Volume 1 - Cyclone IV Device Handbook

Volume 1 - Cyclone IV Device Handbook
Cyclone IV Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
101 Innovation Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
www.altera.com
CYIV-5V1-2.1
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
ISO
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and 9001:2008
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service Registered
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Contents
Chapter Revision Dates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Additional Information
How to Contact Altera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Info–1
Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Info–1
Section I. Device Core
Chapter 1. Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–1
Device Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3
Package Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–5
Cyclone IV Device Family Speed Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–7
Cyclone IV Device Family Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–8
FPGA Core Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–8
I/O Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–9
Clock Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–9
External Memory Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–9
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–10
High-Speed Transceivers (Cyclone IV GX Devices Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–10
Hard IP for PCI Express (Cyclone IV GX Devices Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–11
Reference and Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–12
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–13
Chapter 2. Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Logic Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–1
LE Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–2
LE Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–3
Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–3
Arithmetic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–4
Logic Array Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–5
Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–5
LAB Interconnects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–6
LAB Control Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–6
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–7
Chapter 3. Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–1
Control Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–3
Parity Bit Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–3
Byte Enable Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–3
Packed Mode Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–4
Address Clock Enable Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–5
Mixed-Width Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–6
Asynchronous Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–7
Memory Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–7
Single-Port Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–8
Simple Dual-Port Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–9
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
iv
Contents
True Dual-Port Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–11
Shift Register Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–12
ROM Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–13
FIFO Buffer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–13
Clocking Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–14
Independent Clock Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–14
Input or Output Clock Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–14
Read or Write Clock Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–15
Single-Clock Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–15
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–15
Read-During-Write Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–15
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–16
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–16
Conflict Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–17
Power-Up Conditions and Memory Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–18
Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–18
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–18
Chapter 4. Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Embedded Multiplier Block Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–1
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–2
Input Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–3
Multiplier Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–3
Output Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–4
Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–4
18-Bit Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–5
9-Bit Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–6
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–7
Chapter 5. Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–1
GCLK Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–2
Clock Control Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–10
GCLK Network Clock Source Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–12
GCLK Network Power Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–16
clkena Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–17
PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–18
Cyclone IV PLL Hardware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–20
External Clock Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–22
Clock Feedback Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–23
Source-Synchronous Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–23
No Compensation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–24
Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–24
Zero Delay Buffer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–25
Deterministic Latency Compensation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–26
Hardware Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–26
Clock Multiplication and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–26
Post-Scale Counter Cascading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–27
Programmable Duty Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–27
PLL Control Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–27
Clock Switchover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–28
Automatic Clock Switchover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–28
Manual Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–29
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Contents
v
Manual Clock Switchover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–30
Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–30
Programmable Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–32
Phase Shift Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–32
PLL Cascading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–33
PLL Reconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–34
PLL Reconfiguration Hardware Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–34
Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–36
Scan Chain Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–37
Charge Pump and Loop Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–38
Bypassing a PLL Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–39
Dynamic Phase Shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–39
Spread-Spectrum Clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–41
PLL Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–41
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–42
Section II. I/O Interfaces
Chapter 6. I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV I/O Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–2
I/O Element Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3
Programmable Current Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–3
Slew Rate Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–4
Open-Drain Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–4
Bus Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–4
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–5
Programmable Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–5
PCI-Clamp Diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–6
OCT Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–6
On-Chip Series Termination with Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–8
On-Chip Series Termination Without Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–10
I/O Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–11
Termination Scheme for I/O Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–13
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standard Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–14
Differential I/O Standard Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–15
I/O Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–16
High-Speed Differential Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–22
External Memory Interfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–23
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–23
Pad Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–23
DC Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–23
Clock Pins Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–23
High-Speed I/O Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–24
High-Speed I/O Standards Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–28
High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) Input Reference Clock Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–28
LVDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–29
Designing with LVDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–30
BLVDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–30
Designing with BLVDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–31
RSDS, Mini-LVDS, and PPDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–32
Designing with RSDS, Mini-LVDS, and PPDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–32
LVPECL I/O Support in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–34
Differential SSTL I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–35
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
vi
Contents
Differential HSTL I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–35
True Differential Output Buffer Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–35
Programmable Pre-Emphasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–35
High-Speed I/O Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–36
Design Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–37
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–37
Board Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–38
Software Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–38
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–39
Chapter 7. External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–2
Data and Data Clock/Strobe Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–2
Optional Parity, DM, and Error Correction Coding Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–11
Address and Control/Command Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–12
Memory Clock Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–12
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–12
DDR Input Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–12
DDR Output Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–14
OCT with Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–15
PLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–15
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–16
Section III. System Integration
Chapter 8. Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–1
Configuration Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–2
Configuration Data Decompression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–2
Configuration Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–3
Power-On Reset (POR) Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–4
Configuration File Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–4
Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–5
Configuration Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–6
Power Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–6
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–6
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–6
Configuration Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–7
Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–7
User Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–7
Configuration Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–8
AS Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–10
Single-Device AS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–10
Multi-Device AS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–13
Configuring Multiple Cyclone IV Devices with the Same Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–14
Guidelines for Connecting a Serial Configuration Device to Cyclone IV Devices for an AS Interface
8–18
Programming Serial Configuration Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–19
AP Configuration (Supported Flash Memories) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–21
AP Configuration Supported Flash Memories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–22
Single-Device AP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–23
Multi-Device AP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–25
Byte-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–26
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Contents
vii
Word-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–26
Guidelines for Connecting Parallel Flash to Cyclone IV E Devices for an AP Interface . . . . . . . 8–28
Configuring With Multiple Bus Masters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–28
Estimating AP Configuration Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–30
Programming Parallel Flash Memories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–31
PS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–32
PS Configuration Using an External Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–33
PS Configuration Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–36
PS Configuration Using a Download Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–37
FPP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–40
FPP Configuration Using an External Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–40
FPP Configuration Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–44
JTAG Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–45
Configuring Cyclone IV Devices with Jam STAPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–52
Configuring Cyclone IV Devices with the JRunner Software Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–52
Combining JTAG and AS Configuration Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–53
Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System with the JTAG Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–55
JTAG Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–57
Device Configuration Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–62
Remote System Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–69
Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–69
Enabling Remote Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–70
Configuration Image Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–70
Remote System Upgrade Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–71
Remote Update Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–71
Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–74
Remote System Upgrade Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–75
Remote System Upgrade State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–78
User Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–79
Quartus II Software Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–80
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8–80
Chapter 9. SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–1
User Mode Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–2
Automated SEU Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–3
CRC_ERROR Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–3
Error Detection Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4
Error Detection Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–4
Error Detection Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–5
Software Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–6
Accessing Error Detection Block Through User Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–7
Recovering from CRC Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–9
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–10
Chapter 10. JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BST Operation Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXTEST_PULSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXTEST_TRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I/O Voltage Support in a JTAG Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boundary-Scan Description Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
April 2014
Altera Corporation
10–2
10–3
10–5
10–5
10–5
10–6
10–7
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
viii
Contents
Chapter 11. Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
External Power Supply Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–1
Hot-Socketing Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–2
Devices Driven Before Power-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–2
I/O Pins Remain Tri-stated During Power-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–2
Hot-socketing Feature Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–3
Power-On Reset Circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–3
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–4
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Chapter Revision Dates
The chapters in this document, Cyclone IV Device Handbook,, were revised on the
following dates. Where chapters or groups of chapters are available separately, part
numbers are listed.
Chapter 1.
Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Revised:
April 2014
Part Number: CYIV-51001-1.9
Chapter 2.
Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
November 2009
Part Number: CYIV-51002-1.0
Chapter 3.
Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
November 2011
Part Number: CYIV-51003-1.1
Chapter 4.
Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
February 2010
Part Number: CYIV-51004-1.1
Chapter 5.
Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
October 2012
Part Number: CYIV-51005-2.4
Chapter 6.
I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
May 2013
Part Number: CYIV-51006-2.6
Chapter 7.
External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
May 2013
Part Number: CYIV-51007-2.5
Chapter 8.
Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
May 2013
Part Number: CYIV-51008-1.7
Chapter 9.
SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
May 2013
Part Number: CYIV-51009-1.3
Chapter 10. JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
December 2013
Part Number: CYIV-51010-1.3
Chapter 11. Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
Revised:
May 2013
Part Number: CYIV-51011-1.3
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
x
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Chapter Revision Dates
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Additional Information
This chapter provides additional information about the document and Altera.
About this Handbook
This handbook provides comprehensive information about the Altera® Cyclone® IV
family of devices.
How to Contact Altera
To locate the most up-to-date information about Altera products, refer to the
following table.
Contact (1)
Technical support
Technical training
Product literature
Contact Method
Address
Website
www.altera.com/support
Website
www.altera.com/training
Email
[email protected]
Website
www.altera.com/literature
Nontechnical support (general)
Email
[email protected]
(software licensing)
Email
[email protected]
Note to Table:
(1) You can also contact your local Altera sales office or sales representative.
Typographic Conventions
The following table shows the typographic conventions this document uses.
Visual Cue
Meaning
Bold Type with Initial Capital
Letters
Indicate command names, dialog box titles, dialog box options, and other GUI
labels. For example, Save As dialog box. For GUI elements, capitalization matches
the GUI.
bold type
Indicates directory names, project names, disk drive names, file names, file name
extensions, software utility names, and GUI labels. For example, \qdesigns
directory, D: drive, and chiptrip.gdf file.
Italic Type with Initial Capital Letters
Indicate document titles. For example, Stratix IV Design Guidelines.
Indicates variables. For example, n + 1.
italic type
Variable names are enclosed in angle brackets (< >). For example, <file name> and
<project name>.pof file.
Initial Capital Letters
Indicate keyboard keys and menu names. For example, the Delete key and the
Options menu.
“Subheading Title”
Quotation marks indicate references to sections in a document and titles of
Quartus II Help topics. For example, “Typographic Conventions.”
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Info–2
Additional Information
Typographic Conventions
Visual Cue
Meaning
Indicates signal, port, register, bit, block, and primitive names. For example, data1,
tdi, and input. The suffix n denotes an active-low signal. For example, resetn.
Courier type
Indicates command line commands and anything that must be typed exactly as it
appears. For example, c:\qdesigns\tutorial\chiptrip.gdf.
Also indicates sections of an actual file, such as a Report File, references to parts of
files (for example, the AHDL keyword SUBDESIGN), and logic function names (for
example, TRI).
r
An angled arrow instructs you to press the Enter key.
1., 2., 3., and
a., b., c., and so on
Numbered steps indicate a list of items when the sequence of the items is important,
such as the steps listed in a procedure.
■ ■ ■
Bullets indicate a list of items when the sequence of the items is not important.
1
The hand points to information that requires special attention.
h
The question mark directs you to a software help system with related information.
f
The feet direct you to another document or website with related information.
m
The multimedia icon directs you to a related multimedia presentation.
c
A caution calls attention to a condition or possible situation that can damage or
destroy the product or your work.
w
A warning calls attention to a condition or possible situation that can cause you
injury.
The envelope links to the Email Subscription Management Center page of the Altera
website, where you can sign up to receive update notifications for Altera documents.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Section I. Device Core
This section provides a complete overview of all features relating to the Cyclone® IV
device family, which is the most architecturally advanced, high-performance,
low-power FPGA in the marketplace. This section includes the following chapters:
■
Chapter 1, Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
■
Chapter 2, Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 3, Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 4, Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 5, Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Revision History
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information about when
each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates section, which appears
in the complete handbook.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
I–2
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Section I: Device Core
April 2014
Altera Corporation
1. Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family
Overview
April 2014
CYIV-51001-1.9
CYIV-51001-1.9
Altera’s new Cyclone® IV FPGA device family extends the Cyclone FPGA series
leadership in providing the market’s lowest-cost, lowest-power FPGAs, now with a
transceiver variant. Cyclone IV devices are targeted to high-volume, cost-sensitive
applications, enabling system designers to meet increasing bandwidth requirements
while lowering costs.
Built on an optimized low-power process, the Cyclone IV device family offers the
following two variants:
■
Cyclone IV E—lowest power, high functionality with the lowest cost
■
Cyclone IV GX—lowest power and lowest cost FPGAs with 3.125 Gbps
transceivers
1
Cyclone IV E devices are offered in core voltage of 1.0 V and 1.2 V.
f For more information, refer to the Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
chapter.
Providing power and cost savings without sacrificing performance, along with a
low-cost integrated transceiver option, Cyclone IV devices are ideal for low-cost,
small-form-factor applications in the wireless, wireline, broadcast, industrial,
consumer, and communications industries.
Cyclone IV Device Family Features
The Cyclone IV device family offers the following features:
■
Low-cost, low-power FPGA fabric:
■
6K to 150K logic elements
■
Up to 6.3 Mb of embedded memory
■
Up to 360 18 × 18 multipliers for DSP processing intensive applications
■
Protocol bridging applications for under 1.5 W total power
© 2014 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Feedback Subscribe
1–2
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Features
■
■
■
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Cyclone IV GX devices offer up to eight high-speed transceivers that provide:
■
Data rates up to 3.125 Gbps
■
8B/10B encoder/decoder
■
8-bit or 10-bit physical media attachment (PMA) to physical coding sublayer
(PCS) interface
■
Byte serializer/deserializer (SERDES)
■
Word aligner
■
Rate matching FIFO
■
TX bit slipper for Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI)
■
Electrical idle
■
Dynamic channel reconfiguration allowing you to change data rates and
protocols on-the-fly
■
Static equalization and pre-emphasis for superior signal integrity
■
150 mW per channel power consumption
■
Flexible clocking structure to support multiple protocols in a single transceiver
block
Cyclone IV GX devices offer dedicated hard IP for PCI Express (PIPE) (PCIe)
Gen 1:
■
×1, ×2, and ×4 lane configurations
■
End-point and root-port configurations
■
Up to 256-byte payload
■
One virtual channel
■
2 KB retry buffer
■
4 KB receiver (Rx) buffer
Cyclone IV GX devices offer a wide range of protocol support:
■
PCIe (PIPE) Gen 1 ×1, ×2, and ×4 (2.5 Gbps)
■
Gigabit Ethernet (1.25 Gbps)
■
CPRI (up to 3.072 Gbps)
■
XAUI (3.125 Gbps)
■
Triple rate serial digital interface (SDI) (up to 2.97 Gbps)
■
Serial RapidIO (3.125 Gbps)
■
Basic mode (up to 3.125 Gbps)
■
V-by-One (up to 3.0 Gbps)
■
DisplayPort (2.7 Gbps)
■
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) (up to 3.0 Gbps)
■
OBSAI (up to 3.072 Gbps)
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Device Resources
■
1–3
Up to 532 user I/Os
■
LVDS interfaces up to 840 Mbps transmitter (Tx), 875 Mbps Rx
■
Support for DDR2 SDRAM interfaces up to 200 MHz
■
Support for QDRII SRAM and DDR SDRAM up to 167 MHz
■
Up to eight phase-locked loops (PLLs) per device
■
Offered in commercial and industrial temperature grades
Device Resources
Table 1–1 lists Cyclone IV E device resources.
EP4CE6
EP4CE10
EP4CE15
EP4CE22
EP4CE30
EP4CE40
EP4CE55
EP4CE75
EP4CE115
Table 1–1. Resources for the Cyclone IV E Device Family
6,272
10,320
15,408
22,320
28,848
39,600
55,856
75,408
114,480
Embedded memory
(Kbits)
270
414
504
594
594
1,134
2,340
2,745
3,888
Embedded 18 × 18
multipliers
15
23
56
66
66
116
154
200
266
General-purpose PLLs
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Global Clock Networks
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
User I/O Banks
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
179
179
343
153
532
532
374
426
528
Resources
Logic elements (LEs)
Maximum user I/O
(1)
Note to Table 1–1:
(1) The user I/Os count from pin-out files includes all general purpose I/O, dedicated clock pins, and dual purpose configuration pins. Transceiver
pins and dedicated configuration pins are not included in the pin count.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1–4
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Device Resources
Table 1–2 lists Cyclone IV GX device resources.
Embedded memory (Kbits)
1,080
1,080
2,502
4,158
5,490
6,480
0
40
80
80
140
198
280
360
4
(4)
4
(4)
4
(4)
4
(5)
4
(5)
4
(5)
High-speed transceivers
Maximum user I/O
2
(5)
4
2
(5)
4
(5)
20
30
30
30
30
30
2
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.125
3.125
3.125
3.125
3.125
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
(9)
(5)
4
20
PCIe (PIPE) hard IP blocks
User I/O banks
2
2
20
(6)
Transceiver maximum data rate
(Gbps)
(5)
2
(4)
(3)
756
2
Global clock networks
EP4CGX150
540
(3)
149,760
1
Multipurpose PLLs
EP4CGX110
109,424
(3)
73,920
(4)
EP4CGX75
49,888
(3)
29,440
General purpose PLLs
EP4CGX50
29,440
(2)
21,280
Embedded 18 × 18 multipliers
EP4CGX30
EP4CGX22
Logic elements (LEs)
(1)
EP4CGX15
14,400
Resources
EP4CGX30
Table 1–2. Resources for the Cyclone IV GX Device Family
(7)
72
9
(7)
150
9
(7)
150
11
(8)
290
11
(8)
310
11
(8)
310
11
(8)
475
11
(8)
475
Notes to Table 1–2:
(1) Applicable for the F169 and F324 packages.
(2) Applicable for the F484 package.
(3) Only two multipurpose PLLs for F484 package.
(4) Two of the general purpose PLLs are able to support transceiver clocking. For more information, refer to the Clock Networks and PLLs in
Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
(5) You can use the multipurpose PLLs for general purpose clocking when they are not used to clock the transceivers. For more information, refer
to the Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
(6) If PCIe ×1, you can use the remaining transceivers in a quad for other protocols at the same or different data rates.
(7) Including one configuration I/O bank and two dedicated clock input I/O banks for HSSI reference clock input.
(8) Including one configuration I/O bank and four dedicated clock input I/O banks for HSSI reference clock input.
(9) The user I/Os count from pin-out files includes all general purpose I/O, dedicated clock pins, and dual purpose configuration pins. Transceiver
pins and dedicated configuration pins are not included in the pin count.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Table 1–3 lists Cyclone IV E device package offerings.
(2)
1.0
1.0
0.8
1.0
1.0
Device
EP4CE6
91
21
—
—
—
—
179
66
179
66
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CE10
91
21
—
—
—
—
179
66
179
66
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CE15
81
18
89
21
165
53
165
53
165
53
—
—
—
—
343
137
—
—
EP4CE22
79
17
—
—
—
—
153
52
153
52
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CE30
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
193
68
—
—
328
124
532
224
EP4CE40
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
193
68
328
124
328
124
532
224
EP4CE55
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
324
132
324
132
374
160
EP4CE75
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
292
110
292
110
426
178
EP4CE115
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
280
103
528
230
LVDS
(3)
0.8
User I/O
0.5
(3)
0.5
LVDS
0.5
User I/O
Pitch (mm)
(3)
29 × 29
LVDS
23 × 23
User I/O
19 × 19
(3)
19 x 19
LVDS
17 × 17
User I/O
14 × 14
(3)
9x9
LVDS
8×8
User I/O
22 × 22
(3)
Size (mm)
LVDS
F780
User I/O
F484
(3)
U484
LVDS
F324
User I/O
F256
(3)
U256
LVDS
M256
User I/O
M164
(3)
E144
LVDS
Package
User I/O
Altera Corporation
Table 1–3. Package Offerings for the Cyclone IV E Device Family (1),
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Package Matrix
April 2014
Package Matrix
Notes to Table 1–3:
(1) The E144 package has an exposed pad at the bottom of the package. This exposed pad is a ground pad that must be connected to the ground plane of your PCB. Use this exposed pad for electrical
connectivity and not for thermal purposes.
(2) Use the Pin Migration View window in Pin Planner of the Quartus II software to verify the pin migration compatibility when you perform device migration. For more information, refer to the I/O
Management chapter in volume 2 of the Quartus II Handbook.
(3) This includes both dedicated and emulated LVDS pairs. For more information, refer to the I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
1–5
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1–6
Table 1–4. Package Offerings for the Cyclone IV GX Device Family (1)
14 × 14
19 × 19
23 × 23
27 × 27
31 × 31
Pitch (mm)
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
2
150
64
4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CGX30
—
—
—
72
25
2
150
64
4
290
130
4
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CGX50
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
290
130
4
310
140
8
—
—
—
EP4CGX75
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
290
130
4
310
140
8
—
—
—
EP4CGX110
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
270
120
4
393
181
8
475
220
8
EP4CGX150
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
270
120
4
393
181
8
475
220
8
LVDS
LVDS
LVDS
LVDS
LVDS
LVDS
XCVRs
2
25
(2)
25
72
(2)
72
—
(2)
2
—
(2)
25
—
XCVRs
72
EP4CGX22
(2)
EP4CGX15
(2)
Device
User I/O
11 × 11
XCVRs
Size (mm)
User I/O
F896
XCVRs
F672
User I/O
F484
XCVRs
F324
User I/O
F169
User I/O
N148
XCVRs
Package
User I/O
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Table 1–4 lists Cyclone IV GX device package offerings, including I/O and transceiver counts.
Note to Table 1–4:
(1) Use the Pin Migration View window in Pin Planner of the Quartus II software to verify the pin migration compatibility when you perform device migration. For more information, refer to the I/O
Management chapter in volume 2 of the Quartus II Handbook.
(2) This includes both dedicated and emulated LVDS pairs. For more information, refer to the I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
Altera Corporation
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Package Matrix
April 2014
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Speed Grades
1–7
Cyclone IV Device Family Speed Grades
Table 1–5 lists the Cyclone IV GX devices speed grades.
Table 1–5. Speed Grades for the Cyclone IV GX Device Family
Device
N148
F169
F324
F484
F672
F896
EP4CGX15
C7, C8, I7
C6, C7, C8, I7
—
—
—
—
EP4CGX22
—
C6, C7, C8, I7
C6, C7, C8, I7
—
—
—
EP4CGX30
—
C6, C7, C8, I7
C6, C7, C8, I7
C6, C7, C8, I7
—
—
EP4CGX50
—
—
—
C6, C7, C8, I7
C6, C7, C8, I7
—
EP4CGX75
—
—
—
C6, C7, C8, I7
C6, C7, C8, I7
—
EP4CGX110
—
—
—
C7, C8, I7
C7, C8, I7
C7, C8, I7
EP4CGX150
—
—
—
C7, C8, I7
C7, C8, I7
C7, C8, I7
Table 1–6 lists the Cyclone IV E devices speed grades.
Table 1–6. Speed Grades for the Cyclone IV E Device Family (1), (2)
Device
E144
M164
M256
U256
F256
F324
U484
F484
F780
EP4CE6
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
—
—
EP4CE10
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
—
—
EP4CE15
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
I7N
C7N, I7N
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
EP4CE22
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
—
—
—
—
EP4CE30
—
—
—
—
—
A7N
—
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
EP4CE40
—
—
—
—
—
A7N
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7,
A7
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
EP4CE55
—
—
—
—
—
—
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
EP4CE75
—
—
—
—
—
—
I7N
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
C8L, C9L, I8L
C6, C7, C8, I7
EP4CE115
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
C8L, C9L, I8L
C7, C8, I7
C8L, C9L, I8L
C7, C8, I7
Notes to Table 1–6:
(1) C8L, C9L, and I8L speed grades are applicable for the 1.0-V core voltage.
(2) C6, C7, C8, I7, and A7 speed grades are applicable for the 1.2-V core voltage.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1–8
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Architecture
Cyclone IV Device Family Architecture
This section describes Cyclone IV device architecture and contains the following
topics:
■
“FPGA Core Fabric”
■
“I/O Features”
■
“Clock Management”
■
“External Memory Interfaces”
■
“Configuration”
■
“High-Speed Transceivers (Cyclone IV GX Devices Only)”
■
“Hard IP for PCI Express (Cyclone IV GX Devices Only)”
FPGA Core Fabric
Cyclone IV devices leverage the same core fabric as the very successful Cyclone series
devices. The fabric consists of LEs, made of 4-input look up tables (LUTs), memory
blocks, and multipliers.
Each Cyclone IV device M9K memory block provides 9 Kbits of embedded SRAM
memory. You can configure the M9K blocks as single port, simple dual port, or true
dual port RAM, as well as FIFO buffers or ROM. They can also be configured to
implement any of the data widths in Table 1–7.
Table 1–7. M9K Block Data Widths for Cyclone IV Device Family
Mode
Data Width Configurations
Single port or simple dual port
×1, ×2, ×4, ×8/9, ×16/18, and ×32/36
True dual port
×1, ×2, ×4, ×8/9, and ×16/18
The multiplier architecture in Cyclone IV devices is the same as in the existing
Cyclone series devices. The embedded multiplier blocks can implement an 18 × 18 or
two 9 × 9 multipliers in a single block. Altera offers a complete suite of DSP IP
including finite impulse response (FIR), fast Fourier transform (FFT), and numerically
controlled oscillator (NCO) functions for use with the multiplier blocks. The
Quartus® II design software’s DSP Builder tool integrates MathWorks Simulink and
MATLAB design environments for a streamlined DSP design flow.
f For more information, refer to the Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV
Devices, Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices, and Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV
Devices chapters.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Architecture
1–9
I/O Features
Cyclone IV device I/O supports programmable bus hold, programmable pull-up
resistors, programmable delay, programmable drive strength, programmable
slew-rate control to optimize signal integrity, and hot socketing. Cyclone IV devices
support calibrated on-chip series termination (Rs OCT) or driver impedance matching
(Rs) for single-ended I/O standards. In Cyclone IV GX devices, the high-speed
transceiver I/Os are located on the left side of the device. The top, bottom, and right
sides can implement general-purpose user I/Os.
Table 1–8 lists the I/O standards that Cyclone IV devices support.
Table 1–8. I/O Standards Support for the Cyclone IV Device Family
Type
I/O Standard
Single-Ended I/O
LVTTL, LVCMOS, SSTL, HSTL, PCI, and PCI-X
Differential I/O
SSTL, HSTL, LVPECL, BLVDS, LVDS, mini-LVDS, RSDS, and PPDS
The LVDS SERDES is implemented in the core of the device using logic elements.
f For more information, refer to the I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
Clock Management
Cyclone IV devices include up to 30 global clock (GCLK) networks and up to eight
PLLs with five outputs per PLL to provide robust clock management and synthesis.
You can dynamically reconfigure Cyclone IV device PLLs in user mode to change the
clock frequency or phase.
Cyclone IV GX devices support two types of PLLs: multipurpose PLLs and generalpurpose PLLs:
■
Use multipurpose PLLs for clocking the transceiver blocks. You can also use them
for general-purpose clocking when they are not used for transceiver clocking.
■
Use general purpose PLLs for general-purpose applications in the fabric and
periphery, such as external memory interfaces. Some of the general purpose PLLs
can support transceiver clocking.
f For more information, refer to the Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
chapter.
External Memory Interfaces
Cyclone IV devices support SDR, DDR, DDR2 SDRAM, and QDRII SRAM interfaces
on the top, bottom, and right sides of the device. Cyclone IV E devices also support
these interfaces on the left side of the device. Interfaces may span two or more sides of
the device to allow more flexible board design. The Altera® DDR SDRAM memory
interface solution consists of a PHY interface and a memory controller. Altera supplies
the PHY IP and you can use it in conjunction with your own custom memory
controller or an Altera-provided memory controller. Cyclone IV devices support the
use of error correction coding (ECC) bits on DDR and DDR2 SDRAM interfaces.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1–10
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Architecture
f For more information, refer to the External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
chapter.
Configuration
Cyclone IV devices use SRAM cells to store configuration data. Configuration data is
downloaded to the Cyclone IV device each time the device powers up. Low-cost
configuration options include the Altera EPCS family serial flash devices and
commodity parallel flash configuration options. These options provide the flexibility
for general-purpose applications and the ability to meet specific configuration and
wake-up time requirements of the applications.
Table 1–9 lists which configuration schemes are supported by Cyclone IV devices.
Table 1–9. Configuration Schemes for Cyclone IV Device Family
Devices
Supported Configuration Scheme
(1)
Cyclone IV GX
AS, PS, JTAG, and FPP
Cyclone IV E
AS, AP, PS, FPP, and JTAG
Note to Table 1–9:
(1) The FPP configuration scheme is only supported by the EP4CGX30F484 and EP4CGX50/75/110/150 devices.
IEEE 1149.6 (AC JTAG) is supported on all transceiver I/O pins. All other pins
support IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) for boundary scan testing.
f For more information, refer to the JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
chapter.
For Cyclone IV GX devices to meet the PCIe 100 ms wake-up time requirement, you
must use passive serial (PS) configuration mode for the EP4CGX15/22/30 devices
and use fast passive parallel (FPP) configuration mode for the EP4CGX30F484 and
EP4CGX50/75/110/150 devices.
f For more information, refer to the Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in
Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
The cyclical redundancy check (CRC) error detection feature during user mode is
supported in all Cyclone IV GX devices. For Cyclone IV E devices, this feature is only
supported for the devices with the core voltage of 1.2 V.
f For more information about CRC error detection, refer to the SEU Mitigation in
Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
High-Speed Transceivers (Cyclone IV GX Devices Only)
Cyclone IV GX devices contain up to eight full duplex high-speed transceivers that
can operate independently. These blocks support multiple industry-standard
communication protocols, as well as Basic mode, which you can use to implement
your own proprietary protocols. Each transceiver channel has its own pre-emphasis
and equalization circuitry, which you can set at compile time to optimize signal
integrity and reduce bit error rates. Transceiver blocks also support dynamic
reconfiguration, allowing you to change data rates and protocols on-the-fly.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Cyclone IV Device Family Architecture
1–11
Figure 1–1 shows the structure of the Cyclone IV GX transceiver.
Figure 1–1. Transceiver Channel for the Cyclone IV GX Device
Transmitter Channel PCS
rx_datain
Deserializer
Word Aligner
Receiver Channel
PMA
Rate Match FIFO
8B10B Decoder
Byte Deserializer
Byte Ordering
RX Phase
Compensation
FIFO
Receiver Channel PCS
tx_dataout
Serializer
8B10B Encoder
Byte Serializer
PIPE Interface
PCI Express hard IP
TX Phase
Compensation
FIFO
Transceiver Channel
PMA
CDR
FPGA
Fabric
f For more information, refer to the Cyclone IV Transceivers Architecture chapter.
Hard IP for PCI Express (Cyclone IV GX Devices Only)
Cyclone IV GX devices incorporate a single hard IP block for ×1, ×2, or ×4 PCIe (PIPE)
in each device. This hard IP block is a complete PCIe (PIPE) protocol solution that
implements the PHY-MAC layer, Data Link Layer, and Transaction Layer
functionality. The hard IP for the PCIe (PIPE) block supports root-port and end-point
configurations. This pre-verified hard IP block reduces risk, design time, timing
closure, and verification. You can configure the block with the Quartus II software’s
PCI Express Compiler, which guides you through the process step by step.
f For more information, refer to the PCI Express Compiler User Guide.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1–12
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Reference and Ordering Information
Reference and Ordering Information
Figure 1–2 shows the ordering codes for Cyclone IV GX devices.
Figure 1–2. Packaging Ordering Information for the Cyclone IV GX Device
Member Code
15 :
22 :
30 :
50 :
75 :
110:
150:
Package Type
14,400 logic elements
21,280 logic elements
29,440 logic elements
49,888 logic elements
73,920 logic elements
109,424 logic elements
149,760 logic elements
EP4C
Family Signature
GX
F : FineLine BGA (FBGA)
N : Quad Flat Pack No Lead (QFN)
Operating Temperature
C : Commercial temperature (TJ = 0° C to 85° C)
I : Industrial temperature (TJ = -40° C to 100° C)
30
C
F
19
C
7
N
Optional Suffix
Indicates specific device
options or shipment method
EP4C : Cyclone IV
Family Variant
Package Code
GX : 3-Gbps transceivers
FBGA Package Type
14 : 169 pins
19 : 324 pins
23 : 484 pins
27 : 672 pins
31 : 896 pins
QFN Package Type
11 : 148 pins
Transceiver Count
B : 2
C : 4
D : 8
N : Lead-free packaging
ES : Engineering sample
Speed Grade
6 (fastest)
7
8
Figure 1–3 shows the ordering codes for Cyclone IV E devices.
Figure 1–3. Packaging Ordering Information for the Cyclone IV E Device
Package Type
F : FineLine BGA (FBGA)
E : Enhanced Thin Quad Flat Pack (EQFP)
U : Ultra FineLine BGA (UBGA)
M : Micro FineLine BGA (MBGA)
Operating Temperature
C : Commercial temperature (TJ = 0° C to 85° C)
I : Industrial temperature (TJ = -40° C to 100° C)
Extended industrial temperature (TJ = -40° C to 125° C)
A : Automotive temperature (TJ = -40° C to 125° C)
Family Variant
E : Enhanced logic/memory
EP4C
Family Signature
EP4C : Cyclone IV
Member Code
6 : 6,272 logic elements
10 : 10,320 logic elements
15 : 15,408 logic elements
22 : 22,320 logic elements
30 : 28,848 logic elements
40 : 39,600 logic elements
55 : 55,856 logic elements
75 : 75,408 logic elements
115: 114,480 logic elements
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
E
40
F
29
C
Package Code
FBGA Package Type
17 : 256 pins
19 : 324 pins
23 : 484 pins
29 : 780 pins
EQFP Package Type
22 : 144 pins
UBGA Package Type
14 : 256 pins
19 : 484 pins
MBGA Package Type
8 : 164 pins
9 : 256 pins
8
N
Optional Suffix
Indicates specific device
options or shipment method
N : Lead-free packaging
ES : Engineering sample
L : Low-voltage device
Speed Grade
6 (fastest)
7
8
9
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Document Revision History
1–13
Document Revision History
Table 1–10 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 1–10. Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
April 2014
1.9
Updated “Packaging Ordering Information for the Cyclone IV E Device”
May 2013
1.8
Updated Table 1–3, Table 1–6 and Figure 1–3 to add new device options and
packages.
February 2013
1.7
Updated Table 1–3, Table 1–6 and Figure 1–3 to add new device options and
packages.
October 2012
1.6
Updated Table 1–3 and Table 1–4.
November 2011
1.5
December 2010
July 2010
March 2010
February 2010
November 2009
April 2014
Altera Corporation
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
■
Updated “Cyclone IV Device Family Features” section.
■
Updated Figure 1–2 and Figure 1–3.
■
Updated for the Quartus II software version 10.1 release.
■
Added Cyclone IV E new device package information.
■
Updated Table 1–1, Table 1–2, Table 1–3, Table 1–5, and Table 1–6.
■
Updated Figure 1–3.
■
Minor text edits.
Updated Table 1–2 to include F484 package information.
■
Updated Table 1–3 and Table 1–6.
■
Updated Figure 1–3.
■
Minor text edits.
■
Added Cyclone IV E devices in Table 1–1, Table 1–3, and Table 1–6 for the
Quartus II software version 9.1 SP1 release.
■
Added the “Cyclone IV Device Family Speed Grades” and “Configuration”
sections.
■
Added Figure 1–3 to include Cyclone IV E Device Packaging Ordering
Information.
■
Updated Table 1–2, Table 1–4, and Table 1–5 for Cyclone IV GX devices.
■
Minor text edits.
Initial release.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1–14
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Chapter 1: Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview
Document Revision History
April 2014
Altera Corporation
2. Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks
in Cyclone IV Devices
November 2009
CYIV-51002-1.0
CYIV-51002-1.0
This chapter contains feature definitions for logic elements (LEs) and logic array
blocks (LABs). Details are provided on how LEs work, how LABs contain groups of
LEs, and how LABs interface with the other blocks in Cyclone® IV devices.
Logic Elements
Logic elements (LEs) are the smallest units of logic in the Cyclone IV device
architecture. LEs are compact and provide advanced features with efficient logic
usage. Each LE has the following features:
■
A four-input look-up table (LUT), which can implement any function of four
variables
■
A programmable register
■
A carry chain connection
■
A register chain connection
■
The ability to drive the following interconnects:
■
Local
■
Row
■
Column
■
Register chain
■
Direct link
■
Register packing support
■
Register feedback support
© 2009 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2009
Feedback Subscribe
2–2
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Logic Elements
Figure 2–1 shows the LEs for Cyclone IV devices.
Figure 2–1. Cyclone IV Device LEs
Register Chain
Routing from
previous LE
LE Carry-In
data 1
data 2
data 3
Register Bypass
LAB-Wide
Synchronous LAB-Wide
Programmable
Synchronous
Load
Register
Clear
Synchronous
Load and
Clear Logic
Look-Up Table Carry
Chain
(LUT)
data 4
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
labclr1
labclr2
Chip-Wide
Reset
Register Feedback
Asynchronous
Clear Logic
Row, Column,
And Direct Link
Routing
Row, Column,
And Direct Link
Routing
Local
Routing
(DEV_CLRn)
Clock &
Clock Enable
Select
LE Carry-Out
Register Chain
Output
labclk1
labclk2
labclkena1
labclkena2
LE Features
You can configure the programmable register of each LE for D, T, JK, or SR flipflop
operation. Each register has data, clock, clock enable, and clear inputs. Signals that
use the global clock network, general-purpose I/O pins, or any internal logic can
drive the clock and clear control signals of the register. Either general-purpose I/O
pins or the internal logic can drive the clock enable. For combinational functions, the
LUT output bypasses the register and drives directly to the LE outputs.
Each LE has three outputs that drive the local, row, and column routing resources. The
LUT or register output independently drives these three outputs. Two LE outputs
drive the column or row and direct link routing connections, while one LE drives the
local interconnect resources. This allows the LUT to drive one output while the
register drives another output. This feature, called register packing, improves device
utilization because the device can use the register and the LUT for unrelated
functions. The LAB-wide synchronous load control signal is not available when using
register packing. For more information about the synchronous load control signal,
refer to “LAB Control Signals” on page 2–6.
The register feedback mode allows the register output to feed back into the LUT of the
same LE to ensure that the register is packed with its own fan-out LUT, providing
another mechanism for improved fitting. The LE can also drive out registered and
unregistered versions of the LUT output.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2009
Altera Corporation
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
LE Operating Modes
2–3
In addition to the three general routing outputs, LEs in an LAB have register chain
outputs, which allows registers in the same LAB to cascade together. The register
chain output allows the LUTs to be used for combinational functions and the registers
to be used for an unrelated shift register implementation. These resources speed up
connections between LABs while saving local interconnect resources.
