EPA 608

EPA 608
APPENDIX A TO PART 136
METHODS FOR ORGANIC CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL AND
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
METHOD 608—ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCBS
1.
Scope and Application
1.1
This method covers the determination of certain organochlorine pesticides and PCBs.
The following parameters can be determined by this method:
Parameter
Aldrin . . . . . . . . . .
..........
..........
..........
..........
Chlordane . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDD . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDE . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDT . . . . . . . .
Dieldrin . . . . . . . . .
Endosulfan I . . . . .
Endosulfan II . . . .
Endosulfan sulfate .
Endrin . . . . . . . . . .
Endrin aldehyde . .
Heptachlor . . . . . .
Heptachlor epoxide
Toxaphene . . . . . . .
PCB-1016. . . . . . . .
PCB-1221 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1232 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1242 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1248 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1254 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1260 . . . . . . . .
"-BHC
$-BHC
*-BHC
(-BHC
1.2
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STORET No.
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39330
39337
39338
34259
39340
39350
39310
39320
39300
39380
34361
34356
34351
39390
34366
39410
39420
39400
34671
39488
39492
39496
39500
39504
39508
CAS No.
309-00-2
319-84-6
319-85-7
319-86-8
58-89-9
57-74-9
72-54-8
72-55-9
50-29-3
60-57-1
959-98-8
33212-65-9
1031-07-8
72-20-8
7421-93-4
76-44-8
1024-57-3
8001-35-2
12674-11-2
1104-28-2
11141-16-5
53469-21-9
12672-29-6
11097-69-1
11096-82-5
This is a gas chromatographic (GC) method applicable to the determination of the
compounds listed above in municipal and industrial discharges as provided under
40 CFR Part 136.1. When this method is used to analyze unfamiliar samples for any or
all of the compounds above, compound identifications should be supported by at least
one additional qualitative technique. This method describes analytical conditions for a
second gas chromatographic column that can be used to confirm measurements made
with the primary column. Method 625 provides gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer
(GC/MS) conditions appropriate for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of
results for all of the parameters listed above, using the extract produced by this method.
1.3
The method detection limit (MDL, defined in Section 14.1)1 for each parameter is listed
in Table 1. The MDL for a specific wastewater may differ from those listed, depending
upon the nature of interferences in the sample matrix.
1.4
The sample extraction and concentration steps in this method are essentially the same as
in Methods 606, 609, 611, and 612. Thus, a single sample may be extracted to measure
the parameters included in the scope of each of these methods. When cleanup is
required, the concentration levels must be high enough to permit selecting aliquots, as
necessary, to apply appropriate cleanup procedures. The analyst is allowed the latitude,
under Section 12, to select chromatographic conditions appropriate for the simultaneous
measurement of combinations of these parameters.
1.5
Any modification of this method, beyond those expressly permitted, shall be considered
as a major modification subject to application and approval of alternate test procedures
under 40 CFR Parts 136.4 and 136.5.
1.6
This method is restricted to use by or under the supervision of analysts experienced in
the use of a gas chromatograph and in the interpretation of gas chromatograms. Each
analyst must demonstrate the ability to generate acceptable results with this method
using the procedure described in Section 8.2.
2.
Summary of Method
2.1
A measured volume of sample, approximately 1 L, is extracted with methylene chloride
using a separatory funnel. The methylene chloride extract is dried and exchanged to
hexane during concentration to a volume of 10 mL or less. The extract is separated by
gas chromatography and the parameters are then measured with an electron capture
detector.2
2.2
The method provides a Florisil column cleanup procedure and an elemental sulfur
removal procedure to aid in the elimination of interferences that may be encountered.
3.
Interferences
3.1
Method interferences may be caused by contaminants in solvents, reagents, glassware,
and other sample processing hardware that lead to discrete artifacts and/or elevated
baselines in gas chromatograms. All of these materials must be routinely demonstrated
to be free from interferences under the conditions of the analysis by running laboratory
reagent blanks as described in Section 8.1.3.
3.1.1
Glassware must be scrupulously cleaned.3 Clean all glassware as soon as possible
after use by rinsing with the last solvent used in it. Solvent rinsing should be
followed by detergent washing with hot water, and rinses with tap water and
distilled water. The glassware should then be drained dry, and heated in a
muffle furnace at 400°C for 15-30 minutes. Some thermally stable materials, such
as PCBs, may not be eliminated by this treatment. Solvent rinses with acetone
and pesticide quality hexane may be substituted for the muffle furnace heating.
Thorough rinsing with such solvents usually eliminates PCB interference.
Volumetric ware should not be heated in a muffle furnace. After drying and
cooling, glassware should be sealed and stored in a clean environment to prevent
any accumulation of dust or other contaminants. Store inverted or capped with
aluminum foil.
3.1.2
The use of high purity reagents and solvents helps to minimize interference
problems. Purification of solvents by distillation in all-glass systems may be
required.
3.2
Interferences by phthalate esters can pose a major problem in pesticide analysis when
using the electron capture detector. These compounds generally appear in the
chromatogram as large late eluting peaks, especially in the 15 and 50% fractions from
Florisil. Common flexible plastics contain varying amounts of phthalates. These
phthalates are easily extracted or leached from such materials during laboratory
operations. Cross contamination of clean glassware routinely occurs when plastics are
handled during extraction steps, especially when solvent-wetted surfaces are handled.
Interferences from phthalates can best be minimized by avoiding the use of plastics in
the laboratory. Exhaustive cleanup of reagents and glassware may be required to
eliminate background phthalate contamination.4,5 T interferences from phthalate esters
can be avoided by using a microcoulometric or electrolytic conductivity detector.
3.3
Matrix interferences may be caused by contaminants that are co-extracted from the
sample. The extent of matrix interferences will vary considerably from source to source,
depending upon the nature and diversity of the industrial complex or municipality being
sampled. The cleanup procedures in Section 11 can be used to overcome many of these
interferences, but unique samples may require additional cleanup approaches to achieve
the MDL listed in Table 1.
