U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime 2014 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons

U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime 2014 Global Report on Trafficking in Persons
TRAFFICKING
IN PERSONS
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ISBN 978-92-1-130309-4
United Nations publication printed in Malta
Sales No. E.13.IV.1 – December 2012 – 3,000
2014
GLOBAL REPORT ON
UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME
Vienna
Global Report on
Trafficking in Persons
2014
UNITED NATIONS
New York, 2014
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educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the
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Suggested citation: UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014
(United Nations publication, Sales No. E.14.V.10).
Comments on the report are welcome and can be sent to:
Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit
Research and Trend Analysis Branch
Division for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
P.O. Box 500
1400 Vienna
Austria
E-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: (+43) 1 26060 0
Fax: (+43) 1 26060 5827
The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of UNODC, Member States or contributory organizations, and nor
does it imply any endorsement.
This document has not been formally edited. The designations employed
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Photo: © Alessandro Scotti, UN.GIFT
© United Nations, November 2014. All rights reserved, worldwide.
UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION
Sales No. E.14.V.10
ISBN: 978-92-1-133830-0
e-ISBN: 978-92-1-057108-1
PREFACE
The exploitation of one human being by another is the
basest crime. And yet trafficking in persons remains all
too common, with all too few consequences for the
perpetrators.
Since 2010, when the General Assembly mandated
UNODC to produce this report under the UN Global
Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons, we have
seen too little improvement in the overall criminal justice
response..
More than 90% of countries have legislation criminalizing
human trafficking since the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress
and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and
Children, under the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime, came into force more
than a decade ago.
Nevertheless, this legislation does not always comply with
the Protocol, or does not cover all forms of trafficking and
their victims, leaving far too many children, women and
men vulnerable. Even where legislation is enacted, implementation often falls short.
As a result, the number of convictions globally has
remained extremely low. Between 2010 and 2012, some
40 per cent of countries reported less than 10 convictions
per year. Some 15 per cent of the 128 countries covered
in this report did not record a single conviction. The previous Global Report similarly found that 16 per cent of
countries recorded no convictions between 2007 and
2010.
At the same time, we have continued to see an increase in
the number of detected child victims, particularly girls
under 18.
Most detected trafficking victims are subjected to sexual
exploitation, but we are seeing increased numbers trafficked for forced labour.
Between 2010 and 2012, victims holding citizenship from
152 different countries were found in 124 countries. It
should be kept in mind that official data reported to
UNODC by national authorities represent only what has
been detected. It is clear that the reported numbers are
only the tip of the iceberg.
It is equally clear that without robust criminal justice
responses, human trafficking will remain a low-risk, highprofit activity for criminals.
Trafficking happens everywhere, but as this report shows
most victims are trafficked close to home, within the
region or even in their country of origin, and their exploiters are often fellow citizens. In some areas, trafficking for
armed combat or petty crime, for example, are significant
problems.
Responses therefore need to be tailored to national and
regional specifics if they are to be effective, and if they are
to address the particular needs of victims, who may be
child soldiers or forced beggars, or who may have been
enslaved in brothels or sweatshops.
Governments need to send a clear signal that human trafficking will not be tolerated, through Protocol-compliant
legislation, proper enforcement, suitable sanctions for convicted traffickers and protection of victims.
I hope the 2014 report, by providing an overview of patterns and flows of human trafficking at the global, regional
and national levels, will further augment UNODC’s work
to support countries to respond more effectively to this
crime.
We have seen that governments and people everywhere
are approaching human trafficking with greater urgency.
This year, we marked the first ever United Nations World
Day against Trafficking in Persons on 30 July, which provided a much-needed opportunity to further raise awareness of modern slavery.
But we need to advance from understanding to undertaking, from awareness to action. The gravity of this continuing exploitation compels us to step our response.
Yury Fedotov
Executive Director
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
1
Editorial and production team
The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014 was prepared by the
UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit under the supervision of Angela Me, Chief of the Research and Trend Analysis Branch.
Core team
Kristiina Kangaspunta, Fabrizio Sarrica, Raggie Johansen.
Graphic design and layout
Suzanne Kunnen, Kristina Kuttnig.
Cartography
UNODC and Atelier de Cartographie de Sciences Po (Benoît Martin).
The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit would like to thank the
UNODC Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section, as well as
the Unit’s former intern Kelsey McGregor Perry for their valuable inputs
and support.
The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit would also like to thank
Sheldon X. Zhang of San Diego State University for reviewing and commenting upon draft Report content.
The report also benefited from the work and expertise of many other
UNODC staff members in Vienna and around the world.
CONTENTS
Core results
Executive summary
Introduction
Methodology
5
7
15
17
I. GLOBAL OVERVIEW
TRAFFICKERS
23
TRAFFICKING VICTIMS
29
FORMS OF EXPLOITATION
33
TRAFFICKING FLOWS
37
TRAFFICKERS, ORGANIZED CRIME AND THE BUSINESS OF EXPLOITATION
43
THE RESPONSE TO TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
51
II. REGIONAL OVERVIEWS
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
59
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN THE AMERICAS
70
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN SOUTH ASIA, EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
77
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
81
Text boxes
Origin or destination country?
Intimate and/or close family relationships and trafficking in persons offending
Towards a global victim estimate?
Recruitment through feigned romantic relationships
Trafficking in persons and armed conflicts
Confiscated assets and compensation of human trafficking victims
Do confraternities control the trafficking of Nigerian victims in Europe?
25
28
30
32
42
53
56
MAPS
MAP 1:
Share of foreign offenders among the total number of persons convicted of
trafficking in persons, by country, 2010-2012
24
MAP 2:
Share of children among the number of detected victims, by country, 2010-2012
33
MAP 3:
Countries that report forms of exploitation other than forced labour, sexual exploitation
or organ removal, 2010-2012
35
MAP 4:
Shares of detected victims who are trafficked into the given country from another
subregion, 2010-2012
39
MAP 5:
Shares of detected victims by subregional and transregional trafficking, 2010-2012
39
3
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
4
MAP 6:
Main destination areas of transregional trafficking flows (in blue) and their significant
origins, 2010-2012
40
MAP 7:
Citizenships of convicted traffickers in Western and Central Europe, by subregion,
shares of the total, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
60
MAP 8:
Origins of victims trafficked to Western and Central Europe, by subregion, share of
the total number of victims detected there, 2010-2012
63
MAP 9:
Origins of victims trafficked to Western and Southern Europe, share of the total
number of victims detected there, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
63
MAP 10: Origins of victims trafficked to Central Europe and the Balkans, share of the total
number of victims detected there, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
64
MAP 11: Destinations of trafficking victims from Central Europe and the Balkans, as a
proportion of the total number of victims detected at specific destinations, 2010-2012
64
MAP 12: Destinations of trafficking victims from Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as a
proportion of the total number of victims detected at destination, 2010-2012
69
MAP 13: Origins of victims trafficked into North and Central America and the Caribbean,
shares of the total number of victims detected, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
73
MAP 14: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in North and Central America and
the Caribbean, proportion of the total number of detected victims at destinations,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
74
MAP 15: Origin of victims detected in South America, as a proportion of the total number
of victims detected in the subregion, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
75
MAP 16: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in South America, proportion of the
total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
76
MAP 17: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in East Asia and the Pacific, proportion
of the total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
79
MAP 18: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in South Asia, proportion of the total
number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
80
MAP 19: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in West Africa, proportion of the total
number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
83
MAP 20: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in East Africa, proportion of the total
number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
83
MAP 21: Origins of victims trafficked to the Middle East, proportions of the total number of
victims detected there, 2010-2012
84
MAP 22: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in North Africa, proportion of the
total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
85
CORE RESULTS
•
Data coverage: 2010-2012 (or more recent).
•
Victims of 152 different citizenships have been
identified in 124 countries across the world.
•
At least 510 trafficking flows have been detected.
•
Some 64 per cent of convicted traffickers are citizens of the convicting country.
•
Some 72 per cent of convicted traffickers are men,
and 28 per cent are women.
•
49 per cent of detected victims are adult women.
•
33 per cent of detected victims are children, which
is a 5 per cent increase compared to the 2007-2010
period.
Detected victims of trafficking in persons,
by age and gender, 2011
WOMEN
49%
The data collection has revealed wide regional difference
with regard to the forms of exploitation (see figure).
Forms of exploitation among detected
trafficking victims, by region of detection,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
Africa and
the Middle East
53%
Americas
48%
East Asia,
South Asia
and Pacific
26%
Europe and
Central Asia
66%
0%
37%
10%
47%
4%
64%
10%
26%
20%
40%
60%
80%
8%
100%
Sexual exploitation
Organ removal
Forced labour,
servitude and
slavery like
Other forms
of exploitation
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
MEN
18%
BOYS
GIRLS
12%
21%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
HAPPENS EVERYWHERE
The crime of trafficking in persons affects virtually every
country in every region of the world. Between 2010 and
2012, victims with 152 different citizenships were identified in 124 countries across the globe. Moreover, trafficking flows - imaginary lines that connect the same origin
country and destination country of at least five detected
victims – criss-cross the world. UNODC has identified
at least 510 flows. These are minimum figures as they are
based on official data reported by national authorities.
These official figures represent only the visible part of the
trafficking phenomenon and the actual figures are likely
to be far higher.
Most trafficking flows are intraregional, meaning that the
origin and the destination of the trafficked victim is within
the same region; often also within the same subregion.
For this reason, it is difficult to identify major global trafficking hubs. Victims tend to be trafficked from poor
countries to more affluent ones (relative to the origin
country) within the region.
Transregional trafficking flows are mainly detected in the
rich countries of the Middle East, Western Europe and
North America. These flows often involve victims from
the ‘global south’; mainly East and South Asia and SubSaharan Africa. Statistics show a correlation between the
affluence (GDP) of the destination country and the share
of victims trafficked there from other regions. Richer
countries attract victims from a variety of origins, including from other continents, whereas less affluent countries
are mainly affected by domestic or subregional trafficking
flows.
The arrows show the flows that represent 5% and above
of the total victims detected in destination subregions
Eastern
and Central
Europeans
Western
and Central
Europe
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
East
Asians
The Middle
East
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
Main destination areas of transregional trafficking flows (in blue) and their significant origins,
2010-2012
South
Asians
South
Americans
Sub-Saharan
Africans
countries not covered
Source: UNODC.
7
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
2. A TRANSNATIONAL CRIME
THAT OFTEN INVOLVES DOMESTIC
OFFENDERS AND LIMITED
GEOGRAPHICAL REACH
Most victims of trafficking in persons are foreigners in the
country where they are identified as victims. In other
words, these victims - more than 6 in 10 of all victims have been trafficked across at least one national border.
That said, many trafficking cases involve limited geographic movement as they tend to take place within a
subregion (often between neighbouring countries).
Domestic trafficking is also widely detected, and for one
in three trafficking cases, the exploitation takes place in
the victim’s country of citizenship.
A majority of the convicted traffickers, however, are citizens of the country of conviction. These traffickers were
convicted of involvement in domestic as well as transnational trafficking schemes.
Dividing countries into those that are more typical origin
countries and those that are more typical destinations for
trafficking in persons reveals that origin countries convict
almost only their own citizens. Destination countries, on
the other hand, convict both their own citizens and
foreigners.
Breakdown of trafficking flows by geographical reach, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
CROSS-BORDER WITHIN
SAME SUBREGION
FROM NEARBY
SUBREGION
37%
3%
Moreover, there is a correlation between the citizenships
of the victims and the traffickers involved in cross-border
trafficking. This correlation indicates that the offenders
often traffic fellow citizens abroad.
Citizenship of convicted traffickers globally,
2010-2012 (or more recent); shares of local and
foreign nationals (relative to the country of
conviction)
NATIONALS
FOREIGNERS FROM COUNTRIES
IN THE SAME REGION
64%
22%
FOREIGNERS FROM
OTHER REGIONS
14%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Distribution of national and foreign
offenders among countries of origin and
destination of cross-border trafficking,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
NATIONAL OFFENDERS
Countries of
destination
42%
58%
FOREIGN OFFENDERS
DOMESTIC
(WITHIN NATIONAL BORDERS)
34%
TRANSREGIONAL
Countries of
g
origin
26%
0%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
8
95% 5%
20%
40%
60%
%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
80%
80 %
100%
10 0%
Executive summary
3. INCREASED DETECTION OF
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS FOR
PURPOSES OTHER THAN SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
Share of the total number of detected victims
who were trafficked for forced labour, 20072011
45%
While a majority of trafficking victims are subjected to
sexual exploitation, other forms of exploitation are increasingly detected. Trafficking for forced labour - a broad
category which includes, for example, manufacturing,
cleaning, construction, catering, restaurants, domestic
work and textile production – has increased steadily in
recent years. Some 40 per cent of the victims detected
between 2010 and 2012 were trafficked for forced labour.
Trafficking for exploitation that is neither sexual nor
forced labour is also increasing. Some of these forms, such
as trafficking of children for armed combat, or for petty
crime or forced begging, can be significant problems in
some locations, although they are still relatively limited
from a global point of view.
There are considerable regional differences with regard to
forms of exploitation. While trafficking for sexual exploitation is the main form detected in Europe and Central
Asia, in East Asia and the Pacific, it is forced labour. In
the Americas the two types are detected in near equal
proportions.
Forms of exploitation among detected
trafficking victims, 2011*
FORCED
LABOUR
40%
40%
40%
35%
32%
33%
2007
2008
OTHERS
7%
SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
53%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
*Please note that the regional differences in detection capacities
and definitions – particularly for forced labour – affect the global
shares.
36%
2009
2010
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
2011
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Forms of exploitation among detected
trafficking victims, by region of detection,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
Africa and
the Middle East
53%
Americas
48%
East Asia,
South Asia
and Pacific
26%
Europe and
Central Asia
66%
ORGAN
REMOVAL
0.3%
35%
0%
37%
10%
47%
4%
64%
10%
26%
20%
40%
60%
80%
8%
100%
Sexual exploitation
Organ removal
Forced labour,
servitude and
slavery like
Other forms
of exploitation
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
9
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
4. WOMEN ARE SIGNIFICANTLY
INVOLVED IN TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS, BOTH AS VICTIMS AND
AS OFFENDERS
Persons convicted for trafficking in persons,
by gender, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
For nearly all crimes, male offenders vastly outnumber
females. On average, some 10-15 per cent of convicted
offenders are women. For trafficking in persons, however,
even though males still comprise the vast majority, the
share of women offenders is nearly 30 per cent.
Moreover, approximately half of all detected trafficking
victims are adult women. Although this share has been
declining significantly in recent years, it has been partially
offset by the increasing detection of victims who are girls.
Women comprise the vast majority of the detected victims
who were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Looking at
victims trafficked for forced labour, while men comprise
a significant majority, women make up nearly one third
of detected victims. In some regions, particularly in Asia,
most of the victims of trafficking for forced labour were
women.
28%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Trends in the shares of females (women and
girls) among the total number of detected
victims, 2004-2011
100%
80%
Gender breakdown of detected victims of
trafficking for forced labour, by region,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
72%
74%
67%
59%
60%
49%
40%
20%
21%
13%
10%
0%
Africa and
Middle East
45%
55%
Americas
68%
32%
South Asia,
East Asia and
the Pacific
23%
77%
69%
31%
Europe and
Central Asia
0%
20%
40%
60%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
10
17%
80% 100%
2004
2006
2009
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
2011
Executive summary
5. DETECTED CHILD TRAFFICKING
IS INCREASING
Since UNODC started to collect information on the age
profile of detected trafficking victims, the share of children
among the detected victims has been increasing. Globally,
children now comprise nearly one third of all detected
trafficking victims. Out of every three child victims, two
are girls and one is a boy.
The global figure obscures significant regional differences.
In some areas, child trafficking is the major traffickingrelated concern. In Africa and the Middle East, for example, children comprise a majority of the detected victims.
In Europe and Central Asia, however, children are vastly
outnumbered by adults (mainly women).
Trends in the shares of children (girls and
boys) among the total number of detected
victims, 2004-2011
Shares of children and adults among the
detected victims of trafficking in persons,
by region, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
CHILDREN
ADULTS
Africa and
Middle East
62%
38%
Americas
31%
69%
South Asia,
East Asia and
the Pacific
36%
64%
Europe and
Central Asia
18%
82%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
2004
21%
12%
10%
9%
3%
0%
17%
13%
10%
2006
2009
2011
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
11
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
Criminalization of trafficking in persons with
a specific offence, shares and numbers of
countries, 2003-2014
6. MORE THAN 2 BILLION PEOPLE
ARE NOT PROTECTED AS
REQUIRED BY THE UNITED
NATIONS TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS PROTOCOL
100%
90%
More than 90 per cent of countries among those covered
by UNODC criminalize trafficking in persons. Many
countries have passed new or updated legislation since the
entry into force of the United Nations Protocol against
Trafficking in Persons in 2003.
80%
Although this legislative progress is remarkable, much
work remains. 9 countries still lack legislation altogether,
whereas 18 others have partial legislation that covers only
some victims or certain forms of exploitation. Some of
these countries are large and densely populated, which
means that more than 2 billion people lack the full protection of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol.
30%
44
32
60%
(18.5%)
100
50%
(58%)
40%
40
(23%)
20%
10%
0%
(10.5%)
(13%)
(25.5%)
70%
9 (5%)
18
16 (9%)
22
33
97
(19%)
(56%)
November
2003
November
2008
135
146
(78%)
(84.5%)
August
2012
August
2014
Most/all forms
Partial
No specific offence
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Criminalization of trafficking in persons with a specific offence, numbers of countries,
by subregion, 2014
45
40
4
35
10
30
1
3
25
20
1
1
39
15
10
3
18
12
5
3
23
1
8
7
28
11
0
Western
and Central
Europe
Eastern
Europe and
Central Asia
North and
Central
America and
the Caribbean
South
America
Most/all forms
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
12
Partial
East Asia
and the
Pacific
South Asia
No specific offence
North Africa
and Middle
East
Subsahara
Africa
Executive summary
Trends in the number of recorded convictions,
share of countries
7. IMPUNITY PREVAILS
In spite of the legislative progress mentioned above, there
are still very few convictions for trafficking in persons.
Only 4 in 10 countries reported having 10 or more yearly
convictions, with nearly 15 per cent having no convictions
at all.
The global picture of the criminal justice response has
remained largely stable in recent years. Fewer countries
are reporting increases in the numbers of convictions
which remain very low. This may reflect the difficulties
of the criminal justice systems to appropriately respond
to trafficking in persons.
2010-2012
DECREASING
TRENDS
10%
INCREASING
TRENDS
13%
Number of convictions recorded per year,
share of countries, 2010-2012
NO CONVICTIONS
LESS THAN TEN
CONVICTIONS
15%
26%
INFORMATION
NOT AVAILABLE
17%
STABLE OR
UNCLEAR TRENDS
77%
2007-2010
DECREASING
TRENDS
15%
INCREASING
TRENDS
MORE THAN 50
CONVICTIONS
16%
BETWEEN 10 AND
50 CONVICTIONS
STABLE OR
UNCLEAR TRENDS
25%
60%
26%
2003-2007
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
DECREASING
TRENDS
8%
INCREASING
TRENDS
STABLE OR
UNCLEAR TRENDS
21%
71%
Sources: UN.GIFT/UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2009 (2003-2007); UNODC, elaboration on national data
(2007-2010 and 2010-2012).
13
8. ORGANIZED CRIME INVOLVEMENT: TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY
trafficking flows can be more easily sustained by large and
well-organized criminal groups.
Criminals committing trafficking in persons offences can
act alone, with a partner or in different types of groups
and networks. Human trafficking can be easily conducted
by single individuals with a limited organization in place.
This is particularly true if the crime involves only a few
victims who are exploited locally. But trafficking operations can also be complex and involve many offenders,
which is often the case for transregional trafficking flows.
The transnational nature of the flows, the victimization
of more persons at the same time, and the endurance in
conducting the criminal activity are all indicators of the
level of organization of the trafficking network behind the
flow. On this basis, a typology including three different
trafficking types is emerging. The trafficking types have
some typical characteristics; however, as always, typologies
are based on categorization to better explain and understand different aspects of trafficking. ‘Pure’ trafficking
types may not exist since there is always some overlap
between different types.
Offenders may traffic their victims across regions to more
affluent countries in order to increase their profits. However, doing so increases their costs as well as the risks of
law enforcement detection. It also requires more organization, particularly when there are several victims. Crossborder trafficking flows – subregional and transregional
– are more often connected to organized crime. Complex
Typology on the organization of trafficking in persons
SMALL LOCAL OPERATIONS
MEDIUM SUBREGIONAL OPERATIONS
LARGE TRANSREGIONAL OPERATIONS
Domestic or short-distance trafficking
flows.
Trafficking flows within the subregion or
neighboring subregions.
Long distance trafficking flows involving
different regions.
One or few traffickers.
Small group of traffickers.
Traffickers involved in organized crime.
Small number of victims.
More than one victim.
Large number of victims.
Intimate partner exploitation.
Some investments and some profits
depending on the number of victims.
High investments and high profits.
Limited investment and profits.
Border crossings with or without travel documents.
Border crossings always require travel
documents.
No travel documents needed for
border crossings.
Some organization needed depending on
the border crossings and number of victims.
Sophisticated organization needed to move
large number of victims long distance.
No or very limited organization required.
14
Endurance of the operation.
INTRODUCTION
TRAFFICKERS, ORGANIZED CRIME
AND THE BUSINESS OF EXPLOITATION
The crime of trafficking in persons is carried out by different types of traffickers, ranging from individuals
exploiting their partner to organized criminal groups operating across national borders. Trafficking in persons is
usually thought of as a ‘transnational organized crime.’1
And indeed, many trafficking outfits meet the criteria of
transnational organized crime groups, as spelled out in
the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime.2 Aspects of the crime are often committed in different countries by criminals not necessarily
hailing from the country where the crime was detected.
These criminals may have organized themselves to a lesser
or greater extent. In some cases the complexity of the
crime requires a relatively high level of organization. In
other cases, victims of trafficking in persons may have
been trafficked by an individual trafficker operating in a
local community.
In both cases, the profits that human trafficking can generate is the prime motivation for the criminals, and
exploiting other people can be lucrative. Just as profit
potential is an important consideration for most legitimate
businesses, so it is for traffickers, who have a strong financial incentive to operate where profits are high. Broadly
speaking, this means that traffickers will often choose to
carry out the exploitation in a location where this will be
more profitable. At the same time, traffickers also have to
take into account costs and the risk of detection, which
1
2
This conceptualization is reflected in the fact that the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women
and Children – which contains the main, international definition of
the crime of trafficking in persons - supplements the United Nations
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
“Organized criminal group” shall mean a structured group of three or
more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with
the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain, directly
or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit.” A/RES/55/25, the
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime,
Art. 2 (a).
tends to increase as more territory and international borders are traversed.
This edition of the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons
sheds light on the role of organized crime in trafficking
operations, and presents a first step towards a typology of
trafficking cases based on the level of organization of the
crime as well as of the economic interests behind it. This
work is in its infancy and will be further refined as more
relevant information becomes available.3 However, it can
already shed some light on the more typical features of
many trafficking cases, which will be helpful for designing appropriate responses to this crime.
What is trafficking in persons?
Trafficking in persons can be conceptualized in different
ways. This Report employs the definition contained in
the United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol.4
According to this definition, which has been adopted by
the 160 UN Member States that have ratified the
Protocol,5 there are three distinct ‘constituent elements’
of trafficking in persons: the act, the means and the purpose. All three elements must be present in order for a
case to be defined as a trafficking in persons offence. Each
element has a range of manifestations, however.
The Trafficking in Persons Protocol specifies that “the act”
means the recruitment, transport, transfer, harbouring or
receipt of persons. “The means” refers to the method used
to lure the victim. Possible means are the threat or use of
force, deception, coercion, abduction, fraud, abuse of
power or a position of vulnerability, or giving payments
or benefits. These terms are not necessarily precise from
a legal point of view and may be defined differently by
different jurisdictions. “The purpose” is always exploita3
4
5
For example, UNODC is starting to collect qualitative data on trafficking in persons through interviews with practitioners in select
countries. The focus will be on offending, and this data will be used
to further develop the typology.
A/RES/55/25 Annex II: The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and
Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime.
As of 15 August 2014.
15
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
tion of the victim, though this can take on various forms,
including sexual exploitation, forced labour, removal of
organs or a range of other forms.
