KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Order Number EK-179AA-MG-001
digital equipment corporation
maynard, massachusetts
October 1988
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be
construed as a commitment by Digital Equipment Corporation.
Digital Equipment Corporation assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in
this document.
The software, if any, described in this document is furnished under a license and may be used
or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. No responsibility is assumed
for the use or reliability of software or equipment that is not supplied by Digital Equipment
Corporation or its affiliated companies.
© Digital Equipment Corporation. 1988. All rights reserved.
Printed in U.S.A.
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critical evaluation to assist in preparing future documentation.
The following are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation:
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FCC NOTICE: The equipment described in this manual generates, uses, and may emit
radio frequency energy. The equipment has been type tested and found to comply with the
limits for a Class A computing device pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules, which
are designed to provide reasonable protection against such radio frequency interference when
operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area
may cause interference. in which case the user at his own expense may be required to take
measures to correct the interference.
Preface ix
Chapter 1 KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem
1.1 Introduction .............. .. a... 1-1
1.2 KA640 Features. ............ a... 1-3
1.2.1 CVAX Chip... oii ee eee eee 1-3
1.2.2 Clock Functions ........... .... .... .. . . . . a LL 14
1.2.3 Floating Point Accelerator .............. eo... 14
1.2.4 Cache Memory ............... iin... 1-5
1.2.5 Memory Controller... ......._ ............... cee 1-5
1.2.6 MicroVAX System Support Functions ..... neones 1-5
1.2.7 Resident Firmware .................. .. ... ....... 1-6
1.2.8 Q22-bus Interface. . . . ... ee... ..... 1-6
1.2.9 KA640 Network Interface ......................... 1-7
1.2.10 KA640 DSSI Interface ..................... 0... 1-7
1.3 H3602-SAI/OPanel ............. .............. .... 1-8
14 MS650-AA Memory Module. . ........................ 1-10
15 RF30 Disk Drive ......... . ..... .......... eee. 1-12
2.1 Introduction ............. ee. 2-1
22 General Module Order ................ eee 2-1
2.2.1 Module Order for KA640 Systems . .................. 2-2
2.3 Module Configuration. .............................. 2-3
2.4 DSSI Configuration . 5..2 нккнк... 2—4
24.1 Changingthe Node Name ......................... 2-5
— 2.4.2 Changing the Unit Number ............... ceo... 2-7
2.4.3 Access to RF30 Firmware in VMS Through DUP ...... . 2-8
2.4.4 DSSICabling ........... a el L Lana 2—9
244.1 DSSI Bus Termination and Length ................ 2-11
2.4.5 Dual-Host Capability . ............................ 2-11
2.4.6 Dual-Host Configuration .......................... 2-12 Allocation Class ...............o_—e2_2_... ese0dxaxcooo 2-13 Changing the KA640 Node ID .................... 2-13
2.5 Configuration Worksheet ............................ 2-14
Chapter 3 KA640 Firmware
3.1 Introduction ................. PS 3-1
3.2 KA640 Firmware Features. .......................... 3-1
3.3 Halt Entry and Dispatch Code .. ............... RAS 3-2
34 ExtermalHalts ............ .. .... LL Lea aa LL LL 3-3
35 1+ower-Up Seguence .................ds0.00000a.ana. 3—4 Mode Switch SettoTest. . . ...................... 3-4 Mode Switch Set to Language Inquiry .............. 3-5 Mode Switch Set to Normal ...................... 3-6
36 Bootstrap ............. a Lena LL 3-6
3.7 Operating System Restart ........................... 3-8 Locatingthe RPB . . ............. ..... . ... ...... 3-9
32 Console 'OMode ............ iia... 3-10
3.8.1 Command Syntax.................... RAA 3—10
3.8.2 Address Specifiers ........ ee ee eee о 3-11
3.8.3 Symbolic Addresses .............. ................ 3-11
3.8.4 Console Command Qualifiers. ...................... 3-14
3.8.5 Console Command Keywords . ...................... 3-16
39 Console Commands ................ 00a... 3-18
3.9.1 BOOT er 552. н нк н кв кк венки вне. 3-18 Supported Boot Devices ...................ñ_o.. 8-19
392 CONFIGURE ....... i. 3-22
3.9.3 CONTINUE . .. ei 3-24
3.94 DEPOSIT... ea 3-25
3.9.5 EXAMINE ©... ... 3-26
3.9.6 FIND . ee. 3-28
3.9.7 HALT ©. ee 3-29
398 HELP... .. i i.. 3-30
3.9.9 INITIALIZE . . . ee eee 3-32
3.9.10 MOVE . eee. 3-33
3.9.11 NEST ee 3-35
3.9.12 REPEAT........11 111111 LL Le LL ee La Lea Lan 3-37
39.13 SEARCH ............ a... eee 3-38
3914 SET .................. ee ee ee eee 3-40
3.9.15 SHOW 2. к кк е 343
3.916 START.......1.211110 1111 ALL La Le LLC Len 3—47
3.917 TEST LL LL LL a LL LL 20 348
3.918 UNJAM ........L11 111111 LL La LL La La La LL 3—49
3.919 X—BinaryLoadand Unload ....................... 3-50
3.920 !—Comment............ a. 3-52
Chapter 4 Troubleshooting and Diagnostics
4.1 Introduction .............. ie 4-1
4.2 General Procedures ...................rrerereeo.. 4-1
43 KA640 ROM-Based Diagnostics . ...................... 4-2
4.3.1 DaagnosticTests............... ...... 2... LL 220 4-3
4.3.2 Scripts ..................... naaa eee eee 4-6
4.3.3 Script Calling Sequence . .......................... 4-8
4.34 UserCreated Scripts .................. ui... 4-10
4.3.5 Console Displays .................... ............ 4-14
4.3.6 System Halt Messages .............. ea 4-22
4.3.7 Console Error Messages . . ......................... 4-23
4.3.8 VMB Error Messages .................. o... sa... 4-24
44 Acceptance Testing. ....................... eee 4-24
4.5 Troubleshooting ...................... ... .......... 4-31
4.5.1 FE Utility... ... e. eaca0aaerece. 4-31
4.5.2 Isolating Memory Failures. ........................ 4-34
4.5.3 Additional Troubleshooting Suggestions. .............. 4-37
46 Loopback Tests..................0.. e. saaacorarcar. 4-38
4.6.1 Testingthe Console Port .......................... 4-39
4.7 Module Self-Tests............ oo... 4-40
48 RF30 Troubleshooting and Diagnostics ................. 4-41
4.81 DRVIST....... eee 4-43
4.8.2 DRVEXR ............2220211000 010010012220 ... 4-43
483 HISTRY ...............0mec0cereoacrac_ooanacon.. 4-45
484 ERASE.....Ñ......ri.eaearoaraaooaoorarerzaromer. 4-46
4.8.5 2 PARAMS .............r0eedacrerceao0erorecoooenn. 4-47 EXIT eee eee 4-48 HELP .......... eee. 4-48 SET eee 4-48
4854 SHOW ee. 4-49 STATUS .................. ee .... 4-49 WRITE... RR о 4-49
49 Diagnostic Error Codes .............e.eremrxecoeoo ... 450
Appendix A Address Assignments
General Local Address Space Map... .................. A-1
Detailed Local Address Space Map .................... A—2
Internal Processor Registers ......................... A—6
Global Q22-Bus Address Space Map ................... A-8
Appendix B Related Documentation
2-1 Changinga DSSI Node Name ........................ 2-6
2-2 Changinga DSSI Unit Number ....................... 2-7
3-1 Language Selection Menu ..............—.o—e.excxcccar. 3-6
4-1 Creating a Script with Utility 9F....... eee . 4-12
4-2 Listing and Repeating Tests with Utility 9F ............. 4-13
4-3 Console Display (No Errors). ...............0.e.em.a.. 4-14
4-4 Sample OutputwithErrors .......................... 4-14
FE Utility Example ................................ 4-31
4-6 Isolating Bad Memory Using T9C........ PU 4-36
4-7 9C-—Conditions for Determining a Memory FRU.......... 4-37
1-1 КА640 СРО Мойдше............. iii. 1-2
1-2 H3602-SA YO Panel .................. 0.2.0... ..... 1-9
1-3 MS650-AA Memory Module................. e... 1-11
2-1 DSSI Cabling, BA213 Enclosure ...................... 2-10
2-2 RF30 OCP .... eee ке. 2-11
2-3 BA213 Configuration Worksheet ...................... 2-16
4-1 KA640 CPU Module LEDs .................0m000rece. 4-17
1-1 RF30 Specifications ................... a. 1-12
2-1 DSSI Disk Drive Order .................. 0000000. 2—4
2-2 RF30 DIP Switch Settings . .......................... 2-5
2-3 Changing the KA640 Node ID ........................ 2-14
2-4 Power and Bus Loads for KA640 Options ............... 2-15
3-1 Actions Taken on a Halt ............................ 3-3
3-2 Language Inquiry on Power-Up or Reset ................ 3-5
3-3 Console Symbolic Addresses. . ........................ 3-12
3-4 Symbolic Addresses Used in Any Address Space .......... 3-14
3-5 Console Command Qualifiers . ........................ 3-15
3-6 Command Keywords by Type . ........................ 3-16
3-7 Console Command Summary ........... —.oereereree.. 3-16
3-8 VMBBootFlags........... LL. 3-19
3-9 Boot Devices Supported by the KA640-AA .............. 3-20
4-1 Testand Utility Numbers .......... ................. 4—4
4-2 5Scripts Available to Field Service .................—..... 4-7
4-3 Commonly Used Field Service Scripts .................. 4-8
4—4 Values Saved, Machine Check Exception During Executive .. 4-16
4-5 Values Saved, Exception During Executive .............. 4-16
4-6 KA640 Console Displaysand FRUs .................... 4-18
4-7 System Halt Messages ..................... ......... 4-22
4-8 Console Error Messages . . . . «coon. 4-23
4-9 VMB Error Messages .............—...—.. eee 4-24
Hardware Error Summary Register . . . ................. 4-33
KA640 Fuses ...........oec_eocrocomererecoenreroacenae. 4-38
Loopback Connectors for Q22-Bus Devices. .............. 4-41
DRVEXR Messages .............or—eroooccecrearere. 4-43
DRVEXR Messages ............... ea 4-44
HISTRY Messages ................. eee 4-45
ERASE Messages .............eocomeoroorrecorecoemee. 4-47
RF30 Diagnostic Error Codes. . . . ..................... 4-50
VAX Memory Space ............oooeereesrreorrrecee. A—1
VAX Input/Output Space .............eeeeeeeorcecoo. А-2
VAX Memory Space ...........eoecweorcescerareo re. А-2
VAX Input/Output Space ....... PARA PAS A-3
RKAGAD IPRS . «ooo tee eee A—6
Q22-Bus Memory брасе ...................... nano. A-8
Q22-Bus VO Space with BBS7 Asserted ................ A-8
This guide describes the base system, configuration, ROM-based
diagnostics, and troubleshooting procedures for systems containing the
KA640 CPU.
Intended Audience
This guide is intended for use by DIGITAL Field Service personnel and
qualified sclf-maintenance customers.
This guide has four chapters and two appendixes, as follows:
Chapter 1 describes the KA640/MS650 CPU and memory subsystem, and
the RF30 disk drive.
Chapter 2 contains system configuration guidelines, and provides a table
listing current, power, and bus loads for supported options. It also describes
the DIGITAL Small Storage Interconnect (DSSI) bus interface cabling
between the CPU, the CPU I/O panel, the operator console panel (OCP),
and the RF30 disk drives.
Chapter 3 describes the firmware that resides in ROM on the KA640, and
provides a list of console error messages and their meaning.
Chapter 4 describes the KA640 diagnostics, including an error message and
FRU cross-reference table. It also describes diagnostics that reside on the
Appendix A lists the KA640 address space.
Appendix B is a list of related documentation. It contains the order numbers
for all manuals mentioned in this manual.
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes
Warnings, cautions, and notes appear throughout this guide. They have
the following meanings:
WARNING Provides information to prevent personal injury.
CAUTION Provides information to prevent damage to equipment or software.
NOTE Provides general information about the current topic.
Chapter 1
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem
1.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the KA640 CPU (Figure 1-1). The KA640 is
a quad- height VAX processor module for the Q22-bus (extended LSI-11
bus). It is designed for use in high-speed, real-time applications and
for multiuser, multitasking environments. The KA640 employs a cache
memory to maximize performance.
There are two variants: the KA640-AA, which runs multiuser software;
and the KA640-BA, which runs single-user software.
The KA640 is used in two systems, the MicroVAX 3300 and the MicroVAX
3400. The MicroVAX 3300 is housed in a BA215 enclosure. The
MicroVAX 3400 is housed in a BA213 enclosure. Refer to BA215 Enclosure
Maintenance and BA213 Enclosure Maintenance for a detailed description
of each enclosure.
CAUTION: Static electricity can damage integrated circuits. Always use a
grounded wrist strap (part no. 29-11762-00) and grounded work surface
when working with the internal parts of a computer system.
The KA640 CPU module and MS650 memory modules combine to form a
VAX CPU and memory subsystem that uses the Q22-bus to communicate
with I/O devices. The KA640 and MS650 modules mount in standard Q22-
bus backplane slots that implement the Q22-bus in the AB rows and the CD
interconnect in the CD rows. The KA640 can support up to three MS650
modules, if enough Q22/CD slots are available.
The KA640 communicates with the console device through the H3602-SA
CPU O panel, which also contains configuration switches and an LED
display. The H3602-SA is described in Section 1.3.
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-1
The KA640-AA module number (M7624) stamped on the handle varies
slightly, depending on the vendor used for the RAM chips:
M7624-AL KA640-AA, Hitachi chips
M7624-AF KA640-AA, Toshiba chips
M7624-BL KA640-BA, Hitachi chips
M7624—BF KA640-BA, Toshiba chips
Figure 1-1: KA640 CPU Module
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MLO-00 1280
1-2 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
1.2 KA640 Features
The major features of the KA640 CPU are listed below.
* The VAX central processor, which is-implemented in a single VLSI chip
called the CVAX. It achieves a 100 nanosecond (ns) microcycle and a
200 ns bus cycle at an operating frequency of 20 megahertz (MHz).
It supports full VAX memory management with demand paging and a
4-Gbyte virtual address space.
* A floating point accelerator with the MicroVAX chip subset of the VAX
floating point instruction set and data types.
* A 4-Mbyte, 400 ns, 39 bit-wide array (32-bit data and 7-bit ECC)
implemented with 1 Mbit dynamic RAMs in zig-zag in-line packages
e A console port compatible with the VAX processor whose baud rate can
be set through an external switch on the H3602-SA.
e A set of processor clock registers that support:
— A VAX standard time-of-year (TOY) clock with support for battery
backup. (Batteries are located in the H3602-SA.)
— An interval timer with 10 millisecond (ms) interrupts.
— Two programmable timers, similar in function to the VAX standard
interval timer.
* A boot and diagnostic facility with four on-board LEDs. This facility
supports an external 4-bit display and configuration switches on the
* 128 Kbytes of 16 bit-wide ROM.
* A Q22-bus interface.
* A DSSI bus interface.
* An Ethernet interface.
1.2.1 CVAX Chip
The CVAX chip contains all general purpose registers (GPRs) visible to the
VAX processor, several system registers such as MSER, CADR, SCBB, the
cache memory (1 Kbyte), and all memory management hardware, including
a 28-entry translation buffer.
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-3
The CVAX chip supports the MicroVAX chip subset of the VAX instruction
set and data types, pius the following string instructions:
The CVAX chip provides the following subset of the VAX data types:
Character string
Variable-length bit field
Support for the remaining VAX data types can be provided through
macrocode emulation.
1.2.2 Clock Functions
Clock functions are implemented by the CVAX clock chip (CCLK). The
CVAX clock chip is a 44-pin CERQUAD surface mount chip that contains
approximately 350 transistors. It provides the following functions:
* Generates two MOS clocks for the CPU, the floating point accelerator,
and the main memory controller
* Generates three auxiliary clocks for other TTL logic
* Synchronizes reset signal for the CPU, the floating point accelerator,
and the main memory controller
* Synchronizes data ready and data error signals for the CPU, floating
point accelerator, and the main memory controller
1.2.3 Floating Point Accelerator
The floating point accelerator is implemented by a chip called the CFPA.
The CFPA chip contains approximately 60,000 transistors in a 68-pin
CERQUAD surface mount package. It executes the VAX f , d_, and
g_ floating point instructions (except for CLRx, MOVx, and TSTx), and
accelerates the execution of MULL, DIVL, and EMUL integer instructions.
The CFPA chip receives opcode information from the CVAX chip, and
receives operands directly from memory or from the CVAX chip. The
floating point result is always returned to the CVAX chip.
1-4 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
1.2.4 Cache Memory
The KA640 module incorporates a cache memory to maximize CPU
performance. The cache is implemented within the CVAX chip. The cache
is a 1-Kbyte, two-way associative, write-through cache memory, with a 100
nanosecond (ns) cycle time.
1.2.5 Memory Controller
The main memory controller is implemented by a VLSI chip called the
CMCTL. The CMCTL contains approximately 25,000 transistors in a 132-
pin CERQUAD surface mount package. It supports ECC (error correction
code) memory, with a 400 ns cycle time for longword read transfers and
a 600 ns cycle time for quadword transfers. It has 200 ns cycle time for
unmasked longword writes and a 500 ns cycle time for masked longword
The maximum amount of main memory supported by KA640 systems is 28
Mbytes. This memory resides on the KA640 module (4 Mbytes) and on one
to three MS650-AA 8-Mbyte memory modules, depending on the system
configuration. The MS650 modules communicate with the KA640 through
the MS650 memory interconnect, which utilizes the CD interconnect and a
50-pin ribbon cable.
1.2.6 MicroVAX System Support Functions
System support functions are implemented by the System Support Chip
(SSC). The SSC contains approximately 83,000 transistors in an 84-pin
CERQUAD surface mount package. The SSC provides console and boot
code support functions; operating system support functions; timers; and
many extra features, including the following:
+ Word-wide ROM unpacking
< 1-Kbyte battery backed-up RAM
+ Halt arbitration logic
* A console serial line
* An interval timer with 10 millisecond (ms) interrupts
* A VAX standard time-of-year (TOY) clock with support for battery
* An IORESET register
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-5
* Programmable CDAL bus timeout
* Two programmable timers
* A register for controlling the diagnostic LEDs
1.2.7 Resident Firmware
The resident firmware consists of 128 Kbytes of 16 bit-wide ROM, located
on two 27512 EPROMSs. The firmware gains control when the processor
halts, and contains programs that provide the following services:
o Board initialization
* Power-up self-testing of the KA640 and MS650 modules
e Emulation of a subset of the VAX standard console (automatic or
manual bootstrap, automatic or manual restart, and a simple command
language for examining or altering the state of the processor)
* Booting from supported Q22-bus devices
* Multilingual capability
The firmware is described in detail in Chapter 3.
1.2.8 Q22-bus Interface
The Q22-bus interface is implemented by the CQBIC chip. The CQBIC chip
contains approximately 40,870 transistors in a 132-pin CERQUAD surface
mount package. It supports up to 16-word block mode transfers between
a Q22-bus DMA device and main memory, and up to 2-word block mode
transfers between the CPU and Q22-bus devices. It has a 500 ns cycle time
for longword read transfers and an 800 ns cycle time for quadword read
transfers. It has a 400 ns cycle time for unmasked longword writes and
a 600 ns cycle time for masked longword writes. The Q22-bus interface
contains the following: |
о A 16-entry map cache for the 8,192-entry, scatter/gather map that
resides in main memory, used for translating 22-bit Q22-bus addresses
into 26-bit main memory addresses
* Interrupt arbitration logic that recognizes Q22-bus interrupt requests
The Q22-bus interface handles programmed and power-up resets, and CPU
halts (deassertion of DCOK).
The KA640-AA module contains 240 ohm termination for the Q22-bus.
1-6 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
1.2.9 KA640 Network Interface
The KA640 features an on-board network interface implemented through
a LANCE chip, a 32K x 8 bit-wide static ROM, and two 32K x 8 bit
static RAMs. This interface allows the KA640 to be connected to either
a ThinWire or standard Ethernet cable, through the H3602-SA I/O panel.
The network interface includes four registers for control and status
reporting, a 24-word transmit silo, and a 24-word receive silo. It also
includes a word-wide 64-Kbyte buffer (two 32K x 8 static RAM chips). The
DMA controller reads control information and writes status information
to and from main memory. It also transfers data (one word per memory
reference) between main memory and either the transmit or receive silo.
The DMA controller can perform up to eight masked longword references
before giving up the CDAL bus. Each reference takes 600 ns and contains
either a byte or word of data. The minimum time between bus requests is
8 usec.
1.2.10 KA640 DSSI Interface
The KA640 contains an SII chip, a DXX chip, and four 32K x 8-bit static
RAMs that implement the DIGITAL Small Storage Interconnect (DSSI) bus
interface. The DSSI interface allows the KA640 to transmit packets of data
to, and receive packets of data from, up to seven other DSSI devices (RF-
series disk drives or a second KA640 module). The DSSI bus improves
system performance for two reasons:
® It is faster than the Q22-bus.
* It relieves the Q22-bus of disk traffic, allowing more bandwidth for
Q22-bus devices.
The physical characteristics of the DSSI bus are as follows:
4 Mbytes per second bandwidth
Distributed arbitration
Synchronous operation
Parity checking |
Six meter total bus length (includes internal and external cabling)
Single-ended bus transceivers
Maximum of eight nodes (KA640 counts as one)
Eight data lines
One parity line
Eight control lines
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-7
Refer to the following sections for more information about the DSSI bus
and disk drives:
Section 2.4 Setting and changing DSSI node names, addresses and unit numbers, dual
“host configuration rules.
Section 3.9.14 Console SET HOST command.
Section 4.4 DSSI drive acceptance testing.
Section 4.8 RF30 drive resident diagnostics and local programs.
1.3 H3602-SA 1/0 Panel
The H3602-SA (Figure 1-2) contains the console serial line connector,
console baud rate switch, two Ethernet connectors and LEDs, hex LED
display, and power-up mode switch. The switches are read by the firmware
when the processor halts. For this reason changing the baud rate on the
H3602-SA does not take effect until the next power-up or system reset. (By
contrast, on the KA630, the switches are hardwired into the hardware.)
The switches are also read when the power-up mode switch is in the
test position. The H3602-SA has the following switches, connectors, and
e Baud rate select switch.
e Power-up mode select switch.
* Halt enable/disable switch from the console keyboard [BREAK] key or
[SP], depending on the state of SSCCR <15>. Break is the default.
If this switch is set to the enable position, the system does not autoboot
on power-up. It enters console I/0 mode and displays the >>> prompt.
e Ethernet connector select. The H3602-SA has two connectors for
Ethernet cable: a 15-conductor connector for standard Ethernet cable,
and a male BNC connector for a ThinWire Ethernet coaxial cable. The
H3602-SA contains a switch to select the Ethernet connector, and LEDs
to indicate the selected connector and valid +12 vdc for that connector.
* Hex LED display, which provides a countdown of the system power-up
self tests. See Table 4-6 for the meaning of this display.
1-8 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Figure 1-2: H3602-SA 1/0 Panel
` &
— N MLC-001283
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-9
1.4 MS650-AA Memory Module
The MS650-AA memory module is a quad-height, Q22-bus module
(Figure 1-3). The MS650-AA is an 8-Mbyte, 400 ns, 39 bit-wide array
(32-bit data and 7-bit ECC) implemented with 256-Kbyte dynamic RAMs
in zig-zag in-line packages (ZIPs).
The KA640 and MS650-AA memory modules are connected through the CD
rows of backplane slots 1 through 4, and through a 50-conductor cable. The
part number of this cable varies depending on the number of connectors,
as follows:
Number of | CPU/Memory
Connectors Configuration Part Number
3 KA640 + 2 MS650-AA modules 17-01898-01
4 KA640 + 3 MSE50-AA modules 17-01898-02!
5 KA640 + 3 MS650-AA modules 17-01898-03
!Recommended cable. Use five-connector cable only if this cable is not available.