4.
Safety
4.1
The toxicity or carcinogenicity of each reagent used in this method has not been precisely
defined; however, each chemical compound should be treated as a potential health
hazard. From this viewpoint, exposure to these chemicals must be reduced to the lowest
possible level by whatever means available. The laboratory is responsible for maintaining
a current awareness file of OSHA regulations regarding the safe handling of the
chemicals specified in this method. A reference file of material data handling sheets
should also be made available to all personnel involved in the chemical analysis.
Additional references to laboratory safety are available and have been identified6-8 for the
information of the analyst.
4.2
The following parameters covered by this method have been tentatively classified as
known or suspected, human or mammalian carcinogens: 4,4′-DDT, 4,4′-DDD, the BHCs,
and the PCBs. Primary standards of these toxic compounds should be prepared in a
hood. A NIOSH/MESA approved toxic gas respirator should be worn when the analyst
handles high concentrations of these toxic compounds.
5.
Apparatus and Materials
5.1
Sampling equipment, for discrete or composite sampling.
5.2.
5.1.1
Grab sample bottle— 1-L or 1-qt, amber glass, fitted with a screw cap lined with
Teflon. Foil may be substituted for Teflon if the sample is not corrosive. If amber
bottles are not available, protect samples from light. The bottle and cap liner
must be washed, rinsed with acetone or methylene chloride, and dried before use
to minimize contamination.
5.1.2
Automatic sampler (optional)—The sampler must incorporate glass sample
containers for the collection of a minimum of 250 mL of sample. Sample
containers must be kept refrigerated at 4°C and protected from light during
compositing. If the sampler uses a peristaltic pump, a minimum length of
compressible silicone rubber tubing may be used. Before use, however, the
compressible tubing should be thoroughly rinsed with methanol, followed by
repeated rinsings with distilled water to minimize the potential for contamination
of the sample. An integrating flow meter is required to collect flow proportional
composites.
Glassware (All specifications are suggested. Catalog numbers are included for illustration
only.)
5.2.1
Separatory funnel— 2-L, with Teflon stopcock.
5.2.2
Drying column—Chromatographic column, approximately 400 mm long x 19 mm
ID, with coarse frit filter disc.
5.2.3
Chromatographic column—400 mm long x 22 mm ID, with Teflon stopcock and
coarse frit filter disc (Kontes K-42054 or equivalent).
5.2.4
Concentrator tube, Kuderna-Danish— 10-mL, graduated (Kontes K-570050-1025
or equivalent). Calibration must be checked at the volumes employed in the test.
Ground glass stopper is used to prevent evaporation of extracts.
5.2.5
Evaporative flask, Kuderna-Danish—500- mL (Kontes K-570001-0500 or
equivalent). Attach to concentrator tube with springs.
5.2.6
Snyder column, Kuderna/Danish—Three-ball macro (Kontes K-503000-0121 or
equivalent).
5.2.7
Vials—10 to 15-mL, amber glass, with Teflon-lined screw cap.
5.3
Boiling chips-Approximately 10/40 mesh. Heat to 400°C for 30 minutes or Soxhlet
extract with methylene chloride.
5.4
Water bath—Heated, with concentric ring cover, capable of temperature control (±2°C).
The bath should be used in a hood.
5.5
Balance—Analytical, capable of accurately weighing 0.0001 g.
5.6
Gas chromatograph—An analytical system complete with gas chromatograph suitable for
on-column injection and all required accessories including syringes, analytical columns,
gases, detector, and strip-chart recorder. A data system is recommended for measuring
peak areas.
5.6.1
Column 1—1.8 m long x 4 mm ID glass, packed with 1.5% SP-2250/1.95%
SP-2401 on Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) or equivalent. This column was used to
develop the method performance statements in Section 14. Guidelines for the use
of alternate column packings are provided in Section 12.1.
5.6.2
Column 2—1.8 m long x 4 mm ID glass, packed with 3% OV-1 on Supelcoport
(100/120 mesh) or equivalent.
5.6.3
Detector—Electron capture detector. This detector has proven effective in the
analysis of wastewaters for the parameters listed in the scope (Section 1.1), and
was used to develop the method performance statements in Section 14.
Guidelines for the use of alternate detectors are provided in Section 12.1.
6.
Reagents
6.1
Reagent water—Reagent water is defined as a water in which an interferent is not
observed at the MDL of the parameters of interest.
6.2
Sodium hydroxide solution (10 N)—Dissolve 40 g of NaOH (ACS) in reagent water and
dilute to 100 mL.
6.3
Sodium thiosulfate—(ACS) Granular.
6.4
Sulfuric acid (1+1)—Slowly, add 50 mL to H2SO 4 (ACS, sp. gr. 1.84) to 50 mL of reagent
water.
6.5
Acetone, hexane, isooctane, methylene chloride—Pesticide quality or equivalent.
6.6
Ethyl ether—Nanograde, redistilled in glass if necessary.
6.6.1
Ethyl ether must be shown to be free of peroxides before it is used as indicated
by EM Laboratories Quant test strips. (Available from Scientific Products Co.,
Cat. No. P1126-8, and other suppliers.)
6.6.2
Procedures recommended for removal of peroxides are provided with the test
strips. After cleanup, 20 mL of ethyl alcohol preservative must be added to each
liter of ether.
6.7
Sodium sulfate—(ACS) Granular, anhydrous. Purify by heating at 400°C for four hours
in a shallow tray.
6.8
Florisil—-PR grade (60/100 mesh). Purchase activated at 1250°F and store in the dark
in glass containers with ground glass stoppers or foil-lined screw caps. Before use,
activate each batch at least 16 hours at 130°C in a foil-covered glass container and allow
to cool.
6.9
Mercury—Triple distilled.
6.10
Copper powder—Activated.
6.11
Stock standard solutions (1.00 µg/µL)—Stock standard solutions can be prepared from
pure standard materials or purchased as certified solutions.
