey (Washington
Eric Herbst (Ohio State
Louis J. Allamandola (NASA
Okt 17
Christian Brinch (Leiden)
Okt 30
Andrew Collier Cameron
(University of St.Andrews)
Henk Hoekstra (Leiden
Frank v.d. Bosch (MPIA
Marcus Bruggen (Jacobs
University Bremen)
Simon Albrecht (Leiden
Nov 6
Nov 13
Nov 20
Nov 26
Nov 27
Dec 8
Dec 12
Michael Kramer (The
University of Manchester)
Didier Queloz (Geneva
Andrey Kravtsov (University
of Chicago)
GRBs in a Cosmology Context
Element by Element Abundances from
Integrated Light (NOVA colloquium)
Complex Interstellar Molecules
Astronomical Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons: Yesterday, Today, and
The evolving velocity field around
protostars (PhD student colloquium)
Sizing-up extrasolar planets
Weak Lensing by Large Scale Structure
The Galaxy-Dark Matter Connection
Simulations of feedback by active
galactic nuclei
Spectro-photometric observations of
eclipsing binaries and transitting
planets (PhD Colloquium)
Pulsars as a tool to probe fundamental
The Amazing Zoo of Extrasolar Planets
(Sackler lecture)
Modeling molecular gas and star
formation in cosmological simulations
V.4. Student Colloquia
Feb 16
Maurice Westmaas
Feb 21
Maarten van Hoven
Feb 23
Isa Oliveira
Mar 19
Olivera Rakic
Apr 24
Bart Clauwens
June 12
Floor Roduner
June 14
Robert Berkhout
July 05
Berry Holl
July 10
Art Bos
Aug 16
Reinier Tan
Aug 23
Christopher Bonnett
Sep 21
Oct 02
Adriaan Kroonenberg
Eveline van Scherpenzeel
Oct 16
Edo van Uitert
Nov 13
Silvia Toonen
Nov 20
Susanne Brown
The Characterization of Phaseplates for
an Astronomical Adaptive Optics Test
Tidal Excitation of Stellar Modes
During Close Gravitational Encounters
with an Intermediate Mass Black Hole
Multiwavelength Study of a New
Young Stellar Population in the
Serpens Molecular Cloud
Observations of the Intergalactic
Medium near Lyman Break Galaxies
Full 1-loop corrections to D-term
Inflation Potential
Grids in the Walraven photometric
system and their application to S
Norma and l Carinae
Evolution of the bursting-layer wave
during a Type-1 X-ray burst
Ionospheric calibration study for
IRS spectroscopy of Massive YSOs in
Implementation of two control
algorithms on HORATIO
Constraining Cosmology Using the Full
Lensing Surface Density Obtained by
Weak Lensing
Ionised gas in early-type galaxies
How many photons are needed to ionize
the Universe?
The measurement of weak gravitational
lensing: STEP4 & KISS
The kinematics of the ionized gas in
NGC 6946: Large and small scales
PAH emission, dust emission and
extinction in NGC253
Ernst de Mooij
Nov 23
Ann Marie Madigan
Dec 07
Mark den Brok
The colour-radius relation for lowredshift galaxies from the SDSS
Resonant Relaxation near Massive
Atomic and molecular gas around three
galactic H II regions
in scientific
in scientific
Planet formation processes and the development of prebiotic conditions
(Pasadena, CA, USA; March 18-21)
Cool Stars 15 (St Andrews, UK; July 21-25)
New light on young stars: Spitzer's view of circumstellar disks (Pasadena,
CA, USA; Oct 26-30)
ESTRELA Workshop (Bonn; April)
Radio Astronomy School (Siguenza, Spain; Aug 26- Sep 4)
EVN Symposium (Bologna; Sep23-26)
IRAM Interferometry School (Grenoble; Oct 6-10)
IAU Symposium, Cosmic Magnetic Field Conference (Tenerife; Nov 2-7)
The Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 5-8)
Correspondence between Concepts in Chemistry and Quantum Chemistry
(Valadalen, Sweden; Aug 25-28)
Interstellar Surfaces: From Laboratory to Models, Lorentz Center Workshop
(Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
3rd International Conference of the European Society for the History of
Science (Vienna, Austria; Sep 10-12)
KNAW / Huygens Instituut Symposium (Amsterdam; Nov 27-28)
‘Nut en nog eens nut’
Symposium (Utrecht; Dec 12)
‘Over de grens. Internationale contacten aan Nederlandse universiteiten sedert 1876’
ISM/CSM meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
IRS/CRIRES team meeting (Garching, Germany; May 12-14)
JENAM 2008 (Vienna, Austria; Sep 8-1)
‘New challenges to European astronomy’
IRS/CRIRES team meeting (Pasadena, USA; Oct 24-26)
5th Spitzer Conference (Pasadena USA; Oct 26-30)
‘New light on young stars: Spitzer's view of circumstellar disks’
ISM/CSM meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 7)
CW meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Jan 28-29)
‘Theory and spectroscopy’
ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands;Apr 21)
Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 5-8)
Lorentz Center Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 06-10)
NNV-AMO meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Oct 28-29)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 7)
SPIE meeting on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation (Marseille,
France; June 20-29)
400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Sep 29 - Oct
Fitting the spectral energy distribution of galaxies (Leiden, Netherlands;
Nov 17-20)
Dutch ISM/ICM meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
NAC (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
Wide-field imaging from Dome C (Exeter, UK; Mar 26-27)
Lorentz workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Sep 15-19)
‘Galaxies in Real Life and Simulation’
Lorentz Workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 17-21)
‘Fitting the spectral energy distribution of galaxies’
CU5 Pipeline Framework Workshop (Cambridge, UK; Jan 29-30)
Gaia calibration working group meeting (Villafranca del Castillo, Spain; Feb
Talk:‘Photometry calibration requests’
Gaia joint CU5/CU3 meeting (Barcelona, Spain; Apr 7-11)
Gaia DPAC radiation task force meeting (Cambridge, UK; Apr 14-15)
Gaia radiation calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands;
Apr 23)
Talk:‘Report on DPAC Radiation Task Force activities’
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Dalfsen, The Netherlands; May 7-9)
Poster: ‘Gaia mission preparations in the Netherlands’
Gaia calibration working group meeting (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Jun 12)
Gaia main data base meeting (Villafranca del Castillo, Spain; Jun 20)
ELSA Workshop on Software Engineering and Numerics (Barcelona, Spain;
Sep 1-5)
Gaia Radiation Calibration Working Group meeting (Toulouse, France; Sep
Gaia CU5 meeting (Edinburgh, UK; Sep 17-19)
Gaia IDT/FL coordination meeting (Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 1-2)
Talk: ‘Shape parameters for BP/RP spectra’
Gaia DPAC Radiation Task Force meeting (Cambridge, UK; Oct 6-7)
Classification and Discovery in Large Astronomical Surveys (Tegernsee,
Germany; Oct 14-17)
Invited talk: ‘Learning about Galactic structure with Gaia astrometry’
Gaia Calibration Working Group meeting (Toulouse, France; Dec 2)
Talk: ‘First DPAC inputs for Gaia Calibration Plan’
NAC (Dalfsen, The Netherlands; May 7-9)
Gaia Coordination Unit 5 (Edinburgh, UK; Sep 18-19)
'Photometric Processing'
ISSI team meeting (Bern, Switzerland; Jan 7-10)
IAU symposium 251 (Hong Kong, China; Feb 18-22)
Molecular Universe meeting (Arcachon, France; May 3-9)
Workshop Interstellar Surfaces (Leiden, The Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
AMO meeting (Lunteren, The Netherlands; Oct 28-29)
ISSI team meeting (Bern, Switzerland; Dec 2-4)
Graduate Course on Theoretical Chemistry and Spectroscopy (Han-surLesse, Belgium, Dec 15-19)
van Delft
Communicating Medicine: Objects and Objectives (Manchester, UK; Mar 67)
‘Museum Boerhaave and the History of Science’
NNV en de Industrie (Utrecht, Netherlands; Apr 11)
‘Museum Boerhaave en de industrie’
This week’s discoveries (Leiden, Netherlands; June 3)
‘The invention of the telescope’
Frederik Kaiser Symposium (Leiden, Netherlands; June 10)
ICEC22-ICNM2008 (Seoul, Korea; July 21-25)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the road to liquid helium’
Artificial Cold and International Cooperation in Science (Leiden,
Netherlands; Aug 4-8)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the road to liquid helium’
‘The Family Kamerlingh Onnes: Cold & Art’
400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Sep 29-Oct
Artefacts (Washington, US; Oct 5-7)
Over de grens. Internationale contacten aan Nederlandse universiteiten
sedert 1876 (Utrecht, Netherlands; Dec 12)
‘Koude drukte. Het laboratorium van Heike Kamerlingh Onnes als internationaal
centrum voor lage-temperaturenonderzoek’
Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII (Quebec, Canada;
2-5 Nov)
van Dishoeck
ISSI workshop: a new generation of databases for interstellar chemical
modeling (Bern, Switzerland; Jan 7-8)
‘Introduction to astrochemistry and its uses in astronomy’ (invited lecture)
‘Photoprocesses: rates and uncertainties’ (Invited lecture)
IAU Symposium 251: Organic matter in space (Hongkong, China; Feb 16-21)
‘Organic matter in space: an overview’ (invited review)
Molecular universe: physics and chemistry of the ISM (Paris, France; May 69)
‘Water in the universe’ (invited review)
From cores to disks: Spitzer-IRS + VLT-CRIRES meeting (Garching,
Germany; May 12-14)
JWST-MIRI science team meeting (Onsala, Sweden; May 28)
‘Gas in protoplanetary disks: where and when?’
