Senior English FinalPress

Senior English FinalPress
SENIOR School
Ministry of Education
Department of Education
Essential Curriculum
2008
Curriculum and Instructional Leadership
Performance Standards Summary
English Language Arts
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ARE LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
“THE ESSENTIAL CURRICULUM”
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System (BPSS) is to be the first choice in
education by providing rigorous and stimulating learning experiences in safe, responsive
environments from which our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Performance Standards are statements
of what students should know and
be able to do and how they should
demonstrate their knowledge and skills
at the end of each year. Included within
the Performance Standards document
are strands, performance statements
and assessment indicators for English
language arts, mathematics, science
and social studies. It is important to
note that the assessment indicators
listed in this booklet represents the
“Essential Curriculum.” They are
the critical guidelines for ongoing
and island-wide curriculum based
assessment. They are guideposts in
the journey our students make from the
time they enter our schools to the time
they graduate confident and prepared
to compete and contribute locally and
globally.
Serving as guideposts, performance standards establish shared expectations for the:
• completion of each year of our school system,
• guidance in terms of how we may need to redirect our efforts during any given year
of our school system
• direction in terms of what we should be able to expect of students entering each
subsequent year of our school system.
As they serve as guideposts for teachers responsible for maximizing students’ learning
experiences, performance standards tell us not only the ultimate goals for each year level
but also provide direction towards achievement of the goals during each year.
Bermuda Performance Standards will be used to:
• emphasize the concepts and processes all students should learn with
understanding.
• provide explicit goals for student expectation at the end of each year.
• guide Bermuda Criterion Reference and classroom assessments
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
1
Bermuda Public School System Performance Standards
English Language Arts (EL)
Strategic Reading (R)
Comprehension of Informational Text (I)
Comprehension of Literary Text (L)
Language Usage (U)
Writing (W)
Speaking & Listening (S)
Processing Information and Mass Media (M)
2
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
S1 English Language Arts (EL)
Introduction to Bermuda English Language Arts Performance Standards .........5
• What are English Arts Performance Standards?
• Why English Arts Performance Standards?
References
Strategic Reading (R) ................................................................................................9
R1 Word Analysis and Vocabulary
R2 Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension
Comprehension of Informational Text (I) ..............................................................10
I1 Comprehension of Informational (Expository) Text
I2 Comprehension of Procedural Text
I3 Comprehension of Persuasive Text
Comprehension of Literary Text (L) ......................................................................11
L1 Comprehension of Literary Text
L2 Comprehension of Characteristics of Various Genres
Language Usage (U) .................................................................................................12
G1Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language
Writing (W) ..............................................................................................................13
W1 Compose Writing
Speaking & Listening (S) ........................................................................................14
S1
Effective Communications
Processing Information and Mass Media (M)........................................................15
M1 Information Retrieval and Technological Communication
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
3
S2 English Language Arts (EL)
Introduction to Bermuda English Language Arts Performance Standards .........5
• What are English Arts Performance Standards?
• Why English Arts Performance Standards?
References
Strategic Reading (R) ..............................................................................................17
R1 Word Analysis and Vocabulary
R2 Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension
Comprehension of Informational Text (I) ..............................................................18
I1 Comprehension of Informational (Expository) Text
I2 Comprehension of Procedural Text
I3 Comprehension of Persuasive Text
Comprehension of Literary Text (L) ......................................................................19
L1 Comprehension of Literary Text
L2 Comprehension of Characteristics of Various Genres
Language Usage (U) .................................................................................................20
G1Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language
Writing (W) ..............................................................................................................21
W1 Compose Writing
Speaking & Listening (S) ........................................................................................22
S1
Effective Communications
Processing Information and Mass Media (M)........................................................23
4
M1 Information Retrieval and Technological Communication
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (EL)
Teachers gradually raised the bar for student performance by analyzing the type of support their students
needed to demonstrate the knowledge and skills in the standards and by creating learning experiences that
slowly built a framework for success.