6.11.1 Prepare stock standard solutions by accurately weighing about 0.0100 g of pure
material. Dissolve the material in isooctane and dilute to volume in a 10 mL
volumetric flask. Larger volumes can be used at the convenience of the analyst.
When compound purity is assayed to be 96% or greater, the weight can be used
without correction to calculate the concentration of the stock standard.
Commercially prepared stock standards can be used at any concentration if they
are certified by the manufacturer or by an independent source.
6.11.2 Transfer the stock standard solutions into Teflon-sealed screw-cap bottles. Store
at 4°C and protect from light. Stock standard solutions should be checked
frequently for signs of degradation or evaporation, especially just prior to
preparing calibration standards from them.
6.11.3 Stock standard solutions must be replaced after six months, or sooner if
comparison with check standards indicates a problem.
6.12
Quality control check sample concentrate—See Section 8.2.1.
7.
Calibration
7.1
Establish gas chromatographic operating conditions equivalent to those given in Table 1.
The gas chromatographic system can be calibrated using the external standard technique
(Section 7.2) or the internal standard technique (Section 7.3).
7.2
External standard calibration procedure
7.2.1
Prepare calibration standards at a minimum of three concentration levels for each
parameter of interest by adding volumes of one or more stock standards to a
volumetric flask and diluting to volume with isooctane. One of the external
standards should be at a concentration near, but above, the MDL (Table 1) and
the other concentrations should correspond to the expected range of
concentrations found in real samples or should define the working range of the
detector.
7.2.2
Using injections of 2-5 µL, analyze each calibration standard according to Section
12 and tabulate peak height or area responses against the mass injected. The
results can be used to prepare a calibration curve for each compound.
Alternatively, if the ratio of response to amount injected (calibration factor) is a
constant over the working range (<10% relative standard deviation, RSD),
linearity through the origin can be assumed and the average ratio or calibration
factor can be used in place of a calibration curve.
7.3
Internal standard calibration procedure—To use this approach, the analyst must select
one or more internal standards that are similar in analytical behavior to the compounds
of interest. The analyst must further demonstrate that the measurement of the internal
standard is not affected by method or matrix interferences. Because of these limitations,
no internal standard can be suggested that is applicable to all samples.
7.3.1
Prepare calibration standards at a minimum of three concentration levels for each
parameter of interest by adding volumes of one or more stock standards to a
volumetric flask. To each calibration standard, add a known constant amount of
one or more internal standards, and dilute to volume with isooctane. One of the
standards should be at a concentration near, but above, the MDL and the other
concentrations should correspond to the expected range of concentrations found
in real samples or should define the working range of the detector.
7.3.2
Using injections of 2-5 µL, analyze each calibration standard according to Section
12 and tabulate peak height or area responses against concentration for each
compound and internal standard. Calculate response factors (RF) for each
compound using Equation 1.
Equation 1
where:
As = Response for the parameter to be measured.
Ais = Response for the internal standard.
Cis = Concentration of the internal standard (µg/L).
Cs = Concentration of the parameter to be measured (µg/L).
If the RF value over the working range is a constant (<10% RSD), the RF can be
assumed to be invariant and the average RF can be used for calculations.
Alternatively, the results can be used to plot a calibration curve of response ratios,
As/Ais, vs. concentration ratios Cs /Cis *.
7.4
The working calibration curve, calibration factor, or RF must be verified on each working
day by the measurement of one or more calibration standards. If the response for any
parameter varies from the predicted response by more than ±15%, the test must be
repeated using a fresh calibration standard. Alternatively, a new calibration curve must
be prepared for that compound.
7.5
The cleanup procedure in Section 11 utilizes Florisil column chromatography. Florisil
from different batches or sources may vary in adsorptive capacity. To standardize the
amount of Florisil which is used, the use of lauric acid value 9 is suggested. The
*
This equation corrects an error made in the original method publication (49 FR 43234,
October 26, 1984). This correction will be formalized through a rulemaking in FY97.
referenced procedure determines the adsorption from hexane solution of lauric acid (mg)
per g of Florisil. The amount of Florisil to be used for each column is calculated by
dividing 110 by this ratio and multiplying by 20 g.
7.6
Before using any cleanup procedure, the analyst must process a series of calibration
standards through the procedure to validate elution patterns and the absence of
interferences from the reagents.
8.
Quality Control
8.1
Each laboratory that uses this method is required to operate a formal quality control
program. The minimum requirements of this program consist of an initial demonstration
of laboratory capability and an ongoing analysis of spiked samples to evaluate and
document data quality. The laboratory must maintain records to document the quality
of data that is generated. Ongoing data quality checks are compared with established
performance criteria to determine if the results of analyses meet the performance
characteristics of the method. When results of sample spikes indicate atypical method
performance, a quality control check standard must be analyzed to confirm that the
measurements were performed in an in-control mode of operation.
8.1.1
The analyst must make an initial, one-time, demonstration of the ability to
generate acceptable accuracy and precision with this method. This ability is
established as described in Section 8.2.
8.1.2
In recognition of advances that are occurring in chromatography, the analyst is
permitted certain options (detailed in Sections 10.4, 11.1, and 12.1) to improve the
separations or lower the cost of measurements. Each time such a modification is
made to the method, the analyst is required to repeat the procedure in Section 8.2.
8.1.3
Before processing any samples, the analyst must analyze a reagent water blank
to demonstrate that interferences from the analytical system and glassware are
under control. Each time a set of samples is extracted or reagents are changed,
a reagent water blank must be processed as a safeguard against laboratory
contamination.
8.1.4
The laboratory must, on an ongoing basis, spike and analyze a minimum of 10%
of all samples to monitor and evaluate laboratory data quality. This procedure
is described in Section 8.3.
8.1.5
The laboratory must, on an ongoing basis, demonstrate through the analyses of
quality control check standards that the operation of the measurement system is
in control. This procedure is described in Section 8.4. The frequency of the check
standard analyses is equivalent to 10% of all samples analyzed but may be
reduced if spike recoveries from samples (Section 8.3) meet all specified quality
control criteria.