The cable is keyed so that it is installed in the correct connector on the
KA640 (the connector next to the module). The DSSI cable is attached to
the connector “piggy backed” to the memory connector.
1-10 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
“Figure 1-3: MS650-AA Memory Module
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KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-11
1.5 RF30 Disk Drive
The RF30 is a half-height, 13.3-cm (5.25-in) fixed-disk drive for BA200-
series enclosures. Table 1—1 lists the specifications for the RF30 drive.
Table 1-1: RF30 Specifications
Average seek time 22 milliseconds
Average rotational latency 8.33 milliseconds
Average access time 30.33 milliseconds
Peak transfer rate 12 Mbits/second
User capacity 150 Mbytes
User capacity (blocks) — 293,040
Width : 14.60 cm (5.75 in)
Depth 20.45 cm (8.25 in)
Height 4.40 cm (1.75 in)
Form factor Standard 5.25-in footprint
Power requirements +5 Vde, 1.10 A
+12 Vdc, 0.80 А
Power consumption 15.1 W |
VMS support Version 5.0-2A and later
ULTRIX-32 support Version 3.0 and later
VAXELN support “Version 3.2 and later
MicroVAX Diagnostic Monitor Revision 2.3 and later
The RF30 disk drive is based on the DIGITAL Small Storage Interconnect
(DSSI) architecture. DSSI supports up to seven storage devices, daisy-
chained to the host system through the KA640 CPU or a host adapter
The disk drive controller is built into the RF30 drive, rather than being a
separate module. This feature enables many drive functions to be handled
without host-system or adapter intervention, resulting in improved VO
performance and throughput rates.
DSSI node ID switches are located on the electronics controller module.
Set these switches to assign a unique node ID number to each drive on the
DSSI bus. Refer to Table 2-2 for the correct DIP switch settings.
The RF30 disk drive contains a Ready indicator and a fault indicator.
The Ready indicator displays the activity status of the drive. It lights
on power-up. After successful completion of the power-up diagnostics, the
1-12 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
indicator goes out, until the media heads are on the requested cylinder and
the drive is read/write ready.
The Fault indicator lights at power-up. After successful completion of the
power-up diagnostics, this indicator goes out. If the Fault indicator lights
again after going out, a read/write safety error or a drive error condition
has occurred.
KA640 CPU and Memory Subsystem 1-13
Chapter 2
2.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the guidelines for changing the configuration of a
KA640 system, and for configuring a multihost system.
Before you change the system configuration, you must consider the
following factors:
Module order in the backplane
Module configuration
Mass storage device configuration
If you are adding a device to a system, you must know the capacity of the
system enclosure in the following areas:
VO panel
Power supply
Mass storage devices
2.2 General Module Order
The order of modules in the backplane depends on four factors:
* Relative use of devices in the system
* Expected performance of each device relative to other devices
* The ability of a device to tolerate delays between bus requests and bus
grants (called delay tolerance or interrupt latency)
* The tendency of a device to prevent other devices farther from the CPU
from accessing the bus
Configuration 2-1
2.2.1 Module Order for KA640 Systems
Observe the following rules about module order:
* Install the KA640 CPU in slot 1.
* Install MS650 memory modules in slots 2, 3, and 4.
* Do not install dual-height modules in the CD rows.
The Q22-bus does not pass through the CD rows of the backplane in a
BA200-series enclosure. Install all Q22-bus modules in the AB rows. Install
dual-height grant cards in the AB rows only, or single-height grant cards
in the A row only.
Here is the recommended module order in a KA640 system:
2-2 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
2.3 Module Configuration
Each module in a system must use a unique device address and interrupt
vector. The device address is also known as the control and status register
(CSR) address. Most modules have switches or jumpers for setting the
CSR address and interrupt vector values. The value of a floating address
depends on what other modules are housed in the system.
Set CSR addresses and interrupt vectors for a module as follows:
1. Determine the correct values for the module with the CONFIGURE
command at the console I/O prompt (>>>). The CONFIG utility
eliminates the need to boot the VMS operating system to determine
CSRs and interrupt vectors. Enter the CONFIGURE command, then
HELP for the list of supported devices:
>>> config
Enter device configuration, HELP, or EXIT
Device, Number? help
See the description of the CONFIGURE command in Chapter 3
(Section 3.9.2) for an example of obtaining the correct CSR addresses
and interrupt vectors using this command.
The LPV11-SA, which is the LPV11 version compatible with the BA200-
series enclosures, has two sets of CSR address and interrupt vectors.
To determine the correct values for an LPV11-SA, enter LPV11,2 at the
DEVICE prompt for one LPV11-SA, or enter LPV11,4 for two LPV11-
SA modules.
2. See Microsystems Options for switch and CSR and interrupt vector
Jumper settings for supported options.
Configuration 2-3
2.4 DSSI Configuration
Each device must have a unique DIGITAL Small Storage Interconnect
(DSSI) node ID. The RF30 receives its node ID from a plug on the operator
control panel (OCP) on the front panel. By convention, DSSI drives are
mounted in the BA213 or BA215 enclosures from right to left, as listed in
Table 2-1.
Table 2-1: DSSI Disk Drive Order
Device Position Node ID!
BA213 enclosure
First Right side 0
Second Center 1
Third Left side 2
BA215 enclosure?
First Right side 0
Second Center 1
1KA640 node ID = 7
2BA215 OCP has three drive plugs. but only two drives. The third plug is blank.
If the cable between the RF30 and the OCP is disconnected, the RF30 reads
the node ID from three DIP switches on its electronics controller module
NOTE: Pressing the system reset button on the front of a BA213 or BA215
power supply has no effect on the RF30 drives. You must perform a power
The node ID switches are located behind the 50-pin connector on the ECM.
Switch 1 (the MSB) is nearest to the connector. Switch 3 (the LSB) is
farthest from the connector. Refer to the RF30 section in Microsystems
Options for an illustration and further information. Table 2-2 lists the
switch settings for the eight possible node addresses.
2-4 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 2-2: RF30 DIP Switch Settings
Node ID 51 52 53
0 Down Down Down
1 Down Down Up
2 Down Up Down
3 Down Up Up
4 Up Down Down
5 Up Down Up
6 Up Up Down
7 Up Up Up
The VMS operating system creates DSSI disk device names according to
the following scheme:
nodename $ DIA unit number. For example, SUSANSDIA3
You can use the device name for booting, as follows:
You can access local programs in the RF30 through the MicroVAX
Diagnostic Monitor (MDM), or through the VMS operating system (version
5.0) and console YO mode SET HOST/DUP command. This command
creates a virtual terminal connection to the storage device and the
designated local program using the Diagnostic and Utilities Protocol (DUP)
standard dialog. Section 2.4.3 describes the procedure for accessing DUP
through the VMS operating system. Section 3.9.14 describes the console
VO mode SET HOST/DUP command. -
2.4.1 Changing the Node Name
Each RF30 drive has a node name that is maintained in EEPROM on board
the controller module. This node name is determined in manufacturing
from an algorithm based on the drive serial number. You can change the
node name of the DSSI device to something more meaningful by following
the procedure in Example 2-1. In the example, the node name for the RF30
drive at DSSI node address 1 is changed from R3YBNE to DATADISK.
See Section 4.8.5 for further information about the PARAMS local program.
Configuration 2-5
Example 2-1: Changing a DSSI Node Name
>>> sho dssi
-DIAO (RF30)
DSSI Node 1 (R3YBNE) ‘The node name for this drive will be
-DIA1 (RF30) ‘changed from R3YBNE to DATADISK.
DSSI Node 7 (*)
>>> set host/dup/dssi 1
Starting DUP server.
Copyright 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
DRVEXR V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988 15:33:06
DRVTST V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988 15:33:06
HISTRY V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988 15:33:06
ERASE V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988 15:33:06
PARAMS V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988 15:33:06
DIRECT V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988 15:33:06
End of directory
Task Name? params
Copyright 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
PARAMS> sho nodename
Parameter Current Default Type Radix
PARAMS> set nodename datadisk
PARAMS> write 'This command writes the change
Changes require controller initialization, ok? [Y/(N)] у
Stopping DUP server...
>>> sho dssi
DSSI Node 0 (MDC)
-DIAO (RF30)
DSSI Node 1 (DATADISK) 'The node name has changed from
DSSI Node 7 (*)
2-6 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
2.4.2 Changing the Unit Number
By default, the RF30 disk drive assigns the disk’s unit number to the same
value as the DSSI node address for that drive. This occurs whether the
DSSI node address is determined from the OCP unit ID plugs or from the
three DIP switches on the RF30 controller module.
RF30 drives conform to the DIGITAL Storage Architecture (DSA). Each
drive can be assigned a unit number from 0 to 16,383 (decimal). The unit
number does not have to be the same as the DSSI node address.
Example 2-2 shows how to change the unit number of a DSSI device. This
example changes the unit number for the RF30 drive at DSSI node address
2 from 1 to 50 (decimal). You must change two parameters: UNITNUM
and FORCEUNI. Changing these parameters overrides the default, which
assigns the unit number the same value as the node address.
See Section 4.8.5 for further information about the PARAMS local program.
Example 2-2: Changing a DSSI Unit Number
>>> sho dssi
DSSI Node 0 (MDC)
-DIAO (RF30)
DSSI Node 1 (R3QJNE)
-DIA1 (RF30)
DSSI Node 7 (*)
>>> set host/dup/dssi 1
Starting DUP server...
Copyright 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
DRVEXR V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988
DRVIST V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988
EISTRY V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988
ERASE V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988
PARAMS V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988
DIRECT V1.0 D 5-NOV-1988
End of directory
Example 2-2 Cont'd. on next page
'The unit number for this drive will be
changed from 1 to 50 (DIAl to DIA50).
Configuration 2-7
Example 2-2 (Cont.): Changing a DSSI Unit Number
Task Name? params
Copyright 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
PARAMS> sho unitnum
Parameter Current Default Type Radix
PARAMS> sho forceuni
Parameter Current Default Type Radix
FORCEUNI 1 1 Boolean 0/1 U
PARAMS> set unitnum 50
PARAMS> set forceuni 0
PARAMS> write 'This command writes the changes to EEPROM.
Task Name?
Stopping DUP server...
>>>sho dssi
-DIAO (RF30)
DSSI Node 1 (R3QJNE) The unit number has changed
-DIASO (RF30) land the node ID remains at 1.
DSSI Node 7 (*)
2.4.3 Access to RF30 Firmware in VMS Through DUP
You can also access the RF30 firmware utilities from the VMS operating
~ system as well as through the console commands described in Section 4.8.
NOTE: Access the RF30 firmware through the VMS operating system to look
up or to view parameter settings, but not to change them. To change RF30
parameter settings, enter the RF30 firmware through the console 1/0 mode
SET HOST /DUP command.
2-8 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Load the FYDRIVER using the following commands in SYSGEN:
You can then access the RF30 firmware utilities using the following VMS
2.4.4 DSSI Cabling
A 50-conductor ribbon cable connects the RF30 drive to the DSSI bus
(Figure 2-1). A separate 5-conductor cable carries +5 Vdc and +12 Vdc
to the drive from the enclosure power supply.
A 2-conductor cable connects the fifth pin on the RF30 power connector
to the operator control panel (OCP, Figure 2-2). In the BA213 enclosure,
one of these (two) cables is for an RF30 connected to the right side power
supply, and the other is for an RF30 connected to the left side supply.
These cables carry the ACOK signal (same as POK) to the RF30. The OCP
delays this signal to one RF30 for each power supply to stagger the start-up
of one of two possible devices attached to each supply. This delay prevents
excessive current draw at power-up. The BA215 enclosure has only one
power supply, but implements this signal delay in the same way.
The 50-conductor DSSI ribbon cable connects to a 50-conductor round cable
that is routed through the bottom of the mass storage area to the DSSI
connector on the KA640.
CAUTION: When removing or installing new drives, be sure to connect the
rightmost connector of the DSSI ribbon cable to the round cable connected
to the KA640. Do not “T” the bus by connecting the round connector to any
of the ribbon cables center connectors.
Configuration 2-9
Figure 2-1: DSSI Cabling, BA213 Enclosure
| MZ || STAGGERS RF30 A } 1
| || POWER-UP ЗЕ .
DSS! BUS > + | %
MLO -00:282
2-10 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Figure 2-2: RF30 OCP
— il = iy DRIVE-SELECT
- => X Ш ig
© = -
| ВВ Е
10PIN = * | _ DC OK (GREEN)
TO RF3 ——| }
= = 5 >
RESTART/RUN HALT MLO-00128 DSSI Bus Termination and Length
The DSSI bus must be terminated at both ends. The KA640 module
terminates the DSSI bus at one end. A 50-conductor Honda connector on
the left side of the media faceplate terminates the bus at the other end.
This connector can be removed if you need to expand the bus.
The DSSI bus has a maximum length of 6 m (19.8 ft), including internal
and external cabling.
In a dual-host system, the second KA640 module provides the bus
2.4.5 Dual-Host Capability
A DSSI disk drive such as the RF30 has a multihost capability built into the
firmware, which allows the drive to maintain connections with more than
one DSSI adapter. Since the KA640 CPU has a built-in DSSI adapter, more
than one KA640 CPU can be connected to the same DSSI bus, allowing each
KA640 to access all other drives on the bus.
The primary application for such a configuration is a VAXcluster system
using Ethernet as the interconnect medium between the boot and the
Configuration 2-11
satellite members. This configuration improves system availability, as
described below.
Two KA640 systems are connected through an external DSSI cable
(BC21M). Each KA640 system is a boot member for a number of satellite
nodes. The system disk resides in the first enclosure, and serves as the
system disk for both KA640 systems. The KA640 in each enclosure has
equal access to the system disk, and to any other DSSI disk in either
If one of the KA640 modules fails, all satellite nodes booted through that
KA640 module lose connections to the system disk. However, the multihost
capability enables each satellite node to know that the system disk is still
available through a different path—that of the remaining good KA640
module. A connection through that KA640 is then established, and the
satellite nodes are able to continue operation.
Thus, even if one KA640 module fails, the satellites booted through it
are able to continue operation. The entire cluster will run in a degraded
condition, since one KA640 is now serving the satellite nodes of both
KA640s. Processing can continue, however, until Field Service can repair
the problem.
A dual-host system cannot recover from the following conditions:
e System disk failure. If there is only one system disk, its failure causes
the entire cluster to stop functioning until the disk failure is corrected.
Disk failure can be caused by such factors as a power supply failure in
the enclosure containing the disk.
e DSSI cabling failure. If a failure in one of the DSSI cables renders
“access to the disks impossible, the cable must be repaired in order to
continue operation. Since the DSS] bus cabling is not redundant, a
cable failure usually results in a system failure.
2.4.6 Dual-Host Configuration
Dual-host systems have the following configuration limitations:
* A maximum of two systems can be connected, because of cabling and
enclosure limitations.
* The DSSI bus supports eight devices or adapters. Since a dual-host
system has two KA640 modules, and each has a connection to the DSSI
2-12 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
bus, a maximum of six DSSI devices can be attached to the bus. Two
variants are possible:
— Two BA213 enclosures, containing two KA640 CPUs, and six DSSI
devices (three in each enclosure). This configuration uses all eight
possible DSSI devices.
— Two BA215 enclosures, containing two KA640 CPUs, and four DSSI
devices (two in each enclosure). This configuration uses six of eight
possible DSSI devices.
e Set DSSI node IDs as follows:
— The first (or only) KA640 is 7.
— The second KA640 in a dual-host system is 6. Section
explains how to change the KA640 node ID.
— The remaining devices in a dual-host system are 0-5. Allocation Class
When a KA640 system containing RF-series drives is configured in a cluster,
either as a boot node or a satellite node, you must assign the allocation class
in VMS SYSGEN and for the RF-series drive to matching nonzero values.
To change the allocation class of the RF-series drive, use the following
Starting DUP server..
PARAMS> SET ALLCLASS <allocation class value>
Changes require controller initialization, ok? [Y/N] Y
Stopping DUP server...
>>> Changing the KA640 Node ID
The KA640 node address is configured by three jumpers. Table 2-3 lists
the jumper positions and node IDs. Figure 1-1 shows the location of the
Configuration 2-13
Table 2-3: Changing the KA640 Node ID
Node ID УЗ W2 Wl
Out Out Out
Out Out In
Out In Out
Out In In
In Out Out
In Out In
In In Out
In In In
2.5 Configuration Worksheet
This section provides a configuration worksheet of the BA213 system
enclosure (Figure 2-3). Use the worksheet to make sure the configuration
does not exceed the system's limits for expansion space, VO space, and
For the BA215 enclosure, use the top half of the BA213 enclosure
worksheet, and allow for two disk drives instead of one.
Table 2—4 lists power values for supported devices. To check a system
configuration, follow these steps:
1. List all the devices to be installed in the system.
2. Fill in the information from Table 2—4 for each device.
3. Add up the columns. Make sure the totals are within the limits for the
enclosure. -
In a BA213 enclosure, you must install a quad-height load module (M9060-
YA) in one of backplane slots 7 through 12 if the continuous minimum
current drawn on the second power supply is less than 5 amperes. If the
minimum current of 5 amperes is not reached, the power supply enters an
error mode and shuts down the system.
2-14 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 24: Power and Bus Loads for KA640 Options
(Amps) Power Bus Loads
Option Module +5 V +12V Watts AC DC
AAV11-SA А1009-РА 1.8 0.0 9.0 2.1 0.5
ADV11-SA А1008-РА 3.2 0.0 16.0 2.3 0.5
AXV11-SA А026-РА 2.0 0.0 10.0 1.2 0.3
CXA16-AA/-AF M3118-YA 1.6 0.20 10.4 3.0 0.5
CXBI6-AA/—AF M3118-YB 2.0 0.0 10.0 3.0 0.5
CXYOS-AA/-AF M3119-YA 1.64 0.395 12.94 3.0 0.5
DELQA-SA М7516-РА 2.7 0.5 19.5 2.2 0.5
DFA01-AA/-AF M3121-PA 1.97 0.40 14.7 3.0 1.0
DPV11-SA M8020-PA 1.2 0.30 9.6 1.0 1.0
DRQ3B-SA М7658-РА 4.5 0.0 22.5 2.0 1.0
DRV1J-SA M8049-PA 1.8 0.0 9.0 2.0 1.0
DRVIW-SA M7651-PA 1.8 0.0 9.0 2.0 1.0
DSV11-SA M3108-PA 5.43 0.69 38.0 3.6. 1.0
DZQ11-SA M3106-PA 1.0 0.36 9.3 1.4 0.5
IBQ01-SA M3125-PA 5.0 0.0 25.0 4.6 10
IEQ11-SA M8634-PA 3.5 0.0 17.5 2.0 1.0
KA640-AA TAN 6.0 0.24 32.88 3.5 1.0
A |
KLESI-SA M7740-PA 3.0 0.0 150 2.3 1.0
KMV1A-SA M7500-PA 2.6 0.2 15.4 3.0 1.0
KWV11-SA M4002-PA 2.2 0.13 11.15 1.0 0.3
LPV11-SA M8086-PA 1.6 0.0 8.0 1.8 0.5
M9060-YA — 5.3 0.0 26.5 0.0 0.0
MS650-AA M7621-A 2.7 0.0 13.5 0.0- 0.0
RF30 - 1.10 0.80 15.1 - —
TK50E-EA - 1.35 2.4 35.6 - —
TK70E-EA — 1.5 2.4 36.3 — —
TQK50 M7546 2.9 0.0 14.5 2.8 0.5
TQK70-SA M7539 3.5 0.0 17.5 4.3 0.5
TSVO05-SA M7196 6.5 0.0 32.5 3.0
Configuration 2-15
Figure 2-3: BA213 Configuration Worksheet
Current (Amps)
+5 Vdc
+12 Vdc
r> | wim
TK Drive
Tota! these columns:
Must not exceed:
7.6 A
230.0 W
Current (Amps)
+5 Vdc
+12 Vdc
Tota! these columns:
Must not exceed:
33.0 À
7.6 A
230.0 W
2-16 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Chapter 3
KA640 Firmware
3.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the KA640 firmware, which gains control of the
processor whenever the KA640 performs a processor halt. A processor halt
transfers control to the firmware. The processor does not actually stop
executing instructions.
3.2 KA640 Firmware Features
The firmware is located in two 64-Kbyte EPROMS on the KA640. The
firmware address range is 20040000 to 2007FFFF, inclusive (20040000—
2005FFFF in halt-protected space and 20060000-2007FFFF in hait-
unprotected space) in the KA640 local VO space. The firmware displays
diagnostic progress and error reports on the KA640 LEDs and on the console
terminal. It provides the following features:
* Automatic or manual restart or bootstrap of customer application
images at power-up, reset, or conditionally after processor halts.
(Restart in this context is not the same as restarting or resetting the
* Automatic or manual bootstrap of an operating system following
processor halts.
* An interactive command language that allows you to examine and alter
the state of the processor.
* Diagnostics that test all components on the board and verify that the
module is working correctly.
* Support of various terminals and devices as the system console.
* Multilingual support. The firmware can issue system messages in
several languages.
The processor must be functioning .at a level able to execute instructions
from the console program ROM for the console program to operate.
KA640 Firmware 3-1
The firmware consists of the following major functional areas:
Halt entry and dispatch code
Console I/O mode
The halt entry and dispatch code, bootstrap, and console I/O mode are
described in this chapter. Diagnostics are described in Chapter 4.
3.3 Halt Entry and Dispatch Code
The processor enters the halt entry code at physical address 20040000
whenever a halt occurs. The halt entry code saves machine state, then
transfers control to the firmware halt dispatcher.
After a halt, the halt entry code saves the current LED code, then writes
an E to the LEDs. An E on the LEDs indicates that at least several
instructions have been successfully executed, although if the CPU is
functioning properly, it occurs too-quickly to be seen. The halt entry code
saves the following registers. The console intercepts any direct reference
to these registers and redirects it to the saved copies:
RO-R15 General purpose registers
PRS_SAVPSL Saved processor status longword register
PRS_SCBB System control block base register
DLEDR Diagnostic LED register
SSCCR SSC configuration register
ADxMAT | SSC address match register
ADxMAT SSC address mask register
The halt entry code unconditionally sets the following registers to fixed
values on any halt, to ensure that the console itself can run and to protect
the module from physical damage.
SSCR SSC configuration register
ADxMAT SSC address match register
ADxMSK SSC address mask register
CBTCR CDAL bus timeout control register
TIVRx SSC timer interrupt vector registers
The console command interpreter does not modify actual processor
registers. Instead it saves the processor registers in console memory when
it enters the halt entry code, then directs all references to the processor
registers to the corresponding saved values, not to the registers themselves.
When the processor reenters program mode, the saved registers are
restored and any changes become operative only then. References to
3-2 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
processor memory are handled normally. The binary load and unload
command (X, Section 3.9.19) cannot reference the console memory pages.
After saving the registers, the halt entry code transfers control to the halt
dispatch code. The halt dispatch code determines the cause of the halt
by reading the halt field (PR$_SAVPSL <13:08>), the processor halt action
field (PR$_CPMBX <01:00>), and the break enable switch on the H3602—
SA panel. Table 3-1 lists the actions taken, by sequence. If an action
fails, the next action is taken, with the exception of bootstrap, which is not
attempted after diagnostic failure.
Table 3-1: Actions Taken on a Halt
Breaks Enabled |
on H3602-SA Power-up Halt! Halt Action? Action
3 Diagnostics, halt
Diagnostics, bootstrap, halt
Restart, bootstrap, halt
Restart, halt
Bootstrap, halt
A DA DA A ро Y
"Ej 9 т) =) = Y
!Power-up halt: PR$_SAVPSL<13:08>=3
Halt action: PRS_CPMBX<01:00>
3T = condition js true, F = condition is false, X = does not matter
3.4 External Halts
Several conditions can trigger an external halt, and different actions are
taken depending on the condition. The conditions are listed below.
* The break enable switch is set to enable, and you press [BREAK] on the
system console terminal.
e Assertion of the BHALT line on the Q-bus.
e Deassertion of DCOK. A halt is delivered if the processor is not running
out of halt-protected space, and the BHALT ENB bit is set. The system
restart switch deasserts DCOK. DCOK may also be deasserted by the
\ DELQA sanity timer, or any other Q22-bus module that chooses to
implement the Q22-bus restart/reboot protocol.