The Protocol definition is broad enough to give States
Parties considerable leeway in tailoring and adapting their
national legislation. This means that adjudicated trafficking crimes can look very different from one country to
the next. Couple this with the fact that trafficking in persons affects nearly every country in the world, and the
complexity of the trafficking crime is evident.
The Global Report on Trafficking
in Persons
In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly
adopted the Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking
in Persons.6 The Global Plan was an expression of strong
political will among Member States to tackle this heinous
crime. Among its provisions was a request for an expanded
knowledge base on trafficking in persons. As a result,
UNODC was given the mandate and duty to collect data
and report biennially on trafficking in persons patterns
and flows at the national, regional and international levels.
Research by a global organization like UNODC brings
the possibility of obtaining a ‘bird’s eye view’ of the crime
of trafficking in persons across the world. From an international perspective, and with data from many Member
States in all regions of the world, it is possible to discern
whether certain trafficking patterns or forms of exploitation are more prevalent in some areas, and whether certain
trafficking flows are becoming more or less pronounced.
Such knowledge also has the potential to enhance nationallevel responses as well as international cooperation in this
area. Moreover, in this edition of the Global Report, it is
also now possible to present some trend information
which will further enhance the relevance and usefulness
of the Report.
At present, there is no sound estimate of the number of
victims of trafficking in persons worldwide. Due to methodological difficulties and the challenges associated with
estimating sizes of hidden populations such as trafficking
victims, this is a task that has so far not been satisfactorily
accomplished. UNODC has consulted with leading
researchers on hidden populations in order to generate recommendations for future research work to produce a global
victim estimate; for more information, please refer to the
text box ‘Towards a global victim estimate?’.
6
16
A/RES/64/293.
METHODOLOGY
QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION
The data collection for the Global Report on Trafficking
in Persons has a dual objective: To achieve the broadest
possible geographical coverage by using the most solid
information available. While the geographical coverage is
crucial for a report that is global in scope, the solidity of
information is equally important as UNODC’s intention
is to produce a report that is reliable and accurate.
The statistical information was collected by UNODC in
two ways: through a short, dedicated questionnaire7 distributed to Governments and by the collection of official
information available in the public domain (national
police reports, Ministry of Justice reports, national trafficking in persons reports, et cetera). All the information
that was collected, regardless of source or method, was
shared with national authorities for verification prior to
publication of this report.
Some countries were not covered by the data collection.
These countries did not respond to the questionnaire, and
in addition, UNODC research efforts to locate official
national data on trafficking in persons did not yield any
results.
Official statistics from national authorities account for 92
per cent of the information collected for this edition of
the Global Report. Intergovernmental organizations supplied 5 per cent, and non-governmental organizations the
remaining 3 per cent of the data.
DATA COVERAGE
The time period covered by the data is generally 20102012. Nearly 20 countries also provided information for
Data on offenders
SUSPECTED PERSONS
PROSECUTED PERSONS
Total number of reported offenders
33,860
34,256
Gender reported
29,568
10,024
Citizenship reported
CONVICTED PERSONS
13,310
4,915
5,747
Data on victims
Total number of reported victims
40,177
Age reported
34,888
Gender reported
33,111
Age and gender reported
31,766
Citizenship reported
27,052
Countries of repatriation reported (for national victims trafficked abroad)
7
4,441
Form of exploitation reported
30,592
Gender reported according to form of exploitation
22,405
Available at the Global Report website, http://www.unodc.org/glotip.
17
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
the year 2013, and this is normally included in the analysis. Some trend presentations employ data collected for
previous UNODC reports on trafficking in persons; in
these cases, the sources are specified.
Reporting from Member States is not uniform. While the
questionnaire provides a standard set of indicators, many
countries report only partially. For example, some countries may provide citizenships for both offenders and victims, others for victims only, and yet others may only
report the gender or age profile of the victims. As a result,
the amounts of data that form the basis for the different
analyses vary. Below is a breakdown of the data that countries reported to UNODC for each indicator.
These figures represent officially detected offenders and
victims. These are persons who have been in contact with
an institution – the police, border control, immigration
authorities, social services, shelters run by the state or by
NGOs, international organizations, et cetera - as a result
of their involvement (or potential involvement in the case
of suspect offenders, and persons in countries that report
data on possible or probable victims of trafficking) in trafficking in persons situations. As for any crime, there is a
large and unknown ‘dark figure’ of criminal activity that
is never officially detected. As such, the figures reported
here do not reflect the real extent of trafficking in persons,
but rather a sample of the population of victims and
offenders that is used to analyse patterns and flows of trafficking in persons.
In terms of geographical coverage, information has been
collected from 128 countries for this edition of the Global
Report. Specific country-level coverage is indicated in the
table and map at the end of this section. All regions are
covered, although the amount and solidity of the data
varies between regions and subregions. Broadly speaking,
Europe and Central Asia as well as the Americas have solid
data coverage that allows for detailed analyses. Asia and
the Pacific, and particularly Africa and the Middle East,
are covered, but with significant room for improvement
in terms of data quality and quantity.
QUALITATIVE DATA – THE ‘COURT
CASES’
As explained above, the main data source for the Global
Report is statistical criminal justice data officially reported
to UNODC by Member States. This data forms the basis
for most of the analyses presented in the Report. However,
in order to go beyond the statistics, for this edition of the
Report, UNODC invited Member States to submit five
cases of trafficking in persons that had recently been prosecuted in their jurisdiction.9 Member States used their
own discretion when selecting whether to contribute and
which cases to include. This means that cases were not
necessarily prosecuted under Trafficking in Persons Protocol-aligned legislation.
This call resulted in some 115 case briefs from nearly 30
different countries across six of the eight subregions used
in the Report. These briefs will be referred to as the ‘court
cases’ throughout the Report. About half of the cases were
submitted by countries in Europe and Central Asia, and
more than a quarter by countries in the Americas. Relatively few Asian and African cases were received.
The submitted material was not uniform, and there were
often information gaps that made coding, comparison
and analysis challenging. Moreover, the case sample is
relatively small and not necessarily representative of the
global manifestations of trafficking in persons. Therefore,
it cannot be used to draw solid conclusions.
Regardless of the limitations, the wealth of information
contained in these real-world cases can enrich our understanding of the patterns and flows of this crime. These
cases illustrate some of the many ways in which trafficking
in persons is planned and executed in diverse locations,
and how criminal justice systems across many jurisdictions
are tackling it. Information from the court cases will be
presented alongside the quantitative data where relevant
throughout the Report. When cases are discussed, the
name of the submitting country is stated, but the names
of other countries involved in the cases have been
omitted.
All the information that was collected for and used in this
Report is presented in the country profiles8 which also
specify the information sources.
9
8
18
Available at the Global Report website, http://www.unodc.org/glotip.
Additionally, the UNODC Human Trafficking Case Law Database
contains more than 1,000 case briefs from nearly 100 different jurisdictions.
Methodology
ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT
The report consists of two main analytical chapters. Chapter I provides a global overview of the patterns and flows
of trafficking in persons. It also includes an extensive analysis of the role of organized crime elements in the trafficking crime, and an overview of the status of country-level
legislation and responses to the trafficking crime. Chapter
II analyses patterns and flows of trafficking in persons, as
well as the responses to the crime, from a regional perspective. Additionally, the country profiles, which present the
country-level information that was collected for this
Report, are available on the Report website at www.unodc.
org/glotip. These information sheets are divided into four
main sections: the country’s legislation on trafficking in
persons; suspects and investigations; victims; and any
additional information on the institutional response.
sample used for the analysis in each region, with Europe
and Central Asia having the highest number of victims
reported to UNODC during the period considered. The
regional groupings are then further divided into two subregions when data coverage allows and doing so helps
facilitate more extensive analysis. Europe and Central Asia
consists of Western and Central Europe, as well as Eastern
Europe and Central Asia. The Americas consists of North
and Central America and the Caribbean, as well as South
America. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific consists of
South Asia as well as East Asia and the Pacific. Africa and
the Middle East consists of North Africa and the Middle
East, as well as Sub-Saharan Africa.
The 128 countries covered have been categorized into four
regions: Europe and Central Asia, the Americas, South
and East Asia and the Pacific, and Africa and the Middle
East. The order of presentation is based on the size of the
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
Countries covered by the data collection for this report
Source: UNODC.
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
19
EUR O PE
AND CENTR AL ASI A
AMER I CAS
AF R I CA
AND
THE M I DDL E EAST
SO UTH ASI A,
EAST ASI A
AND THE PACI F I C
North and Central America and the Caribbean
South America
Western and Central Europe
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
North Africa and the Middle East
Sub-Saharan Africa
South Asia
East Asia and the Pacific
Source: UNODC.
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
20
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
Regional and subregional designations used in this report
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Central African
Republic
Egypt
Israel
Jordan
Ireland
Italy
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
St. Vincent and
Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Gambia
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Mauritania
Mozambique
Namibia
Nigeria
Republic of Congo
Tunisia
United Arab
Emirates
Yemen
Haiti
Guatemala
Grenada
Gabon
France
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Latvia
Hungary
Greece
Germany
Finland
Estonia
Denmark
Uruguay
Peru
Paraguay
Czech Republic
Qatar
Guyana
El Salvador
Cyprus
Morocco
Ecuador
Dominican Republic
Comoros
Croatia
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Colombia
Chile
Bulgaria
Uzbekistan
Ukraine
Tajikistan
Russian Federation
Republic of Moldova
Kazakhstan
Belarus
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Brazil
Azerbaijan
Austria
Armenia
Albania
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
(total: 9)
Argentina
Western and
Central Europe
(total: 34)
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
South America
(total: 11)
43 states out of the 53 UN Member States
in the region
EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
Lebanon
Canada
Barbados
Burkina Faso
Bahrain
Bahamas
Botswana
North and Central
America and the
Caribbean
(total: 18)
Algeria
Sub-Saharan Africa
(total: 27)
29 states out of the 35 UN Member States
in the region
38 states out of the 66 UN Member States
in the region
North Africa and
the Middle East
(11 countries)
AMERICAS
AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
Viet Nam
Thailand
Samoa
Republic of Korea
Philippines
New Zealand
Myanmar
Malaysia
Japan
China
Brunei Darussalam
Australia
East Asia and
the Pacific
(total: 12)
Sri Lanka
Pakistan
Nepal
Maldives
India
Bangladesh
South Asia
(6 countries)
SOUTH ASIA, EAST ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC
18 states out of the 39 UN Member States
in the region
Methodology
21
22
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Slovakia
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Swaziland
Togo
Uganda
United Republic of
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
United Kingdom of
Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
Turkey
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
Switzerland
Sweden
Spain
Slovenia
Montenegro
Lithuania
Western and
Central Europe
(total: 34)
Seychelles
South America
(total: 11)
Malta
United States of
America
North and Central
America and the
Caribbean
(total: 18)
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
(total: 9)
43 states out of the 53 UN Member States
in the region
EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
Senegal
Rwanda
Sub-Saharan Africa
(total: 27)
29 states out of the 35 UN Member States
in the region
38 states out of the 66 UN Member States
in the region
North Africa and
the Middle East
(11 countries)
AMERICAS
AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
East Asia and
the Pacific
(total: 12)
South Asia
(6 countries)
SOUTH ASIA, EAST ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC
18 states out of the 39 UN Member States
in the region
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
CHAPTER I
GLOBAL OVERVIEW
In the United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat
Trafficking in Persons,1 Member States requested for the
present report to focus on the patterns and flows of trafficking in persons. ‘Patterns’ refer to the profiles of traffickers and victims; that is, their citizenship, age and
gender as well as the forms of exploitation. ‘Flows’ refer
to the geographic dimension of trafficking, with a ‘flow’
defined as one origin country and one destination country
with at least five detected victims during the 2010-2012
reporting period.2
A snapshot of the data shows that most of the offenders
are men, while most of the detected victims are female
(mainly women, but also a significant number of underage girls). Trafficking is a transnational crime that is often
carried out domestically or within a given subregion, and
most offenders are convicted in their countries of citizenship. Victims, on the other hand, are often foreigners in
the country where their exploitation was detected. Trafficking flows are usually confined to a geographically limited area, either within a country or between neighbouring
or relatively close countries.
That said, a greater proportion of women are convicted
of trafficking in persons than of nearly any other crime,
and the detection of male victims is increasing. Many
countries convict a significant number of foreigners of
trafficking in persons, and many victims are not trafficked
abroad but exploited in their own countries. Although
transregional trafficking is less common than the domestic
or intraregional types, it still accounts for nearly a quarter
of all trafficking flows.
This chapter seeks to untangle some of this complexity.
It will first present a global overview of patterns and flows,
and then, a discussion on markets and organized crime as
they relate to trafficking in persons. The chapter closes
with an overview of the legislative and criminal justice
responses to this crime across the world.
TRAFFICKERS
In order to understand the crime of trafficking in persons,
it is crucial to know who the offenders are. Analysing the
citizenship and gender of traffickers can help generate a
broader understanding of the profiles of traffickers and
their networks, as well as on how they operate. As trafficking in persons is a crime that is often transnational,
the question of traffickers’ citizenship is highly relevant,
particularly when it comes to cross-border trafficking as
there is often a citizenship link between traffickers and
victims. Moreover, the issue of female involvement in trafficking in persons is also pertinent.
Information on the citizenship of persons convicted3 of
trafficking in persons was provided by 64 countries, covering a total of 5,747 offenders. Information on the gender
of suspected, prosecuted and/or convicted offenders was
provided by 43, 59 and 64 countries respectively, covering 29,568 persons suspected, 4,915 persons convicted of
and 10,024 persons prosecuted for trafficking in persons.
The data covers the 2010-2012 period (or more recent).
Citizenship profiles of traffickers
The aggregated citizenship profiles of the people convicted
of trafficking in persons show that most offenders are
citizens of the country where they were convicted. This is
true for more than 6 in 10 convicted traffickers globally.
It is reasonable to expect that the majority of people convicted of nearly any crime would be citizens of the prosecuting country. Even though international mobility is
high, most people still live and operate mainly within their
own countries.
While the majority of offenders are citizens of the country
where they were convicted, about 35 per cent of convicted
traffickers are foreigners in those countries. This is a larger
3
1
2
A/RES/64/293.
This also includes flows where the country of origin and destination
is the same, thus the case of domestic trafficking.
Including profile information on persons investigated for trafficking, or on the citizenships of those prosecuted for trafficking (as is
done for the gender profile) would have yielded more data. However,
using citizenship information only on offenders convicted in the first
instance is more solid and limits possible biases related to the potential targeting of particular citizenships within some criminal justice
systems.
23
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 1:
Citizenship of convicted traffickers
globally, 2010-2012 (or more recent);
shares of local and foreign nationals
(relative to the country of conviction)
NATIONALS
FOREIGNERS FROM COUNTRIES
IN THE SAME REGION
64%
22%
FOREIGNERS FROM
OTHER REGIONS
14%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
share of convicted foreigners than what is typically seen
for most other crimes, for which foreign citizens generally
comprise approximately 10 per cent of those convicted.4
When foreign offenders are involved, they tend to come
from countries that are relatively close, geographically, to
the prosecuting country. Some 22 per cent of those convicted of trafficking in persons are foreigners from countries within the region where they were prosecuted, while
14 per cent are citizens of countries in other regions. This
means that in a given country in Asia, for example, it is
reasonable to expect that most of the people convicted of
trafficking in persons will be citizens of that country. The
second largest group will be other Asians, and a relatively
small share will be non-Asian foreigners.
This distribution largely follows the breakdown of global
trafficking flows, as long-distance (transregional) traffick-
Share of foreign offenders among the total number of persons convicted of trafficking
in persons, by country, 2010-2012
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 1:
The high share of foreign involvement should not be surprising considering the often transnational nature of this
crime. As will be presented later in the Report, about two
thirds of the human trafficking victims reported to
UNODC over the 2010 – 2012 period were exploited in
cases that involved at least one border crossing.
Share of foreign offenders
countries not covered
0
5
25
60
100
data not available
Source: UNODC.
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
4
24
United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of
Criminal Justice Systems (CTS), available at: http://www.unodc.org/
unodc/en/data-and-analysis/statistics/data.html.
Global overview
Origin or destination country?
In the context of discussing trafficking flows, the
question of whether a given country is more of an
origin or destination country is very relevant.
Understanding whether a country ‘sends’ or ‘receives’
more trafficking victims is helpful for discerning
transnational trafficking dynamics. It is not possible, however, to make a rigid distinction between
origin and destination countries. As with any aggregation, such a broad categorization runs the risk of
obscuring important details and highlighting observations that may not be accurate at the micro level.
Moreover, domestic trafficking, which is detected in
most countries across the world, makes countries
origins and destinations simultaneously.
Even if only cross-border trafficking is considered,
countries may belong to both categories. Indeed,
most countries do, as they detect both outbound
trafficking of own citizens and inbound trafficking
of foreigners. Only a very few are exclusively origin
or destination countries. For this reason, countries
may be thought of as being more typical origin or
ing is much less frequently detected than domestic or
subregional trafficking. However, it should be noted that
the share of convicted own citizens among the total
number of trafficking offenders is generally much higher
than the share of domestic trafficking detected in a given
country. This could imply that domestic trafficking which happens within the borders of one country - is
mainly organized by citizens of that country.
But even so, local citizens are not only engaged in domestic trafficking. Many of those who were convicted in their
own countries during 2010 – 2012 were taking part in
cross-border trafficking, be it subregional or transregional.
Convicted local citizens could be involved in both domestic and cross-border trafficking in some way, for example,
as recruiters, transporters, guards or exploiters.
The court cases submitted to UNODC by Member States5
include an illustrative case from Latvia, where two Latvian
men were convicted of trafficking Latvian women to a
different country in Western Europe for sexual exploitation. The offenders recruited the victims, deceived them
regarding the working conditions they could expect in
5
For more information on the court cases, please refer to the section
on Methodology.
I
more typical destination countries. While countries
play both roles, the majority of the trafficking flows
are either outbound (in the case of a more typical
origin country) or inbound (more typical destination).
A more typical country of origin of cross-border
trafficking may detect some foreign victims who are
being exploited within its territory, but the outbound flow of that country’s citizens for exploitation in other countries will be far larger.
Out of the 78 countries that provided information
concerning the citizenship of the convicted offenders, 37 were considered to be more typical origin
countries of cross-border trafficking, whereas 41
were considered more typical destination countries.
While it should be kept in mind that the diverse
national situations cannot be fully captured by such
a broad categorization, when looking at the global
level, classifying countries as more typical origin or
destination countries of trafficking in persons is
nonetheless very useful for trying to understand
and describe typical cross-border trafficking flows.
their destination country by promising a reasonable salary
and reassuring them that they would not be involved in
prostitution, and then transported the victims across the
borders to accomplices. Once in the destination country,
the victims were exploited in prostitution against very
little pay. In this scheme, the offenders received money
from their partners to cover their costs. From the available
information, it seems that the convicted men were ‘subcontracted’ to recruit and transport victims for a larger,
foreign-based operation. This shows how convicted persons reported as ‘local offenders’ may actually be involved
in cross-border operations.
Though there are some differences, the overall pattern of
offender citizenships in the case of cross-border trafficking holds true globally. But if a distinction is made
between origin and destination countries for cross-border
trafficking, the picture changes dramatically.
While countries that are more typically origin countries
for cross-border trafficking convict mainly local citizens
(about 95 per cent of all convictions), more typical destination countries convict fewer own citizens than foreigners of trafficking in persons (58 per cent foreigners, 42
per cent locals). Foreign participation is therefore a key
25
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 2:
Distribution of national and foreign
offenders among countries of origin
and destination of cross-border trafficking, 2010-2012
FIG. 3:
Convictions of foreign citizens
(relative to the convicting country)
by countries of origin and destination of cross-border trafficking,
2010-2012
NATIONAL OFFENDERS
Countries of
destination
COUNTRIES OF
DESTINATION
42%
95%
58%
FOREIGN OFFENDERS
Countries of
origin
95% 5%
COUNTRIES OF
ORIGIN
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
characteristic of cross-border trafficking in persons in destination countries, but not in origin countries.
A qualitative analysis of the cross-border trafficking cases
within the set of court cases shows that, while victims are
normally recruited by local citizens in the victims’ own
country (origin country), the traffickers who carry out the
exploitation in the destination country may be either local
citizens of these destination countries or foreigners. Moreover, as shown in the chart above, 58 per cent of traffickers
in destination countries are not citizens of the country
where they were convicted. Only 5 per cent of all the traffickers convicted in origin countries are foreigners in these
countries. While there is insufficient evidence to draw
authoritative conclusions, on the base of the official data
collected, it can be hypothesized that traffickers in destination countries are often able to recruit or maneuver local
traffickers in origin countries.
A closer look at only the foreign citizens convicted of trafficking in persons shows that 95 per cent are convicted in
destination countries. For local offenders, on the other
hand, the distribution between origin countries and destinations is relatively equal. In other words, national
offenders convicted of trafficking in persons may be found
in origin and destination countries in similar
proportions.
These findings seem to indicate that while recruitments
in origin countries are largely carried out by citizens of
those countries, the exploitation schemes in destination
26
5%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 4:
Convictions of local citizens (relative
to the convicting country) by countries of origin and destination of
cross-border trafficking, 2010-2012
COUNTRIES OF
ORIGIN
60%
COUNTRIES OF
DESTINATION
40%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
countries are likely to involve more transnational
operators.
Many foreign traffickers also seem to frequently traffic
victims from their own country of citizenship. This is
confirmed by a clear statistical correlation between the
citizenships of victims and offenders in selected destinations of cross-border trafficking. Moreover, in the court
cases, many of the case briefs indicated that the citizenships of both trafficker(s) and victim(s) matched. This was
particularly apparent when the offender was prosecuted
in the destination country for the act of recruitment
Global overview
(sometimes also other acts). This indicates that ethnolinguistic affinities and specific local knowledge may be
very useful for traffickers in recruiting their victims.
FIG. 6:
I
Persons prosecuted for trafficking
in persons, by gender, 2010-2012
(or more recent)
Gender profiles of traffickers
An analysis of potential offenders’ first contact with the
criminal justice system – the time of suspicion and/or
investigation but before prosecution – shows that 38 per
cent of suspected offenders were women during 20102012. This is another anomaly in comparison to other
types of crime. While the majority, some 62 per cent, of
suspected traffickers are male, the female share is large.
These shares are similar, though somewhat smaller, at
other stages of the criminal justice process as well: 32 per
cent of prosecuted and 28 per cent of convicted traffickers
are women. For most other crimes, the share of females
among the total number of convicted persons is in the
range of 10-15 per cent.6 Relatively high female involvement appears to be another characteristic of the crime of
trafficking in persons.
FIG. 5:
62%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
When looking at the gender and age of offenders and victims, for the period 2007-2010, countries with high rates
of female offending were generally countries where many
underage female (girl) victims were detected. This could
indicate that female traffickers are more frequently
involved in the trafficking of girls.7
One possible explanation for the high female involvement
in this crime is that women might play different roles in
7
United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of
Criminal Justice Systems (CTS), available at: http://www.unodc.org/
unodc/en/data-and-analysis/statistics/data.html .
UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 (United
Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.V.1).
68%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 7:
Persons convicted of trafficking
in persons, by gender, 2010-2012
(or more recent)
28%
Suspected trafficking offenders
coming into first contact with the
criminal justice system, by gender,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
38%
6
32%
72%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
the trafficking process; roles that may be more visible and
therefore more easily detected by law enforcement. Perhaps women are more frequently used as recruiters, particularly in cases of trafficking for sexual exploitation, as
they may be more easily trusted by other females. Women
may also be more likely to be assigned roles as guards,
money collectors and/or receptionists in places where
exploitation takes place. These ‘low-ranking’ activities are
often more exposed to the risks of detection and prosecution.8 In addition, the roles of women in the human trafficking process often seem to be those that require frequent
interaction with victims. This can increase the risk of
detection for female offenders since many investigations
of trafficking in persons cases rely heavily on victims’
testimonies.
Another factor may be that a relatively high proportion
8
For more details, see UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons
2012, pp 30-31.
27
GLOBAL
GLOBA
AL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSON
PERSONS 2014
Intimate and/or close family relationships and trafficking in
persons offending
One of the characteristics of the crime of trafficking
in persons is the large extent of female involvement.
Not only do women and girls comprise the vast
majority of detected victims worldwide, but women
are also prosecuted and convicted of the trafficking
crime far more often than for most other types of
crime. Some 30 per cent of convicted traffickers
worldwide between 2010 and 2012 were women,
whereas the average female conviction rate for other
crimes is usually in the region of 10-15 per cent.