(Birdyshaw, Wixson and Yochum)
English Language Arts (EL) is a core discipline that embraces multifaceted domains of learning which are
principally reading, writing, speaking and listening and processing information and mass media. English
Language Arts also acknowledges that students will develop skills in both the mechanics of language,
in the reading and appreciation of literature and will give consideration to how knowledge is presented.
The goal is for students to communicate their understanding of these multifaceted domains of learning by
demonstrating what they are able to do.
WHAT ARE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS?
The Bermuda Performance Standards for English Language Arts indicate benchmarks that students are
expected to reach at the end of each level of their development in English Language Arts. These standards
have been adapted from international standards set by the boards of education across the United States
and the United Kingdom. A wealth of experience and expertise from a team of educational specialists has
been the backdrop infused into the development of the Bermuda Performance Standards.
The Bermuda Performance Standards are aligned with current research practices and provide a
comprehensive guide to appropriately assess the quality and level of student work and teacher performance.
The same rigor of coverage evident in the international standards is evident in the Bermuda Performance
Standards for English Language Arts.
WHY ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS?
Performance Standards are expected to drive graded level assessment for every student, every year, at
every level. Whereas the curriculum indicates what students should know and be able to do at the end of
each year level, performance standards are guideposts embedded in the curricula that indicate to teachers
what students should be able to do at the end of a specific time frame of a learning phase.
Performance Standards are not aimed to address every aspect of curriculum, but rather they are designed
to be guideposts for teachers to assess both what the student is able to do at various stages and how the
student moves toward the achievement of each performance standard. Thus, Performance Standards are
learning expectations that guide instruction.
Reading is the first strand addressed in this document. Reading is a skill that is demanded in the global
society. It is therefore critical that students become proficient readers to not only become literate, but also
to meet increasing societal demands. Research has shown that students who read become better readers
by reading. Thus, it is important to provide students with multiple opportunities for literacy development.
Students will experience literacy growth by exposure to a variety of quality texts.
Writing is the second strand of learning. Students write to inform, to clarify, to persuade and to express
personal ideas. Through writing students cultivate an appreciation for the elements of language (tone,
style, word choice and conventions of language) as they experience English Language Arts.
Speaking and listening strand serve as a framework to strengthen proficiency in English Language
Arts. Oral language is a foundation on which other literacy skills are built. Students gain proficiency by
participating in one-on-one and group conferencing. They also strengthen speaking and listening skills
by delivering singular and group presentations and by participating in the evaluative process. Students
who speak well and listen well hold a distinct advantage in school and social situations and are prepared
to meet the challenges of society.
Processing Information and Mass Media is the fourth strand. By demonstrating an awareness of the
presence of media in daily lives of most people, students must make informed judgments about television,
radio, internet, film productions and other technological advances. It is important that they judge the
extent to which the media are a source of entertainment and information.
These standards are for use in a diverse culture with a range of different settings. They are intended
to focus on what is important and necessary for students to know, do and understand. Students will
demonstrate competence in the following broad strands for English Language Arts:
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
5
STRATEGIC READING (R)
Reading is a process that includes interpretation of text. Strategic readers make meaning of text when they
read, and extend their thinking by evaluating and making critical, thoughtful judgements.
R1 Word Analysis and Vocabulary - Students will use appropriate reading strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate and enjoy a variety of texts.
R2 Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension - Students will use appropriate reading strategies in
order to understand, reflect, evaluate, and enjoy a variety of texts.
COMPREHENSION OF INFORMATIONAL TEXT (I)
Informational text is text that informs, explains, describes, presents information or persuades. Readers of
informational text decode information from a wide range of genres for understanding.
I1 Comprehension of Informational Text - Students will demonstrate the ability to [or be able to] read,
comprehend, interpret, analyze, and use expository text.
I2 Comprehension of Procedural Text - Students will demonstrate the ability to read, understand, and
use documentary and procedural text.
I3 Comprehension of Persuasive Text - Student will demonstrate the ability to read, comprehend,
interpret, analyze and use persuasive text.