LE Operating Modes
Cyclone IV LEs operate in the following modes:
■
Normal mode
■
Arithmetic mode
The Quartus® II software automatically chooses the appropriate mode for common
functions, such as counters, adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions, in
conjunction with parameterized functions such as the library of parameterized
modules (LPM) functions. You can also create special-purpose functions that specify
which LE operating mode to use for optimal performance, if required.
Normal Mode
Normal mode is suitable for general logic applications and combinational functions.
In normal mode, four data inputs from the LAB local interconnect are inputs to a
four-input LUT (Figure 2–2). The Quartus II Compiler automatically selects the
carry-in (cin) or the data3 signal as one of the inputs to the LUT. LEs in normal mode
support packed registers and register feedback.
Figure 2–2 shows LEs in normal mode.
Figure 2–2. Cyclone IV Device LEs in Normal Mode
Register Chain
Connection sload
sclear
(LAB Wide) (LAB Wide)
Packed Register Input
D
Row, Column, and
Direct Link Routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, Column, and
Direct Link Routing
Q
data1
data2
data3
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
data4
Four-Input
LUT
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
Local Routing
aclr (LAB Wide)
Register Bypass
November 2009
Altera Corporation
Register Feedback
Register
Chain Output
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
2–4
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
LE Operating Modes
Arithmetic Mode
Arithmetic mode is ideal for implementing adders, counters, accumulators, and
comparators. An LE in arithmetic mode implements a 2-bit full adder and basic carry
chain (Figure 2–3). LEs in arithmetic mode can drive out registered and unregistered
versions of the LUT output. Register feedback and register packing are supported
when LEs are used in arithmetic mode.
Figure 2–3 shows LEs in arithmetic mode.
Figure 2–3. Cyclone IV Device LEs in Arithmetic Mode
Packed Register Input
Register Chain
Connection
sload
sclear
(LAB Wide)
(LAB Wide)
data4
data1
data2
Three-Input
LUT
Three-Input
LUT
Row, Column, and
Direct link routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, Column, and
Direct link routing
Q
data3
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
D
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
Local Routing
aclr (LAB Wide)
cout
Register
Chain Output
Register Bypass
Register Feedback
The Quartus II Compiler automatically creates carry chain logic during design
processing. You can also manually create the carry chain logic during design entry.
Parameterized functions, such as LPM functions, automatically take advantage of
carry chains for the appropriate functions.
The Quartus II Compiler creates carry chains longer than 16 LEs by automatically
linking LABs in the same column. For enhanced fitting, a long carry chain runs
vertically, which allows fast horizontal connections to M9K memory blocks or
embedded multipliers through direct link interconnects. For example, if a design has a
long carry chain in an LAB column next to a column of M9K memory blocks, any LE
output can feed an adjacent M9K memory block through the direct link interconnect.
If the carry chains run horizontally, any LAB which is not next to the column of M9K
memory blocks uses other row or column interconnects to drive a M9K memory
block. A carry chain continues as far as a full column.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2009
Altera Corporation
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Logic Array Blocks
2–5
Logic Array Blocks
Logic array blocks (LABs) contain groups of LEs.
Topology
Each LAB consists of the following features:
■
16 LEs
■
LAB control signals
■
LE carry chains
■
Register chains
■
Local interconnect
The local interconnect transfers signals between LEs in the same LAB. Register chain
connections transfer the output of one LE register to the adjacent LE register in an
LAB. The Quartus II Compiler places associated logic in an LAB or adjacent LABs,
allowing the use of local and register chain connections for performance and area
efficiency.
Figure 2–4 shows the LAB structure for Cyclone IV devices.
Figure 2–4. Cyclone IV Device LAB Structure
Row Interconnect
Column
Interconnect
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent
block
LAB
November 2009
Altera Corporation
Local Interconnect
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
2–6
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
LAB Control Signals
LAB Interconnects
The LAB local interconnect is driven by column and row interconnects and LE
outputs in the same LAB. Neighboring LABs, phase-locked loops (PLLs), M9K RAM
blocks, and embedded multipliers from the left and right can also drive the local
interconnect of a LAB through the direct link connection. The direct link connection
feature minimizes the use of row and column interconnects, providing higher
performance and flexibility. Each LE can drive up to 48 LEs through fast local and
direct link interconnects.
Figure 2–5 shows the direct link connection.
Figure 2–5. Cyclone IV Device Direct Link Connection
Direct link interconnect from
left LAB, M9K memory
block, embedded multiplier,
PLL, or IOE output
Direct link interconnect from
right LAB, M9K memory
block, embedded multiplier,
PLL, or IOE output
Direct link
interconnect
to right
Direct link
interconnect
to left
Local
Interconnect
LAB
LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving control signals to its LEs. The control
signals include:
■
Two clocks
■
Two clock enables
■
Two asynchronous clears
■
One synchronous clear
■
One synchronous load
You can use up to eight control signals at a time. Register packing and synchronous
load cannot be used simultaneously.
Each LAB can have up to four non-global control signals. You can use additional LAB
control signals as long as they are global signals.
Synchronous clear and load signals are useful for implementing counters and other
functions. The synchronous clear and synchronous load signals are LAB-wide signals
that affect all registers in the LAB.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2009
Altera Corporation
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
2–7
Each LAB can use two clocks and two clock enable signals. The clock and clock enable
signals of each LAB are linked. For example, any LE in a particular LAB using the
labclk1 signal also uses the labclkena1. If the LAB uses both the rising and falling
edges of a clock, it also uses both LAB-wide clock signals. Deasserting the clock
enable signal turns off the LAB-wide clock.
The LAB row clocks [5..0] and LAB local interconnect generate the LAB-wide
control signals. The MultiTrack interconnect inherent low skew allows clock and
control signal distribution in addition to data distribution.
Figure 2–6 shows the LAB control signal generation circuit.
Figure 2–6. Cyclone IV Device LAB-Wide Control Signals
Dedicated
LAB Row
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
labclkena2
labclkena1
labclk1
labclk2
synclr
labclr1
syncload
labclr2
LAB-wide signals control the logic for the clear signal of the register. The LE directly
supports an asynchronous clear function. Each LAB supports up to two asynchronous
clear signals (labclr1 and labclr2).
A LAB-wide asynchronous load signal to control the logic for the preset signal of the
register is not available. The register preset is achieved with a NOT gate push-back
technique. Cyclone IV devices only support either a preset or asynchronous clear
signal.
In addition to the clear port, Cyclone IV devices provide a chip-wide reset pin
(DEV_CLRn) that resets all registers in the device. An option set before compilation in
the Quartus II software controls this pin. This chip-wide reset overrides all other
control signals.
Document Revision History
Table 2–1 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 2–1. Document Revision History
Date
Version
November 2009
November 2009
Altera Corporation
1.0
Changes
Initial release.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
2–8
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Chapter 2: Logic Elements and Logic Array Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
November 2009
Altera Corporation
3. Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
November 2011
CYIV-51003-1.1
CYIV-51003-1.1
Cyclone® IV devices feature embedded memory structures to address the on-chip
memory needs of Altera® Cyclone IV device designs. The embedded memory
structure consists of columns of M9K memory blocks that you can configure to
provide various memory functions, such as RAM, shift registers, ROM, and FIFO
buffers.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
“Memory Modes” on page 3–7
■
“Clocking Modes” on page 3–14
■
“Design Considerations” on page 3–15
Overview
M9K blocks support the following features:
■
8,192 memory bits per block (9,216 bits per block including parity)
■
Independent read-enable (rden) and write-enable (wren) signals for each port
■
Packed mode in which the M9K memory block is split into two 4.5 K single-port
RAMs
■
Variable port configurations
■
Single-port and simple dual-port modes support for all port widths
■
True dual-port (one read and one write, two reads, or two writes) operation
■
Byte enables for data input masking during writes
■
Two clock-enable control signals for each port (port A and port B)
■
Initialization file to pre-load memory content in RAM and ROM modes
© 2011 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Feedback Subscribe
3–2
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Overview
Table 3–1 lists the features supported by the M9K memory.
Table 3–1. Summary of M9K Memory Features
Feature
M9K Blocks
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
Configurations (depth × width)
1024 × 9
512 × 16
512 × 18
256 × 32
256 × 36
Parity bits
v
Byte enable
v
Packed mode
v
Address clock enable
v
Single-port mode
v
Simple dual-port mode
v
v
True dual-port mode
Embedded shift register mode
v
(1)
v
ROM mode
FIFO buffer
v
(1)
Simple dual-port mixed width support
True dual-port mixed width support
(2)
v
v
Memory initialization file (.mif)
v
Mixed-clock mode
v
Power-up condition
Outputs cleared
Register asynchronous clears
Latch asynchronous clears
Write or read operation triggering
Read address registers and output registers only
Output latches only
Write and read: Rising clock edges
Same-port read-during-write
Outputs set to Old Data or New Data
Mixed-port read-during-write
Outputs set to Old Data or Don’t Care
Notes to Table 3–1:
(1) FIFO buffers and embedded shift registers that require external logic elements (LEs) for implementing control
logic.
(2) Width modes of ×32 and ×36 are not available.
f For information about the number of M9K memory blocks for Cyclone IV devices,
refer to the Cyclone IV Device Family Overview chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone IV
Device Handbook.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Overview
3–3
Control Signals
The clock-enable control signal controls the clock entering the input and output
registers and the entire M9K memory block. This signal disables the clock so that the
M9K memory block does not see any clock edges and does not perform any
operations.
The rden and wren control signals control the read and write operations for each port
of M9K memory blocks. You can disable the rden or wren signals independently to
save power whenever the operation is not required.
Parity Bit Support
Parity checking for error detection is possible with the parity bit along with internal
logic resources. Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support a parity bit for each
storage byte. You can use this bit as either a parity bit or as an additional data bit. No
parity function is actually performed on this bit.
Byte Enable Support
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support byte enables that mask the input
data so that only specific bytes of data are written. The unwritten bytes retain the
previous written value. The wren signals, along with the byte-enable (byteena)
signals, control the write operations of the RAM block. The default value of the
byteena signals is high (enabled), in which case writing is controlled only by the wren
signals. There is no clear port to the byteena registers. M9K blocks support byte
enables when the write port has a data width of ×16, ×18, ×32, or ×36 bits.
Byte enables operate in one-hot manner, with the LSB of the byteena signal
corresponding to the least significant byte of the data bus. For example, if
byteena = 01 and you are using a RAM block in ×18 mode, data[8..0] is enabled
and data[17..9] is disabled. Similarly, if byteena = 11, both data[8..0] and
data[17..9] are enabled. Byte enables are active high.
Table 3–2 lists the byte selection.
Table 3–2. byteena for Cyclone IV Devices M9K Blocks
(1)
Affected Bytes
byteena[3..0]
datain ×16
datain ×18
datain ×32
datain ×36
[0] = 1
[7..0]
[8..0]
[7..0]
[8..0]
[1] = 1
[15..8]
[17..9]
[15..8]
[17..9]
[2] = 1
—
—
[23..16]
[26..18]
[3] = 1
—
—
[31..24]
[35..27]
Note to Table 3–2:
(1) Any combination of byte enables is possible.
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–4
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Overview
Figure 3–1 shows how the wren and byteena signals control the RAM operations.
Figure 3–1. Cyclone IV Devices byteena Functional Waveform
(1)
inclock
wren
rden
an
address
data
a0
a1
XXXX
byteena
contents at a1
10
a1
01
a2
XXXX
11
FFFF
XX
ABFF
FFFF
FFCD
FFFF
contents at a2
q (asynch)
a0
ABCD
XX
contents at a0
a2
doutn
ABFF
ABCD
FFCD
ABCD
ABFF
FFCD
ABCD
Note to Figure 3–1:
(1) For this functional waveform, New Data mode is selected.
When a byteena bit is deasserted during a write cycle, the old data in the memory
appears in the corresponding data-byte output. When a byteena bit is asserted during
a write cycle, the corresponding data-byte output depends on the setting chosen in
the Quartus® II software. The setting can either be the newly written data or the old
data at that location.
1
Byte enables are only supported for True Dual-Port memory configurations when
both the PortA and PortB data widths of the individual M9K memory blocks are
multiples of 8 or 9 bits.
Packed Mode Support
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support packed mode. You can implement
two single-port memory blocks in a single block under the following conditions:
■
Each of the two independent block sizes is less than or equal to half of the M9K
block size. The maximum data width for each independent block is 18 bits wide.
■
Each of the single-port memory blocks is configured in single-clock mode. For
more information about packed mode support, refer to “Single-Port Mode” on
page 3–8 and “Single-Clock Mode” on page 3–15.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Overview
3–5
Address Clock Enable Support
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support an active-low address clock enable,
which holds the previous address value for as long as the addressstall signal is high
(addressstall = '1'). When you configure M9K memory blocks in dual-port mode,
each port has its own independent address clock enable.
Figure 3–2 shows an address clock enable block diagram. The address register output
feeds back to its input using a multiplexer. The multiplexer output is selected by the
address clock enable (addressstall) signal.
Figure 3–2. Cyclone IV Devices Address Clock Enable Block Diagram
address[0]
address[0]
register
address[0]
address[N]
address[N]
register
address[N]
addressstall
clock
The address clock enable is typically used to improve the effectiveness of cache
memory applications during a cache-miss. The default value for the address clock
enable signals is low.
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–6
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Overview
Figure 3–3 and Figure 3–4 show the address clock enable waveform during read and
write cycles, respectively.
Figure 3–3. Cyclone IV Devices Address Clock Enable During Read Cycle Waveform
inclock
rdaddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
rden
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
an
q (synch) doutn-1
q (asynch)
dout0
doutn
dout0
doutn
a4
a5
dout1
dout4
a1
a0
dout1
dout1
dout1
dout1
dout4
dout1
dout5
Figure 3–4. Cyclone IV Devices Address Clock Enable During Write Cycle Waveform
inclock
wraddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
data
wren
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
contents at a0
contents at a1
an
a1
a0
XX
01
02
XX
contents at a3
XX
contents at a5
a5
00
XX
contents at a2
contents at a4
a4
03
04
XX
XX
05
Mixed-Width Support
M9K memory blocks support mixed data widths. When using simple dual-port, true
dual-port, or FIFO modes, mixed width support allows you to read and write
different data widths to an M9K memory block. For more information about the
different widths supported per memory mode, refer to “Memory Modes” on
page 3–7.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
3–7
Asynchronous Clear
Cyclone IV devices support asynchronous clears for read address registers, output
registers, and output latches only. Input registers other than read address registers are
not supported. When applied to output registers, the asynchronous clear signal clears
the output registers and the effects are immediately seen. If your RAM does not use
output registers, you can still clear the RAM outputs using the output latch
asynchronous clear feature.
1
Asserting asynchronous clear to the read address register during a read operation
may corrupt the memory content.
Figure 3–5 shows the functional waveform for the asynchronous clear feature.
Figure 3–5. Output Latch Asynchronous Clear Waveform
clk
aclr
aclr at latch
q
1
a1
a2
a0
a1
You can selectively enable asynchronous clears per logical memory using the
Quartus II RAM MegaWizard™ Plug-In Manager.
f For more information, refer to the RAM Megafunction User Guide.
There are three ways to reset registers in the M9K blocks:
■
Power up the device
■
Use the aclr signal for output register only
■
Assert the device-wide reset signal using the DEV_CLRn option
Memory Modes
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks allow you to implement fully-synchronous
SRAM memory in multiple modes of operation. Cyclone IV devices M9K memory
blocks do not support asynchronous (unregistered) memory inputs.
M9K memory blocks support the following modes:
November 2011
■
Single-port
■
Simple dual-port
■
True dual-port
■
Shift-register
■
ROM
■
FIFO
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–8
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
1
Violating the setup or hold time on the M9K memory block input registers may
corrupt memory contents. This applies to both read and write operations.
Single-Port Mode
Single-port mode supports non-simultaneous read and write operations from a single
address. Figure 3–6 shows the single-port memory configuration for Cyclone IV
devices M9K memory blocks.
Figure 3–6. Single-Port Memory (1),
(2)
data[ ]
address[ ]
wren
byteena[]
addressstall
inclock
inclocken
rden
aclr
q[]
outclock
outclocken
Notes to Figure 3–6:
(1) You can implement two single-port memory blocks in a single M9K block.
(2) For more information, refer to “Packed Mode Support” on page 3–4.
During a write operation, the behavior of the RAM outputs is configurable. If you
activate rden during a write operation, the RAM outputs show either the new data
being written or the old data at that address. If you perform a write operation with
rden deactivated, the RAM outputs retain the values they held during the most recent
active rden signal.
To choose the desired behavior, set the Read-During-Write option to either New Data
or Old Data in the RAM MegaWizard Plug-In Manager in the Quartus II software. For
more information about read-during-write mode, refer to “Read-During-Write
Operations” on page 3–15.
The port width configurations for M9K blocks in single-port mode are as follow:
■
8192 × 1
■
4096 × 2
■
2048 × 4
■
1024 × 8
■
1024 × 9
■
512 × 16
■
512 × 18
■
256 × 32
■
256 × 36
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
3–9
Figure 3–7 shows a timing waveform for read and write operations in single-port
mode with unregistered outputs. Registering the outputs of the RAM simply delays
the q output by one clock cycle.
Figure 3–7. Cyclone IV Devices Single-Port Mode Timing Waveform
clk_a
wren_a
rden_a
address_a
a0
data_a
A
q_a (old data)
a1
B
C
D
E
F
a0(old data)
A
B
a1(old data)
D
E
A
B
C
D
E
F
q_a (new data)
Simple Dual-Port Mode
Simple dual-port mode supports simultaneous read and write operations to different
locations. Figure 3–8 shows the simple dual-port memory configuration.
Figure 3–8. Cyclone IV Devices Simple Dual-Port Memory
data[ ]
wraddress[ ]
wren
byteena[]
wr_addressstall
wrclock
wrclocken
aclr
(1)
rdaddress[ ]
rden
q[ ]
rd_addressstall
rdclock
rdclocken
Note to Figure 3–8:
(1) Simple dual-port RAM supports input or output clock mode in addition to the read or write clock mode shown.
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support mixed-width configurations,
allowing different read and write port widths. Table 3–3 lists mixed-width
configurations.
Table 3–3. Cyclone IV Devices M9K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (Simple Dual-Port Mode) (Part 1 of 2)
Write Port
Read Port
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
512 × 16
256 × 32
1024 × 9
512 × 18
256 × 36
8192 × 1
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
4096 × 2
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
2048 × 4
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
1024 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–10
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
Table 3–3. Cyclone IV Devices M9K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (Simple Dual-Port Mode) (Part 2 of 2)
Write Port
Read Port
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
512 × 16
256 × 32
1024 × 9
512 × 18
256 × 36
512 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
256 × 32
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
—
1024 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
512 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
256 × 36
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
In simple dual-port mode, M9K memory blocks support separate wren and rden
signals. You can save power by keeping the rden signal low (inactive) when not
reading. Read-during-write operations to the same address can either output “Don’t
Care” data at that location or output “Old Data”. To choose the desired behavior, set
the Read-During-Write option to either Don’t Care or Old Data in the RAM
MegaWizard Plug-In Manager in the Quartus II software. For more information about
this behavior, refer to “Read-During-Write Operations” on page 3–15.
Figure 3–9 shows the timing waveform for read and write operations in simple
dual-port mode with unregistered outputs. Registering the outputs of the RAM
simply delays the q output by one clock cycle.
Figure 3–9. Cyclone IV Devices Simple Dual-Port Timing Waveform
wrclock
wren
wraddress
an-1
data
din-1
a0
an
a1
a2
din
a3
a4
a5
din4
din5
a6
din6
rdclock
rden
rdaddress
q (asynch)
bn
doutn-1
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
b0
doutn
b1
b2
b3
dout0
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
3–11
True Dual-Port Mode
True dual-port mode supports any combination of two-port operations: two reads,
two writes, or one read and one write, at two different clock frequencies. Figure 3–10
shows Cyclone IV devices true dual-port memory configuration.
Figure 3–10. Cyclone IV Devices True Dual-Port Memory
data_a[ ]
address_a[ ]
wren_a
byteena_a[]
addressstall_a
clock_a
clocken_a
rden_a
aclr_a
q_a[]
(1)
data_b[ ]
address_b[]
wren_b
byteena_b[]
addressstall_b
clock_b
clocken_b
rden_b
aclr_b
q_b[]
Note to Figure 3–10:
(1) True dual-port memory supports input or output clock mode in addition to the independent clock mode shown.
1
The widest bit configuration of the M9K blocks in true dual-port mode is 512 × 16-bit
(18-bit with parity).
Table 3–4 lists the possible M9K block mixed-port width configurations.
Table 3–4. Cyclone IV Devices M9K Block Mixed-Width Configurations (True Dual-Port Mode)
Write Port
Read Port
8192 × 1
4096 × 2
2048 × 4
1024 × 8
512 × 16
1024 × 9
512 × 18
8192 × 1
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
4096 × 2
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
2048 × 4
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
1024 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
512 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
1024 × 9
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
512 × 18
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
In true dual-port mode, M9K memory blocks support separate wren and rden signals.
You can save power by keeping the rden signal low (inactive) when not reading.
Read-during-write operations to the same address can either output “New Data” at
that location or “Old Data”. To choose the desired behavior, set the Read-DuringWrite option to either New Data or Old Data in the RAM MegaWizard Plug-In
Manager in the Quartus II software. For more information about this behavior, refer to
“Read-During-Write Operations” on page 3–15.
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–12
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
In true dual-port mode, you can access any memory location at any time from either
port A or port B. However, when accessing the same memory location from both
ports, you must avoid possible write conflicts. When you attempt to write to the same
address location from both ports at the same time, a write conflict happens. This
results in unknown data being stored to that address location. There is no conflict
resolution circuitry built into the Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks. You must
handle address conflicts external to the RAM block.
Figure 3–11 shows true dual-port timing waveforms for the write operation at port A
and read operation at port B. Registering the outputs of the RAM simply delays the q
outputs by one clock cycle.
Figure 3–11. Cyclone IV Devices True Dual-Port Timing Waveform
clk_a
wren_a
address_a
data_a
an-1
an
din-1
din
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
rden_a
q_a (asynch)
din-1
din
dout0
dout1
dout2
dout3
din5
din4
clk_b
wren_b
address_b
bn
b0
b1
b2
b3
doutn
dout0
dout1
dout2
rden_b
q_b (asynch)
doutn-1
Shift Register Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks can implement shift registers for digital
signal processing (DSP) applications, such as finite impulse response (FIR) filters,
pseudo-random number generators, multi-channel filtering, and auto-correlation and
cross-correlation functions. These and other DSP applications require local data
storage, traditionally implemented with standard flipflops that quickly exhaust many
logic cells for large shift registers. A more efficient alternative is to use embedded
memory as a shift register block, which saves logic cell and routing resources.
The size of a (w × m × n) shift register is determined by the input data width (w), the
length of the taps (m), and the number of taps (n), and must be less than or equal to
the maximum number of memory bits, which is 9,216 bits. In addition, the size of
(w × n) must be less than or equal to the maximum width of the block, which is 36 bits.
If you need a larger shift register, you can cascade the M9K memory blocks.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Memory Modes
3–13
Figure 3–12 shows the Cyclone IV devices M9K memory block in shift register mode.
Figure 3–12. Cyclone IV Devices Shift Register Mode Configuration
w × m × n Shift Register
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
n Number of Taps
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
ROM Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support ROM mode. A .mif initializes the
ROM contents of these blocks. The address lines of the ROM are registered. The
outputs can be registered or unregistered. The ROM read operation is identical to the
read operation in the single-port RAM configuration.
FIFO Buffer Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support single-clock or dual-clock FIFO
buffers. Dual clock FIFO buffers are useful when transferring data from one clock
domain to another clock domain. Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks do not
support simultaneous read and write from an empty FIFO buffer.
f For more information about FIFO buffers, refer to the Single- and Dual-Clock FIFO
Megafunction User Guide.
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–14
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Clocking Modes
Clocking Modes
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks support the following clocking modes:
■
Independent
■
Input or output
■
Read or write
■
Single-clock
When using read or write clock mode, if you perform a simultaneous read or write to
the same address location, the output read data is unknown. If you require the output
data to be a known value, use either single-clock mode or I/O clock mode and choose
the appropriate read-during-write behavior in the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager.
1
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block input registers might corrupt
the memory contents. This applies to both read and write operations.
1
Asynchronous clears are available on read address registers, output registers, and
output latches only.
Table 3–5 lists the clocking mode versus memory mode support matrix.
Table 3–5. Cyclone IV Devices Memory Clock Modes
True Dual-Port
Mode
Simple
Dual-Port
Mode
Single-Port
Mode
ROM Mode
FIFO Mode
Independent
v
—
—
v
—
Input or output
v
v
v
v
—
Read or write
—
v
—
—
v
Single-clock
v
v
v
v
v
Clocking Mode
Independent Clock Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks can implement independent clock mode for
true dual-port memories. In this mode, a separate clock is available for each port
(port A and port B). clock A controls all registers on the port A side, while clock B
controls all registers on the port B side. Each port also supports independent clock
enables for port A and B registers.
Input or Output Clock Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks can implement input or output clock mode
for FIFO, single-port, true, and simple dual-port memories. In this mode, an input
clock controls all input registers to the memory block including data, address,
byteena, wren, and rden registers. An output clock controls the data-output registers.
Each memory block port also supports independent clock enables for input and
output registers.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Design Considerations
3–15
Read or Write Clock Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks can implement read or write clock mode for
FIFO and simple dual-port memories. In this mode, a write clock controls the data
inputs, write address, and wren registers. Similarly, a read clock controls the data
outputs, read address, and rden registers. M9K memory blocks support independent
clock enables for both the read and write clocks.
When using read or write mode, if you perform a simultaneous read or write to the
same address location, the output read data is unknown. If you require the output
data to be a known value, use either single-clock mode, input clock mode, or output
clock mode and choose the appropriate read-during-write behavior in the
MegaWizard Plug-In Manager.
Single-Clock Mode
Cyclone IV devices M9K memory blocks can implement single-clock mode for FIFO,
ROM, true dual-port, simple dual-port, and single-port memories. In this mode, you
can control all registers of the M9K memory block with a single clock together with
clock enable.
Design Considerations
This section describes designing with M9K memory blocks.
Read-During-Write Operations
“Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode” on page 3–16 and “Mixed-Port Read-DuringWrite Mode” on page 3–16 describe the functionality of the various RAM
configurations when reading from an address during a write operation at that same
address.
There are two read-during-write data flows: same-port and mixed-port. Figure 3–13
shows the difference between these flows.
Figure 3–13. Cyclone IV Devices Read-During-Write Data Flow
write_a
Port A
data in
Port B
data in
write_b
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
read_a
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
read_b
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–16
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Design Considerations
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
This mode applies to a single-port RAM or the same port of a true dual-port RAM. In
the same port read-during-write mode, there are two output choices: New Data mode
(or flow-through) and Old Data mode. In New Data mode, new data is available on
the rising edge of the same clock cycle on which it was written. In Old Data mode, the
RAM outputs reflect the old data at that address before the write operation proceeds.
When using New Data mode together with byteena, you can control the output of the
RAM. When byteena is high, the data written into the memory passes to the output
(flow-through). When byteena is low, the masked-off data is not written into the
memory and the old data in the memory appears on the outputs. Therefore, the
output can be a combination of new and old data determined by byteena.
Figure 3–14 and Figure 3–15 show sample functional waveforms of same port
read-during-write behavior with both New Data and Old Data modes, respectively.
Figure 3–14. Same Port Read-During Write: New Data Mode
clk_a
wren_a
rden_a
address_a
data_a
a0
A
q_a (asynch)
a1
B
A
C
B
D
C
E
D
F
E
F
Figure 3–15. Same Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
clk_a
wren_a
rden_a
address_a
data_a
q_a (asynch)
a0
A
a0(old data)
a1
B
C
A
D
B
E
a1(old data)
F
D
E
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
This mode applies to a RAM in simple or true dual-port mode, which has one port
reading and the other port writing to the same address location with the same clock.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Design Considerations
3–17
In this mode, you also have two output choices: Old Data mode or Don't Care mode.
In Old Data mode, a read-during-write operation to different ports causes the RAM
outputs to reflect the old data at that address location. In Don't Care mode, the same
operation results in a “Don't Care” or unknown value on the RAM outputs.
f For more information about how to implement the desired behavior, refer to the RAM
Megafunction User Guide.
Figure 3–16 shows a sample functional waveform of mixed port read-during-write
behavior for Old Data mode. In Don't Care mode, the old data is replaced with
“Don't Care”.
Figure 3–16. Mixed Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
clk_a&b
wren_a
address_a
data_a
a
b
A
B
C
D
E
F
rden_b
address_b
q_b (asynch)
1
a
a (old data)
b
A
B
b (old data)
D
E
For mixed-port read-during-write operation with dual clocks, the relationship
between the clocks determines the output behavior of the memory. If you use the
same clock for the two clocks, the output is the old data from the address location.
However, if you use different clocks, the output is unknown during the mixed-port
read-during-write operation. This unknown value may be the old or new data at the
address location, depending on whether the read happens before or after the write.
Conflict Resolution
When you are using M9K memory blocks in true dual-port mode, it is possible to
attempt two write operations to the same memory location (address). Because there is
no conflict resolution circuitry built into M9K memory blocks, this results in unknown
data being written to that location. Therefore, you must implement conflict-resolution
logic external to the M9K memory block.
November 2011
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
3–18
Chapter 3: Memory Blocks in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
Power-Up Conditions and Memory Initialization
The M9K memory block outputs of Cyclone IV devices power up to zero (cleared)
regardless of whether the output registers are used or bypassed. All M9K memory
blocks support initialization using a .mif. You can create .mifs in the Quartus II
software and specify their use using the RAM MegaWizard Plug-In Manager when
instantiating memory in your design. Even if memory is pre-initialized (for example,
using a .mif), it still powers up with its outputs cleared. Only the subsequent read
after power up outputs the pre-initialized values.
f For more information about .mifs, refer to the RAM Megafunction User Guide and the
Quartus II Handbook.
Power Management
The M9K memory block clock enables of Cyclone IV devices allow you to control
clocking of each M9K memory block to reduce AC power consumption. Use the rden
signal to ensure that read operations only occur when necessary. If your design does
not require read-during-write, reduce power consumption by deasserting the rden
signal during write operations or any period when there are no memory operations.
The Quartus II software automatically powers down any unused M9K memory
blocks to save static power.
Document Revision History
Table 3–6 shows the revision history for this chapter.
Table 3–6. Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
November 2011
1.1
Updated the “Byte Enable Support” section.
November 2009
1.0
Initial release.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
November 2011
Altera Corporation
4. Embedded Multipliers in
Cyclone IV Devices
February 2010
CYIV-51004-1.1
CYIV-51004-1.1
Cyclone® IV devices include a combination of on-chip resources and external
interfaces that help increase performance, reduce system cost, and lower the power
consumption of digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Cyclone IV devices, either
alone or as DSP device co-processors, are used to improve price-to-performance ratios
of DSP systems. Particular focus is placed on optimizing Cyclone IV devices for
applications that benefit from an abundance of parallel processing resources, which
include video and image processing, intermediate frequency (IF) modems used in
wireless communications systems, and multi-channel communications and video
systems.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
“Embedded Multiplier Block Overview” on page 4–1
■
“Architecture” on page 4–2
■
“Operational Modes” on page 4–4
Embedded Multiplier Block Overview
Figure 4–1 shows one of the embedded multiplier columns with the surrounding logic
array blocks (LABs). The embedded multiplier is configured as either one 18 × 18
multiplier or two 9 × 9 multipliers. For multiplications greater than 18 × 18, the
Quartus® II software cascades multiple embedded multiplier blocks together. There
are no restrictions on the data width of the multiplier, but the greater the data width,
the slower the multiplication process.
Figure 4–1. Embedded Multipliers Arranged in Columns with Adjacent LABs
Embedded
Multiplier
Column
1 LAB
Row
Embedded
Multiplier
© 2010 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
February 2010
Feedback Subscribe
4–2
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Architecture
Table 4–1 lists the number of embedded multipliers and the multiplier modes that can
be implemented in each Cyclone IV device.
Table 4–1. Number of Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Device
Embedded
Multipliers
EP4CGX15
0
EP4CGX22
EP4CGX30
Device Family
Cyclone IV GX
9×9
Multipliers
(1)
18 × 18
Multipliers
0
0
40
80
40
80
160
80
EP4CGX50
140
280
140
EP4CGX75
198
396
198
EP4CGX110
280
560
280
EP4CGX150
360
720
360
EP4CE6
15
30
15
EP4CE10
23
46
23
EP4CE15
56
112
56
EP4CE22
66
132
66
EP4CE30
66
132
66
EP4CE40
116
232
116
EP4CE55
154
308
154
EP4CE75
200
400
200
EP4CE115
266
532
266
Cyclone IV E
(1)
Note to Table 4–1:
(1) These columns show the number of 9 × 9 or 18 × 18 multipliers for each device.
In addition to the embedded multipliers in Cyclone IV devices, you can implement
soft multipliers by using the M9K memory blocks as look-up tables (LUTs). The LUTs
contain partial results from the multiplication of input data with coefficients that
implement variable depth and width high-performance soft multipliers for low-cost,
high-volume DSP applications. The availability of soft multipliers increases the
number of available multipliers in the device.
f For more information about M9K memory blocks, refer to the Memory Blocks in
Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
f For more information about soft multipliers, refer to AN 306: Implementing Multipliers
in FPGA Devices.
Architecture
Each embedded multiplier consists of the following elements:
■
Multiplier stage
■
Input and output registers
■
Input and output interfaces
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
February 2010
Altera Corporation
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Architecture
4–3
Figure 4–2 shows the multiplier block architecture.
Figure 4–2. Multiplier Block Architecture
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
CLRN
Data B
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Input
Register
Output
Register
Embedded Multiplier Block
Input Registers
You can send each multiplier input signal into an input register or directly into the
multiplier in 9- or 18-bit sections, depending on the operational mode of the
multiplier. You can send each multiplier input signal through a register independently
of other input signals. For example, you can send the multiplier Data A signal through
a register and send the Data B signal directly to the multiplier.
The following control signals are available for each input register in the embedded
multiplier:
■
clock
■
clock enable
■
asynchronous clear
All input and output registers in a single embedded multiplier are fed by the same
clock, clock enable, and asynchronous clear signals.
Multiplier Stage
The multiplier stage of an embedded multiplier block supports 9 × 9 or 18 × 18
multipliers, as well as other multipliers between these configurations. Depending on
the data width or operational mode of the multiplier, a single embedded multiplier
can perform one or two multiplications in parallel. For multiplier information, refer to
“Operational Modes” on page 4–4.
Each multiplier operand is a unique signed or unsigned number. The signa and signb
signals control an input of a multiplier and determine if the value is signed or
unsigned. If the signa signal is high, the Data A operand is a signed number. If the
signa signal is low, the Data A operand is an unsigned number.
February 2010
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
4–4
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Operational Modes
Table 4–2 lists the sign of the multiplication results for the various operand sign
representations. The results of the multiplication are signed if any one of the operands
is a signed value.
Table 4–2. Multiplier Sign Representation
Data A
Data B
Result
signa Value
Logic Level
signb Value
Logic Level
Unsigned
Low
Unsigned
Low
Unsigned
Unsigned
Low
Signed
High
Signed
Signed
High
Unsigned
Low
Signed
Signed
High
Signed
High
Signed
Each embedded multiplier block has only one signa and one signb signal to control
the sign representation of the input data to the block. If the embedded multiplier
block has two 9 × 9 multipliers, the Data A input of both multipliers share the same
signa signal, and the Data B input of both multipliers share the same signb signal.
You can dynamically change the signa and signb signals to modify the sign
representation of the input operands at run time. You can send the signa and signb
signals through a dedicated input register. The multiplier offers full precision,
regardless of the sign representation.
1
When the signa and signb signals are unused, the Quartus II software sets the
multiplier to perform unsigned multiplication by default.
Output Registers
You can register the embedded multiplier output with output registers in either 18- or
36-bit sections, depending on the operational mode of the multiplier. The following
control signals are available for each output register in the embedded multiplier:
■
clock
■
clock enable
■
asynchronous clear
All input and output registers in a single embedded multiplier are fed by the same
clock, clock enable, and asynchronous clear signals.
Operational Modes
You can use an embedded multiplier block in one of two operational modes,
depending on the application needs:
1
■
One 18 × 18 multiplier
■
Up to two 9 × 9 independent multipliers
You can also use embedded multipliers of Cyclone IV devices to implement multiplier
adder and multiplier accumulator functions, in which the multiplier portion of the
function is implemented with embedded multipliers, and the adder or accumulator
function is implemented in logic elements (LEs).
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
February 2010
Altera Corporation
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Operational Modes
4–5
18-Bit Multipliers
You can configure each embedded multiplier to support a single 18 × 18 multiplier for
input widths of 10 to 18 bits.
Figure 4–3 shows the embedded multiplier configured to support an 18-bit multiplier.
Figure 4–3. 18-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out [35..0]
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
18 × 18 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
All 18-bit multiplier inputs and results are independently sent through registers. The
multiplier inputs can accept signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of
both. Also, you can dynamically change the signa and signb signals and send these
signals through dedicated input registers.
February 2010
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
4–6
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Operational Modes
9-Bit Multipliers
You can configure each embedded multiplier to support two 9 × 9 independent
multipliers for input widths of up to 9 bits.
Figure 4–4 shows the embedded multiplier configured to support two 9-bit
multipliers.
Figure 4–4. 9-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa
signb
aclr
clock
ena
Data A 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out 0 [17..0]
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
9 × 9 Multiplier
Data A 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out 1 [17..0]
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
9 × 9 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
All 9-bit multiplier inputs and results are independently sent through registers. The
multiplier inputs can accept signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of
both. Two 9 × 9 multipliers in the same embedded multiplier block share the same
signa and signb signal. Therefore, all the Data A inputs feeding the same embedded
multiplier must have the same sign representation. Similarly, all the Data B inputs
feeding the same embedded multiplier must have the same sign representation.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
February 2010
Altera Corporation
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
4–7
Document Revision History
Table 4–3 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 4–3. Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
February 2010
1.1
Added Cyclone IV E devices in Table 4–1 for the Quartus II software version
9.1 SP1 release.
November 2009
1.0
Initial release.