Offending linked to intimate relationships, as well
as close family relationships (parent-child or siblings), may be a factor in explaining why female
offending is higher for trafficking in persons than
for other crimes. In the court cases submitted to
UNODC by Member States (some 115 cases submitted by nearly 30 different countries), there were
many cases that saw convictions of couples, and
some that involved mother-daughter pairs or siblings. While there were more men than women
among the total number of convicted traffickers,
the proportion of women offenders who were convicted alongside an intimate partner or close family
member was larger than for men.
Several of the court cases that involved couples were
transnational and involved trafficking of women for
sexual exploitation. In these cases, the couples often
lived in a destination country, and either one or
both of the spouses were citizens of an origin country. Victims were usually recruited from the origin
country, by the person with background from that
country, and then transported for exploitation in
the couple’s adopted country. The offenders generally collaborated in the exploitation; the person who
carried out the recruitment did not limit his/her
participation to that phase of the crime. Such cases
were reported from several destination countries.
For example, in one court case reported by Denmark, a couple with background from an East Asian
country was convicted of trafficking four women
from their origin country for sexual exploitation in
28
Denmark. The female partner travelled to her
origin country to carry out the recruitment; a task
made easier by her prior experience working in the
sex industry in her new country. The case notes
confirm that the partners took equal part in the
offence, and they received the same sentence, which
included a permanent entry ban from their adopted
country.
Similar cases have been registered in many countries around the world. These cases could be either
domestic or transnational. One of the transnational
court cases, submitted by Belarus, saw the conviction of a couple for trafficking six women from that
country into sexual exploitation in a country in
Western and Central Europe. Both perpetrators
received 5-year prison sentences. One of the offenders was a citizen of Belarus, and the other, of the
country where the exploitation took place. There
were also other accomplices who were charged in
separate cases. The victims were recruited through
deception and subsequently ‘sold’ to owners of
nightclubs in the receiving country.
While there were more cases of sexual exploitation
in the court cases, couples and close family members
also carry out trafficking for forced labour, as in a
case from Mexico that saw the conviction of two
women who were related. Together, they trafficked
eight children from their native country to a neighbouring country for exploitation in forced labour.
The children were made to clean car windshields
and sell flowers, with the traffickers taking away the
profits of their work. Moreover, an Israeli case saw
an elderly couple convicted of trafficking for forced
labour. They exploited their foreign housekeeper by
making her work excessive hours, controlling her
movements and not permitting breaks or holidays.
The two perpetrators both received 4-month prison
sentences. Although women offenders seem to be
more frequently involved in trafficking for sexual
exploitation, they also partake in trafficking for
forced labour. The cases suggest that female offending is often linked to close personal relationships.
Global overview
FIG. 8:
Persons convicted of trafficking in
persons, by gender and (sub)region,
2010-2012
FIG. 9:
Detected victims of trafficking in
persons, by age and gender, 2011
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
WOMEN
Africa and
Middle East
Americas
South Asia,
East Asia
and Pacific
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
Western and
Central Europe
49%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
of trafficking cases seems to involve intimate partner and/
or family relations. This was seen in the court cases, where
convictions of intimate partners or two or more people
in close family relationships were reported from several
countries.
There are some regional differences in terms of the gender
breakdown of persons prosecuted for and convicted of
trafficking in persons. Female offending rates in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia are higher than the global average. Africa and the Middle East, as well as the subregion
of Western and Central Europe, report relatively low
shares of convicted female offenders.
TRAFFICKING VICTIMS
An analysis of the profiles of detected trafficking victims
over the 2010-2012 period confirms the broad pattern
reported previously by UNODC9 covering the 2003-2010
period. The vast majority of the victims detected globally
are females; either adult women or underage girls. The
overall profile of trafficking victims may be slowly changing, however, as relatively fewer women, but more girls,
men and boys are detected globally.
Information on the age and gender of trafficking victims
was provided by 80 countries. It covers a total of 31,766
9
I
See UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 and
UNODC/UN.GIFT, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, 2009.
MEN
18%
BOYS
GIRLS
12%
21%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
victims detected between 2010 and 2012 whose age and
gender were reported.
Adult women continue to comprise the largest group of
detected victims, as approximately half of the total number
are women. Although this is a large proportion, it has
decreased markedly, which is in line with the trend
reported in previous editions of this Report. This reduction in the number of women is partially offset by the
increasing detection of girls, who now comprise around
one fifth of the total number of detected victims worldwide. As a result, while the proportion of detected female
victims is clearly decreasing, it is not decreasing as steeply
as the trend for adult women.
During the 2010-2012 period, the share of males among
the total number of victims detected globally ranged
between 25 and 30 per cent. This is an increase compared
to the years 2006 and 2009. The trend of underage boy
victims has increased since 2004. While increases can be
seen for both men and boys, it is more pronounced for
men. The key reason seems to be the greater number of
detected cases of trafficking for forced labour in many
countries, as this type of trafficking involves more male
than female victims.
The previously reported trend of an overall lowering of
the average age of detected victims has been confirmed by
the data collected for this Report. Child trafficking, in
which victims are below 18 years of age, accounts for more
29
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
Towards a global victim
estimate?
The question of the magnitude of the trafficking
problem – that is, how many victims there are – is
hotly debated as there is no methodologically sound
available estimate. In December 2013, UNODC
hosted a meeting with academics and researchers
with experience in uncovering various ‘hidden populations’. The objective of the meeting was to
obtain an overview of successful methodologies in
enumerating hidden populations I and to discuss
research methods on trafficking in persons, with
particular emphasis on the potential development
of a global victim estimate.
The experts encouraged UNODC to avoid generic
global or regional extrapolations based on weak
methodologies. The data currently available to
UNODC and the complexity of the phenomenon
do not support the development of a reliable global
victim estimate based upon a sound methodology.
In order to start filling the data gaps, which are
particularly acute in developing countries, the
experts concluded that:
1. UNODC could initiate a series of small field
studies to be conducted at local levels in different parts of the world. Such studies may only
be considered as representative of the specific
geographical realities and for the specific forms of
trafficking considered.
2. Such studies should be based on a multiple steps
approach:
•• Conduct preliminary assessment and literature review of the forms of trafficking in
persons and exploitation (sexual, labour, begging, domestic servitude, et cetera) occurring
in the region concerned, and thus focus the
field work on the most relevant.
•• Define strict geographical boundaries.
•• Carefully define tight indicators for
than 30 per cent of the total number of victims detected
during the 2010-2012 period. The proportion of detected
child victims has increased significantly in recent years.
However, increasing shares of children among the detected
victims were not witnessed across all regions or areas.
While Africa and the Middle East, North and Central
America, as well as some countries in South America did
30
trafficking in persons that are appropriate for
the local realities and the forms of trafficking
under consideration. •• Design modular questionnaires for different
sub-populations.
•• Identify the best sampling designs for the
population considered and endeavour to use
multiple validating approaches (respondentdriven sampling, geo-mapping, network
scale-up, capture-recapture).
•• Participate in the field studies.
Once a critical mass of small studies has been completed, a more comprehensive assessment of the
severity of trafficking in persons may be carried out.
Additionally the experts encouraged UNODC to
try to take advantage of existing data collection
vehicles by making efforts to have relevant trafficking in persons-related questions included. This is
particularly relevant for industrialized countries as
these often carry out various national surveys with
some regularity. There are also some United
Nations-led surveys that could be used similarly.
Generating a methodologically sound estimate of
the global number of trafficking victims is a commendable objective. Achieving it, however, would
require significant resources and a long-term perspective.
I
Further information on the research methodologies and
approaches discussed at the expert meeting can be found in
the next edition of the UNODC journal Forum on Crime
and Society (forthcoming 2015). The meeting participants
were: Kelle Barrick (RTI – Research Triangle Institute, United
States), Jan van Dijk (Tilburg University, the Netherlands),
Peter van der Heijden (Utrecht University, the Netherlands/
University of Southampton, United Kingdom), John Picarelli
(United States Department of Justice), Michael ‘Trey’ Spiller
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States),
Thomas M. Steinfatt (University of Miami, United States),
Ieke de Vries (National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human
Beings and Sexual Violence against Children, the Netherlands)
and Sheldon X. Zhang (San Diego State University, United
States).
register clear increases during the 2010-2012 period, in
other regions of the world, such as Europe and Central
Asia as well as South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, child
trafficking remained relatively stable compared to the
2007-2010 period.
The patterns of trafficking in persons continue to show
pronounced regional differences. Children comprise the
Global overview
FIG. 10: Trends in the shares of females
I
FIG. 12: Trends in the shares of children (girls
(women and girls) among the
total number of detected victims,
2004-2011
and boys) among the total number
of detected victims, 2004-2011
100%
100%
80%
80%
74%
67%
59%
60%
60%
49%
40%
40%
20%
21%
2004
2006
2009
2004
2011
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
21%
12%
10%
9%
3%
0%
0%
17%
13%
10%
17%
13%
10%
20%
2006
2009
2011
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 11: Trends in the shares of males (men
FIG. 13: Shares of children and adults among
and boys) among the total number
of detected victims, 2004-2011
the detected victims of trafficking in
persons, by region, 2010-2012
100%
CHILDREN
80%
ADULTS
Africa and
Middle East
62%
38%
Americas
31%
69%
South Asia,
East Asia and
the Pacific
36%
64%
Europe and
Central Asia
18%
82%
60%
40%
20%
13%
0%
3%
2004
2006
12%
14%
9%
10%
2009
18%
12%
2011
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
majority of victims detected in Africa and the Middle East,
accounting for more than 60 per cent of the victims in
this region. In Europe and Central Asia, trafficking in
persons mainly concerns adult victims, as they comprise
83 per cent of the victims detected there. South Asia, East
Asia and the Pacific and the Americas report similar age
profile breakdowns, with adults comprising about two
thirds of the detected victims, with children making up
the remaining one third.
31
GLOBAL
GLOBA
AL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSON
PERSONS 2014
Recruitment through feigned romantic relationships
The recruitment of victims is an essential part of
the trafficking process. Though the recruitment can
happen in many ways, it often involves deception.
The victim may be deceived about work conditions
such as the type of job, the workplace and the
salary. In other cases, criminals deceive by feigning
a romantic interest and entering into a relationship
with the victim in order to gain her trust. Victims
of this type of recruitment are often underage, but
may also be adults. Generally, the perpetrator is
male and the victim female. As the ‘relationship’
develops, the exploiter manipulates and/or coerces
the victim into sexual exploitation, from which he
obtains the profits.
ranged from one to three years of imprisonment.
The offenders were part of a ‘street gang’ who carried out a relatively extensive trafficking operation
in which the minor boy was the recruiter. He operated at schools were he could easily make contacts
with multiple underage girls. Some of the girls fell
in love with him and once trust had been established, the girls were introduced to the other, older
gang members. The victims were then forced, under
threats of violence, to abide by strict rules and provide sexual services for payments the traffickers
then collected. Here, the recruitment through the
feigned romantic relationship was one part of a
larger scheme to exploit several girls.
This type of recruitment has been denounced by
the Dutch authorities for more than a decade. I
However, feigned romantic relationships is a relatively common recruitment method in many countries. The court cases submitted to UNODC by
Member States included several clear cases of such
recruitments, and even more where this method
may have been used, but the information is insufficient to establish with certainty. While most of
these cases originated from countries in the Americas, there were also cases from other parts of the
world.
This type of recruitment does not necessarily have
to occur in a domestic context, however. In a court
case from Brazil, a European man was found guilty
of recruiting a local woman in Brazil through a
feigned romantic relationship for the purpose of
bringing her to Europe for sexual exploitation. The
offender pretended that he was in love with the
victim, gained her trust, arranged the travel and
even paid for her passport. But once they arrived in
Europe, the victim was locked in, forced to work as
a prostitute and generate a set amount of money for
the trafficker each day. The trafficker was sentenced
to five years’ imprisonment.
Many of the court cases involved domestic trafficking situations where one man recruited one victim,
often an underage girl. In one case from Mexico,
for example, a man met his 16-year-old victim at
the video game parlour where she worked. He
courted her, they began dating, and eventually
moved together to a different city. Once there, he
forced her into prostitution and took away the
money paid by the customers. He also threatened
and beat her. In this case, the offender was acting
alone, and he was sentenced to nine years’ imprisonment.
In another court case, reported by Canada, 10
males – including one minor boy - were convicted
of trafficking four underage girls. The sentences
32
These cases show that recruitment through feigned
romantic relationships can be used either by traffickers operating alone, or as part of a larger group.
The exploitation can take place domestically or in
another country, and although there were no such
cases within the set of court cases, it is not inconceivable that this recruitment method could also be
used to deceive potential victims of trafficking for
forced labour. Every trafficking case needs at least
one victim and feigned romantic relationships is
one of the ways criminals go about recruiting victims.
I
See, for example, Trafficking in Human Beings, the First Report
of the Dutch National Rapporteur, Bureau NRM, The Hague,
November 2002.
Global overview
Share of children among the total number of detected victims, by country, 2010-2012
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 2:
I
Share of children
countries not covered
0
10
30
60
data not available
100
Source: UNODC.
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
FORMS OF EXPLOITATION
Exploitation is the source of profits in trafficking in persons cases, and therefore, the key motivation for traffickers
to carry out their crime. Traffickers, who may be more or
less organized, conduct the trafficking process in order to
gain financially from the exploitation of victims. The
exploitation may take on a range of forms, but the principle that the more productive effort traffickers can extract
from their victims, the larger the financial incentive to
carry out the trafficking crime, remains.
Victims may be subjected to various types of exploitation.
The two most frequently detected types are sexual exploitation and forced labour. The forced labour category is
broad and includes, for example, manufacturing, cleaning,
construction, textile production, catering and domestic
servitude, to mention some of the forms that have been
reported to UNODC. Victims may also be trafficked for
the purpose of organ removal, or for various forms of
exploitations that are not forced labour, sexual exploitation or organ removal. These forms have been categorized
as ‘other forms of exploitation’ in this Report, and this
Section will also examine the detections of these ‘other
forms’ in some detail.
Information on the forms of exploitation was provided
by 88 countries. It refers to a total of 30,592 victims of
trafficking in persons detected between 2010 and 2012
whose form of exploitation was reported.
Looking first at the broader global picture, some 53 per
cent of the victims detected in 2011 were subjected to
sexual exploitation, whereas forced labour accounted for
about 40 per cent of the total number of victims for whom
the form of exploitation was reported.
FIG. 14: Forms of exploitation among
detected trafficking victims, 2011
FORCED
LABOUR
40%
ORGAN
REMOVAL
0.3%
OTHERS
7%
SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
53%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
33
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 15: Share of detected victims trafficked
for forced labour, 2007-2011
45%
detected trafficking victims, by
region, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
40%
40%
35%
FIG. 16: Forms of exploitation among
32%
33%
35%
36%
Africa and
the Middle East
53%
Americas
48%
East Asia,
South Asia
and Pacific
26%
Europe and
Central Asia
66%
37%
10%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
47%
4%
64%
10%
0%
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
26%
8%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
0%
While among the detected trafficking victims, sexual
exploitation is the largest category, the share of forced
labour detections is increasing. The increasing detections
of trafficking for forced labour has been a significant trend
in recent years
Trafficking for sexual exploitation is the major detected
form of trafficking in persons in Europe and Central Asia.
More than 65 per cent of the victims detected in this
region are trafficked for sexual exploitation. In the subregion of Eastern Europe and Central Asia in particular,
sexual exploitation is frequently detected, accounting for
71 per cent of the victims (see also the regional
overview).
In the other regions, the shares of trafficking for forced
labour are far higher than in Europe and Central Asia. In
South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, trafficking for forced
labour is the major detected form of trafficking as it
accounts for nearly two thirds of the detected victims. In
the subregion of South Asia, over 80 per cent of the
reported victims are trafficked for forced labour (see the
regional overview). In the Americas, trafficking for forced
labour and trafficking for sexual exploitation are detected
in nearly identical proportions.
There are some differences between the two subregions
of the Americas, however. In North America, Central
America and the Caribbean, more than 50 per cent of the
detected victims are exploited in forced labour, whereas
in South America, the percentage is around 40. The proportion of detected trafficking for forced labour in South
America is a likely underestimation as this category does
34
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Sexual exploitation
Organ removal
Forced labour,
servitude and
slavery like
Other forms
of exploitation
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
not include the large number of victims of ‘slavery and
slavery-like conditions’. These victims are not officially
recorded as trafficking victims as it is unknown to which
extent they are in exploitative situations as a result of a
trafficking process. If the victims who are exploited under
‘slavery or slavery-like conditions’10 in South America
would be considered trafficking victims, the share of victims of trafficking in persons for forced labour globally
would be considerably larger.
Globally, ten types of exploitation different from sexual
exploitation, forced labour or organ removal were identified by the national authorities during the reporting
period. These types are trafficking for mixed exploitation
in forced labour and sexual exploitation, for committing
crime, for begging, for pornography (including internet
pornography), forced marriages, benefit fraud, baby selling, illegal adoption,11 armed combat and for rituals.
10 Some countries in South America have legislation that is not fully
in line with the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol. Offences that
may be prosecuted as trafficking for forced labour in countries with
Protocol-compliant legislation may instead be prosecuted as crimes
related to ‘slavery and slavery-like conditions’ in these countries.
11 The interpretative notes on article 3 of the Trafficking in Persons
Protocol (see A/55/383/Add.1, paras. 63-68) indicate that illegal
adoption is to be considered as a purpose of trafficking in persons
where this amounts to a practice similar to slavery as defined in the
Global overview
Countries that report forms of exploitation other than forced labour, sexual
exploitation or organ removal, 2010-2012
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 3:
I
Cases have been reported in the country
Begging
Commits crime
Illegal adoption or child selling
Forced marriages
Child soldiers
Pornography
Source: UNODC.
data not available
Benefit fraud
countries not covered
Mixed exploitation
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
There are pronounced regional differences with regard to
these ‘other forms of exploitation’. While in Europe and
Central Asia, this category mainly includes begging and
victims trafficked to commit (often petty) crime, in SubSaharan Africa, it often entails trafficking of children for
armed combat (‘child soldiers’). In Asia, the issue of forced
marriage is also frequently reported for victims who are
not trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labour or
organ removal.
During the reporting period, cases of trafficking for organ
removal were detected and reported by 12 countries. These
victims account for about 0.2 per cent of the total number
of victims. Most of the detected victims of this form of
trafficking are males.
In general, the profiles of the victims of trafficking reflect
the types of trafficking that are more commonly detected
in different parts of the world. The observed correlation
Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave
Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery (cited in the
Travaux Préparatoires of the Negotiations for the Elaboration of the
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
and the Protocols Thereto, p. 347).
between the profile of the detected victims and the type
of exploitation is only partial, however, and an analysis of
the profiles commonly associated with the different types
of trafficking reveals some significant nuances.
Globally, the vast majority of detected female victims are
trafficked for sexual exploitation, whereas most of the
detected male victims are trafficked for forced labour.
However, a closer look at the broad category of trafficking
for forced labour reveals that this is not a crime that only
involves male victims. In fact, about one third of the total
number of victims detected globally who were trafficked
for forced labour are females, and about two thirds are
males. In other words, females are also trafficked for forced
labour in significant numbers.
An analysis of the regional differences shows that in Africa
and the Middle East, as well as in South Asia, East Asia
and the Pacific, females account for the majority of the
detected victims trafficked for the purpose of forced
labour. Although the data coverage for these vast regions
is relatively poor, which makes it difficult to draw strong
conclusions, exploitation in domestic labour – which
35
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 17: Forms of exploitation among detected female and male trafficking victims, 2010-2012
(or more recent)
SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
OTHERS
ORGAN
REMOVAL
79%
7%
FORCED
LABOUR
OTHERS
8%
83%
SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
8%
0.1%
ORGAN
REMOVAL
FORCED
LABOUR
1%
14%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 18: Gender breakdown of detected
victims of trafficking for forced
labour, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
35%
65%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
often affects women12 - may be one of the explanations.
This form of trafficking has been reported relatively frequently from some areas within these regions.
Females are also frequently detected as victims of trafficking for forced labour in Europe and Central Asia and in
the Americas, although not as frequently as males. In these
two regions, females comprise approximately one third of
the victims of this type of trafficking.
Looking at trafficking for sexual exploitation, the vast
majority of the detected victims are females. Nonetheless,
trafficking of males for the purpose of sexual exploitation
does exist and it is not negligible. About 3 per cent of the
total number of victims of trafficking for sexual exploita12 See, for example, Surtees, R., Labour Trafficking in South-eastern
Europe: Developing prevention and assistance programmes, NEXUS
Institute to Combat Human Trafficking, 2007; and United Nations
Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP), Recruitment
Agencies and the Employment of Cambodian Domestic Workers in
Malaysia, July 2011.
36
FIG. 19: Gender breakdown of detected
victims of trafficking for forced
labour, by region, 2010-2012 (or
more recent)
Africa and
Middle East
45%
55%
Americas
68%
32%
South Asia,
East Asia and
the Pacific
23%
77%
69%
31%
Europe and
Central Asia
0%
20%
40%
60%
80% 100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
tion detected between 2010 and 2012 are males. Looking
only at the detected male victims (all types of exploitation), some 8 per cent are exploited in the sex industry.
About one fifth of male victims were subjected to ‘other’
types of exploitation.
In the case of trafficking of males for sexual exploitation,
the exact proportion among the total number of detected
victims varies significantly between regions. It is, however,
relatively low across all regions, ranging between 2 and 5
per cent. In Africa and the Middle East, the share is in the
lower end of the range, whereas it is higher in Europe.
The share of detected victims exploited in trafficking for
Global overview
FIG. 20: Gender breakdown of detected
victims of trafficking for sexual
exploitation, 2010-2012 (or more
recent)
97%
3%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 21: Gender breakdown of detected
victims of trafficking for ‘other’
forms of exploitation than forced
labour, sexual exploitation or organ
removal, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
73%
27%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
forms other than sexual exploitation, forced labour or
organ removal has increased from 3 per cent in 2006 to
6 per cent in 2010 and 7 per cent in 2011 worldwide.
Between 2010 and 2012, some 60 per cent of the victims
falling into this category were women or girls. The broad
’other forms’ category includes very different types of trafficking in persons that often involve victims with different
profiles. Trafficking for forced armed combat - or child
soldiers - targets mainly boys. Mixed forms of labour and
sexual exploitation mainly affects women, whereas forced
marriages usually involve victims that are girls or young
women. Trafficking for begging and/or committing petty
crime mainly involves children, both girls and boys, as
does trafficking for the production of pornographic material. For some other forms of exploitation, including for
fraudulent state benefit claims and other purposes not
listed here, the profile information is not known.
I
TRAFFICKING FLOWS
Trafficking in persons is a crime of global scope that leaves
virtually no country unaffected. An analysis of the geographic dimension of this crime, that is, where victims are
trafficked to and from, can help in identifying and monitoring acute situations and inform the prioritization of
anti-trafficking efforts. Information regarding the citizenships of detected victims in their destination countries is
crucial for mapping the trafficking flows, and many
Member States were able to provide such information to
UNODC. In addition, data regarding the destination
countries of victims who have been repatriated to their
own (origin) countries can also shed light on trafficking
flows. Analyses stemming from such data is presented
separately.
Information regarding the citizenships of victims was provided by 83 countries. It refers to a total of 27,052 victims
of trafficking in persons detected between 2010 and 2012
(or more recently) whose citizenship was reported. With
regard to repatriation, information was provided by 35
countries, covering 4,441 own citizens (relative to the
reporting countries) who had been repatriated by other
countries where they had been detected as victims of
trafficking.
The broad geographical dispersion of victim detections is
well known. Between 2010 and 2012, victims with 152
citizenships were detected in 124 countries across the
world. At least 510 trafficking flows13 were detected globally. This should be considered an absolute minimum as
it is based on official data reported to UNODC which
does not include the hidden cases of trafficking; the actual
number of flows is likely to be significantly higher.
Victims can be trafficked either domestically (within the
borders of one country14) or transnationally (crossing at
13 Defining a ‘flow’ as one origin country and one destination country
with at least five detected victims during the 2010-2012 reporting
period. This also includes the case of domestic trafficking in which
the country of origin and destination coincide.