8.1.6
The laboratory must maintain performance records to document the quality of
data that is generated. This procedure is described in Section 8.5.
8.2
To establish the ability to generate acceptable accuracy and precision, the analyst must
perform the following operations.
8.2.1
A quality control (QC) check sample concentrate is required containing each
single-component parameter of interest at the following concentrations in acetone:
4,4′SDDD, 10 µg/mL; 4,4′SDDT, 10 µg/mL; endosulfan II, 10 µg/mL; endosulfan
sulfate, 10 µg/mL; endrin, 10 µg/mL; any other single-component pesticide, 2
µg/mL. If this method is only to be used to analyze for PCBs, chlordane, or
toxaphene, the QC check sample concentrate should contain the most
representative multicomponent parameter at a concentration of 50 µg/mL in
acetone. The QC check sample concentrate must be obtained from the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support
Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio, if available. If not available from that source, the
QC check sample concentrate must be obtained from another external source. If
not available from either source above, the QC check sample concentrate must be
prepared by the laboratory using stock standards prepared independently from
those used for calibration.
8.2.2
Using a pipet, prepare QC check samples at the test concentrations shown in
Table 3 by adding 1.00 mL of QC check sample concentrate to each of four 1-L
aliquots of reagent water.
8.2.3
Analyze the well-mixed QC check samples according to the method beginning in
Section 10.
8.2.4
Calculate the average recovery ( ) in µg/mL; and the standard deviation of the
recovery (s) in µg/mL, for each parameter using the four results.
8.2.5
For each parameter compare s and
with the corresponding acceptance criteria
for precision and accuracy, respectively, found in Table 3. If s and
for all
parameters of interest meet the acceptance criteria, the system performance is
acceptable and analysis of actual samples can begin. If any individual s exceeds
the precision limit or any individual
falls outside the range for accuracy, the
system performance is unacceptable for that parameter.
NOTE:
8.2.6
The large number of parameters in Table 3 present a substantial
probability that one or more will fail at least one of the acceptance
criteria when all parameters are analyzed.
When one or more of the parameters tested fail at least one of the acceptance
criteria, the analyst must proceed according to Section 8.2.6.1 or 8.2.6.2.
8.2.6.1 Locate and correct the source of the problem and repeat the test for all
parameters of interest beginning with Section 8.2.2.
8.2.6.2 Beginning with Section 8.2.2, repeat the test only for those parameters that
failed to meet criteria. Repeated failure, however, will confirm a general
problem with the measurement system. If this occurs, locate and correct
the source of the problem and repeat the test for all compounds of interest
beginning with Section 8.2.2.
8.3
The laboratory must, on an ongoing basis, spike at least 10% of the samples from each
sample site being monitored to assess accuracy. For laboratories analyzing one to ten
samples per month, at least one spiked sample per month is required.
8.3.1
The concentration of the spike in the sample should be determined as follows:
8.3.1.1 If, as in compliance monitoring, the concentration of a specific parameter
in the sample is being checked against a regulatory concentration limit, the
spike should be at that limit or one to five times higher than the
background concentration determined in Section 8.3.2, whichever
concentration would be larger.
8.3.1.2 If the concentration of a specific parameter in the sample is not being
checked against a limit specific to that parameter, the spike should be at
the test concentration in Section 8.2.2 or one to five times higher than the
background concentration determined in Section 8.3.2, whichever
concentration would be larger.
8.3.1.3 If it is impractical to determine background levels before spiking (e.g.,
maximum holding times will be exceeded), the spike concentration should
be (1) the regulatory concentration limit, if any; or, if none (2) the larger
of either five times higher than the expected background concentration or
the test concentration in Section 8.2.2.
8.3.2
Analyze one sample aliquot to determine the background concentration (B) of
each parameter. If necessary, prepare a new QC check sample concentrate
(Section 8.2.1) appropriate for the background concentrations in the sample. Spike
a second sample aliquot with 1.0 mL of the QC check sample concentrate and
analyze it to determine the concentration after spiking (A) of each parameter.
Calculate each percent recovery (P) as 100 (A-B)%/T, where T is the known true
value of the spike.
8.3.3
Compare the percent recovery (P) for each parameter with the corresponding QC
acceptance criteria found in Table 3. These acceptance criteria were calculated to
include an allowance for error in measurement of both the background and spike
concentrations, assuming a spike to background ratio of 5:1. This error will be
accounted for to the extent that the analyst's spike to background ratio
approaches 5:1.10 If spiking was performed at a concentration lower than the test
concentration in Section 8.2.2, the analyst must use either the QC acceptance
criteria in Table 3, or optional QC acceptance criteria calculated for the specific
spike concentration. To calculate optional acceptance criteria for the recovery of
a parameter: (1) Calculate accuracy (X') using the equation in Table 4,
substituting the spike concentration (T) for C; (2) calculate overall precision (S')
using the equation in Table 4, substituting X' for ; (3) calculate the range for
recovery at the spike concentration as (100 X'/T) ±2.44(100 S'/T)%.10
8.3.4
8.4
If any individual P falls outside the designated range for recovery, that parameter
has failed the acceptance criteria. A check standard containing each parameter
that failed the criteria must be analyzed as described in Section 8.4.
If any parameter fails the acceptance criteria for recovery in Section 8.3, a QC check
standard containing each parameter that failed must be prepared and analyzed.
NOTE:
The frequency for the required analysis of a QC check standard will
depend upon the number of parameters being simultaneously tested, the
complexity of the sample matrix, and the performance of the laboratory.
If the entire list of parameters in Table 3 must be measured in the sample
in Section 8.3, the probability that the analysis of a QC check standard will
be required is high. In this case the QC check standard should be
routinely analyzed with the spike sample.
8.4.1
Prepare the QC check standard by adding 1.0 mL of QC check sample concentrate
(Section 8.2.1 or 8.3.2) to 1 L of reagent water. The QC check standard needs only
to contain the parameters that failed criteria in the test in Section 8.3.