February 2010
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
4–8
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Chapter 4: Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
February 2010
Altera Corporation
5. Clock Networks and PLLs in
Cyclone IV Devices
October 2012
CYIV-51005-2.4
CYIV-51005-2.4
This chapter describes the hierarchical clock networks and phase-locked loops (PLLs)
with advanced features in the Cyclone® IV device family. It includes details about the
ability to reconfigure the PLL counter clock frequency and phase shift in real time,
allowing you to sweep PLL output frequencies and dynamically adjust the output
clock phase shift.
1
The Quartus® II software enables the PLLs and their features without external
devices.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
“Clock Networks” on page 5–1
■
“PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices” on page 5–18
■
“Cyclone IV PLL Hardware Overview” on page 5–20
■
“Clock Feedback Modes” on page 5–23
■
“Hardware Features” on page 5–26
■
“Programmable Bandwidth” on page 5–32
■
“Phase Shift Implementation” on page 5–32
■
“PLL Cascading” on page 5–33
■
“PLL Reconfiguration” on page 5–34
■
“Spread-Spectrum Clocking” on page 5–41
■
“PLL Specifications” on page 5–41
Clock Networks
The Cyclone IV GX device provides up to 12 dedicated clock pins (CLK[15..4]) that
can drive the global clocks (GCLKs). Cyclone IV GX devices support four dedicated
clock pins on each side of the device except the left side. These clock pins can drive up
to 30 GCLKs.
The Cyclone IV E device provides up to 15 dedicated clock pins (CLK[15..1]) that can
drive up to 20 GCLKs. Cyclone IV E devices support three dedicated clock pins on the
left side and four dedicated clock pins on the top, right, and bottom sides of the device
except EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices. EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices only support
three dedicated clock pins on the left side and four dedicated clock pins on the right
side of the device.
© 2012 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Feedback Subscribe
5–2
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
f For more information about the number of GCLK networks in each device density,
refer to the Cyclone IV FPGA Device Family Overview chapter.
GCLK Network
GCLKs drive throughout the entire device, feeding all device quadrants. All resources
in the device (I/O elements, logic array blocks (LABs), dedicated multiplier blocks,
and M9K memory blocks) can use GCLKs as clock sources. Use these clock network
resources for control signals, such as clock enables and clears fed by an external pin.
Internal logic can also drive GCLKs for internally generated GCLKs and
asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals with high fan-out.
Table 5–1, Table 5–2 on page 5–4, and Table 5–3 on page 5–7 list the connectivity of the
clock sources to the GCLK networks.
Table 5–1. GCLK Network Connections for EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 (1),
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
(2)
(Part 1 of 2)
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
CLK4/DIFFCLK_2n
— — — — — v — v — v — — — — — — — — — —
CLK5/DIFFCLK_2p
— — — — — — v v — — — — — — — — — — — —
CLK6/DIFFCLK_3n
— — — — — — v — v v — — — — — — — — — —
CLK7/DIFFCLK_3p
— — — — — v — — v — — — — — — — — — — —
CLK8/DIFFCLK_5n
— — — — — — — — — — v — v — v — — — — —
CLK9/DIFFCLK_5p
— — — — — — — — — — — v v — — — — — — —
CLK10/DIFFCLK_4n/RE
— — — — — — — — — — — v — v v — — — — —
FCLK1n
CLK11/DIFFCLK_4p/RE
— — — — — — — — — — v — — v — — — — — —
FCLK1p
CLK12/DIFFCLK_7p/RE
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — v
FCLK0p
CLK13/DIFFCLK_7n/RE
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v v — —
FCLK0n
CLK14/DIFFCLK_6p
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v
CLK15/DIFFCLK_6n
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v —
PLL_1_C0
v — — v — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v —
PLL_1_C1
— v — — v — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v
PLL_1_C2
v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — —
PLL_1_C3
— v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v —
PLL_1_C4
— — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v
PLL_2_C0
v — — v — — — — — — v — — v — — — — — —
PLL_2_C1
— v — — v — — — — — — v — — v — — — — —
PLL_2_C2
v — v — — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — —
PLL_2_C3
— v — v — — — — — — — v — v — — — — — —
PLL_2_C4
— — v — v — — — — — — — v — v — — — — —
PLL_3_C0
— — — — — v — — v — — — — — — v — — v —
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
5–3
Table 5–1. GCLK Network Connections for EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 (1),
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
(2)
(Part 2 of 2)
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
PLL_3_C1
— — — — — — v — — v — — — — — — v — — v
PLL_3_C2
— — — — — v — v — — — — — — — v — v — —
PLL_3_C3
— — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — v — v —
PLL_3_C4
— — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — v — v
PLL_4_C0
(3)
— — — — — v — — v — v — — v — — — — — —
PLL_4_C1
(3)
— — — — — — v — — v — v — — v — — — — —
PLL_4_C2
(3)
— — — — — v — v — — v — v — — — — — — —
PLL_4_C3
(3)
— — — — — — v — v — — v — v — — — — — —
PLL_4_C4
(3)
— — — — — — — v — v — — v — v — — — — —
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — —
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
(4)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v —
DPCLK4
(4)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — —
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v
DPCLK5
DPCLK6
— — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — —
(4)
— — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK7
— — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK8
DPCLK9
— — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — —
(4)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — —
DPCLK10
DPCLK11
(4)
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — —
DPCLK12
(4)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — —
— — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — —
DPCLK13
Notes to Table 5–1:
(1) EP4CGX30 information in this table refers to all EP4CGX30 packages except F484 package.
(2) PLL_1 and PLL_2 are multipurpose PLLs while PLL_3 and PLL_4 are general purpose PLLs.
(3) PLL_4 is only available in EP4CGX22 and EP4CGX30 devices in F324 package.
(4) This pin applies to EP4CGX22 and EP4CGX30 devices.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
(2)
5–4
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Table 5–2. GCLK Network Connections for EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 Devices (1),
(Part 1 of 4)
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Altera Corporation
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — —
CLKIO5/DIFFCLK_2p
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v v — — v — — — — — — — — — — — —
CLKIO6/DIFFCLK_3n
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v — — — — — — — — — — — — —
CLKIO7/DIFFCLK_3p
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — —
CLKIO8/DIFFCLK_5n
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — v — — — — — — —
CLKIO9/DIFFCLK_5p
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v v — — v — — — — — —
CLKIO10/DIFFCLK_4n/RE
FCLK3n
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v
CLKIO11/DIFFCLK_4p/RE
FCLK3p
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — v — — — — — —
CLKIO12/DIFFCLK_7p/RE
FCLK2p
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — v —
CLKIO13/DIFFCLK_7n/RE
FCLK2n
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v v — — v
CLKIO14/DIFFCLK_6p
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v —
CLKIO15/DIFFCLK_6n
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — v
PLL_1_C0
v — — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — v
PLL_1_C1
— v — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v —
PLL_1_C2
v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — — —
PLL_1_C3
— v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — —
PLL_1_C4
— — v — v v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v
PLL_2_C0
— — — — — — v — — v — v — — — — — — v — — v — v — — — — — —
PLL_2_C1
— — — — — — — v — — v — — — — — — — — v — — v — — — — — — —
PLL_2_C2
— — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — —
PLL_2_C3
— — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — —
PLL_2_C4
— — — — — — — — v — v v — — — — — — — — v — v v — — — — — —
— — — — — —
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
October 2012
CLKIO4/DIFFCLK_2n
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
(2)
(Part 2 of 4)
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Altera Corporation
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — v — — — — — — v — — v — v
PLL_3_C1
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — — — — — — — — v — — v —
PLL_3_C2
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — — v — v — — —
PLL_3_C3
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — — v — v — —
PLL_3_C4
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v — — — — — — — — v — v v
PLL_4_C0
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — v v — — v — v — — — — — —
PLL_4_C1
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — v — — v — — v — — — — — — —
PLL_4_C2
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — — — v — v — — — — — — — — —
PLL_4_C3
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v — — — v — v — — — — — — — —
PLL_4_C4
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — v v — — v — v v — — — — — —
PLL_5_C0
v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_5_C1
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_5_C2
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_5_C3
— v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_5_C4
— — v — v v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_6_C0
v — — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_6_C1
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_6_C2
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_6_C3
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_6_C4
— v — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_7_C0
(3)
— — — — — — v — — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_7_C1
(3)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_7_C2
(3)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_7_C3
(3)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_7_C4
(3)
— — — — — — — v — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
5–5
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
PLL_3_C0
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
October 2012
Table 5–2. GCLK Network Connections for EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 Devices (1),
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
(2)
(Part 3 of 4)
5–6
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Table 5–2. GCLK Network Connections for EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 Devices (1),
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
PLL_8_C0
(3)
— — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_8_C1
(3)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_8_C2
(3)
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_8_C3
(3)
— — — — — — — v — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PLL_8_C4
(3)
— — — — — — — — v — v v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Altera Corporation
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — —
DPCLK1
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — —
DPCLK2
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v
DPCLK3
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — —
DPCLK4
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — —
DPCLK5
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v —
DPCLK6
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK7
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK8
— — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK9
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK10
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK11
— — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK12
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — —
DPCLK13
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK14
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK15
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — —
DPCLK16
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — —
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
October 2012
DPCLK0
(2)
(Part 4 of 4)
GCLK Networks
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Altera Corporation
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — v — — — — — — — — — —
DPCLK17
Notes to Table 5–2:
(1) EP4CGX30 information in this table refers to only EP4CGX30 device in F484 package.
(2) PLL_1, PLL_2, PLL_3, and PLL_4 are general purpose PLLs while PLL_5, PLL_6, PLL_7, and PLL_8 are multipurpose PLLs.
(3) PLL_7 and PLL_8 are not available in EP4CXGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices in F484 package.
Table 5–3. GCLK Network Connections for Cyclone IV E Devices (1) (Part 1 of 3)
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
CLK1
— v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK2/DIFFCLK_1p
— v —
v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK3/DIFFCLK_1n
v
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK4/DIFFCLK_2p
—
—
—
—
— v —
v — v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK5/DIFFCLK_2n
—
—
—
—
—
—
v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK6/DIFFCLK_3p
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK7/DIFFCLK_3n
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CLK8/DIFFCLK_5n
(2)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v — v —
v
—
—
—
—
—
CLK9/DIFFCLK_5p
(2)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v
— v v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
— v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
v —
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
CLK10/DIFFCLK_4n
(2)
CLK11/DIFFCLK_4p
(2)
(2)
CLK13/DIFFCLK_7p
(2)
CLK14/DIFFCLK_6n
(2)
v v
5–7
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
CLK12/DIFFCLK_7n
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
October 2012
Table 5–2. GCLK Network Connections for EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 Devices (1),
CLK15/DIFFCLK_6p
(2)
5–8
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
GCLK Networks
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
v —
— v —
(3)
v —
PLL_1_C1
(3)
— v —
PLL_1_C2
(3)
v —
PLL_1_C3
(3)
PLL_1_C4
(3)
—
—
PLL_2_C0
(3)
—
PLL_2_C1
(3)
PLL_2_C2
(3)
PLL_2_C3
(3)
PLL_2_C4
(3)
19
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v — v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v
—
—
v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
PLL_3_C0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
PLL_3_C1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
—
PLL_3_C2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
PLL_3_C3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
v —
—
—
—
—
—
PLL_3_C4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
v —
—
—
—
—
PLL_4_C0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
v —
PLL_4_C1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
PLL_4_C2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
v —
—
PLL_4_C3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v
—
PLL_4_C4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
v
DPCLK0
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK1
— v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK7
v —
— v —
v
v —
—
v —
— v
v —
(4)
CDPCLK0, or
CDPCLK7
—
(2), (5)
—
—
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
—
v —
Altera Corporation
PLL_1_C0
15
October 2012
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Table 5–3. GCLK Network Connections for Cyclone IV E Devices (1) (Part 2 of 3)
GCLK Network Clock
Sources
GCLK Networks
Altera Corporation
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
—
v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK11
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK9
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v v
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK5
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
—
—
DPCLK2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
— v —
—
—
DPCLK4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v —
—
DPCLK3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPCLK2
CDPCLK1, or
CDPCLK2
(4)
DPCLK7
(2)
DPCLK4
(4)
DPCLK6
(2)
DPCLK6
(4)
CDPCLK5, or
DPCLK3
2
—
—
—
3
4
(2), (5)
(4)
CDPCLK4, or
CDPCLK3
1
(2), (5)
DPCLK5
CDPCLK6
0
(4)
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
October 2012
Table 5–3. GCLK Network Connections for Cyclone IV E Devices (1) (Part 3 of 3)
(2), (5)
v v
(1) EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices only have GCLK networks 0 to 9.
(2) These pins apply to all Cyclone IV E devices except EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices.
(3) EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices only have PLL_1 and PLL_2.
(4) This pin applies only to EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices.
(5) Only one of the two CDPCLK pins can feed the clock control block. You can use the other pin as a regular I/O pin.
5–9
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Notes to Table 5–3:
5–10
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
If you do not use dedicated clock pins to feed the GCLKs, you can use them as
general-purpose input pins to feed the logic array. However, when using them as
general-purpose input pins, they do not have support for an I/O register and must
use LE-based registers in place of an I/O register.
f For more information about how to connect the clock and PLL pins, refer to the
Cyclone IV Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines.
Clock Control Block
The clock control block drives the GCLKs. Clock control blocks are located on each
side of the device, close to the dedicated clock input pins. GCLKs are optimized for
minimum clock skew and delay.
Table 5–4 lists the sources that can feed the clock control block, which in turn feeds the
GCLKs.
Table 5–4. Clock Control Block Inputs
Input
Description
Dedicated clock inputs
Dedicated clock input pins can drive clocks or global signals, such as
synchronous and asynchronous clears, presets, or clock enables onto
given GCLKs.
Dual-purpose clock
(DPCLK and CDPCLK)
I/O input
DPCLK and CDPCLK I/O pins are bidirectional dual function pins that
are used for high fan-out control signals, such as protocol signals,
TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI, via the GCLK. Clock control blocks
that have inputs driven by dual-purpose clock I/O pins are not able to
drive PLL inputs.
PLL outputs
PLL counter outputs can drive the GCLK.
Internal logic
You can drive the GCLK through logic array routing to enable internal
logic elements (LEs) to drive a high fan-out, low-skew signal path.
Clock control blocks that have inputs driven by internal logic are not
able to drive PLL inputs.
In Cyclone IV devices, dedicated clock input pins, PLL counter outputs, dual-purpose
clock I/O inputs, and internal logic can all feed the clock control block for each GCLK.
The output from the clock control block in turn feeds the corresponding GCLK. The
GCLK can drive the PLL input if the clock control block inputs are outputs of another
PLL or dedicated clock input pins. There are five or six clock control blocks on each
side of the device periphery—depending on device density; providing up to 30 clock
control blocks in each Cyclone IV GX device. The maximum number of clock control
blocks per Cyclone IV E device is 20. For the clock control block locations, refer to
Figure 5–2 on page 5–12, Figure 5–3 on page 5–13, and Figure 5–4 on page 5–14.
1
The clock control blocks on the left side of the Cyclone IV GX device do not support
any clock inputs.
The control block has two functions:
■
Dynamic GCLK clock source selection (not applicable for DPCLK, CDPCLK, and
internal logic input)
■
GCLK network power down (dynamic enable and disable)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
5–11
Figure 5–1 shows the clock control block.
Figure 5–1. Clock Control Block
Clock Control Block
Internal Logic
Enable/
Disable
DPCLK
Static Clock Select (3)
Static Clock
Select (3)
C0
C1
CLK[n + 3]
CLK[n + 2]
CLK[n + 1]
CLK[n] (6)
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
PLL
C2
C3
C4
CLKSWITCH (1)
Global
Clock
CLKSELECT[1..0] (2)
Internal Logic (5)
C0
C1
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
PLL
C2
(4)
Not applicable to
Cyclone IV E devices
CLKSWITCH (1)
C3
C4
Notes to Figure 5–1:
(1) The clkswitch signal can either be set through the configuration file or dynamically set when using the manual PLL switchover feature. The
output of the multiplexer is the input clock (fIN) for the PLL.
(2) The clkselect[1..0] signals are fed by internal logic and are used to dynamically select the clock source for the GCLK when the device is in
user mode.
(3) The static clock select signals are set in the configuration file. Therefore, dynamic control when the device is in user mode is not feasible.
(4) Two out of four PLL clock outputs are selected from adjacent PLLs to drive into the clock control block.
(5) You can use internal logic to enable or disable the GCLK in user mode.
(6) CLK[n] is not available on the left side of Cyclone IV E devices.
Each PLL generates five clock outputs through the c[4..0] counters. Two of these
clocks can drive the GCLK through a clock control block, as shown in Figure 5–1.
f For more information about how to use the clock control block in the Quartus II
software, refer to the ALTCLKCTRL Megafunction User Guide.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–12
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
GCLK Network Clock Source Generation
Figure 5–2, Figure 5–3, and Figure 5–4 on page 5–14 show the Cyclone IV PLLs, clock
inputs, and clock control block location for different Cyclone IV device densities.
Figure 5–2. Clock Networks and Clock Control Block Locations in EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 Devices (1),
DPCLK[13..12] (5)
(2)
DPCLK[11..10] (5)
CLK[11..8]
2
2
4
4
PLL_2
4
5
PLL_4 (4)
(6)
5
Clock
Control
Block (3)
4
5
5
GCLK[19..0]
20
Clock
Control
Block (3)
HSSI
DPCLK[9..8] (5)
2
20
Clock
Control
Block (3)
20
20
4
GCLK[19..0]
2
CLK[7..4]
DPCLK[7..6] (5)
4
5
5
Clock
Control
Block (3)
5
PLL_1
5
4
4
2
4
(6)
PLL_3
2
CLK[15..12]
DPCLK[3..2] (5)
DPCLK[5..4] (5)
Notes to Figure 5–2:
(1) The clock networks and clock control block locations apply to all EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices except EP4CGX30 device in F484
package.
(2) PLL_1 and PLL_2 are multipurpose PLLs while PLL_3 and PLL_4 are general purpose PLLs.
(3) There are five clock control blocks on each side.
(4) PLL_4 is only available in EP4CGX22 and EP4CGX30 devices in F324 package.
(5) The EP4CGX15 device has two DPCLK pins on three sides of the device: DPCLK2 and DPCLK5 on bottom side, DPCLK7 and DPCLK8 on the right
side, DPCLK10 and DPCLK13 on the top side of device.
(6) Dedicated clock pins can feed into this PLL. However, these paths are not fully compensated.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
5–13
Figure 5–3. Clock Networks and Clock Control Block Locations in EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and
EP4CGX150 Devices (1), (2)
DPCLK[17..15]
3
4
PLL_8
(5)
(6)
(6)
3
4
4
4
PLL_2
4
5
HSSI
DPCLK[14..12]
CLKIO[11..8]
REFCLK[4,5]p/n (4)
PLL_4
(6)
5
Clock
Control
Block (3)
4
3
5
5
GCLK[29..0]
Clock
Control
Block (3)
(6)
PLL_7
(5)
2
PLL_6
3
30
Clock
Control
Block (3)
30
Clock
Control
Block (3)
2
(6)
30
30
4
3
GCLK[29..0]
DPCLK[11..9]
CLKIO[7..4]
DPCLK[8..6]
4
HSSI
5
3
5
Clock
Control
Block (3)
5
5
(6)
PLL_1
PLL_5
4
4
(6)
PLL_3
4
4
(6)
3
REFCLK[0,1]p/n (4)
4
3
CLKIO[15..12]
DPCLK[2..0]
DPCLK[5..3]
Notes to Figure 5–3:
(1) The clock networks and clock control block locations in this figure apply to only the EP4CGX30 device in F484 package and all EP4CGX50,
EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices.
(2) PLL_1, PLL_2, PLL_3, and PLL_4 are general purpose PLLs while PLL_5, PLL_6, PLL_7, and PLL_8 are multipurpose PLLs.
(3) There are 6 clock control blocks on the top, right and bottom sides of the device and 12 clock control blocks on the left side of the device.
(4) REFCLK[0,1]p/n and REFCLK[4,5]p/n can only drive the general purpose PLLs and multipurpose PLLs on the left side of the device. These
clock pins do not have access to the clock control blocks and GCLK networks. The REFCLK[4,5]p/n pins are not available in devices in F484
package.
(5) Not available for EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices in F484 package.
(6) Dedicated clock pins can feed into this PLL. However, these paths are not fully compensated.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–14
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
Figure 5–4. Clock Networks and Clock Control Block Locations in Cyclone IV E Devices
DPCLK[11.10]
CDPCLK7
DPCLK[9..8]
CDPCLK6
CLK[11..8]
2
2
4
(3)
PLL_3
(4)
4
4
PLL_2
5
Clock
Control
Block (1)
CDPCLK0
(3)
(2)
CDPCLK5
(2)
2
4
4
5
2
GCLK[19..0]
DPCLK0
CLK[3..1]
DPCLK7
20
Clock
Control
Block (1)
3
20
Clock
Control
Block (1)
20
4
CLK[7..4]
20
DPCLK1
DPCLK6
GCLK[19..0]
2
4
5
2
Clock
Control
Block (1)
(2)
CDPCLK1
4
(2)
(3)
CDPCLK4
5
PLL_1
PLL_4
(4)
4
(3)
4
2
4
2
CDPCLK3
CDPCLK2
CLK[15..12]
DPCLK[3..2]
DPCLK[5..4]
Notes to Figure 5–4:
(1) There are five clock control blocks on each side.
(2) Only one of the corner CDPCLK pins in each corner can feed the clock control block at a time. You can use the other CDPCLK pins as
general-purpose I/O (GPIO) pins.
(3) Dedicated clock pins can feed into this PLL. However, these paths are not fully compensated.
(4) PLL_3 and PLL_4 are not available in EP4CE6 and EP4CE10 devices.
The inputs to the clock control blocks on each side of the Cyclone IV GX device must
be chosen from among the following clock sources:
■
Four clock input pins
■
Ten PLL counter outputs (five from each adjacent PLLs)
■
Two, four, or six DPCLK pins from the top, bottom, and right sides of the device
■
Five signals from internal logic
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
5–15
From the clock sources listed above, only two clock input pins, two out of four PLL
clock outputs (two clock outputs from either adjacent PLLs), one DPCLK pin, and one
source from internal logic can drive into any given clock control block, as shown in
Figure 5–1 on page 5–11.
Out of these six inputs to any clock control block, the two clock input pins and two
PLL outputs are dynamically selected to feed a GCLK. The clock control block
supports static selection of the signal from internal logic.
Figure 5–5 shows a simplified version of the clock control blocks on each side of the
Cyclone IV GX device periphery.
Figure 5–5. Clock Control Blocks on Each Side of Cyclone IV GX Device
Clock Input Pins
PLL Outputs
DPCLK (1)
Internal Logic
4
10
2, 4, or 6
Clock
Control
Block
5 or 6 (2)
GCLK
5
Five or six clock control
blocks on each side
of the device
Notes to Figure 5–5:
(1) The EP4CGX15 device has two DPCLK pins; the EP4CGX22 and EP4CGX30 devices have four DPCLK pins; the
EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices have six DPCLK pins.
(2) Each clock control block in the EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices can drive five GCLK networks. Each
clock control block in the EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices can drive six GCLK
networks.
The inputs to the five clock control blocks on each side of the Cyclone IV E device
must be chosen from among the following clock sources:
■
Three or four clock input pins, depending on the specific device
■
Five PLL counter outputs
■
Two DPCLK pins and two CDPCLK pins from both the left and right sides and four
DPCLK pins from both the top and bottom
■
Five signals from internal logic
From the clock sources listed above, only two clock input pins, two PLL clock outputs,
one DPCLK or CDPCLK pin, and one source from internal logic can drive into any given
clock control block, as shown in Figure 5–1 on page 5–11.
Out of these six inputs to any clock control block, the two clock input pins and two
PLL outputs are dynamically selected to feed a GCLK. The clock control block
supports static selection of the signal from internal logic.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–16
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
Figure 5–6 shows a simplified version of the five clock control blocks on each side of
the Cyclone IV E device periphery.
Figure 5–6. Clock Control Blocks on Each Side of Cyclone IV E Device (1)
Clock Input Pins
PLL Outputs
CDPCLK
3 or 4
5
2
2 or 4
Clock
Control
Block
5
GCLK
DPCLK
Internal Logic
5
Five Clock Control
Blocks on Each Side
of the Device
Note to Figure 5–6:
(1) The left and right sides of the device have two DPCLK pins; the top and bottom of the device have four DPCLK pins.
GCLK Network Power Down
You can disable a Cyclone IV device’s GCLK (power down) using both static and
dynamic approaches. In the static approach, configuration bits are set in the
configuration file generated by the Quartus II software, which automatically disables
unused GCLKs. The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows internal logic to
control clock enable or disable the GCLKs in Cyclone IV devices.
When a clock network is disabled, all the logic fed by the clock network is in an
off-state, thereby reducing the overall power consumption of the device. This function
is independent of the PLL and is applied directly on the clock network, as shown in
Figure 5–1 on page 5–11.
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK multiplexers
through the Quartus II software using the ALTCLKCTRL megafunction.
f For more information, refer to the ALTCLKCTRL Megafunction User Guide.
clkena Signals
Cyclone IV devices support clkena signals at the GCLK network level. This allows
you to gate-off the clock even when a PLL is used. Upon re-enabling the output clock,
the PLL does not need a resynchronization or re-lock period because the circuit gates
off the clock at the clock network level. In addition, the PLL can remain locked
independent of the clkena signals because the loop-related counters are not affected.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Networks
5–17
Figure 5–7 shows how to implement the clkena signal with a single register.
Figure 5–7. clkena Implementation
clkena
D
Q
clkena_out
clkin
clk_out
1
The clkena circuitry controlling the output C0 of the PLL to an output pin is
implemented with two registers instead of a single register, as shown in Figure 5–7.
Figure 5–8 shows the waveform example for a clock output enable. The clkena signal
is sampled on the falling edge of the clock (clkin).
1
This feature is useful for applications that require low power or sleep mode.
Figure 5–8. clkena Implementation: Output Enable
clkin
clkena
clk_out
The clkena signal can also disable clock outputs if the system is not tolerant to
frequency overshoot during PLL resynchronization.
Altera recommends using the clkena signals when switching the clock source to the
PLLs or the GCLK. The recommended sequence is:
1. Disable the primary output clock by de-asserting the clkena signal.
2. Switch to the secondary clock using the dynamic select signals of the clock control
block.
3. Allow some clock cycles of the secondary clock to pass before reasserting the
clkena signal. The exact number of clock cycles you must wait before enabling the
secondary clock is design-dependent. You can build custom logic to ensure
glitch-free transition when switching between different clock sources.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–18
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV GX devices offer two variations of PLLs: general purpose PLLs and
multipurpose PLLs. Cyclone IV E devices only have the general purpose PLLs.
The general purpose PLLs are used for general-purpose applications in the FPGA
fabric and periphery such as external memory interfaces. The multipurpose PLLs are
used for clocking the transceiver blocks. When the multipurpose PLLs are not used
for transceiver clocking, they can be used for general-purpose clocking.
f For more details about the multipurpose PLLs used for transceiver clocking, refer to
the Cyclone IV Transceivers chapter.
Cyclone IV GX devices contain up to eight general purpose PLLs and multipurpose
PLLs while Cyclone IV E devices have up to four general purpose PLLs that provide
robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management, external
system clock management, and high-speed I/O interfaces.
f For more information about the number of general purpose PLLs and multipurpose
PLLs in each device density, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Family Overview chapter.
1
The general I/O pins cannot drive the PLL clock input pins.
Table 5–5 lists the features available in Cyclone IV GX PLLs.
Table 5–5. Cyclone IV GX PLL Features (Part 1 of 2)
Availability
General Purpose PLLs
Features
PLL_1
PLL_2
(1), (10)
(1), (10)
PLL_
3 (2)
Multipurpose PLLs
PLL_
4 (3)
PLL_1 PLL_2
(4)
(4)
C (output counters)
PLL_5
PLL_6
(1), (10)
(1), (10)
PLL_7 PLL_8
(1)
(1)
5
M, N, C counter sizes
(5)
1 to 512
Dedicated clock outputs
1 single-ended or 1 differential pair
12 single-ended or 6 differential pairs (6)
and 4 differential pairs (7)
Clock input pins
Spread-spectrum input clock
tracking
v
PLL cascading
(8)
Through GCLK
Source-Synchronous Mode
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
v
No Compensation Mode
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Normal Mode
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
v
Zero Delay Buffer Mode
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
—
—
v
Deterministic Latency
Compensation Mode
v
v
—
—
v
v
v
v
v
v
Phase shift resolution
(9)
Down to 96 ps increments
Programmable duty cycle
v
Output counter cascading
v
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
5–19
Table 5–5. Cyclone IV GX PLL Features (Part 2 of 2)
Availability
General Purpose PLLs
Features
PLL_1
PLL_2
(1), (10)
(1), (10)
PLL_
3 (2)
Multipurpose PLLs
PLL_
4 (3)
PLL_1 PLL_2
(4)
(4)
Input clock switchover
v
User mode reconfiguration
v
Loss of lock detection
v
PLL drives TX Serial Clock, TX Load
Enable, and TX Parallel Clock
v
v
VCO output drives RX clock data
recovery (CDR) clock
—
PLL_5
PLL_6
(1), (10)
(1), (10)
v
v
(1)
(1)
v
—
v
—
PLL drives FREF for ppm detect
PLL_7 PLL_8
—
v
—
Notes to Table 5–5:
(1) This is only applicable to EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices in F672 and F896 package.
(2) This is applicable to all Cyclone IV devices.
(3) This is applicable to all Cyclone IV devices except EP4CGX15 devices in all packages, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices in F169 package.
(4) This is only applicable to EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and all EP4CGX30 devices except EP4CGX30 in the F484 package..
(5) C counters range from 1 through 512 if the output clock uses a 50% duty cycle. For any output clocks using a non-50% duty cycle, the
post-scale counters range from 1 through 256.
(6) These clock pins can access the GCLK networks.
(7) These clock pins are only available in EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices and cannot access the GCLK networks.
CLK[17,19,20,21]p can be used as single-ended clock input pins.
(8) Only applicable if the input clock jitter is in the input jitter tolerance specifications.
(9) The smallest phase shift is determined by the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) period divided by eight. For degree increments, Cyclone IV GX
devices can shift all output frequencies in increments of at least 45°. Smaller degree increments are possible depending on the frequency and
divide parameters.
(10) This is applicable to the EP4CGX30, EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices in F484 package.
Table 5–6 lists the features available in Cyclone IV E PLLs.
Table 5–6. Cyclone IV E PLL Features (Part 1 of 2)
Hardware Features
C (output counters)
M, N, C counter sizes
5
1 to 512
(1)
Dedicated clock outputs
1 single-ended or 1 differential pair
Clock input pins
4 single-ended or 2 differential pairs
Spread-spectrum input clock tracking
PLL cascading
Compensation modes
Phase shift resolution
October 2012
Availability
v
(2)
Through GCLK
Source-Synchronous Mode, No Compensation
Mode, Normal Mode, and Zero Delay Buffer Mode
Down to 96-ps increments
Programmable duty cycle
v
Output counter cascading
v
Input clock switchover
v
User mode reconfiguration
v
Altera Corporation
(3)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–20
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV PLL Hardware Overview
Table 5–6. Cyclone IV E PLL Features (Part 2 of 2)
Hardware Features
Availability
v
Loss of lock detection
Notes to Table 5–6:
(1) C counters range from 1 through 512 if the output clock uses a 50% duty cycle. For any output clocks using a
non-50% duty cycle, the post-scale counters range from 1 through 256.
(2) Only applicable if the input clock jitter is in the input jitter tolerance specifications.
(3) The smallest phase shift is determined by the VCO period divided by eight. For degree increments, Cyclone IV E
devices can shift all output frequencies in increments of at least 45°. Smaller degree increments are possible
depending on the frequency and divide parameters.
Cyclone IV PLL Hardware Overview
This section gives a hardware overview of the Cyclone IV PLL.
Figure 5–9 shows a simplified block diagram of the major components of the PLL of
Cyclone IV GX devices.
Figure 5–9. Cyclone IV GX PLL Block Diagram (1)
To RX CDR clocks
(MPLLs only)
lock
LOCK
circuit
FREF for ppm detect
(MPLLs, GPLL1, and GPLL2 only)
÷2, ÷4
÷C0
8
Clock inputs
from pins
4 (2)
GCLK (4)
inclk0
Clock
Switchover
inclk1
Block
÷n
PFD
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
CP
LF
VCO
8
÷2 (3)
GCLKs (5)
8
÷C1
÷C2
VCO
Range
Detector
÷C3
VCOOVRR
VCOUNDR
External clock output
PLL
output
mux
TX serial clock (MPLLs,
GPLL1, and GPLL2 only) (6)
TX load enable (MPLLs,
GPLL1, and GPLL2 only) (7)
÷C4
TX parallel clock (MPLLs ,
GPLL1, and GPLL2only) (8)
pfdena
÷M
no compensation;
ZDB mode
GCLK networks
source-synchronous;
normal mode
Notes to Figure 5–9:
(1) Each clock source can come from any of the four clock pins located on the same side of the device as the PLL.
(2) There are additional 4 pairs of dedicated differential clock inputs in EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices that can only
drive general purpose PLLs and multipurpose PLLs on the left side of the device. CLK[19..16] can access PLL_2, PLL_6, PLL_7, and PLL_8
while CLK[23..20] can access PLL_1, PLL_5, PLL_6, and PLL_7. For the location of these clock input pins, refer to Figure 5–3 on page 5–13.
(3) This is the VCO post-scale counter K.
(4) This input port is fed by a pin-driven dedicated GCLK, or through a clock control block if the clock control block is fed by an output from another
PLL or a pin-driven dedicated GCLK. An internally generated global signal cannot drive the PLL.
(5) For the general purpose PLL and multipurpose PLL counter outputs connectivity to the GCLKs, refer to Table 5–1 on page 5–2 and Table 5–2 on
page 5–4.
(6) Only the CI output counter can drive the TX serial clock.
(7) Only the C2 output counter can drive the TX load enable.
(8) Only the C3 output counter can drive the TX parallel clock.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV PLL Hardware Overview
5–21
Figure 5–10 shows a simplified block diagram of the major components of the PLL of
Cyclone IV E devices.
Figure 5–10. Cyclone IV E PLL Block Diagram (1)
lock
LOCK
circuit
÷C0
GCLKs
4
Clock inputs
from pins
÷n
inclk0
Clock
Switchover
inclk1
Block
GCLK (3)
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
PFD
CP
LF
VCO
8
÷2 (2)
÷C1
8
÷C2
VCO
Range
Detector
÷C3
VCOOVRR
External clock output
PLL
output
mux
÷C4
VCOUNDR
pfdena
÷M
no compensation;
ZDB mode
source-synchronous;
normal mode
GCLK networks
Notes to Figure 5–10:
(1) Each clock source can come from any of the four clock pins located on the same side of the device as the PLL.
(2) This is the VCO post-scale counter K.
(3) This input port is fed by a pin-driven dedicated GCLK, or through a clock control block if the clock control block is fed by an output from another
PLL or a pin-driven dedicated GCLK. An internally generated global signal cannot drive the PLL.
1
The VCO post-scale counter K is used to divide the supported VCO range by two. The
VCO frequency reported by the Quartus II software in the PLL summary section of
the compilation report takes into consideration the VCO post-scale counter value.
Therefore, if the VCO post-scale counter has a value of 2, the frequency reported is
lower than the fVCO specification specified in the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
External Clock Outputs
Each PLL of Cyclone IV devices supports one single-ended clock output or one
differential clock output. Only the C0 output counter can feed the dedicated external
clock outputs, as shown in Figure 5–11, without going through the GCLK. Other
output counters can feed other I/O pins through the GCLK.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–22
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV PLL Hardware Overview
Figure 5–11 shows the external clock outputs for PLLs.
Figure 5–11. External Clock Outputs for PLLs
C0
C1
C2
PLL#
C3
C4
clkena 0 (1)
clkena 1 (1)
PLL#_CLKOUTp (2)
PLL#_CLKOUTn (2)
Notes to Figure 5–11:
(1) These external clock enable signals are available only when using the ALTCLKCTRL megafunction.
(2) PLL#_CLKOUTp and PLL#_CLKOUTn pins are dual-purpose I/O pins that you can use as one single-ended clock
output or one differential clock output. When using both pins as single-ended I/Os, one of them can be the clock
output while the other pin is configured as a regular user I/O.
Each pin of a differential output pair is 180° out of phase. The Quartus II software
places the NOT gate in your design into the I/O element to implement 180° phase
with respect to the other pin in the pair. The clock output pin pairs support the same
I/O standards as standard output pins.
f To determine which I/O standards are supported by the PLL clock input and output
pins, refer to the Cyclone IV Device I/O Features chapter.
Cyclone IV PLLs can drive out to any regular I/O pin through the GCLK. You can also
use the external clock output pins as GPIO pins if external PLL clocking is not
required.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Feedback Modes
5–23
Clock Feedback Modes
Cyclone IV PLLs support up to five different clock feedback modes. Each mode
allows clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, and programmable duty
cycle. For the supported feedback modes, refer to Table 5–5 on page 5–18 for
Cyclone IV GX PLLs and Table 5–6 on page 5–19 for Cyclone IV E PLLs.
1
Input and output delays are fully compensated by the PLL only if you are using the
dedicated clock input pins associated with a given PLL as the clock sources.
When driving the PLL using the GCLK network, the input and output delays may not
be fully compensated in the Quartus II software.
Source-Synchronous Mode
If the data and clock arrive at the same time at the input pins, the phase relationship
between the data and clock remains the same at the data and clock ports of any I/O
element input register.
Figure 5–12 shows an example waveform of the data and clock in this mode. Use this
mode for source-synchronous data transfers. Data and clock signals at the I/O
element experience similar buffer delays as long as the same I/O standard is used.