KNAW symposium Telescopisch perspective (Amsterdam, Netherlands;
June 23)
‘ALMA: zooming in on the birthplaces of galaxies, stars and planets’ (invited lecture)
Herschel key program coordination and science exploitation workshop
(ESTEC, Netherlands; July 1-2)
‘Water in star-forming regions with Herschel’
Dalgarno celebratory symposium (Boston, USA; September 9-12)
‘Astrochemistry: building on Dalgarno's legacy’ (invited review)
Lorentz Center workshop Interstellar surfaces (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 610)
From cores to disks: Spitzer-IRS + VLT-CRIRES meeting (Pasadena, USA;
Oct 24-26)
‘Inner disk chemistry models’
New light on young stars: Spitzer's view of circumstellar disks(Pasadena,
USA; Oct 26-30)
‘Disks and their evolution: future prospects’ (summary review)
ELT-Science Working Group (Garching, Germany; Apr 2)
ELT-ESE (Garching, Germany; Apr 3)
Ultra-Vista planning meeting (Paris, France; Apr 21-22)
Nirspec Science Team meeting (Estec; May 7-8)
JWST Science Working Group meeting (Estec; July 9-10)
ESO Survey meeting (Garching, Germany; Sept 16)
ELT-Science Working Group (Garching, Germany; Oct 7)
ELT-ESE (Garching, Germany; Oct 8)
JWST Science Working Group meeting (Palo Alto; Oct 21-23)
Newfirm survey meeting (New Haven, USA; Nov 18-21)
Nirspec Science Team meeting (Heidelberg; Dec 8-10)
Cosmos science meeting (Paris; June 6)
EARA Herschel Meeting (IAP, Paris, France; Feb 18-19)
Probing Stellar populations out to the distant Universe (Cefalú, Sicily, Itay;
Sep 7-12)
Galaxy evolution from mass selected samples (Leiden, The Netherlands; Jan
28 - Feb 1)
Galaxies in Real Life and Simulations (Leiden, The Netherlands; Sep 15-19)
Putting Gravity to work (Cambridge, UK; July 21-25)
The Cool, Cooler and Cold - Cluster Cooling Flows in a New Light (Leiden,
Netherlands; Sept 8-12)
Understanding Lyman alpha Emitters (Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 6-10)
ESO UC Meeting (Garching, Germany; Apr 14-15)
CHFTLS-CARS shape measurements (Paris, France; May 28-30)
DUEL Workshop (Victoria, Canada; June 25-27)
Photometric Redshifts (London, UK; Sep 15)
PHAT - PHoto-z Accuracy Testing (Pasadena, USA; Dec 3-5)
The Cool, Cooler and Cold - Cluster Cooling Flows in a New Light (Leiden;
Sep 8-12)
SKA meeting (Dwingeloo; Nov 26-27)
CFHTLS Systematics Collaboration Meeting (Leiden, The Netherlands; Nov
Texas Symposium (Vancouver; Dec 8-12)
Les Houches Ecole de Physique (Les Houches, France; Feb 18-29)
`Physics and Astrophysics of Planetary Systems'
Galaxy evolution from mass-selected samples (Leiden, The Netherlands; Jan
28 - Feb 1)
’Emission line outflows - the evidence for AGN-induced feedback'
UltraVISTA science team meeting (Leiden, The Netherlands; Mar 18-20)
From exoplanets to galaxy clusters: science with Astro-WISE (Leiden, The
Netherlands; Mar 31 - Apr 3)
The fourth workshop on Compact Steep Spectrum and Gigahertz-Peaked
Spectrum Radio Sources (Riccione, Italy; May 26-29)
Invited review: 'The host galaxy properties of Compact Steep Spectrum and
Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum radio sources'
Astro-WISE tutorial (Leiden, The Netherlands; Aug 18-20)
ESO public surveys phase 2 workshop (Garching, Germany; Sep 15-17)
7th international LISA workshop (Barcelona; June 16-20)
‘Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals and Bursts’
[email protected] meeting (on LISA, Postdam; Sep 1-12)
‘The stochastic gravitational wave background from star-MBH fly-bys’
Lorentz Workshop "Symmetry" (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 11-14)
Dutch Astrophysics Days(Leuven, Belgium; Mar 25-26)
Astronomenconferentie (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 05-08)
Marie Curie Summer School on Laboratory Astrophysics (Boppard,
Germany; Aug 27-Sep 01)
Interstellar Surfaces, From Laboratory to Models (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct
06 - 10)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Nov 07)
Herschel Workshop (Paris, France; Feb 17-20)
Herschel Open Time Key Program Workshop (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Feb
The Central Kiloparsec. Active Galactic Nuclei and their Hosts (Heraklion,
Greece; June 4-6)
'Physical Cconditions of Central Molecular Gas Concentrations'
400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Sep 29 - Oct
ARENA Workshop: Astronomy in Antarctica (Paris, France; Oct 8)
'The caase for the Magellanic Clouds'
The First Science with LOFAR Surveys (Leiden, Netherlands; Dec 10-12)
The Universe Under a Microscope(Bad Honnef, Germany; Apr 20-25)
Supercomputing and Numerical Techniques in Astrophysics Fluid Flow
Modelling (Evora, Portugal; Feb 12-15)
Planet Formation Processes and the Development of Prebiotic
Environments (Pasadena, USA; Mar 17-21)
Dutch ISM/CSM meetings (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
Mini-Workshop on (M)HD (Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 4)
Origin and Evolution of Planets 2008 (Ascona, Switzerland; June 29-July 4)
Habitability in Our Galaxy (Edinburgh, Scotland; Oct 8-10)
Cosmic Magnetic Fields: from Planets, to Stars and Galaxies (Puerto
Santiago, Spain; Nov 3-7)
Meeting of the MIRI European Consortium (Villigen, Switzerland; Feb 26-29)
Discussion meeting on ELTs (London, UK; May 8)
Workshop of the E-ELT Design Reference Mission (Garching, Germany;
May 20-21)
Meeting of the MIRI European Consortium (Onsala, Sweden; May 28-30)
Progress meeting of METIS (Heidelberg, Germany, Sep 8)
Dot Astronomy Conference (Cardiff, UK; Sep 22-24)
Meeting of the METIS science team (Garching, Germany; Oct 15)
MIRI Technical Interchange Meeting (Didcot, UK; Dec 2-3)
Sixth IRAM Millimeter Interferometry School (Grenoble, France; Oct 6-10)
New Light on Young Stars: Spitzer's View of Circumstellar Disks (Pasadena,
CA, USA; Oct 26-30)
Title of poster presented: 'Quiescent phase mid-infrared variabiliy of EX Lupi-type
stars: clues to disk structure and accretion'
International Meeting on the Physics and Chemistry of the ISM (Arcachon,
France; May 6-9)
SLS Consortium Summer Meeting (Groningen, the Netherland; Sept 9-10)
Herschel Pre-Launch Data Processing Workshop (Madrid, Spain; Dec 4-5)
HIFI spectral survey data reduction workshop (Bonn, Germany; Dec 8-10)
Dutch Astrophysics Days (Leuven, Belgium; March 25-26)
'Mathematical Properties of the SimpleX Algorithm'
Cosmic Dust & Radiative Transfer (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 15-17)
'SimpleX Radiative Transfer on Unstructured Grids'
ISM/CSM meeting (Leiden, the Netherlands; Nov 7)
'Mass and Composition of the Dust in the Homunculus Nebula of Eta Carinae'
Team meeting MICADO ELT design study (ESo Garching, Germany; Jan 8)
Kick-off meeting EVALSO project (ESO Garching, Germany; Jan 9)
ESA Dark Energy Mission Concept Advisory Team (Estec; Noordwijk,
Netherlands, Jan 14-15)
ESA Dark Energy Mission Concept Advisory Team (Estec; Noordwijk,
Netherlands; Feb 20-21)
ESO Committee of Council (Stockholm, Sweden; Mar 3-4)
ESA Dark Energy Mission Concept Advisory Team (Estec, Noordwijk,
Netherlands; Mar 17)
ESO Council (Prague, Czeck Republic; Jun 3-4)
MICADO team meeting (Venice, Italy; Jun 6)
EARA Board meeting (Cambridge, UK; Jun 20)
DUEL network meeting (Victoria, Canada; Jun 25-28)
ESO Survey Definition Meeting (ESO Garching, Germany; Sep 15-17)
Symposium 400 Years of astronomical telescopes (Estec Noordwijk; Sep 29Oct 2)
ESO Committee of Council (Kopenhagen, Denmark; Oct 6-7)
i-Science workshop (Lorentz Center, Leiden; Oct 13-17)
Workshop 'Galaxy Surveys' (IAAP, Granada, Spain; Oct 22-24)
ESO Council (ESO Garching, Germany; Dec 2-3)
DUNE weak lensing working group (ETH Zürich, Switzerland; Dec 4)
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
Galaxies in Real Life and Simulations (Leiden, Netherlands; Sep 15-19)
Understanding Lyman alpha emitters (Heidelberg, Germany; Oct 6-10)
van Langevelde
eMERLIN evolved stars key project workshop (Manchester, UK; Apr 8-9)
‘eMERLIN, e-VLBI and the distances to evolved stars’
NAC 2008 (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
‘e-VLBI: a real-time telescope larger than Europe’
VSOP2 meeting (Bonn, Germany; May 14-15)
TERENA 2008 (Brugge, Belgium; May 19 - 22)
‘e-VLBI a telescope larger than Europe’
ASTRONET roadmap exercise (Liverpool, United Kingdom; June 16-19)
URSI General Assembly (Chicago, USA; Aug 10-15)
‘e-VLBI: a real-time telescope of international dimensions’
EVN symposium (Bologna, Italy; Sep 22-26)
"The future of the European VLBI Network"
Symposium 400yr telescope (Noordwijk, Netherlands; Sep 29 - Oct 2)
I-Science workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 14-15)
‘e_VLBI; a real-time telescope larger than Europe’
ALMA/EVLA/eMERLIN software workshop (Oxford, UK; Dec 2-3)
‘Advanced Long Baseline iinteroperable User Software’
ISSI meeting (Bern, Switzerland; Jan 07-10)
‘New generation of databases for astrochemicalmodelling’
CW meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Jan 28-29)
‘Theory and spectroscopy’
ISM/CSM meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 05-08)
Infrared plasma spectroscopy meeting (Greifswald, Germany; Jul 23-25)
MOLEC XVII (St. Petersburg, Russia; Aug 24-28)
Interstellar surfaces, from laboratory to models (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 0610)
NNV-AMO meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Oct 28-29)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 7)
Dutch ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
Nederlandse Astronomenconferentie (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
Dutch ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 7)
JENAM-AG Tagung (Vienna, Austria; Sep 8-12)
IAU Symposium 258 (Baltimore, USA; Oct 13-17)
'The ages of the Stars'
Van Lunteren
Conference Teaching the History of Science (Gent, Belgium; Feb 6)
'History of Science in the Netherlands'
3rd ESHS Conference (Vienna, Austria; Sep 10-12)
'Dutch culture, science and causality'
Annual Meeting History of Science Society (Pittsburgh, USA; Nov 6 - 9)
'The Metric Convention and its aftermath: rivalries, loyalties and controversies'
Conference 'Nut en nog eens nut?' KNAW (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nov
27 - 28)
'Eenvoud als ornament; het zelfbeeld van de Nederlandse wetenschap in de
negentiende eeuw'
MODEST 8a Workshop (Heidelberg, Germany; Mar 12-14)
GSD2008 Conference (Strasbourg, France; Mar 16-20)
Frontiers in Numerical Gravitational Astrophysics (Sicily, Italy; June 27- July
NOVA Fall School (Netherlands Oct 6-10)
Gaia Coordination Unit 5 (Barcelona, Spain; Apr 8-9)
'Photometric Processing'
NAC (Dalfsen, The Netherlands; May 7-9)
Gaia Coordination Unit 5 (Edinburgh, UK; Sep 18-19)
'Photometric Processing'
EARA Workshop (IAP, Paris, France; Feb 18-19)
‘Herschel promises on galaxy evolution’
JWST-MIRI European Consortium Meeting (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland; Feb
JWST-MIRI Test Team Meeting (RAL, Didcot, United Kingdom; Apr 28-29)
Congreso Colombiano de Astronomia y Astrofisica (Medellin, Colombia;
Aug 12-15)
NOVA Fall School (ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
MIRI Technical Interchange Meeting (RAL, Didcot, UK; Dec 3)
Interstellar Surfaces (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
‘From Laboratory to Models’
Workshop on UNAWE materials (Lorentz Center, Leiden, Netherlands; Feb
25 – 29 )
IAU Regional Meeting (Cairo, Egypt; Mar 4 – 10)
IAU TAD School (Ulan Bator, Mongolia; July 22 – 29)
Workshop on LOFAR Surveys (LC, Leiden, Netherlands; Dec 10 - 13)
Workshop on Science with the EVLA (Socorro, NM, USA; Dec 16 – 18)
De Mooij
IAU symposium 253 (Cambridge, MA, USA; May 19-23)
‘Transiting Planets’
Molecules in the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets (Paris, France; Nov 1921)
IAU 251 (Hong Kong, China; Feb 18-22)
‘ Organic Matter in Space’
The Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 5-8)
‘An International Meeting on the Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium’
CW meeting Theory and spectroscopy (Lunteren, Netherlands; Jan 28-29)
ISM/CSM meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
Interstellar surfaces, from laboratory to models (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 610)
NNV-AMO meeting (Lunteren, Netherlands; Oct 28-29)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 7)
ISSI meeting (Bern, Switzerland; Dec 02-04)
‘New generation of databases for astrochemical modelling’
NOVA School (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
The Ages of Stars (Baltimore, USA; Oct 12-17)
New Light on Young Stars (Pasadena, USA; Oct 26-30)
‘Spitzer's View of Circumstellar Disks’
Dutch Astrophysics Days (Leuven, Belgie; Mar 25-26)
'First Light in the Primordial Gas'
Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (Blankenberge, Belgie; May 19-21)
Frontiers in Computational Astrophysics: The Origin of Stars, Planets and
Galaxies (Ascona, Switserland; July 13-18)
'Triangulating Radiation: Improvements and New Results of the SimpleX Method'
Cosmological Radiative Transfer Comparison Project Workshop (Austin,
Texas, USA; Dec 8-10)
'SimpleX: Radiative Transfer on an Unstructured, Dynamic Grid'
NAC Annual Meeting (Utrecht, Netherlands; Jan 18)
Early Phase of Planet Formation (Bad Honnef, Germany; Feb 18-22)
Gasps Meeting (Edinburgh, UK; July 17-18)
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Dalfsen, The Netherlands; May 7-9)
Frontiers in Computational Astrophysics (Ascona, Switzerland; Jul 13-18)
‘The Origin of Stars, Planets and Galaxies’
Radiative Transfer Workshop (Austin, Texas, USA; Dec 8-10)
Gaia Radiation Task Force Meeting (Cambridge, UK; Apr 14-15)
'Theoretical and Empirical Modelling of CTI'
Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers School (Blankenberge, Belgium;
May 18-21)
Gaia Java Workshop (Madrid, Spain; Jun 16-19)
ELSA Workshop on Software Engineering and Numerics (Barcelona, Spain;
Sep 1-5)
'Theoretical and Empirical Modelling of CTI'
Gaia Radiation Task Force Meeting (Cambridge, UK; Oct 6-7)
'New features of CEMGA'
The First Two Billion Years of Galaxy Formation (Aspen, USA; Feb 11-15)
Galaxy Evolution from Mass-Selected Samples (Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 28 Feb 1)
Galaxies in Real Life and Simulations (Leiden, Netherlands; Sep 15-19)
ELSA workshop on Software Engineering and Numerics (Barcelona, Spain;
Sep 1-5)
CU2 Cycle 6 kick-off meeting (Besancon, France; Oct 23-24)
The Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 5-8)
‘An international meeting on the Physics and Chemistry of the interstellar medium’
Lorentz center workshop (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
‘Interstellar surfaces, from laboratory to models ‘
32nd Annual Meeting NNV AMO (Lunteren, Netherlands; Oct 28-29)
SKA Ss2 - T1 Meeting (Lisbon, Portugal; Jan 7)
XMM-LSS workshop (Paris, France; Apr 13-16)
‘Radio galaxies as tracers of the large scale structure’
Radio Galaxies in the Chandra (Cambridge, MA, Jul 6-10)
‘Two distinct accretion processes in radio galaxies.’