8.4.2
Analyze the QC check standards to determine the concentration measured (A) of
each parameter. Calculate each percent recovery (Ps ) as 100 (A/T)%, where T is
the true value of the standard concentration.
8.4.3
Compare the percent recovery (Ps) for each parameter with the corresponding QC
acceptance criteria found in Table 3. Only parameters that failed the test in
Section 8.3 need to be compared with these criteria. If the recovery of any such
parameter falls outside the designated range, the laboratory performance for that
parameter is judged to be out of control, and the problem must be immediately
identified and corrected. The analytical result for that parameter in the unspiked
sample is suspect and may not be reported for regulatory compliance purposes.
8.5
As part of the QC program for the laboratory, method accuracy for wastewater samples
must be assessed and records must be maintained. After the analysis of five spiked
wastewater samples as in Section 8.3, calculate the average percent recovery ( ) and the
standard deviation of the percent recovery (s p). Express the accuracy assessment as a
percent recovery interval from -2 sp to +2 sp . If =90% and sp =10%, for example, the
accuracy interval is expressed as 70-110%. Update the accuracy assessment for each
parameter on a regular basis (e.g., after each 5-10 new accuracy measurements).
8.6
It is recommended that the laboratory adopt additional quality assurance practices for
use with this method. The specific practices that are most productive depend upon the
needs of the laboratory and the nature of the samples. Field duplicates may be analyzed
to assess the precision of the environmental measurements. When doubt exists over the
identification of a peak on the chromatogram, confirmatory techniques such as gas
chromatography with a dissimilar column, specific element detector, or mass
spectrometer must be used. Whenever possible, the laboratory should analyze standard
reference materials and participate in relevant performance evaluation studies.
9.
Sample Collection, Preservation, and Handling
9.1
Grab samples must be collected in glass containers. Conventional sampling practices 11
should be followed, except that the bottle must not be prerinsed with sample before
collection. Composite samples should be collected in refrigerated glass containers in
accordance with the requirements of the program. Automatic sampling equipment must
be as free as possible of Tygon tubing and other potential sources of contamination.
9.2
All samples must be iced or refrigerated at 4°C from the time of collection until
extraction. If the samples will not be extracted within 72 hours of collection, the sample
should be adjusted to a pH range of 5.0-9.0 with sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric
acid. Record the volume of acid or base used. If aldrin is to be determined, add sodium
thiosulfate when residual chlorine is present. EPA Methods 330.4 and 330.5 may be used
for measurement of residual chlorine.12 Field test kits are available for this purpose.
9.3
All samples must be extracted within seven days of collection and completely analyzed
within 40 days of extraction.2
10.
Sample Extraction
10.1
Mark the water meniscus on the side of the sample bottle for later determination of
sample volume. Pour the entire sample into a 2 L separatory funnel.
10.2
Add 60 mL of methylene chloride to the sample bottle, seal, and shake 30 seconds to
rinse the inner surface. Transfer the solvent to the separatory funnel and extract the
sample by shaking the funnel for two minutes with periodic venting to release excess
pressure. Allow the organic layer to separate from the water phase for a minimum of
10 minutes. If the emulsion interface between layers is more than one-third the volume
of the solvent layer, the analyst must employ mechanical techniques to complete the
phase separation. The optimum technique depends upon the sample, but may include
stirring, filtration of the emulsion through glass wool, centrifugation, or other physical
methods. Collect the methylene chloride extract in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask.
10.3
Add a second 60 mL volume of methylene chloride to the sample bottle and repeat the
extraction procedure a second time, combining the extracts in the Erlenmeyer flask.
Perform a third extraction in the same manner.
10.4
Assemble a Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentrator by attaching a 10 mL concentrator tube
to a 500 mL evaporative flask. Other concentration devices or techniques may be used
in place of the K-D concentrator if the requirements of Section 8.2 are met.
10.5
Pour the combined extract through a solvent-rinsed drying column containing about
10 cm of anhydrous sodium sulfate, and collect the extract in the K-D concentrator.
Rinse the Erlenmeyer flask and column with 20-30 mL of methylene chloride to complete
the quantitative transfer.
10.6
Add one or two clean boiling chips to the evaporative flask and attach a three-ball
Snyder column. Prewet the Snyder column by adding about 1 mL of methylene chloride
to the top. Place the K-D apparatus on a hot water bath (60-65°C) so that the
concentrator tube is partially immersed in the hot water, and the entire lower rounded
surface of the flask is bathed with hot vapor. Adjust the vertical position of the
apparatus and the water temperature as required to complete the concentration in 15-20
minutes. At the proper rate of distillation the balls of the column will actively chatter
but the chambers will not flood with condensed solvent. When the apparent volume of
liquid reaches 1 mL, remove the K-D apparatus and allow it to drain and cool for at least
10 minutes.
10.7
Increase the temperature of the hot water bath to about 80°C. Momentarily remove the
Snyder column, add 50 mL of hexane and a new boiling chip, and reattach the Snyder
column. Concentrate the extract as in Section 10.6, except use hexane to prewet the
column. The elapsed time of concentration should be 5-10 minutes.
10.8
Remove the Snyder column and rinse the flask and its lower joint into the concentrator
tube with 1-2 mL of hexane. A 5 mL syringe is recommended for this operation.
Stopper the concentrator tube and store refrigerated if further processing will not be
performed immediately. If the extract will be stored longer than two days, it should be
transferred to a Teflon-sealed screw-cap vial. If the sample extract requires no further
cleanup, proceed with gas chromatographic analysis (Section 12). If the sample requires
further cleanup, proceed to Section 11.
10.9
Determine the original sample volume by refilling the sample bottle to the mark and
transferring the liquid to a 1000 mL graduated cylinder. Record the sample volume to
the nearest 5 mL.
11.