14 Transnationality is not a requirement for establishing a trafficking in persons offence. The Legislative Guides to the Trafficking in
Persons Protocol (and the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, which the Protocol supplements) state that ‘It must
be strongly emphasized that, while offences must involve transnationality and organized criminal groups for the Convention and its
international cooperation provisions to apply, neither of these must
be made elements of the domestic offence.’ (UNODC, Legislative
Guides for the implementation of the United Nations Convention against
Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto, Section A, Implementation
of the Protocol, Article 18.) Domestic trafficking in persons cases are
reported by most of the countries that submit data to UNODC.
37
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
least one border between different countries). About 70
per cent of the detected victims over the 2010-2012 period
were trafficked cross-border. However, only 27 per cent
of the total number of victims experienced transregional
trafficking; that is, being trafficked from one region to
another. While most detected cases of trafficking are transnational – meaning that they implicate more than one
country and at least one border crossing - they are usually
also of limited geographical reach (they often happen
within the same subregion).
FIG. 22: Breakdown of trafficking flows
by geographical reach, 2010-2012
(or more recent)
CROSS-BORDER WITHIN
SAME SUBREGION
FROM NEARBY
SUBREGION
37%
3%
DOMESTIC
(WITHIN NATIONAL BORDERS)
34%
TRANSREGIONAL
26%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
As will be discussed later in the section on Traffickers,
organized crime and the business of exploitation, intraregional trafficking – which is the most commonly detected
type - often sees victims from relatively poorer countries
within a given geographical area being exploited in relatively richer ones. Similarly, although UNODC does not
collect this information systematically, information from
the court cases submitted by Member States suggests that
domestic trafficking often involves victims from relatively
poorer areas of the given country trafficked for exploitation into more affluent areas; often the capital or another
large city.
Transregional trafficking comprises about 27 per cent of
the total number of detected trafficking flows, and these
flows provide the clearest illustration of the distinctions
between origins and destinations. Victims of this type of
trafficking are more often detected in the affluent areas of
the Middle East, Western Europe and North America,
although there are also some transregional trafficking flows
with destinations in other areas.
38
A key feature of transregional trafficking is the complexity
of carrying it out. To traffic someone across continents,
offenders generally need valid passports, visas or other
permits to allow entry into the destination country, international transportation, local transportation in both the
sending and receiving countries, lodging, supervision of
the victim during the travel and a way to collect and control the victim upon arrival at destination, before the
exploitation commences. While it may be possible for a
single offender to traffic one or two victims alone, it is
often necessary to involve others to varying extents. Setting up a transregional trafficking operations also often
require more skills and capital than starting a more geographically confined scheme.
In one court case, submitted by the United States of America, an Eastern European criminal group with at least five
members (who were brothers) trafficked victims from their
country into the United States and exploited them in
forced labour. The traffickers evaded US visa requirements
by having the victims travel to a neighbouring country on
tourist visas and then arranging for them to be smuggled
into the United States. Once in the United States, the
victims had to be transported, lodged and controlled.
Their passports were taken away and they were made to
work as cleaners and janitors in various large commercial
properties. While such a trafficking operation may generate considerable profits, it also requires a lot of skills, capital and labour to set up and run. Two of the group
members have so far been convicted; one received a prison
sentence of life plus 20 years, and the other, 20 years’
imprisonment.
Domestic trafficking, on the other hand, tends to require
less preparation and organization. There is no need for
travel documents and costly flight tickets, and transport
– if necessary – can often be easily arranged by private car.
Moreover, traffickers may not need to acquire special lodging for the victims as they may use their own residence or
place of business. There were several instances of such
arrangements in the court cases, for example, one case
from El Salvador where a woman was convicted of trafficking one girl for sexual exploitation. The girl was
recruited with a promise of cashier work in the offender’s
shop, but was instead locked up in the shop, threatened,
starved and forced to drink alcohol in order for men to
exploit her sexually against payment to the trafficker. In
comparison to the transregional trafficking operation
described above, the preparation and management in this
case is minimal, but the profit potential also pales in com-
Global overview
Shares of detected victims who are trafficked into the given country from another
subregion, 2010-2012
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 4:
I
Share of detected victims from other subregions
subregions used in the report
countries not covered
0
Source: UNODC.
2
20
60
data not available
100
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
Shares of detected victims by subregional and transregional trafficking, 2010-2012
61% 39%
Western
and Central Europe
58% 42%
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
99% 1%
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
North Africa and
the Middle East 32% 68%
96% 4%
South
Asia
94% 6%
South
America
Source: UNODC.
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 5:
97% 3%
East Asia
and the Pacific
97% 3%
Sub-Saharan
Africa
within
the subregion
or country
from outside
the subregion
subregions
used in the report
countries not covered
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
39
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 23: Citizenships of foreign victims, by subregion, shares of the total number of detected
victims, 2010-2012
Share of the nationalities of victims
to total victims detected
in destination subregions
in
South
Asia
in
South
America
in
East
Asia
in
Western,
Central
Europe
in the
Middle
East,
North
Africa
in
SubSaharan
Africa
in
Eastern
Europe,
Central
Asia
5%
Western and Central Europeans
6%
East Asians
South Asians
33%
25%
18%
7%
3%
1%
SubSaharan Africans
Eastern Europens and Central Asians
2%
17%
10%
4%
6%
6%
South Americans
N&C Americans and Caribic
North Africans and Middle Easterns
in
North,
Central
America
and the
Caribbean
3%
4%
2%
3%
2%
Note: the values below 1% are not shown.
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Main destination areas of transregional trafficking flows (in blue) and their significant
origins, 2010-2012
The arrows show the flows that represent 5% and above
of the total victims detected in destination subregions
Eastern
and Central
Europeans
Western
and Central
Europe
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
East
Asians
The Middle
East
South
Asians
South
Americans
Sub-Saharan
Africans
countries not covered
Source: UNODC.
Note: The boundaries shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dashed lines represent undetermined
boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of
Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined.
40
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 6:
Global overview
Looking specifically at transregional trafficking, the
Middle East15 registers the highest share of inbound trafficking from other regions. More than half of the victims
detected in that area were trafficked from other regions.
For Western and Central Europe and North and Central
America and the Caribbean, this was true for about 40
per cent of the detected victims. The origins of victims
involved in transregional trafficking flows are also very
diverse, with victims coming from countries in most other
regions.
The other regions and subregions are very different and
hardly report transregional trafficking. The shares of
domestic and intraregional trafficking in these regions are
above 95 per cent. While there are relatively small shares
of victims trafficked in from other regions in some of these
countries, the overwhelming majority of the victims
detected in East Asia are citizens of other East Asian countries, in South Asia they are mainly South Asians, in Africa
they are generally Africans and so forth.
Considering the dispersion of victims from different areas,
it is clear that some origin areas have a global dimension,
where victims from that particular area are trafficked
widely across the world. Other areas are more regional,
and some predominantly domestic. East Asian victims
belong in the first category.
Victims from East Asia have been detected in all regions
and subregions of the world; often in significant numbers.
East Asians – particularly South-East Asians – have been
detected in and/or repatriated from the most geographically dispersed set of destination countries of any geographical aggregation of victims. This is largely because
East Asian victims have been detected in and/or repatriated from the highest number of destination countries
outside that region, particularly in North America, the
Middle East and Western and Central Europe.
Victims from the subregion of Eastern Europe and Central Asia have also been detected in and/or repatriated
from a large number of countries. The difference is that
victims from Eastern Europe and Central Asia are mainly
15
While the Middle East is part of the broader subregion of North
Africa and the Middle East, the data from North Africa is extremely
scarce. Therefore, the information on trafficking flows in this subregion refers near exclusively to the Middle East.
FIG. 24: Diffusion of trafficking flows within
and out of the subregion of origin
(number of countries where citizens
of countries in the given subregions
were detected), 2010-2012 (or more
recent)
EAST ASIA
SOUTH ASIA
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
SUBREGION OF ORIGIN
parison. The investments of traffickers into the trafficking
process seem to be related to the expected profits as the
traffickers aim at maximizing their return – as in any other
business.
I
SOUTH AMERICA
NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
NORTH AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST
WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Number of countries where these victims have been detected
Number of countries in other regions
Number of countries in the nearby
y subregion
su
ubre
regio
gion
gio
n
Number of countries in the
e same
sam
me subregion
subr
ubreg
egion
on
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
detected within the broader region of Europe and Central
Asia. Only a limited number of countries outside Europe
report detecting victims who are citizens of countries in
Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which means that trafficking originating in this area is highly relevant and
widely spread across Europe, whereas East Asian trafficking is also transregional.
In addition to East Asia, other significant origin areas for
transregional trafficking flows are South Asia (widely
detected in the Middle East and North America), SubSaharan Africa (detected in Western and Central Europe)
and South America (detected in Western and Central
Europe, as well as in North and Central America). As
previously mentioned, in Eastern Europe and Central
Asia, South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, South America
and Sub-Saharan Africa, victims from outside the region
in question are rarely detected.
41
GLOBAL
GLOBA
AL REPORT
REP
RE
EPOR
O T ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 20
2014
Trafficking in persons and armed conflicts
As other disasters, armed conflicts can have an
impact on the level on trafficking in persons in
affected communities. Conflicts increase the vulnerable populations, in connection for instance
with the number of displaced people and refugees.
Conflicts often cause decay of national institutions,
generate gender imbalances in conflict zones, and
create a demand for combatants. Mobility by itself
creates vulnerabilities when people lose their support networks and face situations where the language and the management of everyday life are
different. These are all factors that amplify trafficking flows originating from or destined to conflict
areas. According to the information collected for
this Report, during the period 2011-2013, eight
countries in the world report having detected Syrian
victims, while victims from this country were very
rarely detected before the beginning of the Syrian
turmoil in 2011. Most of these victims have been
detected in the Middle East and in Western Europe.
It can be assumed that this increase parallels the
large numbers of displaced people and refugees
escaping conflict areas (UNHCR reports that there
are some 6.5 million Syrians who are internally
displaced, and 2.5 million are refugees). I
Child soldiering is a form of trafficking that has
been widely documented.II Most of the cases are
reported from countries in Africa, where the different armed groups operating in Central and West
Africa have been forcibly recruiting children to use
them as combatants for decades. The number of
victims detected are of concern. UNICEF reported
in May 2014 that at least 6,000 children have been
recruited by armed groups in the Central African
Republic. III In the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission documented the recruitment of 996
children over a 20-month period in 2012-2013. IV
Victims are not only Congolese, but also children
from neighbouring countries as these armed groups
are mobile and operate across the entire Central
African region.v Similar practices have been documented in this and previous Report editions during
42
2
conflicts in Africa, different countries in the Middle
East as well as in South America.
Conflicts may also create demand for victims of
sexual exploitation. This is due to the situation
where organized crime activities are often strengthened due to social degradation and the absence of
rule of law. This may open the door to various
human rights violations, including trafficking in
persons for sexual exploitation. It has been documented how the stationing of troops, peacekeepers
and stabilization forces (including those operating
under the United Nations flag) in conflict and postconflict zones may have fuelled the demand for girls
and young women trafficked for sexual exploitation
in some parts of the world.VI
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
2014 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
country operations profile - Syrian Arab Republic, Statistical
snapshot as of January 2014, available at: http://www.unhcr.
org/pages/49e486a76.html.
See, for example, United Nations, Impact of Armed Conflict on
Children - Report of Graça Machel, Expert of the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations. A/51/306, 26 August 1996;
UNICEF, Machel Study 10-Year Strategic Review Children and
Conflict in A Changing World, April 2009.
UNICEF, Children in Crisis in Central African Republic – a
Four Month Progress Report, May 2014.
MONUSCO (United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Child Recruitment by Armed Groups in DRC, October 2013.
See, for example, United Nations, Report of the SecretaryGeneral on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, various reports
covering the years 2010-2013 (available at: http://www.un.org/
en/peacekeeping/missions/monusco/reports.shtml); United
Nations, Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed
conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S/2014/453),
2014; United Nations, Report of the Secretary-General on the
situation in the Central African Republic (S/2013/787), 2013.
See, for example, United Nations, Special measures for protection
from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse – Reports of the Secretary-General for the years 2003-2008 (A/58/777; A/59/782;
A/60/861; A/61/957; A/62/890; A/63/720) ; United Nations,
Activities of the Office of Internal Oversight Services on peacekeeping operations for the period from 1 January to 31 December
2012 – Report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services
(A/67/297 (Part II)), 2013; Mendelson, S.E., Barracks and
brothels: peacekeepers and human trafficking in the Balkans,
Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2005.
Global overview
TRAFFICKERS, ORGANIZED CRIME
AND THE BUSINESS OF EXPLOITATION
The analysis of the patterns and flows has revealed that
trafficking in persons is an intricate crime. The definition
of trafficking in persons comprises a series of actions carried out by different actors, victimizing different persons
in different ways by different means. On the surface, the
children sold by their parents to work as street vendors or
who are exploited in domestic servitude are very different
from the transcontinental trade of women exploited in
the commercial sex markets of Western Europe, migrants
from Latin America exploited in agriculture in North
America, or men exploited in the construction sector in
the Middle East. What they do have in common is that
they are victimized through a trafficking process.
Regions differ not only in terms of where the trafficking
takes place or which trafficking patterns prevail. Within
the same geographical area, victims may have been trafficked from a distant region, from a neighbouring country,
or from a nearby village to be exploited in brothels or the
catering industry, in agriculture or begging, or as domestic
servants. All these forms and flows coexist everywhere in
the world. However, while the suffering of the victims is
the same, the trafficking organizations differ in line with
the process required for bringing the victims into an
exploitative situation.
In which ways are domestic and transregional trafficking
different, and how are they similar? What is the role of
organized crime in human trafficking, and how do traffickers operate? A qualitative analysis of the court cases
submitted by Member States combined with a quantitative analysis of the profiles of victims and offenders will
help to clarify and categorize different forms of
trafficking.
Individual traffickers and organized
groups
Non-organized domestic trafficking
As shown in some of the court cases, coercing one adolescent from the very same village or region for prostitution, for instance, can be easily conducted by one or two
people. In the previously discussed case from El Salvador,
the shop owner could easily deceive a young girl by taking
advantage of her age to force her into sexual exploitation
for his shop’s clients. This is an example of the relative
I
ease with which single individuals can victimize children.
In this case, the recruitment method was simply a promise
of a proper job in the shop. The shop owner was arrested
and convicted in 2011 with a prison sentence of eight and
a half years for trafficking in persons.
Similar cases are recorded everywhere in the world. In
Europe, the Austrian authorities reported a court case of
a young man from Central Europe who easily managed
to deceive two young compatriots with a promise of a
decent job in Austria. Once at destination, a relatively
short drive from their home, the trafficker physically
threatened them in order to force them into street prostitution. With the help of people passing by, the victims
managed to escape, and the trafficker was convicted with
a prison sentence of six years. A similar case was submitted by Canada, where a single individual started to exploit
his girlfriend in prostitution. This local trafficker leveraged
his power over the girl, and turned what had seemed like
an intimate relationship into an exploitative situation. He
received a five-year prison sentence.
Such cases do not always involve sexual exploitation, however. In another court case, submitted by Nigeria, a woman
was convicted of recruiting two young boys by promising
their parents that they would receive an education. But
the boys were never put into school once they arrived at
the woman’s residence, which was far from their hometowns. Instead, they were made to work as street hawkers,
giving all the profits to the trafficker, and they also had to
do her domestic work. Moreover, the boys were not fed
properly, and were also beaten on occasion. The trafficker
was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment.
Many other cases could illustrate how human trafficking
can be easily conducted by single individuals with a limited organization in place. This is particularly true if it is
conducted against one or a few victims exploited locally.
In such cases, the individual traffickers and their victims
are either citizens of the country where the exploitation
takes place, or foreigners who have been living many years
in that country or foreigners from a nearby location. These
cases nearly always involve trafficking within the same
country or between neighbouring countries, and a limited
number of victims.
The fact that this type of trafficking is conducted by individuals acting independently does not mean it is uncommon. According to the data collected, domestic trafficking
accounts for 34 per cent of the total number of detected
victims, and trafficking conducted within countries
43
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
belonging to the same subregion accounts for 37 per cent.
Of course, not all are operated by individuals alone, but
this is a phenomenon which may be a substantial part of
domestic trafficking. A study conducted in Amsterdam
shows that a vast majority of the cases of women trafficked
for sexual exploitation there have some characteristics of
dysfunctional intimate partner relations rather than an
organized crime activity. In this study, the trafficker enjoys
the revenues generated by the prostitution of his partner,
and the girlfriend is subjugated to her pimp on the basis
of her emotional relationship with him.16
Organized subregional trafficking
In contrast to individual traffickers, those traffickers who
operate in an organized group17 may be able to traffic more
victims and to operate in different countries in a coordinated manner. A greater level of organization may enable
the exploitation of more victims and thus higher revenues,
especially when traffickers operate in wealthy countries.
One of the court cases reported by Norway involved an
extended family group from another European country.
Members of this group were found to have trafficked four
young girls from within the extended family for exploitation through shoplifting, begging and the selling of fake
gold jewellery. For one of the victims, the case also
involved forced marriage and rape. Six perpetrators were
convicted and received prison sentences ranging from one
and a half years to three and a half years.
44
other groups who would then force them into sexual
exploitation. This clear transnational organized crime
activity required connections with other groups, significant investments for travel and border crossing, and overall
coordination and distribution of labour.
The transnational nature of these trafficking processes
increases the risks of being arrested – whether for trafficking in persons or other offences – especially if the border
crossings require control of travel documents. In the case
above, such an elaborate organization would not have been
required if the victims were exploited within the national
border or in a neighbouring Baltic country, and the detection risk would have been lower.
The cases discussed above refer to trafficking episodes that
took place within the same subregion, that is, within a
limited geographical range. Nonetheless, they show that
this type of trafficking may require an organized network,
especially if this entails trafficking more victims across the
borders with exploitation taking place over an extended
period of time.
Organized transregional trafficking
Many similar examples were found within the court cases,
particularly with regard to trafficking for sexual exploitation. For example, Lithuania reported a case where five
local citizens, who operated as a group, were convicted.
This group specialized in recruiting mainly underage girls
from Lithuania and other Baltic countries, with the purpose of selling them to other criminal groups for exploitation in Western Europe. The main activities of the
convicted offenders were recruitment and transportation.
This implied deceiving the victims and transporting them,
by plane or car, to their destinations in several Western
European countries. Here, the group sold the victims to
Some trafficking cases require substantial levels of organization. Israel, for example, reported a court case of a trafficking ring that moved women from different Eastern
European countries into Israel for sexual exploitation. The
ring comprised a dozen traffickers whose activities ranged
from the recruitment of victims, to their illegal border
crossing to the destination country (which in some cases
included being smuggled across the desert), and their
exploitation in brothels controlled by the criminals in different parts of the country. The group operated in different countries in Eastern Europe, Western Europe and the
Middle East for about seven years, starting around 1999.
The high level of organization was also proved by the fact
that the traffickers were able to move parts of the business
into other countries once the Israeli law enforcement
arrested some of the group members. In this case, the 12
traffickers were convicted and received prison sentences
ranging between 1 and 16 years of imprisonment.
16 Verhoeven, M., et.al. (2013), ‘Relationships between suspects and
victims of sex trafficking. Exploitation of prostitutes and domestic
violence parallel in Dutch trafficking cases,’ European Journal of
Criminal and Policy Research, 12 December 2013.
17 According to the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime, an organized crime group is understood to be a
group of three or more persons, in existence for a period of time,
acting in concert to commit at least one serious crime (punishable
by at least four years of incarceration) in order to obtain financial or
material benefit.
Similarly, Canada reported a case of Central European
victims exploited in forced labour in the province of
Ontario. The victims were forced into construction work
by a sophisticated criminal organization that was also
involved in other criminal activities. The traffickers
recruited labourers in their origin country with promises
of decent jobs. Once at destination they were exploited
for long hours. This group was able to exploit 23 mostly
Global overview
male victims in forced labour, mainly working on different construction sites, with recruitment, transporting and
exploiting activities conducted across two continents. The
Canadian authorities describe the group as highly organized and structured around family ties. The criminals were
not only keeping the victims under constant control in
Canada, they were also threatening their families back in
Europe. Moreover, the traffickers were also using the victims to conduct welfare fraud against the Canadian state.
Finally, the traffickers were involved in theft and moneylaundering in Canada and Europe, which suggests that it
was a sophisticated and well-organized criminal group. In
this trafficking case, convictions were secured by the Canadian authorities in January 2011. The leader of the organization received a nine-year sentence, with other members
receiving shorter sentences and/or substantial fines.
As the Israeli case above indicates, the endurance of certain trafficking flows may be an indicator that transnational organized crime networks are behind the crime. For
example, Nigerian trafficking flows into Western Europe
have been significant for several years, and reports from
different European criminal justice authorities indicate
that this trafficking flow is very well organized, and also
difficult to detect (for further information on this type of
trafficking, see the text box on page 56). Moreover,
Norway reported a case of one West African victim who
was rescued and assisted in Norway. This victim was illegally smuggled from West Africa through North Africa,
South-Eastern and Western Europe, to finally end up in
Norway. The level of organization that this sort of travel
requires for an irregular immigrant is considerable. Eventually the victim was forced into street prostitution in
Norway to pay back a debt of 50,000 euro to her traffickers. The traffickers had contact with family members of
the victim in the origin country, along the smuggling
route, and in different parts of Europe. Threats to family
members were used to keep the victim compliant. The
case brief stated that this “network maintained a steady
stream of women into prostitution in Europe”.
From the cases discussed here, and for many others collected by UNODC, it can be concluded that the transnationality of the flows – particularly when the movement
involves restricted border crossings - the victimization of
more persons at the same time, and the endurance in conducting the criminal activity, are all indicators of a high
level of organization of the trafficking network behind the
flow. While in the case of domestic or local trafficking,
exploiting a limited number of victims within a limited
I
geographical area usually does not require a large or very
sophisticated organization.
How organized are the traffickers?
As discussed above, the perpetrators and their levels of
organization vary from one individual managing to traffic
one victim, to large-scale networks that are able to move
many victims from one continent to another, and to
exploit them for years. There are of course no clear boundaries between these scenarios, but rather, different ways
of organizing the trafficking, as well as distinctive skills,
assets and capacities among the participants. In addition,
groups and networks may change, expand or shrink over
time for various reasons.
Does the profile of the offender vary according to the
sophistication of the trafficking operations? As discussed
in the section on offenders, in general terms, traffickers
usually either have a connection with the territory where
they operate or with the citizenship of the victims. They
exploit victims related to their own community or citizenship, and they may also be citizens of the place where the
trafficking is happening. It may be easier for persons with
the same citizenship to gain a potential victim’s trust. As
shown by Zhang, many trafficking in persons operations
make use of this relatively easy connection with the victim
to carry out the crime.18 And it is easier for traffickers to
operate in territories where they have or have had citizenship or very close links, be it in origin or destination
countries.
In a court case from Australia, 11 South-East Asian
women were trafficked into the country for exploitation
in prostitution in different cities. The trafficker was a
woman originally from the same country as the victims,
but she was living in Australia at the time of the crime.
She was seemingly operating alone, but she did have connections in the origin country where someone was arranging the travel of the victims, including the acquisition of
visas. She also had connections with brothel owners in
different parts of Australia. In July 2010, the main
offender was convicted and sentenced to two years and
three months’ imprisonment.
In the same year, in another court case, the Danish authorities reported having convicted an intimate couple from
another European country for having trafficked a cona18 Zhang, S. X. (2012), Trafficking of Migrant Laborers in San Diego
County: Looking for a Hidden Population, San Diego, CA: San Diego
State University.
45
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
tional into Denmark and forced her into prostitution for
one and half years. In a different case from Denmark, nine
persons from Eastern Europe were convicted for having
organized a criminal group the national authorities
describe as well-organized and structured in relation to their
different competences and activities…and organized in different levels within the group hierarchy. The group
brought at least eight young women to Denmark for
exploitation in forced prostitution. The citizenships of the
perpetrators and the victims coincided also in this case,
and the offenders received prison sentences ranging from
14 months to 3 years. Most of the offenders were also
expelled from Denmark with a permanent entry ban.
In other cases, like the sophisticated ring operating
between Eastern Europe and Israel described previously,
the traffickers were citizens of the destination country. In
a case from Malta, a Maltese national was convicted for
trafficking victims from the Balkans into the country for
prostitution. In a recent case from Chile, two traffickers
- a Chilean and a citizen of a neighbouring country – were
convicted for having trafficked two women from the same
neighbouring country to Chile for sexual exploitation.