COMPREHENSION OF LITERARY TEXT (L)
Literary text offers insight about the human experience and encourages students to examine genres, authors
and conventions of literature.
L1 Comprehension of Literary Text - Students will consider the contributions of literary elements and
devices when constructing meaning of text.
L2 Comprehension of Characteristics of various genres - Students will identify and analyze the
characteristics of various genres as forms with distinct characteristics
LANGUAGE USAGE (U)
Having control of the conventions and grammar of the English language means having the ability to
represent oneself appropriately with regard to current standards of correctness (e.g., spelling, punctuation,
paragraphing, capitalization, and subject and verb agreement.)
U1 Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language - Students will demonstrate the ability
to control language by using correct grammar and conventions of Standard English Language.
WRITING (W)
Writing is the process of controlling language to communicate thoughts, ideas and concepts effectively. The writing process is developed well by giving consideration to purpose, audience, content, form, word
choice and voice; by producing a series of drafts; and by receiving informed feedback.
W1 Compose Writing - Students will demonstrate the ability to compose fluently to express personal
ideas, to inform and to persuade.
SPEAKING AND LISTENING (S)
Speaking, listening and viewing are fundamental processes which people use to express, explore, and learn
about ideas. The functions of speaking, listening and viewing include gathering and sharing information;
persuading others, expressing and understanding ideas; coordinating activities with others; and selecting
and critically analysing messages. The context of these communication functions include one-to-one
conferences, small group interactions, large audiences and meetings, and interactions with broadcast
media.
PROCESSING INFORMATION AND MASS MEDIA (M)
As students demonstrate awareness of the presence of media in their lives, they are encouraged to evaluate
the role of the media, judge the extent to which the media is entertaining as well as informative and define
the role of advertising as part of media presentation.
Although there are seven major strands in English Language Arts, indicators from five strands will be
formally tested in the Bermuda Assessment Programme. However, it is the expectation that Speaking and
Listening (S), Processing Information and Mass Media (M) will be taught and assessed in the classroom by
the teacher during the course of the entire year.
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
REFERENCES
John S. Kendall and Robert Marzano, Content Knowledge, A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks
for K-12 Education
State of Tennessee Department of Education, English Language Arts Curriculum Framework K – 12
Marc S. Tucker and Judy B. Codding, Standards for Our Schools, 1998
Judy F. Carr and Douglas E. Harris, Succeeding With Standards, 2001
Council for Basic Education, Standards for Excellence in Education, 1998
Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, Standards in Practice Grades 6-8, 1996
National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association, Standards for the
English Language Arts, 1996
International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, Standards for the
Assessment of Reading and Writing, 1994
National Center on Education and Economy Performance Standards New Standards Reading and
Writing, Middle School, 1999
National Center on Education and Economy Performance Standards New Standards Reading and
Writing, Elementary, Middle and Senior School, 1997
National Center on Education and Economy Speaking and Listening, for Pre-School through third grade,
2001
National Center on Education and Economy Reading and Writing, for Kindergarten through third grade,
1999
Board of Education Commonwealth of Virginia, English Standards of Learning for Virginia Public
Schools, June 1995
Mark R. O’Shea, From Standards to Success, 2005
Robert Marzano, Timothy Waters and Brian A. McNulty School Leadership that Works, 2005
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Strategic Reading (R)
Reading is a process which includes demonstrating comprehension and showing
evidence of interpretation of the text. Strategic readers extend their thinking when they
evaluate what they have read by making critical, thoughtful judgments about the text.
When strategic readers comprehend and interpret text, they apply prior knowledge and
skills to perform tasks, revise text and to answer questions.
R1 - The student will use
appropriate reading
strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate,
and enjoy a variety of texts.
R2 - The student will use
appropriate reading
strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate,
and enjoy a variety of texts.