Scientific workshop - Astrophysics with E-LOFAR (Hamburg, Germany;
Sept 16-19)
‘The Survey Key Programme.’
ESO workshop on large programmes (Garching, Germany; Oct 13-15)
Euclid-NIS consortium meeting (Bologna, Italy; Oct 20)
The Starburst-AGN Connection Conference (Shanghai, China, Oct 27-31)
‘Two distinct accretion processes in AGN: A multiwavelength study in the XMMLSS field’
SKA workshop ( Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Nov 26-27)
‘Extragalactic science with SKA ‘
The first Science with LOFAR surveys (Leiden, Netherlands; Dec 10-12)
‘The survey key programme’
Sixth IRAM Millimeter Interferometry School (Grenoble, France; Oct 5-9)
Poster Presentation = 'Captured at Millimeter Wavelengths: a Flare from the
Classical T Tauri Star DQ Tau'
Galaxy evolution from mass-selected samples (Leiden, Netherlands; Jan 28Feb 1)
‘Progress on simulating galaxy formation’
Theory in the Virtual Observatory (Garching, Germany; Apr 7-11)
‘Overwhelmingly Large Simulations’ (invited review)
LOFAR EoR science team meeting (Groningen, Netherlands; Apr 15-16)
MUSE science team meeting (Potsdam, Germany; May 28-30)
Far away: Light in the young universe at redshift beyond three (Paris,
France; Jul 7-11)
‘Star formation and feedback processes at z > 3’ (invited talk)
COSPAR-08: The Interplay between the Interstellar and Intergalactic Media
from High Redshifts to the Present (Montreal, Canada; Jul 13-15)
‘Simulations and observations of the interaction between galaxies and the intergalactic
medium’ (invited review)
Galaxies in real life and simulations (Leiden, the Netherlands; Sep 15-19)
‘Insights from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project’
The Impact of Simulations in Cosmology and Galaxy Formation (Trieste,
Italy; Oct 20-22)
‘Simulating the formation of galaxies and the evolution of the intergalactic medium’
(invited review)
LOFAR EoR science team meeting (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Nov 11-13)
DUEL Network Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Feb 4-6)
Astro-WISE Workshop 2008 (Leiden, Netherlands; Mar 31 - Apr 3)
CFHTLS Systematics Collaboration Meeting (Paris, France; May 28-30)
DUEL Network Meeting (Victoria, Canada; June 25-27)
CFHTLS Systematics Collaboration Meeting (Victoria, Canada; June 27)
OZ Lens 2008 (Sydney, Australia; Sep 29 - Oct 03)
CFHTLS Systematics Collaboration Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 2022)
MUSE workshop (Frejus, France; June 2-05)
MUSE workshop (Aussois, France; Dec 8-12)
LOFAR SETI workshop (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; June 12-13)
Molecules in extrasolar planet atmospheres workshop (Paris, France; Nov
The first Science with LOFAR surveys (Leiden, Netherlands; Dec 10-12)
SPIE conference on Astronomical Instrumentation, Adaptive Optics System
(Marseille, France; June 23-28)
‘ASSIST: The test setup for the VLT AO facility ‘
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: From Astroids to Cosmology (Chicago, USA;
Aug 15-18)
ESTRELA Workshop (Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Jan 15-18)
ESTRELA workshop (Bonn, Germany; Apr 7-11)
NAC (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
YERAC (Gothenburg, Sweden; June 23-26)
9th EVN Symposium (Bologna, Italy; Sep 23-26)
van de Voort
Nederlandse Astronomen Conferentie (Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9)
‘Poster (2nd prize poster contest): "Hot and cold accretion in galaxy formation. How
does gas enter galaxies?"
Frontiers in computational astrophysics: the origin of stars, planets and
galaxies (Ascona, Switzerland; July 13-18)
NOVA fall school (Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 6-10)
Talk: ‘Hot and cold accretion’
van der Werf
HerCULES: the Herschel Comprehensive (U)LIRG Emission Survey (Paris,
France; Feb 18 - 19)
‘The Herschel legacy for galaxy evolution’
Challenges in infrared extragalactic astrophysics (Hersonissos, Crete, Greece;
Sep 15 - 19)
‘Dense molecular gas in LIRGs and ULIRGs’
The starburst-AGN connection (Shanghai, China; Oct 27 - Nov 1)
‘The central parsecs of Cen A: exploring the monster's lair’
van Uitert
The dark side of the Universe through extragalactic gravitational lensing
(Leiden, The Netherlands; Feb 4-6)
Shear-measurement workshop (Paris, France; May 28-30)
Upcoming lensing surveys: beyond the obvious (Toronto, Canada; Jun 11-13)
Dark Universe through Extragalactic Lensing (DUEL) workshop (Victoria,
Canada; Jun 25-27)
OZ Lens 2008: Dark matter, dark energy and dark ages with gravitational
lensing (Sydney, Australia; Sep 29-Oct 3)
IAU Symposium 251: Organic Matter in Space (Hong Kong, China; Feb 1822)
‘Chemical changes during transport from cloud to disk’
Dutch ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Apr 21)
Dutch ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, the Netherlands; Nov 7)
‘The chemical history of ices in protoplanetary disks’
Herschel meeting (IAP Paris, France, Feb 18-19)
Gas and stars in galaxies - a multiwavelength 3D prespective, ESO
(Garching, Germany; Jun 9-13)
Cosmic Dust Near and Far (Heidelberg, Germany; Sept 8-12)
Fitting the spectral energy distributions of galaxies (Leiden; Nov 17-21)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 21)
Molecular Universe (Arcachon, France; May 5-8)
Marie Curie Summer School on Laboratory Astrophysics (Boppard,
Germany; Aug 27-Sep 01)
Marie Curie Network Meeting (Boppard, Germany, Sep 1-5)
Interstellar Surfaces, From Laboratory to Models (Leiden, Netherlands; Oct
06 -10)
ISM/CSM Meeting (Leiden, Netherlands; Nov 07)
Atlas3D teammeeting (Lyon, France; Feb 18-20)
Galactic Structure and the Structure of Galaxies (Ensenada, Mexico; Mar 1721)
Gas and Stars in Galaxies: a multi-wavelength 3D perspective (Garching,
Germany; June 10-13)
Atlas3D teammeeting (Garching, Germany; Aug 4-6)
Galaxy Evolution: Emerging Insights and Future Challenges (Austin, USA,
Nov 11-14)
Atlas3D teammeeting (Saclay, France; Dec 10-12)
The First Two Billion Years of Galaxy Formation workshop (Aspen, CO,
USA; Feb 11-15)
Building the Milky Way workshop (Santa Barbara, CA, USA; Nov 3-4)
TNG (La Palma, Spain; Apr 12-13)
WHT (La Palma, Spain; Apr 14-15)
IRAM 30m (Granada, Spain; Apr 13-22)
IRAM 30m (Granada, Spain, Augt 6-8)
JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; June 19-23)
JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Oct 20-24)
William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Oct 24-28)
NTT 3.5 m (La Silla, Chile; Feb 03-05)
ATCA (Narrabri, Australia; Jun 26 - Jul 13)
ATCA (Narrabri, Australia; Jul 27 - Aug 5)
Australian Telescope (Narrabri, Australia; Sep 3 – 12)
De Mooij
1.5m Telescopio Carlos Sanchez (Tenerife, Spain; May 25 - Jun 1)
4.2m William Herschell Telescope (La Palma, Spain; July 1-3)
IRAM 30 m (Pico Veleta, Spain; Mar 20-24)
VLT (Paranal, Chile; Feb 20-26)
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (Hawaii, USA; Sep 06-14)
Combined Array for Millimetre Astronomy (California, USA; Sep 22-29)
Kitt Peak Observatory 4 m (Tucson, USA; Mar 31 - Apr 6)
Keck 10 m (Hawaii, USA; Sep 23-26)
SMA (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Mar)
Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College (Wellesley, MA, USA; Dec 19-31)
INT 2.5m (La Palma, Spain; May 13-18)
ATCA (Narrabri, Australia; Mar 22-24)
eSMA (Hawaii, USA; July 27-28)
JCMT (Hawaii, USA; July 29-Aug 2)
JCMT (Hilo, HI, USA; June 15-18)
van der Burg
JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Nov)
van der Werf
JCMT (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA; Apr 16 - 26)
van Dishoeck
APEX (San Pedro, Chile; Nov 9-11)
VLT-CRIRES (Paranal, Chile; Dec 29-31)
NTT 3.5 m (La Silla, Chile; Feb 3 - 5)
William Herschel Telescope (La Palma, Spain; Feb 27 - Mar 4)
NOAO Kitt Peak 4 m (Arizona, USA; Dec 21-25)
JILA, University of Colorado (Boulder, CO, USA; 24 Mar-4 Apr)
Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge ( Cambridge, UK; 8-19 Sep)
Working visit (Bonn, Germany; May & Oct)
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Feb 2529)
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; May
Caltech, (Pasadena, US; Jun 3 - Aug 1)
Caltech, (Pasadena, USA; Oct 10 - Nov 2)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; Feb 13-14)
Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen, Switzerland; Feb 26-29)
Zeiss (Oberkochem, Germany; Apr 14-15)
ESO (Garching, Germany; May 7)
ESO (Garching, Germany; May 20-21)
Onsala Space Observatory (Onsala, Sweden; May 27-30)
CEA Saclay (Saclay, France; June 3)
UK-ATC (Edinburgh, UK; July 23)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; Sep 8-9)
MPE (Garching, Germany; Oct 14-15)
CEA Saclay (Saclay, France; Nov 5)
Rutherford Appleton Lab (Oxford, UK; Dec 2-3)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Jul 15-18)
Osservatorio Astronomico "Collurania" (Teramo; Italy, Oct 6-23)
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (Bonn, Germany; Jun 10-12)
Several visits to CAUP (Porto, Portugal)
Observatoir de Cote d'Azur (Nice, France; Sep 23)
Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland; Feb 7--8)
Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Monte Porzio, Italy; June 24-27)
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH, USA; Sept 21-29)
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 10-12)
van Dishoeck
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Jan 13-27)
ETH (Zürich, Switzerland; Jan 14)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Feb 4-5)
Paul Scherrer Institute (Villagen, Switzerland; Feb 28)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Feb 29-Mar 3)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Mar 17-20)
ETH (Zürich, Switzerland; Mar 25-26)
ESO (Paranal, Chile; Mar 27-29)
APEX (San Pedro, Chile; Mar 30-31)
ALMA offices (Santiago, Chile; Apr 1-4)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Apr 19-29)
University of San Diego (San Diego, USA; May 2)
Annual Reviews (Palo Alto, USA; May 3)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; May 10-18)
Onsala Space Observatory (Onsala, Sweden; May 28-29)
Geneva Observatory (Geneva, Switzerland; June 3)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; June 7-16)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; July 30-Aug 7)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Aug 23-31)
Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, USA; Sept 9-12)