The Argentine authorities reported the conviction of four
women, two local citizens and two citizens of a Caribbean
country, for having trafficked girls from the Caribbean
country to Argentina in a complex scheme that involved
travel across the continent, several border crossings and
exploitation in different night clubs.
The general pattern is not a rule, however. There are also
victims that originate from one country and are exploited
in another by citizens of a third country. The above-mentioned Lithuanian group that recruited women from the
Baltic countries to be exploited in other countries was
selling the victims to criminal groups from the Balkans
that operated in Western Europe. These groups had no
citizenship ties with the victims or with the country of
exploitation.
Considering the aggregated data on the citizenships of the
offenders, the profile of the traffickers operating in destination countries of cross-border trafficking is different
from the profile of the traffickers operating in origin countries. Origin countries mainly convict local citizens,
whereas destination countries convict both foreign and
local citizens (in different proportions, depending on the
country in question). This is confirmed regardless of the
traffickers’ level of organization.
In the destination countries, convicted traffickers may be
46
either local citizens or citizens of the origin countries of
the victims they traffic. Focussing only on cross-border
destination countries, there is a statistical correlation
between the citizenships of the persons convicted in
selected destinations and the citizenships of the victims
detected there, so the traffickers and victims come from
the same country.19
This reinforces the idea that when it comes to cross-border
trafficking, the overall pattern is that trafficking operations in origin countries - such as recruitment and transportation - are carried out by local citizens, with the
victims often being fellow citizens. In destination countries, traffickers can be local or foreign citizens; however,
when they are foreigners, they often exploit their fellow
citizens.
As discussed in the analysis of the profiles of the offenders, there are few foreign traffickers detected in more typical origin countries. This indicates that generally, local
traffickers of destination countries do not physically move
to origin countries to collect victims there. In light of
conviction profiles, this is usually done by local traffickers
of the origin country. On the other hand, traffickers from
origin countries move to the destination countries where
they are then detected by national authorities.
If victims are trafficked by their own compatriots, why
don’t traffickers simply traffic the same victims in their
own country? If, as stated above, domestic and local trafficking require less organization than medium and longdistance trafficking, why do traffickers bother to exploit
victims in cross-border or even transregional trafficking?
The economic interest of transregional trafficking: follow the money
Different trafficking operations have one key element in
common: the business around the exploitation of the victims. With a few exceptions (such as child soldiers,
removal of body parts for rituals and some other forms
that comprise a small share of the total number of victims), the vast majority of trafficking is aimed at obtaining
economic benefit from the labour and services extorted
from the victims. The ‘loverboy’ who exploits his girlfriend
in sexual exploitation is leveraging his power over her for
19 In Western and Central Europe, the share of the citizenships of the
victims and of the offenders detected between 2010 and 2012 are
correlated (pearsons coeff 0.828; sign 0.000). In Argentina, the same
correlation is stronger (pearsons coeff 0.985; sign 0.000), and also
confirmed in the United Arab Emirates (pearsons coeff 0.748; sign
0.000), .
Global overview
profit. The families exploiting domestic help in Africa or
housing restavek children in the Caribbean are benefiting
from the labour of these children. The debt bondage
schemes behind some West African or East Asian trafficking networks are leveraging the migration dream of the
victims to exploit them in forced labour or in the commercial sex market. Trafficking in persons is motivated by
profit maximization and organized by traffickers trying
to maximize benefits and minimize costs. The higher the
profits, the greater the economic incentives to conduct
the trafficking crime.
There are always economic gains involved in exploiting
people, domestically or abroad. At the same time, exploiting them in relatively richer countries (in relation to the
origin country) is economically more advantageous
because the services the traffickers demand from the victims have a higher monetary value there.
In the case previously discussed, about a local national
exploiting his girlfriend on his own in Canada, the authorities estimated that this trafficker profited about
US$180,000 during the 8 months of the victim’s exploitation in the commercial sex market. This means that the
trafficker was able to earn on average $750 per day
through this exploitative business. In Denmark, the
national authorities reported that a victim from a country
in the Balkans who was forced into sexual exploitation by
two compatriots earned them at least $50,000 over 18
months. The exploitation of the 11 South-East Asian victims who were trafficked to Australian brothels lasted for
some two years and resulted in a net profit of between
US$55,000-65,000, at a minimum. Such amounts would
be all but impossible to earn from prostitution in poorer
countries. The authorities in the Philippines have reported
that victims of sexual exploitation in the Philippines were
forced to serve their clients for a price of US$10-20 per
time. The same price level was reported by the Chilean
authorities.
Although the data is scarce and anecdotal, it is nonetheless
clear that the business of sexual exploitation is more profitable if operated in richer countries. This is also illustrated
by the fact that the prices traffickers pay for women to
exploit in the sex industry varies in line with whether the
trafficking is conducted in richer or poorer countries.
According to information provided by the Japanese
authorities, the price of women in trafficking in persons
cases ranges around US$20,000. In Slovenia, the authorities reported values around $4,000. In Argentina, the price
for a woman to be exploited in commercial sex ranges
I
around $400.20 The price of women may not only be a
direct function of the profit potential as the perceived risk
associated with carrying out the crime also plays a role, as
does the demand for sex services. Nonetheless, broadly
speaking, the richer the country, the higher the profits the
exploitation business can generate, and the more the
exploiter is willing to invest for a victim to be exploited
there.
The same logic applies to trafficking for labour exploitation. The average legal salary of a labourer in the construction industry in the United States is about US$2,200 per
month.21 In Central America, such work is legally remunerated at $60, on average, per month, and farmers in the
same area are paid around $30 per month.22 Even when
selling the work of his or her victims for half of the legal
salary, the margins the Central American traffickers will
be able to generate by exploiting fellow citizens in the
construction sector in North America are far higher than
in the origin countries, particularly when the living costs
are reduced to the minimum by providing sub-standard
conditions. Thus Central American traffickers want to
move their victims and exploit them in North America
where the profits can be much higher.
There are also significant differences in the values of the
labour markets in Central Europe or the Balkans in comparison to Western European countries. According to legal
standards, a labourer in agriculture or in the construction
sector may be paid around 250 euros per month in the
Balkans, 100 euros in Eastern Europe and 1,500 euros in
Western Europe.23 While traffickers do not assess where
to traffic their victims on the basis of legal salary levels,
such levels nonetheless give an indication of the value of
the labour extorted from the victims of trafficking in different countries, and thus, where it is more economically
profitable to exploit the victims.
The previously discussed Canadian case of the well-organized criminal group exploiting Central European victims
in forced labour is illustrative. The victims were forced to
work long hours in the construction sites in Canada; made
harder by living under the threat that their families may
20 The GDP per capita for these countries was: Japan: US$38, 492
(2013); Slovenia: $22,059 (2012); and Argentina: $14,760 (2013).
(World Bank, World Development Indicators, GDP per capita in
current US$).
21 See International Labour Office (ILO), LABORSTA database on
wage statistics, available at: http://laborsta.ilo.org/STP/guest.
22 Ibid.
23 Ibid.
47
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
have suffered violence back in Europe. The revenues
derived by the work of these victims were kept by the traffickers, and the value of their labour was much higher
than it would have been in Central Europe, about five
times more.24 Also, the investments of traffickers are limited to one-off travel costs of victims and local cost of
living (minimized by forcing the victims to live in inadequate accommodation). As a consequence, the profits
the group generated by exploiting the victims in Canada
were much higher than what could have come from
exploitation in their origin countries. However, the traffickers miscalculated the risks and are now facing jail sentences in Canada.
The picture is similar in the case of the six victims from
the Balkan area who were exploited in forced labour in
the cleaning sector in Austria. The authorities calculated
that the work of each victim generated profits of about
2,000 euros per month for the traffickers. The exploitation continued for eight months until the victims were
rescued and the traffickers arrested and later convicted.
This exploitative business guaranteed the traffickers at
least 100,000 euros in total. If the same exploitative business had been conducted in the Balkans, the revenues
would have been ten times less than those generated in
Austria.25
The services provided by the victims, whether he or she
is exploited in forced labour, domestic servitude or sexual
exploitation, are sold at higher prices in richer countries
where the demand for such services and labour is also
higher. Also, richer countries may offer some ‘advantages’
to the traffickers in terms of the victims’ potentially
increased vulnerability to control and coercion, as factors
such as language and migration status (often illegal) may
prevent victims from reporting to national authorities.
For these reasons, as shown in the section on trafficking
flows, the rich regions of the world attract more transregional trafficking than the poorer parts of the word. A
positive correlation between the gross domestic product
(GDP) per capita and the share of transregional trafficking shows that richer countries have larger shares of such
trafficking, and this is true also when the analysis focuses
24 According to ILO LABORSTA (op.cit.), the average monthly pay for
a laborer in the construction industry in Canada was around 2,000
euros per month for the period considered.
25 According to ILO LABORSTA, the monthly pay for a laborer in the
Balkans for services in hotels and restaurants was around 220 euros
per month for the period considered.
48
on individual regions, or when controlling for development levels.26
This does not mean that there is less trafficking in poor
countries, or that the victims exploited in poor countries
suffer less. Poor countries may attract more or fewer victims than richer ones. However, in poorer countries, the
geographical scope of the trafficking is usually limited to
domestic or subregional trafficking, while the richer countries see victims trafficked in from a larger number of
origin countries from different regions. The ‘global north’
attracts victims from all over the world. Traffickers in
poorer countries have an economic interest of moving
victims there - to Western Europe, North America or the
Middle East - while there is little to gain from moving
victims in the opposite direction.
In addition to economic factors, there are also other conditions that have an impact on the directions of trafficking
flows. These include issues related to job markets, migration policy, regulation, prostitution policy, legal context
and law enforcement and border control efficiency. As
indicated before, to traffic victims internationally is complicated and may involve significant risks depending of
the measures implemented by countries along the trafficking route. Relatively few traffickers are able to organize
themselves well enough to conduct effective transregional
trafficking activities.
A trade-off between organization
and profits
A statistical analysis of the data on victims detected
between 2010 and 2012 shows that geographical proximity between a country of origin and a country of destination is strongly correlated with the intensity of the
trafficking flows between them, also in rich parts of the
world.27 In general, the closer two countries are, the more
victims are trafficked along the flow between them.
The same data show that another factor to consider in
relation to cross-border trafficking flows is organized
crime. A correlational analysis between the level of organ26 The share of the victims trafficked from outside of the region of detection for the period 2010-2012, and the GDP per capita for the year
2011 show a significant and strong positive correlation (pearsons coeff
0.729; sign 0.000).
27 An analysis of variance (ANOVA) among the shares of citizenships of
foreign victims of trafficking detected at destination divided in two
groups, victims from within the region and from outside the region,
shows trafficking from within the region is more than three times
higher than transregional trafficking.
Global overview
I
FIG. 25: Correlation between the share of transregional trafficking victims detected and GDP
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT PER CAPITA (2011)
per capita, recorded in the countries of destination
90,000
80,000
Qatar
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
United Arab Emirates
Canada
Israel
30,000
Finland
United Kingdom
Bahrain
20,000
10,000
Costa Rica
South Africa
0
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Share of victims detected originating from outside the region
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
ized crime28 measured at the origin country level, and the
share of citizens of these countries detected in the major
destinations of transregional trafficking (Western Europe,
North America and the Middle East) proved significant
and positive.29 This means that the higher the prevalence
of organized crime in the origin countries, the more victims of these origin countries are detected in the major
destinations.
28 Measured by the Composite Organized Crime Index (COCI) (Van
Dijk, J., The World of Crime, Sage Publications, 2008, pp. 162-167)
and the organized crime perception index referring to the year 2013
of the World Economic Forum (Schwab, K., The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014, World Economic Forum, 2013).
29 For Western and Central Europe, the share of the citizenships among
victims of cross border trafficking for the period 2010-2012, and
the Organized Crime Index COCI register a significant and positive
correlation (pearsons coeff 0.577; sign 0.000), confirmed by using
the World Economic Forum perception index 2013 (pearsons coeff
-0.402; sign 0.000). For North and Central America, the share of the
citizenships among victims of cross border trafficking from outside
of the region for the period 2010-2012, and the Organized Crime
Index COCI register a significant and positive correlation (pearsons
coeff 0.379; sign 0.007), confirmed by using the World Economic
Forum perception index 2013 (pearsons coeff -0.302; sign 0.014).
When intraregional trafficking is considered this last one is stronger
(pearsons coeff -0.742; sign 0.001). For the Middle East, the share
of the citizenships among victims of cross border trafficking for the
period 2010-2012, and the Organized Crime Index COCI registers a
significant and positive correlation (pearsons coeff 0.564; sign 0.000),
and it is much stronger if single regions of origin are considered.
It is important to note that these results only refer to crossborder trafficking. This statistical link does not exist
between domestic trafficking and organized crime.
Domestic trafficking happens everywhere, and it seems
to be unrelated to the level of organized crime.
The relationship between organized crime and cross-border trafficking flows is also confirmed by linear regressions
that combine these indicators. The origins of cross-border
trafficking towards North America, Central America and
the Caribbean is an exponential function of the level of
organized crime in these origin countries.30 The more the
origin countries are affected by organized crime, the more
outward trafficking there is from these countries towards
North and Central America and the Caribbean.
Compared to the results emerging for North and Central
America and the Caribbean, a stronger relationship is
found between organized crime and the origins of trafficking towards Western and Central Europe. The higher
30 ‘TiP to N.Am’: Origins of cross border trafficking detected in North
and Central America and the Caribbean, in terms of share of victims
detected by citizenship detected there. ‘OCWEF’ : Organized Crime
Perception Index measured by the World Economic Forum in Schwab,
K. The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014, World Economic
Forum. Linear regression: Ln(TiP to N.Am)= -610*OCWEF-2.882.
(Rsq. : 0.111; Sig.0.041; OCWEF Sig 0.041; Cost Sig 0.031).
49
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
the origin country’s level of organized crime, the more
victims who are citizens of that country are detected in
these parts of Europe. The relationship is significant for
intra-regional trafficking (considering only origin countries in Western and Central Europe), and transregional
trafficking (considering only non-European origins trafficked to Western and Central Europe).31
The presence of organized crime alone cannot explain why
certain trafficking flows originate from certain countries
and are directed towards other countries, but statistics
show that such presence may cause a significant part of
the flows.
Broader discussions of cross-border trafficking flows, similarities and analytical suggestions can be found within the
field of migration studies. The Gravity Models of Migration32 consider the spatial mobility of a population as an
interaction between two territorial units.
The Gravity Models of Migration theorized that migration flows between two countries is a function of the
demographical power of the countries of origin and destination; the larger the populations, the more intense the
migration flow between the two countries. The model also
states that the more distant the two countries, the less
intense the flows between them, thus geographical proximity is an inverse function of population mobility. This
is in line with the statistical results described in the first
paragraph of this section.
This intuitive finding was later elaborated upon by other
social scientists who, considering different intervening
factors, developed more complex migration gravity
models, aimed at explaining the migration flows between
two territories.33
It is possible to apply the basic gravity model to human
trafficking flows if the model includes the organized crime
factor. Considering the cross-border flows detected in
Western and Central Europe between 2010 and 2012,
about half can be explained by the population sizes of the
31 ‘TiP to Eu’: Origins of cross border trafficking detected in Western and Central Europe, in terms of share of victims detected by
citizenship detected there. COCI, Van Dijk, op. cit. Linear regression for intra-regional trafficking: Ln(TiP to Eu)= 0.075*COCI11.304 - (Rsq. : 0.470; Sig: 0.000) - COCI (Sig 0.000); Cost (Sig
0.000). Linear regression for trans-regional trafficking: Ln(TiP to
Eu)= 0.091*COCI-9.627 - (Rsq. : 0.435; Sig: 0.002) - COCI (Sig
0.002); Cost (Sig 0.000).
32 Stewart, J. Q., An inverse distance variation for certain social influences,
Science, 93, 1941: 89-90.
33 Ibid; Haynes, K. E., and Fotheringham, A. S., Gravity and Spatial
Interaction Models, Sage Publications, 1984.
50
countries of origin, by the distance of these countries to
the destination countries, and by their levels of organized
crime.34 The larger the population, the closer to the destination areas, and the more organized crime within the
origin country, the bigger the trafficking flow from that
country towards Western and Central Europe.
This analysis shows that human trafficking flows are also
determined by organized crime applied to the migratory
context. It is clear that this model just explains 50 per cent
of the cross-border trafficking flows. Elements such as
criminal justice and institutional responses, as well as
socio-economic factors, should be considered in order to
have a complete mapping of the determinants of trafficking flows.
In summary, the results of a qualitative analysis of some
of the court cases, in combination with a statistical analysis
of the profile of the victims detected in the 128 countries
considered in this Report, suggest that domestic and trafficking between geographically proximate countries are
common forms of trafficking globally. These forms are
characterized by relatively small numbers of victims who
are trafficked within one country or between neighbouring countries and they do not usually need much organization. The investments and profits are limited and they
are often organized by one or a few traffickers; for example, a couple.
The same analysis also shows that when regional or transregional trafficking flows do occur, they generally move
from poorer towards richer countries, where the profits
from the exploitative business are normally much higher
than in the poorer countries. The number of victims trafficked from richer towards poorer countries is very limited. In these cases, as a general pattern, traffickers in the
origin country are citizens of that country and in the destination country they are either citizens of the destination
country or fellow citizens of the victims, or perhaps both,
working in coordination to exploit the victims.
Another characteristic of longer distance trafficking operations is that they tend to involve several victims who need
34 ‘TiP to Eu’: Origins of cross border trafficking detected in Western
and Central Europe, in terms of share of victims detected by citizenship detected there. ‘COCI’ : Composite Organized Crime Index
measured by Van Dijk 2010. ‘Dist to EU’ : the geographical distance
between the countries of origins and the geographical Centre of Western and Central Europe. ‘Pop’; the population size of the countries
considered; The multivariate regression for cross border trafficking is the following; Ln(TiP to Eu)= 0.656*COCI+0.3*Ln(POP)0.624*Dist to EU. (Rsq. : 0.464; Sig: 0.000) - COCI (Sig 0.000);
Dist to EU (Sig 0.000); POP (Sign 0.037); Cost (Sig 0.000).
Global overview
TABLE 1:
I
Typology on the organization of trafficking in persons
SMALL LOCAL OPERATIONS
MEDIUM SUBREGIONAL OPERATIONS
LARGE TRANSREGIONAL OPERATIONS
Domestic or short-distance trafficking
flows.
Trafficking flows within the subregion or
neighboring subregions.
Long distance trafficking flows involving
different regions.
One or few traffickers.
Small group of traffickers.
Traffickers involved in organized crime.
Small number of victims.
More than one victim.
Large number of victims.
Intimate partner exploitation.
Some investments and some profits
depending on the number of victims.
High investments and high profits.
Limited investment and profits.
Border crossings with or without travel documents.
Border crossings always require travel
documents.
No travel documents needed for
border crossings.
Some organization needed depending on
the border crossings and number of victims.
Sophisticated organization needed to move
large number of victims long distance.
No or very limited organization required.
to cross one or more borders. This means that they also
require significant skills, capital and organization, particularly when the border crossing is restricted. When such
operations are successful, it is usually because they are run
by a large, transnational and well-organized criminal network. A sizable criminal organization is able to traffic
more victims across longer distances and towards more
profitable destinations, and to exploit them there for a
longer period of time.
On this basis, a typology of three different trafficking types
can be drawn up. The types have some features in common
as the categorizations are broad. Few trafficking cases
belong squarely in one category. This typology – which
can be tailored to local circumstances – can be helpful in
understanding the organization of trafficking in persons
and what are some of the common features of this crime.
THE RESPONSE TO TRAFFICKING
IN PERSONS
Legislation on trafficking in
persons: Progress, but many people
remain without full legislative protection
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking
in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which supplements the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, entered into force in December
2003. The impact of the Protocol on the national legisla-
Endurance of the operation.
tive responses around the world has been very strong. In
November 2003, almost two thirds of countries did not
have a specific offence that criminalized trafficking in persons, or even just some forms of this crime. At the end of
the year 2006, three years after the Protocol entered into
force, this share had dropped to 28 per cent. Now, in
2014, 5 per cent of countries do not have specific legislation that criminalizes trafficking in persons.
As of August 2014, of the 173 countries considered for
this analysis, 146 (85 per cent) criminalize all aspects of
trafficking in persons explicitly listed in the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol.
About 10 per cent of the covered countries have partial
legislation. These countries do criminalize trafficking in
persons specifically, but their legislation may only cover
some victims (for example, only children, women and/or
foreigners) or certain forms of exploitation (for example
sexual exploitation).
5 per cent of the countries considered (9 of 173) do not
have any offence in their legislation that specifically criminalizes trafficking in persons, or even just some forms of
it. It is likely that instances of trafficking may be prosecuted in these countries by leveraging other articles of the
criminal code, such as slavery, forced labour, pimping,
child stealing or others (which may also happen in countries that have specific legislation on trafficking in persons). However, it is very unlikely that these instruments
are tailored to address the issue of victim assistance. More-
51
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 26: Share of countries around the world
FIG. 27: Criminalization of trafficking in
criminalizing trafficking in persons,
partially or in full compliance with
the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol, 2003-2014
persons with a specific offence,
number and share of countries,
2003-2014
100%
90%
90%
91%
95%
70%
72%
(25.5%)
60%
50%
50%
40%
30%
42%
20%
30%
10%
20%
0%
10%
0%
August
2012
August
2014
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
over, the sanctions for the traffickers may not be commensurate to the gravity of the crimes committed.
Looking in more detail at the legislative coverage, the
Africa and Middle East region appears to be the part of
the world that more than others needs to fill the legislative gap. Eight countries in this region lack a specific trafficking in persons offence. In addition, when considering
countries with offences that criminalize only some aspects
of trafficking, ten are in this region. On the other hand,
it is also very important to consider the population size
of countries without adequate legislation in place. When
this is taken into consideration, regions other than Africa
also emerge as problematic.
Large and densely populated countries in Asia and South
America still have partial legislation. As a result, in these
countries, there are persons living in trafficking situations
constituting an offence according to the international
standards, but who may not be considered as trafficking
victims by the national authorities as these are using legal
definitions not in line with the UN Trafficking in Persons
Protocol.
Combining the population size of the country with the
status - lack or partiality - of the legislation shows that
about one third of the world’s population - some 2 billion
people - live in a situation where trafficking is not crimi-
16 (9%)
22
(13%)
9 (5%)
18
(10.5%)
32
60%
75%
November December November
2003
2006
2008
44
80%
70%
80%
40%
52
100%
(18.5%)
100
(58%)
40
(23%)
33
97
(19%)
(56%)
November
2003
November
2008
135
(78%)
August
2012
146
(84.5%)
August
2014
Most/all forms
Partial
No specific offence
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
nalized as required by the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol. This situation combined with a very low number
of convictions makes trafficking in persons a crime of vast
impunity.
Legislation which is not in compliance with the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol may also leave vast segments
of the world’s population without the protection and support which victims of human trafficking have the right to
obtain. There is also the risk that the traffickers who are
exploiting these victims may face light or no criminal
charges even when they are detected by law enforcement
authorities. In addition, cooperation with national authorities of other countries is often very difficult, as countrylevel legislation may be incompatible.
Criminal justice response: impunity is
rife
The data on investigations, prosecutions and convictions
collected for the 2010-2012 period shows that the number
of convictions for the crime of trafficking in persons
remains very low.
About 15 per cent of the 128 countries covered by the
data collection for this Report did not record a single conviction during the reporting period. Another large share
of the countries covered, about one fourth, recorded a
Global
G obal overview
Gl
I
Confiscated assets and compensation of human trafficking victims
It is generally believed that confiscating the proceeds of crime is both an appropriate punishment
and an effective prevention tool. Confiscation is a
deterrent for criminals who try to maximize their
profits, and it also prevents illicitly acquired assets
from being reinvested into the legitimate economy.
Confiscation can also serve as a mechanism to disrupt criminal activities, help create an image that
crime does not pay and increase public confidence
in the criminal justice system.I In addition, confiscated assets can be used to compensate the damage
suffered by trafficking victims.
Many countries face significant challenges related
to the confiscation of assets in trafficking in persons
cases.II Traffickers do their best to hide the illicit
profits or place the detected assets beyond the reach
of the criminal justice system. Also, the lack of
funding often undermines the effectiveness of
financial investigation and confiscation efforts.
Given these challenges, are there any successful
confiscations in trafficking in persons cases, and are
these funds substantial enough to be used as compensation for victims of trafficking?