Cleanup and Separation
11.1
Cleanup procedures may not be necessary for a relatively clean sample matrix. If
particular circumstances demand the use of a cleanup procedure, the analyst may use
either procedure below or any other appropriate procedure. However, the analyst first
must demonstrate that the requirements of Section 8.2 can be met using the method as
revised to incorporate the cleanup procedure. The Florisil column allows for a select
fractionation of the compounds and will eliminate polar interferences. Elemental sulfur,
which interferes with the electron capture gas chromatography of certain pesticides, can
be removed by the technique described in Section 11.3.
11.2
Florisil column cleanup
11.2.1 Place a weight of Florisil (nominally 20 g) predetermined by calibration
(Section 7.5), into a chromatographic column. Tap the column to settle the Florisil
and add 1-2 cm of anhydrous sodium sulfate to the top.
11.2.2 Add 60 mL of hexane to wet and rinse the sodium sulfate and Florisil. Just prior
to exposure of the sodium sulfate layer to the air, stop the elution of the hexane
by closing the stopcock on the chromatographic column. Discard the eluate.
11.2.3 Adjust the sample extract volume to 10 mL with hexane and transfer it from the
K-D concentrator tube onto the column. Rinse the tube twice with 1-2 mL of
hexane, adding each rinse to the column.
11.2.4 Place a 500 mL K-D flask and clean concentrator tube under the chromatographic
column. Drain the column into the flask until the sodium sulfate layer is nearly
exposed. Elute the column with 200 mL of 6% ethyl ether in hexane (V/V)
(Fraction 1) at a rate of about 5 mL/min. Remove the K-D flask and set it aside
for later concentration. Elute the column again, using 200 mL of 15% ethyl ether
in hexane (V/V) (Fraction 2), into a second K-D flask. Perform the third elution
using 200 mL of 50% ethyl ether in hexane (V/V) (Fraction 3). The elution
patterns for the pesticides and PCBs are shown in Table 2.
11.2.5 Concentrate the fractions as in Section 10.6, except use hexane to prewet the
column and set the water bath at about 85°C. When the apparatus is cool,
remove the Snyder column and rinse the flask and its lower joint into the
concentrator tube with hexane. Adjust the volume of each fraction to 10 mL with
hexane and analyze by gas chromatography (Section 12).
11.3
Elemental sulfur will usually elute entirely in Fraction 1 of the Florisil column cleanup.
To remove sulfur interference from this fraction or the original extract, pipet 1.00 mL of
the concentrated extract into a clean concentrator tube or Teflon-sealed vial. Add one to
three drops of mercury and seal.13 Agitate the contents of the vial for 15-30 seconds.
Prolonged shaking (two hours) may be required. If so, this may be accomplished with
a reciprocal shaker. Alternatively, activated copper powder may be used for sulfur
removal.14 Analyze by gas chromatography.
12.
Gas Chromatography
12.1
Table 1 summarizes the recommended operating conditions for the gas chromatograph.
Included in this table are retention times and MDL that can be achieved under these
conditions. Examples of the separations achieved by Column 1 are shown in Figures 1
to 10. Other packed or capillary (open-tubular) columns, chromatographic conditions,
or detectors may be used if the requirements of Section 8.2 are met.
12.2
Calibrate the system daily as described in Section 7.
12.3
If the internal standard calibration procedure is being used, the internal standard must
be added to the sample extract and mixed thoroughly immediately before injection into
the gas chromatograph.
12.4
Inject 2-5 µL of the sample extract or standard into the gas chromatograph using the
solvent-flush technique.15 Smaller (1.0 µL) volumes may be injected if automatic devices
are employed. Record the volume injected to the nearest 0.05 µL, the total extract
volume, and the resulting peak size in area or peak height units.
12.5
Identify the parameters in the sample by comparing the retention times of the peaks in
the sample chromatogram with those of the peaks in standard chromatograms. The
width of the retention time window used to make identifications should be based upon
measurements of actual retention time variations of standards over the course of a day.
Three times the standard deviation of a retention time for a compound can be used to
calculate a suggested window size; however, the experience of the analyst should weigh
heavily in the interpretation of chromatograms.
12.6
If the response for a peak exceeds the working range of the system, dilute the extract and
reanalyze.
12.7
If the measurement of the peak response is prevented by the presence of interferences,
further cleanup is required.
13.
Calculations
13.1
Determine the concentration of individual compounds in the sample.
13.1.1 If the external standard calibration procedure is used, calculate the amount of
material injected from the peak response using the calibration curve or calibration
factor determined in Section 7.2.2. The concentration in the sample can be
calculated from Equation 2.
Equation 2
where:
A = Amount of material injected (ng).
Vi = Volume of extract injected (µL).
Vt = Volume of total extract (µL).
Vs = Volume of water extracted (mL).
13.1.2 If the internal standard calibration procedure is used, calculate the concentration
in the sample using the response factor (RF) determined in Section 7.3.2 and
Equation 3.
Equation 3
where:
As = Response for the parameter to be measured.
Ais = Response for the internal standard.
Is = Amount of internal standard added to each extract (µg).
Vo = Volume of water extracted (L).
13.2
When it is apparent that two or more PCB (Aroclor) mixtures are present, the Webb and
McCall procedure16 may be used to identify and quantify the Aroclors.
13.3
For multicomponent mixtures (chlordane, toxaphene, and PCBs) match retention times
of peaks in the standards with peaks in the sample. Quantitate every identifiable peak
unless interference with individual peaks persist after cleanup. Add peak height or peak
area of each identified peak in the chromatogram. Calculate as total response in the
sample versus total response in the standard.
13.4
Report results in µg/L without correction for recovery data. All QC data obtained
should be reported with the sample results.
14.
Method Performance
14.1
The method detection limit (MDL) is defined as the minimum concentration of a
substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the value is above
17
zero.1 The MDL concentrations listed in Table 1 were obtained using reagent water.
Similar results were achieved using representative wastewaters. The MDL actually
achieved in a given analysis will vary depending on instrument sensitivity and matrix
effects.