The KA640 cannot detect the deassertion of DCOK when in console VO
mode, so no action is taken. More important, however, the deassertion of
DCOK destroys system state without notifying the firmware.
KA640 Firmware 3-3
CAUTION: Do not press the Restart button while in console I/O mode.
Doing so will destroy system state without notifying the firmware.
The action taken by the halt dispatch code on a console [BREAK] or Q22-bus
BHALT is the same: the firmware enters console I/O mode if halts are
The halt dispatch code distinguishes between DCOK deasserted and
BHALT by assuming that BHALT must be asserted for at least 10 msec,
and that DCOK is deasserted for at most 9 usec. To determine if the BHALT
line is asserted, the firmware steps out into halt-unprotected space after 9
‘msec. If the processor halts again, the firmware concludes that the halt was
caused by the BHALT and not by the deassertion of DCOK. The firmware
keeps a halt-in-progress flag to tell if it is halting because of stepping out
into halt-unprotected space. This flag is cleared on power-up.
3.5 Power-Up Sequence
On power-up, the firmware performs several unique actions. It runs
the initial power-up test (IPT), locates and identifies the console device,
performs a language inquiry, and runs the remaining diagnostics.
Power-up actions differ, depending on the state of the power-up mode switch
on the H3602-SA (Figure 1-2). The mode switch has three settings: test,
language inquiry, and normal. The differences are described in Sections through
The IPT waits for power to stabilize by monitoring SCR<5>(POK). Once
power is stable, the IPT verifies that the console private nonvolatile
RAM (NVRAM) is valid (backup battery is charged) by checking
SSCCR<31>(BLO). If it is invalid or zero (battery is discharged), then the
IPT tests and initializes the NVRAM.
After the battery check, the firmware tries to determine the type of terminal
attached to the console serial line. If the terminal is a known type, it is
treated as the system console. Mode Switch Set to Test
Use the test position on the H3602-SA to verify that the connection between
the KA640 and the console terminal is good.
* To test the console terminal, insert the H3103 loopback connector into
the H3602-SA console connector, and put the switch in the test position.
You must install the loopback connector to run the test.
* To test the console cable, install the H8572 connector on the end of the
console cable, and insert the H3103 into the H8572.
3-4 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
During the test, the firmware toggles between the active and passive states.
During the active state (3 seconds), the LED is set to 6. The firmware reads
the baud rate and mode switch, then transmits and receives a character
During the passive state (5 seconds), the LED is set to 3.
If at any time the firmware detects an error (parity, framing, overflow, or
no characters), the display hangs at 6. If the configuration switch is moved
from the test position, the firmware continues as if on a normal power-up. Mode Switch Set to Language Inquiry
If the H3602-SA mode switch is set to language inquiry, or the firmware
detects that the contents of NVRAM are invalid, the firmware prompts you
for the language to be used for displaying the following system messages:
Loading system software.
Restarting system software.
Performing normal system tests.
Tests completed.
Normal operation not possible.
The language selection menu appears under the conditions listed in
Table 3-2. The position of the break enable switch has no effect on these
Table 3-2: Language Inquiry on Power-Up or Reset
Language Not - Language
Mode Previously Set: Previously Set
Language Inquiry Prompt? Prompt
Normal Prompt No Prompt
1 Action if contents of NVRAM invalid same as Language Not Previously Set.
2«Prompt” = Language selection menu displayed.
The language selection menu is shown in Example 3-1. If no response 15
received within 30 seconds, the firmware defaults to English.
KA640 Firmware 3-5
Example 3-1: Language Selection Menu
1) Dansk
2) Deutsch (Deutschland/Osterreich)
3) Deutsch (Schweiz)
4) English (United Kingdom)
5) English (United States/Canada)
6) Español
7) Francais (Canada)
8) Francais (France/Belgique)
9) Francais (Suisse)
10) Italiano
11) Nederlands
12) Norsk
13) Portugues
14) Suomi
15) Svenska
In addition, the console may prompt you for a default boot device. See
Section 3.6. |
After the language inquiry, the firmware continues as if on a normal power-
up. Mode Switch Set to Normal
The console displays the language selection menu if the mode switch is set
to normal and the contents of NVRAM are invalid.
The console uses the saved console language if the mode switch is set to
normal and the contents of NVRAM are valid.
3.6 Bootstrap
The KA640 supports bootstrap of VAX/VMS, ULTRIX-32, VAXELN, and
MDM diagnostics.
The firmware initializes the system to a known state before dispatching to
the primary bootstrap (VMB), as follows:
1. Checks CPMBX<2>(BIP), bootstrap in progress. If it is set, bootstrap
fails and the console displays the message Failure. in the selected
console language.
2. If this is an automatic bootstrap, prints the message Loading system
— software. on the console terminal.
3-6 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
® a oo 0
Validates the boot device name. If none exists, supplies a list of
available devices and issues a boot device prompt. If you do not specify
a device within 30 seconds, uses ESAO.
Writes a form of this boot request, including active boot flags and boot
device (BOOT/R5:0 ESAOQ, for example), to the console terminal.
Sets CPMBX<2>(BIP).
Initializes the Q22-bus scatter/gather map.
Validates the PFN bitmap. If invalid, rebuilds it.
Searches for a 128-Kbyte contiguous block of good memory as defined
by the PFN bitmap. If 128 Kbytes cannot be found, the bootstrap fails.
Initializes the general purpose registers:
RO Address of descriptor of the boot device name or 0 if none specified
R2 Length of PFN bitmap in bytes
R3 Address of PFN bitmap
R4 Time-of-day of bootstrap from PR$_TODR
R5 Boot flags
R10 Halt PC value |
R11 Halt PSL value (without halt code and mapenable)
AP Halt code
SP Base of 128-Kbyte good memory block + 512
PC Base of 128-Kbyte good memory block + 512
R1, R6, R7, R8, 0
R9, FP
Copies the VMB image from EPROM to local memory, beginning at the
base of the 128 Kbytes of good memory block + 512.
Exits from the firmware to VMB residing in memory.
Virtual Memory Bootstrap (VMB) is the primary bootstrap for VAX
processors. The KA640 VMB resides in the firmware, and is copied into
main memory before control is transferred to it. VMB then loads the
secondary bootstrap image and transfers control to it.
KA640 Firmware 3-7
3.7 Operating System Restart
An operating system restart is the process of bringing up the operating
system from a known initialization state following a processor halt.
A restart occurs under the conditions listed in Table 3-1, earlier in this
To restart a halted operating system, the firmware searches system memory
for the Restart Parameter Block (RPB), a data structure constructed for this
purpose by VMB. If the firmware finds a valid RPB, it passes control to the
operating system at an address specified in the RPB.
The firmware keeps a RIP (restart-in-progress) flag in CPMBX which it
uses to avoid repeated attempts to restart a failing operating system. The
operating system maintains an additional RIP flag in the RPB.
The firmware restarts the operating system in the following sequence:
Checks CPMBX<3>(RIP). If it is set, restart fails.
2. Prints the message Restarting system software. on the console
terminal. |
Sets CPMBX<3>(RIP).
Searches for a valid RPB. If none is found, restart fails.
Checks the operating system RPB$L_RSTRTFLG<0>(RIP) flag. If it is
set, restart fails.
Writes a 0 (zero) to the diagnostic LEDs.
Dispatches to the restart address, RPB$L_RESTART, with:
SP = the physical address of the RPB plus 512
AP = the halt code
PSL = 041F0000
PR$_MAPEN = 0.
If the restart is successful, the operating system must clear CPMBX<3>(RIP).
If restart fails, the firmware prints Failure. on the console terminal.
3-8 KA640 CPU System Maintenance Locating the RPB
The RPB is a page-aligned control block that can be identified by its
signature in the first three longwords:
+00 (first longword) = physical address of the RPB
+04 (second longword) = physical address of the restart routine
+08 (third longword) = checksum of first 31 longwords of restart routine
The firmware finds a valid RPB as follows:
1. Searches for a page of memory that contains its address in the first
longword. If none is found, the search for a valid RPB has failed.
2. Reads the second longword in the page (the physical address of the
restart routine). If it is not a valid physical address, or if it is zero,
returns to step 1. The check for zero is necessary to ensure that a page
of zeros does not pass the test for a valid RPB.
3. Calculates the 32-bit two’s-complement sum (ignoring overflows) of the
first 31 longwords of the restart routine. If the sum does not match the
third longword of the RPB, returns to step 1.
4. If the sum matches, a valid RPB has been found.
KA640 Firmware 3-9
3.8 Console 1/0 Mode
In console VO mode several characters have special meaning:
Also <CR>. The carriage return ends a command line. No action is taken on a
command until after it is terminated by a carriage return. A null line terminated
by a carriage return is treated as a valid, null command. No action is taken, and
the console prompts for input. Carriage return is echoed as carriage return, line
feed (<CR><LF>).
When you press the key, the console deletes the previously typed
character. The resulting display differs, depending on whether the console is
a video or a hard-copy terminal.
For hard-copy terminals, the console echoes a backslash (\), followed by the
character being deleted. If you press additional rubouts, the additional deleted
characters are echoed. If you type a non-rubout character, the console echoes
another backslash, followed by the character typed. The result is to echo the
characters deleted, surrounding them with backslashes. For example:
The console echoes: EXAMI;:E\ E;\NE<CR>
The console sees the command line: EXAMINE<CR>
For video terminals, the previous character is erased and the cursor is restored
to its previous position.
The console does not delete characters past the beginning of a command line. If
you press more rubouts than there are characters on the line, the extra rubouts
are ignored. A rubout entered on a blank line is ignored.
Echoes ~U<CR>, and deletes the entire line. Entered but otherwise ignored if
typed on an empty line. :
Stops output to the console terminal until is typed. Not echoed.
Resumes output to the console terminal. Not echoed.
Echoes <CR><LF>, followed by the current command line. Can be used to
improve the readability of a command line that has been heavily edited.
[CTRUC] Echoes “C<CR> and aborts processing of a command. When entered as part of
a command line, deletes the line.
Ignores transmissions to the console terminal until the next [CTRUC] is entered.
Echoes ~O when disabling output, not echoed when it reenables output. Output is
reenabled if the console prints an error message. or if it prompts for a command
from the terminal. Output is also enabled by entering console VO mode, by
pressing the key, and by pressing [CTRUC]
3.8.1 Command Syntax
The console accepts commands up to 80 characters long. Longer commands
produce error messages. The character count does not include rubouts,
rubbed-out characters, or the at the end of the command.
3-10 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
You can abbreviate a command by entering only as many characters as are
required to make the command unique. Most commands can be recognized
from their first character. See Table 3—6.
The console treats two or more consecutive spaces and tabs as a single
space. Leading and trailing spaces and tabs are ignored. You can place
command qualifiers after the command keyword or after any symbol or
number in the command.
All numbers (addresses, data, counts) are hexadecimal (hex), but symbolic
register names contain decimal register numbers. The hex digits are 0
through 9 and A through F. You can use uppercase and lowercase letters in
hex numbers (A through F) and commands.
The following are qualifier and argument conventions:
|} an optional qualifier or argument
И a required qualifier or argument
3.8.2 Address Specifiers
Several commands take an address or addresses as arguments. An address
defines the address space, and the offset into that space. The console
supports six address spaces:
Physical memory
Virtual memory
Protected memory
General purpose registers (GPR)
Internal processor registers (IPR)
The PSL |
The address space that the console references is inherited from the previous
console reference, unless you explicitly specify another address space. The
initial address space is physical memory.
3.8.3 Symbolic Addresses
The console supports symbolic references to addresses. A symbolic reference
defines the address space, and the offset into that space. Table 3-3 lists
symbolic references supported by the console, grouped according to address
space. You do not have to use an address space qualifier when using a
symbolic address.
KA640 Firmware 3-11
Table 3-3: Console Symbolic Addresses
Symbol Address Symbol Address
GPR Address Space (/G)
RO 0 Ri 1
R2 2 R3 3
R4 4 R5 5
R6 6 R7 7
RS 8 R9 9
R10 0A R11 OB
R12 oC R13 oD
R14 OE R15 OF
PSL — — -
IPR Address Space (Л)
pr$_ksp 00 pr$_esp 01
pr$_ssp 02 pr$_usp 03
рг$_15р 04 pr$_pObr 08
pr$_pOlr 09 pr$_plbr 0A
pr$_plir 0B pr$_sbr oC
pr$_sir ор pr$_pcbb 10
pr$_scbb 11 pr$_ipl 12
pr$_astlv 13 pr$_sirr 14
pr$_sisr 15 pr$_icer 18
pr$_nicr 19 pr$_icr 1A
pr$_todr 1B pr$_rxcs 20
pr$_rxdb 21 — pro txcs 22
pr$_txdb 23 pr$_tbdr 24
pr$_cadr 25 pr$_mcesr 26
pr$_mser 27 pr$_savpc 2A
pr$_savpsl 2B pr$_ioreset 37
pr$_mapen 38 pr$_tbia 39
pr$_tbis 3A pr$_sid 3E
pr$_tbchk 3F - —
3-12 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 3-3 (Cont.): Console Symbolic Addresses
Symbol Address Symbol Address
Physical Memory (/P)
gbio 20000000 gbmem 30000000
gbmbr 20080010 — —
rom 20040000 — -
cacr 20084000 bdr 20084004
dscr 20080000 dser 20080004
dmear 20080008 dsear 2008000C
iper0 20001f40 iperl 20001f42
iper2 20001f44 iper3 2000 1146
— ssce_ram 20140400 ssc_cr 20140010
ssc_cdal 20140020 ssc_dledr 20140030
ssc_adOmat 20140130 ssc_ad0msk 20140134
ssc_adlmat 20140140 ssc_adlmsk 20140144
ssc_tcr0 20140100 ssc_tir0 20140104
ssc_tnir0 20140108 ssc_tivr0 2014010c
ssc_terl 20140110 ssc_tirl 20140114
ssc_tnirl 20140118 ssc_tivrl 2014011c
memesr0 20080100 memesri 20080104
memesr2 20080108 memesr3 2008010c
memesrá 20080110 memesr5 20080114
memcsr6 0080118 memesr7 2008011c
memesr8 20080120 memesr9 20080124
memcsrl0 20080128 memesrl1 2008012c
memesr12 20080130 memesr13 20080134
memesr14 20080138 memesr15 2008013c
memesr16 20080140 memesr17 20080144
nisarom 20084200 nirdp 20084400
nirap 20084404 nibuf 20120000
msi_sbb 20084600 msi_scl 20084604
msi_sc2 20084608 msi_csr 2008460C
msi_id 20084610 msi_slesr 20084614
msi_destat 20084618 msi_dstmo 2008461C
msi_data 20084620 msi_dmectrl 20084624
msi_cmlote 20084628 msi_dmaddrl 2008462C
msi_dmaddrh 20084630 msi_dmabyte 20084634
msi_stip 20084638 msi_ltip 2008463C
msi_ilp 20084640 msi_dsctrf 20084644
msi_cstat 20084648 msi_dstat 2008464C
msi_comm 20084650 msi_dictr]l 20084654
KA640 Firmware 3-13
Table 3-3 (Cont.): Console Symbolic Addresses
Address Symbol Address
Physical Memory (/P)
20084658 msi_bhdiag 2008465C
20084660 msi_dmdiag 20084664
20084668 msi_ram 20100000
Table 3—4 lists symbolic addresses that can be used in any address space.
Table 34: Symbolic Addresses Used in Any Address Space
The location last referenced in an EXAMINE or DEPOSIT command.
The location immediately following the last location referenced in an EXAMINE
or DEPOSIT command. For references to physical or virtual memory spaces, the
location referenced is the last address. plus the size of the last reference (1 for
byte, 2 for word, 4 for longword, 8 for quadword). For other address spaces, the
address is the last address referenced plus one.
The location immediately preceding the last location referenced in an EXAMINE
or DEPOSIT command. For references to physical or virtual memory spaces,
the location referenced is the last address minus the size of this reference (1 for
byte, 2 for word, 4 for longword, 8 for quadword). For other address spaces, the
address 1s the last address referenced minus one.
The location addressed by the last location referenced in an EXAMINE or
DEPOSIT command.
3.8.4 Console Command Qualifiers
You can enter console command qualifiers in any order on the command
line after the command keyword. There are three types of qualifiers: data
control, address space control, and command specific. Table 3-5 lists and
describes the data control and address space control qualifiers. Command
specific qualifiers are described in the command descriptions.
3-14 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 3-5: Console Command Qualifiers
Data Control
/STEP: {size}
The data size is byte.
The data size is word.
The data size is longword.
The data size is quadword.
An unsigned hexadecimal integer that is evaluated into a longword. This
qualifier determines the number of additional operations that are to take place
on EXAMINE, DEPOSIT, MOVE, and SEARCH commands. An error message
appears if the number overflows 32 bits.
Step. Overrides the default increment of the console current reference.
Commands that manipulate memory, such as EXAMINE, DEPOSIT, MOVE,
and SEARCH, normally increment the console current reference by the size
of the data being used.
Wrong. Used to override or set error bits when referencing main memory. On
writes, use the complement. On reads, ignore ECC errors. |
Address Space Control
General purpose register (GPR) address space, RO-R15. The data size is
always longword.
Internal processor register (IPR) address space. Accessible only by the MTPR
and MFPR instructions. The data size is always longword.
Virtual memory address space. All access and protection checking occur. If
access to a program running with the current PSL is not allowed, the console
issues an error message. Deposits to virtual space cause the PTE<M> bit to be
set. If memory mapping is not enabled, virtual addresses are equal to physical
addresses. Note that when you examine virtual memory, the address space
and address in the response is the physical address of the virtual address.
Physical memory address space.
Processor status longword (PSL) address space. The data size is always
Access to console private memory is allowed. This qualifier also disables
virtual address protection checks. On virtual address writes, the PTE<M>
bit is not set if the /U qualifier is present. This qualifier is not inherited; it
must be respecified on each command.
KA640 Firmware 3-15
3.8.5 Console Command Keywords
Table 3-6 lists command keywords by type. Table 3-7 lists the parameters,
qualifiers, and arguments for each console command. Parameters, used
with the SET and SHOW commands only, are listed in the first column
along with the command.
Although it is possible to abbreviate by using the minimum number of
characters required to uniquely identify a command or parameter, these
abbreviations may become ambiguous at a later time if a new command or
parameter is added in an updated version of the firmware. For this reason
you should not use abbreviations in programs.
Table 3-6: Command Keywords by Type
Processor Control Data Transfer Console Control
Table 3-7: Console Command Summary
Command Qualifiers - Argument Other(s)
BOOT /R5:{bitmap! /{bitmapi {device_name] -
DEPOSIT /B IW /L IQ {address} (data! [data]
/N:{count} /STEP:{size}
EXAMINE /В IW IL /Q [address] -
/N:{count} /STEP:{size}
~~ HALT — - -
HELP - — -
3-16 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 3-7 (Cont.): Console Command Summary
Command Qualifiers Argument Other(s)
MOVE /B/W/L/Q {src_address| [dest_address!
/N:{count} /STEP:{size}
NEXT — [count] —
REPEAT - {command} -
— SEARCH 8 WL/Q istart_address| {pattern} [mask]
/N:{count} /STEP:{size}
SET BFLAG — {bitmap} —
SET BOOT — f{device_string} -
SET HOST /DUP {/DSSI n /UQSSP} {node} n [task]
| IDISK n {controller_number}
/TAPE n csr_address}
ISERVICE n csr_address!
SET LANGUAGE - | {language_typel —
SHOW RLV12 - - _
START — {address} -
TEST - {test_number} [test_argument]
UNJAM — - _
X — {address} {count}
KA640 Firmware 3-17
3.9 Console Commands
This section describes the console I/O mode commands. Enter the
commands at the console I/O mode prompt >>>.
3.9.1 BOOT
The BOOT command initializes the processor and transfers execution to
VMB. VMB attempts to boot the operating system from the specified device,
or the default boot device if none is specified. The console qualifies the
bootstrap operation by passing a boot flags bitmap to VMB in R5.
BOOT [qualifier-list] [device_name]
If you do not enter either the qualifier or the device name, then the default
value is used. Explicitly stating the boot flags or the boot device overrides
but does not permanently change the corresponding default value.
Set the default boot device and boot flags with the SET BOOT and SET
BFLAG commands. If you do not set a default boot device, the processor
times out after 30 seconds and attempts to boot from the on-board Ethernet
port, ESAO.
Command specific:
/R5:!bitmap) A 32-bit hex value passed to VMB in R5. The console does not interpret this
value. Use the SET BFLAG command to specify a default boot flags longword.
Use the SHOW BFLAG command to display the longword. Table 3-8 lists the
supported R5 boot flags.
/{bitmap} Same as /R5:{bitmap!
[device name] A character string of up to 39 characters. Longer strings cause a VAL TOO
BIG error message. Apart from length, the console makes no attempt to
interpret or validate the device name. The console converts the string to
uppercase, then passes VMB 2a string descriptor to this device name in RO.
Table 3-9 lists the boot devices supported by the KA640-AA.
3-18 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 3-8: VMB Boot Flags
Conversational boot. At various points in the system boot
procedure, the bootstrap code solicits parameters and other
input from the console terminal.
Initial breakpoint. If RPBSV_DEBUG is set, the VMS
operating system executes a BPT instruction in module INIT
immediately after enabling mapping.
Secondary bootstrap from bootblock. When set, VMB reads
logical block number 0 of the boot device and tests it for
conformance with the bootblock format. If in conformance, the
block is executed to continue the bootstrap. No attempt is made
to perform a Files-11 bootstrap.
Diagnostic bootstrap. When set. the load image requested over
Bootstrap breakpoint. When set, a breakpoint instruction is
executed in VMB and control is transferred to XDELTA before
Image header. When set, VMB transfers control to the address
specified by the files image header. When not set, VMB
transfers contro! to the first location of the load image.
File name solicit. When set, VMB prompts the operator for
the name of the application image file. The maximum file
specification size 15 17 characters.
Halt before transfer. When set, VMB halts before transferring
control to the application image. |
This field can be any value from 0 through F. This flag changes
the top-level directory name for system disks with multiple
operating systems. For example, if TOPSYS i is 1, the top-level
directory name is [SYS1...1. Supported Boot Devices
Table 3-9 lists the boot devices supported by the KA640-AA CPU. The table
correlates the boot device names expected in a BOOT command with the
corresponding supported devices.
Boot device names consist of a device code at least two letters (A through
Z) in length, followed by a single character controller letter (A through 7),
and ending in a device unit number (0-16,383).
DSSI devices names may also include a node prefix, consisting of either
a node number (0-7) or a node name (a string of up to eight characters),
ending in a dollar sign ($).
KA640 Firmware 3-19
Table 3-9: Boot Devices Supported by the KA640-AA
Boot Name Controller Type Device Type(s)
{node$]DIAn On-board DSSI RF30, RF71
DUcn RQDX3 MSCP RD52, RD53, RD54, RX33, RX50
KDA50 MSCP RA70, RA80, RAB81, RA82, RA90
DLen RLV21 RL01, RLO2
[node$]Micn On-board DSSI TF70
ESAO On-board Ethernet —
3-20 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
>>> show boot
>>> show bflag
>>> b ! Boot using default boot flags and device.
(BOOT/R5:0 ESAO) |
>>> b xga0 ! Boot from XQAO using default boot flags.
(BOOT/R5:0 XQAO) |
>>> b/10 ! Boot using supplied boot flag (4)
(BOOT/R5:10 ESAO) ! and default device.
>>> boot /r5:220 xga0 ! Boot using supplied boot flags
(BOOT/R5:220 XQAO) ! (5 and 9) and device.
KA640 Firmware 3-21
The CONFIGURE command invokes an interactive mode that permits
you to enter Q22-bus device names, then generates a table of Q22-bus
VO page device CSR addresses and interrupt vectors. CONFIGURE 15
similar to the VMS SYSGEN CONFIG utility. This command simplifies
field coniiguration by providing information that is typically available only
with a running operating system. Refer to the example below and use the
CONFIGURE command as follows:
1. Enter CONFIGURE at the console VO prompt.
2. Enter HELP at the Device, Number? prompt to see a list of devices
whose CSR addresses and interrupt vectors can be determined.