IAS (Dublin, Ireland; Sept 18)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Sept 26)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Oct 11-19)
California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, USA; Oct 24-26)
APEX (San Pedro, Chile; Nov 8-11)
ALMA offices (San Pedro, Chile; Nov 12-14)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Nov 20-24)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Nov 30-Dec 3)
MPI für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany; Dec 16-20)
Harvard College Observatory (Cambridge, USA; July 26-Aug 8)
University of California (Santa Cruz, USA; May 20-25)
University of California (Santa Cruz, USA; Oct 24)
Yale University (New Haven, USA; May 26-29)
Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg (Strasboug, France; 3 Feb - 2 Mar
MPA, Garching, Germany, 14-18 Oct 2008)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Apr 3)
ESO (Garching, Germany; May 6-9)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Aug 1-31)
Argelander-Insitut für Astronomie (Bonn, Germany; Feb 21-22)
Argelander-Insitut für Astronomie (Bonn, Germany; Mar 20)
Institute d'Astrophysique (Paris, France; Apr 9-11)
University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada; Jun 23-24)
Royal Observatory (Edinburgh, UK; Aug 4-6)
Argelander-Insitut für Astronomie (Bonn, Germany; Aug 7-8)
Argelander-Insitut für Astronomie (Bonn, Germany; Nov 24)
San Francisco State University (San Francisco, USA; Nov 9-11)
University of Victoria (Victoria, Canada; Dec 1-5)
Isaac Newton Group (La Palma, Spain; Apr 7-17)
Department of Physics & Astronomy, Sheffield University (Sheffield, UK; July
Department of Physics & Astronomy, Sheffield University (Sheffield, UK; Nov
Editorial Board European Physics News (Lisbon, Portugal; Oct 4)
European Interferometry Initiative (Porto, Portugal; Mar 9-19)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; Apr 10-11 )
ESO (Garching, Germany; Apr 13-16)
European Interferometry Initiative Summer School(Keszthely, Hungary; June
MPIfR (Bonn, Germany; June 16-17)
Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (Granada, Spain; Oct 21-22)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; Nov 5-7)
Observatoire de Nice (Nice, France; Nov 19-21)
MPIfR (Bonn, Germany; Dec 14-17)
In the context of METIS instrument and MUSE instrument studies
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Didcot, UK; July 9-11)
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Didcot, UK; Sep 18-21)
University of Texas (Austin, USA; Oct 27 - Nov 17)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; June 17-21)
MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany; July 21-26)
Observatoire de Paris (Paris, France; July 24-25)
Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany; Dec 10-11)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Leuven, Belgium; Jan 22)
IPS Board meeting, INP( Greifswald, Germany; July 25)
CAMOP meeting (St. Petersburg, Russia; Aug 27)
[email protected] (Canberra, Australia; Jul 17-26)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Board Meeting (Bonn, Germany; May 3)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Jan 29-31)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; July 15-18)
Osservatorio Astronomico "Collurania" (Teramo, Italy; Oct 6-10)
Martinez Galarza
MIRI VM1 Test Campaign (RAL, Didcot, United Kingdom; Jan 22-31)
JWST-MIRI European Consortium Meeting (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland; Feb 2629)
JWST-MIRI Test Team Meeting (RAL, Didcot, UK; Apr 28-29)
MIRI VM2 Test Campaign (RAL, Didcot, UK; Aug 29-Sep 5)
MIRI VM2 Test Campaign (RAL, Didcot, UK; Sep 13-18)
MIRI VM2 Test Campaign (RAL, Didcot, UK; Sep 24-28)
MIRI wavelength calibration (K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Nov 3-7)
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Madrid, Spain; Dec 29)
IAU Strategic Development Brainstorm (IAP, Paris, France; Jan 27- 29)
IAU EC, Norwegian Academy of Sciences (Oslo, Norway; May 15–18)
ERC Advanced Fellowship Committee (Brussels, Belgium; Apr 22–24)
UNAWE Discussions with EU Parliamentarians (EU Brussels, Belgium; 23
ERC Advanced Fellowship Committee (Brussels, Belgium; June 24–26)
Attendance at UNAWE Manifestation and visit to UNAWE-UNESCO Schools
(Merida, Venezuela; Nov 16–19)
UNAWE discussions with Venezuelan officials, (Caracas, Venezuela; Nov 20)
Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) (Garching, Germany;
Oct 13-17)
Cergy-Pontoise University/Observatoire de Paris, (Cergy-Pontoise, France;
Caltech (Pasadena, USA; Jan 1-Mar 15)
MPE (Garching, Germany; Apr 20-May 15)
Caltech (Pasadena, USA; Oct 20-Nov 7)
Institute for Computational Cosmology (Durham, UK; Feb 23-Mar 21)
Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy - MPIA, Star-Formation Dept.
(Heidelberg, Germany; Mar 30-Apr 4)
Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics (Boston, USA; Sep 3)
California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, USA; Sep 30)
Caltech (Pasadena, USA; Dec 11-Dec 16)
CfA (Cambridge, USA; Nov 30-Dec 7)
CITA (Toronto, Canada; Nov 2 -Nov 30)
MPA (Garching, Germany; Jan 15-April 15)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, England; Mar 25-May 2)
Instituto de Astrofisica (Tenerife, Spain; Aug 7-22)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, England; Sep 29-Oct 10)
National Optical Astronomical Observatory (Tucson, USA; Mar 27-30)
Yale University (New Haven, USA; Jun 16-July 4)
Yale University (New Haven, USA; Aug 4-8)
Yale University (New Haven, USA; Nov 17-21)
Caltech (Pasadena, US, Jan 18-Feb 4, Sep 13-Sep 22; Sep 27-Oct 3)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Aug 11-15)
Institute of Astronomy (Cambridge, UK; Nov 9-22)
Royal Observatory, (Edinburgh, Scotland; Jan 17-19)
Spitzer Tag (Pasadena, USA; Feb 11-13
Centre for Astrophysics, Science & Technology Research
Institute (Hertfordshire, UK; Mar 26-27)
ESO-OPC (Garching, Germany; May 25-30)
ESO-OPC (Garching, Germany; Nov 17-21)
Wellesley College (Wellesley, MA, USA; Dec 19-31)
Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton, USA; Feb 20-29)
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (Garching, Germany; Aug 18-19)
Bonn University (Bonn, Germany; Feb 14-15)
KIPAC (Stanford, USA; Sep 25-26)
Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (Lyon, France; Nov 06-07)
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Toulouse-Tarbes (Toulouse, France; Nov 1219)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Jan 1 Jan 13)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Jan 24)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Feb 9 Feb 24)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Mar 13 31)
Stuik Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA;
Apr 17 - May 4)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; May 17 30)
CRAL Conference Center (Frejus, France; June 2 - 5)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; July 2 Aug 2)
Rayleigh Optical Corporation, Baltimore, USA; July 8)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Aug 14 Sep 16)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Sep 24 - 26)
Observatoire de Lyon (Lyon, France; Oct 14-15)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Oct 18 Nov 3)
Saclay (Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Nov 5)
AMOS (Liege, Belgium; Nov 18)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Nov 21 Dec 6)
Observatoire de Lyon (Lyon, France; Dec 17-20)
Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, UChicago (Chicago, USA; Dec 20 31)
ATNF (Sydney, Australia; Mar 24-28)
Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics (Manchester, UK; Sept 3-Dec 18)
Van Uitert
University of Victoria (Victoria, Canada; Mar 18-Apr 1)
University of Victoria (Victoria, Canada; Jun 14-Jul 19)
Denison University (Granville, Ohio, USA; Jan. 17-Feb. 1)
MPE (Garching, Germany; June 9-13)
MPE (Garching, Germany; Oct. 14-17)
ESO (Santiago, Chile; Jan 2-Feb 2)
ESO (Santiago, Chile; Apr 7-Apr 25)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Leuven; Belgium, Jan 21-22)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Leuven; Belgium, Apr 28-May 01)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Leuven; Belgium, Jul 14-18)
van der Werf
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Chilton, England, UK; Jan 30-31)
Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (Heidelberg, Germany; Feb 12-13)
Cardiff University (Cardiff, Wales, UK; Mar 12-14)
Universite Laval (Quebec City, Canada; June 3-4)
University College London (London, England, UK; June 16)
European Southern Observatory (Garching, Germany; Oct 15)
NRAO - Very Large Array (Socorro NM, USA; Dec 8-9)
Joint Astronomy Center (Hilo HI, USA; Dec 11-12)
IAS (Princeton, USA; Jan 7-11)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Feb 4-8)
University of Oxford (Oxford, UK; Apr 21-25)
University of Durham (Durham, UK; Apr 28 - May 1)
ESO (Garching, Germany; June 16-20)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Aug 7-8)
ESO (Garching, Germany; Oct 20-24)
ESO (Garching, Germany; March 4-18)
Yale University (New Haven, CT, USA; June 15-29)
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH, USA; June 30-July 3)
outside Leiden
outside Leiden
Spectral Mapping of the Central Regions of M82
Nederlands Astronomen Confrerentie, Dalfsen, Netherlands; May 7-9
History, Technology, and Science of the Spitzer Space Telescope
NAC annual meeting, Utrecht, Netherlands; Jan 18
Instruments under Study for the E-ELT, in particular METIS
BICEAI meeting Brussels, Belgium; Feb 22
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie
Bonn, Germany; Jan 31
Wolf-Rayet galaxies - a survey using the SDSS
CAUP, Porto, Portugal; Apr 30
Wolf-Rayet galaxies at high and low redshift: When individual stars make an impact on
their galaxies
IAP, Paris, France; Oct 10
Gaia - Taking the Galactic Census
Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; Feb 7
Radiation damage effects and their management for the Gaia mission
ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Jun 5
Crowding Evaluation for BP/RP
Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh, UK; Sep 18
Surface processes on interstellar grains
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany; Nov 11
Kinetics of surface processes
Institute for Chemistry, Leiden, Netherlands; June 4
van Dishoeck
VLT-CRIRES observations of protoplanetary disks: where is the gas inside gaps?