Figure 5–12. Phase Relationship Between Data and Clock in Source-Synchronous Mode
Data pin
PLL reference
clock at input pin
Data at register
Clock at register
Source-synchronous mode compensates for delay of the clock network used,
including any difference in the delay between the following two paths:
1
October 2012
■
Data pin to I/O element register input
■
Clock input pin to the PLL phase frequency detector (PFD) input
Set the input pin to the register delay chain in the I/O element to zero in the
Quartus II software for all data pins clocked by a source-synchronous mode PLL.
Also, all data pins must use the PLL COMPENSATED logic option in the Quartus II
software.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–24
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Feedback Modes
No Compensation Mode
In no compensation mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks. This
provides better jitter performance because clock feedback into the PFD does not pass
through as much circuitry. Both the PLL internal and external clock outputs are phase
shifted with respect to the PLL clock input.
Figure 5–13 shows a waveform example of the phase relationship of the PLL clock in
this mode.
Figure 5–13. Phase Relationship Between PLL Clocks in No Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
(1), (2)
External PLL Clock
Outputs (2)
Notes to Figure 5–13:
(1) Internal clocks fed by the PLL are phase-aligned to each other.
(2) The PLL clock outputs can lead or lag the PLL input clocks.
Normal Mode
An internal clock in normal mode is phase-aligned to the input clock pin. The external
clock output pin has a phase delay relative to the clock input pin if connected in this
mode. The Quartus II software timing analyzer reports any phase difference between
the two. In normal mode, the PLL fully compensates the delay introduced by the
GCLK network.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Clock Feedback Modes
5–25
Figure 5–14 shows a waveform example of the phase relationship of the PLL clocks in
this mode.
Figure 5–14. Phase Relationship Between PLL Clocks in Normal Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
External PLL Clock
Outputs (1)
Note to Figure 5–14:
(1) The external clock output can lead or lag the PLL internal clock signals.
Zero Delay Buffer Mode
In zero delay buffer (ZDB) mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned with
the clock input pin for zero delay through the device. When using this mode, use the
same I/O standard on the input clock and output clocks to guarantee clock alignment
at the input and output pins.
Figure 5–15 shows an example waveform of the phase relationship of the PLL clocks
in ZDB mode.
Figure 5–15. Phase Relationship Between PLL Clocks in ZDB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
PLL Clock
at the Register Clock Port
External PLL Clock Output
at the Output Pin
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–26
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Hardware Features
Deterministic Latency Compensation Mode
The deterministic latency mode compensates for the delay of the multipurpose PLLs
through the clock network and serializer in Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI)
applications. In this mode, the PLL PFD feedback path compensates the latency
uncertainty in Tx dataout and Tx clkout paths relative to the reference clock.
Hardware Features
Cyclone IV PLLs support several features for general-purpose clock management.
This section discusses clock multiplication and division implementation,
phase shifting implementations, and programmable duty cycles.
Clock Multiplication and Division
Each Cyclone IV PLL provides clock synthesis for PLL output ports using
M/(N*post-scale counter) scaling factors. The input clock is divided by a pre-scale
factor, N, and is then multiplied by the M feedback factor. The control loop drives the
VCO to match fIN (M/N). Each output port has a unique post-scale counter that
divides down the high-frequency VCO. For multiple PLL outputs with different
frequencies, the VCO value is the least common multiple of the output frequencies
that meets its frequency specifications. For example, if output frequencies required
from one PLL are 33 and 66 MHz, the Quartus II software sets the VCO to 660 MHz
(the least common multiple of 33 and 66 MHz in the VCO range). Then, the post-scale
counters scale down the VCO frequency for each output port.
There is one pre-scale counter, N, and one multiply counter, M, per PLL, with a range
of 1 to 512 for both M and N. The N counter does not use duty cycle control because
the purpose of this counter is only to calculate frequency division. There are five
generic post-scale counters per PLL that can feed GCLKs or external clock outputs.
These post-scale counters range from 1 to 512 with a 50% duty cycle setting. The
post-scale counters range from 1 to 256 with any non-50% duty cycle setting. The sum
of the high/low count values chosen for a design selects the divide value for a given
counter.
The Quartus II software automatically chooses the appropriate scaling factors
according to the input frequency, multiplication, and division values entered into the
ALTPLL megafunction.
1
Phase alignment between output counters is determined using the tPLL_PSERR
specification.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Hardware Features
5–27
Post-Scale Counter Cascading
PLLs of Cyclone IV devices support post-scale counter cascading to create counters
larger than 512. This is implemented by feeding the output of one C counter into the
input of the next C counter, as shown in Figure 5–16.
Figure 5–16. Counter Cascading
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
C0
C1
C2
VCO Output
C3
VCO Output
C4
VCO Output
When cascading counters to implement a larger division of the high-frequency VCO
clock, the cascaded counters behave as one counter with the product of the individual
counter settings.
For example, if C0 = 4 and C1 = 2, the cascaded value is C0 × C1 = 8.
1
Post-scale counter cascading is automatically set by the Quartus II software in the
configuration file. Post-scale counter cascading cannot be performed using the PLL
reconfiguration.
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with a variable
duty cycle. This feature is supported on the PLL post-scale counters. You can achieve
the duty cycle setting by a low and high time count setting for the post-scale counters.
The Quartus II software uses the frequency input and the required multiply or divide
rate to determine the duty cycle choices. The post-scale counter value determines the
precision of the duty cycle. The precision is defined by 50% divided by the post-scale
counter value. For example, if the C0 counter is 10, steps of 5% are possible for duty
cycle choices between 5 to 90%.
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the
generation of precise non-overlapping clocks.
PLL Control Signals
You can use the pfdena, areset, and locked signals to observe and control the PLL
operation and resynchronization.
f For more information about the PLL control signals, refer to the ALTPLL Megafunction
User Guide.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–28
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Hardware Features
Clock Switchover
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input
clocks. Use this feature for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application,
such as a system that turns on the redundant clock if the previous clock stops running.
Your design can automatically perform clock switchover when the clock is no longer
toggling, or based on the user control signal, clkswitch.
Automatic Clock Switchover
PLLs of Cyclone IV devices support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock-sense block automatically
switches to the backup clock for PLL reference. The clock switchover circuit also sends
out three status signals—clkbad0, clkbad1, and activeclock—from the PLL to
implement a custom switchover circuit. You can select a clock source at the backup
clock by connecting it to the inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
Figure 5–17 shows the block diagram of the switchover circuit built into the PLL.
Figure 5–17. Automatic Clock Switchover Circuit
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Switchover
State
Machine
Clock
Sense
clksw
clkswitch
(provides manual
switchover support)
inclk0
n Counter
inclk1
muxout
PFD
refclk
fbclk
There are two ways to use the clock switchover feature:
■
Use the switchover circuitry for switching from inclk0 to inclk1 running at the
same frequency. For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with
the same frequency as the reference clock, the switchover state machine generates
a signal that controls the multiplexer select input shown in Figure 5–17. In this
case, inclk1 becomes the reference clock for the PLL. This automatic switchover
can switch back and forth between the inclk0 and inclk1 clocks any number of
times, when one of the two clocks fails and the other clock is available.
■
Use the clkswitch input for user- or system-controlled switch conditions. This is
possible for same-frequency switchover or to switch between inputs of different
frequencies. For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must
control the switchover because the automatic clock-sense circuitry cannot monitor
primary and secondary clock frequencies with a frequency difference of more than
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Hardware Features
5–29
20%. This feature is useful when clock sources can originate from multiple cards
on the backplane, requiring a system-controlled switchover between frequencies
of operation. Choose the secondary clock frequency so the VCO operates in the
recommended frequency range. Also, set the M, N, and C counters accordingly to
keep the VCO operating frequency in the recommended range.
Figure 5–18 shows a waveform example of the switchover feature when using
automatic loss of clock detection. Here, the inclk0 signal remains low. After the
inclk0 signal remains low for approximately two clock cycles, the clock-sense
circuitry drives the clkbad0 signal high. Also, because the reference clock signal is not
toggling, the switchover state machine controls the multiplexer through the clksw
signal to switch to inclk1.
Figure 5–18. Automatic Switchover Upon Clock Loss Detection
(1)
inclk0
inclk1
(1)
muxout
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Note to Figure 5–18:
(1) Switchover is enabled on the falling edge of inclk0 or inclk1, depending on which clock is available. In this figure,
switchover is enabled on the falling edge of inclk1.
Manual Override
If you are using the automatic switchover, you must switch input clocks with the
manual override feature with the clkswitch input.
Figure 5–19 shows an example of a waveform illustrating the switchover feature
when controlled by clkswitch. In this case, both clock sources are functional and
inclk0 is selected as the reference clock. A low-to-high transition of the clkswitch
signal starts the switchover sequence. The clkswitch signal must be high for at least
three clock cycles (at least three of the longer clock period if inclk0 and inclk1 have
different frequencies). On the falling edge of inclk0, the reference clock of the counter,
muxout, is gated off to prevent any clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the
reference clock multiplexer switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference, and
the activeclock signal changes to indicate which clock is currently feeding the PLL.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–30
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Hardware Features
In this mode, the activeclock signal mirrors the clkswitch signal. As both blocks are
still functional during the manual switch, neither clkbad signals go high. Because the
switchover circuit is positive edge-sensitive, the falling edge of the clkswitch signal
does not cause the circuit to switch back from inclk1 to inclk0. When the clkswitch
signal goes high again, the process repeats. The clkswitch signal and the automatic
switch only works depending on the availability of the clock that is switched to. If the
clock is unavailable, the state machine waits until the clock is available.
1
When CLKSWITCH = 1, it overrides the automatic switch-over function. As long as
clkswitch signal is high, further switch-over action is blocked.
Figure 5–19. Clock Switchover Using the clkswitch Control
(1)
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkswitch
activeclock
clkbad0
clkbad1
Note to Figure 5–19:
(1) Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high to start a manual clock switchover
event.
Manual Clock Switchover
PLLs of Cyclone IV devices support manual switchover, in which the clkswitch
signal controls whether inclk0 or inclk1 is the input clock to the PLL. The
characteristics of a manual switchover are similar to the manual override feature in an
automatic clock switchover, in which the switchover circuit is edge-sensitive. When
the clkswitch signal goes high, the switchover sequence starts. The falling edge of the
clkswitch signal does not cause the circuit to switch back to the previous input clock.
f For more information about PLL software support in the Quartus II software, refer to
the ALTPLL Megafunction User Guide.
Guidelines
Use the following guidelines to design with clock switchover in PLLs:
■
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Clock loss detection and automatic clock switchover require the inclk0 and
inclk1 frequencies be within 20% of each other. Failing to meet this requirement
causes the clkbad0 and clkbad1 signals to function improperly.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Hardware Features
5–31
■
When using manual clock switchover, the difference between inclk0 and inclk1
can be more than 20%. However, differences between the two clock sources
(frequency, phase, or both) can cause the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the PLL
ensures that the correct phase relationships are maintained between the input and
output clocks.
■
Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high to
start the manual clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement causes
the clock switchover to malfunction.
■
Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift
must use a low-bandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the
low-bandwidth PLL reacts slower than a high-bandwidth PLL. When the
switchover happens, the low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stopping of the clock
to the output slower than the high-bandwidth PLL. The low-bandwidth PLL
filters out jitter on the reference clock. However, the low-bandwidth PLL also
increases lock time.
■
After a switchover occurs, there may be a finite resynchronization period for the
PLL to lock onto a new clock. The exact amount of time it takes for the PLL to
re-lock is dependent on the PLL configuration.
■
If the phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and output clock from
the PLL is important in your design, assert areset for 10 ns after performing a
clock switchover. Wait for the locked signal (or gated lock) to go high before
re-enabling the output clocks from the PLL.
■
Figure 5–20 shows how the VCO frequency gradually decreases when the primary
clock is lost and then increases as the VCO locks on to the secondary clock. After
the VCO locks on to the secondary clock, some overshoot can occur (an
over-frequency condition) in the VCO frequency.
Figure 5–20. VCO Switchover Operating Frequency
Primary Clock Stops Running
Frequency Overshoot
Switchover Occurs
VCO Tracks Secondary Clock
Fvco
■
October 2012
Disable the system during switchover if the system is not tolerant to frequency
variations during the PLL resynchronization period. You can use the clkbad0 and
clkbad1 status signals to turn off the PFD (pfdena = 0) so the VCO maintains its
last frequency. You can also use the switchover state machine to switch over to the
secondary clock. Upon enabling the PFD, output clock enable signals (clkena) can
disable clock outputs during the switchover and resynchronization period. After
the lock indication is stable, the system can re-enable the output clock or clocks.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–32
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Programmable Bandwidth
Programmable Bandwidth
The PLL bandwidth is the measure of the PLL’s ability to track the input clock and its
associated jitter. PLLs of Cyclone IV devices provide advanced control of the PLL
bandwidth using the programmable characteristics of the PLL loop, including loop
filter and charge pump. The closed-loop gain 3-dB frequency in the PLL determines
the PLL bandwidth. The bandwidth is approximately the unity gain point for open
loop PLL response.
Phase Shift Implementation
Phase shift is used to implement a robust solution for clock delays in Cyclone IV
devices. Phase shift is implemented with a combination of the VCO phase output and
the counter starting time. The VCO phase output and counter starting time are the
most accurate methods of inserting delays, because they are based only on counter
settings that are independent of process, voltage, and temperature.
You can phase shift the output clocks from the PLLs of Cyclone IV devices in one of
two ways:
■
Fine resolution using VCO phase taps
■
Coarse resolution using counter starting time
Fine resolution phase shifts are implemented by allowing any of the output counters
(C[4..0]) or the M counter to use any of the eight phases of the VCO as the reference
clock. This allows you to adjust the delay time with a fine resolution.
Equation 5–1 shows the minimum delay time that you can insert using this method.
Equation 5–1. Fine Resolution Phase Shift
T VCO
N
1
Φ fine = -------------- = ---------------- = -------------------8Mf REF
8
8fVCO
in which fREF is the input reference clock frequency.
For example, if fREF is 100 MHz, N = 1, and M = 8, then fVCO = 800 MHz, and
Φfine = 156.25 ps. The PLL operating frequency defines this phase shift, a value that
depends on reference clock frequency and counter settings.
Coarse resolution phase shifts are implemented by delaying the start of the counters
for a predetermined number of counter clocks. Equation 5–2 shows the coarse phase
shift.
Equation 5–2. Coarse Resolution Phase Shift
C–1
( C – 1 )N
Φ coarse = ------------- = ---------------------f V CO
Mf REF
C is the count value set for the counter delay time (this is the initial setting in the PLL
usage section of the compilation report in the Quartus II software). If the initial value
is 1, C – 1 = 0° phase shift.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Cascading
5–33
Figure 5–21 shows an example of phase shift insertion using fine resolution through
VCO phase taps method. The eight phases from the VCO are shown and labeled for
reference. In this example, CLK0 is based on 0° phase from the VCO and has the C
value for the counter set to one. The CLK1 signal is divided by four, two VCO clocks
for high time and two VCO clocks for low time. CLK1 is based on the 135° phase tap
from the VCO and has the C value for the counter set to one. The CLK1 signal is also
divided by four. In this case, the two clocks are offset by 3 Φfine. CLK2 is based on the
0° phase from the VCO but has the C value for the counter set to three. This creates a
delay of two Φcoarse (two complete VCO periods).
Figure 5–21. Delay Insertion Using VCO Phase Output and Counter Delay Time
1/8 tVCO
tVCO
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
315
CLK0
td0-1
CLK1
td0-2
CLK2
You can use the coarse and fine phase shifts to implement clock delays in
Cyclone IV devices.
Cyclone IV devices support dynamic phase shifting of VCO phase taps only. The
phase shift is configurable for any number of times. Each phase shift takes about one
scanclk cycle, allowing you to implement large phase shifts quickly.
PLL Cascading
Cyclone IV devices allow cascading between general purpose PLLs and multipurpose
PLLs in normal or direct mode through the GCLK network. If your design cascades
PLLs, the source (upstream) PLL must have a low-bandwidth setting, while the
destination (downstream) PLL must have a high-bandwidth setting.
October 2012
1
PLL_6 and PLL7 have upstream cascading capability only.
1
PLL cascading is not supported when used in transceiver applications.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–34
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
PLL Reconfiguration
PLLs use several divide counters and different VCO phase taps to perform frequency
synthesis and phase shifts. In PLLs of Cyclone IV devices, you can reconfigure both
counter settings and phase shift the PLL output clock in real time. You can also change
the charge pump and loop filter components, which dynamically affects PLL
bandwidth. You can use these PLL components to update the output clock frequency,
PLL bandwidth, and phase shift in real time, without reconfiguring the entire FPGA.
The ability to reconfigure the PLL in real time is useful in applications that might
operate at multiple frequencies. It is also useful in prototyping environments,
allowing you to sweep PLL output frequencies and adjust the output clock phase
dynamically. For instance, a system generating test patterns is required to generate
and send patterns at 75 or 150 MHz, depending on the requirements of the device
under test. Reconfiguring PLL components in real time allows you to switch between
two such output frequencies in a few microseconds.
You can also use this feature to adjust clock-to-out (tCO) delays in real time by
changing the PLL output clock phase shift. This approach eliminates the need to
regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL settings.
PLL Reconfiguration Hardware Implementation
The following PLL components are configurable in real time:
■
Pre-scale counter (N)
■
Feedback counter (M)
■
Post-scale output counters (C0–C4)
■
Dynamically adjust the charge pump current (ICP) and loop filter components
(R, C) to facilitate on-the-fly reconfiguration of the PLL bandwidth
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
5–35
Figure 5–22 shows how to adjust PLL counter settings dynamically by shifting their
new settings into a serial shift register chain or scan chain. Serial data shifts to the scan
chain via the scandataport, and shift registers are clocked by scanclk. The maximum
scanclk frequency is 100 MHz. After shifting the last bit of data, asserting the
configupdate signal for at least one scanclk clock cycle synchronously updates the
PLL configuration bits with the data in the scan registers.
Figure 5–22. PLL Reconfiguration Scan Chain
FVCO
from M counter
from N counter
PFD
LF/K/CP
VCO
scandata
scanclkena
configupdate
inclk
/C4
/C3
/C2
/C1
/C0
/M
/N
scandataout
scandone
scanclk
1
The counter settings are updated synchronously to the clock frequency of the
individual counters. Therefore, not all counters update simultaneously.
To reconfigure the PLL counters, perform the following steps:
1. The scanclkena signal is asserted at least one scanclk cycle prior to shifting in the
first bit of scandata (D0).
2. Serial data (scandata) is shifted into the scan chain on the second rising edge of
scanclk.
3. After all 144 bits have been scanned into the scan chain, the scanclkena signal is
de-asserted to prevent inadvertent shifting of bits in the scan chain.
4. The configupdate signal is asserted for one scanclk cycle to update the PLL
counters with the contents of the scan chain.
5. The scandone signal goes high indicating that the PLL is being reconfigured. A
falling edge indicates that the PLL counters have been updated with new settings.
6. Reset the PLL using the areset signal if you make any changes to the M, N,
post-scale output C counters, or the ICP , R, C settings.
7. You can repeat steps 1 through 5 to reconfigure the PLL any number of times.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–36
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
Figure 5–23 shows a functional simulation of the PLL reconfiguration feature.
Figure 5–23. PLL Reconfiguration Scan Chain
scandata
D0 (LSB)
Dn (MSB)
scanclk
scanclkena
scandataout
D0_old
Dn_old
Dn
configupdate
scandone
areset
1
When reconfiguring the counter clock frequency, the corresponding counter phase
shift settings cannot be reconfigured using the same interface. You can reconfigure
phase shifts in real time using the dynamic phase shift reconfiguration interface. If
you reconfigure the counter frequency, but wish to keep the same non-zero phase shift
setting (for example, 90°) on the clock output, you must reconfigure the phase shift
after reconfiguring the counter clock frequency.
Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4)
You can configure multiply or divide values and duty cycle of post-scale counters in
real time. Each counter has an 8-bit high time setting and an 8-bit low time setting.
The duty cycle is the ratio of output high or low time to the total cycle time, that is the
sum of the two. Additionally, these counters have two control bits, rbypass, for
bypassing the counter, and rselodd, to select the output clock duty cycle.
When the rbypass bit is set to 1, it bypasses the counter, resulting in a divide by one.
When this bit is set to 0, the PLL computes the effective division of the VCO output
frequency based on the high and low time counters. For example, if the post-scale
divide factor is 10, the high and low count values are set to 5 and 5, to achieve a
50–50% duty cycle. The PLL implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output
clock from high-to-low on the rising edge of the VCO output clock. However, a 4 and
6 setting for the high and low count values, respectively, would produce an output
clock with a 40–60% duty cycle.
The rselodd bit indicates an odd divide factor for the VCO output frequency with a
50% duty cycle. For example, if the post-scale divide factor is three, the high and low
time count values are 2 and 1, respectively, to achieve this division. This implies a
67%–33% duty cycle. If you need a 50%–50% duty cycle, you must set the rselodd
control bit to 1 to achieve this duty cycle despite an odd division factor. The PLL
implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output clock from high-to-low on a
falling edge of the VCO output clock. When you set rselodd = 1, subtract 0.5 cycles
from the high time and add 0.5 cycles to the low time.
For example:
■
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
High time count = 2 cycles
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
5–37
■
Low time count = 1 cycle
■
rselodd = 1 effectively equals:
■
High time count = 1.5 cycles
■
Low time count = 1.5 cycles
■
Duty cycle = (1.5/3)% high time count and (1.5/3)% low time count
Scan Chain Description
Cyclone IV PLLs have a 144-bit scan chain.
Table 5–7 lists the number of bits for each component of the PLL.
Table 5–7. Cyclone IV PLL Reprogramming Bits
Number of Bits
Block Name
Counter
C4
(1)
Other
16
C3
16
C2
16
C1
16
Total
2
(2)
18
2
(2)
18
2
(2)
18
2
(2)
18
18
C0
16
2
(2)
M
16
2
(2)
18
N
16
2
(2)
18
Charge Pump
9
0
9
(3)
9
0
9
Loop Filter
Total number of bits:
144
Notes to Table 5–7:
(1) LSB bit for C4 low-count value is the first bit shifted into the scan chain.
(2) These two control bits include rbypass, for bypassing the counter, and rselodd, to select the output clock duty
cycle.
(3) MSB bit for loop filter is the last bit shifted into the scan chain.
Figure 5–24 shows the scan chain order of the PLL components.
Figure 5–24. PLL Component Scan Chain Order
DATAIN
LF
MSB
DATAOUT
October 2012
Altera Corporation
CP
LSB
C4
N
M
C0
C3
C2
C1
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–38
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
Figure 5–25 shows the scan chain bit order sequence for one PLL post-scale counter in
PLLs of Cyclone IV devices.
Figure 5–25. Scan Chain Bit Order
DATAOUT
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DATAIN
rbypass
rselodd
Charge Pump and Loop Filter
You can reconfigure the charge pump and loop filter settings to update the PLL
bandwidth in real time. Table 5–8 through Table 5–10 list the possible settings for
charge pump current (ICP), loop filter resistor (R), and capacitor (C) values for PLLs of
Cyclone IV devices.
Table 5–8. Charge Pump Bit Control
CP[2]
CP[1]
CP[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
3
1
1
1
7
Table 5–9. Loop Filter Resistor Value Control
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
LFR[4]
LFR[3]
LFR[2]
LFR[1]
LFR[0]
Setting
(Decimal)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
0
0
1
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
0
16
1
0
0
1
1
19
1
0
1
0
0
20
1
1
0
0
0
24
1
1
0
1
1
27
1
1
1
0
0
28
1
1
1
1
0
30
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
5–39
Table 5–10. Loop Filter Control of High Frequency Capacitor
LFC[1]
LFC[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
3
Bypassing a PLL Counter
Bypassing a PLL counter results in a divide (N, C0 to C4 counters) factor of one.
Table 5–11 lists the settings for bypassing the counters in PLLs of Cyclone IV devices.
Table 5–11. PLL Counter Settings
PLL Scan Chain Bits [0..8] Settings
Description
LSB
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MSB
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
(1)
PLL counter bypassed
0
(1)
PLL counter not bypassed
Note to Table 5–11:
(1) Bypass bit.
To bypass any of the PLL counters, set the bypass bit to 1. The values on the other bits
are then ignored.
Dynamic Phase Shifting
The dynamic phase shifting feature allows the output phase of individual PLL
outputs to be dynamically adjusted relative to each other and the reference clock
without sending serial data through the scan chain of the corresponding PLL. This
feature simplifies the interface and allows you to quickly adjust tCO delays by
changing output clock phase shift in real time. This is achieved by incrementing or
decrementing the VCO phase-tap selection to a given C counter or to the M counter.
The phase is shifted by 1/8 the VCO frequency at a time. The output clocks are active
during this phase reconfiguration process.
Table 5–12 lists the control signals that are used for dynamic phase shifting.
Table 5–12. Dynamic Phase Shifting Control Signals (Part 1 of 2)
Signal Name
Description
Source
Destination
phasecounterselect[2..0]
Counter Select. Three bits decoded to select
either the M or one of the C counters for
phase adjustment. One address map to
select all C counters. This signal is registered
in the PLL on the rising edge of scanclk.
Logic array or I/O
pins
PLL
reconfiguration
circuit
phaseupdown
Selects dynamic phase shift direction; 1= UP,
0 = DOWN. Signal is registered in the PLL on
the rising edge of scanclk.
Logic array or I/O
pins
PLL
reconfiguration
circuit
phasestep
Logic high enables dynamic phase shifting.
Logic array or I/O
pins
PLL
reconfiguration
circuit
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–40
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
PLL Reconfiguration
Table 5–12. Dynamic Phase Shifting Control Signals (Part 2 of 2)
Signal Name
Description
Source
Destination
scanclk
Free running clock from core used in
combination with phasestep to enable or
disable dynamic phase shifting. Shared with
scanclk for dynamic reconfiguration.
GCLK or I/O pins
phasedone
When asserted, it indicates to core logic that
the phase adjustment is complete and PLL is
ready to act on a possible second adjustment
pulse. Asserts based on internal PLL timing.
De-asserts on the rising edge of scanclk.
PLL reconfiguration Logic array or
circuit
I/O pins
PLL
reconfiguration
circuit
Table 5–13 lists the PLL counter selection based on the corresponding
PHASECOUNTERSELECT setting.
Table 5–13. Phase Counter Select Mapping
phasecounterselect
Selects
[2]
[1]
[0]
0
0
0
All Output Counters
0
0
1
M Counter
0
1
0
C0 Counter
0
1
1
C1 Counter
1
0
0
C2 Counter
1
0
1
C3 Counter
1
1
0
C4 Counter
To perform one dynamic phase-shift, follow these steps:
1. Set PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT as required.
2. Assert PHASESTEP for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Each PHASESTEP pulse allows one
phase shift.
3. Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
4. Wait for PHASEDONE to go high.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 as many times as required to perform multiple phaseshifts.
PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT signals are synchronous to SCANCLK and must
meet the tsu and th requirements with respect to the SCANCLK edges.
1
You can repeat dynamic phase-shifting indefinitely. For example, in a design where
the VCO frequency is set to 1,000 MHz and the output clock frequency is set to
100 MHz, performing 40 dynamic phase shifts (each one yields 125 ps phase shift)
results in shifting the output clock by 180°, in other words, a phase shift of 5 ns.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Spread-Spectrum Clocking
5–41
Figure 5–26 shows the dynamic phase shifting waveform.
Figure 5–26. PLL Dynamic Phase Shift
SCANCLK
PHASESTEP
PHASEUPDOWN
PHASECOUNTERSELECT
PHASEDONE
a
b
c
d
PHASEDONE goes low
synchronous with SCANCLK
The PHASESTEP signal is latched on the negative edge of SCANCLK (a,c) and must remain
asserted for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
On the second SCANCLK rising edge (b,d) after PHASESTEP is latched, the values of
PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT are latched and the PLL starts dynamic
phase-shifting for the specified counters, and in the indicated direction. PHASEDONE is
deasserted synchronous to SCANCLK at the second rising edge (b,d) and remains low
until the PLL finishes dynamic phase-shifting. Depending on the VCO and SCANCLK
frequencies, PHASEDONE low time may be greater than or less than one SCANCLK cycle.
You can perform another dynamic phase-shift after the PHASEDONE signal goes from
low to high. Each PHASESTEP pulse enables one phase shift. PHASESTEP pulses must be
at least one SCANCLK cycle apart.
f For information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG MegaWizard™ Plug-In Manager,
refer to the ALTPLL_RECONFIG Megafunction User Guide.
Spread-Spectrum Clocking
Cyclone IV devices can accept a spread-spectrum input with typical modulation
frequencies. However, the device cannot automatically detect that the input is a
spread-spectrum signal. Instead, the input signal looks like deterministic jitter at the
input of the PLL. PLLs of Cyclone IV devices can track a spread-spectrum input clock
as long as it is in the input jitter tolerance specifications and the modulation frequency
of the input clock is below the PLL bandwidth, that is specified in the fitter report.
Cyclone IV devices cannot generate spread-spectrum signals internally.
PLL Specifications
f For information about PLL specifications, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet
chapter.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
5–42
Chapter 5: Clock Networks and PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
Document Revision History
Table 5–14 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 5–14. Document Revision History
Date
Version
October 2012
November 2011
December 2010
July 2010
February 2010
November 2009
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.0
Changes
■
Updated “Manual Override” and “PLL Cascading” sections.
■
Updated Figure 5–9.
■
Updated the “Dynamic Phase Shifting” section.
■
Updated Figure 5–26.
■
Updated for the Quartus II software version 10.1 release.
■
Updated Figure 5–3 and Figure 5–10.
■
Updated “GCLK Network Clock Source Generation”, “PLLs in Cyclone IV Devices”,
and “Manual Override” sections.
■
Minor text edits.
■
Updated Figure 5–2, Figure 5–3, Figure 5–4, and Figure 5–10.
■
Updated Table 5–1, Table 5–2, and Table 5–5.
■
Updated “Clock Feedback Modes” section.
■
Added Cyclone IV E devices information for the Quartus II software version 9.1 SP1
release.
■
Updated “Clock Networks” section.
■
Updated Table 5–1 and Table 5–2.
■
Added Table 5–3.
■
Updated Figure 5–2, Figure 5–3, and Figure 5–9.
■
Added Figure 5–4 and Figure 5–10.
Initial release.
October 2012
Altera Corporation
Section II. I/O Interfaces
This section provides information about Cyclone® IV device family I/O features and
high-speed differential and external memory interfaces.
This section includes the following chapters:
■
Chapter 6, I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 7, External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Revision History
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information about when
each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates section, which appears
in the complete handbook.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
II–2
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Section II: I/O Interfaces
April 2014
Altera Corporation
6. I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
May 2013
CYIV-51006-2.6
CYIV-51006-2.6
This chapter describes the I/O and high speed I/O capabilities and features offered in
Cyclone® IV devices.
The I/O capabilities of Cyclone IV devices are driven by the diversification of I/O
standards in many low-cost applications, and the significant increase in required I/O
performance. Altera’s objective is to create a device that accommodates your key
board design needs with ease and flexibility.
The I/O flexibility of Cyclone IV devices is increased from the previous generation
low-cost FPGAs by allowing all I/O standards to be selected on all I/O banks.
Improvements to on-chip termination (OCT) support and the addition of true
differential buffers have eliminated the need for external resistors in many
applications, such as display system interfaces.
High-speed differential I/O standards have become popular in high-speed interfaces
because of their significant advantages over single-ended I/O standards. The
Cyclone IV devices support LVDS, BLVDS, RSDS, mini-LVDS, and PPDS. The
transceiver reference clocks and the existing general-purpose I/O (GPIO) clock input
features also support the LVDS I/O standards.
The Quartus® II software completes the solution with powerful pin planning features
that allow you to plan and optimize I/O system designs even before the design files
are available.
This chapter includes the following sections:
■
“Cyclone IV I/O Elements” on page 6–2
■
“I/O Element Features” on page 6–3
■
“OCT Support” on page 6–6
■
“I/O Standards” on page 6–11
■
“Termination Scheme for I/O Standards” on page 6–13
■
“I/O Banks” on page 6–16
© 2013 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Feedback Subscribe
6–2
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV I/O Elements
■
“Pad Placement and DC Guidelines” on page 6–23
■
“Clock Pins Functionality” on page 6–23
■
“High-Speed I/O Interface” on page 6–24
■
“High-Speed I/O Standards Support” on page 6–28
■
“True Differential Output Buffer Feature” on page 6–35
■
“High-Speed I/O Timing” on page 6–36
■
“Design Guidelines” on page 6–37
■
“Software Overview” on page 6–38
Cyclone IV I/O Elements
Cyclone IV I/O elements (IOEs) contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and five registers
for registering input, output, output-enable signals, and complete embedded
bidirectional single-data rate transfer. I/O pins support various single-ended and
differential I/O standards.
The IOE contains one input register, two output registers, and two output-enable (OE)
registers. The two output registers and two OE registers are used for DDR
applications. You can use input registers for fast setup times and output registers for
fast clock-to-output times. Additionally, you can use OE registers for fast
clock-to-output enable timing. You can use IOEs for input, output, or bidirectional
data paths.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Element Features
6–3
Figure 6–1 shows the Cyclone IV devices IOE structure for single data rate (SDR)
operation.
Figure 6–1. Cyclone IV IOEs in a Bidirectional I/O Configuration for SDR Mode
io_clk[5..0]
Column
or Row
Interconnect
OE
OE Register
clkout
D
VCCIO
Q
Optional
PCI Clamp
ENA
ACLR
/PRN
VCCIO
oe_out
Programmable
Pull-Up
Resistor
aclr/prn
Chip-Wide Reset
Output
Pin Delay
Output Register
D
sclr/
preset
(1)
Current Strength Control
Open-Drain Out
Slew Rate Control
Q
ENA
ACLR
/PRN
data_in1
data_in0
D
clkin
oe_in
Q
Input Pin to
Input Register
Delay
or Input Pin to
Logic Array
Delay
Bus Hold
ENA
ACLR
/PRN
Input Register
Note to Figure 6–1:
(1) Tri-state control is not available for outputs configured with true differential I/O standards.
I/O Element Features
The Cyclone IV IOE offers a range of programmable features for an I/O pin. These
features increase the flexibility of I/O utilization and provide a way to reduce the
usage of external discrete components, such as pull-up resistors and diodes.
Programmable Current Strength
The output buffer for each Cyclone IV I/O pin has a programmable current strength
control for certain I/O standards.
The LVTTL, LVCMOS, SSTL-2 Class I and II, SSTL-18 Class I and II, HSTL-18 Class I
and II, HSTL-15 Class I and II, and HSTL-12 Class I and II I/O standards have several
levels of current strength that you can control.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–4
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Element Features
Table 6–2 on page 6–7 shows the possible settings for I/O standards with current
strength control. These programmable current strength settings are a valuable tool in
helping decrease the effects of simultaneously switching outputs (SSO) in conjunction
with reducing system noise. The supported settings ensure that the device driver
meets the specifications for IOH and IOL of the corresponding I/O standard.
1
When you use programmable current strength, on-chip series termination (RS OCT) is
not available.
Slew Rate Control
The output buffer for each Cyclone IV I/O pin provides optional programmable
output slew-rate control. Table 6–2 on page 6–7 shows the possible slew rate option
and the Quartus II default slew rate setting. However, these fast transitions may
introduce noise transients in the system. A slower slew rate reduces system noise, but
adds a nominal delay to rising and falling edges. Because each I/O pin has an
individual slew-rate control, you can specify the slew rate on a pin-by-pin basis. The
slew-rate control affects both the rising and falling edges. Slew rate control is available
for single-ended I/O standards with current strength of 8 mA or higher.
1
You cannot use the programmable slew rate feature when using OCT with calibration.
1
You cannot use the programmable slew rate feature when using the 3.0-V PCI,
3.0-V PCI-X, 3.3-V LVTTL, or 3.3-V LVCMOS I/O standards. Only the fast slew rate
(default) setting is available.
Open-Drain Output
Cyclone IV devices provide an optional open-drain (equivalent to an open-collector)
output for each I/O pin. This open-drain output enables the device to provide
system-level control signals (for example, interrupt and write enable signals) that are
asserted by multiple devices in your system.
Bus Hold
Each Cyclone IV device user I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold feature. The
bus-hold circuitry holds the signal on an I/O pin at its last-driven state. Because the
bus-hold feature holds the last-driven state of the pin until the next input signal is
present, an external pull-up or pull-down resistor is not necessary to hold a signal
level when the bus is tri-stated.
The bus-hold circuitry also pulls undriven pins away from the input threshold
voltage in which noise can cause unintended high-frequency switching. You can select
this feature individually for each I/O pin. The bus-hold output drives no higher than
VCCIO to prevent overdriving signals.
1
If you enable the bus-hold feature, the device cannot use the programmable pull-up
option. Disable the bus-hold feature when the I/O pin is configured for differential
signals. Bus-hold circuitry is not available on dedicated clock pins.
Bus-hold circuitry is only active after configuration. When going into user mode, the
bus-hold circuit captures the value on the pin present at the end of configuration.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Element Features
6–5
f For the specific sustaining current for each V CCIO voltage level driven through the
resistor and for the overdrive current used to identify the next driven input level, refer
to the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor
Each Cyclone IV device I/O pin provides an optional programmable pull-up resistor
while in user mode. If you enable this feature for an I/O pin, the pull-up resistor
holds the output to the VCCIO level of the output pin’s bank.
1
If you enable the programmable pull-up resistor, the device cannot use the bus-hold
feature. Programmable pull-up resistors are not supported on the dedicated
configuration, JTAG, and dedicated clock pins.
1
When the optional DEV_OE signal drives low, all I/O pins remains tri-stated even with
the programmable pull-up option enabled.
Programmable Delay
The Cyclone IV IOE includes programmable delays to ensure zero hold times,
minimize setup times, increase clock-to-output times, and delay the clock input
signal.
A path in which a pin directly drives a register may require a programmable delay to
ensure zero hold time, whereas a path in which a pin drives a register through
combinational logic may not require the delay. Programmable delays minimize setup
time. The Quartus II Compiler can program these delays to automatically minimize
setup time while providing a zero hold time. Programmable delays can increase the
register-to-pin delays for output registers. Each dual-purpose clock input pin
provides a programmable delay to the global clock networks.
Table 6–1 shows the programmable delays for Cyclone IV devices.