Enter the device names and number of devices.
4. Enter EXIT to obtain the CSR address and interrupt vector
The devices listed in the HELP display are not necessarily supported by
the KA640-AA CPU.
3-22 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
>>> configure
Enter device configuration, HELP, or EXIT
Device, Number? help
1 to 255, default is 1
Device, Number? rqdx3,2
Device, Number? dhvll
Device, Number? agdss
Device, Number? tgk50
Device, Number? tgk70
Device, Number? exit
Address/Vector Assignments
-772150/154 RQDX3
-760334/300 RODX3
-774500/260 TQKSO
-760444/304 TQK70
-760500/310 DHV11
-777400/320 QDSS
KA640 Firmware 3-23
The CONTINUE command causes the processor to begin instruction
execution at the address currently contained in the PC. It does not perform
a processor initialization. The console enters program VO mode.
>>> continue
3-24 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
The DEPOSIT command deposits data into the address specified. If you
do not specify an address space or data size qualifier, the console uses the
last address space and data size used in a DEPOSIT, EXAMINE, MOVE,
or SEARCH command. After processor initialization, the default address
space is physical memory, the default data size is longword, and the default
address is zero. If you specify conflicting address space or data sizes, the
console ignores the command and issues an error message.
DEPOSIT [qualifier_list] {address} {data} [data...]
Data control: /B, /W, /L, /Q, /N:{count}, /STEP:{size}, WRONG
Address space control: /G,/1, /P, /V, /U
{address} A longword address that specifies the first location into which data is deposited.
| The address can be an actual address or a symbolic address.
{data} The data to be deposited. If the specified data is larger than the deposit data size,
the firmware ignores the command and issues an error response. If the specified
data is smaller than the deposit data size, it is extended on the left with zeros.
[data] Additional data to be deposited (as many as can fit on the command line).
>>> D/P/B/N:1FF 0 O ! Clear first 512 bytes of physical memory.
>>> D/V/L/N:3 1234 5 ! Deposit 5 into four longwords starting
! at virtual memory address 1234.
>>> D/N:8 RO FFFFFFFF ! Loads GPRs RO through R8 with -1.
>>> D/N:200 - O ! Starting at previous address, clear 513
! bytes.
>>> D/L/P/N:10/S:200 0 8 ! Deposit 8 in the first longword of
! the first 17 pages in physical
! memory.
KAB40 Firmware 3-25
The EXAMINE command examines the contents of the memory location or
register specified by the address. If no address is specified, + is assumed.
The display line consists of a single character address specifier, the physical
address to be examined, and the examined data.
EXAMINE uses the same qualifiers as DEPOSIT. However, the /WRONG
qualifier causes examines to ignore ECC errors on reads from physical
memory. The EXAMINE command also supports an /INSTRUCTION
qualifier, which will disassemble the instructions at the current address.
EXAMINE [qualifier_list] [address]
Data control: /B, /W, /L, /Q, /N:{count}, /STEP:isize), WRONG
Address space control: /G, /1, /P, N, JU
Command specific:
INSTRUCTION Disassembles and displays the VAX Macro-32 instruction at the specified
| address.
[address] A longword address that specifies the first location to be examined. The
address can be an actual or a symbolic address. If no address is specified,
+ is assumed.
3-26 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
посооо У к
dg WY
ex pc
ex sp
ex psl
e r4/n:5
ex pr$ scbb
e/p O
ex /ins 20040000
ex /ins/n:5 20040019
! Examine the PC.
! Examine the SP.
! Examine the PSL.
! Examine PSL another way.
! Examine R4 through RS.
! Examine the SCBB, IPR 17
! (decimal).
! Examine local memory 0.
! Examine ist byte of ROM.
! Disassemble from branch.
1”*#20140000, €#20140000
е#20140030, #20140502
с^#0Е, е#20140030
RO, @#201404B2
TI $201404B2,R1
S~#2A,B~44 (Rl)
! Look at next instruction.
S-42B,B-48 (R1)
KA640 Firmware 3-27
3.9.6 FIND
The FIND command searches main memory starting at address zero for a
page-aligned 128-Kbyte segment of good memory, or a restart parameter
block (RPB). If the command finds the segment or RPB, its address plus
- 512 is left in SP (R14). If it does not find the segment or RPB, the console
issues an error message and preserves the contents of SP. If you do not
specify a qualifier, /RPB is assumed.
FIND [qualifier-list]
Command specific:
/MEMORY Searches memory for a page-aligned block of good memory, 128 Kbytes in length.
The search looks only at memory that is deemed usable by the bitmap. This
command leaves the contents of memory unchanged.
/RPB Searches all of physical memory for an RPB. The search does not use the bitmap
to qualify which pages are looked at. The command leaves the contents of memory
>>> ex sp ! Check the SP.
G 0000000E 00000000
>>> find /mem ! Look for a valid 128 Kbyte.
>>> ex sp ! Note where it was found.
G 0000000E 00000200 |
>>> find /rpb | ! Check for valid RPB.
?22C FND ERR 00C00004 ! None to be found here.
3-28 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.7 HALT
The HALT command has no effect. It is included for compatibility with
other VAX consoles.
>>> halt ! Pretend to halt.
KA640 Firmware 3-29
3.9.8 HELP
The HELP command provides information about command syntax and
>>> help
Following is a brief summary of all the commands supported by
the console:
UPPERCASE denotes a keyword that you must type in
| denotes an OR condition
[] denotes optional parameters
< > denotes a field that must be filled in
with a syntactically correct vaiue
Valid qualifiers:
/G /I /V /P /M
Valid commands :
DEPOSIT [qualifiers] <ADDRESS> [datum [datum]]
EXAMINE [qualifiers] [address]
MOVE [qualifiers] <ADDRESS> <ADDRESS>
SEARCH [qualifiers] <ADDRESS> <PATTERN> [mask]
3-30 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
[test code [parameters]]
BOOT [/R5:<BOOT FLAGS> or /<BOOT FLAGS>] [boot device]
KA640 Firmware 3-31
The INITIALIZE command performs a processor initialization.
The following registers are initialized:
Register State at Initialization
PSL 041F0000
ICCS Bits <6> and <0> clear; the rest are unpredictable
CVAX cache Disabled, all entries invalid
Instruction buffer Unaffected
Console previous reference Longword, physical, address 0
ТОРЕ Unaffected
Main memory Unaffected
General registers Unaffected
Halt code Unaffected
Bootstrap-in-progress flag Unaffected
Internal restart-in-progress flag Unaffected
The firmware clears all error status bits and initializes the following:
CDAL bus timer
Address decode and match registers
Programmable timer interrupt vectors
>>> init
3-32 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.10 MOVE
The MOVE command copies the block of memory starting at the source
address to a block beginning at the destination address. Typically, this
command has an /N qualifier so that more than one datum is transferred.
‘The destination correctly reflects the contents of the source, regardless of
the overlap between the source and the data. |
The MOVE command actually performs byte, word, longword, and
quadword reads and writes as needed in the process of moving the data.
Moves are supported only for the physical and virtual address spaces.
MOVE [qualifier-list] {src_address} {dest_address}
Data control: /B, /'W, /L, /W, /N:{count}, /STEP:{size}, WRONG
Address space control: N, ЛО, /Р
{src_address} A longword address that specifies the first location of the source data to be
Idest_address; A longword address that specifies the destination of the first byte of data.
These addresses may be an actual address or a symbolic address. If no
address is specified, + is assumed.
>>> ex/n:4 0 ! Observe destination.
00000000 00000000 |
00000004 00000000
00000008 00000000
0000000C 00000000
00000010 00000000
‘voto dW
KA640 Firmware 3-33
>>> ex/n:4 200 ' Observe source data.
P 00000200 58DD0O520
P 00000204 585E04C1
P 00000208 OOFFS8FEB
P 0000020C 5208A8D0
Р. 00000210 540CASDE
>>> mov/n:4 200 0 ! Move the data.
. >>> ex/n:4 0 ! Observe moved data.
00000000 58DD0520 |
00000004 585EO4C1
00000008 OOFF8FBB
0000000C 5208A8D0
00000010 540CAS8DE
Y 'd 'Y 'Y 'Y Y
3-34 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.11 NEXT
The NEXT command executes the specified number of macro instructions.
If no count is specified, 1 is assumed.
After the last macro instruction is executed, the console reenters console
I/O mode.
NEXT {count}
The console implements the NEXT command using the trace trap enable
and trace pending bits in the PSL, and the trace pending vector in the SCB.
The following restrictions apply:
* If memory management is enabled, the NEXT command works only if
— the first page in SSC RAM is mapped in SO (system) space.
e (Overhead associated with the NEXT command affects execution time
of an instruction.
* The NEXT command elevates the IPL to 31 for long periods of time
(milliseconds) while single stepping over several commands.
e Unpredictable results occur if the macro instruction being stepped over
modifies either the SCBB or the trace trap entry. This means that you
cannot use the NEXT command in conjunction with other debuggers.
{count} A value representing the number of macro instructions to execute.
>>> ex pc
G 0000000F 00000200
>>> next
PC = 00000202
>>> next 4
= 00000213
KA640 Firmware 3-35
>>> ex /ins /n:10 0
"VU to to tu OY O Y OY Y "Y Y O tU VU Y HOY Y
dep pc 0
n 5
3-35 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.12 REPEAT
The REPEAT command repeatedly displays and executes the specified
command. Press to stop the command. You can specify any valid.
console command, except the REPEAT command.
REPEAT {command}
{command} A valid console command other than REPEAT.
repeat ex pr$_todr ! Watch the clock.
KA640 Firmware 3-37
3.9.13 SEARCH
The SEARCH command finds all occurrences of a pattern and reports the
addresses where the pattern was found. If the /NOT qualifier is present,
the command reports all addresses in which the pattern did not match.
SEARCH [qualifier _list] {address} {pattern} [mask]
SEARCH accepts an optional mask that indicates bits to be ignored (don't
care bits). For example, to ignore bit 0 in the comparison, specify a mask
of 1. The mask, if not present, defaults to 0.
A match occurs if (pattern AND mask complement) = (data AND mask
complement), where:
pattern is the target data
mask is the optional don’t care bitmask (which defaults to 0)
data is the data at the current address
SEARCH reports the address under the following conditions:
/NOT Qualifier Match Condition Action
Absent True Report address
Absent False No report
Present True No report
Present False Report address
The address is advanced by the size of the pattern (byte, word, longword,
or quadword), unless overridden by the /STEP qualifier.
Data control: /B, /W, /L, /Q, /N:{count}, /STEP:{size}, WRONG
Address space control: /P, /V, /U
Command specific:
/NOT Inverts the sense of the match.
3-38 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Istart_address! A longword address that specifies the first location subject to the search. This
address can be an actual address or a symbolic address. If no address is
specified, + is assumed.
{pattern} The target data.
mask] A mask of the bits desired in the comparison.
wm Y 'Y Y
Y 'Y 'Y Y
voy Y
search /w/step:1/n:£££f 20040000 fell
20040002 FEl1 ! Find all two-byte sequences in the
200403C7 FEl1 ! ROM that could be interpreted as a
20040ECB FEll ! "branch to self" (105: brb 105)
! (brb assembles to FEl1)
d/n:10000 0 0
d/1 555 aaaaaaaa
search/p/b/not/n:£fff 0 0
00000555 AA
00000556 aa
00000557 AA
00000558 AA
search /w/step:1/n:£ffff 20040000 fell
20040002 FE11
200403C7 FE11
20040ECB FE1l1
dep 1000 87654321 /1
search /p/b/n:£fff 0 1 fe
00001000 21
00001001 43
00001002 65
00001003 87
search /p/b/n:ffff/not 0 0 Ее
00001000 21
00001001 43
00001002 65
00001003 87
KA640 Firmware 13-39
3.9.14 SET
The SET command sets the parameter to the value you specify.
SET {parameter} {value}
BFLAG = Set the default R5 boot flags. The value must be a hex number of up to 8 digits.
See Table 3-8 under the BOOT command description for a list of the boot flags.
BOOT Set the default boot device. The value must be a valid device name as specified
in the BOOT command description Section 3.9.1.
HOST Connect to the DUP or MAINTENANCE driver on the selected node or device.
Note the hierarchy of the SET HOST qualifiers below.
IDUP—Use the DUP driver to execute local programs of a device on either the
DSSI bus or the Q22-bus.
/DSSI node—Attach to the DSSI node. A node is a name up to 8 characters
in length or a number from 0 to 7.
JOQSSP—Attach to the UQSSP device specified using one of the following
/DISK n—Specifies the disk controller number, where n is a number
from O to 255. The resulting fixed address for n=0 is 20001468 and
the floating rank for n>0 is 26.
/TAPE n—Specifies the tape controller number, where n is a number
from O to 255. The resulting fixed address for n=0 is 20001940 and
the floating rank for n>0 is 30.
csr_address—Specifies the Q22-bus VO page CSR address for the
/MAINTENANCE—Examines and modifies DSSI controller module configura-
tion values. Does not accept a task value.
/SERVICE n—Specifies service for DSSI controller module n where n
is a value from 0 to 3. (The resulting fixed address of a DSSI controller
module in maintenance mode is 20001910+4"n.)
/esr_address—Specifies the Q22-bus VO page CSR address for the
DSSI controller module. | ;
LANGUAGE Sets console language and keyboard type. If the current console terminal
does not support the DIGITAL Multinational Character Set (MCS), then this
command has no effect and the console message appears in English. Values are
1 through 15. Refer to Example 3-1 for the languages you can select.
Qualifiers: Listed in the parameter descriptions above.
3-40 KAB40 CPU System Maintenance
>>> set bflag 220
>>> set boot dual
>>> set host/dup/dssi 0
Starting DUP server...
! Sets boot flags 5 and 9 (See boot flag
! table in the BOOT command description.)
Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
Task Name? params
Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
PARAMS> stat path
ID Path Block
Remote Node
PARAMS> exit
Task Name?
Internal Path
Stopping DUP server...
RFX V101
RFX V101
RFX V101
VMS V5.0
0 0
0 о
О о
0 о
816. 3045
50 52
KA640 Firmware 3-41
>>> set host/dup/dssi 0 params
Starting DUP server...
Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
PARAMS> show node
Parameter Current Default Type
Ee wR GRE SS ЧН GED Ee даю —— —— — GED GE GS GED GW SM Gm Se CS CE CT — GE wn Gh = GEES ED чан чины Gm an Ge Ss GND em
PARAMS> show allclass
Parameter Current Default Type
PARAMS> exit
Stopping DUP server...
3-42 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.15 SHOW
The SHOW command displays the console parameter you specify.
SHOW {parameter}
Displays the default RS boot flags.
Displays the default boot device.
Displays all devices displayed by the SHOW DSSI, SHOW ETHERNET, and
SHOW UQSSP commands.
Displays the status of all nodes that can be found on the DSSI bus. For each
node on the DSSI bus, the firmware displays the node number, the node name,
and the boot name and type of the device, if available. The command does not
indicate if the device contains a bootable image.
The node that issues the command is listed with a node name of * (asterisk).
The device information is obtained from the media type field of the MSCP
command GET UNIT STATUS. If a node is not running or is not capable of
running an MSCP server, then no device information is displayed.
Displays hardware Ethernet address for all Ethernet adapters that can be
found, both on-board and on the Q22-bus. Displays as blank if no Ethernet
adapter is present.
Displays console language and keyboard type. Refer to the corresponding SET
LANGUAGE command for the meaning.
Displays main memory configuration board by board.
/FULL—Additionally, displays the normally inaccessible areas of memory, such
as the PFN bitmap pages, the console scratch memory pages, the Q22-bus
scatter/gather map pages. Also reports the addresses of bad pages, as defined
by the bitmap.
Displays all Q22-bus I/O addresses that respond to an aligned word read, and
vector and device name information. For each address, the console displays the
address in the VAX I/O space in hex, the address as it would appear in the
Q22-bus 1/0 space in octal, and the word data that was read in hex.
This command may take several minutes to complete. Press to
terminate the command. During execution, the command disables the
scatter/gather map.
KA640 Firmware 3-43
RLV12 Displays all RLO1 and RLO2 disks that appear on the Q22-bus.
UQSSP Displays the status of all disks and tapes that can be found on the Q22-bus that
support the UQSSP protocol. For each such disk or tape on the Q22-bus, the
firmware displays the controller number, the controller CSR address, and the
boot name and type of each device connected to the controller. The command
does not indicate if the device contains a bootable image.
This information is obtained from the media type field of the MSCP command
GET UNIT STATUS. The console does not display device information if a node
is not running (or cannot run) an MSCP server.
VERSION Displays the current firmware version.
Qualifiers: Listed in the parameter descriptions above.
>>> show bflag
>>> show boot
>>> show device
-DIAO (RF30)
-DIA1 (RF30)
-DIA4 (RF30)
-DIAS (RF30)
DSSI Node 7 (*)
UQSSP Disk Controller O (772150)
-DUA4 (RD53)
-DUAS (RX50)
-DUA6 (RX50)
UQSSP Tape Controller O (774500)
-MUAO (TK50)
Ethernet Adapter
-ESAO (AA-00-03-01-2E-3F)
3-44 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
>>> show dssi
-DIAO (RF30)
-DIA1 (RF30)
-DIA4 (RF30)
-DIAS (RF30)
. DSSI Node 7 (*)
>>> show ether
Ethernet Adapter
-ESAO (AA-00-03-01-2E-3F)
>>> show lang
English (United States/Canada)
>>> show memory
Memory 0: 00000000 to ООЗЕЕЕЕЕ,
Memory 1: 00400000 to OOBFFFFF,
Memory 2: 00C00000 to O13FFFFF,
Total of 20MB, 0 bad pages, 106
>>> show memory/full
Memory 0: 00000000 to OO3FFFFF,
Memory 1: 00400000 to OOBFFFFF,
Memory 2: 00C00000 to O13FFFFF,
Total of 20MB, O bad pages, 106
Memory Bitmap
-013F2C00 to 013F3FFF, 10 pages
Console Scratch Area
-013F4000 to 013F7FFF, 32 pages
Qbus Map
-013F8000 to 013FFFFF, 64 pages
Scan of Bad Pages
4MB, O bad pages
'8MB, 0 bad pages
8MB, 0 bad pages
reserved pages
4MB, O bad pages
8MB, O bad pages
8MB, O bad pages
reserved pages
KA640 Firmware 3-45
>>> show gbus
Scan of Qbus I/O Space
-20001468 (772150) 4000 (154) RODX3/KDA50/RRD50/RQC25/X-DISK
-2000146A (772152) = 0B40 |
-20001940 (774500) = 0000 (260) TQKS50/TQK70/TUS1E/RV20/X-TAPE
-20001942 (774502) = OBCO
-20001F40 (777500) 0020 (004) IPCR
Scan of Qbus Memory Space
>>> show ugssp
UQSSP Disk Controller 0 (772150)
-DUA4 (RD53)
-DUAS (RX50)
-DUA6 (RX50)
UQSSP Tape Controller O (774500)
-MUAO (TKS0) |
>>> show version
KA640-A V4.0, VMB 2.4
3-46 KAB40 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.16 START
The START command starts instruction execution at the address you
specify. If nc address is given, the current PC is used. If memory mapping
is enabled, macro instructions are executed from virtual memory, and the
address is treated as a virtual address. The START command is equivalent
to a DEPOSIT to PC, followed by a CONTINUE. It does not perform a
processor initialization.
START [{address}]
[address] The address at which to begin execution. This address is loaded into the user's
>>> start 1000
KA640 Firmware - 3-47
3.9.17 TEST
The TEST command invokes a diagnostic test program specified by the test
number. If you enter a test number of O (zero), all tests allowed to be
executed from the console terminal are executed. The console accepts an
optional list of up to five additional hexadecimal arguments.
Refer to Chapter 4 for a detailed explanation of the diagnostics.
TEST [test_number [test_arguments]]
{test_number} A two-digit hex number specifying the test to be executed.
itest_arguments] Up to five additional test arguments. These arguments are accepted
but they have no meaning to the console. |
>>> test O
3-48 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
3.9.18 UNJAM
The UNJAM command performs an I/O bus reset, by writing a 1 (one) to
IPR 55 (decimal).
>>> unjam
KA640 Firmware 3-49
3.9.19 X—Binary Load and Unload
The X command is for use by automatic systems communicating with the
The X command loads or unloads (that is, writes to memory, or reads from
memory) the specified number of data bytes through the console serial line
(regardless of console type) starting at the specified address.
X {address} {count} CR {line_checksum} {data} {data_checksum|}
If bit 31 of the count is clear, data is received by the console and deposited
into memory. If bit 31 is set, data is read from memory and sent by the
console. The remaining bits in the count are a positive number indicating
the number of bytes to load or unload.
The console accepts the command upon receiving the carriage return.
The next byte the console receives is the command checksum, which is
not echoed. The command checksum is verified by adding all command
characters, including the checksum and separating space (but not including
the terminating carriage return, rubouts, or characters deleted by rubout),
into an 8-bit register initially set to zero. If no errors occur, the result is
zero. If the command checksum is correct, the console responds with the
input prompt and either sends data to the requester or prepares to receive
data. If the command checksum is in error, the console responds with an
error message. The intent is to prevent inadvertent operator entry into a
mode where the console is accepting characters from the keyboard as data,
with no escape mechanism possible.
If the command is a load (bit 31 of the count is clear), the console responds
with the input prompt (>>>), then accepts the specified number of bytes
of data for depositing to memory, and an additional byte of received data
checksum. The data is verified by adding all data characters and the
checksum character into an 8-bit register initially set to zero. If the final
content of the register is non-zero, the data or checksum are in error, and
the console responds with an error message.
If the command is a binary unload (bit 31 of the count is set), the console
responds with the input prompt (>>>), followed by the specified number of
bytes of binary data. As each byte is sent, it is added to a checksum register
initially set to zero. At the end of the transmission, the two's complement
of the low byte of the register is sent.
3-50 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
If the data checksum is incorrect on a load, or if memory or line errors occur
during the transmission of data, the entire transmission is completed, then
the console issues an error message. If an error occurs during loading, the
contents of the memory being loaded are unpredictable.
The console represses echo while it is receiving the data string and
The console terminates all flow control when it receives the carriage return
at the end of the command line in order to avoid treating flow control
characters from the terminal as valid command line checksums.
You can control the console serial line during a binary unload using control
characters ([CTRUC], (CTAUS), and so on). You cannot control the console
serial line during a binary load, since all received characters are valid
binary data.
The console has the following timing requirements:
* It must receive data being loaded with a binary load command at a rate
of at least one byte every 60 seconds.
It must receive the command checksum that precedes the data within
60 seconds of the carriage return that terminates the command line.
* It must receive the data checksum within 60 seconds of the last data
If any of these timing requirements are not met, then the console aborts
the transmission by issuing an error message and returning to the console
The entire command, including the checksum, can be sent to the console
as a single burst of characters at the specified character rate of the console
serial line The cousole is able to receive at least 4 Kbytes of data in a
single X command. |
KA640 Firmware 3-51
3.9.20 '—Comment
The comment character (an exclamation point) is used to document
command sequences. It can appear anywhere on the command line. All
characters following the comment character are ignored.
Format: !
>>> ! The console ignores this line.
3-52 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Chapter 4
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics
4.1 Introduction
This chapter contains a description of KA640 ROM-based diagnostics,
acceptance test procedures, and power-up self-tests for common options.
4.2 General Procedures
Before troubleshooting any system problem, check the site maintenance
guide for the system’s service history. Ask the system manager two
* Has the system been used before, and did it work correctly?
* Have changes been made to the system recently?
Three common problems occur when you make a change to the system:
* Incorrect cabling
Module configuration errors (incorrect CSR addresses and interrupt
e Incorrect grant continuity
Most communications modules use floating CSR addresses and interrupt
vectors. If you remove a module from the system, you may have to change
the addresses and vectors of other modules. Microsystems Options lists
address and vector values for most options.