European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany; January 22
Building planets and the ingredients of life between the stars (Niels Bohr lecture)
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; April 23
Gas and dust evolution in protoplanetary disks
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; April 24
Gas and dust evolution in protoplanetary disks
University of San Diego, San Diego, USA; May 2
Gas and dust evolution in protoplanetary disks
Geneva Observatory, Geneva, Switzerland; June 3
Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg
Strasbourg, France; Feb 21
Astronomy Dept. Sheffield University
Sheffield, UK; May 21
Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University
Liverpool, UK; Dec 3
Public Release of the GaBoDS - ESO Deep Public Survey WFI Data with ADP
Garching, Germany; Apr 15
Measurements of halo masses at high redshift using Lyman-break galaxy clustering
Groningen, Netherlands; June 4
PHAT - recent developments & future plans
Victoria, Canada; June 25
Turning galaxy clustering at high-z into a precision tool
Edinburgh, UK; Aug 4
Activities within PHAT
London, UK; Sep 15
PHAT - PHoto-z Accuracy Testing
Pasadena, USA; Dec 3
Lensing by large scale structure
San Francisco State University, USA; Nov 10
Resolving the molecular gas in protoplanetary disks
Nijmegen,Netherlands; Apr 3
Emission line outflows - the evidence for AGN-induced feedback
ING, La Palma, Spain; April 16
Stellar dynamics near massive black holes
Nijmegen, Netherlands; Nov 18
Radiation hydrodynamics of binary stars
Leuven, Belgium, Mar 26
Communicating Science NOVA Autumn School
Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Oct 7
Planetesimal formation in turbulent protoplanetary discs
UC Berkeley, USA; Mar 26
Evening lecture Analytical Chemistry
Lunteren, Netherlands
General physics colloquium RUG
Groningen, Netherlands; Nov 27
Sydney, Australia; Jul 22
van Lunteren
Wetenschap en cultuur
Huizinga Instituut, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 6
Determinisme en vrijheid rond 1900
Metamedica, VU, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Apr 23
Frederik Kaiser als popularisator
Kaiser Symposium, Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, Netherlands; June 10
Chromaticity and BP/RP shape parameters Institute for Astronomy
Edinburgh, UK; Sep 18
Probing the Early Universe with Radio Galaxies
Ulan Bator, Mongolia; July 28
CIDA, Merida, Venezuela; Nov 19
From Dust to Gas: The History of Interstellar Ices from Cloud Cores to Protoplanetary
ESA-Estec, Noordwijk, The Netherlands; June 6
Disk Evolution in Serpens
Yale University, Yale; Jan 17
SimpleX: Radiative Transfer on an Unstructured, Dynamic Grid LANL
Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA; Dec 17
Gas and Dust Distribution in Discs around Young Low-Mass Stars
Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; July 17
Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics , Boston, USA; Sep 3
Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii Honolulu, USA; Sep 17
California Institute of Technology Pasadena, USA; Sep 30
TRAPHIC - Radiative Transfer for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics MPA
Garching, Germany; Apr 1
Cosmic Reionization Simulations
CITA Toronto, Canada; Nov 27
Cosmic Reionization Simulations
CfA Cambridge, USA; Dec 5
Cosmic Reionization Simulations Caltech
Pasadena, USA; Dec 16
Theoretical and Empirical Modelling of CTI
Cambridge, UK; Apr 14
Theoretical and Empirical Modelling of CTI
Dwingeloo, Netherlands; Jun 5
Theoretical and Empirical Modelling of CTI
Barcelona, Spain; Sep 1
New features of CEMGA
Cambridge, UK; Oct 6
LOFAR: Opening up a new window on the Universe
Bonn, Germany; Jan 24-25
Meudon,France; Jun 1
Geneva, Switzerland; Nov 11
Berkeley USA; Feb 8
Sussex, UK; Jun 6
Captured at millimeter wavelengths: a flare from the Classical T Tauri star DQ Tau
CfA, Cambridge, MA, USA; Dec 19
First results from OWLS: the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project
Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA; Feb 26
First results from OWLS: the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project
New York University, New York, USA; Feb 28
Simulating the formation of galaxies
Joint ESO/MPA/MPE, Garching, Germany; Oct 9
Measuring Cosmological Weak Lensing using HST/ACS Bonn University
Bonn, Germany; Feb 15
Constraining the ellipticity of galaxy-scale dark matter haloes with weak lensing in the
Stanford, USA; Sep 26
Transiting extrasolar planets
Groningen, Netherlands; Feb 4
What is brewing at the sites of methanol masers
Bonn, Germany; Apr 8
The 6.7 GHz methanol maser in Cepheus A
Gothenburg, Sweden; June 24
Methanol masers in Cepheus A
Bologna, Italy; Sept 24
van der Werf
How do starburst galaxies work?
Kapteyn Institute, Groningen, Netherlands; Nov 10
Gas and ice during low-mass star formation
Denison University, Granville, Ohio, USA; Jan 28
Dust in nearby galaxies
ESO, Santiago, Chile; Jan 23
The Sombrero galaxy's dust ring
ESO, Santiago, Chile; Apr 25
Dark matter in early-type galaxies: a SAURON view
STScI, Baltimore, USA; Oct 31
University of Princeton, USA; Nov 3
CITA, Toronto, Canada; Nov 7
University of California, Santa Cruz, USA; Nov 17
Herzberg Institute, Victoria, Canada; Nov 20
Warm-Hot Baryons at z=0
ESO, Garching, Germany; Mar 12
"Dead and Alive" Galaxy Populations to z=2.5
ESO, Garching, Germany; Mar 18
The Evolution of Quiescent Galaxies over 11 Gyr CfA
Cambridge, MA, USA; Oct 24
Princeton, NJ, USA; Oct 27
Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA; Oct 28
Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA, USA; Oct 31
Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA; Nov 6
Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Nov 7
Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA; Nov 13
X.1. Ph.D. Theses and Books
S. Albrecht, Stars and planets at high spatial and spectral resolution, Ph.D.
thesis, Leiden University, December 2008.
D. Baneke , Synthetisch denken. Natuurwetenschappers over hun rol in een
moderne maatschappij 1900-1940 (Uitgeverij Verloren, Hilversum, 2008).
C. Brinch , The evolving velocity field around protostars, Ph.D. thesis, Leiden
University, October 2008.
D. van Delft , De telescoop; erfenis van een Nederlandse uitvinding (Bert
Bakker, Amsterdam, 2008).
D. van Delft , Jacht op het absolute nulpunt; ontdekkingsreizen in de wereld
van de zeer lage temperaturen (Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2008).
D. van Delft , J. Polak , Eene verzameling ontplofbare toestellen: de juridische
strijd van Kamerlingh Onnes om de koudste plek op aarde (Kluwer, Alphen
a/d Rijn, 2008).
D. H. F. M. Schnitzeler , Faraday tomography of the galactic ISM with the
WSRT, Ph.D. thesis, Leiden University, May 2008.
C. Tasse , Host galaxies and environment of active galactic nuclei. A study of
the XMM large scale structure survey, Ph.D. thesis, Leiden University, January
R. C. E. van den Bosch , Giant elliptical galaxies. Kinematically de-coupled
cores and massive black holes, Ph.D. thesis, Leiden University, September
T. A. van Kempen , Probing protostars. The physical structure of gas and dust
during low-mass star formation, Ph.D. thesis, Leiden University, October
L. van Starkenburg , Dynamics of high redshift disk galaxies, December 2008.
X.2. Articles in Refereed Journals
K. Acharyya, G. W. Fuchs, H. J. Fraser, E. F. van Dishoeck, and H. Linnartz,
Desorption of CO and O2 interstellar ice analogs, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 1005–
A. Aguirre, C. Dow-Hygelund, J. Schaye, and T. Theuns, Metallicity of the
Intergalactic Medium using Pixel Statistics. IV. Oxygen, Astrophys. J. 689, 851864.
J. M. Alcalá, L. Spezzi, N. Chapman, N. J. Evans, II, T. L. Huard, J. K.
Jørgensen, B. Merín, K. R. Stapelfeldt, E. Covino, A. Frasca, D. Gandolfi, and
I. Oliveira, The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. X.
The Chamaeleon II Pre-Main-Sequence Population as Observed with IRAC
and MIPS, Astrophys. J. 676, 427-463.
R. Alexander, From discs to planetesimals: Evolution of gas and dust discs,
New Astronomy Review 52, 60-77.
R. D. Alexander, [NeII] emission-line profiles from photoevaporative disc
winds, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 391, L64-L68.
R. D. Alexander, P. J. Armitage, and J. Cuadra, Binary formation and mass
function variations in fragmenting discs with short cooling times, Monthly
Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 389, 1655-1664.
R. D. Alexander, P. J. Armitage, J. Cuadra, and M. C. Begelman, SelfGravitating Fragmentation of Eccentric Accretion Disks, Astrophys. J. 674,
M. G. Allen, B. A. Groves, M. A. Dopita, R. S. Sutherland, and L. J. Kewley,
The MAPPINGS III Library of Fast Radiative Shock Models, Astrophys. J. Suppl
178, 20-55.
S. Andersson and E. F. van Dishoeck, Photodesorption of water ice. A
molecular dynamics study, Astron. Astrophys. 491, 907-916.
T. Arentoft, H. Kjeldsen, T. R. Bedding, M. Bazot, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, T.
H. Dall, C. Karoff, F. Carrier, P. Eggenberger, D. Sosnowska, R. A.
Wittenmyer, M. Endl, T. S. Metcalfe, S. Hekker, S. Reffert, R. P. Butler, H.
Bruntt, L. L. Kiss, S. J. O'Toole, E. Kambe, H. Ando, H. Izumiura, B. Sato, M.
Hartmann, A. Hatzes, F. Bouchy, B. Mosser, T. Appourchaux, C. Barban, G.
Berthomieu, R. A. Garcia, E. Michel, J. Provost, S. Turck-Chièze, M. Martić, J.C. Lebrun, J. Schmitt, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Bonanno, S. Benatti, R. U. Claudi, R.
Cosentino, S. Leccia, S. Frandsen, K. Brogaard, L. Glowienka, F. Grundahl, and
E. Stempels, A Multisite Campaign to Measure Solar-like Oscillations in
Procyon. I. Observations, Data Reduction, and Slow Variations, Astrophys. J.
687, 1180-1190.
A. Bartkiewicz, A. Brunthaler, M. Szymczak, H. J. van Langevelde, and M. J.
Reid, The nature of the methanol maser ring G23.657-00.127. I. The distance
through trigonometric parallax measurements, Astron. Astrophys. 490, 787-792.
P. Beiráo, B. R. Brandl, P. N. Appleton, B. Groves, L. Armus, N. M. Förster
Schreiber, J. D. Smith, V. Charmandaris, and J. R. Houck, Spatially Resolved
Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the Central Region of M82, Astrophys. J. 676, 304316.
R. G. Berkhout and Y. Levin, Evolution of the bursting-layer wave during a
type I X-ray burst, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 385, 1029-1035.
S. Bertone, J. Schaye, and K. Dolag, Numerical Simulations of the Warm-Hot
Intergalactic Medium, Space Science Reviews 134, 295-310.
S. E. Bisschop, J. K. Jørgensen, T. L. Bourke, S. Bottinelli, and E. F. van
Dishoeck, An interferometric study of the low-mass protostar IRAS 162932422: small scale organic chemistry, Astron. Astrophys. 488, 959-968.
G. A. Blanc, P. Lira, L. F. Barrientos, P. Aguirre, H. Francke, E. N. Taylor, R.
Quadri, D. Marchesini, L. Infante, E. Gawiser, P. B. Hall, J. P. Willis, D.
Herrera, and J. Maza, The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC):
Wide K-Band Imaging, Photometric Catalogs, Clustering, and Physical
Properties of Galaxies at z~2, Astrophys. J. 681, 1099-1115.