Table 6–1. Cyclone IV Devices Programmable Delay Chain
Programmable Delay
Quartus II Logic Option
Input pin-to-logic array delay
Input delay from pin to internal cells
Input pin-to-input register delay
Input delay from pin to input register
Output pin delay
Delay from output register to output pin
Dual-purpose clock input pin
delay
Input delay from dual-purpose clock pin to fan-out destinations
There are two paths in the IOE for an input to reach the logic array. Each of the two
paths can have a different delay. This allows you to adjust delays from the pin to the
internal logic element (LE) registers that reside in two different areas of the device.
You must set the two combinational input delays with the input delay from pin to
internal cells logic option in the Quartus II software for each path. If the pin uses the
input register, one of the delays is disregarded and the delay is set with the input
delay from pin to input register logic option in the Quartus II software.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–6
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
OCT Support
The IOE registers in each I/O block share the same source for the preset or clear
features. You can program preset or clear for each individual IOE, but you cannot use
both features simultaneously. You can also program the registers to power-up high or
low after configuration is complete. If programmed to power-up low, an
asynchronous clear can control the registers. If programmed to power-up high, an
asynchronous preset can control the registers. This feature prevents the inadvertent
activation of the active-low input of another device upon power-up. If one register in
an IOE uses a preset or clear signal, all registers in the IOE must use that same signal if
they require preset or clear. Additionally, a synchronous reset signal is available for
the IOE registers.
f For more information about the input and output pin delay settings, refer to the Area
and Timing Optimization chapter in volume 2 of the Quartus II Handbook.
PCI-Clamp Diode
Cyclone IV devices provide an optional PCI-clamp diode enabled input and output
for each I/O pin. Dual-purpose configuration pins support the diode in user mode if
the specific pins are not used as configuration pins for the selected configuration
scheme. For example, if you are using the active serial (AS) configuration scheme, you
cannot use the clamp diode on the ASDO and nCSO pins in user mode. Dedicated
configuration pins do not support the on-chip diode.
The PCI-clamp diode is available for the following I/O standards:
■
3.3-V LVTTL
■
3.3-V LVCMOS
■
3.0-V LVTTL
■
3.0-V LVCMOS
■
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■
PCI
■
PCI-X
If the input I/O standard is one of the listed standards, the PCI-clamp diode is
enabled by default in the Quartus II software.
OCT Support
Cyclone IV devices feature OCT to provide I/O impedance matching and termination
capabilities. OCT helps prevent reflections and maintain signal integrity while
minimizing the need for external resistors in high pin-count ball grid array (BGA)
packages. Cyclone IV devices provide I/O driver on-chip impedance matching and
RS OCT for single-ended outputs and bidirectional pins.
1
When using RS OCT, programmable current strength is not available.
There are two ways to implement OCT in Cyclone IV devices:
■
OCT with calibration
■
OCT without calibration
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
OCT Support
6–7
Table 6–2 lists the I/O standards that support impedance matching and series
termination.
Table 6–2. Cyclone IV Device I/O Features Support (Part 1 of 2)
IOH/IOL Current Strength
Setting (mA) (1), (9)
I/O Standard
RS OCT with
Calibration
Setting, Ohm (Ω)
RS OCT Without
Calibration
Setting, Ohm (Ω)
Cyclone
IV E I/O
Banks
Support
Cyclone
IV GX I/O
Banks
Support
Slew
Rate
Option
(6)
PCIclamp
Diode
Support
Column I/O
Row I/O
Column
I/O
Row
I/O (8)
Column
I/O
Row
I/O (8)
4,8
4,8
—
—
—
—
—
v
2
2
—
—
—
—
—
v
3.0-V LVTTL
4,8,12,16
4,8,12,16
50,25
50,25
50,25
50,25
3.0-V LVCMOS
4,8,12,16
4,8,12,16
50,25
50,25
50,25
50,25
3.0-V PCI/PCI-X
—
—
—
—
—
—
2.5-V
LVTTL/LVCMOS
4,8,12,16
4,8,12,16
50,25
50,25
50,25
50,25
3.3-V LVTTL
3.3-V LVCMOS
0,1,2
—
3,4,5,6,
7,8,9
v
v
v
v
1.8-V
LVTTL/LVCMOS
2,4,6,8,10,12,1 2,4,6,8,10,12,1
6
6
50,25
50,25
50,25
50,25
—
1.5-V LVCMOS
2,4,6,8,10,12,1 2,4,6,8,10,12,1
6
6
50,25
50,25
50,25
50,25
—
1,2,3,4,
5,6,7,8
4,5,6,7,
8
1.2-V LVCMOS
2,4,6,8,10,12
2,4,6,8,10
50,25
50
50,25
50
SSTL-2 Class I
8,12
8,12
50
50
50
50
SSTL-2 Class II
16
16
25
25
25
25
SSTL-18 Class I
8,10,12
8,10,12
50
50
50
50
SSTL-18 Class II
12,16
12,16
25
25
25
25
HSTL-18 Class I
8,10,12
8,10,12
50
50
50
50
HSTL-18 Class II
16
16
25
25
25
25
—
HSTL-15 Class I
8,10,12
8,10,12
50
50
50
50
—
HSTL-15 Class II
16
16
25
25
25
25
—
HSTL-12 Class I
8,10,12
8,10
50
50
50
50
HSTL-12 Class II
14
—
25
—
25
—
Differential SSTL-2
Class I (2), (7)
8,12
8,12
50
50
50
50
—
Differential SSTL-2
Class II (2), (7)
16
16
25
25
25
25
—
Differential SSTL18 (2), (7)
8,10,12
—
50
—
50
—
Differential HSTL18 (2), (7)
8,10,12
—
50
—
50
—
—
Differential HSTL15 (2), (7)
8,10,12
—
50
—
50
—
—
Differential HSTL12 (2), (7)
8,10,12
—
50
—
50
—
May 2013
Altera Corporation
—
—
0,1,2
—
—
—
3,4,5,6,
7,8,9
3,4,7,8
1,2,3,4,
5,6,7,8
3,4,7,8
—
4,5,6,7,
8
—
4,7,8
—
3,4,5,6,
7,8
0,1,2
4,7,8
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
—
—
6–8
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
OCT Support
Table 6–2. Cyclone IV Device I/O Features Support (Part 2 of 2)
IOH/IOL Current Strength
Setting (mA) (1), (9)
I/O Standard
BLVDS
RS OCT with
Calibration
Setting, Ohm (Ω)
RS OCT Without
Calibration
Setting, Ohm (Ω)
Column I/O
Row I/O
Column
I/O
Row
I/O (8)
Column
I/O
Row
I/O (8)
8,12,16
8,12,16
—
—
—
—
LVDS
(3)
—
—
—
—
—
—
PPDS
(3), (4)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RSDS and miniLVDS (3), (4)
Differential LVPECL
(5)
Cyclone
IV E I/O
Banks
Support
Cyclone
IV GX I/O
Banks
Support
3,4,5,6,
7,8
1,2,3,4,
5,6,7,8
Slew
Rate
Option
(6)
PCIclamp
Diode
Support
0,1,2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
5,6
3,4,5,6,
7,8
Notes to Table 6–2:
(1) The default current strength setting in the Quartus II software is 50-Ω OCT without calibration for all non-voltage reference and HSTL/SSTL Class I I/O standards.
The default setting is 25-Ω OCT without calibration for HSTL/SSTL Class II I/O standards.
(2) The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2, differential HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards are supported only on clock input pins and PLL output clock pins.
(3) True differential (PPDS, LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS I/O standards) outputs are supported in row I/O banks 1, 2, 5, and 6 only for Cyclone IV E devices and right
I/O banks 5 and 6 only for Cyclone IV GX devices. Differential outputs in column I/O banks require an external resistor network.
(4) This I/O standard is supported for outputs only.
(5) This I/O standard is supported for clock inputs only
(6) The default Quartus II slew rate setting is in bold; 2 for all I/O standards that supports slew rate option.
(7) Differential SSTL-18, differential HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards do not support Class II output.
(8) Cyclone IV GX devices only support right I/O pins.
(9) Altera not only offers current strength that meets the industrial standard specification but also other additional current strengths.
1
For more details about the differential I/O standards supported in Cyclone IV I/O
banks, refer to “High-Speed I/O Interface” on page 6–24.
On-Chip Series Termination with Calibration
Cyclone IV devices support RS OCT with calibration in the top, bottom, and right I/O
banks. The RS OCT calibration circuit compares the total impedance of the I/O buffer
to the external 25-Ω ±1% or 50-Ω ±1% resistors connected to the RUP and RDN pins, and
dynamically adjusts the I/O buffer impedance until they match (as shown in
Figure 6–2).
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
OCT Support
6–9
The RS shown in Figure 6–2 is the intrinsic impedance of the transistors that make up
the I/O buffer.
Figure 6–2. Cyclone IV Devices RS OCT with Calibration
Cyclone IV Device Family
Driver Series Termination
Receiving
Device
VCCIO
RS
ZO
RS
GND
OCT with calibration is achieved using the OCT calibration block circuitry. There is
one OCT calibration block in each of I/O banks 2, 4, 5, and 7 for Cyclone IV E devices
and I/O banks 4, 5, and 7 for Cyclone IV GX devices. Each calibration block supports
each side of the I/O banks. Because there are two I/O banks sharing the same
calibration block, both banks must have the same VCCIO if both banks enable OCT
calibration. If two related banks have different VCCIO, only the bank in which the
calibration block resides can enable OCT calibration.
Figure 6–10 on page 6–18 shows the top-level view of the OCT calibration blocks
placement.
Each calibration block comes with a pair of RUP and RDN pins. When used for
calibration, the RUP pin is connected to VCCIO through an external 25-Ω ±1% or
50-Ω ±1% resistor for an RS OCT value of 25 Ω or 50 Ω , respectively. The RDN pin is
connected to GND through an external 25-Ω ±1% or 50-Ω ±1% resistor for an RS OCT
value of 25 Ω or 50 Ω , respectively. The external resistors are compared with the
internal resistance using comparators. The resultant outputs of the comparators are
used by the OCT calibration block to dynamically adjust buffer impedance.
1
May 2013
During calibration, the resistance of the RUP and RDN pins varies.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–10
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
OCT Support
Figure 6–3 shows the external calibration resistors setup on the RUP and RDN pins and
the associated OCT calibration circuitry.
Figure 6–3. Cyclone IV Devices RS OCT with Calibration Setup
Cyclone IV Device Family OCT with
Calibration with RUP and RDN pins
VCCIO
External
Calibration
Resistor
RUP
OCT
Calibration
Circuitry
VCCIO
RDN
External
Calibration
Resistor
GND
RUP and RDN pins go to a tri-state condition when calibration is completed or not
running. These two pins are dual-purpose I/Os and function as regular I/Os if you
do not use the calibration circuit.
On-Chip Series Termination Without Calibration
Cyclone IV devices support driver impedance matching to match the impedance of
the transmission line, which is typically 25 or 50 Ω . When used with the output
drivers, OCT sets the output driver impedance to 25 or 50 Ω . Cyclone IV devices also
support I/O driver series termination (RS = 50 Ω) for SSTL-2 and SSTL-18.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Standards
6–11
Figure 6–4 shows the single-ended I/O standards for OCT without calibration. The RS
shown is the intrinsic transistor impedance.
Figure 6–4. Cyclone IV Devices RS OCT Without Calibration
Cyclone IV Device
Driver Series Termination
Receiving
Device
VCCIO
RS
ZO
RS
GND
All I/O banks and I/O pins support impedance matching and series termination.
Dedicated configuration pins and JTAG pins do not support impedance matching or
series termination.
RS OCT is supported on any I/O bank. VCCIO and V REF must be compatible for all I/O
pins to enable RS OCT in a given I/O bank. I/O standards that support different RS
values can reside in the same I/O bank as long as their VCCIO and V REF do not conflict.
Impedance matching is implemented using the capabilities of the output driver and is
subject to a certain degree of variation, depending on the process, voltage, and
temperature.
f For more information about tolerance specification, refer to the Cyclone IV Device
Datasheet chapter.
I/O Standards
Cyclone IV devices support multiple single-ended and differential I/O standards.
Cyclone IV devices support 3.3-, 3.0-, 2.5-, 1.8-, 1.5-, and 1.2-V I/O standards.
Table 6–3 summarizes I/O standards supported by Cyclone IV devices and which
I/O pins support them.
Table 6–3. Cyclone IV Devices Supported I/O Standards and Constraints (Part 1 of 3)
VCCIO Level (in V)
I/O Standard
3.3-V LVTTL,
3.3-V LVCMOS
3.0-V LVTTL,
3.0-V LVCMOS
May 2013
Type
Standard
Support
(2)
Single-ended
JESD8-B
(2)
Single-ended
JESD8-B
Altera Corporation
Input
3.3/3.0/2.5
(3)
3.3/3.0/2.5
(3)
Row I/O Pins (1)
Column I/O Pins
Output
CLK,
DQS
PLL_OUT
User
I/O
Pins
CLK,
DQS
User I/O
Pins
3.3
v
v
v
v
v
3.0
v
v
v
v
v
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–12
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Standards
Table 6–3. Cyclone IV Devices Supported I/O Standards and Constraints (Part 2 of 3)
VCCIO Level (in V)
I/O Standard
Type
Standard
Support
Row I/O Pins (1)
Column I/O Pins
Output
CLK,
DQS
PLL_OUT
User
I/O
Pins
CLK,
DQS
User I/O
Pins
(3)
2.5
v
v
v
v
v
Input
2.5-V LVTTL /
LVCMOS
Single-ended
JESD8-5
1.8-V LVTTL /
LVCMOS
Single-ended
JESD8-7
1.8/1.5 (3)
1.8
v
v
v
v
v
1.5-V LVCMOS
Single-ended
JESD8-11
1.8/1.5 (3)
1.5
v
v
v
v
v
Single-ended
JESD8-12A
1.2
1.2
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-2 Class I,
SSTL-2 Class II
voltagereferenced
JESD8-9A
2.5
2.5
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 Class I,
SSTL-18 Class II
voltagereferenced
JESD815
1.8
1.8
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-18 Class I,
HSTL-18 Class II
voltagereferenced
JESD8-6
1.8
1.8
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-15 Class I,
HSTL-15 Class II
voltagereferenced
JESD8-6
1.5
1.5
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-12 Class I
voltagereferenced
JESD8-16A
1.2
1.2
v
v
v
v
v
voltagereferenced
JESD8-16A
1.2
1.2
v
v
v
—
—
—
3.0
3.0
v
v
v
v
v
1.2-V LVCMOS
(4)
HSTL-12 Class II
(9)
PCI and PCI-X
Single-ended
Differential SSTL-2
Class I or Class II
Differential
Differential SSTL-18
Class I or Class II
Differential
Differential HSTL-18
Class I or Class II
Differential
Differential HSTL-15
Class I or Class II
Differential
Differential HSTL-12
Class I or Class II
Differential
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
JESD8-9A
JESD815
JESD8-6
JESD8-6
JESD8-16A
3.3/3.0/2.5
—
2.5
—
v
—
—
—
2.5
—
v
—
—
v
—
—
1.8
—
v
—
—
—
1.8
—
v
—
—
v
—
—
1.8
—
v
—
—
—
1.8
—
v
—
—
v
—
—
1.5
—
v
—
—
—
1.5
—
v
—
—
v
—
—
1.2
—
v
—
—
—
1.2
—
v
—
—
v
—
PPDS
(6)
Differential
—
—
2.5
—
v
v
—
v
LVDS
(10)
Differential
ANSI/TIA/
EIA-644
2.5
2.5
v
v
v
v
v
Differential
—
—
2.5
—
v
v
—
v
Differential
—
2.5
2.5
—
—
v
—
v
RSDS and
mini-LVDS
BLVDS
(8)
(6)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Termination Scheme for I/O Standards
6–13
Table 6–3. Cyclone IV Devices Supported I/O Standards and Constraints (Part 3 of 3)
VCCIO Level (in V)
I/O Standard
LVPECL
(7)
Type
Differential
Row I/O Pins (1)
Column I/O Pins
Standard
Support
Input
Output
CLK,
DQS
PLL_OUT
User
I/O
Pins
CLK,
DQS
User I/O
Pins
—
2.5
—
v
—
—
v
—
Notes to Table 6–3:
(1) Cyclone IV GX devices only support right I/O pins.
(2) The PCI-clamp diode must be enabled for 3.3-V/3.0-V LVTTL/LVCMOS.
(3) The Cyclone IV architecture supports the MultiVolt I/O interface feature that allows Cyclone IV devices in all packages to interface with I/O
systems that have different supply voltages.
(4) Cyclone IV GX devices do not support 1.2-V VCCIO in banks 3 and 9. I/O pins in bank 9 are dual-purpose I/O pins that are used as configuration
or GPIO pins. Configuration scheme is not support at 1.2 V, therefore bank 9 can not be powered up at 1.2-V VCCIO.
(5) Differential HSTL and SSTL outputs use two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted. Differential HSTL and SSTL
inputs treat differential inputs as two single-ended HSTL and SSTL inputs and only decode one of them. Differential HSTL and SSTL are only
supported on CLK pins.
(6) PPDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS are only supported on output pins.
(7) LVPECL is only supported on clock inputs.
(8) Bus LVDS (BLVDS) output uses two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted. BLVDS input uses LVDS input
buffer.
(9) 1.2-V HSTL input is supported at both column and row I/Os regardless of Class I or Class II.
(10) True LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS I/O standards are supported in left and right I/O pins, while emulated LVDS, RSDS, and mini-LVDS I/O
standards are supported in the top, bottom, and right I/O pins.
Cyclone IV devices support PCI and PCI-X I/O standards at 3.0-V VCCIO. The 3.0-V
PCI and PCI-X I/O are fully compatible for direct interfacing with 3.3-V PCI systems
without requiring any additional components. The 3.0-V PCI and PCI-X outputs meet
the VIH and V IL requirements of 3.3-V PCI and PCI-X inputs with sufficient noise
margin.
f For more information about the 3.3/3.0/2.5-V LVTTL & LVCMOS multivolt I/O
support, refer to AN 447: Interfacing Cyclone III and Cyclone IV Devices with 3.3/3.0/2.5-V
LVTTL/LVCMOS I/O Systems.
Termination Scheme for I/O Standards
This section describes recommended termination schemes for voltage-referenced and
differential I/O standards.
The 3.3-V LVTTL, 3.0-V LVTTL and LVCMOS, 2.5-V LVTTL and LVCMOS, 1.8-V
LVTTL and LVCMOS, 1.5-V LVCMOS, 1.2-V LVCMOS, 3.0-V PCI, and PCI-X
I/O standards do not specify a recommended termination scheme per the JEDEC
standard
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–14
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Termination Scheme for I/O Standards
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standard Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require an input reference voltage (VREF) and a
termination voltage (VTT). The reference voltage of the receiving device tracks the
termination voltage of the transmitting device, as shown in Figure 6–5 and Figure 6–6.
Figure 6–5. Cyclone IV Devices HSTL I/O Standard Termination
HSTL Class I
Termination
HSTL Class II
VTT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Receiver
VTT
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
OCT with
and without
Calibration
VTT
Transmitter
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
25 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
Figure 6–6. Cyclone IV Devices SSTL I/O Standard Termination
Termination
SSTL Class I
SSTL Class II
VTT
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
Receiver
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
50 Ω
50 Ω
OCT with
and without
Calibration
50 Ω
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
50 Ω
VREF
Receiver
VTT
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
VREF
Transmitter
50 Ω
Transmitter
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
25 Ω
VTT
VTT
VREF
Receiver
Transmitter
Receiver
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Termination Scheme for I/O Standards
6–15
Differential I/O Standard Termination
Differential I/O standards typically require a termination resistor between the two
signals at the receiver. The termination resistor must match the differential load
impedance of the bus (refer to Figure 6–7 and Figure 6–8).
Cyclone IV devices support differential SSTL-2 and SSTL-18, differential HSTL-18,
HSTL-15, and HSTL-12, PPDS, LVDS, RSDS, mini-LVDS, and differential LVPECL.
Figure 6–7. Cyclone IV Devices Differential HSTL I/O Standard Class I and Class II Interface and Termination
Termination
Differential HSTL Class I
VTT
50 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
Differential HSTL Class II
VTT
VTT VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
Transmitter
VTT
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
50 Ω
OCT
VTT VTT
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
VTT
VTT
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
25 Ω
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
50Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
Transmitter
Receiver
Figure 6–8. Cyclone IV Devices Differential SSTL I/O Standard Class I and Class II Interface and Termination
Termination
Differential SSTL Class I
VTT
50 Ω
25 Ω
External
On-Board
Termination
Differential SSTL Class II
VTT VTT
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
VTT VTT
50 Ω
25 Ω
25 Ω
25 Ω
VTT
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
50 Ω
OCT
Transmitter
50 Ω
Transmitter
VTT
Receiver
VTT
Cyclone IV Device
Family Series OCT
25 Ω
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
VTT
50 Ω
50Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
50 Ω
50 Ω
50Ω
Receiver
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Transmitter
(1)
Transmitter
VTT
50 Ω
Receiver
Note to Figure 6–8:
(1) Only Differential SSTL-2 I/O standard supports Class II output.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–16
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
I/O Banks
I/O pins on Cyclone IV devices are grouped together into I/O banks. Each bank has a
separate power bus.
Cyclone IV E devices have eight I/O banks, as shown in Figure 6–9. Each device I/O
pin is associated with one I/O bank. All single-ended I/O standards are supported in
all banks except HSTL-12 Class II, which is only supported in column I/O banks. All
differential I/O standards are supported in all banks. The only exception is HSTL-12
Class II, which is only supported in column I/O banks.
Cyclone IV GX devices have up to ten I/O banks and two configuration banks, as
shown in Figure 6–10 on page 6–18 and Figure 6–11 on page 6–19. The Cyclone IV GX
configuration I/O bank contains three user I/O pins that can be used as normal user
I/O pins if they are not used in configuration modes. Each device I/O pin is
associated with one I/O bank. All single-ended I/O standards are supported except
HSTL-12 Class II, which is only supported in column I/O banks. All differential I/O
standards are supported in top, bottom, and right I/O banks. The only exception is
HSTL-12 Class II, which is only supported in column I/O banks.
The entire left side of the Cyclone IV GX devices contain dedicated high-speed
transceiver blocks for high speed serial interface applications. There are a total of 2, 4,
and 8 transceiver channels for Cyclone IV GX devices, depending on the density and
package of the device. For more information about the transceiver channels
supported, refer to Figure 6–10 on page 6–18 and Figure 6–11 on page 6–19.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
6–17
Figure 6–9 shows the overview of Cyclone IV E I/O banks.
Figure 6–9. Cyclone IV E I/O Banks
(1), (2)
I/O Bank 8
I/O Bank 7
I/O Bank 3
I/O bank with
calibration block
I/O bank without
calibration block
I/O Bank 5
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 1
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
3.0-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
1.2-V LVCMOS
PPDS
LVDS
RSDS
mini-LVDS
Bus LVDS (7)
LVPECL (3)
SSTL-2 class I and II
SSTL-18 CLass I and II
HSTL-18 Class I and II
HSTL-15 Class I and II
HSTL-12 Class I and II (4)
Differential SSTL-2 (5)
Differential SSTL-18 (5)
Differential HSTL-18 (5)
Differential HSTL-15 (5)
Differential HSTL-12 (6)
I/O Bank 6
All I/O Banks Support:
Calibration block
coverage
I/O Bank 4
Notes to Figure 6–9:
(1) This is a top view of the silicon die. This is only a graphical representation. For exact pin locations, refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software.
(2) True differential (PPDS, LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS I/O standards) outputs are supported in row I/O banks 1, 2, 5, and 6 only. External resistors
are needed for the differential outputs in column I/O banks.
(3) The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output pins.
(4) The HSTL-12 Class II is supported in column I/O banks 3, 4, 7, and 8 only.
(5) The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2, differential HSTL-18, and HSTL-15 I/O standards are supported only on clock input pins and phase-locked
loops (PLLs) output clock pins. Differential SSTL-18, differential HSTL-18, and HSTL-15 I/O standards do not support Class II output.
(6) The differential HSTL-12 I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock pins. Differential HSTL-12 Class II is supported
only in column I/O banks 3, 4, 7, and 8.
(7) BLVDS output uses two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted. BLVDS input uses true LVDS input buffer.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–18
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
Figure 6–10 and Figure 6–11 show the overview of Cyclone IV GX I/O banks.
Figure 6–10. Cyclone IV GX I/O Banks for EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 (1),
(2), (9)
Configuration pins
VCCIO8
VCC_CLKIN8A
VCCIO7
I/O Bank 9
(11)
I/O Bank 8
I/O Bank
8A (10)
I/O Bank 7
Right, Top, and Bottom Banks Support:
I/O Bank 3
VCCIO3
Configuration pins
I/O Bank
3A (10)
VCC_CLKIN3A
I/O Bank
3B (12)
VCC_CLKIN3B
I/O Bank 6
VCCIO6
I/O bank with
calibration block
I/O bank without
calibration block
I/O Bank 5
PCIe hard IP x1, x2, and x4
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
3.0-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
1.2-V LVCMOS
PPDS
LVDS
RSDS
mini-LVDS
Bus LVDS (7)
LVPECL (3)
SSTL-2 class I and II
SSTL-18 Class I and II
HSTL-18 Class I and II
HSTL-15 Class I and II
HSTL-12 Class I and II (4)
Differential SSTL-2 (5)
Differential SSTL-18 (5)
Differential HSTL-18 (5)
Differential HSTL-15 (5)
Differential HSTL-12 (6)
3.0-V PCI/PCI-X (8)
Channel 0
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Configuration
pins
VCCIO9
Calibration block
coverage
VCCIO5
I/O Bank 4
VCCIO4
Notes to Figure 6–10:
(1) This is a top view of the silicon die. For exact pin locations, refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software. Channels 2 and 3 are not available in
EP4CGX15 and F169 package type in EP4CGX22 and EP4CGX30 devices.
(2) True differential (PPDS, LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS I/O standards) outputs are supported in row I/O banks 5 and 6 only. External resistors are
needed for the differential outputs in column I/O banks.
(3) The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output pins.
(4) The HSTL-12 Class II is supported in column I/O banks 4, 7, and 8.
(5) The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2, differential HSTL-18, and HSTL-15 I/O standards are supported only on clock input pins and phase-locked
loops (PLLs) output clock pins. PLL output clock pins do not support Class II interface type of differential SSTL-18, HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and
HSTL-12 I/O standards.
(6) The differential HSTL-12 I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock pins. Differential HSTL-12 Class II is supported
only in column I/O banks 4, 7, and 8.
(7) BLVDS output uses two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted. BLVDS input uses the LVDS input buffer.
(8) The PCI-X I/O standard does not meet the IV curve requirement at the linear region.
(9) The OCT block is located in the shaded banks 4, 5, and 7.
(10) There are two dedicated clock input I/O banks (I/O bank 3A and I/O bank 8A) that can be used for either high-speed serial interface (HSSI) input
reference clock pins or clock input pins.
(11) There are dual-purpose I/O pins in bank 9. If input pins with VREF I/O standards are used on these dual-purpose I/O pins during user mode, they
share the VREF pin in bank 8.These dual-purpose IO pins in bank 9 when used in user mode also support RS OCT without calibration and they
share the OCT block with bank 8.
(12) There are four dedicated clock input in I/O bank 3B for the EP4CGX30F484 device that can be used for either HSSI input reference clock pins or
clock input pins.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
6–19
Figure 6–11. Cyclone IV GX I/O Banks for EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 (1),
VCCIO9 VCC_CLKIN8B VCCIO8 VCC_CLKIN8A
I/O Bank 9
I/O Bank
I/O Bank 8B
I/O Bank 8
8A (10)
(10), (11)
Ch3
PCIe hard IP x1, x2, and x4
Config I/O Bank 3B
I/O Bank
I/O Bank 3
(10), (11)
pins
3A (10)
VCCIO3
VCC_CLKIN3B VCCIO3 VCC_CLKIN3A
I/O Bank 6
Ch2
3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
3.0-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
1.2-V LVCMOS
PPDS
LVDS
RSDS
mini-LVDS
Bus LVDS (7)
LVPECL (3)
SSTL-2 class I and II
SSTL-18 CLass I and II
HSTL-18 Class I and II
HSTL-15 Class I and II
HSTL-12 Class I and II (4)
Differential SSTL-2 (5)
Differential SSTL-18 (5)
Differential HSTL-18 (5)
Differential HSTL-15 (5)
Differential HSTL-12 (6)
3.0-V PCI/PCI-X (8)
Ch1
GXBL1
I/O Bank 7
Right, Top, and Bottom Banks Support:
Ch0
Ch3
Ch2
GXBL0
Ch1
Ch0
VCCIO7
VCCIO6
I/O bank with
calibration block
I/O bank without
calibration block
I/O Bank 5
Configuration
pins
(2), (9)
Calibration block
coverage
VCCIO5
I/O Bank 4
VCCIO4
Notes to Figure 6–11:
(1) This is a top view of the silicon die. For exact pin locations, refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software.
(2) True differential (PPDS, LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS I/O standards) outputs are supported in row I/O banks 5 and 6 only. External resistors are
needed for the differential outputs in column I/O banks.
(3) The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output pins.
(4) The HSTL-12 Class II is supported in column I/O banks 4, 7, and 8.
(5) The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2, differential HSTL-18, and HSTL-15 I/O standards are supported only on clock input pins and phase-locked
loops (PLLs) output clock pins. PLL output clock pins do not support Class II interface type of differential SSTL-18, HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and
HSTL-12 I/O standards.
(6) The differential HSTL-12 I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock pins. Differential HSTL-12 Class II is supported
only in column I/O banks 4, 7, and 8.
(7) BLVDS output uses two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed as inverted. BLVDS input uses the LVDS input buffer.
(8) The PCI-X I/O standard does not meet the IV curve requirement at the linear region.
(9) The OCT block is located in the shaded banks 4, 5, and 7.
(10) The dedicated clock input I/O banks 3A, 3B, 8A, and 8B can be used either for HSSI input reference clock pins or clock input pins.
(11) Single-ended clock input support is available for dedicated clock input I/O banks 3B and 8B.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1
6–20
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Each Cyclone IV I/O bank has a VREF bus to accommodate voltage-referenced I/O standards. Each VREF pin is the reference
source for its VREF group. If you use a VREF group for voltage-referenced I/O standards, connect the VREF pin for that group to
the appropriate voltage level. If you do not use all the VREF groups in the I/O bank for voltage-referenced I/O standards, you
can use the VREF pin in the unused voltage-referenced groups as regular I/O pins. For example, if you have SSTL-2 Class I
input pins in I/O bank 1 and they are all placed in the VREFB1N[0] group, VREFB1N[0] must be powered with 1.25 V, and the
remaining VREFB1N[1..3] pins (if available) are used as I/O pins. If multiple VREF groups are used in the same I/O bank, the
VREF pins must all be powered by the same voltage level because the VREF pins are shorted together within the same I/O bank.
When VREF pins are used as regular I/Os, they have higher pin capacitance than regular user I/O pins. This has an impact on
the timing if the pins are used as inputs and outputs.
f For more information about VREF pin capacitance, refer to the pin capacitance section in the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
f For information about how to identify VREF groups, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Pin-Out files or the Quartus II Pin Planner
tool.
Table 6–4 and Table 6–5 summarize the number of VREF pins in each I/O bank for the Cyclone IV device family.
EP4CE115
164-MBGA
256-MBGA
256-UBGA
256-FBGA
484-FBGA
144-EQPF
256-UBGA
256-FBGA
324-FBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
324-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
EP4CE75
144-EQPF
EP4CE55
256-FBGA
EP4CE40
256-UBGA
EP4CE30
144-EQPF
EP4CE22
256-FBGA
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
I/O
Bank
(1)
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
256-UBGA
EP4CE15
(Part 1 of 2)
144-EQPF
Device
EP4CE6
EP4CE10
Table 6–4. Number of VREF Pins Per I/O Bank for Cyclone IV E Devices
EP4CE115
164-MBGA
256-MBGA
256-UBGA
256-FBGA
484-FBGA
144-EQPF
256-UBGA
256-FBGA
324-FBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
324-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
EP4CE75
144-EQPF
EP4CE55
256-FBGA
EP4CE40
256-UBGA
EP4CE30
144-EQPF
EP4CE22
256-FBGA
EP4CE15
EP4CE10
EP4CE6
256-UBGA
(1)
144-EQPF
Device
Altera Corporation
I/O
Bank
(Part 2 of 2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
8
Note to Table 6–4:
(1) User I/O pins are used as inputs or outputs; clock input pins are used as inputs only; clock output pins are used as output only.
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
May 2013
Table 6–4. Number of VREF Pins Per I/O Bank for Cyclone IV E Devices
Table 6–5. Number of VREF Pins Per I/O Bank for Cyclone IV GX Devices
3
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
4
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
5
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
6
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
7
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
8 (2)
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
896-FBGA
672-FBGA
484-FBGA
4CGX150
896-FBGA
672-FBGA
4CGX110
484-FBGA
672-FBGA
4CGX75
484-FBGA
672-FBGA
484-FBGA
4CGX50
484-FBGA
324-FBGA
4CGX30
169-FBGA
324-FBGA
4CGX22
169-FBGA
(1)
169-FBGA
I/O Bank
4CGX15
148- QFN
Device
Notes to Table 6–5:
(1) User I/O pins are used as inputs or outputs; clock input pins are used as inputs only; clock output pins are used as output only.
Each Cyclone IV I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins. Each I/O bank can support only one VCCIO setting from among 1.2, 1.5, 1.8,
2.5, 3.0, or 3.3 V. Any number of supported single-ended or differential standards can be simultaneously supported in a single
I/O bank, as long as they use the same VCCIO levels for input and output pins.
6–21
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
(2) Bank 9 does not have VREF pin. If input pins with VREF I/O standards are used in bank 9 during user mode, it shares the VREF pin in bank 8.
6–22
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Banks
When designing LVTTL/LVCMOS inputs with Cyclone IV devices, refer to the
following guidelines:
■
All pins accept input voltage (VI) up to a maximum limit (3.6 V), as stated in the
recommended operating conditions provided in the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet
chapter.
■
Whenever the input level is higher than the bank VCCIO, expect higher leakage
current.
■
The LVTTL/LVCMOS I/O standard input pins can only meet the V IH and VIL
levels according to bank voltage level.
Voltage-referenced standards are supported in an I/O bank using any number of
single-ended or differential standards, as long as they use the same VREF and VCCIO
values. For example, if you choose to implement both SSTL-2 and SSTL-18 in your
Cyclone IV devices, I/O pins using these standards—because they require different
VREF values—must be in different banks from each other. However, the same I/O
bank can support SSTL-2 and 2.5-V LVCMOS with the VCCIO set to 2.5 V and the VREF
set to 1.25 V.
1
When using Cyclone IV devices as a receiver in 3.3-, 3.0-, or 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
systems, you are responsible for managing overshoot or undershoot to stay in the
absolute maximum ratings and the recommended operating conditions, provided in
the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
1
The PCI clamping diode is enabled by default in the Quartus II software for input
signals with bank VCCIO at 2.5, 3.0, or 3.3 V.
High-Speed Differential Interfaces
Cyclone IV devices can send and receive data through LVDS signals. For the LVDS
transmitter and receiver, the input and output pins of Cyclone IV devices support
serialization and deserialization through internal logic.
The BLVDS extends the benefits of LVDS to multipoint applications such as
bidirectional backplanes. The loading effect and the need to terminate the bus at both
ends for multipoint applications require BLVDS to drive out a higher current than
LVDS to produce a comparable voltage swing. All the I/O banks of Cyclone IV
devices support BLVDS for user I/O pins.
The RSDS and mini-LVDS standards are derivatives of the LVDS standard. The RSDS
and mini-LVDS I/O standards are similar in electrical characteristics to LVDS, but
have a smaller voltage swing and therefore provide increased power benefits and
reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI).
The PPDS standard is the next generation of the RSDS standard introduced by
National Semiconductor Corporation. Cyclone IV devices meet the National
Semiconductor Corporation PPDS Interface Specification and support the PPDS
standard for outputs only. All the I/O banks of Cyclone IV devices support the PPDS
standard for output pins only.
The LVDS standard does not require an input reference voltage, but it does require a
100-Ω termination resistor between the two signals at the input buffer. An external
resistor network is required on the transmitter side for the top and bottom I/O banks.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
6–23
External Memory Interfacing
Cyclone IV devices support I/O standards required to interface with a broad range of
external memory interfaces, such as DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, and QDR II
SRAM.
f For more information about Cyclone IV devices external memory interface support,
refer to the External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
You can use the Quartus II software to validate your pad and pin placement.
Pad Placement
Altera recommends that you create a Quartus II design, enter your device I/O
assignments and compile your design to validate your pin placement. The Quartus II
software checks your pin connections with respect to the I/O assignment and
placement rules to ensure proper device operation. These rules depend on device
density, package, I/O assignments, voltage assignments and other factors that are not
fully described in this chapter.
f For more information about how the Quartus II software checks I/O restrictions, refer
to the I/O Management chapter in volume 2 of the Quartus II Handbook.
DC Guidelines
For the Quartus II software to automatically check for illegally placed pads according
to the DC guidelines, set the DC current sink or source value to Electromigration
Current assignment on each of the output pins that are connected to the external
resistive load.
The programmable current strength setting has an impact on the amount of DC
current that an output pin can source or sink. Determine if the current strength setting
is sufficient for the external resistive load condition on the output pin.
Clock Pins Functionality
Cyclone IV clock pins have multiple purposes, as per listed:
May 2013
■
CLK pins—Input support for single-ended and voltage-referenced standards. For
I/O standard support, refer to Table 6–3 on page 6–11.
■
DIFFCLK pins—Input support for differential standards. For I/O standard support,
refer to Table 6–3 on page 6–11. When used as DIFFCLK pins, DC or AC coupling
can be used depending on the interface requirements and external termination is
required. For more information, refer to “High-Speed I/O Standards Support” on
page 6–28.