If you change the system configuration, run the CONFIGURE utility
at the console I/O prompt (>>>) to determine the CSR addresses and
interrupt vectors recommended by DIGITAL. These recommended values
simplify the use of the MDM diagnostic package, and are compatible with
VMS device drivers. Nonstandard addresses can be selected, but they
require a special setup for use with VMS drivers and MDM. See MicroVAX
Diagnostic Monitor User’s Guide for information about the CONNECT and
IGNORE commands, which are used to set up MDM for testing nonstandard
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-1
When troubleshooting, note the status of cables and connectors before you
perform each step. Label cables before you disconnect them to save time
and prevent you from introducing new problems.
If the system fails (or appears to fail) to boot the operating system, check
the console terminal screen for an error message. If the terminal displays
an error message, see Section 4.3. Check the LEDs on the device you
suspect is bad. If no errors are indicated by the device LEDs, run the
ROM-based diagnostics described in this chapter. In addition, check the
following connections:
e If no message appears, make sure the console terminal and the system
are on. Check the on/off power switch on both the console terminal and
the system. If the terminal has a DC OK LED, be sure it is on.
* Check the cabling to the console terminal.
* If you cannot get a display of any kind on the console terminal, try
another terminal.
* If the system DC OK LED remains off, check the power supply and
power supply cabling.
e Check the hex display on the H3602-SA. If the display 1s off, check
the CPU module LEDs and the CPU cabling. If a hex error message
appears on the H3602-SA or the module, see Section 4.3.
If the system boots successfully, but a device seems to fail or an intermittent
failure occurs, check the error log first for a device problem. The failing
device is usually in one of the following areas:
Mass storage
Communications devices
4.3 KA640 ROM-Based Diagnostics
The KA640 ROM-based diagnostic facility, rather than the MicroVAX Di-
agnostic Monitor (MDM), is the primary diagnostic tool for troubleshooting
and testing of the CPU, memory, Ethernet, and DSSI subsystems. ROM-
based diagnostics have significant advantages:
* Load time is virtually nonexistent.
* The boot path is more reliable.
* Diagnosis is done in a more primitive state. (MDM requires successful
loading of the VAXELN operating system.)
4-2 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
The ROM-based diagnostics can indicate several different FRUs, not just
the CPU module. For example, they can isolate one of up to three memory
modules as FRUs. (Table 4-6 lists the FRUs indicated by ROM-based
diagnostic error messages.) | |
The diagnostics run automatically on power-up. While the diagnostics are
running, the LEDs on the H3602-SA display a hexadecimal countdown of
the tests from F to 3 (though not in precise reverse order) before booting
the operating system, and 2 to 0 while booting the operating system. A
different countdown appears on the console terminal.
The ROM-based diagnostics are a collection of individual tests with
parameters that you can specify. A data structure called a script points
to the tests. (See Section 4.3.2.) There are several field and manufacturing
scripts. Qualified Field Service personnel can also create their own scripts
A program called the diagnostic executive determines which of the available
scripts to invoke. The script sequence varies if the KA640 is in a
manufacturing environment. The diagnostic executive interprets the script
to determine what tests to run, the correct order to run the tests, and the
correct parameters to use for each test.
The diagnostic executive also controls tests so that errors can be detected
and reported. It also ensures that when the tests are run, the machine is
left in a consistent and well-defined state.
4.3.1 Diagnostic Tests
Table 4-1 shows a list of the ROM-based tests and utilities. To get this
listing, enter T 9E at the console prompt (T is the abbreviation of TEST).
The column headings have the following meanings:
e Test is the test code or utility code.
Address is the test or utility’s base address in ROM. This address varies.
The addresses shown are examples only. If a test fails, entering T
FE displays diagnostic state to the console. You can subtract the base
address of the failing test from the last_exception_pc to find the index
into the failing test’s diagnostic listing (available on microfiche).
+ Name is a brief description of the test or utility.
Parameters shows the parameters for each diagnostic test or utility.
Tests accept up to ten parameters. The asterisks (*) represent
parameters that are used by the tests but that you cannot specify
individually. These parameters are encoded in ROM and are provided
by the diagnostic executive.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-3
Table 4-1: Test and Utility Numbers
Test Address Name Parameters
C1 2004C96B SSC RAM +
C2 2004CB32 SSC RAM ALL *
C5 2004CCA2 SSC regs *
C6 2004CD9C SSC_powerup eo kek
C7 2004CE60 CBTCR timeout +.
34 2004CF1C ROM logic test =
33 2004CFE4 CMCTL_powerup +
32 2004D02C CMCTL regs MEMCSRO_addr *=====-:
91 2004D150 CQBIC_powerup ea.
90 2004D1E2 CQBIC regs *
80 2004D23B CQBIC-memory ek
60 ‚20040630 Console serial start_baud end_baud ****#*
61 2004D98A Console QVSS mark_not_present ***
62 2004DA38 Console QDSS mark_not_present selftest_r0 selftest_r1 ****»
63 2004DCCC QDSS self-test input_csr selftest_r0 selftest_r] ##****
51 2004DE33 CFPA ed
52 2004E01F Prog timer which_timer wait_ time_us ***
53 2004E2EC TOY clock repeat_count_250ms_ea “+
54 2004E557 . Virtual mode BE |
55 2004E884 interval timer a
56 2004. 300 SII_ext_loopbck wk
5C 2004EC05 SII_initiator aaa
5D 2004F8DA SII target ered
58 2005109A DSSI reset port_no time_secs *
5A 20051484 VAX CMCTL CDAL dont_report_memory_bad repeat_count *
57 2005159C SII_memory incr test_pattern **==
5B 20051954 SI _registers Fog
SE 20051A9C NI_memory incr data_pattern ***
SF 20051BEC NI_test do_extl seed
41 20052768 Board reset wa
42 200527EC Check-for_intrs Res
44 200528E8 Cache_memory addr incr sassy
45 20052C3C Cache_mem_cqbic ~~ start_addr end_addr addr_incr ####
46 20052F20 Cachel_diag md addr_incr ee ee
31 2005356C MEM. setup_CSRs ng
30 20053C6D MEM. bitmap =+i mark_Hard _SBEs “===
4F 20053D69 MEM. data start_add end_add add_incr cont_on_err #***#*
4E 20053F2E MEM. byte start_add end_add add_incr cont_on_err *****+*
4D 20054050 MEM_address start_add end_add add_incr cont_on_err ***==+=
4C 200541F9 MEM_ECC_error
start_add end_add add_incr cont_on_err **#*#*
4-4 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 4-1 (Cont.): Test and Utility Numbers
Test Address Name ~ Parameters
4B 20054595 MEM_maskd_errs start_add end_add add_incr cont_on_err ******
4A 20054779 MEM _correction start_add end_add add_incr cont_on_err ******
49 20054995 MEM_FDM logic *«** cont_on_err ******
48 20054FCE MEM. addr_shrts start_add end_add * cont _on_err patl pat2
47 2005540A MEM. refresh start end incr cont_on_err time_seconds *****
40 200555AC MEM_count_errs First_board Last_board ******* Soft errs_
| allowed |
9C 200557BD List CPU regs *
9D 20055FCC Utilities Expnd_err_msg get_mode init_LEDs clr_ps_
9E 200560C6 List diags *
9F 200560C6 Create script ECKE
81. 200567E4 MSCP-QBUS test ТР_сог ******
82 200569AB DELQA device_num_addr ****
Parameters that you can specify are written out, as shown in the following
examples: |
54 2004ES57 Virtual mode XXXL XR
30 20053CéD MEM bitmap *** mark Hard SBES ***#**%
The virtual mode test on the first line contains several parameters, but you
cannot specify any of them. To run this test individually, enter:
>>> T 54
The MEM_bitmap test on the second line accepts ten parameters, but you
can specify only the fourth one. To mark pages bad in the bitmap for single-
bit or multi-bit errors, enter a 1 in the fourth parameter field:
>>> T 30 0 00 1
You must enter a value of either O (zero) or 1 (one) for the first three
parameters. (0 is used in this example.) The values have no effect on
the test; they are simply place holders for the first three parameters. You
do not have to specify a value for parameters that follow the user-defined
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-5
4.3.2 Scripts
Most of the tests shown by utility 9E are arranged into scripts. À script
is a data structure that points to various tests and defines the order in
which they are run. Different scripts can run the same set of tests, but in
a different order and/or with different parameters and flags. À script also
contains the following information:
* The parameters and flags that need to be passed to the test.
e Where the tests can be run from. For example, certain tests can be run
only from the EPROM. Other tests are program independent code, and
can be run from EPROM, cache diagnostic space, or main memory, to
enhance execution speed.
e What is to be shown, if anything, on the console.
* What is to be shown, if anything, in the LED display.
* What action to take on errors (halt, repeat, continue).
The power-up script runs every time the system is powered on. You can
also invoke the power-up script at any time by entering T 0.
Additional scripts are included in the ROMs for use in manufacturing and
engineering environments. Field Service personnel can run these scripts
and tests individually, using the T command. When doing so, note that
certain tests may be dependent upon a state set up from a previous test.
For this reason you should use the UNJAM and INITIALIZE commands,
described in Chapter 3, before running an individual test. You do not
need to use these commands on system power-up, however, because system
power-up leaves the machine in a defined state.
Field Service personnel with a detailed knowledge of the KA640 hardware
and firmware can also create their own scripts, by using the 9F utility. (See
Section 4.3.4.)
4-6 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 4-2 lists the scripts.
Table 4-2: Scripts Available to Field Service
Enter with
Script! Command Description
АО АО Soft script created by de_test9f. Enter Т 9F to create.
Al Al, AA, Common section of power-up script. Scripts AA, AB, and AC
AB, AC, invoke this script at power-up.
A7 A7, A8 Memory test portion invoked by script A8. Reruns the memory
tests without rebuilding and reinitializing the bitmap. Run
script A8 once before running script A7 separately to allow
mapping out of both single-bit and double-bit main memory
ECC errors.
A8 A8 Memory acceptance. Running script A8 with script A7 tests
main memory more extensively. It enables hard single-bit and
multi-bit main memory ECC errors to be marked bad in the
bitmap. Invokes script A7 when it has completed its tests.
A9 A9 Memory tests. Halts and reports the first error. Does not reset
the bitmap or busmap.
AA AA, 0 Console SLU. Invokes scripts BA, BC and A1. Does not invoke
any tests directly.
AC AC, 3 Power-up. Invokes scripts BC and Al. Does not invoke any
tests directly. Invoked at power-up.
AD AD Console program. Runs memory tests, marks bitmap, resets
busmap and resets caches. Calls script AE.
AE AE, AD Console program. Resets memory CSRs and resets caches.
AF AF Console program. Resets busmap and resets caches.
BA BA, 2, AA Initial power-up script for console SLU before first console
| announcement. Invoked at power-up.
BC BC, AA, AC, 0,3 Called by scripts AA and AC. Provides console announcements.
Invoked at power-up.
Scripts A2-A6, B0-B3, and B3 are for manufacturing use. They should not be used by Field
Service. Scripts AB and BB are used to test the QDSS, which is not supported at this time.
Scripts BD, BE, BF, B4, and B6-B9 are not used.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-7
In most cases, Field Service needs only the commands shown in Table 4-3
for effective troubleshooting and acceptance testing.
Table 4-3: Commonly Used Field Service Scripts
Command Description
A9 i
Automatically invokes the proper scripts; runs the same tests as during power-
Primarily runs the memory tests; halts upon first hard or soft error.
Memory acceptance script; marks hard multi-bit and single-bit ECC errors in
the bitmap. Script A8 calls script A7 when this command is entered. Script
A7 contains the memory tests that will continue on error.
Can be run by itself; useful when you want to bypass the bitmap test.
Power-up script that can be run by itself. Bypasses the bitmap test.
4.3.3 Script Calling Sequence
Actions at Power-up
In a nonmanufacturing environment where the intended console device 1s
the serial line unit (SLU), the console program (referred to as CP below)
performs the following actions at power-up:
Runs the IPT.
Assumes console device is SLU.
Calls the diagnostic executive (DE) with Test Code = 2.
a. DE determines that the environment is nonmanufacturing from
H3602-SA. (Manufacturing sets a jumper on the H3602-SA for
b. DE selects script sequence for console SLU.
c. DE executes Script BA.
— Script BA directs DE to execute test. (Console announcements
are off.)
d. DE passes control back to the CP.
Establishes SLU as console device (whether or not SLU test passed).
Prints banner message.
Displays language inquiry menu on console if console supports MCS
and any of the following are true:
4-8 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Battery is dead.
H3602-SA switch set to language inquiry.
Contents of SSC NVRAM are invalid.
7. Calls DE with Test Code = 3
DE executes Script AC.
Script AC directs DE to execute scripts BC and Al.
— Script BC directs DE to execute tests. (Console announcements
are on.) |
— Script Al directs DE to execute tests. (Console announcements
are on.) |
DE passes control back to CP.
8. CP issues end message and >>> prompt.
Actions After You Enter TO
In a nonmanufacturing environment where the intended console device is
the SLU, the console program (CP) performs the following actions after you
enter T 0 at the console prompt (>>> T 0):
1. Calls the diagnostic executive (DE) with Test Code = 0.
DE determines environment is nonmanufacturing from H3602-SA
switch setting.
DE executes script AA.
Script AA directs DE to execute scripts BA, BC, and Al.
— Script BA directs DE to execute tests. (Console announcements
are off.)
— Script BC directs DE to execute tests. (Console announcements
are on.)
— Script AI directs DE to execute tests. (Console announcements
are on.)
DE passes control back to the CP.
2. CP prints end message and >>> prompt.
Note that although the sequence of actions is different in the two cases
above, the same tests (those in scripts BA, BC, and A1) are run both times.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-9
4.3.4 User Created Scripts
You can create your own script using utility 9F, to control the order in which
tests are run and to select specific parameters and flags for individual tests.
In this way you do not have to use the defaults provided by the hard-wired
Utility 9F also provides an easy way to see what flags and parameters are
used by the diagnostic executive for each test.
Run test 9F first to build the user script. (See Example 4-1.) Press <CR>
to use the default parameters or flags, which are shown in parentheses. 9F
prompts you for the following information:
® Script location. The script can be located in the 1-Kbyte NVRAM in
the SSC, in the 128-Kbyte mass storage interface (MSI) RAM in the
SII chip, or in main memory. A script is limited by the size of the data
structure that contains it. A larger script can be developed in main
memory than in MSI RAM, and a larger script can be built in MSI
RAM than in NVRAM.
A script cannot, however, always be located in main memory. For
example, a script that runs memory tests will overwrite the user script,
since the diagnostic executive cannot relocate the user script to another
4-10 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
area. The diagnostic executive notifies you if you have violated this type of
restriction by issuing a script incompatibility message.
Test number
Run environment. This defines where the actual diagnostic test can be
run from. The choices are 0 = ROM, 1 = MSI RAM, 2 = Main Memory,
and 3 = Fastest Possible. Choose number 3 to select the fastest possible
data structure to run from that will not overwrite the test.
Repeat code
Error severity level
Console error report
Script error treatment
LED display
Console display
Example 4-1 shows how to build and run a user script.
The utility displays the test name after you enter the test number, and the
number of bytes remaining after you enter the information for each test.
When you have finished entering tests, press <CR> at the next Next test
number: prompt to end the script building session. Then type T AO<CR>
to run the new script.
You cannot review or edit a script you have created.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-11
Example 4-1: Creating a Script with Utility 9F
Create script in ?[0=SSC,1=SII RAM, 2=RAM] :1l
Script starts at 2011FC00 :
1024 bytes left
Next test number :51
>>Run from ?[0=ROM, 1=SII RAM, 2=RAM, 3=fastest possible] (0):
>>Repeat? [0=no,1=on error, 2=forever, >2=count<FF] (0):
>>Error severity ? [0,1,2,3] (2):
>>Console error report? [O=none,l=full] (1):
>>Stop script on error? [0=NO, 1=YES] (1):
>>LED on entry (05):
>>Console on entry (51):
test number :52
>>Run from ? [0=ROM, 1=SII RAM, 2=RAM, 3=fastest possible] (0):
>>Repeat ? [0=no,l=on error, 2=forever, >2=count<FF] (0):
>>Error severity ? [0,1,2,3] (2):
>>Console error report? [O=none,l=full] (1):
>>Stop script on error? [0=NO,1=YES] (1):
>>LED on entry (05):
>>Console on entry (52):
>> which timer : 00000000 - 00000001 ? (00000000) 1
>> wait time us : 00000001 - FFFFFFFF ?(0000000RA)
test number :
Example 4-2 shows the script building procedure to follow if (a) you are
unsure of the test number to specify, and (b) you want to run one test
repeatedly. If you are not sure of the test number, enter ? at the Next test
number: prompt to invoke test 9E and display test numbers, test names,
and so on. To run one test repeatedly enter the following sequence:
1. Enter the test number (40 in Example 4-2) at the Next test number:
п ок ED
Enter AO at the next Next test number: prompt.
Press <CR> at the next Next test number: prompt.
Enter T AO to begin running the script repeatedly.
Press to stop the test.
4-12 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
The above sequence is a useful alternative to using the REPEAT console
command to run a test, because REPEAT (test) displays line feeds only; it
does not display the console test announcement.
Example 4-2: Listing and Repeating Tests with Utility 9F
>>> T SF
Create script in ?{0=SSC,1=SII RAM, 2=RAM]
Script starts at 20140758
24 bytes left
Next test number :?
Next test number :40
MEM Count Errs>>Run from 2? [0=ROM, 1=SII RAM, 3=fastest possible] (0):
MEM Count Errs>>Repeat? {0=no,1=on error, 2=forever,>2=count<FF} (0):
+ Address Name Parameters
cl 2004D587 SSC RAM *
C2 2004D74E SSC RAM ALL x
'C5 2004D8BE SSC regs *
47 20056166 MEM Refresh start end incr cont _on err time seconds *****
40 20056308 MEM Count Errs First board Last board Soft errs allowed **+****
9C 20056519 List CPU regs *
9D 20056D28 Utilities Expnd err msg get mode init LEDs clr ps ent
SE 20056DFC List diags *
9F 20056E22 Create script wann
81 20057540 MSCP-QBUS test IP csr ******
82 20057707 DELQA device num addr ****
24 bytes left
MEM Count Errs>>Error severity ? [0,1,2,3] (2):
MEM Count _Errs>>Console error report? [O=none, l=full] (1):
MEM Count Errs>>Stop script on error? [O=NO, 1=YES] (1):
MEM Count Errs>>LED on entry (04):
MEM Count Errs>>Console on entry (40):
MEM Count Errs>> First board : 00000001 - 00000004 21
MEM Count Errs>> Last board : 00000001 - 00000004 2 (00000004) 4
MEM Count Errs>> Soft errs allowed : 00000000 - FFFFFFFF 22
5 bytes left
Next test number
4 bytes left
Next test number :
zAO ~ script
>>> T AO
Next test number :
>>> T AO
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-13
4.3.5 Console Displays
Example 4-3 shows a typical console display during execution of the ROM-
based diagnostics. The numbers on the console display do not refer to actual
test numbers. Refer to Table 4—6 to see the correspondence between the
numbers displayed (listed in the Normal Console Display column) and the
actual tests being run (listed in the Error Console Display column).
Example 4-3: Console Display (No Errors)
KA640-A V4.1, VMB 2.5
Performing Normal System Tests
Tests completed
The first line contains the firmware revision (V4.1 in this example) and the
virtual memory bootstrap (VMB) revision (V2.5 in this example).
During execution of the IPT, normal error messages are displayed if the
console terminal is working. Console announcements such as test numbers
and countdown, however, are suppressed. Tests continue to run after the
IPT, up to and including the appropriate console test.
Diagnostic test failures, if specified in the firmware script, produce an error
display in the format shown in Example 44.
Example 4-4: Sample Output with Errors
246 2 07 FE 10 0002
P1=002F0000 P2=00000000 P3=00000000 P4=00FF0000 P5=00000000
P6=00000000 P7=00000000 P8=00000000 P9=00FF0000 P10=00000000
r0=00000000 r1=00010000 r2=55555555 r3=00000080 r4=AAAAAAAA
r5=00000080 r6=01EF0000 r7=20080144 r8=00010000 ERF=20140770
Tests completed
4-14 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
The errors are printed in a five-line display. The first line has six fields:
Test Severity Error De error Vector Count
Test identifies the diagnostic test.
Severity is the severity level of a test failure, as dictated by the script.
Failure of a severity level 2 test causes the display of this five-line error
printout, and halts an autoboot. An error of severity level 1 causes a
display of the first line of the error printout, but does not interrupt an
autoboot. Most tests have a severity level of 2.
Error is two hex digits identifying, usually within 10 instructions,
where in the diagnostic the error occurred. This field is also called
the subtestlog.
De_error (diagnostic executive error) signals the diagnostic’s state and
any illegal behavior. This field indicates a condition that the diagnostic
expects on detecting a failure. FE or EF in this field means that an
unexpected exception or interrupt was detected. FF indicates an error
as a result of normal testing, such as a miscompare. The possible codes
FF-—Normal error exit from diagnostic
FE—Unanticipated interrupt
FD—Interrupt in cleanup routine
FC—Interrupt in interrupt handler
FB—Script requirements not met
FA—No such diagnostic
EF—Unanticipated exception in executive
Vector identifies the SCB vector (10 in the example above) through
which the unexpected exception or interrupt trapped, when the de_
error field detects an unexpected exception or interrupt (FE or EF).
Count is four hex digits. It shows the number of previous errors that
have occurred (two in Example 41).
Lines 2 and 3 of the error printout are parameters 1 through 10. When
the diagnostics are running normally, these parameters are the same
parameters that are listed in Table 4-1.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-15
When an unexpected machine check exception or other type of exception
occurs during the executive (de_error is EF), the stack is saved in the
parameters on lines 2 and 3, as listed in Tables 44 and 4-5.
Table 4-4: Values Saved, Machine Check Exception During
Executive |
Parameter Value
Pl Contents of SP, points to vector value in P2
P2 Vector = 04, vector of exception 04-FC, 00 = Q-bus
P3 Address of PC pointing to failed instruction, P9
P4 Byte count = 10
P5 Machine check code
P6 Most recent virtual address
P7 Internal state information 1
P8 Internal state information 2
P9 PC, points to failing instruction
Table 4-5: Values Saved, Exception During Executive
Parameter Value
Pl Contents of SP, points to vector value in P2
P2 Vector = nn, vector of exception 04-FC, 00 = Q-bus
P3 Address of PC pointing to failed instruction, P4
P4 PC, points to instruction following failed instruction
P5 PSL |
P6 Contents of stack
Р7 Contents of stack
P8 Contents of stack
P9 Contents of stack
P10 Contents of stack
4-16 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Lines 4 and 5 of the error printout are general registers RO through R8 and
the hardware error summary register.
When returning a module for repair, record the first line of the error
printout and the version of the ROMs on the module repair tag.
Table 4-6 lists the hex LED display, the default action on errors, and the
most likely FRUs. It is divided into IPTs and scripts.
The Default Action on Error column refers to the action taken by the
diagnostic executive under the following circumstances:
* The diagnostic executive detects an unexpected exception or interrupt.
* A test fails and that failure is reported to the diagnostic executive.
The Default on Error column does not refer to the action taken by the
memory tests. The diagnostic executive either halts the script or continues
execution at the next test in the script.
Most memory tests have a continue on error parameter (labeled cont_on_
error, as shown in test 47 in Example 4-2). If you explicitly set cont_on_
error using parameter 4 in a memory test, the test marks bad pages in
the bitmap and continues without notifying the diagnostic executive of the
error. In this case, a halt on error does not occur even if you specify halt
on error in the diagnostic executive (by answering Yes to Stop script on
error? in Utility 9F), since the memory test does not notify the diagnostic
executive that an error has occurred.
Figure 4-1 shows the LEDs on the KA640 CPU. They correspond to the
hex display on the H3602-SA.