EL.S1.R1
Word Analysis and Vocabulary
a) multiple meaning words
b) synonyms/ antonyms
c) words in context
EL.S1.R2
Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension
d) Find important facts/details
e) Compare/contrast
f) Identify and explain connections between and among themes and
styles
g) Identify main idea
h) Support assertions with evidence
i) Summarize
j) Draw conclusions
k) Determine sequence/cause and effect
l) Extend ideas
m) Use organizational structure to contribute to understanding of text
Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
9
Comprehension of Informational Text (I)
This part of the Reading standard requires students to work with informational materials
in order to develop understanding and expertise about topics they investigate. This area
of informational materials is of great importance and its inclusion indicates our desire
that more attention be given to reading a broad range of materials written for a variety
of audiences and purposes.
I1 - The student will demonstrate
the ability to [or be able to]
read, comprehend, interpret,
analyze, and use expository
text.
I2 - The student will
demonstrate the ability
to read, understand, and
use documentary and
procedural text.
I3 - The student will demonstrate
the ability to read,
comprehend, interpret,
analyze, and use persuasive
text.
EL.S1.I1
Expository
a) Identify and analyze types and specifications of genre
b) Connect elements of text to personal experiences, to other texts, and
to world experiences
c) Identify and explain purpose, main points, and theme(s) of text
d) Distinguish fact from opinion in text, providing supporting evidence
from text
e) Summarize information
f) Make connection between print and non-print text (e.g., article and
photograph or illustration)
g) Make and support assertions about text with elaborated and
convincing evidence
h) Read and make connections to expository text about Bermudian
culture/life
i) Identify important facts and details in informational text.
EL.S1.I2
Documents and Procedural
a) Identify and analyze types and specifications of genre
b) Compare and contrast elements of text to personal experiences, to
other texts, and to world experiences
c) Identify and explain purpose, main points, and theme(s) of text
d) Distinguish fact from opinion in text, providing supporting
evidence from text
e) Summarize information
f) Make connection between print and non-print text (e.g., article and
photograph or illustration)
g) Make and support assertions about text with elaborated and
convincing evidence
h) Read and make connections to expository text about Bermudian
culture/life
Suggested texts:
• Interviews
• Essays
• Biographies
• Memoirs
• On-line informational materials
• Articles
EL.S1.I3
Persuasive
a) Determine an author’s purpose and position, providing supporting
evidence from the text
b) Describe the facts and evidence used to support an argument
c) Identify the author’s persuasive techniques
d) Distinguish a stereotype from a generalization
e) Critique the author’s position and persuasive techniques
Suggested texts:
• Editorials
• Feature articles
• On-line materials
• Speeches
• Positional papers
• Book reviews
• Critiques
10
Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
Comprehension of Literary Text (L)
Readers who read regularly tend to read what interests them. Reading literary text
encourages all students to do what good readers do and pursue themes, authors and
genres that are of interest to them. Readers create justifiable critiques to appraise the
text’s effectiveness and quality. Therefore, the reader’s perspective is valued in the
process.
L1 - The student will consider
the contributions of literary
elements and devices when
constructing meaning of a
text.
L2 - The student will
identify and analyze the
characteristics of various
genres as forms with distinct
characteristics.
EL.S1.L1
Literary Elements and Devices
a) Identify and analyze literary elements in a work of literature: plot,
characterization, point of view, and setting
b) Identify and analyze the presence of character types in a literary
work (e.g., stereotype, archetype, hero, protagonist, antagonist,
foil)
c) Identify and analyze the theme of a literary work
d) Identify or explain connections between and among themes of two
or more texts
e) Compare styles of two or more texts
f) Identify and evaluate the use of literary devices (e.g., similes,
metaphors, irony, imagery, personification, foreshadowing,
symbolism, flashback)
g) Identify and analyze how an author’s use of words creates tone and
mood
EL.S1.L2
Characteristics of Various Genres
a) Identify and analyze the characteristics of fiction (e.g., movement
through time, imaginative elements) present in a literary work
b) Identify and analyze the characteristics of literary nonfiction (e.g.,
memoir, essays) present in a text
c) Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry (e.g., structure,
rhyme, rhythm, word choice) as they contribute to the meaning of
a poem
d) Identify and analyze how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologue,
soliloquy, chorus, aside, dramatic irony) support or enhance
dramatic text
e) Read and make connections to literary texts about Bermudian
culture/ life
Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
11
Language Usage (U)
Having control of the conventions and grammar of the English language means having
the ability to represent oneself appropriately with regard to current standards of
correctness (e.g., spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, capitalization, and subject and
verb agreement).