■
REFCLK pins—Input support for high speed differential reference clocks used by
the transceivers in Cyclone IV GX devices. For I/O support, coupling, and
termination requirements, refer to Table 6–10 on page 6–29.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–24
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Interface
High-Speed I/O Interface
Cyclone IV E I/Os are separated into eight I/O banks, as shown in Figure 6–9 on
page 6–17. Cyclone IV GX I/Os are separated into six user I/O banks with the left
side of the device as the transceiver block, as shown in Figure 6–10 on page 6–18. Each
bank has an independent power supply. True output drivers for LVDS, RSDS,
mini-LVDS, and PPDS are on the right I/O banks. On the Cyclone IV E row I/O banks
and the Cyclone IV GX right I/O banks, some of the differential pin pairs (p and n
pins) of the true output drivers are not located on adjacent pins. In these cases, a
power pin is located between the p and n pins. These I/O standards are also
supported on all I/O banks using two single-ended output with the second output
programmed as inverted, and an external resistor network. True input buffers for
these I/O standards are supported on the top, bottom, and right I/O banks except for
I/O bank 9.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Interface
6–25
Table 6–6 and Table 6–7 summarize which I/O banks support these I/O standards in
the Cyclone IV device family.
Table 6–6. Differential I/O Standards Supported in Cyclone IV E I/O Banks
Differential I/O Standards
LVDS
RSDS
mini-LVDS
PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
(1)
(2)
I/O Bank Location
External Resistor
Network at Transmitter
1,2,5,6
Not Required
All
Three Resistors
1,2,5,6
Not Required
3,4,7,8
Three Resistors
All
Single Resistor
1,2,5,6
Not Required
All
Three Resistors
1,2,5,6
Not Required
All
Three Resistors
All
All
Transmitter (TX)
Receiver (RX)
v
v
v
—
v
—
v
—
Single Resistor
v
v
—
—
v
All
—
v
v
Differential SSTL-18
(3)
All
—
v
v
Differential HSTL-18
(3)
All
—
v
v
Differential HSTL-15
(3)
All
—
v
v
Differential HSTL-12
(3), (4)
All
—
v
v
Differential SSTL-2
(3)
Notes to Table 6–6:
(1) Transmitter and Receiver fMAX depend on system topology and performance requirement.
(2) The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on dedicated clock input pins.
(3) The differential SSTL-2, SSTL-18, HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins. PLL output clock pins do not support Class II interface type of differential SSTL-18, HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards.
(4) Differential HSTL-12 Class II is supported only in column I/O banks.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–26
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Interface
Table 6–7. Differential I/O Standards Supported in Cyclone IV GX I/O Banks
Differential I/O Standards
LVDS
RSDS
mini-LVDS
PPDS
BLVDS
LVPECL
(1)
(2)
I/O Bank Location
External Resistor
Network at
Transmitter
Transmitter (TX)
Receiver (RX)
v
v
v
—
v
—
v
—
5,6
Not Required
3,4,5,6,7,8
Three Resistors
5,6
Not Required
3,4,7,8
Three Resistors
3,4,5,6,7,8
Single Resistor
5,6
Not Required
3,4,5,6,7,8
Three Resistors
5,6
Not Required
3,4,5,6,7,8
Three Resistors
3,4,5,6,7,8
Single Resistor
v
v
3,4,5,6,7,8
—
—
v
3,4,5,6,7,8
—
v
v
Differential SSTL-18
(3)
3,4,5,6,7,8
—
v
v
Differential HSTL-18
(3)
3,4,5,6,7,8
—
v
v
Differential HSTL-15
(3)
3,4,5,6,7,8
—
v
v
Differential HSTL-12
(3)
4,5,6,7,8
—
v
v
Differential SSTL-2
(3)
Notes to Table 6–7:
(1) Transmitter and Receiver fMAX depend on system topology and performance requirement.
(2) The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on dedicated clock input pins.
(3) The differential SSTL-2, SSTL-18, HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins. PLL output clock pins do not support Class II interface type of differential SSTL-18, HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards.
You can use I/O pins and internal logic to implement a high-speed differential
interface in Cyclone IV devices. Cyclone IV devices do not contain dedicated
serialization or deserialization circuitry. Therefore, shift registers, internal
phase-locked loops (PLLs), and I/O cells are used to perform serial-to-parallel
conversions on incoming data and parallel-to-serial conversion on outgoing data. The
differential interface data serializers and deserializers (SERDES) are automatically
constructed in the core logic elements (LEs) with the Quartus II software ALTLVDS
megafunction.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
EP4CE115
144-EQPF
164-MBGA
256-MBGA
256-UBGA
256-FBGA
484-FBGA
144-EQPF
256-UBGA
256-FBGA
324-FBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
324-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-UBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
484-FBGA
780-FBGA
EP4CE75
256-FBGA
EP4CE55
256-UBGA
EP4CE40
144-EQPF
EP4CE30
256-FBGA
EP4CE22
256-UBGA
EP4CE15
EP4CE10
EP4CE6
144-EQPF
Device
Numbers of Differential
Channels (1), (2)
Altera Corporation
Table 6–8. Cyclone IV E I/O and Differential Channel Count
User
I/O (3)
91
179
179
91
179
179
81
89
165
165
165
343
79
153
153
193
328
532
193
328
328
532
324
324
374
292
292
426
280
528
User I/O
Banks
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6)
8
23
23
8
23
23
6
8
21
21
21
67
7
20
20
30
60
112
30
60
60
112
62
62
70
54
54
79
50
103
Emulated
LVDS (5), (
13
43
43
13
43
43
12
13
32
32
32
70
10
32
32
38
64
112
38
64
64
112
70
70
90
56
56
99
53
127
LVDS (4), (
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Interface
May 2013
Table 6–8 and Table 6–9 summarize the total number of supported row and column differential channels in the Cyclone IV
device family.
6)
Notes to Table 6–8:
(1) User I/O pins are used as inputs or outputs; clock input pins are used as inputs only; clock output pins are used as output only.
(2) For differential pad placement guidelines, refer to “Pad Placement” on page 6–23.
(3) The I/O pin count includes all GPIOs, dedicated clock pins, and dual-purpose configuration pins. Dedicated configuration pins are not included in the pin count.
(4) The true LVDS count includes all LVDS I/O pairs, differential clock input and clock output pins in row I/O banks 1, 2, 5, and 6.
(5) The emulated LVDS count includes all LVDS I/O pairs, differential clock input and clock output pins in column I/O banks 3, 4, 7, and 8.
6–27
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
(6) LVDS input and output buffers are sharing the same p and n pins. One LVDS I/O channel can only be either transmitter or receiver at a time.
6–28
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
Table 6–9. Cyclone IV GX I/O, Differential, and XCVRs Channel Count
9 (4)
9 (4)
9 (4)
9 (4)
9 (4)
LVDS
(7), (9)
896-FBGA
9 (4)
672-FBGA
User I/O
banks
484-FBGA
150
896-FBGA
72
672-FBGA
150
484-FBGA
72
4CGX150
672-FBGA
324-FBGA
72
4CGX110
484-FBGA
169-FBGA
72
4CGX75
672-FBGA
324-FBGA
User I/O (3)
(1), (2)
4CGX50
484-FBGA
169-FBGA
4CGX30
169-FBGA
4CGX22
148- QFN
Numbers of
Differential
Channels
4CGX15
484-FBGA
Device
290
290
310
290
310
270
393
475
270
393
475
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
(5)
(5) ,
(5),
(5),
(5),
(5),
(5),
(5),
(5),
(5),
(5),
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
11
9
9
9
16
9
16
45
45
51
45
51
38
52
63
38
52
63
Emulated
LVDS (8), (9)
16
16
16
48
16
48
85
85
89
85
89
82
129
157
82
129
157
XCVRs
2
2
2
4
2
4
4
4
8
4
8
4
8
8
4
8
8
Notes to Table 6–9:
(1) User I/O pins are used as inputs or outputs; clock input pins are used as inputs only; clock output pins are used as outputs only.
(2) For differential pad placement guidelines, refer to “Pad Placement” on page 6–23.
(3) The I/O pin count includes all GPIOs, dedicated clock pins, and dual-purpose configuration pins. Transceivers pins and dedicated configuration pins are not
included in the pin count.
(4) Includes one configuration I/O bank and two dedicated clock input I/O banks for HSSI input reference clock.
(5) Includes one configuration I/O bank and four dedicated clock input I/O banks for HSSI input reference clock.
(6) Single-ended clock input support is available for dedicated clock input I/O banks 3B (pins CLKIO20 and CLKIO22) and 8B (pins CLKIO17 and CLKIO19).
(7) The true LVDS count includes all LVDS I/O pairs, differential clock input and clock output pins in right I/O banks 5 and 6.
(8) The emulated LVDS count includes all LVDS I/O pairs, differential clock input and clock output pins in column I/O banks 3, 4, 7, and 8.
(9) LVDS input and output buffers are sharing the same p and n pins. One LVDS I/O channel can only be either transmitter or receiver at a time.
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
This section provides information about the high-speed I/O standards and the HSSI
input reference clock supported in Cyclone IV devices.
High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) Input Reference Clock Support
Cyclone IV GX devices support the same I/O features for GPIOs with additional new
features where current I/O banks 3A and 8A consist of dual-purpose clock input pins
(CLKIN) and 3B and 8B consist of dedicated CLKIN that can be used to support the highspeed transceiver input reference clock (REFCLK) features on top of the
general-purpose clock input function.
The EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices contain two pairs of
CLKIN/REFCLK pins located in I/O banks 3A and 8A. I/O banks 3B and 8B are not
available in EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices. The EP4CGX50,
EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices have a total of four pairs of
CLKIN/REFCLK pins located in I/O banks 3A, 3B, 8A, and 8B. I/O banks 3B and 8B can
also support single-ended clock inputs. For more information about the CLKIN/REFCLK
pin location, refer to Figure 6–10 on page 6–18 and Figure 6–11 on page 6–19.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
6–29
The CLKIN/REFCLK pins are powered by dedicated VCC_CLKIN3A, VCC_CLKIN3B,
VCC_CLKIN8A, and VCC_CLKIN8B power supplies separately in their respective I/O banks
to avoid the different power level requirements in the same bank for GPIO.
Table 6–10. Cyclone IV GX HSSI REFCLK I/O Standard Support Using GPIO CLKIN Pins (1),
(2)
VCC_CLKIN Level
I/O Standard
HSSI Protocol
LVDS
All
LVPECL
All
Differential
AC (Need
off chip
resistor to
restore
VCM)
All
1.2V, 1.5V,
3.3V PCML
Coupling
All
All
HCSL
PCIe
Differential
DC
Termination
I/O Pin Type
Input
Output
Column
I/O
Row
I/O
Supported I/O
Banks
Off chip
2.5V
Not
supported
Yes
No
3A, 3B, 8A, 8B
Off chip
2.5V
Not
supported
Yes
No
3A, 3B, 8A, 8B
Off chip
2.5V
Not
supported
Yes
No
3A, 3B, 8A, 8B
Off chip
2.5V
Not
supported
Yes
No
3A, 3B, 8A, 8B
Off chip
2.5V
Not
supported
Yes
No
3A, 3B, 8A, 8B
Off chip
2.5V
Not
supported
Yes
No
3A, 3B, 8A, 8B
Notes to Table 6–10:
(1) The EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices have two pairs of dedicated clock input pins in banks 3A and 8A for HSSI input reference
clock. I/O banks 3B and 8B are not available in EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 devices.
(2) The EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150 devices have four pairs of dedicated clock input pins in banks 3A, 3B, 8A, and 8B
for HSSI input or single-ended clock input.
f For more information about the AC-coupled termination scheme for the HSSI
reference clock, refer to the Cyclone IV Transceivers Architecture chapter.
LVDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices
The LVDS I/O standard is a high-speed, low-voltage swing, low power, and GPIO
interface standard. Cyclone IV devices meet the ANSI/TIA/EIA-644 standard with
the following exceptions:
■
The maximum differential output voltage (VOD) is increased to 600 mV. The
maximum VOD for ANSI specification is 450 mV.
■
The input voltage range is reduced to the range of 1.0 V to 1.6 V, 0.5 V to 1.85 V, or
0 V to 1.8 V based on different frequency ranges. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-644
specification supports an input voltage range of 0 V to 2.4 V.
f For LVDS I/O standard electrical specifications in Cyclone IV devices, refer to the
Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–30
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
Designing with LVDS
Cyclone IV I/O banks support the LVDS I/O standard. The Cyclone IV GX right I/O
banks support true LVDS transmitters while the Cyclone IV E left and right I/O banks
support true LVDS transmitters. On the top and bottom I/O banks, the emulated
LVDS transmitters are supported using two single-ended output buffers with external
resistors. One of the single-ended output buffers is programmed to have opposite
polarity. The LVDS receiver requires an external 100-Ω termination resistor between
the two signals at the input buffer.
Figure 6–12 shows a point-to-point LVDS interface using Cyclone IV devices true
LVDS output and input buffers.
Figure 6–12. Cyclone IV Devices LVDS Interface with True Output Buffer on the Right I/O Banks
Cyclone IV Device
Transmitting Device
txout +
txout +
rxin +
100 Ω
50 Ω
txout -
rxin -
100 Ω
50 Ω
txout -
Input Buffer
Receiving Device
rxin +
50 Ω
Cyclone IV
Device
Family Logic
Array
50 Ω
rxin -
Output Buffer
Figure 6–13 shows a point-to-point LVDS interface with Cyclone IV devices LVDS
using two single-ended output buffers and external resistors.
Figure 6–13. LVDS Interface with External Resistor Network on the Top and Bottom I/O Banks
(1)
Cyclone IV Device
Emulated
LVDS Transmitter
LVDS Receiver
Resistor Network
RS
50 Ω
RP
100 Ω
50 Ω
RS
Note to Figure 6–13:
(1) RS = 120 Ω. RP = 170 Ω.
BLVDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices
The BLVDS I/O standard is a high-speed differential data transmission technology
that extends the benefits of standard point-to-point LVDS to multipoint configuration
that supports bidirectional half-duplex communication. BLVDS differs from standard
LVDS by providing a higher drive to achieve similar signal swings at the receiver
while loaded with two terminations at both ends of the bus.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
6–31
Figure 6–14 shows a typical BLVDS topology with multiple transmitter and receiver
pairs.
Figure 6–14. BLVDS Topology with Cyclone IV Devices Transmitters and Receivers
VCC
VCC
100 kΩ
100 kΩ
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
RT
RT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
100 k Ω
50 Ω
RS
50 Ω
Input
Data
OE
RS
50 Ω
OE
Output
Data
GND
Output
Data
Input
Data
Cyclone IV Device Family
Input
Data
Cyclone IV Device Family
Output
Data
Cyclone IV Device Family
RS
RS
OE
RS
GND
RS
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
100 kΩ
The BLVDS I/O standard is supported on the top, bottom, and right I/O banks of
Cyclone IV devices. The BLVDS transmitter uses two single-ended output buffers
with the second output buffer programmed as inverted, while the BLVDS receiver
uses a true LVDS input buffer. The transmitter and receiver share the same pins. An
output-enabled (OE) signal is required to tristate the output buffers when the LVDS
input buffer receives a signal.
f For more information, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
Designing with BLVDS
The BLVDS bidirectional communication requires termination at both ends of the bus
in BLVDS. The termination resistor (RT) must match the bus differential impedance,
which in turn depends on the loading on the bus. Increasing the load decreases the
bus differential impedance. With termination at both ends of the bus, termination is
not required between the two signals at the input buffer. A single series resistor (RS) is
required at the output buffer to match the output buffer impedance to the
transmission line impedance. However, this series resistor affects the voltage swing at
the input buffer. The maximum data rate achievable depends on many factors.
1
Altera recommends that you perform simulation using the IBIS model while
considering factors such as bus loading, termination values, and output and input
buffer location on the bus to ensure that the required performance is achieved.
f For more information about BLVDS interface support in Altera devices, refer to
AN 522: Implementing Bus LVDS Interface in Supported Altera Device Families.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–32
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
RSDS, Mini-LVDS, and PPDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices
The RSDS, mini-LVDS, and PPDS I/O standards are used in chip-to-chip applications
between the timing controller and the column drivers on the display panels such as
LCD monitor panels and LCD televisions. Cyclone IV devices meet the National
Semiconductor Corporation RSDS Interface Specification, Texas Instruments
mini-LVDS Interface Specification, and National Semiconductor Corporation PPDS
Interface Specification to support RSDS, mini-LVDS and PPDS output standards,
respectively.
f For Cyclone IV devices RSDS, mini-LVDS, and PPDS output electrical specifications,
refer to the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
f For more information about the RSDS I/O standard, refer to the RSDS specification
from the National Semiconductor website (www.national.com).
Designing with RSDS, Mini-LVDS, and PPDS
Cyclone IV I/O banks support RSDS, mini-LVDS, and PPDS output standards. The
right I/O banks support true RSDS, mini-LVDS, and PPDS transmitters. On the top
and bottom I/O banks, RSDS, mini-LVDS, and PPDS transmitters are supported using
two single-ended output buffers with external resistors. The two single-ended output
buffers are programmed to have opposite polarity.
Figure 6–15 shows an RSDS, mini-LVDS, or PPDS interface with a true output buffer.
Figure 6–15. Cyclone IV Devices RSDS, Mini-LVDS, or PPDS Interface with True Output Buffer on
the Right I/O Banks
Cyclone IV Device
True RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
or PPDS Transmitter
RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
or PPDS Receiver
50 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Figure 6–16 shows an RSDS, mini-LVDS, or PPDS interface with two single-ended
output buffers and external resistors.
Figure 6–16. RSDS, Mini-LVDS, or PPDS Interface with External Resistor Network on the Top and
Bottom I/O Banks (1)
Cyclone IV Device
Emulated RSDS,
Mini-LVDS, or PPDS
Transmitter
Resistor Network
RSDS, Mini-LVDS,
or PPDS Receiver
RS
50 Ω
100 Ω
RP
50 Ω
RS
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
6–33
Figure 6–16. RSDS, Mini-LVDS, or PPDS Interface with External Resistor Network on the Top and
Bottom I/O Banks (1)
Note to Figure 6–16:
(1) RS and RP values are pending characterization.
A resistor network is required to attenuate the output voltage swing to meet RSDS,
mini-LVDS, and PPDS specifications when using emulated transmitters. You can
modify the resistor network values to reduce power or improve the noise margin.
The resistor values chosen must satisfy Equation 6–1.
Equation 6–1. Resistor Network
RP
R S × ------2------------------= 50 Ω
RP
R S + ------2
1
Altera recommends that you perform simulations using Cyclone IV devices IBIS
models to validate that custom resistor values meet the RSDS, mini-LVDS, or PPDS
requirements.
It is possible to use a single external resistor instead of using three resistors in the
resistor network for an RSDS interface, as shown in Figure 6–17. The external
single-resistor solution reduces the external resistor count while still achieving the
required signaling level for RSDS. However, the performance of the single-resistor
solution is lower than the performance with the three-resistor network.
Figure 6–17 shows the RSDS interface with a single resistor network on the top and
bottom I/O banks.
Figure 6–17. RSDS Interface with Single Resistor Network on the Top and Bottom I/O Banks
(1)
Cyclone IV Device
Emulated
RSDS Transmitter
Single Resistor Network
RSDS Receiver
50 Ω
100 Ω
RP
50 Ω
Note to Figure 6–17:
(1) RP value is pending characterization.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–34
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Standards Support
LVPECL I/O Support in Cyclone IV Devices
The LVPECL I/O standard is a differential interface standard that requires a 2.5-V
VCCIO. This standard is used in applications involving video graphics,
telecommunications, data communications, and clock distribution. Cyclone IV
devices support the LVPECL input standard at the dedicated clock input pins only.
The LVPECL receiver requires an external 100-Ω termination resistor between the two
signals at the input buffer.
f For the LVPECL I/O standard electrical specification, refer to the Cyclone IV Device
Datasheet chapter.
AC coupling is required when the LVPECL common mode voltage of the output
buffer is higher than the Cyclone IV devices LVPECL input common mode voltage.
Figure 6–18 shows the AC-coupled termination scheme. The 50-Ω resistors used at the
receiver are external to the device. DC-coupled LVPECL is supported if the LVPECL
output common mode voltage is in the Cyclone IV devices LVPECL input buffer
specification (refer to Figure 6–19).
Figure 6–18. LVPECL AC-Coupled Termination (1)
LVPECL
Transmitter
Cyclone IV Device
LVPECL Receiver
0.1 µF
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
VICM
50 Ω
50 Ω
0.1 µF
Note to Figure 6–18:
(1) The LVPECL AC-coupled termination is applicable only when an Altera FPGA transmitter is used.
Figure 6–19 shows the LVPECL DC-coupled termination.
Figure 6–19. LVPECL DC-Coupled Termination (1)
Cyclone IV Device
LVPECL Receiver
LVPECL Transmitter
50 Ω
100 Ω
50 Ω
Note to Figure 6–19:
(1) The LVPECL DC-coupled termination is applicable only when an Altera FPGA transmitter is used.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
True Differential Output Buffer Feature
6–35
Differential SSTL I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices
The differential SSTL I/O standard is a memory-bus standard used for applications
such as high-speed DDR SDRAM interfaces. Cyclone IV devices support differential
SSTL-2 and SSTL-18 I/O standards. The differential SSTL output standard is only
supported at PLL#_CLKOUT pins using two single-ended SSTL output buffers
(PLL#_CLKOUTp and PLL#_CLKOUTn), with the second output programmed to have
opposite polarity. The differential SSTL input standard is supported on the GCLK
pins only, treating differential inputs as two single-ended SSTL and only decoding
one of them.
The differential SSTL I/O standard requires two differential inputs with an external
reference voltage (VREF) as well as an external termination voltage (VTT) of 0.5 × VCCIO
to which termination resistors are connected.
f For differential SSTL electrical specifications, refer to “Differential I/O Standard
Termination” on page 6–15 and the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
1
Figure 6–8 on page 6–15 shows the differential SSTL Class I and Class II interface.
Differential HSTL I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices
The differential HSTL I/O standard is used for the applications designed to operate in
0 V to 1.2 V, 0 V to 1.5 V, or 0 V to 1.8 V HSTL logic switching range. Cyclone IV
devices support differential HSTL-18, HSTL-15, and HSTL-12 I/O standards. The
differential HSTL input standard is available on GCLK pins only, treating the
differential inputs as two single-ended HSTL and only decoding one of them. The
differential HSTL output standard is only supported at the PLL#_CLKOUT pins using
two single-ended HSTL output buffers (PLL#_CLKOUTp and PLL#_CLKOUTn), with the
second output programmed to have opposite polarity.
The differential HSTL I/O standard requires two differential inputs with an external
reference voltage (VREF), as well as an external termination voltage (VTT) of 0.5 × VCCIO
to which termination resistors are connected.
f For differential HSTL signaling characteristics, refer to “Differential I/O Standard
Termination” on page 6–15 and the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
1
Figure 6–7 on page 6–15 shows the differential HSTL Class I and Class II interface.
True Differential Output Buffer Feature
Cyclone IV devices true differential transmitters offer programmable
pre-emphasis—you can turn it on or off. The default setting is on.
Programmable Pre-Emphasis
The programmable pre-emphasis boosts the high frequencies of the output signal to
compensate the frequency-dependant attenuation of the transmission line to
maximize the data eye opening at the far-end receiver. Without pre-emphasis, the
output current is limited by the VOD specification and the output impedance of the
transmitter. At high frequency, the slew rate may not be fast enough to reach full VOD
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–36
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
High-Speed I/O Timing
before the next edge; this may lead to pattern-dependent jitter. With pre-emphasis, the
output current is momentarily boosted during switching to increase the output slew
rate. The overshoot produced by this extra switching current is different from the
overshoot caused by signal reflection. This overshoot happens only during switching,
and does not produce ringing.
The Quartus II software allows two settings for programmable pre-emphasis
control—0 and 1, in which 0 is pre-emphasis off and 1 is pre-emphasis on. The default
setting is 1. The amount of pre-emphasis needed depends on the amplification of the
high-frequency components along the transmission line. You must adjust the setting
to suit your designs, as pre-emphasis decreases the amplitude of the low-frequency
component of the output signal.
Figure 6–20 shows the differential output signal with pre-emphasis.
Figure 6–20. The Output Signal with Pre-Emphasis
Overshoot
Positive channel (p)
VOD
Negative channel (n)
Undershoot
High-Speed I/O Timing
This section discusses the timing budget, waveforms, and specifications for
source-synchronous signaling in Cyclone IV devices. Timing for source-synchronous
signaling is based on skew between the data and clock signals.
High-speed differential data transmission requires timing parameters provided by IC
vendors and requires you to consider the board skew, cable skew, and clock jitter. This
section provides information about high-speed I/O standards timing parameters in
Cyclone IV devices.
Table 6–11 defines the parameters of the timing diagram shown in Figure 6–21.
Table 6–11. High-Speed I/O Timing Definitions (Part 1 of 2)
Parameter
Symbol
Description
TCCS
The timing difference between the fastest and slowest output
edges, including tCO variation and clock skew. The clock is
included in the TCCS measurement.
Sampling window
SW
The period of time during which the data must be valid in order for
you to capture it correctly. The setup and hold times determine
the ideal strobe position in the sampling window.
TSW = TSU + Thd + PLL jitter.
Time unit interval
TUI
The TUI is the data-bit timing budget allowed for skew,
propagation delays, and data sampling window.
Transmitter channel-to-channel skew
Receiver input skew margin
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
(1)
RSKM
RSKM is defined by the total margin left after accounting for the
sampling window and TCCS. The RSKM equation is:
( TUI – SW – TCCS
RSKM = -------------------------------------------------2
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Design Guidelines
6–37
Table 6–11. High-Speed I/O Timing Definitions (Part 2 of 2)
Parameter
Symbol
Description
Input jitter tolerance (peak-to-peak)
—
Allowed input jitter on the input clock to the PLL that is tolerable
while maintaining PLL lock.
Output jitter (peak-to-peak)
—
Peak-to-peak output jitter from the PLL.
Note to Table 6–11:
(1) The TCCS specification applies to the entire bank of differential I/O as long as the SERDES logic is placed in the logic array block (LAB) adjacent
to the output pins.
Figure 6–21. High-Speed I/O Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal Clock
TCCS
Receiver
Input Data
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
Sampling Window (SW)
Figure 6–22 shows the Cyclone IV devices high-speed I/O timing budget.
Figure 6–22. Cyclone IV Devices High-Speed I/O Timing Budget
(1)
Internal Clock Period
0.5 × TCCS
RSKM
SW
RSKM
0.5 × TCCS
Note to Figure 6–22:
(1) The equation for the high-speed I/O timing budget is:
eriod = 0.5 × TCCS + RSKM + SW + RSKM + 0.5 × TCCS
f For more information, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
Design Guidelines
This section provides guidelines for designing with Cyclone IV devices.
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, you must observe some
restrictions on the placement of single-ended I/O pins in relation to differential pads.
1
May 2013
For guidelines on placing single-ended pads with respect to differential pads in
Cyclone IV devices, refer to “Pad Placement and DC Guidelines” on page 6–23.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–38
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Software Overview
Board Design Considerations
This section explains how to achieve the optimal performance from a Cyclone IV I/O
interface and ensure first-time success in implementing a functional design with
optimal signal quality. You must consider the critical issues of controlled impedance
of traces and connectors, differential routing, and termination techniques to get the
best performance from Cyclone IV devices.
Use the following general guidelines to improve signal quality:
■
Base board designs on controlled differential impedance. Calculate and compare
all parameters, such as trace width, trace thickness, and the distance between two
differential traces.
■
Maintain equal distance between traces in differential I/O standard pairs as much
as possible. Routing the pair of traces close to each other maximizes the
common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
■
Longer traces have more inductance and capacitance. These traces must be as
short as possible to limit signal integrity issues.
■
Place termination resistors as close to receiver input pins as possible.
■
Use surface mount components.
■
Avoid 90° corners on board traces.
■
Use high-performance connectors.
■
Design backplane and card traces so that trace impedance matches the impedance
of the connector and termination.
■
Keep an equal number of vias for both signal traces.
■
Create equal trace lengths to avoid skew between signals. Unequal trace lengths
result in misplaced crossing points and decrease system margins as the TCCS
value increases.
■
Limit vias because they cause discontinuities.
■
Keep switching transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) signals away from differential
signals to avoid possible noise coupling.
■
Do not route TTL clock signals to areas under or above the differential signals.
■
Analyze system-level signals.
f For PCB layout guidelines, refer to AN 224: High-Speed Board Layout Guidelines and
AN 315: Guidelines for Designing High-Speed FPGA PCBs.
Software Overview
Cyclone IV devices high-speed I/O system interfaces are created in core logic by a
Quartus II software megafunction because they do not have a dedicated circuit for the
SERDES. Cyclone IV devices use the I/O registers and LE registers to improve the
timing performance and support the SERDES. The Quartus II software allows you to
design your high-speed interfaces using ALTLVDS megafunction. This megafunction
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
6–39
implements either a high-speed deserializer receiver or a high-speed serializer
transmitter. There is a list of parameters in the ALTLVDS megafunction that you can
set to customize your SERDES based on your design requirements. The megafunction
is optimized to use Cyclone IV devices resources to create high-speed I/O interfaces
in the most effective manner.
1
When you use Cyclone IV devices with the ALTLVDS megafunction, the interface
always sends the MSB of your parallel data first.
f For more details about designing your high-speed I/O systems interfaces using the
ALTLVDS megafunction, refer to the ALTLVDS Megafunction User Guide and the
Quartus II Handbook.
Document Revision History
Table 6–12 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 6–12. Document Revision History
Date
Version
May 2013
2.6
February 2013
2.5
October 2012
November 2011
December 2010
July 2010
May 2013
(Part 1 of 2)
Altera Corporation
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
Changes
■
UpdatedTable 6–2 by adding Note (9).
■
Updated Table 6–4 and Table 6–8 to add new device options and packages.
Updated Table 6–4 and Table 6–8 to add new device options and packages.
■
Updated “I/O Banks” and “High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) Input Reference Clock
Support ” sections.
■
Updated Table 6–3 and Table 6–5.
■
Updated Figure 6–10.
■
Updated “Differential SSTL I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices” and
“Differential HSTL I/O Standard Support in Cyclone IV Devices” sections.
■
Updated Table 6–1, Table 6–8, and Table 6–9.
■
Updated Figure 6–1.
■
Updated for the Quartus II software version 10.1 release.
■
Added Cyclone IV E new device package information.
■
Added “Clock Pins Functionality” section.
■
Updated Table 6–4 and Table 6–8.
■
Minor text edits.
■
Updated “Cyclone IV I/O Elements”, “Programmable Pull-Up Resistor”, “I/O Banks”,
“High-Speed I/O Interface”, and “Designing with BLVDS” sections.
■
Updated Table 6–6 and Table 6–7.
■
Updated Figure 6–19.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
6–40
Chapter 6: I/O Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
Table 6–12. Document Revision History
Date
(Part 2 of 2)
Version
February 2010
November 2009
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
2.0
1.0
Changes
■
Added Cyclone IV E devices information for the Quartus II software version 9.1 SP1
release.
■
Updated Table 6–2, Table 6–3, and Table 6–10.
■
Updated “I/O Banks” section.
■
Added Figure 6–9.
■
Updated Figure 6–10 and Figure 6–11.
■
Added Table 6–4, Table 6–6, and Table 6–8.
Initial release.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
7. External Memory Interfaces in
Cyclone IV Devices
May 2013
CYIV-51007-2.5
CYIV-51007-2.5
This chapter describes the memory interface pin support and the external memory
interface features of Cyclone® IV devices.
In addition to an abundant supply of on-chip memory, Cyclone IV devices can easily
interface with a broad range of external memory devices, including DDR2 SDRAM,
DDR SDRAM, and QDR II SRAM. External memory devices are an important system
component of a wide range of image processing, storage, communications, and
general embedded applications.
1
Altera recommends that you construct all DDR2 or DDR SDRAM external memory
interfaces using the Altera® ALTMEMPHY megafunction. You can implement the
controller function using the Altera DDR2 or DDR SDRAM memory controllers,
third-party controllers, or a custom controller for unique application needs.
Cyclone IV devices support QDR II interfaces electrically, but Altera does not supply
controller or physical layer (PHY) megafunctions for QDR II interfaces.
This chapter includes the following sections:
■
“Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support” on page 7–2
■
“Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features” on page 7–12
f For more information about supported maximum clock rate, device and pin planning,
IP implementation, and device termination, refer to the External Memory Interface
Handbook.
© 2013 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Feedback Subscribe
7–2
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
Figure 7–1 shows the block diagram of a typical external memory interface data path
in Cyclone IV devices.
Figure 7–1. Cyclone IV Devices External Memory Data Path
(1)
DQS/CQ/CQn
OE
IOE
Register
OE
IOE
Register
DQ
IOE
Register
IOE
Register
VCC
IOE
Register
DataA
IOE
Register
LE
Register
GND
IOE
Register
DataB
IOE
Register
LE
Register
LE
Register
System Clock
PLL
-90° Shifted Clock
Capture Clock
Note to Figure 7–1:
(1) All clocks shown here are global clocks.
f For more information about implementing complete external memory interfaces, refer
to the External Memory Interface Handbook.
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
Cyclone IV devices use data (DQ), data strobe (DQS), clock, command, and address
pins to interface with external memory. Some memory interfaces use the data mask
(DM) or byte write select (BWS#) pins to enable data masking. This section describes
how Cyclone IV devices support all these different pins.
f For more information about pin utilization, refer to Volume 2: Device, Pin, and Board
Layout Guidelines of the External Memory Interface Handbook.
Data and Data Clock/Strobe Pins
Cyclone IV data pins for external memory interfaces are called D for write data, Q for
read data, or DQ for shared read and write data pins. The read-data strobes or read
clocks are called DQS pins. Cyclone IV devices support both bidirectional data strobes
and unidirectional read clocks. Depending on the external memory standard, the DQ
and DQS are bidirectional signals (in DDR2 and DDR SDRAM) or unidirectional
signals (in QDR II SRAM). Connect the bidirectional DQ data signals to the same
Cyclone IV devices DQ pins. For unidirectional D or Q signals, connect the read-data
signals to a group of DQ pins and the write-data signals to a different group of DQ pins.
1
In QDR II SRAM, the Q read-data group must be placed at a different V REF bank
location from the D write-data group, command, or address pins.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
7–3
In Cyclone IV devices, DQS is used only during write mode in DDR2 and
DDR SDRAM interfaces. Cyclone IV devices ignore DQS as the read-data strobe
because the PHY internally generates the read capture clock for read mode. However,
you must connect the DQS pin to the DQS signal in DDR2 and DDR SDRAM interfaces,
or to the CQ signal in QDR II SRAM interfaces.
1
Cyclone IV devices do not support differential strobe pins, which is an optional
feature in the DDR2 SDRAM device.
f When you use the Altera Memory Controller MegaCore ® function, the PHY is
instantiated for you. For more information about the memory interface data path,
refer to the External Memory Interface Handbook.
1
ALTMEMPHY is a self-calibrating megafunction, enhanced to simplify the
implementation of the read-data path in different memory interfaces. The
auto-calibration feature of ALTMEMPHY provides ease-of-use by optimizing clock
phases and frequencies across process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations.
You can save on the global clock resources in Cyclone IV devices through the
ALTMEMPHY megafunction because you are not required to route the DQS signals on
the global clock buses (because DQS is ignored for read capture). Resynchronization
issues do not arise because no transfer occurs from the memory domain clock (DQS) to
the system domain for capturing data DQ.
All I/O banks in Cyclone IV devices can support DQ and DQS signals with DQ-bus
modes of ×8, ×9, ×16, ×18, ×32, and ×36 except Cyclone IV GX devices that do not
support left I/O bank interface. DDR2 and DDR SDRAM interfaces use ×8 mode DQS
group regardless of the interface width. For a wider interface, you can use multiple ×8
DQ groups to achieve the desired width requirement.
In the ×9, ×18, and ×36 modes, a pair of complementary DQS pins (CQ and CQ#)
drives up to 9, 18, or 36 DQ pins, respectively, in the group, to support one, two, or four
parity bits and the corresponding data bits. The ×9, ×18, and ×36 modes support the
QDR II memory interface. CQ# is the inverted read-clock signal that is connected to
the complementary data strobe (DQS or CQ#) pin. You can use any unused DQ pins as
regular user I/O pins if they are not used as memory interface signals.
f For more information about unsupported DQS and DQ groups of the Cyclone IV
transceivers that run at ≥2.97 Gbps data rate, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Family Pin
Connection Guidelines.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–4
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
Table 7–1 lists the number of DQS or DQ groups supported on each side of the
Cyclone IV GX device.
Table 7–1. Cyclone IV GX Device DQS and DQ Bus Mode Support for Each Side of the Device
Number
×8
Groups
Number
×9
Groups
Number
×16
Groups
Number
×18
Groups
Number
×32
Groups
Number
×36
Groups
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
1
0
0
0
—
—
Right
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Right
4
2
2
2
1
1
Top
4
2
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
2
2
2
1
1
Right
4
2
2
2
1
1
Top
4
2
2
2
1
1
EP4CGX50
Bottom
4
2
2
2
1
1
EP4CGX75
Right
4
2
2
2
1
1
Top
4
2
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
2
2
2
1
1
Right
4
2
2
2
1
1
Top
4
2
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
2
2
2
1
1
Right
4
2
2
2
1
1
Top
4
2
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
2
2
2
1
1
Right
6
3
2
2
1
1
Top
6
3
3
3
1
1
Bottom
6
3
3
3
1
1
Device
Package
Side
Right
148-pin QFN
Top
(1)
Bottom
EP4CGX15
(2)
Right
169-pin FBGA
Top
(1)
Bottom
(2)
Right
169-pin FBGA
Top
(1)
Bottom
EP4CGX22
EP4CGX30
324-pin FBGA
484-pin FBGA
(3)
484-pin FBGA
672-pin FBGA
484-pin FBGA
EP4CGX110
EP4CGX150
672-pin FBGA
896-pin FBGA
(2)
Notes to Table 7–1:
(1) Some of the DQ pins can be used as RUP and RDN pins. You cannot use these groups if you are using these pins as RUP and RDN pins for
OCT calibration.