C. Boersma, J. Bouwman, F. Lahuis, C. van Kerckhoven, A. G. G. M. Tielens,
L. B. F. M. Waters, and T. Henning, The characteristics of the IR emission
features in the spectra of Herbig Ae stars: evidence for chemical evolution,
Astron. Astrophys. 484, 241-249.
A. C. A. Boogert, K. M. Pontoppidan, C. Knez, F. Lahuis, J. Kessler-Silacci, E.
F. van Dishoeck, G. A. Blake, J.-C. Augereau, S. E. Bisschop, S. Bottinelli, T.
Y. Brooke, J. Brown, A. Crapsi, N. J. Evans, II, H. J. Fraser, V. Geers, T. L.
Huard, J. K. Jørgensen, K. I. Öberg, L. E. Allen, P. M. Harvey, D. W. Koerner,
L. G. Mundy, D. L. Padgett, A. I. Sargent, and K. R. Stapelfeldt, The c2d
Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects.
I. H2O and the 5-8 μm Bands, Astrophys. J. 678, 985-1004.
R. J. Bouwens, G. D. Illingworth, M. Franx, and H. Ford, z ~ 7-10 Galaxies in
the HUDF and GOODS Fields: UV Luminosity Functions, Astrophys. J. 686,
H. Bouy, N. Huélamo, C. Pinte, J. Olofsson, D. Barrado Y, Navascués, E. L.
Martín, E. Pantin, J.-L. Monin, G. Basri, J.-C. Augereau, F. Ménard, G. Duvert,
G. Duchêne, F. Marchis, A. Bayo, S. Bottinelli, B. Lefort, and S. Guieu,
Structural and compositional properties of brown dwarf disks: the case of
2MASS J04442713+2512164, Astron. Astrophys. 486, 877-890.
M. Bradač, T. Schrabback, T. Erben, M. McCourt, E. Million, A. Mantz, S.
Allen, R. Blandford, A. Halkola, H. Hildebrandt, M. Lombardi, P. Marshall,
P. Schneider, T. Treu, and J.-P. Kneib, Dark Matter and Baryons in the X-Ray
Luminous Merging Galaxy Cluster RX J1347.5-1145, Astrophys. J. 681, 187-196.
L. D. Bradley, R. J. Bouwens, H. C. Ford, G. D. Illingworth, M. J. Jee, N.
Benítez, T. J. Broadhurst, M. Franx, B. L. Frye, L. Infante, V. Motta, P. Rosati,
R. L. White, and W. Zheng, Discovery of a Very Bright Strongly Lensed
Galaxy Candidate at z ~ 7.6, Astrophys. J. 678, 647-654.
C. Brinch, M. R. Hogerheijde, and S. Richling, Characterizing the velocity
field in hydrodynamical simulations of low-mass star formation using spectral
line profiles, Astron. Astrophys. 489, 607-616.
C. Brinch, R. J. van Weeren, and M. R. Hogerheijde, Time-dependent CO
depletion during the formation of protoplanetary disks, Astron. Astrophys.
489, 617-625.
J. Brinchmann, D. Kunth, and F. Durret, Galaxies with Wolf-Rayet signatures
in the low-redshift Universe. A survey using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,
Astron. Astrophys. 485, 657-677.
M. H. Brookes, P. N. Best, J. A. Peacock, H. J. A. Röttgering, and J. S. Dunlop,
A Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources (CENSORS) - III.
Spectroscopic observations, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 385, 1297-1326.
C. N. Cardamone, C. M. Urry, M. Damen, P. van Dokkum, E. Treister, I.
Labbé, S. N. Virani, P. Lira, and E. Gawiser, Mid-Infrared Properties and Color
Selection for X-Ray-Detected Active Galactic Nuclei in the MUSYC Extended
Chandra Deep Field-South, Astrophys. J. 680, 130-142.
P. Caselli, C. Vastel, C. Ceccarelli, F. F. S. van der Tak, A. Crapsi, and A.
Bacmann, Survey of ortho-H2D+ (11,0-11,1) in dense cloud cores, Astron.
Astrophys. 492, 703-718.
D. M. Clark, S. S. Eikenberry, B. R. Brandl, J. C. Wilson, J. C. Carson, C. P.
Henderson, T. L. Hayward, D. J. Barry, A. F. Ptak, and E. J. M. Colbert, A First
Estimate of the X-Ray Binary Frequency as a Function of Star Cluster Mass in a
Single Galactic System, Astrophys. J. 678, 798-803.
A. Crapsi, E. F. van Dishoeck, M. R. Hogerheijde, K. M. Pontoppidan, and C.
P. Dullemond, Characterizing the nature of embedded young stellar objects
through silicate, ice and millimeter observations, Astron. Astrophys. 486, 245254.
S. Croft, W. van Breugel, M. J. I. Brown, W. de Vries, A. Dey, P. Eisenhardt, B.
Jannuzi, H. Röttgering, S. A. Stanford, D. Stern, and S. P. Willner, Radio-Loud
High-Redshift Protogalaxy Candidates in BOÖTES, Astron. J. 135, 1793-1802.
J. Cuadra, P. J. Armitage, and R. D. Alexander, Stellar dynamical evidence
against a cold disc origin for stars in the Galactic Centre, Monthly Notices Roy.
Astr. Soc. 388, L64-L68.
H. M. Cuppen and L. Hornekaer, Kinetic Monte Carlo studies of hydrogen
abstraction from graphite, Journal of Chemical Physics 128, 174707.
C. Dalla Vecchia and J. Schaye, Simulating galactic outflows with kinetic
supernova feedback, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 387, 1431-1444.
J. T. A. de Jong, K. H. Kuijken, and P. Héraudeau, Ground-based variability
surveys towards Centaurus A: worthwhile or not?, Astron. Astrophys. 478, 755762.
A. R. Duffy, J. Schaye, S. T. Kay, and C. Dalla Vecchia, Dark matter halo
concentrations in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 5
cosmology, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 390, L64-L68.
M. M. Dunham, A. Crapsi, N. J. Evans, II, T. L. Bourke, T. L. Huard, P. C.
Myers, and J. Kauffmann, Identifying the Low-Luminosity Population of
Embedded Protostars in the c2d Observations of Clouds and Cores, Astrophys.
J. Suppl. Ser. 179, 249-282.
B. H. C. Emonts, R. Morganti, T. A. Oosterloo, J. Holt, C. N. Tadhunter, J. M.
van der Hulst, R. Ojha, and E. M. Sadler, Enormous disc of cool gas
surrounding the nearby powerful radio galaxy NGC612 (PKS0131-36),
Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 387, 197-208.
G. J. Ferland, A. C. Fabian, N. A. Hatch, R. M. Johnstone, R. L. Porter, P. A. M.
van Hoof, and R. J. R. Williams, The origin of molecular hydrogen emission in
cooling-flow filaments, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 386, L72-L76.
D. J. E. Floyd, D. Axon, S. Baum, A. Capetti, M. Chiaberge, D. Macchetto, J.
Madrid, G. Miley, C. P. O'Dea, E. Perlman, A. Quillen, W. Sparks, and G.
Tremblay, Hubble Space Telescope Near-infrared Snapshot Survey of 3CR
Radio Source Counterparts. II. An Atlas and Inventory of the Host Galaxies,
Mergers, and Companions, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 177, 148-173.
H. Francke, E. Gawiser, P. Lira, E. Treister, S. Virani, C. Cardamone, C. M.
Urry, P. van Dokkum, and R. Quadri, Clustering of Intermediate-Luminosity
X-Ray-Selected Active Galactic Nuclei at z ~ 3, Astrophys. J. Lett. 673, L13-L16.
M. Franx, P. G. van Dokkum, N. M. F. Schreiber, S. Wuyts, I. Labbé, and S.
Toft, Structure and Star Formation in Galaxies out to z = 3: Evidence for
Surface Density Dependent Evolution and Upsizing, Astrophys. J. 688, 770-788.
A. Gáspár, K. Y. L. Su, G. H. Rieke, Z. Balog, I. Kamp, J. R. Martínez-Galarza,
and K. Stapelfeldt, Modeling the Infrared Bow Shock at δVelorum:
Implications for Studies of Debris Disks and λ Boötis Stars, Astrophys. J. 672,
A. Ballast, A. Gijsbertsen, H. Linnartz, S. Stolte, The quasi quantum treatment
of rotationally inelastic scattering froma hard shell potential: its derivation and
practical use, Mol. Phys. 106, 315-331
B. Groves, M. A. Dopita, R. S. Sutherland, L. J. Kewley, J. Fischera, C.
Leitherer, B. Brandl, and W. van Breugel, Modeling the Pan-Spectral Energy
Distribution of Starburst Galaxies. IV. The Controlling Parameters of the
Starburst SED, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 176, 438-456.
B. Groves, B. Nefs, and B. Brandl, The mid-infrared [SIV]/[NeII] versus
[NeIII]/[NeII] correlation, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 391, L113-L116.
M. R. Haas, M. Gieles, R. A. Scheepmaker, S. S. Larsen, and H. J. G. L. M.
Lamers, ACS imaging of star clusters in M 51. II. The luminosity function and
mass function across the disk, Astron. Astrophys. 487, 937-949.
A. Halkola, H. Hildebrandt, T. Schrabback, M. Lombardi, M. Bradač, T. Erben,
P. Schneider, and D. Wuttke, The mass distribution of RX J1347-1145 from
strong lensing, Astron. Astrophys. 481, 65-77.
P. M. Harvey, T. L. Huard, J. K. Jørgensen, R. A. Gutermuth, E. E., Mamajek,
T. L. Bourke, B. Merín, L. Cieza, T. Brooke, N. Chapman, J. M. Alcalá, L. E.
Allen, N. J. Evans, II, J. Di Francesco, and J. M. Kirk, The Spitzer Survey of
Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. I. IC 5146 Observed With IRAC and
MIPS, Astrophys. J. 680, 495-516.
N. A. Hatch, R. A. Overzier, H. J. A. Röttgering, J. D. Kurk, and G. K. Miley,
Diffuse UV light associated with the Spiderweb Galaxy: evidence for in situ
star formation outside galaxies, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 383, 931-942.
S. Hekker, I. A. G. Snellen, C. Aerts, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, and D. S.
Mitchell, Precise radial velocities of giant stars. IV. A correlation between
surface gravity and radial velocity variation and a statistical investigation of
companion properties, Astron. Astrophys. 480, 215-222.
H. Hildebrandt, C. Wolf, and N. Benítez, A blind test of photometric redshifts
on ground-based data, Astron. Astrophys. 480, 703-714.
T. M. Ho, R. Schulz, C. Erd, D. Martin, T. Oosterbroek, A. Peacock, A. Stankov,
J. A. Stuwe, P. Verhoeve, 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3-B observed from
the optical ground station, Astron. Astrophys. 477, 299-308
J. Holt, C. N. Tadhunter, and R. Morganti, Fast outflows in compact radio
sources: evidence for AGN-induced feedback in the early stages of radio
source evolution, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 387, 639-659.
A. M. Hughes, D. J. Wilner, I. Kamp, and M. R. Hogerheijde, A Resolved
Molecular Gas Disk around the Nearby A Star 49 Ceti, Astrophys. J. 681, 626635.
A. M. Hughes, D. J. Wilner, C. Qi, and M. R. Hogerheijde, Gas and Dust
Emission at the Outer Edge of Protoplanetary Disks, Astrophys. J. 678, 11191126.
K. J. Inskip, M. Villar-Martín, C. N. Tadhunter, R. Morganti, J. Holt, and D.
Dicken, PKS2250-41: a case study for triggering, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc.
386, 1797-1810.
S. Ioppolo, H. M. Cuppen, C. Romanzin, E. F. van Dishoeck, and H.
Linnartz, Laboratory Evidence for Efficient Water Formation in Interstellar
Ices, Astrophys. J. 686, 1474-1479.