Persons ProtocolIV make specific references to compensation of trafficking victims and the possibility
of using confiscated proceeds for the purpose of
compensation. Many countries have laws that
enable victims of crime to claim compensation for
the damages they have suffered.V Despite this legal
framework, compensation remains one of the weakest rights of trafficked people. VI Although confiscated assets seem to provide a logical and
appropriate source for such compensation, very few
countries seem to have sufficient resources to implement the idea. Low numbers of convictions combined with limited use of financial investigations
hinder efficient confiscation of assets in human
trafficking cases. In order to have efficient and
functional compensation schemes based on confiscated assets, countries need to improve their criminal justice responses, particularly by focusing more
on financial investigations.
I
II
Very little information exists on funds that have
been confiscated in relation to trafficking in persons convictions. The data that UNODC has
received from some 10 Member States in Europe,
Asia and the Pacific, and Central and South America indicates that some countries have been successful in confiscating assets related to trafficking in
persons cases between 2010 and 2013. However,
the yearly amounts vary greatly from a few thousands to 6 million US dollars. When the confiscated
funds are compared to the number of detected victims the funds remain below 9,000 dollars per
victim; in most cases below 2,000 dollars per victim.
Both the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized CrimeIII and the Trafficking in
limited number of convictions, between 1 and 10, in at
least one of the years between 2010 and 2012.
About 40 per cent of the countries covered reported more
than 10 convictions, out of which, some 16 per cent had
more than 50 convictions in at least one of the years here
considered.
The number of convictions and their distribution around
III
IV
V
VI
See, for example, UNODC, Digest of Organized Crime Cases,
2012; RAND Europe, Study for an impact assessment on a proposal for a new legal framework on the confiscation and recovery of
criminal assets, report prepared for the European Commission
Directorate General Home Affairs, 2012.
COMP.ACT - European Action for Compensation for Trafficked Persons, Toolkit on Compensation for Trafficked Persons:
Findings and Results of the European Action for Compensation for
Trafficked Persons, 2012 (www.compactproject.org).
Articles 14 and 25 (2).
Article 6 (6).
See, for example, Organization for Security and Co-operation
in Europe (OSCE), Office for Democratic Institutions and
Human Rights, Compensation for Trafficked and Exploited Persons in the OSCE Region, 2008; European Union, Europa –
Summaries of EU Legislation, ‘The rights of crime victims’,
2014, available at: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/
justice_freedom_security/judicial_cooperation_in_criminal_
matters/l33091_en.htm; Buchanan, C. (editor), Gun Violence, Disability and Recovery, Surviving Gun Violence Project,
Sydney, 2014, pp. 37-40.
COMP.ACT - European Action for Compensation for Trafficked Persons, Toolkit on Compensation for Trafficked Persons: Guidance on representing trafficked persons in compensation
claims, 2012 (www.compactproject.org).
the world remained stable compared to the 2007-2010
period. During that period, the number of countries that
reported no convictions was about 16 per cent of the total
sample, whereas 23 per cent of the countries reported less
than ten convictions in one year.
Data limitations prevent a comprehensive comparison
between the number of convictions and the number of
53
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
detected victims. Among the countries that reported on
both indicators, most of the countries with few or no
convictions also identified or assisted a very limited
number of victims. About one third of the countries with
few or no recorded convictions, however, detected a significant number of victims. While this suggests that local
institutions are responding to the trafficking occurring in
their countries by identifying and possibly assisting victims, this does raise the question of why this response does
not turn into a final sentence for the traffickers. For some
of the countries that record few convictions and a significant number of victims, the use of other offences to convict the traffickers could explain why there is no correlation
between the detection of victims and a proper criminal
justice response. In other cases, it appears that the identification of a victim does not lead to the prosecution of
a trafficker.
Overall, the global picture of the criminal justice response
shows few signs of change in recent years. An assessment
of how many countries reported increases or decreases in
the absolute number of convictions per year during the
period 2010-2012 confirms this. The vast majority of the
countries reported a relatively stable number of convictions over the 2010-2012 period, while just 13 per cent
saw a noticeable increase. However, another 10 per cent
of countries recorded decreasing trends over the same
period. This means that from a global, aggregated perspective, the situation remained unchanged. Moreover, the
share of countries reporting stable conviction trends has
not changed significantly since 2003. Between 2003 and
2007, the share of countries with stable or unclear trends
was 71 per cent,35 between 2007 and 2010 it was 60 per
cent36 but between 2010 and 2012, the share was 77 per
cent. Similarly, the share of countries with increasing
number of convictions decreased from 21 to 13 per cent.
The data above shows that the number of countries that
successfully manage to punish at least some of the traffickers that operate in their territories is very limited. It
also shows that the situation has not changed in the short
to medium term.
As more countries introduced adequate legislation over
the last ten years, a gradual increase of convictions worldwide was expected in those countries where trafficking in
persons was known to be a problem. Moreover, over the
35 UNODC/UN.GIFT, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, 2009, p.
37.
36 UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012, p. 85.
54
FIG. 28: Number of convictions recorded per
year, share of countries, 2010-2012
NO CONVICTIONS
LESS THAN TEN
CONVICTIONS
15%
26%
INFORMATION
NOT AVAILABLE
17%
MORE THAN 50
CONVICTIONS
16%
BETWEEN 10 AND
50 CONVICTIONS
26%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
last few years, there has been a perception that proper
criminal justice responses would lead to a rising number
of convictions some years after the entry into force of the
UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol. This has not happened, or perhaps only to a very limited extent. While
more countries in the world now have solid legislation in
place, the number of convictions is stable at a very low
level more or less everywhere.
While it is true that some countries reported large numbers of convictions per year, these were often very populous countries. Their population size alone could explain
the large absolute numbers of convictions. When the ratio
of convictions per population is considered, Europe and
Central Asia reports more convictions per 100,000 population (around 0.3). South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific
reports a rate above 0.1, while the Americas and Africa
and the Middle East register rates well below 0.1. Globally, the number of convictions per 100,000 population
remained basically unchanged in comparison to the 20072010 period (0.1 per 100,000 population).
The wide regional differences obscure different levels of
the overall criminal justice response at the national level
and at different stages of the criminal justice process.
From investigation to conviction; a brief
analysis of the criminal justice response
Where does the criminal justice response start and how
does it develop? There are considerable procedural differences between countries. However, it is reasonable to argue
that in most legal traditions, the processing of cases
through the criminal justice system proceeds according
Global overview
FIG. 29: Trends in the number of recorded
convictions between 2010 and 2012,
share of countries
DECREASING
TRENDS
I
FIG. 30: Probability of first-instance
conviction for persons investigated
for trafficking in persons
?
10%
Operating traffickers and trafficking networks
INCREASING
TRENDS
13%
STABLE OR
UNCLEAR TRENDS
77%
100
persons investigated by the police
to a similar flow. One may consider three main steps
within the process that will ultimately lead to either a
conviction or an acquittal. Step one is the formal act of
initiating a criminal procedure. This is normally done
when the crime is reported and recorded by the authorities. The investigation of the case could lead to the identification and arrest of crime suspects when the crime is
often regarded as cleared. The second step starts when the
case is turned over to the prosecution service and the suspects are formally charged, on the basis of the evidence
collected during the investigation phase. The third step is
the trial and its outcome, where the suspect is either found
guilty or acquitted. Not all suspects end up being convicted; some may have been wrongly accused, or the evidence may not have been strong enough for a conviction.
Moreover, it can be assumed that not all traffickers are
identified by the police forces.
It is very challenging to assess the risk of arrest for a trafficker as the number of active traffickers in a certain area
is difficult to estimate. However, it is possible to estimate
the risks of facing a first-instance conviction for a potential trafficker who has been identified by the police. At
the global level, an average of some 24 per cent of those
persons who are suspected or investigated by the police
for conducting human trafficking activities are convicted
(in the first instance). In detail, it appears that about 45
per cent of those suspected by the police are prosecuted.
Of the persons prosecuted, 55 per cent are convicted.
From the analysis above, it appears that less than one in
four suspects face conviction. This reflects the relatively
low conviction ratio, which measures the efficiency of
45
persons prosecuted
24
persons convicted in first instance
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
criminal justice systems to deal with trafficking in person
cases. This, in turn, might be a result of the limited capacity of the police, prosecution and judges to respond to
human trafficking crimes. However, considering global
and regional averages always risks obscuring different performances. In Western and Central Europe, about 30 persons among those suspected and 50 of those prosecuted
are convicted in the first instance. These values are high
in comparison to the other regions of the world, which
explains the higher number of convictions per 100,000
population discussed above. South Asia, East Asia and the
Pacific, as well as the Americas present lower ratios of
persons suspected per conviction compared to Europe.
However, also within the regions, significant differences
can be found at the country-level. In these regions, it is
also possible to identify countries where a larger number
of those suspected or prosecuted for trafficking in persons
proceed to receive convictions.
55
GLOBAL
GLOBA
AL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING
TRA
IN PERSONS 2014
Do confraternities control the trafficking of Nigerian victims in
Europe?ı
in theory free. However, some of them may feel
ıı
Trafficking of young women from Nigeria to
Europe for the purpose of sexual exploitation is one
of the most persistent trafficking flows. During the
2007-2012 period, Nigerian victims constantly
accounted for more than 10 per cent of the total
number of detected victims in Western and Central
Europe, making this the most prominent transregional flow in this subregion. Present in different
European countries since the late 1990s,ıı one of the
reasons of its endurance may be the structured organization of the trafficking rings.
Typically, during the recruitment phase, the victims
are convinced to migrate by means of deception or
by peer pressure. In order to finance their migration
from Africa to Europe, the women sign a ‘contract’
with a member of the organization that sponsors
the trip. A local ‘priest’ blesses the contract with a
ritual called juju.ııı The trafficking route follows the
main smuggling migration paths by land, sea or air.
Victims trafficked to Spain, for instance, may fly to
the main airports of the country or of neighbouring
countries. In the case of the land route, they will
travel through the Sahel, the Sahara to North Africa
and cross the border into Ceuta or Melilla in Spain.
Similarly, on the route to Italy, they will attempt
the sea passage from North Africa to Lampedusa or
Sicily. v
Once at destination, the victims are already under
the control of the criminal organizations, and sexually exploited by being forced into prostitution in
order to pay back the debt contracted with the
sponsor. The belief in the power of the juju ritual as
well as threats to family members back home normally secure the loyalty of the victims. In Europe,
the victims are controlled by madams; older Nigerian women who manage the exploitation phase.
The Spanish authorities reported one mean of control used by the madams is guarding the victims’
children while the former are in the streets. ıı
The victims’ debt could amount to some 40,00070,000 euros that would cover just the travel and
the protection. The debt will raise for additional
expenses. Investigators estimate just 10,000 euros is
spent by the organization to transfer the victim into
Europe. Once the debt is paid back, the victims are
56
that they have few alternatives to continuing prostitution or to becoming madams themselves. While
being exploited, some victims may decide to cooperate with the madams in order to have their debt
reduced. In that case, they may move up the hierarchy to become controllers. Some victims can also
become trafficker so to emancipate from their
exploiters by exploiting other girls. Victims in full
exploitative situation may still accept such status, as
they believe that one day, this system will work in
their favour, and they will run their own trafficking
ring. In this way, victims are also legal accomplices
in the trafficking crime, thus they won’t report the
traffickers to the authorities.ıv
In March 2014, the Italian authorities concluded an
investigation named ‘CULTS’. As a result of the
investigation 34 persons were arrested. These were
members of two groups, called the Eiye and Aye
confraternities, operative in some parts of Italy
since at least 2008. The investigation brought to
light a level of organization, violence and intimidation similar to other, better known mafias. The
presence of these groups have been detected in
some parts of Spain since at least the year 2007. v
In the area of Rome (Italy), the Eiye and the Aye
have been fighting for over six years for control of
the territories and streets where the victims were
sexually exploited. The investigators report that
these groups were directly involved in managing the
trafficking of young women from the rural areas of
Benin City to Italy via Lome’ (Togo), and that they
had connections in other countries in Europe and
in different parts of Italy. v
The Eiye and the Aye confraternities are two of
about a dozen criminal groups that started as university campus confraternities in Nigeria. The violent conflicts between these confraternities since the
late 1970s is well documented, and there have been
hundreds of deaths over the last few decades vi. Their
presence in Europe is more recent, however.
Investigators describe these groups to function
through a system of cells (called forum) operating
locally but connected to other cells established in
different countries in West African, in North Africa,
Global
Gllob
o al overview
overview
in the Middle East and in Western Europe. The
local confraternity cells are involved in different
criminal activities wherever they operate. This
includes trafficking in persons for the purpose of
sexual exploitation, drug trafficking, counterfeiting,
documents falsification and money-laundering.
They maintain a rigid hierarchical structure headed
by a directorate and each forum is independent. The
members have a specific functional and hierarchical
role; they are connected by familiar or other relational ties. They have defined rules, initiation rituals and hundreds of members operating in Africa
and on or in other continents. They use a combination of money collectors, cash mules and corruption to launder and transfer illegal profits from
Europe to West Africa.v
As far as these confraternities’ involvement in the
human trafficking activity is concerned, it appears
that the role may change according to the different
organizational capabilities of the local forum. In
some cases the local forum does not directly engage
in the recruitment, transportation and exploitation
of victims, but rather ‘taxed’ and supervised the
madam-driven networks that operate independently
but within the territory under the confraternity’s
control. In some other cases, the confraternities are
directly managing the recruitment, transfer and
exploitation of the victims. They also applied a
‘taxation’ to free prostitutes who want to operate in
the areas under their control.v
Whether or not they do operate the human trafficking directly, the confraternities may facilitate it
when they have some leverage to exert. For instance,
investigative evidence shows that the confraternities
are able to bribe officers in some European airports
to facilitate the transit of victims into the European
Union free movement area. These groups access
institutions in Africa and Europe in order to secure
travel documents and impunity. They use systematic corruption and violence to protect and expand
their profits from the trafficking.v
On the basis of the evidence collected by the investigators, it is clear that the confraternities play an
important role in interfacing with other criminal
organizations that operate in the same territory,
either peacefully or violently. For instance, in Italy,
the members of the Eiye arrested were in business
with a group from the Balkans for the distribution
I
of marijuana in the area under confraternity control. v
The Spanish investigators define the trafficking in
persons originating from Nigeria as having a serious
incidence in Spain (in 2013, 13 per cent of the
victims detected and 8 per cent of the suspects
arrested in Spain were Nigerian citizens). Some
investigators suspect most of the Nigerian groups
operating this trafficking operate under the control
of the confraternities. v
The endurance of this trafficking flow in almost all
Western European countries indicate this maybe
the case also in other countries of the continent,
although further investigative work would be
needed to verify this.
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
The primary information for this text box was collected from
law enforcement officers specialized on trafficking in persons
and organized crime in Italy and Spain. The information concerning Spain was gathered from intelligence reports received
from the national authorities of the Centro de Inteligencia
Contra el Crimen Organizado (CICO), the Fuerzas y Cuerpos
de Seguridad del Estado (Guardia Civil y el Cuerpo Nacional
de Policia), and from the Mossos d’Esquadra for what concerns specifically the Autonomous Community of Catalonia in
Spain. In Italy, the information was extrapolated from investigative files provided by the Procura Distrettuale Anti Mafia on
the operation CULTS, completed in March 2014.
Primary information collected for this study as indicated in
note I. See also Carling, J., Migration, Human Smuggling and
Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe, International Organization
for Migration (IOM), 2005; Carchedi, F. and Orfano, I., La
Tratta di Persone in Italia; Evoluzione del Fenomeno ed Ambiti
di Sfruttamento, Osservatorio Tratta, FrancoAngeli, Milano,
2007; UNICRI, Trafficking of Nigerian Girls to Italy - the data,
the stories, the social services, 2010.
Juju is a traditional religious belief of the Yoruba people of
Southwest Nigeria on the spirit world affecting the everyday
life and it is predominantly practiced is in the Edo state and
the River Niger Delta region. Juju was originally created by
the early Europeans and it has its origins in the French word
joujou, meaning toy or plaything. Juju refers to a small object
that is believed to contain energy that brings luck and protection. The early Europeans mistakenly understood these objects
to be the focus of worship and named the religious belief as
juju. (Anti-trafficking Consultants: http://www.antitraffickingconsultants.co.uk/tactics/)
See Lo Iacono, E., ‘Victims, Sex Workers and Perpetrators:
Grey Areas in the Trafficking of Nigerian Women’, Trends in
Organized Crime, 2014.
Primary information collected for this study as indicated in
footnote I.
Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Nigeria: The Black Axe Confraternity, also known as the Neo-Black
Movement of Africa, 2005 (Response to Information Request,
available at: http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/Eng/ResRec/RirRdi/
Pages/index.aspx?doc=433931).
57
CHAPTER II
REGIONAL OVERVIEWS
Following the global overview, the regional overviews will
go into more detail about the trafficking situation in the
four regions considered in this Report. The regions are
presented in separate sections which first discuss the profiles of offenders, then victims, then trafficking flows and
finally the regional responses to the trafficking crime.
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN
EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
•
•
•
•
Victims are often adult women.
Sexual exploitation is prominently detected.
Traffickers from this region are mainly prosecuted
there.
Diversity of trafficking flows, particularly in Western
and Central Europe.
In this Report, Europe and Central Asia is divided into
two subregions, namely Western and Central Europe, as
well as Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The two subregions display some similarities in terms of the patterns
and flows of trafficking in persons, summarized above.
Other aspects are quite different, particularly in relation
to trafficking flows. Since the data from this region is
solid, particularly for Western and Central Europe, the
two subregions will be presented in separate sections.
Western and Central Europe 37
•
•
•
•
Diversity of trafficking flows.
Many foreign offenders; mostly from within the
subregion.
Mostly adult women victims.
Sexual exploitation very prevalent.
•
All countries have Protocol-compliant legislation.
37 As the data coverage in this region is solid, it is possible to present
more detailed analyses of the trafficking patterns and flows. In order
to do so, the following geographical aggregations will be used in this
section when appropriate: ‘Western Europe’ - Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland and the United Kingdom; ‘Southern Europe’ - Cyprus,
Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain and Turkey; ‘Central Europe’
- Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia; and ‘the Balkans’ - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and the
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Western and Central Europe is a region that is both an
origin and a destination for trafficking in persons. Countries in Central Europe and the Balkans are mainly origin
areas for cross-border trafficking into the rest of Europe.
These countries also detect significant levels of domestic
trafficking. The richer countries in Western and Southern
Europe are generally destinations for victims trafficked
from other regions (Asia, Africa and the Americas) and
for European victims trafficked from Central Europe and
the Balkans. Most of these countries also report considerable levels of domestic trafficking.
Profile of the offenders
The profiles of traffickers convicted in this subregion
broadly reflect the different roles of countries in the trafficking process. Western and Central European countries
convict citizens of their own country and foreigners in
near equal proportions. As shown in map 7 (p. 60), somewhat more than half of the offenders convicted during the
2010-2012 period were citizens of the country of conviction. About 30 per cent of the traffickers were foreigners
from countries within the same subregion. Compared to
the global average, countries in Western and Central
Europe convict fewer own citizens (even though they do
make up a majority of offenders) but more foreigners from
within the subregion.
Considering origins from outside Western and Central
Europe, the largest share is made up of traffickers from
Africa and the Middle East. This group accounts for some
10 per cent of the total number of people convicted. Most
of these offenders are citizens of countries in West and
North Africa. However, the relevance of West African traffickers (some 6 per cent of the convicted offenders) is
limited in comparison to the large share of victims from
this region that are detected in Western and Central
Europe.
Other significant groups of foreign traffickers from outside the subregion are Asians and citizens of countries in
the Americas. These groups each account for some 5 per
cent of the offenders in this region. Offenders from Eastern Europe and Central Asia comprise a small, but sig-
59
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
MAP 7:
Citizenships of convicted traffickers in Western and Central Europe, by subregion,
shares of the total, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
100% is equivalent to
3,539 persons convicted
Others Europe
(cross-border)
Local nationals
51%
3%
1.5%
Central Europe
4% (cross-border)
Western
and Central
Europe
5%
22%
6%
3%
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
4%
The Balkans
(cross-border)
1%
East Asia
South Asia
4%
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
Central America
and the Caribbean
North Africa
and the Middle East
0.5%
West Africa
South
America
Source: UNODC.
nificant share, with 2 per cent of the total. The citizenship
profiles of the foreign offenders broadly mirror the profiles
of the detected foreign trafficking victims, at least by
major regional aggregations. A statistical analysis presented
in the section Traffickers, organized crime and the business
of exploitation indicated that there is a quantitative relation between the citizenships of offenders and victims
detected in Western and Central Europe, when foreigners
are considered in both categories. The same result was
found in other destinations of trafficking in persons and
confirmed by a qualitative analysis of the court cases submitted by Member States.38
The global findings show that areas that are more typical
origins for cross-border trafficking in persons tend to have
vastly different offender profiles than areas that are more
typical destinations. As Western and Central Europe is a
subregion that encompasses countries of origin as well as
destination of cross-border trafficking, this is true also
FIG. 31: Distribution of national and
foreign offenders among countries
of origin and destination of crossborder trafficking in Western and
Central Europe, 2010-2012
Central Europe
and the Balkans
92% 8%
Western and
Southern Europe
40%
0%
20%
40%
60%
60%
National offenders
Foreign offenders
38 For more information on the court cases, please refer to the section
on Methodology.
60
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
80%
100%
Regional overviews
FIG. 32: Prosecutions for trafficking in per-
sons in Western and Central Europe,
by gender, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
23%
77%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
there. Countries in the Balkans and Central Europe39 are
mainly origin areas (with most victims trafficked to Western Europe) and thus convict largely local citizens. More
than 9 in 10 convicted traffickers in these areas are own
citizens. Countries in Western and Southern Europe mainly countries of destination - convict large shares of
foreigners, approximately 60 per cent. Almost all - about
97 per cent - of the foreigners who were convicted of trafficking in persons in Western and Central Europe were
detected in the more typical destination countries of crossborder trafficking.
In terms of the gender of the offenders, countries in Western and Central Europe prosecute and convict somewhat
fewer women than the global average. Some 23 per cent
of those prosecuted and/or convicted of trafficking in persons in this subregion are women, compared to some 28
per cent at the global level.
Countries within the subregion report significant differences in the shares of women who are prosecuted and
convicted. Some countries, for example in the Balkans,
have very low shares of convictions of women. In other
countries, including in the Baltic area, women comprise
nearly one third of the convicted trafficking offenders.
II
FIG. 33: Convictions for trafficking in persons
in Western and Central Europe, by
gender, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
22%
78%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
of the total number or victims. Adult victims thus comprise more than 80 per cent of all detected victims in this
subregion.
The detection of child trafficking in Western and Central
Europe is not as common as in other regions. Children
account for almost 20 per cent of the detected victims,
whereas globally, this group makes up nearly one third of
victims. Girls are much more frequently detected than
boys. Out of every five children trafficked in Western and
Central Europe, four are girls and one is a boy.
FIG. 34: Gender and age profiles of victims
detected in Western and Central
Europe, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
62%
19%
16%
3%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Profile of the victims
On average, countries in Western and Central Europe
detect more adult victims and more women victims than
other (sub)regions. A majority of the detected victims of
trafficking in persons in Western and Central Europe –
some 63 per cent - are adult women, whereas the second
largest group is adult men, who account for 19 per cent
39 For this analysis, 15 countries that are more typical origin than destination countries for cross-border trafficking have been considered.
Most of the detected victims in this subregion – approximately 65 per cent - were subjected to sexual exploitation.
This seems to be connected to the high share of females
among the total number of detected victims since trafficking for sexual exploitation largely affects women. Trafficking for sexual exploitation does not only affect females,
however. Some 4 per cent of the victims of this type of
trafficking were males in Western and Central Europe
during the 2010 – 2012 period.
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GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 35: Forms of exploitation detected
in Western and Central Europe,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
trafficked for forced labour in
Western and Central Europe,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
65%
31%
ORGAN
REMOVAL
OTHERS
0.1% 9%
69%
FORCED
LABOUR
26%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
The large share of victims trafficked for sexual exploitation implies that forced labour is less commonly detected
in this subregion. 25 per cent of the victims detected in
Western and Central Europe were exploited in forced
labour. About 30 per cent of these victims were females,
while about 70 per cent were males.