U1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability to
control language by using
correct grammar and
conventions of Standard
English language
12
EL.S1.U1
Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language
a) Determine the function, classification, and usage of parts of
speech
b) Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences
c) Correct or modify run-on sentences
d) Combine sentences by employing strategies of coordination,
subordination, and sequencing of ideas
e) Expand sentences by correctly placing subjects, predicates, and
modifiers in appropriate syntactical order
f) Choose level of formal and informal language to achieve specific
purpose
g) Use appropriate vocabulary specific to the purpose
h) Employ the conventions of punctuation to communicate meaning
effectively
i) Use correct spelling
Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
WRITING (W)
Writing is a process by which language is shaped to communicate effectively. Writing
often develops through a series of drafts and through access to informed feedback and
response. Purpose, audience and context contribute to form and substance of writing
as well as to its style, tone, and stance.
W1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability to
compose fluently to express
personal ideas, to inform,
and to persuade.
EL.S1.W1
Compose Writing
a) Compose a persuasive text that supports or refutes a position
b) Develop a strong focus
c) Develop a strong organizational structure
d) Demonstrate control of word choice
e) Demonstrate fluency in expression of ideas
f) Support argumentation with detailed and relevant evidence
g) Demonstrates attention to audience understanding and interest
h) Demonstrate control of conventions of Standard English
Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
13
SPEAKING AND LISTENING (S)
Speaking, listening and viewing are fundamental processes which people use to
express, explore, and learn about ideas. The functions of speaking, listening and
viewing include gathering and sharing information; persuading others, expressing and
understanding ideas; coordinating activities with others; and selecting and critically
analysing messages. The context of these communication functions include one-to-one
conferences, small group interactions, large audiences and meetings, and interactions
with broadcast media.
S1 - S
tudents will communicate
effectively adhering to the
conventions of standard
English giving consideration
to audience and purpose.
EL.S1.S1
Effective Communications
a) Formulate and respond to relevant questions in one-on-one and
group settings
b) Elaborate fluently with appropriate, substantive information
c) Confirm understanding by responding to directives and prompts
d) Actively solicit responses from other group members
e) Respond appropriately to comments and questions by students,
teachers and discussion leaders
f) Provide clear reasons in support of opinions expressed
g) Clarify, illustrate or expand on a response
h) Express concerns clearly and respectfully
i) Offer subjective reflections emphatically without dominating
j) Take into account various viewpoints
k) Participate effectively by making contributions to groups
l) Analyze, interpret and evaluate informational content, organization,
language and style from a wide range of information sources
(internet, documentary, journals, newspapers, literary texts etc.)
m) Present well-developed analyses of issues, ideas, conceptual
thought, positions and texts from a variety of perspectives in a
range of forms (oral presentations, formal speeches, debates,
critiques of literary text)
n) Use notes effectively to structure presentations
o) Present a sense of individuality in content and delivery
p) Enunciate clearly to be heard and understood
q) Use effective verbal and non -verbal strategies
r) Use language carefully and articulately
s) Use audience feedback to evaluate speech effectiveness
t) Focus attention on speaker’s message
u) Monitor speaker’s message for clarity, accuracy and understanding
v) Make accurate determinations about speaker’s message
w) Formulate and provide effective feedback
x) Use audience feedback to evaluate speech effectiveness
y) Analyze purpose for argumentation and themes of speaker’s
message
(It is the expectation that this strand will be taught and assessed
in the classroom by the teacher throughout the entire year.)