Figure 4-1: KA640 CPU Module LEDs
= СЕ
VALUE ON 8 4 2 1
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-17
Table 4-6: KA640 Console Displays and FRUs
Normal Error
Hex Console Console Default on
LED Display Display Error Description FRU
Initial Power-Up Tests
F None None Loopon test Power-up 6, 1,4, 51-?2
D None None Loopontest WAIT_POK 1
4 None None Loopon self Entering IPT 1
6 None None Loopontest SLU_EXT_LOOPBACK* 7,1
Script BA
C None 29D Continue Utilities 1
B None 742 Continue Check_for_intrs 1
C None ?C6 Continue SSC_power-up 1
6 None 760 Continue CONSOLE_SERIAL 1
End of script
Script AC
Invoke script BC.
Invoke script Al.
End of script.
Script AA
Invoke script BA.
Invoke script BC.
Invoke script Al.
End of script.
In the case of multiple FRUs, refer to Section 4.5.2 for further information.
21f a problem recurs with the same FRU, check that the tolerance for system power supply +5
Vdc, +12 Vdc, and AC ripple are within specification.
3This test runs only if the power-up mode switch on the H3602-SA is set to TEST mode. See
Section 4.6.1.
FRU key:
1 = KA640, 2 = MS650, 3 = memory interconnect cable
4 = Q22-bus device, 5 = Q22/CD backplane, 6 = system power supply
7 = H3602-SA VO panel
4-18 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 4-6 (Cont.): KA640 Console Displays and FRUs
Normal Error
Hex Console Console Default on
LED Display Display Error Description FRU
Script BC
7 41 291 Continue CQBIC_power-up 1
7 40 290 Continue CQBIC_registers 1
9 39 233 . Continue CMCTL_power-up 1
9 38 — 732 Continue CMCTL_registers 1
5 37 ?3B Continue SII_registers 1
9 36 ?31 Continue CMCTL _setup_CSRs 1,2,3,5
8 35 749 Continue MEMORY. FDM._ logic 2,1.3,5
End of script |
Script Al
C 34 752 Continue PROG_TIMER_0 1
C 33 752 Continue PROG_TIMER_1 1
C 32 253 Continue TOY_CLOCK 1
C 31 ?C1 Continue SSC_RAM 1
C 30 234 Continue ROM. logic 1
C 29 7C5 Continue SSC_registers 1
3 28 257 Halt SII memory 1
C 27 ?02 continue SSC_RAM_addr_shorts 1
B 26 255 Continue INTERVAL_TIMER 1
A 25 251 Continue CFPA 1
C 24 207 Continue CBTCR timeout 1
B 23 746 Continue CACHE_DIAG_MODE 1
5 22 230 Halt MEMORY_bitmap 1, 2, 3, 5
8 21 ?4F Continue MEMORY _data 2,1,3,5
8 20 24E Continue MEMORY_byte 2, 1, 3, 5
8 19 24D Continue MEMORY _addr 2,1.3,5
FRU key:
1 = KA640, 2 = MS650. 3 = memory interconnect cable
4 = Q22-bus device, 5 = Q22/CD backplane, 6 = system power supply
7 = H3602-SA VO panel
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-19
Table 4-6 (Cont.): KA640 Console Displays and FRUS
Normal Error
Hex Console Console
Default on
1 = KA640, 2 = MS650, 3 = memory interconnect cable
4 = Q22-bus device, 5 = Q22/CD backplane, 6 = system power supply
7 = H3602-SA VO panel
4-20 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
LED Display Display Error Description FRU
Script Al
8 18 24C Continue MEMORY_ECC_error 2, 1,3,5
8 17 24В Continue MEMORY _masked_errors 2,1,3,5
8 16 24A Continue MEMORY _correction 2,1,3,5
8 15 248 Continue MEMORY_address_shorts 2, 1,3, 5
8 14 247 Continue MEMORY refresh 2, 1,3,5
8 13 240 Continue MEMORY_count_bad pages 2,1,3,5
B 12 244 Continue CACHE1_MEMORY 1, 2, 3, 5
7 11 280 Continue CQBIC_MEMORY 1,2,4,3,5
B 10 254 Continue VIRTUAL_MODE 1, 2, 3, 5
7 09 245 Continue CACHE_MEM_CQBIC 1,2,4,3,5
9 08 ?5A Continue CVAX_CMCTL drivers 1
5 07 25С Continue SII_initiator 1
5 06 ?5D Continue SII target 1
4 05 ?25E Continue NI memory 1
4 04 25F Continue NI_functional 1
С 03 241 Continue KA640_RESET 1,4
End of script.
Script A9
8 4F 24F Halt MEMORY data 2, 1,3,5
8 4E 24Е Halt MEMORY _byte 2,1,3,5
8 4D 24D Halt MEMORY _addr 2,1,3,5
8 4C 24C Halt MEMORY_ECC_error 2, 1,3,5
8 4B 24B Halt MEMORY _masked_errors 2, 1, 3,5
8 4A 24A Halt MEMORY _correction 2,1,3,5
8 48 248 Continue MEMORY _address_shorts 2,1,3,5
8 47 247 Continue MEMORY refresh 2, 1,3,3
8 40 240 Continue MEMORY count_bad pages 2,1,3,5
FRU key:
Table 4-6 (Cont.): KA640 Console Displays and FRUs
Normal Error
Hex Console Console Default on
LED Display Display Error Description FRU
Script A9
C 41 241 Continue KA640_RESET 1, 4
End of script.
Script AS
9 31 231 Halt CMCTL_setup_CSRs 1,2,3,5
8 49 249 Halt MEMORY_FDM _logic 2,1, 3,5
5 30 230 Halt MEMORY_bitmap 1,2,3,5
Invoke script A7.
End of script.
Script AT
8 4F 24F Halt MEMORY_data 2,1,3,5
8 4E ?4E Halt MEMORY_byte 2, 1, 3,5
8 4D ?4D Halt MEMORY _addr 2, 1, 3,5
8 4C 24C Halt MEMORY_ECC_error 2,1,3,5
8 4B ?4B Halt MEMORY_masked_errors 2,1,3,5
8 4A 24A Halt MEMORY _correction 2, 1, 3,5
8 48 248 Halt MEMORY _address_shorts 2,1,3,5
8 47 247 Halt MEMORY_refresh 2,1,3,5
8 40 240 Cont MEMORY _count_bad pages 2,1, 3,5
7 80 280 Cont CQBIC_memory 1,2,4,3,5
C 41 241 Halt KA640_RESET 1,4
End of script.
FRU key:
1 = KA640, 2 = MS650, 3 = memory interconnect cable
4 = Q22-bus device, 5 = Q22/CD backplane, 6 = system power supply
7 = H3602-SA VO panel
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics
4.3.6 System Halt Messages
Table 4-7 lists messages that may appear on the console terminal when a
system error occurs.
Table 4-7: System Halt Messages
Code Message Explanation
202 EXT HLT External halt, caused either by console BREAK condition, or
because Q22-bus BHALT_L or DBR<AUX_HLT> bit was set
while enabled.
204 ISP ERR Caused by attempt to push interrupt or exception state onto
the interrupt stack when the interrupt stack was mapped NO
205 DBL ERR A second machine check occurred while the processor was
attempting to service a normal exception.
706 HLT INST The processor executed a HALT instruction in kernel mode.
207 SCB ERR3 The vector had bits <1:0> = 3.
708 SCB ERR2 The vector had bits <1:0> = 2.
?0A CHM FR ISTK A change mode instruction was executed when PSL<IS> was
?0B CHM TO ISTK The SCB vector for a change mode had bit <0> set.
?0C SCB RD ERR A hard memory error occurred during a processor read of an
exception or interrupt vector.
710 MCHK AV An access violation or an invalid translation occurred during
machine check exception processing.
?11 KSP AV An access violation or an invalid translation occurred during
invalid kernel stack pointer exception processing.
212 DBL ERR2 Double machine check error. A machine check occurred
during an attempt to service a machine check.
213 DBL ERR3 Double machine check error. A machine check occurred
during an attempt to service a kernel stack not valid
219 PSL EXC5 PSL <26:24> = 5 on interrupt or exception.
?1A PSL EXC6 PSL <26:24> = 6 on interrupt or exception.
?1B PSL EXC5 PSL <26:24> = 7 on interrupt or exception.
?1D PSL EXC5 PSL <26:24> = 5 on an rei instruction.
?1E PSL EXC5 PSL <26:24> = 6 on an rei instruction.
?1F PSL EXC5 PSL <26:24> = 7 on an rei instruction.
4-22 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
4.3.7 Console Error Messages
Table 4-8 lists messages issued in response to an error or to a console
command that was entered incorrectly.
Table 4-8: Console Error Messages
Code Message
The console data base was corrupted. The console simulates
a power-up sequence and rebuilds its data base.
The requested reference would violate virtual memory
protection, address is not mapped, or is invalid in the specified
address space, or value is invalid in the specified destination.
The command string cannot be parsed.
A number has an invalid digit.
The command was too large for the console to buffer. The
message is sent only after the console receives the at
the end of the command.
The specified address is not in the address space.
The specified value does not fit in the destination.
Switch conflict. For example, an EXAMINE command
specifies two different data sizes.
The switch is not recognized.
The EXAMINE or DEPOSIT symbolic address is not
An X command has an incorrect command or data checksum.
If the data checksum is incorrect, this message is issued, and
is not abbreviated to “Illegal command.”
The operator entered a HALT command.
A FIND command failed either to find the RPB or 64 Kbytes
of good memory.
Data failed to arrive in the expected time during an X
Memory error or machine check occurred.
An unexpected interrupt or exception occurred.
Unimplemented function.
Qualifier does not take a value.
Ambiguous qualifier.
Qualifier requires a value.
Too many qualifiers.
Too many arguments.
Ambiguous command.
Too few arguments.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-23
4.3.8 VMB Error Messages
If VMB is unable to boot, it returns an error message to the console.
Table 4-9 lists the error messages and their descriptions.
Table 4-9: VMB Error Messages
Number Mnemonic Interpretation
240 NOSUCHDEV No bootable devices found
?41 DEVASSIGN Device is not present
242 NOSUCHFILE Program image not found
743 FILESTRUCT Invalid boot device file structure
744 BADCHKSUM Bad checksum on header file
245 BADFILEHDR Bad file header
746 BADDIRECTORY Bad directory file
247 FILNOTCNTG Invalid program image format
248 ENDOFFILE Premature end-of-file encountered
249 BADFILENAME Bad file name given
?24A BUFFEROVF Program image does not fit in available memory
?4B CTRLERR Boot device 1O error
?4C DEVINACT Failed to initialize boot device
?4D DEVOFFLINE Device is off line
?4E MEMERR Memory initialization error
?4F SCBINT Unexpected SCB exception or machine check
250 SCB2NDINT Unexpected exception after starting program image
251 NOROM No valid ROM image found
252 NOSUCHNODE No response from load server
253 INSFMAPREG Insufficient Q-bus mapping registers due to invalid
memory configuration, bad memory, or because Q-bus
map was not relocated to main memory
254 RETRY No devices bootable, retrying
4.4 Acceptance Testing
Perform the acceptance testing procedure listed below, after installing a
system or whenever replacing the following:
KA640 module
MS650 module |
Memory data interconnect cable
DSSI drive
4-24 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
1. Run five error-free passes of the power-up scripts by entering the
following command:
>>> RTO
Press to terminate the scripts.
2. Make sure no solid single-bit ECC errors are in memory by entering
the following commands:
>>> T 30 0 0 0 1
>>> T Al
The first command runs test 30, which enables mapping out of solid
‘single-bit and multi-bit ECC errors in main memory.
The second command runs script Al, which invokes CPU and memory
tests without resetting the bitmap to mark only solid multi-bit ECC
errors in main memory. This command gives you a quick memory check,
since most tests run on a 256-Kbyte boundary.
Perform the next two steps for a more granular test of memory.
>>> T AS
>>> R T A7
The first command runs script A8 for one pass. This command enables
mapping out of solid single-bit ECC as well as multi-bit ECC errors. It
will also run script A7 for one pass.
The second command runs script A7 repeatedly. This command runs
the memory tests only and does not reset the bitmap. Press [crAuc] after
two passes to terminate the script. This test takes up to 5 minutes per
pass, depending on the amount of memory in the system. Most of the
memory diagnostics test memory on a page boundary.
If any of the memory tests fail, they mark the bitmap and continue
with no error printout to the console. An exception is test 40 (count bad
pages). If any single-bit or multi-bit ECC errors are detected, they are
reported in test 40. Such a failure indicates that pages in memory have
been marked bad in the bitmap because of solid single-bit and/or multi-
bit ECC errors. The error printout does not display the 20 longwords,
since it is a severity level 1 error.
3. Check the memory configuration again, since test 31 can check for only
a few invalid configurations. For example, test 31 cannot report that a
memory board is missing from the configuration, since it has no way of
knowing if the board should be there or not.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-25
To check the memory configuration, enter the following command line:
Memory 0: 0000000 to 003FFFFF, 4MB, O bad pages
Memory 1: 00400000 to OOBFFFFF, 8MB, O bad pages
Total of 12MB, O bad pages, 102 reserved pages
Memory Bitmap
-00BF3400 to OOBF3FFF, 6 pages
Console Scratch Area |
-00BF4000 to OOBF7FFF, 32 pages
Qbus Map
-00BF8000 to OOBFFFFF, 64 pages
Scan of Bad Pages
Memory 0 is the KA640 CPU. Memories 1 through 3 are the MS650
memory modules. The Q22-bus map always spans the top 32 Kbytes of
good memory. The memory bitmap always spans two pages (1 Kbyte)
per 4 Mbytes of memory configured.
Use utility 9C to compare the contents of configuration registers
MEMCSR 0-15 with the memory installed in the system:
>>> T 9C
TOY =018200B8 ICCS =00000000
TCRO =00000000
TCR1 =00000000
RXCS =00000000
CACR =FFB40080
SCR =0000C000
TIRO =00000000
TIR1 =00000000
RXDB =0000000D
MSER =00000000
DSER =00000000
TXCS =00000000
CADR =0000000C
TXDB =00000030
DEAR =00000000
MEM FRU 1 MEMCSR 0=80000015 1=00000015 2=00000015 3=00000015
MEM | FRU 2 MEMCSR | 4=80400016 5=80800016 6=00000016 7=00000016
MEM | FRU 3 MEMCSR : . 8=00000000 9=00000000 10=00000000 11=00000000
MEM _ FRU 4 MEMCSR12=00000000 13=00000000 14=00000000 15=00000000
MEMCSR16=8094000F 17=00000000
One memory bank is enabled for each 4 Mbytes of memory. The
MEMCSRs map modules as follows:
MEMCSR 4-7 First MS650 memory module
MEMCSR 8-11 Second MS650 memory module
MEMCSR 12-15 Third MS650 memory module
4-26 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Verify the following:
For the KA640 CPU module, the bank enable bit (<31>) in
MEMCSR_0 is set, indicating the memory bank on the KA640
is enabled. MEMCSR1-3<31> should always be clear, indicating
banks are not enabled. MEMCSRs <6:0> should equal 15 hex for
If MS650-AA modules are installed, the bank enable bits are set
in the first two MEMCSRs and cleared in the last two MEMCSRs.
MEMCSRs <6:0> should equal 16 hex for all four MEMCSRs. See
the values for MEMCSR 4-7 in the example.
If a memory board is not present, bits <31:0> are all zeros for
the corresponding group of four MEMCSRs. See the values for
MEMCSR 8-11 in the example.
Bits <25:22> should increment by one starting at zero in any group
of four MEMCSRs whose bit <31> equals 1. In the example above,
bits <25:22> of MEMCSR 4 and 5 increment by one, resulting in an
increment of four in their longwords. If bit <31> equals 0, <25:22>
should equal zero.
Check the Q22-bus and the Q22-bus logic in the KA640 CQBIC chip,
and the configuration of the Q22-bus, as follows:
>>> show gbus
Scan of Qbus I/O Space
-20000120 (760440) = 0080 (300) DHQ11/DHV11/CXA16/CXB16/CXY08
-20000122 (760442) = F081
220000124 (760444) = DD18
-20000126 (760446) = 0200
-20000128 (760450) = 0000
-20000124 (760452) = 0000
-2000012C (760454) = 8000
-2000012E (760456) = 0000
-20001920 (774440) = FF08 (120) DELQA/DEQNA
-20001922 (774442) = FF00
-20001924 (774444) = FF2B
-20001926 (774446) = FF06
-20001928 (774450) = FF16
-2000192A (774452) = FFF2
-2000192C (774454) = 00F8
-2000192E (774456) = 1030
-20001940 (774500) = 0000 (260) TOKSO/TOK70/TUS1E/RV20/K-TAPE
-20001942 (774502) = OBCO
-20001F40 (777500) = 0020 (004) IPCR
Scan of Qbus Memory Space
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-27
The columns are described below. The examples listed are from the last
line of the example above.
First column = the VAX I/O address of the CSR, in hex (20001F40).
Second column = the Q22-bus address of the CSR, in octal (777500).
Third column = the data, contained at the CSR address, in hex
Fourth column = the device vector in octal, according to the fixed
or floating Q22-bus and UNIBUS algorithm (004).
Fifth column = the device name (IPCR, the KA640 interprocessor
communications register).
Additional lines for the device are displayed if more than one CSR
The last line, Scan of Qbus Memory Space, displays memory residing
on the Q22-bus, if present. VAX memory mapped by the Q-22 bus map
is not displayed.
If the system contains an MSCP or TMSCP controller, run test 81. This
test performs the following functions:
Performs step one of the UQ port initialization sequence
Performs the SA wraparound test
Checks the Q-22 bus interrupt logic
If you do not specify the CSR address, the test searches for and runs
on the first MSCP device by default. To test the first TMSCP device,
you must specify the first parameter:
>>> T 81 20001940
You can specify other addresses if you have multiple MSCP or TMSCP
devices in the first parameter. This action may be useful to isolate
a problem with a controller, the KA640, or the backplane. Use the
VAX address provided by the SHOW QBUS command to determine the
CSR value. If you do not specify a value, the MSCP device at address
20001468 1s tested by default.
5. Check that all UQSSP, MSCP, TMSCP, and Ethernet controllers and
devices are visible by typing the following command line:
4-28 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
>>> show device
DSSI Node 0 (R3YRME)
-DIAO (RF30)
DSSI Node 1 (R3VBNC)
-DIA1 (RF30)
DSSI Node 7 (*)
UQSSP Tape Controller O (774500)
-MUAO (TK70)
Ethernet Adapter
-ESAO (08-00-2B-08-E8-6E)
Ethernet Adapter O (774440)
-XQAO (08-00-2B-06-16-F2)
In the above example, the console displays the remote DSSI node names
and node numbers of two RF30 controllers it recognizes. The lines
below each node name and number are the logical unit numbers of any
attached devices, DIAO and DIA] in this case.
DSSI Node 7 (*) is the KA640 DSSI adapter. In most cases, the KA640
is the local DSSI node shown by the asterisk and has a node number
of 7. DSSI node names, node numbers, and unit numbers should be
The UQSSP (TQK70) tape controller and its CSR address are also
shown. The line below this display shows a TK70 connected.
The next two lines show the logical name and station address for the
KA640 Ethernet adapter.
The last two lines refer to DELQA and DEQNA controllers, the Q22-bus
CSR address, logical name (XQA0), and the station address.
. Test the DSSI subsystem using the KA640 ROM-based Diagnostics and
Utilities Protocol (DUP) facility. This facility allows you to connect to
the DUP server in the RF drive controller. Here are some examples:
—>>> set host/dup/dssi 7
Starting DUP server...
Stopping DUP server...
In this example, a DUP connection was made with DSSI node 7, the
KA640. The DUP server times out, since no local programs exist and
no response packet was received.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-29
>>> set host/dup/dssi 1
Starting DUP server...
DSSI Node 1 (R3VBNC)
DRVEXR V1.0 D 21-FEB-1988 21:27:54
DRVTST V1.0 D 21-FEB-1988 21:27:54
HISTRY V1.0 D 21-FEB-1988 21:27:54
ERASE V1.0 D 21-FEB-1988 21:27:54
PARAMS V1.0 D 21-FEB-1988 21:27:54
DIRECT V1.0 D 21-FEB-1988 21:27:54
End of directory
Task Name? drvtst
Write/read anywhere on medium? [l=Yes/ (0=No)]: <CR>
5 minutes for test to complete.
Compare failed on head 1 track 1091.
Compare failed on head 0 track 529.
Task Name? drvexr
Write/read anywhere on medium? [1=Yes/ (0=No) ] : <CR>
Test time in minutes? [(10)-100]:
10 minutes for test to complete.
R3VENC: :MSCPSDUP 21-FEB-1988 21:
R3VBNC: :MSCPSDUP 21-FEB-1988 21:
Compare failed on head 1 track
R3VBNC: :MSCPSDUP 21-FEB-1988 21:
37:35 DRVEXR CPU=00:
37:38 DRVEXR CPU=00:
37:40 DRVEXR CPU=00:
00:01.88 PI=43
00:03.38 PI=79
00:04.97 PI=116
In the above example, the local programs DRVTST and DRVEXR are
run on drive 1. Do not enter 1 in response to the question Write/read
anywhere on medium?. Doing so will destroy data on the disk. Enter
<CR>, which uses the default, allowing reads and writes to the DBNs
only. or displays a message as shown in the DRVEXR
example above (the lines beginning with R3VBNC::). In the example,
has been pressed twice, to show the difference in the time and in
the value of the progress indicator (PI).
Press to terminate the program.
Use the local programs PARAMS (Section 4.8.5) and HISTRY
(Section 4.8.3) to determine the cause of errors displayed during
DRVTST or DRVEXR. DRVTST should run successfully for one pass
on each drive. Field Service can refer to the RF30 Disk Drive Service
Manual for details about the DUP local programs and corrective action.
If there are one or more DELQA modules in the system, use test 82 to
invoke the Ethernet option’s self-test and receive status from the host
firmware. Test 82 is useful for acceptance testing if you cannot access
the system enclosure to see the DELQA LEDs.
4-30 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
8. After the above steps have completed successfully, load MDM and run
the system tests from the Main Menu. If they run successfully, the
system has gone through its basic checkout and you can load the
4.5 Troubleshooting
This section contains suggestions for determining the cause of ROM-based
diagnostic test failures.
4.5.1 FE Utility
If any of the tests that run after the IPTs and up to the primary console
test fail, the major test code is displayed on the LEDs. Run the FE utility
if the message, Normal operation not possible, is displayed after the tests
have completed and there is no other error indication, or if you need more
information than what is provided in the error display.
The FE utility dumps diagnostic state to the console (Example 4-5). This
state indicates the major and minor test code of the test that failed, the
ten parameters associated with the test, and the hardware error summary
Example 4-5: FE Utility Example
>>> T FE
bitmap=00BF3400, length=0C00, checksum=007E
return stack=201406A8
subtest pc=2004F4C4
timeout=00000001, error=0B, de error=FE
de error vector=18, severity code=02, total _error count=0001
previous error=FEOBSDS5D, 00000000, 00000000, 00000000, 00000000
last exception pc=20050807
flags=01FFFD7F, test flags=20
highest severity=00
led display=05
console display=5D
save mchk code=80, save err flags=000000
param | 1=00000100 2=00000100 3=000000F7 4=00000000 5=00000001
param 6=00000004 7=20050527 8=00000000 9=20140698 10=200521F4
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-31
The most useful fields displayed above are as follows:
| De_error_vector, which is the SCB vector through which the unexpected
interrupt or exception trapped if de_error equals FE or EF.
Total_error_count. Four hex digits showing the number of previous
errors that have occurred. -
Previous_error. Contains the history of the last four errors. Each
longword contains four bytes of information. From left to right these
are the de_error, subtest_log, and test number (copied in both bytes).
Save machine check code (save_mchk_code). Valid only if the test halts
on error. This field has the same format as the hardware error summary
Save error flags (save_err_flags). Valid only if the test halts on error.
This field has the same format as the hardware error summary register.
Parameters 1 through 10. Valid only if the test halts on error. The
parameters have the same format as the hardware error summary
EF in the previous_error field indicates that an unexpected exception has
occurred. If any of the tests that announce to the console fail, and the
error code is EF, examine the last longword of the error printout. The last
longword is the hardware error summary register and contains the machine
check code (<31:24>) and KA640 error status bits (<23:0>). Table 4-10 lists
the status bits.