14.2
This method has been tested for linearity of spike recovery from reagent water and has
been demonstrated to be applicable over the concentration range from 4 x MDL to 1000
x MDL with the following exceptions: Chlordane recovery at 4 x MDL was low (60%);
Toxaphene recovery was demonstrated linear over the range of 10 x MDL to 1000 x
MDL.17
14.3
This method was tested by 20 laboratories using reagent water, drinking water, surface
water, and three industrial wastewaters spiked at six concentrations. 18 Concentrations
used in the study ranged from 0.5-30 µg/L for single-component pesticides and from 8.5400 µg/L for multicomponent parameters. Single operator precision, overall precision,
and method accuracy were found to be directly related to the concentration of the
parameter and essentially independent of the sample matrix. Linear equations to describe
these relationships are presented in Table 4.
References
1.
40 CFR Part 136, Appendix B.
2.
“Determination of Pesticides and PCBs in Industrial and Municipal Wastewaters,” EPA
600/4-82-023, National Technical Information Service, PB82-214222, Springfield, Virginia
22161, April 1982.
3.
ASTM Annual Book of Standards, Part 31, D3694-78. “Standard Practices for Preparation
of Sample Containers and for Preservation of Organic Constituents,” American Society
for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
4.
Giam, C.S., Chan, H.S., and Nef, G.S. “Sensitive Method for Determination of Phthalate
Ester Plasticizers in Open-Ocean Biota Samples,” Analytical Chemistry, 47, 2225 (1975).
5.
Giam, C.S. and Chan, H.S. “Control of Blanks in the Analysis of Phthalates in Air and
Ocean Biota Samples,” U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Special Publication 442, pp.
701-708, 1976.
6.
“Carcinogens-Working With Carcinogens,” Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health, Publication No. 77-206, August 1977.
7.
“OSHA Safety and Health Standards, General Industry,” (29 CFR Part 1910),
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA 2206 (Revised, January 1976).
8.
“Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories,” American Chemical Society Publication,
Committee on Chemical Safety, 3rd Edition, 1979.
9.
Mills, P.A. “Variation of Florisil Activity: Simple Method for Measuring Absorbent
Capacity and Its Use in Standardizing Florisil Columns,” Journal of the Association of
Official Analytical Chemists, 51, 29, (1968).
10.
Provost, L.P. and Elder, R.S. “Interpretation of Percent Recovery Data,” American
Laboratory, 15, 58-63 (1983). (The value 2.44 used in the equation in Section 8.3.3 is two
times the value 1.22 derived in this report.)
11.
ASTM Annual Book of Standards, Part 31, D3370-76. “Standard Practices for Sampling
Water,” American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
12.
“Methods 330.4 (Titrimetric, DPD-FAS) and 330.5 (Spectrophotometric, DPD) for Chlorine,
Total Residual,” Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-600/4-79-020,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support
Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, March 1979.
13.
Goerlitz, D.F. and Law, L.M. Bulletin for Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 6,
9 (1971).
14.
“Manual of Analytical Methods for the Analysis of Pesticides in Human and
Environmental Samples,” EPA-600/8-80-038, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Health Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
15.
Burke, J.A. “Gas Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis; Some Practical
Aspects,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 48, 1037 (1965).
16.
Webb, R.G. and McCall, A.C. “Quantitative PCB Standards for Election Capture Gas
Chromatography,” Journal of Chromatographic Science, 11, 366 (1973).
17.
“Method Detection Limit and Analytical Curve Studies, EPA Methods 606, 607, and 608,”
Special letter report for EPA Contract 68-03-2606, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, June 1980.
18.
“EPA Method Study 18 Method 608-Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs,” EPA
600/4-84-061, National Technical Information Service, PB84-211358, Springfield, Virginia
22161, June 1984.
Table 1—Chromatographic Conditions and Method Detection Limits
Retention time (min)
Parameter
Column 1
"-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heptachlor . . . . . .
*-BHC . . . . . . . . . .
Aldrin . . . . . . . . . .
Heptachlor epoxide
Endosulfan I . . . . .
4,4'-DDE . . . . . . . .
Dieldrin . . . . . . . . .
Endrin . . . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDD . . . . . . . .
Endosulfan II . . . .
4,4'-DDT . . . . . . . .
Endrin aldehyde . .
Endosulfan sulfate .
Chlordane . . . . . . .
Toxaphene . . . . . . .
PCB-1016 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1221 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1232 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1242 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1248 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1254 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1260 . . . . . . . .
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1.35
1.70
1.90
2.00
2.15
2.40
3.50
4.50
5.13
5.45
6.55
7.83
8.00
9.40
11.82
14.22
mr
mr
mr
mr
mt
mr
mr
mr
mr
Column 2
1.82
2.13
1.97
3.35
2.20
4.10
5.00
6.20
7.15
7.23
8.10
9.08
8.28
11.75
9.30
10.70
mr
mr
mr
mr
mr
mr
mr
mr
mr
Method
detection limit
(µg/L)
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.003
0.009
0.004
0.083
0.014
0.004
0.002
0.006
0.011
0.004
0.012
0.023
0.066
0.014
0.240
nd
nd
nd
0.065
nd
nd
nd
Column 1 conditions: Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 1.5% SP-2250/1.95% SP-2401
packed in a 1.8 m long x 4 mm ID glass column with 5% methane/95% argon carrier gas at
60 mL/min. flow rate. Column temperature held isothermal at 200°C, except for PCB-1016
through PCB-1248, should be measured at 160°C.
Column 2 conditions: Supelcoport (100/120 mesh) coated with 3% OV-one packed in a
1.8 m long x 4 mm ID glass column with 5% methane/95% argon carrier gas at 60 mL/min.
flow rate. Column temperature held isothermal at 200°C for the pesticides; at 140°C for
PCB-1221 and 1232; and at 170°C for PCB-1016 and 1242-1268.
mr = Multiple peak response. See Figures 2-10.
nd = Not determined.
Table 2—Distribution of Chlorinated Pesticides and PCBs into Florisil Column Fractions2
Percent recovery by fractiona
Parameter
Aldrin . . . . . . . . . .
..........
..........
..........
..........
Chlordane . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDD . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDE . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDT . . . . . . . .