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Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
PROCESSING INFORMATION AND MASS MEDIA (M)
Processing information and mass media is a vehicle that our students can use to become
critical thinkers about the world around them. The omnipresence of media has forced
our students to be enveloped, therefore they must be selective and focused on that
which will enhance their learning.
M1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability
to analyse, synthesize and
interpret information
presented to them through
mass media and process
this information to enhance
their learning.
EL.S1.M1
Information Retrieval and Technological Communication
a) Select topics
b) Locate and gather information from a variety of sources
c) Collect data, facts, ideas
d) Discover relationships and generalizations
e) Develop a thesis
f) Formulate clear, coherent research questions
g) Differentiate between primary and secondary sources
h) Make effective use of strategies to construct meaning of text
i) Identify the stages of the research writing process
j) Use a variety of technological and text sources
k) Present findings
l) Formulate a references list
m) Demonstrate an awareness of the presence of the media in the daily
lives of most people
n) Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention and in forming
an opinion
o) Judge the extent to which media provide a source of entertainment
as well as a source of information
p) Define the role of advertising as part of media presentation
Suggested Activities:
• Research Paper
• Maintain a week’s log to document personal viewing habits and
analyze the information collected in the log.
• Summarize patterns of media exposure in writing or in an oral
report
• View two or more different media responses to a single topic and
response
• Analyze the appeal of particularly memorable commercials
(It is the expectation that this strand will be taught and assessed
in the classroom by the teacher throughout the entire year.)
Ministry of Education | S1 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
15
PLANNING Notes
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Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Strategic Reading (R)
Reading is a process which includes demonstrating comprehension and showing
evidence of interpretation of the text. Strategic readers extend their thinking when they
evaluate what they have read by making critical, thoughtful judgments about the text.
When strategic readers comprehend and interpret text, they apply prior knowledge and
skills to perform tasks, revise text and to answer questions.
R1 - The student will use
appropriate reading
strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate,
and enjoy a variety of texts.
R2 - The student will use
appropriate reading
strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate,
and enjoy a variety of texts.
EL.S2.R1
Word Analysis and Vocabulary
a) multiple meaning words
b) synonyms/ antonyms
c) words in context
d) word origins/ etymologies
EL.S2.R2
Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension
e) Find important facts/details
f) Compare/contrast
g) Identify and explain connections between and among themes and
styles
h) Identify main idea
i) Support assertions with evidence
j) Summarize
k) Draw conclusions
l) Determine sequence/cause and effect
m) Extend ideas
n) Use organizational structure to contribute to understanding of text
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
17
Comprehension of Informational Text (I)
This part of the Reading standard requires students to work with informational materials
in order to develop understanding and expertise about topics they investigate. This area
of informational materials is of great importance and its inclusion indicates our desire
that more attention be given to reading a broad range of materials written for a variety
of audiences and purposes.
I1 - The student will demonstrate
the ability to [or be able to]
read, comprehend, interpret,
analyze, and use expository
text.
I2 - The student will
demonstrate the ability
to read, understand, and
use documentary and
procedural text.
I3 - The student will demonstrate
the ability to read,
comprehend, interpret,
analyze, and use persuasive
text.
EL.S2.I1
Expository
a) Identify and analyze types and specifications of genre
b) Connect elements of text to personal experiences, to other texts, and
to world experiences
c) Identify and explain purpose, main points, and theme(s) of text
d) Distinguish fact from opinion in text, providing supporting evidence
from text
e) Summarize information
f) Make connection between print and non-print text (e.g., article and
photograph or illustration)
g) Make and support assertions about text with elaborated and
convincing evidence
h) Read and make connections to expository text about Bermudian
culture/life
i) Identify important facts and details in informational text.