(2) Some of the DQ pins can be used as RUP pins while the DM pins can be used as RDN pins. You cannot use these groups if you are using the
RUP and RDN pins for OCT calibration.
(3) Only available for EP4CGX30 device.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
7–5
Table 7–2 lists the number of DQS or DQ groups supported on each side of the
Cyclone IV E device.
Table 7–2. Cyclone IV E Device DQS and DQ Bus Mode Support for Each Side of the Device (Part 1 of 3)
Device
Number
×8
Groups
Number
×9
Groups
Number
×16
Groups
Number
×18
Groups
Number
×32
Groups
Number
×36
Groups
Left
0
0
0
0
—
—
Right
0
0
0
0
—
—
Bottom (1), (3)
1
0
0
0
—
—
Top (1), (4)
1
0
0
0
—
—
(1)
Package
144-pin EQFP
Side
Left
EP4CE6
EP4CE10
256-pin UBGA
256-pin FBGA
144-pin EQFP
164-pin MBGA
256-pin MBGA
EP4CE15
256-pin UBGA
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right (2)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left (1)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right (2)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left
0
0
0
0
—
—
Right
0
0
0
0
—
—
Bottom (1), (3)
1
0
0
0
—
—
Top (1),
1
0
0
0
—
—
Left
0
0
0
0
—
—
Right
0
0
0
0
—
—
Bottom (1), (3)
1
0
0
0
—
—
Top (1), (4)
1
0
0
0
—
—
Left
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom (1), (3)
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top (1),
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left (1)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right (2)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left
256-pin FBGA
484-pin FBGA
May 2013
Altera Corporation
(4)
(4)
(1)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right (2)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left
4
4
2
2
1
1
Right
4
4
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
4
2
2
1
1
Top
4
4
2
2
1
1
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–6
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
Table 7–2. Cyclone IV E Device DQS and DQ Bus Mode Support for Each Side of the Device (Part 2 of 3)
Device
Number
×8
Groups
Number
×9
Groups
Number
×16
Groups
Number
×18
Groups
Number
×32
Groups
Number
×36
Groups
Left
0
0
0
0
—
—
Right
0
0
0
0
—
—
Bottom (1), (3)
1
0
0
0
—
—
Top (1), (4)
1
0
0
0
—
—
(1)
Package
144-pin EQFP
Side
Left
EP4CE22
256-pin UBGA
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right (2)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left
256-pin FBGA
(1)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Right (2)
1
1
0
0
—
—
Bottom
2
2
1
1
—
—
Top
2
2
1
1
—
—
Left
(1)
2
2
1
1
0
0
Right (2)
2
2
1
1
0
0
Bottom
2
2
1
1
0
0
Top
2
2
1
1
0
0
Left
4
4
2
2
1
1
Right
4
4
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
4
2
2
1
1
EP4CE30
Top
4
4
2
2
1
1
EP4CE115
Left
4
4
2
2
1
1
Right
4
4
2
2
1
1
Bottom
6
6
2
2
1
1
Top
6
6
2
2
1
1
Left
2
2
1
1
0
0
Right
2
2
1
1
0
0
Bottom
2
2
1
1
0
0
Top
2
2
1
1
0
0
EP4CE30
324-pin FBGA
484-pin FBGA
780-pin FBGA
EP4CE40
324-pin FBGA
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
7–7
Table 7–2. Cyclone IV E Device DQS and DQ Bus Mode Support for Each Side of the Device (Part 3 of 3)
Device
484-pin UBGA
EP4CE40
EP4CE55
Number
×8
Groups
Number
×9
Groups
Number
×16
Groups
Number
×18
Groups
Number
×32
Groups
Number
×36
Groups
Left
4
4
2
2
1
1
Right
4
4
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
4
2
2
1
1
Top
4
4
2
2
1
1
Left
4
4
2
2
1
1
Right
4
4
2
2
1
1
Bottom
4
4
2
2
1
1
Top
4
4
2
2
1
1
Left
4
4
2
2
1
1
Right
4
4
2
2
1
1
Bottom
6
6
2
2
1
1
Top
6
6
2
2
1
1
Package
484-pin FBGA
EP4CE75
780-pin FBGA
Side
Notes to Table 7–2:
(1) Some of the DQ pins can be used as RUP and RDN pins. You cannot use these groups if you are using these pins as RUP and RDN pins for
OCT calibration.
(2) Some of the DQ pins can be used as RUP pins while the DM pins can be used as RDN pins. You cannot use these groups if you are using the
RUP and RDN pins for OCT calibration.
(3) There is no DM pin support for these groups.
(4) PLLCLKOUT3n and PLLCLKOUT3p pins are shared with the DQ or DM pins to gain ×8 DQ group. You cannot use these groups if you are using
PLLCLKOUT3n and PLLCLKOUT3p.
f For more information about device package outline, refer to the Device Packaging
Specifications webpage.
DQS pins are listed in the Cyclone IV pin tables as DQSXY, in which X indicates the DQS
grouping number and Y indicates whether the group is located on the top (T), bottom
(B), or right (R) side of the device. Similarly, the corresponding DQ pins are marked as
DQXY, in which the X denotes the DQ grouping number and Y denotes whether the
group is located on the top (T), bottom (B), or right (R) side of the device. For example,
DQS2T indicates a DQS pin belonging to group 2, located on the top side of the device.
Similarly, the DQ pins belonging to that group is shown as DQ2T.
1
Each DQ group is associated with its corresponding DQS pins, as defined in the Cyclone
IV pin tables. For example:
■
For DDR2 or DDR SDRAM, ×8 DQ group DQ3B[7..0] pins are associated with
the DQS3B pin (same 3B group index)
■
For QDR II SRAM, ×9 Q read-data group DQ3T[8..0] pins are associated with
DQS0T/CQ0T and DQS1T/CQ0T# pins (same 0T group index)
The Quartus® II software issues an error message if a DQ group is not placed properly
with its associated DQS.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–8
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
Figure 7–2 shows the location and numbering of the DQS, DQ, or CQ# pins in the
Cyclone IV GX I/O banks.
I/O Bank 8B
I/O Bank 8A
DQS0T/CQ1T
DQS2T/CQ3T
DQS4T/CQ5T
DQS5T/CQ5T#
I/O Bank 8
(1)
I/O Bank 7
Transceiver Block (QL1)
I/O Bank 9
DQS3T/CQ3T#
DQS1T/CQ1T#
Figure 7–2. DQS, CQ, or CQ# Pins in Cyclone IV GX I/O Banks
I/O Bank 6
DQS4R/CQ5R
DQS2R/CQ3R
DQS0R/CQ1R
Transceiver Block (QL0)
Cyclone IV GX Device
I/O Bank 5
DQS1R/CQ1R#
DQS3R/CQ3R#
DQS5R/CQ5R#
DQS0B/CQ1B
DQS2B/CQ3B
I/O Bank 4
DQS4B/CQ5B
I/O Bank 3A
DQS5B/CQ5B#
DQS3B/CQ3B#
I/O Bank 3
DQS1B/CQ1B#
I/O Bank 3B
Note to Figure 7–2:
(1) The DQS, CQ, or CQ# pin locations in this diagram apply to all packages in Cyclone IV GX devices except devices in
148-pin QFP, 169-pin FBGA, and 324-pin FBGA.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
7–9
Figure 7–3 shows the location and numbering of the DQS, DQ, or CQ# pins in I/O banks
of the Cyclone IV GX device in the 324-pin FBGA package only.
DQS0T/CQ0T
DQS2T/CQ1T
I/O Bank 7
I/O Bank 6
I/O Bank 8A
DQS2R/CQ1R
I/O Bank 5
I/O Bank 8
Transceiver Block (QL1)
I/O Bank 9
DQS3T/CQ1T#
DQS1T/CQ0T#
Figure 7–3. DQS, CQ, or CQ# Pins for Cyclone IV GX Devices in the 324-Pin FBGA Package
DQS1R/CQ0R#
DQS0R/CQ0R
Cyclone IV GX Device
324-pin FBGA Package
DQS0B/CQ0B
I/O Bank 4
DQS2B/CQ1B
I/O Bank 3A
DQS3B/CQ1B#
DQS1B/CQ0B#
I/O Bank 3
DQS3R/CQ1R#
Figure 7–4 shows the location and numbering of the DQS, DQ, or CQ# pins in I/O
banks of the Cyclone IV GX device in the 148-pin QFP and 169-pin FBGA packages.
I/O Bank 6
I/O Bank 7
DQS0R/CQ0R
DQS1R/CQ0R#
I/O Bank 3A
I/O Bank 4
DQS0B/CQ0B
DQS1B/CQ0B#
Altera Corporation
I/O Bank 8A
Cyclone IV GX Device
148-pin QFP and 169-pin FBGA Packages
I/O Bank 3
May 2013
I/O Bank 8
I/O Bank 5
Transceiver Block (QL1)
I/O Bank 9
DQS0T/CQ0T
DQS1T/CQ0T#
Figure 7–4. DQS, CQ, or CQ# Pins for Cyclone IV GX Devices in the 148-Pin QFP and 169-Pin FBGA
Packages
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–10
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
Figure 7–5 shows the location and numbering of the DQS, DQ, or CQ# pins in the
Cyclone IV E device I/O banks.
I/O Bank 8
DQS0T/CQ1T
DQS2T/CQ3T
I/O Bank 7
I/O Bank 1
DQS0L/CQ1L
(1)
I/O Bank 6
DQS2L/CQ3L
DQS4T/CQ5T
DQS5T/CQ5T#
DQS3T/CQ3T#
DQS1T/CQ1T#
Figure 7–5. DQS, CQ, or CQ# Pins in Cyclone IV E I/O Banks
DQS2R/CQ3R
DQS0R/CQ1R
Cyclone IV E Device
I/O Bank 2
DQS3R/CQ3R#
DQS0B/CQ1B
DQS2B/CQ3B
I/O Bank 4
DQS5B/CQ5B#
DQS3B/CQ3B#
DQS1B/CQ1B#
I/O Bank 3
DQS4B/CQ5B
DQS3L/CQ3L#
DQS1R/CQ1R#
I/O Bank 5
DQS1L/CQ1L#
Note to Figure 7–5:
(1) The DQS, CQ, or CQ# pin locations in this diagram apply to all packages in Cyclone IV E devices except devices in
144-pin EQFP.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Pin Support
7–11
Figure 7–6 shows the location and numbering of the DQS, DQ, or CQ# pins in I/O
banks of the Cyclone IV E device in the 144-pin EQFP and 164-pin MBGA packages.
DQS0T/CQ1T
DQS1T/CQ1T#
Figure 7–6. DQS, CQ, or CQ# Pins for Cyclone IV E Devices in the 144-Pin EQFP and 164-pin
MBGA Packages
I/O Bank 8
I/O Bank 1
I/O Bank 6
DQS0L/CQ1L
I/O Bank 7
DQS0R/CQ1R
Cyclone IV E Devices
in 144-pin EQFP and
164-pin MBGA
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 5
DQS1B/CQ1B#
I/O Bank 3
DQS1R/CQ1R#
I/O Bank 4
DQS0B/CQ1B
DQS1L/CQ1L#
In Cyclone IV devices, the ×9 mode uses the same DQ and DQS pins as the ×8 mode, and
one additional DQ pin that serves as a regular I/O pin in the ×8 mode. The ×18 mode
uses the same DQ and DQS pins as ×16 mode, with two additional DQ pins that serve as
regular I/O pins in the ×16 mode. Similarly, the ×36 mode uses the same DQ and DQS
pins as the ×32 mode, with four additional DQ pins that serve as regular I/O pins in
the ×32 mode. When not used as DQ or DQS pins, the memory interface pins are
available as regular I/O pins.
Optional Parity, DM, and Error Correction Coding Pins
Cyclone IV devices support parity in ×9, ×18, and ×36 modes. One parity bit is
available per eight bits of data pins. You can use any of the DQ pins for parity in
Cyclone IV devices because the parity pins are treated and configured similarly to DQ
pins.
DM pins are only required when writing to DDR2 and DDR SDRAM devices.
QDR II SRAM devices use the BWS# signal to select the byte to be written into
memory. A low signal on the DM or BWS# pin indicates the write is valid. Driving the
DM or BWS# pin high causes the memory to mask the DQ signals. Each group of DQS
and DQ signals has one DM pin. Similar to the DQ output signals, the DM signals are
clocked by the -90° shifted clock.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–12
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features
In Cyclone IV devices, the DM pins are preassigned in the device pinouts. The
Quartus II Fitter treats the DQ and DM pins in a DQS group equally for placement
purposes. The preassigned DQ and DM pins are the preferred pins to use.
Some DDR2 SDRAM and DDR SDRAM devices support error correction coding
(ECC), a method of detecting and automatically correcting errors in data
transmission. In 72-bit DDR2 or DDR SDRAM, there are eight ECC pins and 64 data
pins. Connect the DDR2 and DDR SDRAM ECC pins to a separate DQS or DQ group in
Cyclone IV devices. The memory controller needs additional logic to encode and
decode the ECC data.
Address and Control/Command Pins
The address signals and the control or command signals are typically sent at a single
data rate. You can use any of the user I/O pins on all I/O banks of Cyclone IV devices
to generate the address and control or command signals to the memory device.
1
Cyclone IV devices do not support QDR II SRAM in the burst length of two.
Memory Clock Pins
In DDR2 and DDR SDRAM memory interfaces, the memory clock signals (CK and
CK#) are used to capture the address signals and the control or command signals.
Similarly, QDR II SRAM devices use the write clocks (K and K#) to capture the
address and command signals. The CK/CK# and K/K# signals are generated to
resemble the write-data strobe using the DDIO registers in Cyclone IV devices.
1
CK/CK# pins must be placed on differential I/O pins (DIFFIO in Pin Planner) and in
the same bank or on the same side as the data pins. You can use either side of the
device for wraparound interfaces. As seen in the Pin Planner Pad View, CK0 cannot be
located in the same row and column pad group as any of the interfacing DQ pins.
f For more information about memory clock pin placement, refer to Volume 2: Device,
Pin, and Board Layout Guidelines of the External Memory Interface Handbook.
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features
This section discusses Cyclone IV memory interfaces, including DDR input registers,
DDR output registers, OCT, and phase-lock loops (PLLs).
DDR Input Registers
The DDR input registers are implemented with three internal logic element (LE)
registers for every DQ pin. These LE registers are located in the logic array block (LAB)
adjacent to the DDR input pin.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features
7–13
Figure 7–7 illustrates Cyclone IV DDR input registers.
Figure 7–7. Cyclone IV DDR Input Registers
DDR Input Registers in Cyclone IV Device
DQ
LE
Register
dataout_h
Input Register A I
neg_reg_out
dataout_l
LE
Register
LE
Register
Register C I
Input Register B I
Capture Clock
PLL
These DDR input registers are implemented in the core of devices. The DDR data is
first fed to two registers, input register AI and input register BI.
■
Input register AI captures the DDR data present during the rising edge of the clock
■
Input register BI captures the DDR data present during the falling edge of the clock
■
Register CI aligns the data before it is synchronized with the system clock
The data from the DDR input register is fed to two registers, sync_reg_h and
sync_reg_l, then the data is typically transferred to a FIFO block to synchronize the
two data streams to the rising edge of the system clock. Because the read-capture
clock is generated by the PLL, the read-data strobe signal (DQS or CQ) is not used
during read operation in Cyclone IV devices; hence, postamble is not a concern in this
case.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–14
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features
DDR Output Registers
A dedicated write DDIO block is implemented in the DDR output and output enable
paths.
Figure 7–8 shows how a Cyclone IV dedicated write DDIO block is implemented in
the I/O element (IOE) registers.
Figure 7–8. Cyclone IV Dedicated Write DDIO
DDR Output Enable Registers
Output Enable
IOE
Register
Output Enable
Register AOE
data1
data0
IOE
Register
Output Enable
Register BOE
DDR Output Registers
datain_l
IOE
Register
data0
Output Register AO
DQ or DQS
data1
datain_h
IOE
Register
-90° Shifted Clock
®
Output Register BO
The two DDR output registers are located in the I/O element (IOE) block. Two serial
data streams routed through datain_l and datain_h, are fed into two registers,
output register Ao and output register Bo, respectively, on the same clock edge.
The output from output register Ao is captured on the falling edge of the clock, while
the output from output register Bo is captured on the rising edge of the clock. The
registered outputs are multiplexed by the common clock to drive the DDR output pin
at twice the data rate.
The DDR output enable path has a similar structure to the DDR output path in the
IOE block. The second output enable register provides the write preamble for the DQS
strobe in DDR external memory interfaces. This active-low output enable register
extends the high-impedance state of the pin by half a clock cycle to provide the
external memory’s DQS write preamble time specification.
f For more information about Cyclone IV IOE registers, refer to the Cyclone IV Device
I/O Features chapter.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Cyclone IV Devices Memory Interfaces Features
7–15
Figure 7–9 illustrates how the second output enable register extends the DQS
high-impedance state by half a clock cycle during a write operation.
Figure 7–9. Extending the OE Disable by Half a Clock Cycle for a Write Transaction
(1)
System clock
(outclock for DQS)
OE for DQS
(from logic array)
DQS
Write Clock
(outclock for DQ,
-90o phase shifted
from System Clock)
datain_h
(from logic array)
datain_I
(from logic array)
90 o
Delay
by Half
a Clock
Cycle
Preamble
Postamble
D0
D2
D1
D3
OE for DQ
(from logic array)
DQ
D0
D1
D2
D3
Note to Figure 7–9:
(1) The waveform reflects the software simulation result. The OE signal is an active low on the device. However, the
Quartus II software implements the signal as an active high and automatically adds an inverter before the AOE register
D input.
OCT with Calibration
Cyclone IV devices support calibrated on-chip series termination (RS OCT) in both
vertical and horizontal I/O banks. To use the calibrated OCT, you must use the RUP
and RDN pins for each RS OCT control block (one for each side). You can use each
OCT calibration block to calibrate one type of termination with the same VCCIO for
that given side.
f For more information about the Cyclone IV devices OCT calibration block, refer to the
Cyclone IV Device I/O Features chapter.
PLL
When interfacing with external memory, the PLL is used to generate the memory
system clock, the write clock, the capture clock and the logic-core clock. The system
clock generates the DQS write signals, commands, and addresses. The write-clock is
shifted by -90° from the system clock and generates the DQ signals during writes. You
can use the PLL reconfiguration feature to calibrate the read-capture phase shift to
balance the setup and hold margins.
1
The PLL is instantiated in the ALTMEMPHY megafunction. All outputs of the PLL are
used when the ALTMEMPHY megafunction is instantiated to interface with external
memories. PLL reconfiguration is used in the ALTMEMPHY megafunction to
calibrate and track the read-capture phase to maintain the optimum margin.
f For more information about usage of PLL outputs by the ALTMEMPHY
megafunction, refer to the External Memory Interface Handbook.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
7–16
Chapter 7: External Memory Interfaces in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
f For more information about Cyclone IV PLL, refer to the Clock Networks and PLLs in
Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
Document Revision History
Table 7–3 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 7–3. Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
May 2013
2.5
Updated Table 7–2 to add new device options and packages.
February 2013
2.4
Updated Table 7–2 to add new device options and packages.
October 2012
2.3
Updated Table 7–1 and Table 7–2.
December 2010
November 2010
February 2010
November 2009
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.0
■
Updated for the Quartus II software version 10.1 release.
■
Added Cyclone IV E new device package information.
■
Updated Table 7–2.
■
Minor text edits.
Updated “Data and Data Clock/Strobe Pins” section.
■
Added Cyclone IV E devices information for the Quartus II software version 9.1 SP1
release.
■
Updated Table 7–1.
■
Added Table 7–2.
■
Added Figure 7–5 and Figure 7–6.
Initial release.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Section III. System Integration
This section includes the following chapters:
■
Chapter 8, Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 9, SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 10, JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
■
Chapter 11, Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
Revision History
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information on when
each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates section, which appears
in the complete handbook.
April 2014
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
III–2
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Section III: System Integration
April 2014
Altera Corporation
8. Configuration and Remote System
Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
May 2013
CYIV-51008-1.7
CYIV-51008-1.7
This chapter describes the configuration and remote system upgrades in Cyclone® IV
devices. Cyclone IV (Cyclone IV GX and Cyclone IV E) devices use SRAM cells to
store configuration data. You must download the configuration data to Cyclone IV
devices each time the device powers up because SRAM memory is volatile.
Cyclone IV devices are configured using one of the following configuration schemes:
■
Active serial (AS)
■
Active parallel (AP) (supported in Cyclone IV E devices only)
■
Passive serial (PS)
■
Fast passive parallel (FPP) (not supported in EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and
EP4CGX30 [except for the F484 package] devices)
■
JTAG
Cyclone IV devices offer the following configuration features:
■
Configuration data decompression (“Configuration Data Decompression” on
page 8–2)
■
Remote system upgrade (“Remote System Upgrade” on page 8–69)
System designers face difficult challenges, such as shortened design cycles, evolving
standards, and system deployments in remote locations. Cyclone IV devices help
overcome these challenges with inherent re-programmability and dedicated circuitry
to perform remote system upgrades. Remote system upgrades help deliver feature
enhancements and bug fixes without costly recalls, reduced time-to-market, and
extended product life.
Configuration
This section describes Cyclone IV device configuration and includes the following
topics:
■
“Configuration Features” on page 8–2
■
“Configuration Requirement” on page 8–3
■
“Configuration Process” on page 8–6
■
“Configuration Scheme” on page 8–8
■
“AS Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)” on page 8–10
■
“AP Configuration (Supported Flash Memories)” on page 8–21
■
“PS Configuration” on page 8–32
© 2013 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Feedback Subscribe
8–2
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
■
“FPP Configuration” on page 8–40
■
“JTAG Configuration” on page 8–45
■
“Device Configuration Pins” on page 8–62
Configuration Features
Table 8–1 lists the configuration methods you can use in each configuration scheme.
Table 8–1. Configuration Features in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration Scheme
Configuration Method
v
—
v
External Host with Flash Memory
v
v (3)
Download Cable
v
—
External Host with Flash Memory
—
v (3)
External Host with Flash Memory
—
—
Download Cable
—
—
Serial Configuration Device
AP
Supported Flash Memory
FPP
JTAG based configuration
Remote System Upgrade
v
AS
PS
Decompression
(2)
(1)
Notes to Table 8–1:
(1) Remote update mode is supported when you use the Remote System Upgrade feature. You can enable or disable remote update mode with an
option setting in the Quartus® II software.
(2) For more information about the supported device families for the Micron commodity parallel flash, refer to Table 8–10 on page 8–22.
(3) Remote update mode is supported externally using the Parallel Flash Loader (PFL) with the Quartus II software.
Configuration Data Decompression
Cyclone IV devices support configuration data decompression, which saves
configuration memory space and time. This feature allows you to store compressed
configuration data in configuration devices or other memory and send the
compressed bitstream to Cyclone IV devices. During configuration, Cyclone IV
devices decompress the bitstream in real time and program the SRAM cells.
1
Compression may reduce the configuration bitstream size by 35 to 55%.
When you enable compression, the Quartus II software generates configuration files
with compressed configuration data. This compressed file reduces the storage
requirements in the configuration device or flash memory and decreases the time
required to send the bitstream to the Cyclone IV device. The time required by a
Cyclone IV device to decompress a configuration file is less than the time required to
send the configuration data to the device. There are two methods for enabling
compression for the Cyclone IV device bitstreams in the Quartus II software:
■
Before design compilation (through the Compiler Settings menu)
■
After design compilation (through the Convert Programming Files dialog box)
To enable compression in the compiler settings of the project in the Quartus II
software, perform the following steps:
1. On the Assignments menu, click Device. The Settings dialog box appears.
2. Click Device and Pin Options. The Device and Pin Options dialog box appears.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–3
3. Click the Configuration tab.
4. Turn on Generate compressed bitstreams.
5. Click OK.
6. In the Settings dialog box, click OK.
You can enable compression when creating programming files from the Convert
Programming Files dialog box. To enable compression, perform the following steps:
1. On the File menu, click Convert Programming Files.
2. Under Output programming file, select your desired file type from the
Programming file type list.
3. If you select Programmer Object File (.pof), you must specify the configuration
device in the Configuration device list.
4. Under Input files to convert, select SOF Data.
5. Click Add File to browse to the Cyclone IV device SRAM object files (.sof).
6. In the Convert Programming Files dialog box, select the .pof you added to SOF
Data and click Properties.
7. In the SOF File Properties dialog box, turn on the Compression option.
When multiple Cyclone IV devices are cascaded, you can selectively enable the
compression feature for each device in the chain. Figure 8–1 shows a chain of two
Cyclone IV devices. The first device has compression enabled and receives
compressed bitstream from the configuration device. The second device has the
compression feature disabled and receives uncompressed data. You can generate
programming files for this setup in the Convert Programming Files dialog box.
Figure 8–1. Compressed and Uncompressed Configuration Data in the Same Configuration File
Serial Data
Serial Configuration
Device
Compressed
Uncompressed
VCC
Decompression
Controller
10 kΩ
Cyclone IV
Device
nCE
Cyclone IV
Device
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
Not Connected (N.C.)
GND
Configuration Requirement
This section describes Cyclone IV device configuration requirement and includes the
following topics:
May 2013
■
“Power-On Reset (POR) Circuit” on page 8–4
■
“Configuration File Size” on page 8–4
■
“Power Up” on page 8–6
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–4
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Power-On Reset (POR) Circuit
The POR circuit keeps the device in reset state until the power supply voltage levels
have stabilized during device power up. After device power up, the device does not
release nSTATUS until VCCINT, VCCA, and VCCIO (for I/O banks in which the
configuration and JTAG pins reside) are above the POR trip point of the device.
VCCINT and V CCA are monitored for brown-out conditions after device power up.
1
VCCA is the analog power to the phase-locked loop (PLL).
In some applications, it is necessary for a device to wake up very quickly to begin
operation. Cyclone IV devices offer the fast POR time option to support fast wake-up
time applications. The fast POR time option has stricter power-up requirements when
compared with the standard POR time option. You can select either the fast option or
the standard POR option with the MSEL pin settings.
1
If your system exceeds the fast or standard POR time, you must hold nCONFIG low
until all the power supplies are stable.
f For more information about the POR specifications, refer to the Cyclone IV Device
Datasheet.
f For more information about the wake-up time and POR circuit, refer to the Power
Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
Configuration File Size
Table 8–2 lists the approximate uncompressed configuration file sizes for Cyclone IV
devices. To calculate the amount of storage space required for multiple device
configurations, add the file size of each device together.
Table 8–2. Uncompressed Raw Binary File (.rbf) Sizes for Cyclone IV Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Device
Cyclone IV E
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Data Size (bits)
EP4CE6
2,944,088
EP4CE10
2,944,088
EP4CE15
4,086,848
EP4CE22
5,748,552
EP4CE30
9,534,304
EP4CE40
9,534,304
EP4CE55
14,889,560
EP4CE75
19,965,752
EP4CE115
28,571,696
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–5
Table 8–2. Uncompressed Raw Binary File (.rbf) Sizes for Cyclone IV Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Device
Data Size (bits)
EP4CGX15
3,805,568
EP4CGX22
7,600,040
EP4CGX30
Cyclone IV GX
7,600,040
22,010,888 (1)
EP4CGX50
22,010,888
EP4CGX75
22,010,888
EP4CGX110
39,425,016
EP4CGX150
39,425,016
Note to Table 8–2:
(1) Only for the F484 package.
Use the data in Table 8–2 to estimate the file size before design compilation. Different
configuration file formats, such as Hexadecimal (.hex) or Tabular Text File (.ttf)
formats, have different file sizes. However, for any specific version of the Quartus II
software, any design targeted for the same device has the same uncompressed
configuration file size. If you use compression, the file size varies after each
compilation, because the compression ratio depends on the design.
f For more information about setting device configuration options or creating
configuration files, refer to the Software Settings section in volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements
Cyclone IV devices are manufactured using the TSMC 60-nm low-k dielectric process.
Although Cyclone IV devices use TSMC 2.5-V transistor technology in the I/O
buffers, the devices are compatible and able to interface with 2.5, 3.0, and 3.3-V
configuration voltage standards by following specific requirements.
All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. When using a serial
configuration device in an AS configuration scheme, you must connect a 25-Ω series
resistor for the DATA[0] pin. When cascading the Cyclone IV device family in a
multi-device configuration for AS, AP, FPP, and PS configuration schemes, you must
connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices for the DATA and
DCLK pins. When using the JTAG configuration scheme in a multi-device
configuration, connect 25-Ω resistors on both ends of the TDO-TDI path if the TDO
output driver is a non-Cyclone IV device.
The output resistance of the repeater buffers and the TDO path for all cases must fit the
maximum overshoot equation shown in Equation 8–1.
Equation 8–1.
(1)
0.8Z O ≤ R E ≤ 1.8Z O
Note to Equation 8–1:
(1) ZO is the transmission line impedance and RE is the equivalent resistance of the output buffer.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–6
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Configuration Process
This section describes Cyclone IV device configuration requirements and includes the
following topics:
■
“Power Up” on page 8–6
■
“Reset” on page 8–6
■
“Configuration” on page 8–6
■
“Configuration Error” on page 8–7
■
“Initialization” on page 8–7
■
“User Mode” on page 8–7
f For more information about the Altera® FPGA configuration cycle state machine, refer
to the Configuring Altera FPGAs chapter in volume 1 of the Configuration Handbook.
Power Up
If the device is powered up from the power-down state, VCCINT, VCCA, and V CCIO (for
the I/O banks in which the configuration and JTAG pins reside) must be powered up
to the appropriate level for the device to exit from POR.
Reset
After power up, Cyclone IV devices go through POR. POR delay depends on the MSEL
pin settings, which correspond to your configuration scheme. During POR, the device
resets, holds nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low, and tri-states all user I/O pins (for PS and
FPP configuration schemes only).
1
To tri-state the configuration bus for AS and AP configuration schemes, you must tie
nCE high and nCONFIG low.
The user I/O pins and dual-purpose I/O pins have weak pull-up resistors, which are
always enabled (after POR) before and during configuration. When the device exits
POR, all user I/O pins continue to tri-state. While nCONFIG is low, the device is in
reset. When nCONFIG goes high, the device exits reset and releases the open-drain
nSTATUS pin, which is then pulled high by an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor. After
nSTATUS is released, the device is ready to receive configuration data and the
configuration stage starts.
f For more information about the value of the weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins
that are on before and during configuration, refer to the Cyclone IV Device Datasheet
chapter.
Configuration
Configuration data is latched into the Cyclone IV device at each DCLK cycle. However,
the width of the data bus and the configuration time taken for each scheme are
different. After the device receives all the configuration data, the device releases the
open-drain CONF_DONE pin, which is pulled high by an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor.
A low-to-high transition on the CONF_DONE pin indicates that the configuration is
complete and initialization of the device can begin.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–7
You can begin reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG pin low. The nCONFIG pin must
be low for at least 500 ns. When nCONFIG is pulled low, the Cyclone IV device is reset.
The Cyclone IV device also pulls nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low and all I/O pins are
tri-stated. When nCONFIG returns to a logic-high level and nSTATUS is released by the
Cyclone IV device, reconfiguration begins.
Configuration Error
If an error occurs during configuration, Cyclone IV devices assert the nSTATUS signal
low, indicating a data frame error and the CONF_DONE signal stays low. If the
Auto-restart configuration after error option (available in the Quartus II software in
the General tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box) is turned on, the
Cyclone IV device releases nSTATUS after a reset time-out period (a maximum of
230 μs), and retries configuration. If this option is turned off, the system must monitor
nSTATUS for errors and then pulse nCONFIG low for at least 500 ns to restart
configuration.
Initialization
In Cyclone IV devices, the initialization clock source is either the internal oscillator or
the optional CLKUSR pin. By default, the internal oscillator is the clock source for
initialization. If you use the internal oscillator, the device provides itself with enough
clock cycles for proper initialization. When using the internal oscillator, you do not
have to send additional clock cycles from an external source to the CLKUSR pin during
the initialization stage. Additionally, you can use the CLKUSR pin as a user I/O pin.
You also have the flexibility to synchronize initialization of multiple devices or to
delay initialization with the CLKUSR option. The CLKUSR pin allows you to control
when your device enters user mode for an indefinite amount of time. You can turn on
the Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option in the Quartus II software
in the General tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box. When you turn on the
Enable user supplied start-up clock option (CLKUSR) option, the CLKUSR pin is the
initialization clock source. Supplying a clock on the CLKUSR pin does not affect the
configuration process. After the configuration data is accepted and CONF_DONE goes
high, Cyclone IV devices require 3,192 clock cycles to initialize properly and enter
user mode.
1
If you use the optional CLKUSR pin and the nCONFIG pin is pulled low to restart
configuration during device initialization, ensure that the CLKUSR pin continues to
toggle when nSTATUS is low (a maximum of 230 μs).
User Mode
An optional INIT_DONE pin is available, which signals the end of initialization and the
start of user mode with a low-to-high transition. The Enable INIT_DONE Output
option is available in the Quartus II software in the General tab of the Device and Pin
Options dialog box. If you use the INIT_DONE pin, it is high due to an external 10-kΩ
pull-up resistor when nCONFIG is low and during the beginning of configuration. After
the option bit to enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the device (during the first
frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin goes low. When initialization is
complete, the INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high. This low-to-high transition
signals that the device has entered user mode. In user mode, the user I/O pins
function as assigned in your design and no longer have weak pull-up resistors.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–8
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Configuration Scheme
A configuration scheme with different configuration voltage standards is selected by
driving the MSEL pins either high or low, as shown in Table 8–3, Table 8–4, and
Table 8–5.
1
Hardwire the MSEL pins to VCCA or GND without pull-up or pull-down resistors to
avoid problems detecting an incorrect configuration scheme. Do not drive the MSEL
pins with a microprocessor or another device.
Table 8–3. Configuration Schemes for Cyclone IV GX Devices (EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and EP4CGX30 [except for F484
Package])
Configuration Scheme
AS
PS
JTAG-based configuration
(2)
MSEL2
MSEL1
MSEL0
POR Delay
Configuration Voltage Standard (V)
1
0
1
Fast
3.3
0
1
1
Fast
3.0, 2.5
0
0
1
Standard
3.3
0
1
0
Standard
3.0, 2.5
1
0
0
Fast
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
1
1
0
Fast
1.8, 1.5
0
0
0
Standard
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
(3)
(3)
(3)
—
—
(1)
Notes to Table 8–3:
(1) Configuration voltage standard applied to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the configuration pins reside.
(2) JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other configuration schemes, which means the MSEL pin settings are ignored.
(3) Do not leave the MSEL pins floating. Connect them to VCCA or GND. These pins support the non-JTAG configuration scheme used in production.
Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins to GND if your device is only using JTAG configuration.
Table 8–4. Configuration Schemes for Cyclone IV GX Devices (EP4CGX30 [only for F484 package], EP4CGX50,
EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150) (Part 1 of 2)
Configuration Scheme
AS
PS
FPP
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
MSEL3 MSEL2
MSEL1 MSEL0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
POR Delay
Configuration Voltage Standard (V)
Fast
3.3
1
Fast
3.0, 2.5
1
Standard
3.3
1
0
Standard
3.0, 2.5
1
0
0
Fast
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
1
1
1
0
Fast
1.8, 1.5
1
0
0
0
Standard
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
0
0
0
0
Standard
1.8, 1.5
0
0
1
1
Fast
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
0
1
0
0
Fast
1.8, 1.5
0
0
0
1
Standard
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
0
0
1
0
Standard
1.8, 1.5
May 2013
(1)
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–9
Table 8–4. Configuration Schemes for Cyclone IV GX Devices (EP4CGX30 [only for F484 package], EP4CGX50,
EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and EP4CGX150) (Part 2 of 2)
Configuration Scheme
JTAG-based configuration
(2)
MSEL3 MSEL2
(3)
(3)
MSEL1 MSEL0
(3)
(3)
POR Delay
Configuration Voltage Standard (V)
—
(1)
—
Notes to Table 8–4:
(1) Configuration voltage standard applied to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the configuration pins reside.
(2) JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other configuration schemes, which means the MSEL pin settings are ignored.
(3) Do not leave the MSEL pins floating. Connect them to VCCA or GND. These pins support the non-JTAG configuration scheme used in production.
Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins to GND if your device is only using JTAG configuration.
1
Smaller Cyclone IV E devices or package options (E144 and F256 packages) do not
have the MSEL[3]pin. The AS Fast POR configuration scheme at 3.0- or 2.5-V
configuration voltage standard and the AP configuration scheme are not supported in
Cyclone IV E devices without the MSEL[3]pin. To configure these devices with other
supported configuration schemes, select MSEL[2..0]pins according to the MSEL
settings in Table 8–5.
Table 8–5. Configuration Schemes for Cyclone IV E Devices
Configuration Scheme
AS
AP
PS
FPP
JTAG-based configuration
(2)
MSEL3
MSEL2
MSEL1
MSEL0
POR Delay
Configuration Voltage Standard (V)
1
1
0
1
Fast
3.3
0
1
0
0
Fast
3.0, 2.5
0
0
1
0
Standard
3.3
0
0
1
1
Standard
3.0, 2.5
0
1
0
1
Fast
3.3
0
1
1
0
Fast
1.8
0
1
1
1
Standard
3.3
1
0
1
1
Standard
3.0, 2.5
1
0
0
0
Standard
1.8
1
1
0
0
Fast
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
0
0
0
0
Standard
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
1
1
1
0
Fast
3.3, 3.0, 2.5
1
1
1
1
Fast
1.8, 1.5
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
—
—
(1)
Notes to Table 8–5:
(1) Configuration voltage standard applied to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the configuration pins reside.
(2) JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other configuration schemes, which means the MSEL pin settings are ignored.
(3) Do not leave the MSEL pins floating. Connect them to VCCA or GND. These pins support the non-JTAG configuration scheme used in production.
Altera recommends connecting the MSEL pins to GND if your device is only using JTAG configuration.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–10
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
1
For Cyclone IV E devices, the Quartus II software prohibits you from using the LVDS
I/O standard in I/O Bank 1 when the configuration device I/O voltage is not 2.5 V. If
you need to assign LVDS I/O standard in I/O Bank 1, navigate to
Assignments>Device>Settings>Device and Pin Option>Configuration to change
the Configuration Device I/O voltage to 2.5 V or Auto.