Dieldrin . . . . . . . . .
Endosulfan I . . . . .
Endosulfan II . . . .
Endosulfan sulfate .
Endrin . . . . . . . . . .
Endrin aldehyde . .
Heptachlor . . . . . .
Heptachlor epoxide
Toxaphene . . . . . . .
PCB-1016 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1221 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1232 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1242 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1248 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1254 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1260 . . . . . . . .
"-BHC
$-BHC
*-BHC
(-BHC
a
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Eluant composition:
Fraction 1 - 6% ethyl ether in hexane.
Fraction 2 - 15% ethyl ether in hexane.
Fraction 3 - 50% ethyl ether in hexane.
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2
100
100
97
98
100
100
99
98
100
0
37
0
0
4
0
100
100
96
97
97
95
97
103
90
95
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3
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...
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100
64
7
0
96
68
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4
....
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....
....
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...
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..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
91
106
....
26
....
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....
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....
....
....
....
....
Table 3—QC Acceptance Criteria—Method 608
Parameter
Aldrin . . . . . . . . . .
"-BHC . . . . . . . . . .
$-BHC . . . . . . . . . .
*-BHC . . . . . . . . . .
(-BHC . . . . . . . . . .
Chlordane . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDD . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDE . . . . . . . .
4,4'-DDT . . . . . . . .
Dieldrin . . . . . . . . .
Endosulfan I . . . . .
Endosulfan II . . . .
Endosulfan Sulfate
Endrin . . . . . . . . . .
Heptachlor . . . . . .
Heptachlor epoxide
Toxaphene . . . . . . .
PCB-1016 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1221 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1232 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1242 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1248 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1254 . . . . . . . .
PCB-1260 . . . . . . . .
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Test
conc.
(µg/L)
Limit
for s
(µg/L)
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
50
10
2.0
10
2.0
2.0
10
10
10
2.0
2.0
50.0
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
0.42
0.48
0.64
0.72
0.46
10.0
2.8
0.55
3.6
0.76
0.49
6.1
2.7
3.7
0.40
0.41
12.7
10.0
24.4
17.9
12.2
15.9
13.8
10.4
Range for
(µg/L)
1.08
0.98
0.78
1.01
0.86
27.6
4.8
1.08
4.6
1.15
1.14
2.2
3.8
5.1
0.86
1.13
27.8
30.5
22.1
14.0
24.8
29.0
22.2
18.7
-
2.24
2.44
2.60
2.37
2.32
54.3
12.6
2.60
13.7
2.49
2.82
17.1
13.2
12.6
2.00
2.63
55.6
51.5
75.2
98.5
69.6
70.2
57.9
54.9
Range for
P, Ps
%)
42 37 1719 32 45 31 30 25 36 45 D26 30 34 37 41 50 15 10 39 38 29 8-
122
134
147
140
127
119
141
145
160
146
153
202
144
147
111
142
126
114
178
215
150
158
131
127
s = Standard deviation of four recovery measurements, in µg/L (Section 8.2.4).
= Average recovery for four recovery measurements, in µg/L (Section 8.2.4).
P, Ps = Percent recovery measured (Section 8.3.2, Section 8.4.2).
D = Detected; result must be greater than zero.
NOTE:
These criteria are based directly upon the method performance data in Table 4.
Where necessary, the limits for recovery have been broadened to assure
applicability of the limits to concentrations below those used to develop Table 4.
Table 4—Method Accuracy and Precision as Functions of Concentration—Method 608
Parameter
Accuracy, as Single analyst
Overall
recovery, X' precision, sr' precision, S'
(µg/L)
(µg/L)
(µg/L)
Aldrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.81C+0.04
0.16 - 0.04
0.20
"-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.84C+0.03
0.13 +0.04
0.23
$-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.81C+0.07
0.22 - 0.02
0.33
*-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.81C+0.07
0.18 +0.09
0.25
(-BHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.82C - 0.05
0.12 +0.06
0.22
Chlordane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.82C - 0.04
0.13 +0.13
0.18
4,4'-DDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.84C+0.30
0.20 - 0.18
0.27
4,4'-DDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.85C+0.14
0.13 +0.06
0.28
4,4'-DDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.93C - 0.13
0.17 +0.39
0.31
Dieldrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.90C+0.02
0.12 +0.19
0.16
Endosulfan I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.97C+0.04
0.10 +0.07
0.18
Endosulfan II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.93C+0.34
0.41 - 0.65
0.47
Endosulfan Sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.89C - 0.37
0.13 +0.33
0.24
Endrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.89C - 0.04
0.20 +0.25
0.24
Heptachlor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.69C+0.04
0.06 +0.13
0.16
Heptachlor epoxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.89C+0.10
0.18 - 0.11
0.25
Toxaphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.80C+1.74
0.09 +3.20
0.20
PCB-1016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.81C+0.50
0.13 +0.15
0.15
PCB-1221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.96C+0.65
0.29 - 0.76
0.35
PCB-1232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.91C+10.79
0.21 - 1.93
0.31
PCB-1242 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.93C+0.70
0.11 +1.40
0.21
PCB-1248 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.97C+1.06
0.17 +0.41
0.25
PCB-1254 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.76C+2.07
0.15 +1.66
0.17
PCB-1260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.66C+3.76
0.22 - 2.37
0.39
X' = Expected recovery for one or more measurements of a sample containing a
concentration of C, in µg/L.
sr' = Expected single analyst standard deviation of measurements at an average
concentration found of , in µg/L.
S' = Expected interlaboratory standard deviation of measurements at an average
concentration found of , in µg/L.
C = True value for the concentration, in µg/L.
= Average recovery found for measurements of samples containing a concentration
in µg/L.
- 0.01
- 0.00
- 0.05
+0.03
+0.04
+0.18
- 0.14
- 0.09
- 0.21
+0.16
+0.08
- 0.20
+0.35
+0.25
+0.08
- 0.08
+0.22
+0.45
- 0.62
+3.50
+1.52
- 0.37
+3.62
- 4.86
of C,
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