EL.S2.I2
Documents and Procedural
a) Identify and analyze types and specifications of genre
b) Compare and contrast elements of text to personal experiences, to
other texts, and to world experiences
c) Identify and explain purpose, main points, and theme(s) of text
d) Distinguish fact from opinion in text, providing supporting
evidence from text
e) Summarize information
f) Make connection between print and non-print text (e.g., article and
photograph or illustration)
g) Make and support assertions about text with elaborated and
convincing evidence
h) Read and make connections to expository text about Bermudian
culture/life
Suggested texts:
• Interviews
• Essays
• Biographies
• Memoirs
• On-line informational materials
• Articles
EL.S2.I3
Persuasive
a) Determine an author’s purpose and position, providing supporting
evidence from the text
b) Describe the facts and evidence used to support an argument
c) Identify the author’s persuasive techniques
d) Distinguish a stereotype from a generalization
e) Critique the author’s position and persuasive techniques
Suggested texts:
• Editorials
• Feature articles
• On-line materials
• Speeches
• Positional papers
• Book reviews
• Critiques
18
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
Comprehension of Literary Text (L)
Readers who read regularly tend to read what interests them. Reading literary text
encourages all students to do what good readers do and pursue themes, authors and
genres that are of interest to them. Readers create justifiable critiques to appraise the
text’s effectiveness and quality. Therefore, the reader’s perspective is valued in the
process.
L1 - The student will consider
the contributions of literary
elements and devices when
constructing meaning of a
text.
L2 - The student will
identify and analyze the
characteristics of various
genres as forms with distinct
characteristics.
EL.S2.L1
Literary Elements and Devices
a) Identify and analyze literary elements in a work of literature: plot,
characterization, point of view, and setting
b) Identify and analyze the presence of character types in a literary
work (e.g., stereotype, archetype, hero, protagonist, antagonist,
foil)
c) Identify and explain the theme of a literary work
d) Identify and explain connections between and among themes of
two or more texts
e) Compare styles of two or more texts/authors
f) Identify and evaluate the use of literary devices (e.g., similes,
metaphors, irony, imagery, personification, foreshadowing,
symbolism, flashback)
g) Identify and analyze how an author’s use of words creates tone and
mood
EL.S2.L2
Characteristics of Various Genres
a) Identify and analyze the characteristics of fiction (e.g., movement
through time, imaginative elements) present in a literary work
b) Identify and analyze the characteristics of literary nonfiction (e.g.,
memoir, essays) present in a text
c) Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry (e.g., structure,
rhyme, rhythm, word choice) as they contribute to the meaning of
a poem
d) Identify and analyze how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologue,
soliloquy, chorus, aside, dramatic irony) support or enhance
dramatic text
e) Read and make connections to literary texts about Bermudian
culture/ life
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
19
Language Usage (U)
Having control of the conventions and grammar of the English language means having
the ability to represent oneself appropriately with regard to current standards of
correctness (e.g., spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, capitalization, and subject and
verb agreement).
U1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability to
control language by using
correct grammar and
conventions of Standard
English language
20
EL.S2.U1
Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language
a) Determine the function, classification, and usage of parts of
speech
b) Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences
c) Correct or modify run-on sentences
d) Combine sentences by employing strategies of coordination,
subordination, and sequencing of ideas
e) Expand sentences by correctly placing subjects, predicates, and
modifiers in appropriate syntactical order
f) Choose level of formal and informal language to achieve specific
purpose
g) Use appropriate vocabulary specific to the purpose
h) Employ the conventions of punctuation to communicate meaning
effectively
i) Use correct spelling
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
WRITING (W)
Writing is a process by which language is shaped to communicate effectively. Writing
often develops through a series of drafts and through access to informed feedback and
response. Purpose, audience and context contribute to form and substance of writing
as well as to its style, tone, and stance.
W1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability to
compose fluently to express
personal ideas, to inform,
and to persuade.