4-32 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 4-10: Hardware Error Summary Register
Bit Register Description
31 Machine check code
- 30 Machine check code
29 Machine check code
28 Machine check code
27 Machine check code
26 Machine check code
25 Machine check code
24 Machine check code |
23 MSER <6> ; CDAL data parity error
22 MSER <5> ; Mchn chck CDAL parity error
21 MSER <4> ; Machine check cache parity
20 MSER <1> ; Cache data parity error
19 MSER <0> ; Cache tag parity error
18 Unused
17 MEMCSRI6 <31> ; Uncorrectable ECC error
16 MEMCSR16 <30> : Two or more uncorrectable errors
15 MEMCSR16 <29> ; Correctable single-bit error
14 MEMCSR16 <25> ; Page address bits 25:22 of
13 MEMCSR16 <24> : Location that caused error.
12 MEMCSR16 <23> ; These four bits point to the
11 MEMCSR16 <22> ; failing 4-Mbyte bank of memory.
10 MEMCSR16 <8> : DMA read/write error.
9 MEMCSR16 <7> ; CDAL parity error on write.
8 CBCTR <31> ; CDAL bus timeout.
7 CBCTR <30> — : CPU read/write bus timeout.
6 DSER <7> ; Q22-bus NXM.
4 DSER <5> ; Q22-bus parity error.
3 DSER <4> ; Read main memory error.
2 DSER <3> ; Lost error.
1 DSER <2> ; No grant timeout.
0 IPCRn <15> ; ОМА Q22-bus memory error.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-33
4.5.2 Isolating Memory Failures
‘ This section describes procedures for isolating memory subsystem failures,
particularly when the system contains more than one MS650 memory
Use the SHOW MEMORY/FULL command to examine failures detected
by the memory tests. Use this command if test 40 fails, which indicates
that pages have been marked bad in the bitmap.
You can also use SHOW MEMORY/FULL after terminating a script
“that is taking an unusually long time to run. Press [CTRUC] to terminate
the script after the completion of the current test. on the
KA650 console takes effect only after the entire script completes.) After
terminating the script, enter SHOW MEMORY/FULL to see if the tests
have marked any pages bad up to that point. See Section 4.4 for an
example of this command.
2 T A9
>>> T [memory test] starting board number ending board number
Script A9 runs only the memory tests and halts on the first error
detected. Unlike the power-up script, it does not continue. Since the
script does not rerun the test, it detects memory-related failures that
are not hard errors. You should then run the individual test that failed
on each memory module one MS650 module at a time. You can input
parameters 1 and 2 of tests 40, 47, 48, and 4A through 4F as the
starting and ending address for testing. It is easier, however, to input
the memory module numbers 1-4. For example, if test 4F fails, test
the second memory module as follows: -
>>> T 4F 2 2
If a failure is detected for a second of three MS650 modules, for example,
repeat this procedure for all memory modules to isolate the MS650
module that is the FRU, using the process of elimination.
You can also specify the address increment. For example, to test the
third memory module on each page boundary, type:
>>> T 4F 3 3 200
By default, most memory tests test one longword on a 256-Kbyte
boundary. If an error is detected, the tests start testing on a page
boundary. Test 48 (address shorts test) is an exception: it checks every
4-34 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
location in memory since it can do so in a reasonable amount of time. Other
tests, such as 4F (floating ones and zeros test) can take up to one hour,
depending on the amount of memory, if each location were to be tested. If
you do specify an address increment, do not input less than 200 (testing
on a page boundary), since almost all hard memory failures span at least
one page. For normal servicing, do not specify the address increment, since
it adds unnecessary repair time; most memory subsystem failures can be
found using the default parameter. |
All of the memory tests, with the exception of 40, save MEMCSR17 and
MEMCSR16 memory status and error registers in parameters 7 and 8,
3. TOC
The utility 9C is useful if test 31 or some other memory test failed
because memory was not configured correctly.
To help in isolating an FRU, examine registers MEMCSR 0-15 by
entering T 9C at the console I/O mode prompt (Example 4-6). Utility
9C is also useful for examining the error registers MSER, CACR, DSER,
and MEMCSRI6, upon a fatal system crash or similar event.
4. T 40
Although the SHOW/MEMORY command displays pages that are -
marked bad by the memory test and is easier to interpret than test
40, there is one instance in which test 40 reports information that
… SHOW/MEMORY does not report. You can use test 40 as an alternative
to running script A9 to detect soft memory errors. Specify the third
parameter in test 40 (see Table 4-1) to be the threshold for soft errors.
To allow 0 (zero) errors, enter the following:
>>> T 40140
This command tests the memory on the CPU and the three memory
modules. Use it after running memory tests individually or within a
script. If test 40 fails with subtestlog = 6, examine R5-R8 to determine
how many errors have been detected on the CPU memory and the three
memory modules, respectively.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-35
Example 4-6: Isolating Bad Memory Using T 9C
SCR =0000C000
ICCS =00000000
TIRO =00000000
TIR1 =00000000
RXDB =0000000D
CADR =0000000C
DSER =00000000
TXCS =00000000
TXDB =00000030
DEAR =00000000
MEM FRU 1 MEMCSR 0=80000015
MEM FRU 3 MEMCSR 8=00000000
MEM FRU 4 MEMCSR12=00000000
Ethernet SA =
1=00000015 2=00000015 3=00000015
5=80800016 6=00000016 7=00000016
9=00000000 10=00000000 11=00000000
13=00000000 14=00000000 15=00000000
FRU 2 MEMCSR 4=80400016
08-00-2B-08-E8-6E NICSRO=0004
SII MSIDRO =01FF MSIDR1 =0002 MSIDR2 =0000 MSICSR =0010
MSIIDR =8007 MSITR =0000 MSITLP =0000 MSIILP =0000
In this case, the diagnostics have passed, but the operating system
does not boot. One of the console/VMB error messages is displayed.
Run utility 9C and examine the error registers. Bit 31 in MEMCSR 16
is set, indicating an uncorrectable ECC error in memory. If any of bits
<31:29> are set, there was a memory error. Compare the bits <25:22>
against MEMCSR 0-15. If they match and the MEMCSRn <31> is set,
then the board that was experiencing the failure (the memory FRU) is
the MEM_FRU number on the left.
In Example 4-6, the FRU is the second memory FRU, which is the
first MS650-AA module (KA640-AA is the first memory FRU), because
both conditions are met by MEMCSR_5 in the MEM_FRU 2 row. The
following conditions are shown in Example 4-7:
* MEMCSR 5 matches MEMCSRI16, since bits <25:22> (Bank
Number) match. |
* The Bank Enable bit <31> in MEMCSR_5 is set, indicating that the
bank number is valid.
4-35 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Example 4-7: 9C—Conditions for Determining a Memory FRU
3 2 2
1 5 2
MEMCSR16 = 8094000F Hex = 1000 0000 1001 0100 0000 0000 0000 1111
It il
80800016 Hex = 1000 0000 1000 0000 0000 0000 0001 0110
bit 31 set 25:22 match
4.5.3 Additional Troubleshooting Suggestions
Note the following additional suggestions when diagnosing a possible
memory failure.
If more than one memory module is failing, you should suspect the KA640
module, CPU/memory cable, backplane, or MS650 modules as the cause of
Always check the seating of the memory cable first before replacing a
KA640 or MS650 module. If the seating appears to be improper, rerun
the tests. Also remember to leave the middle connector disconnected for a
three-connector cable when the system is configured with only one MS650.
If you are rotating MS650 modules to verify that a particular memory
module is causing the failure, be aware that a module may fail in a different
way when in a different slot. Be sure that you map out both solid single-
and multi-bit ECC failures as shown in step 2 of acceptance testing, since
in one slot a board may fail most frequently with multi-bit ECC failures,
and in another slot with single-bit ECC failures.
Be sure to put the modules back in their original positions when you are
If memory errors are found in the error log, use the KA640 ROM-based
diagnostics to see if it is an MS650 problem, or if it is related to the
KA640, CPU/memory interconnect cable, or backplane. Follow steps 1-3 of
Section 4.4 and Section 4.5.2 to aid in isolating the failure.
when troubleshooting I/O subsystem problems.
Use the CONFIG command to help with configuration problems or when
installing new options onto the Q-bus. See the command descriptions in
Chapter 3.
You can run a DSSI device power-up diagnostic without performing a cold
restart or spinning the disk drives down and back up.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-37
Type the following at the console program:
A CI Reset command is issued to the DSSI device, causing the device to
perform its power-up diagnostics.
Parameter-1 is the DSSI node or port number. It must be in the range of
0-7 (0 is the default). Use the default for parameter 2.
You can perform this test repeatedly with the REPEAT command (R T 58
<node_number>). In that case the drive's self-tests run repeatedly until
you press to terminate the test.
Once the test has completed successfully, you can examine the DSSI
device’s internal error logs by running the DUP local programs HISTRY and
PARAMS. Refer to Section 4.8.3 and Section 4.8.5 for further information.
4.6 Loopback Tests
You can use external loopback tests to localize problems with the Ethernet,
console, and DSSI subsystems. |
Check that de power and pico fuses on the KA640 are functioning correctly.
Three 1.5 A pico fuses (12-10929-08) are located near the handle on the
component side. The fuses are numbered from left to right as F3, F1, and
F2 and are shown in Figure 1-1. Replace the fuse, not the KA640, if a fuse
has gone bad. Table 4-11 lists some symptoms of faulty fuses.
Table 4-11: KA640 Fuses
Bad Fuse ‘Symptom
F1bad(+5V) H3602-SA hex LED display is off.
F2 bad(+12V) Both Thinwire and standard Ethernet LEDs are off on the H3602-SA.
Ethernet external loopback test 5F fails (for ThinWire only, since the fuse
protects +12 V supplied to the DESTA on the H3602-SA).
The LED on the loopback connector (12-22196-02) for standard Ethernet is
off; external loopback tests for standard Ethernet pass, however.
Console SLU external loopback test fails.
F3 bad (+35V) LED on DSSI bus terminator or external loopback connectors is off.
Only local DSSI node (typically node 7 for the KA640) is reported by SHOW
DEVICE or SHOW DSSI commands.
DSSI external loopback test 56 fails.
4-38 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
DSS! Problems
For DSSI problems, run the SII external loopback test (test 56). To check
the DSSI bus out to the KA640 connector, plug one end of the cable (17-
02216-01) to the H3281 loopback connector and the other end to the KA640
DSSI connector. To test out to the end of the DSSI bus, power down the
system, remove all DSSI devices with the exception of the KA640 from the
bus, and plug the external DSSI loopback connector in place of the DSSI
bus terminator.
Ethernet Problems
For ThinWire Ethernet problems, run the external loopback test (NI test,
number 5F) by entering the following:
>>> T SF 1<CR>
Set parameter 1 to run this test. Only the external loopback test runs. Be
sure to set the ThinWire/standard Ethernet switch on the H3602-SA to the
ThinWire position. Use two 50-ohm H8225 terminators connected to an
H8223 T-connector.
To test the standard Ethernet connector, use loopback connector 12-22196—
02 in conjunction with MDM.
4.6.1 Testing the Console Port
To test the console port at power-up, set the power mode switch on the
H3602—SA to the test position, and install an H3103 loopback connector
into the MMP of the H3602. The H3103 connects the console port transmit
and receive lines. At power-up, the SLU_EXT LOOPBACK IPT then runs
a continuous loopback test.
While the test is running, the LED display on the CPU I/O insert should
alternate between 6 and 3. A value of 6 latched in the display indicates a
test failure. If the test fails, one of the following parts is faulty: the KA640,
the H3602-SA, the cabling, or the CPU module.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-39
To test out to the end of the console terminal cable:
Plug the MMJ end of the console terminal cable into the H3602-SA.
Disconnect the other end of the cable from the terminal.
3. Place an H8572 adapter into the disconnected end of the cable.
4. Connect the H3103 to the H8572.
4.7 Module Self-Tests
Module self-tests run when you power up the system. A module self-test
can detect hard or repeatable errors, but usually not intermittent errors.
Module LEDs display pass/fail test results.
A pass by a module self-test does not guarantee that the module is good,
because the test usually checks only the controller logic. The test usually
does not check the module Q22-bus interface, the line drivers and receivers,
or the connector pins— all of which have relatively high failure rates.
A fail by a module self-test is accurate, because the test does not require
any other part of the system to be working.
The following modules do not have LED self-test indicators:
The following modules have one green LED, which indicates that the
module is receiving +5 and +12 Vdc:
Table 4—12 lists loopback connectors for common KA640 system modules.
Refer to Microsystems Options for a description of specific module self-tests.
4-40 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 4-12: Loopback Connectors for Q22-Bus Devices
Device Module Loopback Cable Loopback
CXA16/CXB16 H3103 + H8572!
CXYOS H3046 (50-pin) H3197 (25-pin)
DELQA 12-22196-02
DPV11 H3259 H3260
DSSI? — ~
DZQ11 12-15336-00 or H325 —. H3291(12-27351-01)
Ethernet? — _
LPV11 None None
KA640/H3602-SA H3103 | H3103 + H8572
KMVIA H3255 H3251
lUse the appropriate cable to connect transmit-to-receive lines. H3101 and H3103 are double-
ended cable connectors.
?For DSSI to KA640 or RF-series connector, use 17-02216-01 plus H3281 loopback. For
connection to end of bus, use the DSSI loopback connector 12-30702-01.
3For ThinWire, use H8223-00 plus two H8225-00 terminators. For standard Ethernet, use
12-22196-02. |
4.8 RF30 Troubleshooting and Diagnostics
An RF30 may fail either during initial power-up or during normal operation.
In both cases the failure is indicated by the lighting of the red fault LED
on the OCP on the enclosure front panel. The RF30 also has a red fault
LED, but it is not visible from the outside of the system enclosure.
If the drive is unable to execute the Power-On Self Test (POST) successfully,
the red fault LED remains lit and the ready LED does not come on, or both
LEDs remain on.
POST is also used to handle two types of error conditions in the drive:
1. Controller errors are caused by the hardware associated with the
controller function of the drive module. A controller error is fatal to
the operation of the drive, since the controller cannot establish a logical
connection to the host. The red fault LED lights. If this occurs, replace
the drive module.
2. Drive errors are caused by the hardware associated with the drive
control function of the drive module. These errors are not fatal to
the drive, since the drive can establish a logical connection and report
the error to the host. Both LEDs go out for about 1 second, then the
red fault LED lights. In this case, run either DRVTST, DRVEXR, or
PARAMS (described in the next sections) to determine the error code.
~ Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-41
Here are three common configuration errors:
° More than one node with the same node number
e Identical node names
* Identical unit numbers
The first error cannot be detected by software. Use the SHOW DSSI
command to display the second and third errors. This command lists each
device connected to the DSSI bus by node name and unit number.
“If the RF30 is connected to the OCP, you must install a unit ID plug in the
corresponding socket on the OCP. If the RF30 is not connected to the OCP,
the RF30 reads its unit ID from the three-switch DIP switch on the side of
the drive.
The RF30 contains the following local programs (described in the following
DIRECT A directory, in DUP specified format, of available local programs
DRVTST A comprehensive drive functionality verification test
DRVEXR A utility that exercises the RF30
HISTRY A utility that saves information retained by the drive
ERASE A utility that erases all user data from the disk
PARAMS A utility that allows you to look at or change drive status, history, and
A description of each local program follows, including a table showing the
dialog of each program. The table also indicates the type of messages
contained in the dialog, although the screen display will not indicate the
message type. Message types are abbreviated as follows:
FE—Fatal error
Access these local programs using the console SET HOST/DUP command,
which creates a virtual terminal connection to the storage device and the
designated local program using the Diagnostic and Utilities Protocol (DUP)
standard dialog.
Once the connection is established, the local program is in control. When
the program terminates, control is returned to the KA640 console. To
abort or prematurely terminate a program and return control to the KA640
console, press [CTRUC] or [CTRUY].
4-42 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
4.8.1 DRVTST
DRVTST is a comprehensive functionality test. Errors detected by this test
are isolated to the FRU level. The messages are listed in Table 4-13.
Table 4-13: DRVEXR Messages
Type Message
I Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
Q Write/read anywhere on the medium? {1=yes/(0=no)]
Q User data will be corrupted. Proceed? |1=yes/(0=no)]
I 5 minutes to complete.
T Test passed.
FE Unit is currently in use.!
FE Operation aborted by user.
FE xxxx—Unit diagnostics failed.’
FE xxxx—Unit read/write test failed.?
1Either the drive is inoperative, in use by a host, or is currently running another local program.
*Refer to the diagnostic error list at the end of this chapter.
Answering No to the first question (“Write/read...?”) results in a read-only
test. DRVTST, however, writes to a diagnostic area on the disk. Answering
Yes to the first question causes the second question to be displayed.
Answering No to the second question (“Proceed?”) is the same as answering
No to the first question. Answering Yes to the second question permits write
and read operations anywhere on the medium.
DRVTST resets the ECC error counters, then calls the timed ГО routine.
After the timed I/O routine ends (5 minutes), DRVTST saves the counters
again. It computes the uncorrectable error rate and byte (symbol) error
rate. If either rate is too high, the test fails and the appropriate error code
is displayed.
4.8.2 DRVEXR
The DRVEXR local program exercises the RF30 disk drive. The test is
data transfer intensive, and indicates the overall integrity of the device.
Table 4-14 lists the DRVEXR messages.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-43
Table 4-14: DRVEXR Messages
Type Message
I Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
Q Write/read anywhere on the medium? {1=yes/(0=no)]
Q User data will be corrupted. Proceed? [1=yes/(0=no)]
Q Test time in minutes? [(10)-100]
I ddd minutes to complete.
I dddddddd blocks (512 bytes) transferred.
I dddddddd bytes in error (soft).
I dddddddd uncorrectable ECC errors (recoverable).
T Complete.
FE Unit is currently in use.‘
FE Operation aborted by user.
FE xxxx—Unit diagnostics failed.
FE xxxx—Unit read/write test failed.?
1Either the drive is inoperative, in use by a host, or is currently running another local program.
?Refer to the diagnostic error list at the end of this chapter. |
Answering No to the first question (“Write/read...?”) results in a read-only
test. DRVEXR, however, writes to a diagnostic area on the disk. Answering
Yes to the first question results in the second question being asked.
Answering No to the second question (“Proceed?”) is the same as answering
No to the first question. Answering Yes to the second question permits write
and read operations anywhere on the medium.
NOTE: If the write-protect switch on the OCP is pressed in (LED on) and
you answer Yes to the second question, the drive does not allow the test to
run. DRVEXR displays the error message 2006—Unit read / write test failed.
In this case, the test has not failed, but has been prevented from running.
4-44 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
DRVEXR saves the error counters, then calls the timed I/O routine. After
the timed I/O routine ends, DRVEXR saves the counters again. It then
reports the total number of blocks transferred, bits in error, bytes in error,
and uncorrectable errors. |
DRVEXR uses the same timed VO routine as DRVTST, with two exceptions.
First, DRVTST always uses a fixed time of five minutes, while you specify
the time of DRVEXR routine. Second, DRVTST determines whether the
drive is good or bad. DRVEXR reports the data but does not determine the
condition of the drive.
4.8.3 HISTRY
The HISTRY local program displays information about the history of the
RF30 disk drive. Table 4-15 lists the HISTRY messages.
Table 4-15: HISTRY Messages
Type Field Length Field Meaning
I 47 ASCII characters Copyright notice
I 4 ASCII characters Product name
I 12 ASCII characters Drive serial number
I 6 ASCII characters Node name
I 1 ASCII character Allocation class
I 8 ASCII characters Firmware revision level
I 17 ASCII characters Hardware revision level
I 6 ASCII characters Power-on hours
I 5 ASCII characters Power cycles
I? 4 ASCII characters Hexadecimal fault code
T Complete
Displays the last 11 fault codes as informational messages. Refer to the diagnostic error list
at the end of this chapter.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-45
The following example shows a typical screen display when you run
Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
RFX V101
RF30 PCB-5/ECO-00
If no errors have been logged, no hexadecimal fault codes are displayed.
4.8.4 ERASE
The ERASE local program overwrites application data on the drive while
leaving the replacement control table (RCT) intact. This local program is
used if an HDA must be replaced, and the customer wants to protect any
confidential or sensitive data.
Use ERASE only if the HDA must be replaced and only after you have
backed up the customer’s data.
4-46 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table 4-16 lists the ERASE messages.
Table 4-16: ERASE Messages
I Copyright © 1988 Digital Equipment Corporation
Q Write/read anywhere on the medium? |l=yes/(0=no)]
Q User data will be corrupted. Proceed? [1=yes/(0=no)]
Í 6 minutes to complete.
T Complete.
FE Unit is currently in use.
FE Operation aborted by user.
FE xxxx—Unit diagnostics failed.?
FE xxxx—Operation failed.?
!Refer to the diagnostic error list at the end of this chapter.
2xxxx = one of the following error codes:
000D : Cannot write the RCT.
000E : Cannot read the RCT.
000F : Cannot find an RBN to revector to.
0010 : The RAM copy of the bad block table is full.
If a failure is detected, the message indicating the failure will be followed
by one or more messages containing error codes.
4.8.5 PARAMS
The PARAMS local program supports modifications to device parameters
that you may need to change, such as device node name and allocation
class. You invoke it in the same way as the other local programs. However,
you use the following commands to make the modifications you need:
EXIT Terminates PARAMS program
HELP Prints a brief list of commands and their syntax
SET Sets a parameter to a value
SHOW Displays a parameter or a class of parameters
STATUS Displays module configuration, history, or current counters, depending on the
status type chosen |
WRITE Alters the device parameters
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-47 EXIT
Use the EXIT command to terminate the PARAMS local program. HELP
Use the HELP command to display a brief list of available PARAMS
commands, as shown in the example below.
PARAMS> help
SET {parameter | .} value
SHOW {parameter | . | /class}
STATUS [type]
Use the SET command to change the value of a given parameter. Parameter
1s the name or abbreviation of the parameter to be changed. To abbreviate,
use the first matching parameter without regard to uniqueness. Value is
the value assigned to the parameter. |
For example, SET NODE SUSAN sets the NODENAME parameter to
The following parameters are useful to Field Service:
ALLCLASS The controller allocation class. The allocation class should be set to match
that of the host.
FIVEDIME True (1) if MSCP should support five connections with ten credits each. False
(0) if MSCP should support seven connections with seven credits each.
UNITNUM The MSCP unit number.
FORCEUNI True (1) if the unit number should be taken from the DSSI ID. False (0) if the
UNITNUM value should be used instead.
NODENAME The controller's SCS node name.
FORCENAM True (1) if the SCS node name should be forced to the string RF30x (where x
is a letter from A to H corresponding to the DSSI bus ID) instead of using the
NODENAME value. Faise (0) if NODENAME is to be used.
4-48 KA640 CPU System Maintenance SHOW
Use the SHOW command to display the settings of a parameter or a class
of parameters. It displays the full name of the parameter (8 characters or
less), the current value, the default value, radix and type, and any flags
associated with each parameter. STATUS
Use the STATUS command to display module configuration, history, or
current counters, depending on the type specified. Type is the optional
ASCII string that denotes the type of display desired. If you omit Type, ail
available status information is displayed. If present, it may be abbreviated.
The following types are available.
CONFIG Displays the module name, node name, power-on hours, power cycles, and
other such configuration information. Unit failures are also displayed, if
LOGS Displays the last eleven machine and bug checks on the module. The display
includes the processor registers (D0-D7, A0-A7), the time and date of each
failure (if available, otherwise the date 17 November 1858 is displayed), and
some of the hardware registers.
DATALINK 2 Displays the data link counters.
PATHS Displays available path information (open virtual circuits) from the point of
view of the controller. The display includes the remote node names, DSSI IDs,
software type and version, and counters for the messages and datagrams sent
and/or received. WRITE
Use the WRITE command to write the changes made while in PARAMS
to the drive nonvolatile memory. The WRITE command is similar to the
VMS SYSGEN WRITE command. Parameters are not available, but you
must be aware of the system and/or drive requirements and use the WRITE
command accordingly or it may not succeed in writing the changes.