F. P. Israel, D. Raban, R. S. Booth, and F. T. Rantakyrö, The millimeter-wave
continuum spectrum of Centaurus A and its nucleus, Astron. Astrophys. 483,
D. Ityaksov, H. Linnartz, W. Ubachs, Deep-UV absorption and Rayleigh
scattering of carbon dioxide, Chem. Phys. Lett. 462, 31-34.
D. Ityaksov, H. Linnartz, W. Ubachs, Deep-UV absorption and Rayleigh
scattering of N2, CH4 and SF6, Mol. Phys 106, 2471-2479.
V. Jelić, S. Zaroubi, P. Labropoulos, R. M. Thomas, G. Bernardi, M. A.
Brentjens, A. G. de Bruyn, B. Ciardi, G. Harker, L. V. E. Koopmans, V. N.
Pandey, J. Schaye, and S. Yatawatta, Foreground simulations for the LOFARepoch of reionization experiment, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 389, 13191335.
A. Johansen, F. Brauer, C. Dullemond, H. Klahr, and T. Henning, A
coagulation-fragmentation model for the turbulent growth and destruction of
preplanetesimals, Astron. Astrophys. 486, 597-611.
A. Johansen and Y. Levin, High accretion rates in magnetised Keplerian discs
mediated by a Parker instability driven dynamo, Astron. Astrophys. 490, 501514.
J. S. Kaastra, A. M. Bykov, S. Schindler, J. A. M. Bleeker, S. Borgani, A.
Diaferio, K. Dolag, F. Durret, J. Nevalainen, T. Ohashi, F. B. S. Paerels, V.
Petrosian, Y. Rephaeli, P. Richter, J. Schaye, and N. Werner, Clusters of
Galaxies: Beyond the Thermal View, Space Science Reviews 134, 1-4.
K. K. Knudsen, P. P. van der Werf, and J.-P. Kneib, Probing the submillimetre
number counts at f850μm < 2mJy, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 384, 1611-1626.
D. Krajnović, R. Bacon, M. Cappellari, R. L. Davies, P. T. de Zeeuw, E.
Emsellem, J. Falcòn-Barroso, H. Kuntschner, R. M. McDermid, R. F. Peletier,
M. Sarzi, R. C. E. van den Bosch, and G. van de Ven, The SAURON project XII. Kinematic substructures in early-type galaxies: evidence for discs in fast
rotators, Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Soc. 390, 93-117.
M. Kriek, A. van der Wel, P. G. van Dokkum, M. Franx, and G. D.
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American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 1082, December 2008, pp.
M. Bureau, R. Bacon, M. Cappellari, F. Combes, R. L. Davies, P. T. de Zeeuw,
E. Emsellem, J. Falcòn-Barroso, H. Jeong, D. Krajnović, H. Kuntschner, R. M.
McDermid, R. F. Peletier, M. Sarzi, K. L. Shapiro, G. van de Ven, S. K. Yi, and
L. M. Young, Star Formation in Nearby Early-Type Galaxies: Mapping in UV,
Optical, and CO, Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies (K. Wada and F.
Combes, eds.), ISBN 978-0-387-72767-7, 2008, pp. 312.
M. L. Conciatore, F. Nicastro, M. Elvis, S. Mathur, and R. J. Williams, Insights
into the Origin of Low -and High- velocity OVI Absorbers from AGN Host
Galaxies, AAS/High Energy Astrophysics Division, vol. 10, 26.14, March 2008.
W. Cotton, J. Monnier, F. Baron, K.-H. Hofmann, S. Kraus, G. Weigelt, S.
Rengaswamy, E. Thiébaut, P. Lawson, W. Jaffe, C. Hummel, T. Pauls, H.
Schmitt, P. Tuthill, and J. Young, 2008 imaging beauty contest, Society of
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7013,
July 2008, pp. 70131N-70131N-14.
J. Cuadra, P. J. Armitage, and R. D. Alexander, Stellar Dynamical Evidence
against a Cold Disk Origin for Stars in the Galactic Center, AAS/Division of
Dynamical Astronomy Meeting, vol. 39, 01.02, May 2008.
H. M. Cuppen, G. W. Fuchs, S. Ioppolo, S. E. Bisschop, K. I. Öberg, E. F.
van Dishoeck, and H. Linnartz, Formation of alcohols on ice surfaces, Organic
Matter in Space, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU
Symposium, vol. 251, pp. 377-382.
D. Devost, S. Guiles, D. G. Whelan, B. R. Brandl, C. Leitherer, Y. Wu, L. Hao,
and J. R. Houck, High Ionization in Starburst Galaxies,The Second Annual
Spitzer Science Center Conference: Infrared Diagnostics of Galaxy Evolution
(R.-R. Chary, H. I. Teplitz, and K. Sheth, eds.), Astronomical Society of the
Pacific Conference Series, vol. 381, March 2008, pp. 279-284.
T. de Zeeuw, The Perfect Machine, The Messenger 132, pp. 2-4.
J. Falcòn-Barroso, R. Bacon, M. Cappellari, R. L. Davies, P. T. de Zeeuw, E.
Emsellem, D. Krajnovic, H. Kuntschner, R. M. McDermid, R. F. Peletier, M.
Sarzi, and G. van de Ven, Towards a New Classification of Early-type
Galaxies: An Integral-field View, Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe (J.
H. Knapen, T. J. Mahoney, and A. Vazdekis, eds.), Astronomical Society of the
Pacific Conference Series, vol. 390, June 2008, pp. 227-231.
B. Groves and L. Kewley, Distinguishing Active Galactic Nuclei and Star
Formation, Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe (J. H. Knapen, T. J.
Mahoney, and A. Vazdekis, eds.), Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Conference Series, vol. 390, June 2008, pp. 283-287.
M. G. Haehnelt, M. Rauch, A. Bunker, G. Becker, F. Marleau, J. Graham, S.
Cristiani, M. J. Jarvis, C. Lacey, S. Morris, C. Peroux, H. Röttgering, and T.
Theuns, Hunting for the Building Blocks of Galaxies like our own Milky Way
with FORS, The Messenger 132, 41-45.
K.-H. Hofmann, M. Heininger, W. Jaffe, S. Kraus, B. Lopez, F. Millour, D.
Schertl, G. Weigelt, and S. Wolf, Aperture-synthesis imaging with the midinfrared instrument MATISSE, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation
Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7013, July 2008, pp. 70133Y-70133Y-7.
L. Jolissaint, H. Carfantan, and E. Anterrieu, Exploring the impact of PSF
reconstruction errors on the reduction of astronomical adaptive optics based
data, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference
Series, vol. 7015, July 2008, pp. 70152K-70152K-12.
J. Jorgensen, D. Lommen, T. L. Bourke, E. F. van Dishoeck, D. Wilner, and
PROSAC team, The Evolution of Matter in the Embedded Stages of Low-Mass
Protostars, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts, vol. 211, 162.09,
March 2008.
I. Kamp, J. R. Martínez-Galarza, E. Paunzen, K. Y. L. Su, A. Gáspár, and G. H.
Rieke, λ Bootis stars: Current status and new insights from Spitzer,
Contributions of the Astronomical Observatory Skalnate Pleso 38, 147-156.
A. Kelz, M. Roth, S. Bauer, J. Gerssen, T. Hahn, P. Weilbacher, U. Laux, M.
Loupias, J. Kosmalski, R. McDermid, and R. Bacon, Calibration issues for
MUSE, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference
Series, vol. 7014, August 2008, pp. 701458-701458-12.
S. Kendrew, L. Jolissaint, R. J. Mathar, R. Stuik, S. Hippler, and B. Brandl,
Atmospheric refractivity effects on mid-infrared ELT adaptive optics, Society
of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol.
7015, July 2008, pp. 70155T-70155T-11.
S. Lagarde, B. Lopez, R. G. Petrov, K. H. Hofmann, S. Kraus, W. Jaffe, P.
Antonelli, Y. Bresson, C. Leinert, and A. Matter, MATISSE: concept analysis,
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series,
vol. 7013, July 2008, pp. 701332-701332-9.
R. Launhardt, E. J. Bakker, P. Ballester, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H.
Bleuler, R. Dändliker, F. Delplancke, F. Derie, M. Fleury, A. Glindemann, D.
Gillet, H. Hanenburg, T. Henning, W. Jaffe, J. A. de Jong, R. Köhler, C. Maire,
R. J. Mathar, D. Mégevand, Y. Michellod, P. Müllhaupt, K. Murakawa, F.
Pepe, R. S. Le Poole, J. Pragt, D. Queloz, A. Quirrenbach, S. Reffert, L. Sache,
Y. Salvadé, O. Scherler, D. Ségransan, J. Setiawan, D. Sosnowska, R. N. Tubbs,
L. Venema, K. Wagner, L. Weber, and R. Wüthrich, The PRIMA Astrometric
Planet Search Project, The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent
Scientific Results and 2nd Generation, ESO Astrophysics Symposia, (A.
Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds.), ISBN 978-3-540-742531, 2008, pp. 551-553.
S. Levin, Humanising Astronomy, Communicating Astronomy with the
Public 2007: Proceedings from the IAU/National Observatory of
Athens/ESA/ESO Conference, (L. L. Christensen, M. Zoulias, and I. Robson,
eds.), June 2008, pp. 172-176.
B. Lopez, P. Antonelli, S. Wolf, S. Lagarde, W. Jaffe, R. Navarro, U. Graser, R.
Petrov, G. Weigelt, Y. Bresson, K. H. Hofmann, U. Beckman, T. Henning, W.
Laun, C. Leinert, S. Kraus, S. Robbe-Dubois, F. Vakili, A. Richichi, P. Abraham,
J.-C. Augereau, J. Behrend, P. Berio, N. Berruyer, O. Chesneau, J. M. Clausse,
C. Connot, K. Demyk, W. C. Danchi, M. Dugué, G. Finger, S. Flament, A.
Glazenborg, H. Hannenburg, M. Heininger, Y. Hugues, J. Hron, S. Jankov, F.
Kerschbaum, G. Kroes, H. Linz, J.-L. Lizon, P. Mathias, R. Mathar, A. Matter,
J. L. Menut, K. Meisenheimer, F. Millour, N. Nardetto, U. Neumann, E.
Nussbaum, A. Niedzielski, L. Mosoni, J. Olofsson, Y. Rabbia, T. Ratzka, F.
Rigal, A. Roussel, D. Schertl, F.-X. Schmider, B. Stecklum, E. Thiebaut, M.
Vannier, B. Valat, K. Wagner, and L. B. F. M. Waters, MATISSE: perspective of
imaging in the mid-infrared at the VLTI, Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7013, July 2008, pp.
A. Matter, W. Jaffe, M. Vannier, S. Morel, S. Lagarde, B. Lopez, F. Rantakyrö,
T. Rivinius, R. G. Petrov, and C. Leinert, First step to detect an extrasolar
planet using simultaneous observations with the two VLTI instruments
AMBER and MIDI, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Conference Series, vol. 7013, July 2008, pp. 701341-701341-10.
K. Meisenheimer, D. Raban, K. Tristram, M. Schartmann, W. Jaffe, H.
Röttgering, and L. Burtscher, Mid-infrared Interferometry of Active Galactic
Nuclei: an Outstanding Scientific Success of the VLTI, The Messenger 133, 3641.
R. Morganti, E. Manthey, A. Crocker, T. Oosterloo, P. T. de Zeeuw, R. M.
McDermid, D. Krajnovic, M. Cappellari, A. Weijmans, and M. Sarzi, The
continuing formation of early-type galaxies: an H I survey, The Evolution of
Galaxies Through the Neutral Hydrogen Window (R. Minchin and E.
Momjian, eds.), American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 1035,
August 2008, pp. 129-131.