EL.S2.W1
Compose Writing
a) Compose a persuasive text that supports or refutes a position
b) Develop a strong focus
c) Develop a strong organizational structure
d) Demonstrate control of word choice
e) Demonstrate fluency in expression of ideas
f) Support argumentation with detailed and relevant evidence
g) Demonstrates attention to audience understanding and interest
h) Demonstrate control of conventions of Standard English
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
21
SPEAKING AND LISTENING (S)
Speaking, listening and viewing are fundamental processes which people use to
express, explore, and learn about ideas. The functions of speaking, listening and
viewing include gathering and sharing information; persuading others, expressing and
understanding ideas; coordinating activities with others; and selecting and critically
analysing messages. The context of these communication functions include one-to-one
conferences, small group interactions, large audiences and meetings, and interactions
with broadcast media.
S1 - S
tudents will communicate
effectively adhering to the
conventions of standard
English giving consideration
to audience and purpose.
EL.S2.S1
Effective Communications
a) Clarify, illustrate or expand on a response
b) Express concerns clearly and respectfully
c) Offer subjective reflections emphatically without dominating
d) Demonstrate organization of ideas in response to an idea or topic
e) Take into account various viewpoints
f) Participate effectively by making contributions to groups
g) Formulate and respond to relevant questions in one-on-one and
group settings
h) Elaborate fluently with appropriate, substantive information
i) Initiate new topics in addition to responding to adult-initiated and
student-initiated topics
j) Use language cues to indicate different levels of certainty or
hypothesizing e.g. students will be able to raise questions beginning
with “what if…” and be able to predict responses by using
expressions such as “I believe that” and “It is very likely that”
k) Confirm understanding by responding to directives and prompts
l) Actively solicit responses from other group members
m) Respond appropriately to comments and questions by students,
teachers and discussion leaders
n) Provide clear reasons in support of opinions expressed
o) Demonstrate organization of ideas in response to an idea or topic
p) Focus attention on speaker’s message
q) Monitor speaker’s message for clarity, accuracy and understanding
r) Make accurate determinations about speaker’s message
s) Formulate and provide effective feedback
t) Use audience feedback to evaluate speech effectiveness
u) Analyze purpose for argumentation and themes of speaker’s
message
v) Recognize ambiguities, vagueness, inaccuracies in speaker’s
speech
(It is the expectation that this strand will be taught and assessed
in the classroom by the teacher throughout the entire year.)
22
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
PROCESSING INFORMATION AND MASS MEDIA (M)
Processing information and mass media is a vehicle that our students can use to become
critical thinkers about the world around them. The omnipresence of media has forced
our students to be enveloped, therefore they must be selective and focused on that
which will enhance their learning.
M1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability
to analyse, synthesize and
interpret information
presented to them through
mass media and process
this information to enhance
their learning.
EL.S2.M1
Information Retrieval and Technological Communication
a) Select topics
b) Locate and gather information from a variety of sources
c) Collect data, facts, ideas
d) Discover relationships and generalizations
e) Formulate clear, coherent research questions
f) Develop a clearly stated thesis and focus
g) Differentiate between primary and secondary sources
h) Make effective use of strategies to construct meaning of text
i) Identify the stages of the research writing process
j) Use a variety of technological and text sources
k) Undergo the research paper writing process
l) Develop logical progression of ideas and argumentation
m) Take a position and support it with adequate documentation from
authoritative sources
n) Present findings
o) Formulate a references list
p) Produce a qualitative research paper of 1,000- 2,000 words
q) Keep a log of sources with correct citations and referencing
Suggested Activities:
• Research Paper
• Maintain a week’s log to document personal viewing habits and
analyze the information collected in the log.
• Summarize patterns of media exposure in writing or in an oral
report
• View two or more different media responses to a single topic and
response
• Analyze the appeal of particularly memorable commercials
(It is the expectation that this strand will be taught and assessed
in the classroom by the teacher throughout the entire year.)
Ministry of Education | S2 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
23
PLANNING Notes
24
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
MISSION STATEMENT
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System is to be the
1st choice in education by providing rigorous and stimulating
learning experiences in safe responsive environments from which
our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Ministry of Education
Curriculum & Instructional Leadership Office
P. O. Box HM 1185
Hamilton HMEX
Telephone: (441) 292-3507
Fax: (441) 296-2843
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