The WRITE command may fail for one of the following reasons:
* You altered a parameter that required the unit, and the unit cannot
be acquired (that is, the unit is not in the available state with respect
to the host). Changing the unit number is an example of a parameter
that requires the unit.
* You altered a parameter that required a controller initialization, and
you replied negatively to the request for reboot. Changing the node
name or the allocation class are examples of parameters that require
controller initialization.
* Initial drive calibrations were in progress on the unit. The use of the
WRITE command is inhibited while these calibrations are running.
Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 4-49
4.9 Diagnostic Error Codes
Diagnostic error codes appear when you are running DRVTST, DRVEXR,
or PARAMS. Most of the error codes indicate a failure of the drive module.
The exceptions are listed below. The error codes are listed in Table 4-17. If
you see any error code other than those listed below, replace the module.
Table 4-17: RF30 Diagnostic Error Codes
Code Message Meaning
2032/A032 Failed to see FLT goaway FLT bit of the spindle control status register was
asserted for one of the following reasons:
1. Reference clock not present
2. Stuck rotor
3. Bad connection between HDA and module
203A/A03A Cant spinup, ACLOW is Did not see ACOK signal, which is supplied by the
set in WrtFlt host system power supply for staggered spin-up.
1314/9314 Front panel is broken Could be either the module or the operator control
panel or both.
4-50 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Appendix A
Address Assignments
A.1 General Local Address Space Map
Table A-1 lists the VAX memory space.
Table A-1: VAX Memory Space
Contents Address Range
Local memory space (52 Mbytes) 0000 0000-033F FFFF
Reserved memory space (460 Mbytes) 0340 0000-1FFF FFFF
Address Assignments A-1
Table A-2 lists the VAX input/output memory space.
Table A-2: VAX Input/Output Space
Address Range
Local Q22-bus I/O space (8 Kbytes)
Reserved local 1/0 space (248 Kbytes)
Local ROM space—halt protected space (128 Kbytes)
Local ROM space—halt unprotected space (128 Kbytes)
Local register VO space (1.5 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (62.5 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (64 Mbytes)
Reserved local 1/O space (64 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (64 Mbytes)
Local Q22-bus memory space (4 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (60 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (64 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (64 Mbytes)
Reserved local VO space (64 Mbytes)
2000 0000-2000 1FFF
2000 2000-2003 FFFF
2004 0000-2005 FFFF
2006 0000-2007 FFFF
2008 0000-201F FFFF
2020 0000-23FF FFFF
2400 0000-27FF FFFF
2800 0000-2BFF FFFF
2C00 0000-2FFF FFFF
3000 0000-303F FFFF
3040 0000-33FF FFFF
3400 0000-37FF FFFF
3800 0000-3BFF FFFF
3C00 0000-3FFF FFFF
A.2 Detailed Local Address Space Map
Table A-3 describes the contents of the VAX memory space.
Table A-3: VAX Memory Space
Contents Address Range
Local memory space (up to 52 Mbytes) 0000 0000-033F FFFF
Q22-bus map—top 32 Kbytes of main memory
Reserved memory space 0340 0000-1FFF FFFF
A-2 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table A—4 describes the contents of the VAX input/output memory space.
Table A—4: VAX Input/Output Space
Contents Address Range
Local Q22-bus VO Space 2000 0000-2000 1FFF
Reserved Q22-bus VO space 2000 0000-2000 0007
Q22-bus floating address space 2000 0008-2000 07FF
User reserved Q22-bus address space 2000 0800-2000 OFFF
Reserved and Q22-bus fixed address space 2000 1000-2000 1F3F
Interprocessor communication register (arbiter) 2000 1F40
Reserved Q22-bus VO space
Reserved Local VO Space
Local ROM Space
Local ROM protected space
MicroVAX system type register (in ROM)
Local ROM unprotected space
Local Register VO Space
DMA system configuration register
DMA system error register
Q22-bus error address register
DMA error address register
Q22-bus map base register
Reserved local register VO space
Main memory configuration Reg 00
Main memory configuration Reg 01
Main memory configuration Reg 02
Main memory configuration Reg 03
Main memory configuration Reg 04
Main memory configuration Reg 05
Main memory configuration Reg 06
Main memory configuration Reg 07
Main memory configuration Reg 08
Main memory configuration Reg 09
Main memory configuration Reg 10
Main memory configuration Reg 11
Main memory configuration Reg 12
Main memory configuration Reg 13
Main memory configuration Reg 14
Main memory configuration Reg 15
2000 1F42-2000 1FFF
2000 2000-2003 FFFF
2004 0000-2007 FFFF
2004 0000-2005 FFFF
2004 0004
2006 0000-2007 FFFF
2008 0000-201F FFFF
2008 0000
2008 0004
2008 0008
2008 000C
2008 0010
2008 0014-2008 OOFF
2008 0100
2008 0104
2008 0108
2008 010C
2008 0110
2008 0114
2008 0118
2008 011C
2008 0120
2008 0124
2008 0128
2008 012C
2008 0130
2008 0134
2008 0138
2008 013C
Address Assignments A-3
Table A-4 (Cont.): VAX Input/Output Space
Contents Address Range
Main memory error status register 2008 0140
Main memory control/diagnostic status register 2008 0144
Reserved local register VO space 2008 0148-2008 3FFF
Reserved (1 copy of BDR) 2008 4000
Boot and diagnostic register 2008 4004
Reserved (126 copies of BDR)
NI Station Address ROM
Reserved (4 copies of NISA ROM)
NI Register Data Port
NI Register Address Port
64 copies of NIRDP, NIRAP (reserved)
MSI Diagnostic Register 0
MSI Diagnostic Register 1
MSI Diagnostic Register 2
MSI Control and Status Register
MSI ID Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
MSI Timeout Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
MSI Long Target List Pointer
MSI Initiator List Pointer
MSI DSSI Control Register
MSI DSSI Status Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
MSI Diagnostic Control Register
MSI Clock Control Register
MSI Internal State Register 0
MSI Internal State Register 1
MSI Internal State Register 2
MSI Internal State Register 3
Reserved MSI Register
A-4 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
2008 4008-2008 41FF
2008 4200-2008 427C
2008 4280-2008 43FF
2008 4400
2008 4404
2008 4408-2008 45FF
2008 4600
2008 4604
2008 4608
2008 460C
2008 4610
2008 4614
2008 4618
2008 461C
2008 4620
2008 4624
2008 4628
2008 462C
2008 4630
2008 4634
2008 4638
2008 463C
2008 4640
2008 4644
2008 4648
2008 464C
2008 4650
2008 4654
2008 4658
2008 465C
2008 4660
2008 4664
2008 4668
2008 466C
Table A—4 (Cont.): VAX Input/Output Space
Address Range
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved MSI Register
Reserved (4 copies of MSI reg block)
Reserved Local Register 1/0 Space
Q22-bus map registers
Reserved local register VO space
MSI Buffer RAM
NI Buffer RAM
SSC base address register
SSC configuration register
CDAL bus timeout control register
Diagnostic LED register |
Reserved local register VO space
Diagnostic registers
Timer O control register
Timer 0 interval register
Timer 0 next interval register
Timer 0 interrupt vector
Timer 1 control register
Timer 1 interval register
Timer 1 next interval register
Timer 1 interrupt vector
Reserved local register VO space
MSIDB address decode match register
MSIDB address decode mask register
Reserved local register VO space
LIOD address decode match register
LIOD address decode mask register
Reserved local register VO space
Battery backed-up RAM
Reserved local register VO space
Reserved local 1/0 space
Local Q22-bus memory space
Reserved local register VO space
2008 4670
2008 4674
2008 4678
2008 467C
2008 4680-2008 47FF
2008 4800-2008 7FFF
2008 8000-2008 FFFF
2009 0000-200F FFFF
2010 0000-2011 FFFF
2012 0000-2013 FFFF
2014 0000
2014 0010
2014 0020
2014 0030
2014 0034-2014 0068
2014 006С-2014 OOFF
2014 0100 |
2014 0104
2014 0108
2014 010C
2014 0110
2014 0114
2014 0118
2014 011C
2014 0120-2014 012F
2014 0130
2014 0134
2014 0138-2014 013F
2014 0140
2014 0144
2014 0148-2014 O3FF
2014 0400-2014 O7FF
2014 0800-201F FFFF
2020 0000-2FFF FFFF
3000 0000-303F FFFF
3040 0000-3FFF FFFF
Address Assignments A-5
A.3 Internal Processor Registers
Table A-5 lists the internal processor registers implemented in the CVAX
CPU chip and the SSC.
Table A-5: KA640 IPRs
Dec Hex Register Name Mnemonic Type Location
0 0 Kernel Stack Pointer KSP r/w CVAX
1 1 Executive Stack Pointer ESP r/w CVAX
2 2 Supervisor Stack Pointer SSP r/w CVAX
3 3 User Stack Pointer USP г/м CVAX
4 4 Interrupt Stack Pointer ISP r/w CVAX
5 5 Reserved CVAX
6 6 Reserved CVAX
7 7 Reserved CVAX
8 8 PO Base Register POB r/w CVAX
9 9 PO Length Register POLR r/w CVAX
10 A P1 Base Register P1BR r/w CVAX
11 B P1 Length Register PILR r/w CVAX
12 C System Base Register SBR r/w CVAX
13 D System Length Register SLR r/w CVAX
14 E Reserved CVAX
15 F Reserved CVAX
16 10 Process Control Block Base PCBB r/w CVAX
17 11 System Control Block Base SCBB rw CVAX
18 12 Interrupt Priority Level IPL r/w CVAX
19 13 AST Level ASTLVL r/w CVAX
20 14 Software Interrupt Request SIRR w CVAX
21 15 Software Interrupt Summary SISR r/w CVAX
22 16 Reserved CVAX
A-6 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Table A-5 (Cont.):
KA640 IPRs
Dec Hex Register Name Mnemonic Type Location
23 17 Reserved CVAX
24 18 Interval Clock Control Status ICCS r/w CVAX
25 19 Next Interval Count NICR w CVAX
26 1A Interval Count ICR r CVAX
27 1B Time-of-year Register TOY r/w SSC
28 1C Console Storage Receiver Status CSRS! r/w SSC
29 1D Console Storage Receiver Data CSRD! r SSC
30 1E Console Storage Transmitter CSTS! r/w SSC
31 1F Console Storage Transmitter Data CSDB! w SSC
32 20 Console Receiver Control Status RXCS r/w SSC
33 21 Console Receiver Data Buffer RXDB r SSC
34 22 Console Transmitter Control TXCS r/w SSC
35 23 Console Transmitter Data Buffer TXDB w SSC
36 24 Translation Buffer Disable TBDR r/w CVAX
37 25 Cache Disable CADR r/w CVAX
38 26 Machine Check Error Summary MCESR r/w CVAX
39 27 Memory System Error MSER r/w CVAX
40 28 Reserved CVAX
41 29 Reserved CVAX
42 2A Console Saved PC SAVPC r CVAX
43 2B Console Saved PSL SAVPSL r CVAX
44 2C Reserved CVAX
45 2D Reserved CVAX
46 2E Reserved CVAX
47 2F Reserved CVAX
55 47 VO System Reset Register IORESET — CVAX
Address Assignments A-7
A.4 Global Q22-Bus Address Space Map
Table A—6 lists the addresses and memory contents of the Q22-bus memory
Table A-6: Q22-Bus Memory Space
Contents Address
Q22-bus memory space (octal) 0000 0000-1777 7777
Table A—7 lists the contents and addresses of the Q22-bus I/O space with
BBS7 asserted.
Table A-7: Q22-Bus МО Space with BBS7 Asserted
Contents Address
Q22-bus VO space (Octal) | 1776 0000-1777 7777
Reserved Q22-bus I/O space 1776 0000-1776 0007
Q22-bus floating address space 1776 0010-1776 3777
User reserved Q22-bus address space 1776 4000-1776 7777
Reserved and Q22-bus fixed address space 1777 0000-1777 7477
Interprocessor communication register 1777 7500
Reserved Q22-bus VO space 1777 7502-1777 7777
A-8 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Appendix B
Related Documentation
The following documents contain information relating to MicroVAX or
MicroPDP-11 systems.
Document Title Order Number
CXA16 Technical Manual EK-CAB16-TM
CXY08 Technical Manual EK-CXY08-TM
DEQNA Ethernet User's Guide EK-DEQNA-UG
DHV11 Technical Manual EK-DHV11-TM
DLV11-J User's Guide EK-DLV1J-UG
DMV11 Synchronous Controller Technical Manual EK-DMV11-TM
DMV11 Synchronoúus Controller User's Guide EK-DMV11-UG
DPV11 Synchronous Controller Technical Manual EK-DPV11-TM
DPV11 Synchronous Controller User's Guide EK-DPV11-UG
DRV11-J Interface User's Manual EK-DRV1J-UG
DRV11-WA General Purpose DMA User's Guide EK-DRVWA-UG
DZQ11 Asynchronous Multiplexer Technical Manual EK-DZQ11-TM
DZQ11 Asynchronous Multiplexer User's Guide EK-DZQ11-UG
DZV11 Asynchronous Multiplexer Technical Manual EK-DZV11-TM
DZV11 Asynchronous Multiplexer User's Guide ‘EK-DZV11-UG
IEU11-A/IEQ11-A User’s Guide EK-IEUQ1-UG
KAG30-AA CPU Module User's Guide EK-KA630-UG
KA640-AA CPU Module User's Guide EK-KA640-UG
KA650-AA CPU Module User's Guide EK-KA650-UG
KDA50-Q CPU Module User's Guide EK-KDA5Q-UG
KDJ11-B CPU Module User's Guide EK-KDJ1B-UG
KDJ11-D/S CPU Module User's Guide EK-KDJ1D-UG
KDF11-BA CPU Module User's Guide EK-KDFEB-UG
KMV11 Programmable Communications Controller User's Guide EK-KMV11-UG -
KMV11 Programmable Communications Controller Technical
Manual |
Related Documentation B-1
Document Title
Order Number
LSI-11 Analog System User's Guide EK-AXV11-UG
Q-Bus DMA Analog System User's Guide EK-AV11D-UG
RQDX2 Controller Module User's Guide EK-RQDX2-UG
RQDX3 Controller Module User's Guide EK-RQDX3-UG
Disk and Tape Drives
RA60 Disk Drive Service Manual EK-ORA60-SV
RA60 Disk Drive User's Guide EK-ORA60-UG
RA81 Disk Drive Service Manual EK-ORA81-SV
RA81 Disk Drive User's Guide EK-ORA81-UG
SA482 Storage Array User’s Guide (for RA82) EK-SA482-UG
SA482 Storage Array Service Manual (for RA82) EK-SA482-SV
RC25 Disk Subsystem User's Guide EK-ORC25-UG
RC25 Disk Subsystem Pocket Service Guide EK-ORC25-PS
RRD50 Subsystem Pocket Service Guide EK-RRD50-PS
RRD50 Digital Disk Drive User's Guide EK-RRD50-UG
RX33 Technical Description Manual EK-RX33T-TM
RX50-D, -R Dual Flexible Disk Drive Subsystem Owner’s EK-LEP01-OM
TK50 Tape Drive Subsystem User’s Guide EK-LEP05-UG
TS05 Tape Transport Pocket Service Guide EK-TSV05-PS
TS05 Tape Transport Subsystem Technical Manual EK-TSV05-TM
TS05 Tape Transport System User's Guide | EK-TSV05-UG
B-2 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
Document Title
MicroVAX Special Systems Maintenance
630QB Maintenance Print Set
630QE Maintenance Print Set
630QY Maintenance Print Set
630QZ Maintenance Print Set
BA23 Enclosure Maintenance
BA123 Enclosure Maintenance
BA213 Enclosure Maintenance
BA214 Enclosure Maintenance
BA215 Enclosure Maintenance
H9642-J Cabinet Maintenance
H9644 Cabinet Maintenance
KA630 CPU System Maintenance
KA640 CPU System Maintenance
KA650 CPU System Maintenance
KDF11-B CPU System Maintenance
KDJ11-D/S CPU System Maintenance
KDJ11-B CPU System Maintenance
MicroPDP-11 Hardware Information Kit (for BA23)
MicroPDP-11 Hardware Information Kit (for BA123)
MicroPDP-11 Hardware Information Kit (for H9642—J)
MicroPDP-11 Hardware Information Kit (for BA213)
Microsystems Options
Microsystems Site Preparation Guide
MicroVAX II Hardware Information Kit (for BA23)
MicroVAX II Hardware Information Kit (for BA123)
MicroVAX II Hardware Information Kit (for H9642-J)
MicroVAX 3500 Customer Hardware Information Kit
MicroVAX 3600 Customer Hardware Information Kit (for H9644)
VAXstation 3200 Owner's Manual (BA23)
VAXstation 3500 Owner's Manual (BA213)
VAXstation I/GPX Owner's Manual (BA23)
VAXstation I/GPX Owner's Manual (BA123)
Related Documentation B-3
Order Number
Document Title
Order Number
DEC/X11 Reference Card AV-F145A-MC
DEC/X11 User’s Manual AC-FO53D-MC
XXDP User’s Manual AZ-GNJAA-MC
XXDP DEC/X11 Programming Card EK-OXXDP-MC
MicroVAX Diagnostic Monitor Ethernet Server User’s Guide AA-FNTAC-DN
MicroVAX Diagnostic Monitor Reference Card AV-FMXAA-DN
MicroVAX Diagnostic Monitor User's Guide AA-FM7AB-DN
Ethernet Transceiver Tester User's Manual EK-ETHTT-UG
VAX/VMS Networking Manual AA-Y512C-TE
VAX NI Exerciser User's Guide AA-HIOGA-TE
В-4 KA640 CPU System Maintenance
! (comment command), 3-52
9E utility, 4-10
9C utility, 4-26, 4-35
Acceptance testing, 4-24 -
BOOT command, 3-18
Boot devices, supported, 3-19
Boot flags, 3-18
conditions, 3-6
device names, 3-18
initialization, 3-6
Bus length (DSSI), 2-11
CPU to memory, 1-10
DSSI, 2-9
RF30, 2-9
Cache memory, 1-5
CFPA chip, 14
Clock chip (CCLK), 1-4
CMCTL chip, 1-5
Comment command (!), 3-52
Configuration, 2-1 to 2-16
and module order, 2-1
0551, 2-4
dual-host, 2-12
rules, 2-2
worksheet, 2-14
CONFIGURE command, 2-3, 3-22
Connector, CPU to memory, 1-10
Console commands
address space control qualifiers,
address specifiers, 3-11
binary load and unload (X), 3-50
BOOT, 3-18
! (comment), 3-52
data control qualifiers, 3-14
FIND, 3-28
HALT, 3-29
HELP, 3-30
keywords, 3-16
list, 3-16
MOVE, 3-33
NEXT, 3-35
qualifier and argument
conventions, 3-11
qualifiers, 3-14
REPEAT, 3-37
SEARCH, 3-38
SET, 3-40
SHOW, 3-43
START, 3-47
symbolic addresses, 3-11
syntax, 3-10
TEST, 3-48
UNJAM, 3-49
X (binary load and unload), 3-50
Console displays, 4-14
and FRUs, 4-17
Console error messages, 4-22
list of, 4-23
sample of, 4-14
Console VO mode
restart caution, 3-3
special characters, 3-10
Console port, testing, 4-39
CONTINUE command, 3-24
CQBIC, 1-6
Current and power values, 2-15
CVAX chip, 1-3
DEPOSIT command, 3-25
Detailed local address space map,
Diagnostic executive, 4-3
error field, 4-15
Diagnostic tests
list of, 4-3
parameters for, 4-3
DRVEXR local program, 4-30, 4-43
DRVTST local program, 4-30, 443
bus characteristics, 1-7
bus length, 2-11
bus termination, 2-11
cabling, 2-9
configuration, 2-4
drive order, 24
dual-host, 2-11
dual-host configuration, 2-12
node ID, 2-4
node name, changing, 2-5
testing with H3281 loopback,
unique addresses, 4-29
unit number, changing, 2-7
capability, 2-11
configuration, 2-12
Entry and dispatch code, 3-2
ERASE local program, 4-46
Error messages
console, list of, 4-23
console, sample of, 4-14
halt, 4-22
VMB, 4-24
EXAMINE command, 3-26
FE utility, 4-31
FIND command, 3-28
Firmware, 1-6, 3-1 to 3-52
power-up sequence, 34
Floating point accelerator (CFPA),
and console display, 4-17
Fuses, on KA640 module, 4-38
General local address space map,
General purpose registers (GPR)
in error display, 4-17
initialization of, 3-7
symbolic addresses for, 3-12
Global Q22-bus address space map,
H3103 loopback connector, 3—4,
H3281 loopback connector for DSSI,
H3602-SA VO panel, 1-8, 4-39
H3602-SA mode switch
set to language inquiry, 3-5
set to normal, 3-6
set to test, 3-4
H8572 loopback connector, 4—40
HALT command, 3-29
conditions for external halt, 3-3
entry and dispatch code, 3-2
Halts (cont’d.)
messages, list of, 4-22
registers saved, 3-2
registers set to fixed values, 3-2
Hardware error summary register,
HELP command, 3-30
HISTRY local program, 4-30, 4-45
INITIALIZE command, 3-32
Initial power-up test
Internal processor registers (IPR)
symbolic addresses for, 3-12
IPT, 3-4, 4-18
KA640, 1-2
fuses, 4-38
LEDs, 4-21
variants, 1-1
M9060-A load module, 2-14
MEMCSR 0-15, 4-26
acceptance testing of, 4-26
cache, 1-5
controller chip (CMCTL), 1-5
isolating FRU, 4-26, 4-34
on KA640, 1-5
testing, 4-34
configuration, 2-3
order, in backplane, 2-1
self-tests, 4-40
MOVE command, 3-33
MS650—-AA memory module, 1-10
LANCE, 1-7
Language selection menu
conditions for display of, 3-5
example of, 3-5 |
messages, list of, 3-5
Load module, M9060-YA, 2-14
Local address space map
detailed, A-2
general, A-1
testing serial line using H3103,
Loopback connectors
H3103, 3-4, 4-39
H8572, 4-40
list of, 4-41
tests, 4-38
Network interface chip (LANCE),
NEXT command, 3-35
Node ID
changing KA640, 2-13
for dual-host systems, 2-13
OCP, 4-42
cabling, 2-9
Operator console panel
for diagnostic tests, 4—5
in error display, 4-15
PARAMS local program, 4-30, 4-47
commands, 4-47
Physical memory
symbolic addresses for, 3-12
Power-up sequence, 3-4
Power values, 2-15
global address space map, A-8
interface chip (CQBIC), 1-6
REPEAT command, 3-37
Restart caution, 3-3
RF30 disk drive
access to firmware through DUP,
cabling, 2-9
configuration errors, 4-42
diagnostic error codes, 4-50
diagnostics, 4-41
node ID switches, 2-4
RF 30 local programs
DRVEXR, 4-30, 4-43
DRVTST, 4-30, 4-43
ERASE, 4-46
HISTRY, 4-30, 4-45
list of, 4-42
PARAMS, 4-30, 4-47
ROM-based diagnostics, 4-2 to
and memory testing, 4-34
list of, 4-3
parameters, 4-3
utilities, 4-3
Scripts, 4-3, 4-6
calling sequence for, 4-8
creation of, using 9E utility,
field service, 4-8
list of, 4-7
SEARCH command, 3-38
Self-test, for modules, 4-40
Serial line test using H3103, 3-4
SET command, 3-40
SET HOST/DUP command, 3-40
SHOW command, 3-43
SSC (system support chip), 1-5
START command, 3-47
Symbolic addresses, 3-11
for any address space, 3-14
for GPRs, 3-12
for IPRs, 3-12
for physical memory, 3-12
System support chip (SSC), 1-5
TEST command, 3-48
Tests, diagnostic
list of, 4-3
parameters for, 4-5
Troubleshooting, 4-31 to 4-50
UNJAM command, 3-49
Utilities, diagnostic, 4-3
Virtual memory bootstrap
VMB, 3-7
boot flags, 3-18
error messages, 4-24
X command (binary load and
unload), 3-50
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