In Western and Central Europe, victims exploited in
‘other’ forms of trafficking are relatively frequently
detected. Some 9 per cent of victims were trafficked for
purposes other than sexual exploitation or forced labour.
For instance, about 1.5 per cent of the detected victims
were trafficked for begging, while more than 1 per cent
were trafficked for the purpose of committing (often
petty) crime. Other types of exploitation in this category
include forced marriages, welfare fraud, children exploited
for the production of pornographic material, as well as
mixed sexual and labour exploitation.
As far as the gender distribution for trafficking for ‘other’
purposes is concerned, for victims detected in Western
and Central Europe between 2010 and 2012, female victims account for some 72 per cent of the victims of this
type of trafficking.
Trafficking flows
The most striking feature of trafficking in persons in Western and Central Europe is the diversity of trafficking flows
associated with this subregion. As mentioned before, it is
a significant origin and destination area simultaneously.
From an origin point of view, victims from this subregion
are largely trafficked within the subregion, mainly from
Central Europe and the Balkans towards the other countries, and in terms of domestic trafficking.
62
FIG. 36: Gender breakdown of victims
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
As a destination area, Western and Central European
countries detected victims of more than 130 different citizenships, displaying a vast variety of trafficking flows
directed to this part of the world. The victims detected
here between 2010 and 2012 were mainly from within
the subregion, but also from a broad range of other countries. In other words, while the subregional nature of trafficking in persons is the key feature, at the same time,
Western and Central Europe is also a significant destination area for victims from elsewhere.
Cross-border trafficking originating from within the subregion accounts for the largest share of detected victims,
nearly 40 per cent. Victims from approximately 40 Western and Central European countries have been detected
in the subregion. The vast majority of these victims come
from countries in the Balkans. Victims from the Balkan
area have been identified in significant numbers in all
parts of Western and Central Europe.
Domestic trafficking accounts for about one fourth of the
total number of victims detected in Western and Central
Europe. Added up, the shares of subregional cross-border
trafficking and domestic trafficking show that more than
six in 10 victims detected in Western and Central Europe
are citizens of countries within the subregion.
However, the trafficking flows are different when focusing
on different areas within the subregion. When the analysis
considers the more affluent countries in Western and
Southern Europe, domestic trafficking accounts for 16
per cent of the total number of detected victims, while
for countries in Central Europe and the Balkans, it
accounts for about 80 per cent of the detected victims.
Regional overviews
MAP 8:
II
Origins of victims trafficked to Western and Central Europe, by subregion, share of the
total number of victims detected there, 2010-2012
100% is equivalent to
16,718 detected victims
4%
Western
and Central
Europe
within Western
and Central Europe
62%
7%
8%
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
19%
South Asia, East Asia
and the Pacific
Americas
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
Africa and
the Middle East
Source: UNODC.
Origins of victims trafficked to Western and Southern Europe, share of the total
number of victims detected there, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
MAP 9:
100% is equivalent to
14,775 detected victims
Percentages are written
for values above 3%
Other Europe
(cross-border)
Domestic
16%
4%
13%
Western
and Southern
Europe
7%
Central Europe
7%
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
27%
The Balkans
16%
North Africa
and the Middle East
East Asia
South Asia
Central America
and the Caribbean
West Africa
Other
Sub-Saharan Africa
South
America
Source: UNODC.
63
number of victims detected there, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
100% is equivalent to
1,943 detected victims
Other
Europe
Percentages are written
for values above 3%
Domestic
79%
Central Europe
(cross-border)
5%
Central
Europe and
the Balkans
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
The Balkans
(cross-border)
9%
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
MAP 10: Origins of victims trafficked to Central Europe and the Balkans, share of the total
South Asia, East Asia
and the Pacific
Americas
Sub-Saharan Africa
Source: UNODC.
MAP 11: Destinations of trafficking victims
from Central Europe and the Balkans,
as a proportion of the total number
of victims detected at specific destinations, 2010-2012
5%
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
Source: UNODC.
64
Central Europe
and the Balkans
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
40%
Western
and Southern
Europe
As for cross-border trafficking from within the subregion,
countries in Central Europe and the Balkans mainly
receive trafficking victims from neighbouring countries
of the same area, as well as victims from proximate countries in Eastern Europe. The more affluent countries in
Western and Southern Europe report significant inflows
from the Balkans (27 per cent) and from Central Europe
(13 per cent).
Trafficking from the Balkans into the rest of the subregion
remains very significant. It is, however, limited to Europe
as detections of victims from the Balkans outside Europe
are rare. Trafficking victims originating from Central
Europe have been increasingly detected in the rest of
Europe compared to the period 2007-2010. In addition,
and as opposed to the victims from the Balkans, citizens
of countries in this area have been detected outside
Europe, particularly in North and Central America and
the Caribbean. It is thus a trafficking flow that should be
monitored in the future.
Moreover, more than 2 per cent of the detected victims
in Western and Central Europe were trafficked from one
of the Baltic countries. This is a small share, but considering the limited population of these countries, it is nonetheless significant.
Trafficking from countries in the other European subre-
Regional overviews
II
FIG. 37: Evolution of the origins of trafficking into Western and Central Europe,
2007/2010-2010/2012
26%
24%
The Balkans
detail
2007-2010
100% is equivalent to
16,808 detected victims
North Africa
and Middle East
Sub-Saharan
Africa, other
West Africa
detail
64% 62%
18% 19%
7% 7%
7% 8%
5% 4%
within Western
and Central
Europe
Africa and
the Middle
East
East and
South Asia
Americas
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
2% 2%
3% 2%
2%
1%
domestic
trafficking
29%
25%
14%
14%
Central
Europe
2010-2012
100% is equivalent to
16,718 detected victims
7%
12%
Other
Europe
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
gion, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, into Western and
Central Europe, accounts for about 4 per cent of the total
number of detected victims, which is a very similar value
to what was reported for the 2007-2010 period in the
Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 (almost 5 per
cent).
Although subregional trafficking is more prominently
detected, the share of victims who are trafficked transregionally to Western and Central Europe is almost 40 per
cent. This share reaches peaks of 50 per cent in the countries of Western and Southern Europe, while such trafficking is marginal for the countries in Central Europe
and the Balkans. The dispersion of these victims’ origin
countries is remarkable. Victims with some 80 non-European citizenships were detected across Western and Central Europe between 2010 and 2012. This subregion is
clearly one of the main destinations for transregional trafficking. Other wealthy areas also receive a lot of inbound
cross-border trafficking, but that tends to come from
countries that are relatively close in geographical terms.
Western and Central Europe is the only region to detect
victims from every other region in significant numbers.
Looking specifically at the origins of transregional trafficking flows, the trafficking of Africans, particularly West
Africans, appears to be the most significant. Detections
of West Africans are second only to that of people from
the Balkans in terms of shares of the total number of victims who are trafficked cross-border. West African victims
have been detected in 20 countries across most of Western
and Central Europe. The relevance and endurance of this
trafficking flow across many parts of Western and Central
Europe might indicate the presence of a well-organized
structure behind the flow.
Trafficking from other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa is also
detected. Moreover, victims from North African countries
- especially from the Maghreb - are broadly dispersed.
These victims are detected in limited numbers but in different countries.
The detection of victims from the Americas used to be
65
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
largely limited to Spain and Portugal. This has changed,
and nowadays, victims from the Americas – primarily
South America, and to a lesser extent, Central America
and the Caribbean - have been detected in other countries
of this subregion. During the 2010-2012 period, South
American victims accounted for 6 per cent of the total
number of victims detected in Western and Central
Europe.
Victims from the Caribbean accounted for approximately
1.5 per cent of the total number of detected victims in
some 9 countries in Western and Central Europe. This is
quite a remarkable share for relatively small and distant
countries.
Asian victims are also detected in significant numbers in
Western and Central Europe. This group accounts for
about 6 per cent of the total number of detected victims.
East and South-East Asian victims have been detected in
many countries. Additionally, South Asian victims have
been detected in many countries in Western and Central
Europe, but in limited numbers.
Response to trafficking in persons
In terms of legislation, all the countries in Western and
Central Europe considered in this Report have national
legislation that is in line with the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol today. The historical evolution of the legislation in this part of the world was, to a considerable
extent, affected by the entry into force of the Protocol in
December 2003. More than half of the countries amended
their criminal code after this date to introduce a specific
offence on trafficking in persons that was in line with the
international standards.
FIG. 39: Number of Western and Central
European countries according to
the number of convictions per year
reported, 2010-2012
BETWEEN 10 AND 50
CONVICTIONS PER YEAR
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES
CONSIDERED, N:32
LESS THAN TEN
CONVICTIONS
PER YEAR
13
7
INFORMATION
NOT AVAILABLE
MORE THAN 50
CONVICTIONS PER YEAR
4
8
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
While several of the countries had specific legislation
before December 2003, the offences were often introduced either in the year 2002 or earlier in 2003. So for
many of these countries as well, the legislation was
amended as a result of the political push generated by the
Trafficking in Persons Protocol that was adopted by the
Member States in the year 2000.
A further geographical analysis shows that the countries
in Central Europe and the Balkans were the quickest in
setting up their legislative counter-trafficking framework.
Among the 18 countries with proper legislation in place
in 2003, 6 were in Western Europe, while 12 were in
Central Europe and the Balkans. The gap was quickly
closed, however, as after just five years, most of the countries had adopted proper legislation to combat trafficking
in persons.
FIG. 38: Historical evolution of the legislation in Western and Central Europe, 2003-2012
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES CONSIDERED, N:39
2003
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
2008
MOST / ALL
FORMS
12
NO OFFENCE
9
35
MOST / ALL
FORMS
18
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
66
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
2
NO OFFENCE
2
2012
MOST / ALL
FORMS
39
Regional overviews
In Western and Central Europe, eight countries recorded
more than 50 convictions in at least one year during the
2010-2012 period.
for a subregion which mainly experiences intraregional
and domestic trafficking in persons and which is mainly
an origin area for trafficking victims.
On average, 30 per cent of trafficking in persons suspects
in Western and Central Europe received a conviction in
the first instance. About half of those prosecuted got a
first-instance conviction.
Some 3 per cent of the convicted traffickers in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia come from other (sub)regions;
most of them from Western and Central Europe, but also
some from the Middle East. Both are areas of destination
for victims who are citizens of countries in Eastern Europe
and Central Asia. For example, in the court cases submitted to UNODC by Member States, a case from Belarus
saw a man from a country in Western and Central Europe
convicted in Belarus for his involvement in trafficking
local women via his own country to another Western
European destination for sexual exploitation. He was
living in Belarus and targeted poor women looking for
work opportunities abroad. Through promises of wellpaid work, he deceived the victims to travel abroad. Their
first stop was the offender’s home country where the
women were met by his accomplices. While this man was
the only offender sentenced in the case (he received a
prison sentence of seven years), the case brief made it clear
that several others were also involved.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
•
Most of the detected trafficking is intraregional; few
victims trafficked from other regions.
•
Many female traffickers and victims.
•
Mainly sexual exploitation, but more forced labour
than in Western and Central Europe.
•
All countries have Protocol-compliant legislation.
One of the key characteristics of trafficking in persons in
Eastern Europe and Central Asia is the strong involvement
of women, both as traffickers and victims.
Profile of the offenders
Considering both prosecutions and convictions, almost
half of the traffickers in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
are women. While women are more involved in trafficking in persons than most other crimes, a female offending
rate of some 50 per cent is exceptional as the global average for trafficking in persons is around 30 per cent.
The vast majority of the traffickers convicted in this subregion – more than 90 per cent - are local citizens convicted in their own countries. About 8 per cent are
foreigners from countries within Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This is an expected citizenship profile breakdown
II
Profile of the victims
While the prominent detections of women victims in the
entire region has already been mentioned, in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia it is particularly high, at 77 per
cent. This is the highest share of women victims of any
(sub)region.
Some 15 per cent of the detected victims are men, which
brings the share of adult trafficking victims in this subregion well above 90 per cent. This is a very large share in
FIG. 40: Prosecutions for trafficking in per-
sons in Eastern Europe and Central
Asia, by gender, 2010-2012 (or more
recent)
46%
54%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 41: Convictions for trafficking in persons
in Eastern Europe and Central Asia,
by gender, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
56%
44%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
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GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 42: Citizenships of convicted traffickers
FIG. 44: Forms of exploitation detected in
in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
(by region/subregion), 2010-2012 (or
more recent)
Eastern Europe and Central Asia,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
SEXUAL
EXPLOITATION
NATIONAL
OFFENDERS
71%
90%
FORCED
LABOUR
26%
FOREIGNERS EASTERN EUROPE
AND CENTRAL ASIA
WESTERN AND
CENTRAL EUROPE
AFRICA AND
MIDDLE EAST
8%
2%
0.5%
ORGAN
REMOVAL
OTHERS
1% 2%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 45: Gender breakdown of victims trafFIG. 43: Gender and age profiles of victims
detected in Eastern Europe and
Central Asia, 2010-2012 (or more
recent)
ficked for forced labour in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia, 2010-2012
(or more recent)
30%
77%
15%
6%
2%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
a global perspective. Detected child trafficking is marginal
compared to adult trafficking in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as only about 8 per cent of the detected victims
are children. As in Western and Central Europe, child
trafficking mainly concerns girls.
In terms of the forms of exploitation, sexual exploitation
is by far the most commonly detected form, accounting
for more than 70 per cent of the victims.
About 26 per cent of the victims detected here are trafficked for forced labour. A relatively large share of forced
labour victims detected in Eastern Europe and Central
Asia are women; some 30 per cent.
About 50 victims of trafficking in persons for the purpose
68
70%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
of organ removal were detected during the period considered in Europe and Central Asia; 38 of them in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia. About 80 per cent of these victims were males.
Trafficking flows
Most of the victims who are detected in countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia originate from that subregion, regardless of whether they are victims of domestic
trafficking or cross-border trafficking within the subregion. In other words, there are very few foreigners from
outside Eastern Europe and Central Asia trafficked into
the subregion for exploitation there.
Moreover, nearly all - 99 per cent - of the victims detected
in this subregion are either domestically trafficked or trafficked from neighboring countries within the subregion.
Regional overviews
II
MAP 12: Destinations of trafficking victims from Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as a propor-
tion of the total number of victims detected at destination, 2010-2012
99.3%
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
6%
North
Africa and
the Middle
East
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
South
Asia
2.5%
East Asia
and the Pacific
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
4%
Western
and Central
Europe
Flows of less than 1%
of detected victims
at destination
Source: UNODC.
From an origin perspective, victims from Eastern Europe
and Central Asia have been detected in or repatriated from
a large number of countries, especially in Western and
Central Europe. Victims from this subregion have also
been significantly detected in the Middle East and in East
Asia. While detections of these citizens are decreasing, at
least in Western and Central Europe, North America and
the Middle East, displacement of these trafficking flows
to other regions or intra-regionally cannot be excluded.
Response to trafficking in persons
All countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia now
have legislation in line with the UN Trafficking in Persons
Protocol. Similar to Western and Central Europe, the year
2003 marked the moment when a wave of new legislation
started to be introduced.
Among these countries, the Central Asian ones needed
most time to have legislation fully in line with the inter-
FIG. 46: Historical evolution of the legislation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 2003-2012
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES CONSIDERED, N:12
2003
MOST / ALL
FORMS
NO OFFENCE
6
4
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
2
2008
MOST / ALL
FORMS
11
2012
MOST / ALL
FORMS
12
NO OFFENCE
1
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
69
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
national standards of the Trafficking in Persons
Protocol.
The number of persons convicted per 100,000 population
in Europe and Central Asia is high in comparison to the
rest of the world, and the average rates in Eastern Europe
are somewhat higher than in Western Europe. However,
the highest rates of convictions per population in Europe,
and in the world, are registered in the Balkans, with a peak
of 2 convictions per 100,000 population.
Most of the countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
reported having between 10 and 50 convictions for trafficking in persons per year. For two countries in this subregion, however, this information was not available.
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN THE
AMERICAS
•
Forced labour prominent.
•
Many foreign traffickers convicted in origin countries.
•
Large share of women traffickers.
The region of the Americas encompasses the subregions
of North and Central America and the Caribbean, and
South America. While the two subregions are different in
some respects, particularly regarding trafficking flows,
they display many similarities in terms of the patterns.
For this reason, they will be considered together in this
section, with a subregion-specific brief analysis of trafficking flows at the end.
Profile of the offenders
With regard to the citizenships of the offenders, as a result
of lack of data from key countries, only a partial analysis
can be presented. As in other parts of the world, most of
the offenders in the Americas are people convicted of trafficking in persons in their own country of citizenship
(about 80 per cent of the total number of convicted
offenders). About 17 per cent of the offenders are citizens
of other countries in the region, whereas some 3 per cent
are traffickers from countries in other regions. Some of
the traffickers in this group are citizens of typical destination countries for South American victims.
Keeping in mind the global finding that most foreign traffickers are convicted in destination countries, the Americas
region is somewhat anomalous. The participation of foreign traffickers in countries of origin in this region seems
to be higher than in most other parts of the world. Some
13 per cent of the foreign traffickers were convicted in
70
FIG. 47: Citizenships of offenders convicted
in the Americas (by (sub)region),
2010-2012 (or more recent)
WESTERN AND
CENTRAL EUROPE
2%
SOUTH ASIA,
EAST ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC
NATIONAL
OFFENDERS
80%
1%
FOREIGNERS AMERICAS
17%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 48: Convictions of foreign offenders
(relative to the convicting country)
by countries of origin and destination of cross-border trafficking in
the Americas, 2010-2012
COUNTRIES OF
DESTINATION
88%
COUNTRIES
OF ORIGIN
12%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
typical origin countries of cross-border trafficking, and
this may be a low figure as data from some key countries
is missing.
Traffickers from countries in the Americas are not only
convicted there, however. Western European countries
have convicted a significant number of citizens of countries in South America and the Caribbean during the
reporting period. Citizens of countries in the Americas
account for about 4 per cent of the total number of convicted persons in the subregion of Western and Central
Europe.
Overall, the share of women among the total number of
Regional overviews
whereas Canada in North America reported a much lower
female conviction rate.
FIG. 49: Prosecutions for trafficking in
persons in the Americas, by subregion and gender, 2010-2012
(or more recent)
South
America
55%
North America,
Central America
and Caribbean
0%
20%
40%
Profile of the victims
45%
57%
60%
43%
80%
100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 50: Convictions for trafficking in persons
in the Americas, by subregion and
gender, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
South
America
60%
II
40%
The profiles of the victims detected across the two subregions of the Americas are similar. Child trafficking
accounts for almost 30 per cent of the total number of
detected victims, with adults making up the other 70 per
cent. These shares are similar to those found for the 20072010 period.
A closer look at the two subregions brings to light some
differences in terms of the profiles of detected victims.
While in North America and in the South Cone of South
America, adult trafficking accounts for a larger share of
victims than the regional average, the share of detected
child trafficking is relatively high in Central America and
in the northern part of South America.
Most of the detected child victims are girls. Out of every
three children detected as victims, two are girls and one
is a boy. This breakdown applies to the whole region. The
females also dominate among the adults. Adult women
account for approximately half of all detected victims in
the Americas, whereas some 20 per cent are men.
There is a clearly increasing detection rate of children in
North and Central America and the Caribbean. In South
America, however, the country-level trends are more
mixed.
FIG. 51: Age profiles of detected victims
in the Americas, by subregion,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
North America,
Central America
and Caribbean
67%
33%
ADULTS
North America,
Central America
and Caribbean
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
CHILDREN
71%
29%
67%
33%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
traffickers in the Americas is also relatively high, ranging
around 40 per cent for prosecutions as well as convictions.
These shares are similar in both subregions, even if somewhat higher in South America. A closer look reveals that
Central American countries record higher shares of female
involvement in the trafficking process (which may be
related to the profile of the victims detected there),
South America
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
71
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 52: Share of children among the total
number of detected trafficking
victims, selected countries in the
Americas, 2007-2012
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
El Salvador
Guatemala
Canada
Mexico
United States of America
Assuming that all countries in South America had legislation consistent with the Trafficking in Persons Protocol
and used the Protocol framework for defining trafficking
in persons in their responses to this crime, it is likely that
forced labour would emerge as the main form of trafficking detected in South America.
Two of the cases that involved large numbers of victims
among the court cases submitted by Member States were
cases of trafficking for forced labour. One was a case from
North America (Canada), and the other, from South
America (Argentina). The sectors involved were construction and manufacturing, and in both cases, the victims
were trafficked from relatively poorer to relatively richer
countries by extended family members or family friends.
In the Canadian case, it was clearly an organized crime
group, as approximately 10 people were convicted. In the
Argentine case, there were two convicted offenders –
father and son.
The detection of trafficking for sexual exploitation in this
region is broadly inverse to the shares of forced labour. In
South America, such trafficking accounts for some 55 per
cent of the detected victims, whereas in North and Central America and the Caribbean, some 40 per cent. In both
subregions, some 5 per cent of victims are subjected to
‘other’ forms of trafficking, including mixed exploitation
(sexual and labour) and trafficking for begging.
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
FIG. 53: Forms of exploitation detected
in the Americas, by subregion,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Argentina
Paraguay
Peru
North America,
Central America
and Caribbean
42% 4%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
In the Americas, trafficking for forced labour is prominently detected. In North and Central America and the
Caribbean, this form of trafficking accounts for more than
half of the detected victims, whereas in South America,
the share is above 40 per cent. It is very likely that trafficking for forced labour is underreported to an unknown
extent in some South American countries. Some countries
have legislation that only covers trafficking for sexual
exploitation, and some register situations that may be cases
of trafficking for forced labour under offences such as
‘slavery’ or similar practices.
72
South
America
54%
54% 5%
0%
20%
40%
60%
Sexual exploitation
Others
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
41%
80%
100%
Organ removal
Forced labour
Regional overviews
II
5 per cent of the victims who were trafficked for sexual
exploitation are males.
FIG. 54: Gender breakdown of victims
trafficked for forced labour in the
Americas, by subregion, 2010-2012
Trafficking flows
North
America,
Central
America and
Caribbean
70%
South
America
67%
0%
20%
40%
60%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Turning now to trafficking flows in the subregion of
North and Central America and the Caribbean, 58 per
cent of the relevant flows are either domestic or subregional. This is consistent with past Reports as well as
30%
results from other parts of the world. Looking at detections in some detail, victims from Central America have
been trafficked across the borders into neighboring countries in Central America, and victims from the Caribbean
have been detected in the Caribbean. Central American
and Caribbean victims have also been detected in North
33%
America. In addition, domestic trafficking is also commonly detected. Overall, the detections show a clear pattern of trafficking of persons from relatively poorer origin
80% 100% countries towards comparatively richer destinations within
the same subregion.
Transregional flows comprise more than 40 per cent of
the detected trafficking to North and Central America and
the Caribbean. This means that this subregion is a significant destination for such flows. The origins of flows destined for North America are much less diverse than those
of European countries, however. The main origin of
A closer look at the victims for forced labour shows that
the gender profile of these victims in the Americas is very
similar to that found in Europe and Central Asia. Some
30 per cent of the victims who were trafficked for forced
labour are females, and 70 per cent are males. Less than
MAP 13: Origins of victims trafficked into North and Central America and the Caribbean, shares
of the total number of victims detected, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
100% is equivalent to
2,204 detected victims
Domestic (within countries) 14%
and within the subregion (cross-border) 45%
Central Europe
and the Balkans
59%
South
Asia
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
25%
7%
5%
3%
South
America
Source: UNODC.
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
East Asia
and the Pacific
73
Caribbean, 2007/2010-2010/2012
2010-2012
100% is equivalent to
2,204 detected victims
within North,
East Asia
Central America
and the Caribbean
1%
7%
South Asia
2%
3% 3%
5%
Central Europe
and the Balkans
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25%
28%
59%
2007-2010
100% is equivalent to
1,592 detected victims
65%
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 55: Evolution of the origins of trafficking into North and Central America and the
South
America
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
This subregion also reported an increasing share of victims
from Western and Central Europe – mainly Central European countries – and these victims now account for about
5 per cent of the total number of detected victims there.
This is larger than the share of detected victims from the
neighbouring subregion of South America as these victims
comprise some 3 per cent of the total number.
MAP 14: Destinations of trafficking victims
originating in North and Central
America and the Caribbean, proportion of the total number of detected
victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or
more recent)
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
Looking at this subregion as origin of trafficking victims,
as mentioned previously, most of the trafficking is intraregional. As a result, most victims from this part of the world
are trafficked to a richer country nearby, or to a richer area
within the same country.