K. I. Öberg , E. F. van Dishoeck and H. Linnartz, Photodesorption of ices Releasing organic precursors into the gas phase, Organic Matter in Space,
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium, vol.
251, pp. 449-450
R. F. Peletier, K. Ganda, J. Falcòn-Barroso, R. Bacon, M. Cappellari, R. L.
Davies, P. T. de Zeeuw, E. Emsellem, D. Krajnovic, H. Kuntschner, R. M.
McDermid, M. Sarzi, and G. van de Ven, Galactic Bulges and Inner Disks, as
Seen by SAURON, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (J. G.
Funes and E. M. Corsini, eds.), vol. 396, October 2008, pp. 81-82.
A. Quirrenbach and S. Albrecht, Interferometric Spectroscopy, Precision
Spectroscopy in Astrophysics (N. C. Santos, L. Pasquini, A. C. M. Correia, and
M. Romaniello, eds.), Proceedings of the ESO/Lisbon/Aveiro Conference
held in Aveiro, 2008, pp. 235-238.
A. Quirrenbach, S. Albrecht, R. Vink, O. V. D. Lühe, J. Hron, and G.
Wiedemann, UVES-I: Interferometric High-Resolution Spectroscopy, The
Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd
Generation, ESO Astrophysics Symposia (A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F.
Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds.), ISBN 978-3-540-74253-1, 2008, pp. 383-394.
D. Sand, M. L. Graham, C. Bildfell, D. W. Just, S. Herbert-Fort, S. Sivanandam,
C. J. Pritchet, H. Hoekstra, and D. Zaritsky, Supernova 2008ih, Central Bureau
Electronic Telegrams 1621.
D. Sand, M. L. Graham, S. Herbert-Fort, D. Just, C. Bildfell, C. J. Pritchet, H.
Hoekstra, S. Sivanandam, and D. Zaritsky, Supernovae 2008hb-2008hf,
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams 1570.
M. Sarzi, R. Bacon, M. Cappellari, R. L. Davies, P. T. de Zeeuw, E. Emsellem, J.
Falcòn-Barroso, D. Krajnovic, H. Kuntschner, R. M. McDermid, R. F. Peletier,
and G. van de Ven, Recent Star Formation in Nearby Early-type Galaxies,
Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe (J. H. Knapen, T. J. Mahoney, and A.
Vazdekis, eds.), Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 390,
June 2008, pp. 218-226.
R. T. Schilizzi, P. E. F. Dewdney, and T. J. W. Lazio, The Square Kilometre
Array, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference
Series, vol. 7012, August 2008, pp. 70121I-70121I-13.
N. Seymour, D. Stern, C. De Breuck, J. Vernet, R. Fosbury, A. Rettura, A. Zirm,
B. Rocca-Volmerange, M. Lacy, H. Teplitz, A. Dey, M. Dickinson, W. van
Breugel, G. Miley, H. Röttgering, P. Eisenhardt, P. McCarthy, F. De Breuck,
and L. Vernet, Spitzer Observations of High Redshift Radio Galaxies, Infrared
Diagnostics of Galaxy Evolution (R.-R. Chary, H. I. Teplitz, and K. Sheth, eds.),
Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 381, March 2008,
pp. 398-404.
R. Stuik, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, A. Deep, B. Delabre, P. Hallibert, L.
Jolissaint, N. Hubin, S. Kendrew, P.-Y. Madec, F. Molster, J. Paufique, E.
Pauwels, S. Stroebele, and E. Wiegers, ASSIST: the test setup for the VLT AO
facility, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference
Series, vol. 7015, July 2008, pp. 70154F-70154F-9 .
S. Toonen, K. Fathi, J. Falcòn-Barroso, J. E. Beckman, and P. T. de Zeeuw, The
Pattern Speeds of NGC 6946, Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe (J. H.
Knapen, T. J. Mahoney, and A. Vazdekis, eds.), Astronomical Society of the
Pacific Conference Series, vol. 390, June 2008, pp. 322-323.
A. Trejo, E. Giacani, Z. Paragi, H. J. van Langevelde, G. Dubner, and A. M.
Bykov, VLBI observations of the radio counterpart of IGR
J20187+4041/2MASX J20183871+4041003 in the error box of the gamma-ray
source AGL2021+4029/3EG J2020+4017, The Astronomer's Telegram 1597.
G. Tremblay, W. B. Sparks, M. Chiaberge, S. A. Baum, M. G. Allen, D. J. Axon,
A. Capetti, D. J. E. Floyd, F. D. Macchetto, G. K. Miley, C. P. O'Dea, E. S.
Perlman, and A. C. Quillen, HST/ACS Emission Line Snapshots of nearby
3CR Radio Galaxies, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts, vol.
211, 157.03, March 2008.
V. Tudose, Z. Paragi, R. Fender, R. Spencer, M. Garrett, and A. Rushton, eVLBI observations of Cyg X-3, The Astronomer's Telegram 1476.
V. Tudose, Z. Paragi, S. Trushkin, P. Soleri, R. Fender, M. Garrett, R. Spencer,
A. Rushton, P. Burgess, M. Kunert-Bajraszewska, E. Pazderski, K. Borkowski,
R. Hammargren, M. Lindqvist, and G. Maccaferri, e-VLBI observations of SS
433 in outburst, The Astronomer's Telegram 1836.
T. van Kempen, E. F. van Dishoeck, M. R. Hogerheijde, J. K. Joergensen, R.
Guesten, and P. Schilke, The Warm And Dense Gas In Embedded Low-mass
Protostars, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts, vol. 211, 162.20,
March 2008.
I. van Houten-Groeneveld, E. Bowell, M. E. Brown, T. Gehrels, S. J. Bus, M. E.
Schwamb, and D. Rabinowitz, Minor Planet Observations [675 Palomar
Mountain], Minor Planet Circulars 6336, 5.
P. Woitke and A. Quirrenbach, The Chaotic Winds of AGB Stars: Observation
Meets Theory, The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific
Results and 2nd Generation, ESO Astrophysics Symposia, (A. Richichi, F.
Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds.), ISBN 978-3-540-74253-1, 2008, pp.
X.4. Astronomical Catalogues
K. K. Knudsen, P. P. van der Werf, and J.-P. Kneib, Submm observations in
gravitational lenses (Knudsen+, 2008), VizieR Online Data Catalog 738.
J. M. D. Kruijssen and H. J. G. L. M. Lamers, Photometric evolution of star
clusters models, VizieR Online Data Catalog 349.
J. P. Madrid, M. Chiaberge, D. Floyd, W. B. Sparks, D. Macchetto, G. K. Miley,
D. Axon, A. Capetti, C. P. O'Dea, S. Baum, E. Perlman, and A. Quillen,
NICMOS observations of 3CR radio sources (Madrid+, 2006), VizieR Online
Data Catalog 216.
E. Noordermeer, M. R. Merrifield, L. Coccato, M. Arnaboldi, M. Capaccioli, N.
G. Douglas, K. C. Freeman, O. Gerhard, K. Kuijken, F. de Lorenzi, N. R.
Napolitano, and A. J. Romanowsky, Velocities of NGC 1023 planetary nebulae
(Noordermeer+, 2008), VizieR Online Data Catalog 738.
E. E. Rigby, I. A. G. Snellen, and P. N. Best, 1.4GHz radio sources in Lynx
and Hercules fields (Rigby+, 2007), VizieR Online Data Catalog 738.
T. Zwitter, A. Siebert, U. Munari, K. C. Freeman, A. Siviero, F. G. Watson, J. P.
Fulbright, R. F. G. Wyse, R. Campbell, G. M. Seabroke, M. Williams, M.
Steinmetz, O. Bienayme, G. Gilmore, E. K. Grebel, A. Helmi, J. F. Navarro, B.
Anguiano, C. Boeche, D. Burton, P. Cass, J. Dawe, K. Fiegert, M. Hartley, K.
Russell, L. Veltz, J. Bailin, J. Binney, J. Bland-Hawthorn, A. Brown, W.
Dehnen, N. W. Evans, P. R. Fiorentin, M. Fiorucci, O. Gerhard, B. Gibson, A.
Kelz, K. Kuijken, G. Matijevic, I. Minchev, Q. A. Parker, J. Penarrubia, A.
Quillen, M. A. Read, W. Reid, S. Roeser, G. Ruchti, R.-D. Scholz, M. C. Smith,
R. Sordo, E. Tolstoi, L. Tomasella, S. Vidrih, and E. W. de Boer, RAVE second
data release (Zwitter+, 2008), VizieR Online Data Catalog 3257.
X.5. Other Publications
D. van Delft, De afscheidsbrief van Paul Ehrenfest, Nederlands Tijdschrift
voor Natuurkunde, January 2008, pp. 18-20.
D. van Delft, Little cup of helium, big science, Physics Today, March 2008,
pp. 36-43.
D. van Delft, Zero-Point Energy: The Case of the Leiden Low-Temperature
Laboratory of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Annals of Science, vol. 65, no. 3, July
2008 , pp. 339-361.
D. van Delft, De vinger Gods zit in een luis - Book review of Luuc Kooijmans,
Gevaarlijke kennis; Inzicht en angst in de dagen van Jan Swammerdam (Bert
Bakker, 2007), NRC Handelsblad, bijlage boeken, 1 February 2008, pp. B06.
D. van Delft, Het Leidse halvium, Jaarboek Rino 2008, pp. 74-76.
D. van Delft, Book review of Liba Taub; Frances Willmoth, The Whipple
Museum of the History of Science (Cambridge University Press, 2006), Isis 99,
2008, pp. 227-228.
D. van Delft, Een theekopje helium, Eureka! 22, pp. 14-16.
D. van Delft, Wie was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes?, RCC-Koude &
Luchtbehandeling 101, no. 9, September 2008, pp. 22-24.
D. van Delft, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Nederlandse Vereniging voor
oude, RCC Koude en Luchtbehandeling 101, nr.9, September 2008, pp. 14.
D. van Delft, Wat Shakespeare zegt over de trilobiet - Book review of Richard
Dawkins (ed.), The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing (Oxford
University Press, 2008), NRC Handelsblad, bijlage boeken, 3 October 2008, pp.
D. van Delft, Jongensboek, Flow - magazine over gassen en bedrijfsprocessen,
Fall 2008, pp. 27.
D. van Delft, Kamerlingh Onnes tegen de overheid, Tijdschrift openbaar
bestuur 11, 2008, pp. 20-26.
D. van Delft, Einsteins liefde voor Leiden, Leidraad - Magazine van de
Universiteit Leiden, Fall 2008, pp. 46-49.
D. van Delft, Een onderzoeker is geen Frankenstein, NRC next, 26 September
2008, pp. 19.
D. van Delft, Faust en Frankenstein blijven onze vijand, NRC Handelsblad, 29
September 2008, pp. 6.
D. van Delft, Wetenschap per slakkenpost - Book review of Anne Kox (ed.),
The Scientific Correspondence of H.A. Lorentz, Volume I (Springer 2008),
NRC Handelsblad, bijlage Wetenschap, 13 December 2008, pp. W11.
D. van Delft, The Liquefaction of Helium, Europhysicsnews, vol. 39, no. 6,
2008, pp. 23-25.
D. van Delft, 1908. The first Congress of Refrigeration, 100 years at the service
of the development of refrigeration and its applications, Brochure for a
conference of the International Institute of Refrigeration, 2008, pp. 4-7.
D. van Delft, Un physicien mathématicien ouvre grand les fenêtres: Robbert
Dijkgraaf, Septentrion, 37/4, 2008, pp. 89-91.
R. Blandford, J. Kormendy and E.F. van Dishoeck, Preface, Annual Review of
Astronomy and Astrophysics 46, 2008, pp. V-VI.
F. van Lunteren, Newtons kip en Einsteins kapsel, Eureka! 23, 2008, pp.10-12.
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