However, there are also some transregional trafficking
flows originating from the subregion, particularly countries in the Caribbean.
Turning now to South America, this is by and large a subregion of destination for domestic or intraregional traf-
74
2%
Western and Central
Europe
59%
The
Middle
East
4%
South
America
Flows of less than 1% of detected victims at destination
Source: UNODC.
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inbound long-distance trafficking is Asia, and particularly
East Asia. More than one in four of the victims detected
in North and Central America and the Caribbean are from
East Asian countries and these victims were mainly
detected in the United States and Canada. Additionally,
victims from South Asia were detected in significant numbers in the United States during the reporting period.
Regional overviews
II
MAP 15: Origin of victims detected in South America, as a proportion of the total number of
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
victims detected in the subregion, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
100% is equivalent to
1,810 detected victims
South Asia, East Asia
and the Pacific
Central America
and the Caribbean
4%
1%
South
America
94%
Source: UNODC.
ficking. Almost all the victims detected in South American
countries are either citizens of the detecting country or
have been trafficked across the border from neighbouring
countries. The same broad pattern of trafficking from
relatively poorer towards comparatively richer areas can
be discerned. For example, Bolivians are trafficked to
Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Paraguay; Paraguayans and
Peruvians are trafficked to Argentina and Chile; and
Colombians are trafficked to Chile and to some Central
American countries, to mention some of the flows.
In terms of inbound trafficking from outside the subregion, this only accounts for some 6 per cent of the total
number of detected victims. This share mainly comprises
East Asian victims, as well as a limited number of victims
from Central America and the Caribbean.
As an origin area for trafficking in persons out of the subregion, South American victims have been detected in a
variety of countries. The most pertinent flows are those
directed towards Western and Central Europe (some 6
per cent of the victims detected there), and North and
Central America and the Caribbean (some 3 per cent,
mainly detected in Central American and Caribbean
countries). A limited number of South American victims
have also been detected in East Asia and the Pacific, and
in North Africa and the Middle East.
Domestic (within countries) 51%
and within the subregion (cross-border) 43%
Response to trafficking in persons
In terms of the regional response to trafficking in persons,
most of the countries have specific legislation today,
although for some of the countries, the legislative coverage is partial. All North and Central American countries
have a specific offence in line with the UN Trafficking in
Persons Protocol. Among those considered, one country
in the Caribbean lacks a specific offence on trafficking in
persons, while four countries in South America and the
Caribbean criminalize only some aspects of trafficking in
persons.
Most of the countries in this part of the world did not
include trafficking in persons in their criminal code before
the entry into force of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol
in 2003. In fact, only three countries had a specific offence
in line with international standards at that time, while
five had partial legislation. A few years later, the situation
improved. In 2008, almost half of the countries in the
Western Hemisphere had legislation on trafficking in persons in compliance with the international standards. Nowadays, the situation has further improved as a vast majority
of the countries have full-fledged legislation.
The criminal justice response in the Western Hemisphere
shows that among the countries considered, only the
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GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
MAP 16: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in South America, proportion of the
total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
6%
Western and Central
Europe
3%
North America, Central America
and the Caribbean
The Middle East
and North Africa
Flows of less than 1%
of detected victims
at destination
94%
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East
Asia
South
America
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 56: Historical evolution of the legislation in the Americas, 2003-2014
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES CONSIDERED, N:31
2003
2008
NO OFFENCE
10
23
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
2012
NO OFFENCE
6
5
3
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
15
2014
24
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
5
2
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
76
MOST / ALL
FORMS
26
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
NO OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
4
NO OFFENCE
1
Regional overviews
United States of America and Peru reported more than
50 convictions for trafficking in persons per year. Some
countries in Central America and in the Caribbean did
not report a single conviction, while the rest of the countries registered below or around 10 convictions per year.
When comparing the number of suspects to the number
of convictions, the latter are about 10 per cent of the
former. There is a large discrepancy between the number
of cases of trafficking that are investigated by the police
and the number of persons who are convicted in the first
instance. On average, about 40 per cent of the prosecuted
persons are convicted in the first instance. The United
States reports a share of federal convictions to prosecutions of about 70 per cent, which is the largest reported
share in the region.
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN
SOUTH ASIA, EAST ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC
•
Origin area for victims trafficked across the world.
•
Many female victims, and many children detected.
•
Forced labour is prominently detected.
•
Most offenders come from within the region.
One of the key features of this region in terms of trafficking in persons is that it is a significant origin region for
victims who are trafficked across much of the world. East
Asian victims, in particular, have been widely detected
outside East Asia. The broad dispersion of East Asian victims has been evident for several years, and has also been
highlighted in previous editions of this Report.
As a destination of trafficking, South Asian countries are
mainly affected by domestic trafficking or trafficking from
the neighboring countries. Most of the victims detected
in this subregion are trafficked within national borders.
However, South Asian victims are largely detected in the
Middle East and increasingly detected in North and Central America and the Caribbean. They also comprise a
significant share of the victims detected in Western and
Central Europe.
II
addition to East Asia) Western and Central Europe, where
they account for some 4 per cent of the total number of
convicted persons, and Africa and the Middle East, where
they account for some 10 per cent, particularly in the
Middle East. East Asians have also been convicted in the
Americas. Moreover, South Asians are convicted in large
numbers in the Middle East.
Looking at the citizenships of those convicted of trafficking in persons in South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific,
the vast majority of traffickers come from this region.
Almost all are local citizens convicted in their own countries (97 per cent). About 3 per cent of the offenders convicted in this region are foreigners, and almost all of them
come from the same subregion. This can be explained by
the fact that most of the trafficking bound for this region
originates from the same area.
Very few people from Europe and Central Asia, North
Africa and the Middle East, or the Americas have been
convicted in Asia, in spite of the fact that these areas are
significant destinations for Asian victims. This suggests
that trafficking flows are either maneuvered in the origin
countries, or trafficking networks operating in the destination countries recruit local traffickers to ‘collect’ victims
from their origins.
Regarding the gender profiles of offenders, in East Asia
and the Pacific, it seems that women and men are prosecuted in relatively equal proportions, depending somewhat on the country concerned.
The limited information on the profile of the persons
convicted does not permit a comprehensive analysis on
the gender distribution of the offenders.
FIG. 57: Prosecutions for trafficking in
East Asia and the Pacific, by gender,
2010-2012
46%
54%
Profile of the offenders
The broad geographical dispersion of East Asian trafficking victims is reflected in prosecution and conviction statistics. These show that East Asian traffickers have been
convicted in 15 countries in several regions. Regions convicting significant numbers of East Asians include (in
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
77
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
Similar problems also hinder such an analysis for South
Asia. Here, very little information is available on the
gender profile of offenders. There is no information from
prosecutions or convictions, however, received information indicates that women are involved. A bit more than
40 per cent of the persons investigated for trafficking in
persons in India were females. The corresponding share
was 26 per cent in Nepal.
South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific,
by subregion, 2010-2012
East Asia
and Pacific
38%
21%
42% 4%
41%
54%
Profile of the victims
The vast majority of the victims detected in Asia are
females, either adults or underage girls. Trafficking of
males accounts for about 17 per cent of the total number
of victims detected in this region, which is somewhat
lower than the global average. Moreover, trafficking in
children is reported relatively frequently here.
Looking at South Asia, the share of child victims detected
here is second only to the share recorded in Sub-Saharan
Africa. Bangladesh reports a high level of child trafficking,
while in Nepal, women remain the most frequently
reported victims of trafficking. Unfortunately, the data
concerning other countries is incomplete, rendering a
rather partial subregional picture.
In East Asia and the Pacific, the profile of the victims
varies according to the specific area under consideration,
though female victims are most frequently detected. In
Australia and Japan, adult women make up the bulk of
FIG. 58: Age profiles of detected victims in
South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific,
by subregion, 2010-2012
ADULTS
CHILDREN
East Asia
and the Pacific
67%
South Asia
33%
60%
0%
20%
40%
60%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
78
FIG. 59: Forms of exploitation detected in
40%
80%
100%
South Asia
54% 5%
15%
0%
20%
40%
Sexual exploitation
Others
60%
41%
85%
80%
100%
Organ removal
Forced labour
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
the detected victims, whereas in countries in the Mekong
basin, the share of child victims is relatively high.
A significant majority of the detected victims trafficked
in South Asia are exploited in labour. Forced labour is the
most frequently detected form in East Asia and the Pacific,
although the breakdown of forms of exploitation there
also reveals large shares of trafficking for sexual exploitation as well as ‘mixed’ exploitation which may include
unknown proportions/combinations of sexual exploitation, forced labour and/or forced marriages.
Very little further information regarding the gender profile
of the victims in this region is available. The vast majority
(more than 7 in 10) of the victims trafficked for forced
labour in East Asia and the Pacific are females. No information is available on this for South Asia.
Two of the case briefs from the court cases submitted by
Member States dealt with domestic servitude. Both cases
were submitted by Brunei Darussalam, and both involved
women from South-East Asia whose original employment
as domestic servants turned into trafficking cases. Moreover, both cases involved two defendants, in each case, one
man and one woman (a married couple in one of the
cases). The victims did not receive their wages, and they
were locked up, deprived of food and/or severely physically abused.
Regional overviews
Trafficking flows
The main destinations for victims from the subregion of
East Asia and the Pacific (outside of the subregion) are
North America and the Middle East, and to a lesser extent
Western Europe. Victims from East Asia and the Pacific
are also being detected in Sub-Saharan Africa and episodically in South America and Eastern Europe. Victims do
not originate from one country only, but from many of
the countries in South-East Asia.
Victims from South Asia are also trafficked relatively
widely outside their subregion, albeit in smaller numbers
and to fewer locations than East Asians. Victims from
South Asia have been detected in or repatriated from 37
countries in all regions of the world. These victims, originating from nearly all the countries in the subregion,
account for some 18 per cent of the total number of
detected victims in the Middle East. They also comprise
significant shares of the victims detected in North and
Central America and the Caribbean (where detections of
South Asians appears to be increasing compared to the
2007-2010 period) and Western Europe.
Although the region is a significant origin region for victims of transregional trafficking, as for most other parts
II
of the world, the vast majority of the victims detected
within South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific are either
domestically trafficked or trafficked within the same subregion. This is true for both the region’s subregions, South
Asia, as well as East Asia and the Pacific. All countries in
the region are origins and destinations simultaneously,
with the exceptions of Australia and Japan, which are destination countries for victims from all over the region.
Countries in South Asia report having detected mainly
victims trafficked within the national borders; that is,
domestic trafficking. In addition, India also detected victims from other countries in the subregion, particularly
Nepal and Bangladesh. Victims trafficked from other areas
– for example Eastern Europe - have also been detected
in India, but only sporadically.
The situation is similar in East Asia and the Pacific, where
most victims are trafficked domestically or from neighbouring countries. Thailand detects a significant number
of victims from the greater Mekong area. Victims from
the Mekong area and the poorer countries in South-East
Asia are often trafficked to the richer countries. Additionally, a small number of victims trafficked from Eastern
Europe has been detected during the reporting period.
MAP 17: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in East Asia and the Pacific, proportion
of the total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
97%
33%
North
Africa and
the Middle
East
East Asia
and the Pacific
25%
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
South
Asia
3%
Sub-Saharan
Africa
1%
South
America
Flows of less than 1% of detected victims at destination
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
6%
Western
and Central
Europe
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
79
number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
1%
Western
and Central
Europe
18%
North
Africa and
the Middle
East
Flows of less than
1% of detected victims
at destination
7%
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
South
Asia
96%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Response to trafficking in persons
Most of the countries in South Asia, East Asia and the
Pacific have legislation that criminalizes all aspects listed
in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol. While only a few
countries still have partial legislation, the large populations in these countries is an element of concern, as discussed in the global overview.
The historical dynamics of this vast region show once
more how the entry into force of the Trafficking in Persons
Protocol was a turning point in the fight against trafficking in persons. Before December 2003, just four countries
had a specific offence on trafficking in persons in line with
international standards. Half of the countries did not
criminalize this crime as such, and 40 per cent had partial
legislation that mainly focused on trafficking of women
or trafficking for sexual exploitation. Thus, trafficking for
forced labour or trafficking in men were not yet considered as crimes in several countries.
Five years later, the number of countries with comprehensive legislation quintupled. The improvements were
mainly reported from South-East Asian countries as well
as countries in the Pacific, with some island states adopting the definition of trafficking of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol. The countries that lacked proper legislation
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GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
MAP 18: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in South Asia, proportion of the total
in 2008 were mainly within the continental East Asia as
well as South Asia and some island states in the Pacific.
The number of convictions in this part of the world is
higher than in other regions, with many countries reporting more than 50 convictions per year. However, three
factors should be taken into consideration in this regard.
First of all, many Asian countries have large populations.
While in some countries, thousands of traffickers are convicted, in proportion to the population, the number of
convictions by population in the region is on average 0.15
convictions per 100,000 population.
Secondly, most of the convictions are recorded in countries that still have partial legislation. Many traffickers still
do not face the risk of punishment since the crime they
commit is not considered as such by the national
authorities.
Thirdly, for many countries in this region (22 per cent)
data on convictions is not available. So, the regional average is actually biased as a result of the absence of proper
information on the criminal justice response.
On the basis of this partial data, according to UNODC
calculations, for every 10 persons suspected by the police
Regional overviews
II
FIG. 60: Historical evolution of the legislation in the Americas, 2003-2014
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES CONSIDERED, N:35
2003
2008
NO OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
17
22
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
14
4
2012
2014
28
5
7
6
MOST / ALL
FORMS
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
NO OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
31
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
NO OFFENCE
2
3
NO OFFENCE
1
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
of committing human trafficking activities, 2 will face
conviction in the first instance. While the result is above
the global average, the partiality of the information should
be considered.
trafficking patterns and flows. The economic disparities
between these areas – particularly the Middle East and
Sub-Saharan Africa - may explain these differences.
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN
AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
Data on the gender profiles of offenders is scarce. From
Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria and South Africa reported
high shares of female involvement, nearly 50 per cent,
during the reporting period. In the Middle East, the role
of male traffickers is much more prominent, and the share
of females among those prosecuted or convicted for trafficking in persons ranges around 25 per cent.
•
Scarce data from both subregions.
•
Trafficking flows and patterns very different in the two
subregions.
•
In Sub-Saharan Africa, domestic trafficking prominently detected.
•
Child trafficking - of both boys and girls - commonly
reported in Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas almost all
victims detected in North Africa and the Middle East
are adults.
•
Trafficking of children into armed combat significantly
detected in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The two subregions that comprise the region of Africa
and the Middle East - that is, Sub-Saharan Africa, and
North Africa and the Middle East - report very different
Profile of the offenders
The citizenship profiles of offenders is another pattern
where the two subregions differ completely. These differences are mainly related to the fact that Sub-Saharan
Africa is primarily a destination of domestic and intraregional trafficking, whereas the Middle East is largely a
destination of transregional trafficking.
Most of the persons convicted of trafficking in persons in
Sub-Saharan Africa are citizens of the country where they
were convicted. Only some 2.5 per cent of the total
number of convicted offenders are Sub-Saharan Africans
81
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 61: Citizenships of offenders convicted
in North Africa and the Middle East,
2010-2012
FOREIGNERS OTHER REGIONS
NATIONALS
NATIONALS
1%
97%
11%
FOREIGNERS WITHIN THE
SUBREGION
2%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
from other countries in the subregion, and less than 1 per
cent are foreigners from outside the region.
The subregion of North Africa and the Middle East
reports the highest share of foreign involvement in trafficking in persons. Some 80 per cent of the persons convicted of trafficking in persons here are citizens of countries
in other regions, mainly Asians. Just 11 per cent of the
persons convicted in this subregion come from the country where they were convicted; a share that is largely made
up of North Africans, rather than Middle Easterners.
This breakdown reflects the fact that the Middle East is
mainly a destination of trafficking from Asia. This area
experiences relatively limited intraregional trafficking,
while limited domestic trafficking is detected.
Looking at the countries where citizens of countries in
Africa and the Middle East have been convicted of trafficking in persons, there seems to be a relation with the
cross-border trafficking flows of victims from this region.
In Europe and Central Asia, some 9 per cent of the persons convicted are from Africa and the Middle East (6 per
cent from Sub-Saharan Africa and 3 per cent from North
Africa and the Middle East). Moreover, West African traffickers were detected in other parts of Africa, the Middle
East and Europe. A limited number of Middle Eastern
traffickers were detected in Europe and the Middle East
Profile of the victims
The two subregions also differ greatly in terms of the profiles of the detected victims. Sub-Saharan Africa reports
the highest share of child trafficking in the world, and
girls and boys are more or less equally detected. Trafficking in adults mainly targets women, as adult men comprise
82
FIG. 62: Citizenships of offenders convicted
in Sub-Saharan Africa (by region),
2010-2012
FOREIGNERS OTHER REGIONS
78%
FOREIGNERS WITHIN THE
SUBREGION
11%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
FIG. 63: Age and gender breakdown of
victims detected in Africa and the
Middle East, by subregion, 2010-2012
1,5%
North Africa
and the
Middle East
57%
37,5%
4%
Sub-Saharan
Africa
20,5% 6%
0%
20%
35%
40%
60%
38,5%
80%
100%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
only 6 per cent of the total number of victims detected in
Sub-Saharan Africa.
In North Africa and the Middle East, on the other hand,
almost all detected victims (95 per cent) are adults. This
is the largest share of adult victims of any region or subregion. While most of the adults are women, at 55 per
cent of the total, the share of males is large in a global
perspective. Among the 5 per cent of victims who are
children, more girls are detected than boys.
Almost one in five of the victims detected in Africa and
the Middle East are trafficked for purposes other than
Regional overviews
sexual exploitation or forced labour. A major role is played
by child soldiers in Sub-Saharan Africa, which particularly
affects Central African conflict and post-conflict
countries.
II
MAP 19: Destinations of trafficking victims
originating in West Africa, proportion of the total number of detected
victims at destinations, 2010-2012
Trafficking flows
West African victims have been detected in almost all
Western European countries. The share of West African
victims detected in Western Europe has remained constant
for the last few years, and the flows are largely comprised
of women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. Victims from East Africa are frequently detected in countries
FIG. 64: Origin of victims detected in
Sub-Saharan Africa, shares of the
total number of victims detected
in the subregion, 2010-2012
North America,
Central America
and the Caribbean
100% West
Africa
Flows of less than 1%
of detected victims
at destination
Source: UNODC.
MAP 20: Destinations of trafficking victims
originating in East Africa, proportion
of the total number of detected
victims at destinations, 2010-2012
2%
Western and Central
Europe
10%
The Middle
East
DOMESTIC
TRAFFICKING
SOUTH ASIA,
EAST ASIA AND
THE PACIFIC
76%
East
Africa
3%
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
- CROSS-BORDER
100%
21%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
As an origin area for trafficking out of the subregion, there
are two significant outbound flows from Sub-Saharan
Africa. One is bound for Western and Central Europe,
and one for North Africa and the Middle East. These flows
are largely comprised of West Africans trafficked to Western Europe, and East and West African victims detected
in North Africa and the Middle East (most prominently
in the Middle East).
14%
Western and Central
Europe
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
In terms of flows, domestic trafficking is the main type of
trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa. This type of trafficking
accounts for more than three quarters of the total number
of detected victims in this subregion, which is a very large
proportion. Cross-border trafficking flows are normally
of short range. Most West African victims are detected in
West Africa, most Southern Africans in Southern African
countries and so forth. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
also detect a limited number of victims from other regions,
especially East Asia, but these victims comprise a small
share of the total number of detected victims.
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
83
of victims detected there, 2010-2012
100% is equivalent to
825 detected victims
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
6%
1%
Americas
Domestic (within countries) 2%
and within the subregion
(cross-border) 29%
33%
The
Middle
31% East
South
Asia
18%
East Asia
and the Pacific
10%
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Source: UNODC.
in the Middle East. During the reporting period, they
accounted for some 10 per cent of total number of victims
detected in that area.
The Middle East is not only a destination for Sub-Saharan
(mainly East) Africans. The region also experiences
inbound trafficking from distant regions, especially from
the region of South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific. It is
not possible to single out one major area of origin; victims
from a variety of countries in South-East Asia and the
Indian sub-continent are trafficked mainly to the Gulf
and other Middle Eastern countries.
Another significant inbound trafficking flow to the
Middle East originates in Eastern Europe and Central
Asia; a flow that comprises some 6 per cent of the victims
detected in this subregion. This flow appears to be decreasing relatively rapidly. During the 2007-2010 period, these
victims made up some 10 per cent of the total number of
detected victims in North Africa and the Middle East,
which is significantly higher than the 6 per cent share seen
during the current reporting period.
Trafficking within the subregion accounts for some 30
per cent of the total number of victims, which is relatively
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GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
MAP 21: Origins of victims trafficked to the Middle East, proportions of the total number
low when compared to patterns recorded in other parts
of the world, and lower than the number of victims from
relatively distant East Asia and the Pacific. The share
appears to be increasing, however, as the number of
detected North African victims has grown in several countries in the Middle East. Domestic trafficking appears to
be extremely limited in the Middle Eastern countries,
while it is more relevant for the countries in North Africa.
This subregion is not a significant origin region for crossborder trafficking. Only Western and Central European
countries report detecting small but significant numbers
of victims from North Africa and the Middle East, about
2 per cent of the total number of victims detected there.
Most of these victims are from North Africa.
Response to trafficking in persons
As reported in the global overview, the subregion of SubSaharan Africa is a part of the world where the lack of
legislation is a key concern. Several countries still need to
adopt legislation in line with the Trafficking in Persons
Protocol more than ten years after its entry into force.
Nonetheless, significant improvements have been made
in this subregion over the past decade. In 2003, 85 per
Regional overviews
MAP 22: Destinations of trafficking victims
originating in North Africa, proportion of the total number of detected
victims at destinations, 2010-2012
2%
Western and Central
Europe
20%
The Middle
East
Sciences Po - Atelier de cartographie, 2014
North Africa
Source: UNODC.
II
cent of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa lacked legislation on trafficking. Just two West African countries had
comprehensive laws on trafficking in persons, and four
had partial legislation that criminalized child trafficking
only. After five years, in 2008, more than half of the
countries still lacked a trafficking in persons crime in their
legislation, while some more countries had introduced a
child trafficking offence. Most of the efforts were concentrated between 2008 and 2012, and nowadays, 28 countries have legislation that is in line with the Trafficking in
Persons Protocol. Still, more than 30 per cent of countries
either have partial legislation or no specific offence at all.
As a result of the late introduction of proper legislation,
most of the countries in this part of the world report very
low numbers of convictions, and the number of countries
where this information is not available or accessible is very
high compared to the rest of the world. Only two countries, Togo and Nigeria, reported convictions of some 50
persons in at least one of the reporting years. The other
countries either reported no convictions at all, or less than
ten per year.
For North Africa and the Middle East, the situation in
2003 was similar to or worse than that of Sub-Saharan
Africa. No country in North Africa and the Middle East
FIG. 65: Historical evolution of the legislation in Sub Saharan Africa, 2003-2014
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES CONSIDERED, N:42
2003
MOST / ALL
FORMS
2
2008
NO OFFENCE
35
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
11
MOST / ALL
FORMS
5
NO OFFENCE
11
2012
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
10
MOST / ALL
FORMS
23
20
2014
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
28
10
NO OFFENCE
9
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
NO OFFENCE
4
85
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014
FIG. 66: Historical evolution of the legislation in North Africa and the Middle East, 2003-2014
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES CONSIDERED, N:14
2003
2008
NO OFFENCE
12
8
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
2012
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
PARTIAL
OFFENCE
MOST / ALL
FORMS
2
4
2014
MOST / ALL
FORMS
10
NO OFFENCE
3
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
had an offence that criminalized trafficking in persons as
such. Only two countries had partial legislation (that
focused on trafficking in children). Some improvements
were reported in the first five years after the entry into
force of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, however, and
by the year 2012 the majority of the countries in this subregion had legislation that was in line with international
standards.
Information on the criminal justice response is limited.
Very few countries can provide data on the number of
convictions, and when such figures are available, they are
generally very low, with a couple of exceptions. About 40
per cent of the persons investigated for trafficking in persons in the United Arab Emirates are convicted in the first
instance, and Israel reports a similar ratio. The lack of
information for other countries does not permit similar
analyses elsewhere.
2
MOST / ALL
FORMS
11
1
86
NO OFFENCE
NO OFFENCE
3
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