AS Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
In the AS configuration scheme, Cyclone IV devices are configured with a serial
configuration device. These configuration devices are low-cost devices with
non-volatile memories that feature a simple four-pin interface and a small form factor.
These features make serial configuration devices the ideal low-cost configuration
solution.
f For more information about serial configuration devices, refer to the Serial
Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16, EPCS64, and EPCS128) Datasheet in
volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook.
Serial configuration devices provide a serial interface to access the configuration data.
During device configuration, Cyclone IV devices read the configuration data through
the serial interface, decompress the data if necessary, and configure their SRAM cells.
This scheme is referred to as the AS configuration scheme because the device controls
the configuration interface.
1
If you want to gain control of the EPCS pins, hold the nCONFIG pin low and pull the
nCE pin high to cause the device to reset and tri-state the AS configuration pins.
Single-Device AS Configuration
The four-pin interface of serial configuration devices consists of the following pins:
■
Serial clock input (DCLK)
■
Serial data output (DATA)
■
Active-low chip select (nCS)
■
AS data input (ASDI)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–11
This four-pin interface connects to Cyclone IV device pins, as shown in Figure 8–2.
Figure 8–2. Single-Device AS Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone IV Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
25 Ω (5)
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
(2)
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCSO (6)
ASDO (6)
CLKUSR
(7)
MSEL[ ]
(4)
Notes to Figure 8–2:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Cyclone IV devices use the ASDO-to-ASDI path to control the configuration device.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly
to VCCA or GND.
(5) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(6) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions
as the DATA[1] pin in AP and FPP modes.
(7) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for
DCLK.
1
To tri-state the configuration bus for AS configuration schemes, you must tie nCE high
and nCONFIG low.
1
The 25-Ω resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device for DATA[0] works
to minimize the driver impedance mismatch with the board trace and reduce the
overshoot seen at the Cyclone IV device DATA[0] input pin.
In the single-device AS configuration, the maximum board loading and board trace
length between the supported serial configuration device and the Cyclone IV device
must follow the recommendations in Table 8–7 on page 8–18.
The DCLK generated by the Cyclone IV device controls the entire configuration cycle
and provides timing for the serial interface. Cyclone IV devices use an internal
oscillator or an external clock source to generate the DCLK. For Cyclone IV E devices,
you can use a 40-MHz internal oscillator to generate the DCLK and for Cyclone IV GX
devices you can use a slow clock (20 MHz maximum) or a fast clock
(40 MHz maximum) from the internal oscillator or an external clock from CLKUSR to
generate the DCLK. There are some variations in the internal oscillator frequency
because of the process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) conditions in Cyclone IV
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–12
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
devices. The internal oscillator is designed to ensure that its maximum frequency is
guaranteed to meet EPCS device specifications. Cyclone IV devices offer the option to
select CLKUSR as the external clock source for DCLK. You can change the clock source
option in the Quartus II software in the Configuration tab of the Device and Pin
Options dialog box.
1
EPCS1 does not support Cyclone IV devices because of its insufficient memory
capacity.
Table 8–6. AS DCLK Output Frequency
Oscillator
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
40 MHz
20
30
40
MHz
In configuration mode, the Cyclone IV device enables the serial configuration device
by driving the nCSO output pin low, which connects to the nCS pin of the configuration
device. The Cyclone IV device uses the DCLK and DATA[1]pins to send operation
commands and read address signals to the serial configuration device. The
configuration device provides data on its DATA pin, which connects to the DATA[0]
input of the Cyclone IV device.
All AS configuration pins (DATA[0], DCLK, nCSO, and DATA[1]) have weak internal pullup resistors that are always active. After configuration, these pins are set as input tristated and are driven high by the weak internal pull-up resistors.
The timing parameters for AS mode are not listed here because the tCF2CD, tCF2ST0, tCFG,
tSTATUS, tCF2ST1, and tCD2UM timing parameters are identical to the timing parameters
for PS mode shown in Table 8–12 on page 8–36.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–13
Multi-Device AS Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone IV devices with a single serial configuration
device. When the first device captures all its configuration data from the bitstream, it
drives the nCEO pin low, enabling the next device in the chain. If the last device in the
chain is a Cyclone IV device, you can leave the nCEO pin of the last device
unconnected or use it as a user I/O pin after configuration. The nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
CONF_DONE, DCLK, and DATA[0] pins of each device in the chain are connected together
(Figure 8–3).
Figure 8–3. Multi-Device AS Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
Cyclone IV Master Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
(10)
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
Cyclone IV Slave Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
25 Ω (5)
(10)
50 Ω (5), (7)
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCSO (8)
ASDO (8)
CLKUSR
(9)
MSEL[ ]
(4)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[ ]
(4)
50 Ω (7)
Buffers (6)
Notes to Figure 8–3:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) You can leave the nCEO pin unconnected or use it as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device of the Cyclone IV device
in AS mode and the slave devices in PS mode. To connect the MSEL pins for the master device in AS mode and slave devices in PS mode, refer to
Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices of the Cyclone IV device for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain
a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration
and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 8–5.
(7) The 50-Ω series resistors are optional if the 3.3-V configuration voltage standard is applied. For optimal signal integrity, connect these 50-Ω series
resistors if the 2.5- or 3.0-V configuration voltage standard is applied.
(8) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as DATA[1] pin in AP and
FPP modes.
(9) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for DCLK.
(10) For multi-devices AS configuration using Cyclone IV E with 1,0 V core voltage, the maximum board trace-length from the serial configuration
device to the junction-split on both DCLK and Data0 line is 3.5 inches.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–14
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
The first Cyclone IV device in the chain is the configuration master and it controls the
configuration of the entire chain. Other Altera devices that support PS configuration
can also be part of the chain as configuration slaves.
1
In the multi-device AS configuration, the board trace length between the serial
configuration device and the master device of the Cyclone IV device must follow the
recommendations in Table 8–7 on page 8–18.
The nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins on all target devices are connected together with
external pull-up resistors, as shown in Figure 8–3 on page 8–13. These pins are
open-drain bidirectional pins on the devices. When the first device asserts nCEO (after
receiving all its configuration data), it releases its CONF_DONE pin. However, the
subsequent devices in the chain keep this shared CONF_DONE line low until they receive
their configuration data. When all target devices in the chain receive their
configuration data and release CONF_DONE, the pull-up resistor drives a high level on
CONF_DONE line and all devices simultaneously enter initialization mode.
1
Although you can cascade Cyclone IV devices, serial configuration devices cannot be
cascaded or chained together.
If the configuration bitstream size exceeds the capacity of a serial configuration
device, you must select a larger configuration device, enable the compression feature,
or both. When configuring multiple devices, the size of the bitstream is the sum of the
individual device’s configuration bitstream.
Configuring Multiple Cyclone IV Devices with the Same Design
Certain designs require that you configure multiple Cyclone IV devices with the same
design through a configuration bitstream, or a .sof. You can do this through the
following methods:
1
■
Multiple .sof
■
Single .sof
For both methods, the serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded or chained
together.
Multiple SRAM Object Files
Two copies of the .sof are stored in the serial configuration device. Use the first copy
to configure the master device of the Cyclone IV device and the second copy to
configure all remaining slave devices concurrently. All slave devices must have the
same density and package. The setup is similar to Figure 8–3 on page 8–13.
To configure four identical Cyclone IV devices with the same .sof, you must set up the
chain similar to the example shown in Figure 8–4. The first device is the master device
and its MSEL pins must be set to select AS configuration. The other three slave devices
are set up for concurrent configuration and their MSEL pins must be set to select PS
configuration. The nCEO pin from the master device drives the nCE input pins on all
three slave devices, as well as the DATA and DCLK pins that connect in parallel to all
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–15
four devices. During the first configuration cycle, the master device reads its
configuration data from the serial configuration device while holding nCEO high. After
completing its configuration cycle, the master device drives nCE low and sends the
second copy of the configuration data to all three slave devices, configuring them
simultaneously.
The advantage of the setup in Figure 8–4 is that you can have a different .sof for the
master device. However, all the slave devices must be configured with the same .sof.
You can either compress or uncompress the .sof in this configuration method.
1
May 2013
You can still use this method if the master and slave devices use the same .sof.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–16
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Figure 8–4. Multi-Device AS Configuration in Which Devices Receive the Same Data with Multiple .sof
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone IV Slave Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[ ]
Serial Configuration
Device
Cyclone IV Slave Device
Cyclone IV Master Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
(10)
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
25 Ω (5)
DATA
(4)
DATA[0]
(10)
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
50 Ω (5), (7)
DCLK
nCSO (8)
ASDO (8)
CLKUSR
(9)
MSEL[ ]
(4)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[ ]
(4)
Cyclone IV Slave Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
50 Ω (7)
Buffers (6)
DATA[0]
DCLK
MSEL[ ]
(4)
Notes to Figure 8–4:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device in AS mode and the slave
devices in PS mode. To connect the MSEL pins for the master device in AS mode and the slave devices in PS mode, refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8,
Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage
of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O
Requirements” on page 8–5.
(7) The 50-Ω series resistors are optional if the 3.3-V configuration voltage standard is applied. For optimal signal integrity, connect these 50-Ω series
resistors if the 2.5- or 3.0-V configuration voltage standard is applied.
(8) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as DATA[1] pin in AP and
FPP modes.
(9) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for DCLK.
(10) For multi-devices AS configuration using Cyclone IV E with 1,0 V core voltage, the maximum board trace-length from the serial configuration
device to the junction-split on both DCLK and Data0 line is 3.5 inches.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–17
Single SRAM Object File
The second method configures both the master device and slave devices with the
same .sof. The serial configuration device stores one copy of the .sof. You must set up
one or more slave devices in the chain. All the slave devices must be set up in the
same way (Figure 8–5).
Figure 8–5. Multi-Device AS Configuration in Which Devices Receive the Same Data with a Single .sof
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(9)
nCEO
N.C. (2)
GND
25 Ω (4)
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
Cyclone IV Slave Device 2
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
N.C. (2)
GND
nCEO
N.C. (2)
GND
DATA[0]
DATA
(9)
CLKUSR
(9)
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
Cyclone IV Slave Device 1
Cyclone IV Master Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
50 Ω (4),(6)
DATA[0]
DATA[0]
DCLK
DCLK
nCSO (7)
ASDO (7)
MSEL[ ]
(3)
DCLK
MSEL[ ]
(3)
MSEL[ ]
(3)
50 Ω(7)
Buffers (5)
Notes to Figure 8–5:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device of the Cyclone IV device
in AS mode and the slave devices in PS mode. To connect the MSEL pins for the master device in AS mode and slave devices in PS mode, refer to
Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(5) Connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices for DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage
of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O
Requirements” on page 8–5.
(6) The 50-Ω series resistors are optional if the 3.3-V configuration voltage standard is applied. For optimal signal integrity, connect these 50-Ω series
resistors if the 2.5- or 3.0-V configuration voltage standard is applied.
(7) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as DATA[1] pin in AP and
FPP modes.
(8) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for DCLK.
(9) For multi-devices AS configuration using Cyclone IV E with 1,0 V core voltage, the maximum board trace-length from the serial configuration
device to the junction-split on both DCLK and Data0 line is 3.5 inches.
In this setup, all the Cyclone IV devices in the chain are connected for concurrent
configuration. This reduces the AS configuration time because all the Cyclone IV
devices are configured in one configuration cycle. Connect the nCE input pins of all the
Cyclone IV devices to GND. You can either leave the nCEO output pins on all the
Cyclone IV devices unconnected or use the nCEO output pins as normal user I/O pins.
The DATA and DCLK pins are connected in parallel to all the Cyclone IV devices.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–18
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Altera recommends putting a buffer before the DATA and DCLK output from the master
device to avoid signal strength and signal integrity issues. The buffer must not
significantly change the DATA-to-DCLK relationships or delay them with respect to other
AS signals (ASDI and nCS). Also, the buffer must only drive the slave devices to ensure
that the timing between the master device and the serial configuration device is
unaffected.
This configuration method supports both compressed and uncompressed .sof.
Therefore, if the configuration bitstream size exceeds the capacity of a serial
configuration device, you can enable the compression feature in the .sof or you can
select a larger serial configuration device.
Guidelines for Connecting a Serial Configuration Device to Cyclone IV
Devices for an AS Interface
For single- and multi-device AS configurations, the board trace length and loading
between the supported serial configuration device and Cyclone IV device must follow
the recommendations listed in Table 8–7.
Table 8–7. Maximum Trace Length and Loading for AS Configuration
Cyclone IV
Device AS Pins
Maximum Board Trace Length from a
Cyclone IV Device to a Serial Configuration
Device (Inches)
Maximum Board Load (pF)
Cyclone IV E
Cyclone IV GX
DCLK
10
6
15
DATA[0]
10
6
30
nCSO
10
6
30
ASDO
10
6
30
Note to Table 8–7:
(1) For multi-devices AS configuration using Cyclone IV E with 1,0 V core voltage, the maximum board trace-length
from the serial configuration device to the junction-split on both DCLK and Data0 line is 3.5 inches.
Estimating AS Configuration Time
AS configuration time is dominated by the time it takes to transfer data from the serial
configuration device to the Cyclone IV device. This serial interface is clocked by the
Cyclone IV device DCLK output (generated from a 40-MHz internal oscillator for
Cyclone IV E devices, a 20- or 40-MHz internal oscillator, or an external CLKUSR of up
to 40 MHz for Cyclone IV GX devices).
Equation 8–2 and Equation 8–3 show the configuration time calculations.
Equation 8–2.
maximum DCLK period
Size ×  ---------------------------------------------------------------- = estimated maximum configuration ti


1 bit
Equation 8–3.
50 ns
9,600,000 bits ×  ------------- = 480 ms
 1 bit 
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–19
Table 8–8 provides the configuration time for AS configuration.
Table 8–8. AS Configuration Time for Cyclone IV Devices (1)
Symbol
Parameter
Cyclone IV E
Cyclone IV GX
Unit
tSU
Setup time
10
8
ns
tH
Hold time
0
0
ns
tCO
Clock-to-output time
4
4
ns
Note to Table 8–8:
(1) For the AS configuration timing diagram, refer to the Serial Configuration (EPCS) Devices Datasheet.
Enabling compression reduces the amount of configuration data that is sent to the
Cyclone IV device, which also reduces configuration time. On average, compression
reduces configuration time by 50%.
Programming Serial Configuration Devices
Serial configuration devices are non-volatile, flash memory-based devices. You can
program these devices in-system with the USB-Blaster™ or ByteBlaster™ II download
cables. Alternatively, you can program them with the Altera Programming Unit
(APU), supported third-party programmers, or a microprocessor with the SRunner
software driver.
You can perform in-system programming of serial configuration devices through the
AS programming interface. During in-system programming, the download cable
disables device access to the AS interface by driving the nCE pin high. Cyclone IV
devices are also held in reset by a low level on nCONFIG. After programming is
complete, the download cable releases nCE and nCONFIG, allowing the pull-down and
pull-up resistors to drive VCC and GND, respectively.
To perform in-system programming of a serial configuration device through the AS
programming interface, you must place the diodes and capacitors as close as possible
to the Cyclone IV device. You must ensure that the diodes and capacitors maintain a
maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V (Figure 8–6).
1
If you want to use the setup shown in Figure 8–6 to perform in-system programming
of a serial configuration device and single- or multi-device AS configuration, you do
not require a series resistor on the DATA line at the near end of the serial configuration
device. The existing diodes and capacitors are sufficient.
Altera has developed the Serial FlashLoader (SFL), a JTAG-based in-system
programming solution for Altera serial configuration devices. The SFL is a bridge
design for the Cyclone IV device that uses its JTAG interface to access the EPCS JIC
(JTAG Indirect Configuration Device Programming) file and then uses the AS
interface to program the EPCS device. Both the JTAG interface and AS interface are
bridged together inside the SFL design.
f For more information about implementing the SFL with Cyclone IV devices, refer to
AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader with the Quartus II Software.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–20
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
f For more information about the USB-Blaster download cable, refer to the USB-Blaster
Download Cable User Guide. For more information about the ByteBlaster II download
cable, refer to the ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide.
Figure 8–6 shows the download cable connections to the serial configuration device.
Figure 8–6. In-System Programming of Serial Configuration Devices
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone IV Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
3.3 V
10 kΩ
Serial
Configuration Device
nCEO
N.C. (2)
CLKUSR
(8)
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
GND
(5)
DATA[0] (6)
DCLK (6)
nCSO (7)
ASDO (7)
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
Pin 1
MSEL[ ]
(4)
3.3 V (3)
GND
10 pf
10 pf
GND
10 pf
ByteBlaster II or USB Blaster
10-Pin Male Header
GND
GND
GND
10 pf
(5)
GND
Notes to Figure 8–6:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II or USB-Blaster download cable with the 3.3-V supply.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins, refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8,
Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) The diodes and capacitors must be placed as close as possible to the Cyclone IV device. You must ensure that the diodes and capacitors maintain
a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The external diodes and capacitors are required to prevent damage to the Cyclone IV device AS configuration
input pins due to possible overshoot when programming the serial configuration device with a download cable. Altera recommends using the
Schottky diode, which has a relatively lower forward diode voltage (VF) than the switching and Zener diodes, for effective voltage clamping.
(6) When cascading Cyclone IV devices in a multi-device AS configuration, connect the repeater buffers between the master and slave devices for
DATA[0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the
maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 8–5.
(7) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions as DATA[1] pin in AP and
FPP modes.
(8) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for DCLK.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–21
You can use the Quartus II software with the APU and the appropriate configuration
device programming adapter to program serial configuration devices. All serial
configuration devices are offered in an 8- or 16-pin small outline integrated circuit
(SOIC) package.
In production environments, serial configuration devices are programmed using
multiple methods. Altera programming hardware or other third-party programming
hardware is used to program blank serial configuration devices before they are
mounted onto PCBs. Alternatively, you can use an on-board microprocessor to
program the serial configuration device in-system by porting the reference C-based
SRunner software driver provided by Altera.
A serial configuration device is programmed in-system by an external microprocessor
with the SRunner software driver. The SRunner software driver is a software driver
developed for embedded serial configuration device programming, which is easily
customized to fit in different embedded systems. The SRunner software driver is able
to read a Raw Programming Data (.rpd) file and write to serial configuration devices.
The serial configuration device programming time, using the SRunner software
driver, is comparable to the programming time with the Quartus II software.
f For more information about the SRunner software driver, refer to AN 418: SRunner:
An Embedded Solution for Serial Configuration Device Programming and the source code
at the Altera website.
AP Configuration (Supported Flash Memories)
The AP configuration scheme is only supported in Cyclone IV E devices. In the AP
configuration scheme, Cyclone IV E devices are configured using commodity 16-bit
parallel flash memory. These external non-volatile configuration devices are industry
standard microprocessor flash memories. The flash memories provide a fast interface
to access configuration data. The speed up in configuration time is mainly due to the
16-bit wide parallel data bus, which is used to retrieve data from the flash memory.
Some of the smaller Cyclone IV E devices or package options do not support the AP
configuration scheme. Table 8–9 lists the supported AP configuration scheme for each
Cyclone IV E devices.
Table 8–9. Supported AP Configuration Scheme for Cyclone IV E Devices
Package Options
Device
May 2013
E144
M164
M256
U256
F256
F324
U484
F484
F780
EP4CE6
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CE10
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CE15
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
EP4CE22
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EP4CE30
—
—
—
—
—
v
—
v
v
EP4CE40
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
v
EP4CE55
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
EP4CE75
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
v
EP4CE115
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
v
v
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–22
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
During device configuration, Cyclone IV E devices read configuration data using the
parallel interface and configure their SRAM cells. This scheme is referred to as the AP
configuration scheme because the device controls the configuration interface. This
scheme contrasts with the FPP configuration scheme, where an external host controls
the interface.
AP Configuration Supported Flash Memories
The AP configuration controller in Cyclone IV E devices is designed to interface with
two industry-standard flash families—the Micron P30 Parallel NOR flash family and
the Micron P33 Parallel NOR flash family. Unlike serial configuration devices, both of
the flash families supported in AP configuration scheme are designed to interface
with microprocessors. By configuring from an industry standard microprocessor flash
which allows access to the flash after entering user mode, the AP configuration
scheme allows you to combine configuration data and user data (microprocessor boot
code) on the same flash memory.
The Micron P30 flash family and the P33 flash family support a continuous
synchronous burst read mode at 40 MHz DCLK frequency for reading data from the
flash. Additionally, the Micron P30 and P33 flash families have identical pin-out and
adopt similar protocols for data access.
1
Cyclone IV E devices use a 40-MHz oscillator for the AP configuration scheme. The
oscillator is the same oscillator used in the Cyclone IV E AS configuration scheme.
Table 8–10 lists the supported families of the commodity parallel flash for the AP
configuration scheme.
Table 8–10. Supported Commodity Flash for AP Configuration Scheme for Cyclone IV E
Devices (1)
Flash Memory Density
Micron P30 Flash Family
(2)
Micron P33 Flash Family
64 Mbit
v
v
128 Mbit
v
v
256 Mbit
v
v
(3)
Notes to Table 8–10:
(1) The AP configuration scheme only supports flash memory speed grades of 40 MHz and above.
(2) 3.3- , 3.0-, 2.5-, and 1.8-V I/O options are supported for the Micron P30 flash family.
(3) 3.3-, 3.0- and 2.5-V I/O options are supported for the Micron P33 flash family.
Configuring Cyclone IV E devices from the Micron P30 and P33 family 512-Mbit flash
memory is possible, but you must properly drive the extra address and FLASH_nCE
pins as required by these flash memories.
f To check for supported speed grades and package options, refer to the respective flash
datasheets.
The AP configuration scheme in Cyclone IV E devices supports flash speed grades of
40 MHz and above. However, AP configuration for all these speed grades must be
capped at 40 MHz. The advantage of faster speed grades is realized when your design
in the Cyclone IV E devices accesses flash memory in user mode.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–23
f For more information about the operation of the Micron P30 Parallel NOR and P33
Parallel NOR flash memories, search for the keyword “P30” or “P33” on the Micron
website (www.micron.com) to obtain the P30 or P33 family datasheet.
Single-Device AP Configuration
The following groups of interface pins are supported in Micron P30 and P33 flash
memories:
■
Control pins
■
Address pins
■
Data pins
The following control signals are from the supported parallel flash memories:
■
CLK
■
active-low reset (RST#)
■
active-low chip enable (CE#)
■
active-low output enable (OE#)
■
active-low address valid (ADV#)
■
active-low write enable (WE#)
The supported parallel flash memories output a control signal (WAIT) to Cyclone IV E
devices to indicate when synchronous data is ready on the data bus. Cyclone IV E
devices have a 24-bit address bus connecting to the address bus (A[24:1]) of the flash
memory. A 16-bit bidirectional data bus (DATA[15..0]) provides data transfer between
the Cyclone IV E device and the flash memory.
The following control signals are from the Cyclone IV E device to flash memory:
May 2013
■
DCLK
■
active-low hard rest (nRESET)
■
active-low chip enable (FLASH_nCE)
■
active-low output enable for the DATA[15..0] bus and WAIT pin (nOE)
■
active-low address valid signal and is used to write data into the flash (nAVD)
■
active-low write enable and is used to write data into the flash (nWE)
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–24
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Figure 8–7 shows the interface for the Micron P30 flash memory and P33 flash
memory to the Cyclone IV E device pins.
Figure 8–7. Single-Device AP Configuration Using Micron P30 and P33 Flash Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
nSTATUS
10k
CONF_DONE
10k
nCONFIG
10k
nCEO
N.C. (2)
nCE
GND
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
Micron P30/P33 Flash
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
DCLK
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
nWE
I/O (4)
DATA[15..0]
PADD[23..0]
Cyclone IV E Device
Notes to Figure 8–7:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0], refer to Table 8–5 on page 8–9.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic, you
can optionally use normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
1
To tri-state the configuration bus for AP configuration schemes, you must tie nCE high
and nCONFIG low.
1
In a single-device AP configuration, the maximum board loading and board trace
length between supported parallel flash and Cyclone IV E devices must follow the
recommendations listed in Table 8–11 on page 8–28.
1
If you use the AP configuration scheme for Cyclone IV E devices, the VCCIO of I/O
banks 1, 6, 7, and 8 must be 3.3, 3.0, 2.5, or 1.8 V. Altera does not recommend using the
level shifter between the Micron P30 or P33 flash and the Cyclone IV E device in the
AP configuration scheme.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
1
8–25
There are no series resistors required in AP configuration mode for Cyclone IV E
devices when using the Micron flash at 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.3-V I/O standard. The output
buffer of the Micron P30 IBIS model does not overshoot above 4.1 V. Thus, series
resistors are not required for the 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.3-V AP configuration option.
However, if there are any other devices sharing the same flash I/Os with Cyclone IV E
devices, all shared pins are still subject to the 4.1-V limit and may require series
resistors.
Default read mode of the supported parallel flash memory and all writes to the
parallel flash memory are asynchronous. Both the parallel flash families support a
synchronous read mode, with data supplied on the positive edge of DCLK.
The serial clock (DCLK) generated by Cyclone IV E devices controls the entire
configuration cycle and provides timing for the parallel interface.
Multi-Device AP Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone IV E devices using a single parallel flash. You can
cascade multiple Cyclone IV E devices using the chip-enable (nCE) and
chip-enable-out (nCEO) pins. The first device in the chain must have its nCE pin
connected to GND. You must connect its nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the next device in
the chain. Use an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to pull the nCEO signal high to its
VCCIO level to help the internal weak pull-up resistor. When the first device captures
all its configuration data from the bitstream, it drives the nCEO pin low, enabling the
next device in the chain. You can leave the nCEO pin of the last device unconnected or
use it as a user I/O pin after configuration if the last device in the chain is a
Cyclone IV E device. The nCONFIG, nSTATUS, CONF_DONE, DCLK, DATA[15..8], and
DATA[7..0] pins of each device in the chain are connected (Figure 8–8 on page 8–26
and Figure 8–9 on page 8–27).
The first Cyclone IV E device in the chain, as shown in Figure 8–8 on page 8–26 and
Figure 8–9 on page 8–27, is the configuration master device and controls the
configuration of the entire chain. You must connect its MSEL pins to select the AP
configuration scheme. The remaining Cyclone IV E devices are used as configuration
slaves. You must connect their MSEL pins to select the FPP configuration scheme. Any
other Altera device that supports FPP configuration can also be part of the chain as a
configuration slave.
The following are the configurations for the DATA[15..0] bus in a multi-device AP
configuration:
May 2013
■
Byte-wide multi-device AP configuration
■
Word-wide multi-device AP configuration
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–26
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Byte-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
The simpler method for multi-device AP configuration is the byte-wide multi-device
AP configuration. In the byte-wide multi-device AP configuration, the LSB of the
DATA[7..0]pin from the flash and master device (set to the AP configuration scheme)
is connected to the slave devices set to the FPP configuration scheme, as shown in
Figure 8–8.
Figure 8–8. Byte-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
VCCIO (2)
10 kΩ
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCEO
nCE
nSTATUS
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
nCONFIG
10 kΩ
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (3)
GND
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
DCLK
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
nWE
I/O (5)
DATA[15..0]
PADD[23..0]
MSEL[3..0]
Cyclone IV E
Master Device
Micron P30/P33 Flash
(4)
DQ[7..0]
MSEL[3..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
(4)
DQ[7..0]
Cyclone IV E Slave Device
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone IV E Slave Device
Buffers (6)
Notes to Figure 8–8:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device in AP mode and the slave
devices in FPP mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AP mode and the slave devices in FPP mode, refer to Table 8–5 on
page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use the normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the Cyclone IV E master device and slave devices for DATA[15..0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain
a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration
and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 8–5.
Word-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
The more efficient setup is one in which some of the slave devices are connected to the
LSB of the DATA[7..0]and the remaining slave devices are connected to the MSB of
the DATA[15..8]. In the word-wide multi-device AP configuration, the nCEO pin of the
master device enables two separate daisy chains of slave devices, allowing both
chains to be programmed concurrently, as shown in Figure 8–9.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–27
Figure 8–9. Word-Wide Multi-Device AP Configuration
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
10 k
VCCIO (2)
10 k
nCE
nCEO
nCE
nCEO
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
nCE
nSTATUS
10 k
10 k
nCONFIG
10 k
nCEO
N.C. (3)
GND
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
Micron P30/P33 Flash
DCLK
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
nWE
I/O (5)
DATA[15..0]
PADD[23..0]
MSEL[3..0]
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DQ[7..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone IV E
Master Device
(4)
DQ[7..0]
Cyclone IV E Slave Device
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone IV E Slave Device
VCCIO (1)
Buffers (6)
nCE
nCE
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCONFIG
10 k
nCEO
N.C. (3)
DQ[15..8]
MSEL[3..0]
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
DQ[15..8]
Cyclone IV E Slave Device
(4)
DATA[7..0]
DCLK
Cyclone IV E Slave Device
Notes to Figure 8–9:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. You must set the master device in AP mode and the slave
devices in FPP mode. To connect MSEL[3..0] for the master device in AP mode and the slave devices in FPP mode, refer to Table 8–5 on
page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use the normal I/O pin to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
(6) Connect the repeater buffers between the Cyclone IV E master device and slave devices for DATA[15..0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain
a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration
and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 8–5.
1
May 2013
In a multi-device AP configuration, the board trace length between the parallel flash
and the master device must follow the recommendations listed in Table 8–11.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–28
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
The nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins on all target devices are connected together with
external pull-up resistors, as shown in Figure 8–8 on page 8–26 and Figure 8–9 on
page 8–27. These pins are open-drain bidirectional pins on the devices. When the first
device asserts nCEO (after receiving all its configuration data), it releases its CONF_DONE
pin. However, the subsequent devices in the chain keep this shared CONF_DONE line
low until they receive their configuration data. When all target devices in the chain
receive their configuration data and release CONF_DONE, the pull-up resistor drives a
high level on this line and all devices simultaneously enter initialization mode.
Guidelines for Connecting Parallel Flash to Cyclone IV E Devices for an AP
Interface
For single- and multi-device AP configuration, the board trace length and loading
between the supported parallel flash and Cyclone IV E devices must follow the
recommendations listed in Table 8–11. These recommendations also apply to an AP
configuration with multiple bus masters.
Table 8–11. Maximum Trace Length and Loading for AP Configuration
Maximum Board Trace Length from
Cyclone IV E Device to Flash Device
(inches)
Maximum Board Load (pF)
DCLK
6
15
DATA[15..0]
6
30
PADD[23..0]
6
30
nRESET
6
30
Flash_nCE
6
30
nOE
6
30
nAVD
6
30
6
30
6
30
Cyclone IV E AP Pins
nWE
I/O
(1)
Note to Table 8–11:
(1) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal from the flash during configuration mode. However, if you are
accessing flash during user mode with user logic, you can optionally use the normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal
from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
Configuring With Multiple Bus Masters
Similar to the AS configuration scheme, the AP configuration scheme supports
multiple bus masters for the parallel flash. For another master to take control of the
AP configuration bus, the master must assert nCONFIG low for at least 500 ns to reset
the master Cyclone IV E device and override the weak 10-kΩ pull-down resistor on
the nCE pin. This resets the master Cyclone IV E device and causes it to tri-state its AP
configuration bus. The other master device then takes control of the AP configuration
bus. After the other master device is done, it releases the AP configuration bus, then
releases the nCE pin, and finally pulses nCONFIG low to restart the configuration.
In the AP configuration scheme, multiple masters share the parallel flash. Similar to
the AS configuration scheme, the bus control is negotiated by the nCE pin.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–29
Figure 8–10 shows the AP configuration with multiple bus masters.
Figure 8–10. AP Configuration with Multiple Bus Masters
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
I/O (7)
nCONFIG (8)
Other Master Device (6)
V
V
CCIO
(1)
V
CCIO
(1)
(1)
10 k
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
10 k
nCONFIG
10 k
nCE
10 k
CLK
RST#
CE#
OE#
ADV#
WE#
WAIT
DQ[15:0]
A[24:1]
CCIO
GND
nCEO
DCLK (5)
nRESET
FLASH_nCE
nOE
nAVD
MSEL[3..0]
nWE
I/O (4)
DATA[15..0] (5)
PADD[23..0]
Micron P30/P33 Flash
(2)
(3)
Cyclone IV E
Master Device
Notes to Figure 8–10:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL[3..0], refer to Table 8–5 on page 8–9.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) The AP configuration ignores the WAIT signal during configuration mode. However, if you are accessing flash during user mode with user logic,
you can optionally use the normal I/O to monitor the WAIT signal from the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
(5) When cascading Cyclone IV E devices in a multi-device AP configuration, connect the repeater buffers between the master device and slave
devices for DATA[15..0] and DCLK. All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. The output resistance of the repeater buffers
must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 8–5.
(6) The other master device must fit the maximum overshoot equation outlined in “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O Requirements” on page 8–5.
(7) The other master device can control the AP configuration bus by driving the nCE to high with an output high on the I/O pin.
(8) The other master device can pulse nCONFIG if it is under system control and not tied to VCCIO.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–30
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Figure 8–11 shows the recommended balanced star routing for multiple bus master
interfaces to minimize signal integrity issues.
Figure 8–11. Balanced Star Routing
External
Master Device
N (2)
DCLK
M (1)
N (2)
Cyclone IV E
Master Device
Micron Flash
Notes to Figure 8–11:
(1) Altera recommends that M does not exceed 6 inches, as listed in Table 8–11 on page 8–28.
(2) Altera recommends using a balanced star routing. Keep the N length equal and as short as possible to minimize
reflection noise from the transmission line. The M length is applicable for this setup.
Estimating AP Configuration Time
AP configuration time is dominated by the time it takes to transfer data from the
parallel flash to Cyclone IV E devices. This parallel interface is clocked by the
Cyclone IV E DCLK output (generated from an internal oscillator). The DCLK minimum
frequency when using the 40-MHz oscillator is 20 MHz (50 ns). In word-wide cascade
programming, the DATA[15..0] bus transfers a 16-bit word and essentially cuts
configuration time to approximately 1/16 of the AS configuration time. Equation 8–4
and Equation 8–5 show the configuration time calculations.
Equation 8–4.
maximum DCLK period
Size ×  ---------------------------------------------------------------- = estimated maximum configuration time
 16 bits per DCLK cycle 
Equation 8–5.
50 ns
9,600,000 bits ×  -------------- = 30 ms
 16 bit
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–31
Programming Parallel Flash Memories
Supported parallel flash memories are external non-volatile configuration devices.
They are industry standard microprocessor flash memories. For more information
about the supported families for the commodity parallel flash, refer to Table 8–10 on
page 8–22.
Cyclone IV E devices in a single- or multiple-device chain support in-system
programming of a parallel flash using the JTAG interface with the flash loader
megafunction. The board intelligent host or download cable uses the four JTAG pins
on Cyclone IV E devices to program the parallel flash in system, even if the host or
download cable cannot access the configuration pins of the parallel flash.
f For more information about using the JTAG pins on Cyclone IV E devices to program
the parallel flash in-system, refer to AN 478: Using FPGA-Based Parallel Flash Loader
(PFL) with the Quartus II Software.
In the AP configuration scheme, the default configuration boot address is 0×010000
when represented in 16-bit word addressing in the supported parallel flash memory
(Figure 8–12). In the Quartus II software, the default configuration boot address is
0×020000 because it is represented in 8-bit byte addressing. Cyclone IV E devices
configure from word address 0×010000, which is equivalent to byte address 0×020000.
1
May 2013
The Quartus II software uses byte addressing for the default configuration boot
address. You must set the start address field to 0×020000.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–32
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
The default configuration boot address allows the system to use special parameter
blocks in the flash memory map. Parameter blocks are at the top or bottom of the
memory map. Figure 8–12 shows the configuration boot address in the AP
configuration scheme. You can change the default configuration default boot address
0×010000 to any desired address using the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction. For
more information about the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction, refer to “JTAG
Instructions” on page 8–57.
Figure 8–12. Configuration Boot Address in AP Flash Memory Map
Bottom Parameter Flash Memory
Top Parameter Flash Memory
Other data/code
128-Kbit
parameter area
Other data/code
Cyclone IV E
Default
Boot
Address
Cyclone IV E
Default
Boot
Address
Configuration
Data
Configuration
Data
x010000 (1)
x00FFFF
x010000 (1)
x00FFFF
Other data/code
128-Kbit
parameter area
16-bit word
x000000
bit[15]
x000000
bit[0]
16-bit word
bit[15]
bit[0]
Note to Figure 8–12:
(1) The default configuration boot address is x010000 when represented in 16-bit word addressing.
PS Configuration
You can perform PS configuration on Cyclone IV devices with an external intelligent
host, such as a MAX® II device, microprocessor with flash memory, or a download
cable. In the PS scheme, an external host controls the configuration. Configuration
data is clocked into the target Cyclone IV device through DATA[0] at each rising edge
of DCLK.
If your system already contains a common flash interface (CFI) flash memory, you can
use it for Cyclone IV device configuration storage as well. The MAX II PFL feature
provides an efficient method to program CFI flash memory devices through the JTAG
interface and the logic to control the configuration from the flash memory device to
the Cyclone IV device.
f For more information about the PFL, refer to AN 386: Using the Parallel Flash Loader
with the Quartus II Software.
1
Cyclone IV devices do not support enhanced configuration devices for PS
configuration.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–33
PS Configuration Using an External Host
In the PS configuration scheme, you can use an intelligent host such as a MAX II
device or microprocessor that controls the transfer of configuration data from a
storage device, such as flash memory, to the target Cyclone IV device. You can store
the configuration data in .rbf, .hex, or .ttf format.
Figure 8–13 shows the configuration interface connections between a Cyclone IV
device and an external host device for single-device configuration.
Figure 8–13. Single-Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
ADDR
Cyclone IV
Device
DATA[0]
10 kΩ
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
10 kΩ
GND
MSEL[ ]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (2)
DATA[0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Notes to Figure 8–13:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for the device. VCC must be high
enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly
to VCCA or GND.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
To begin the configuration, the external host device must generate a low-to-high
transition on the nCONFIG pin. When nSTATUS is pulled high, the external host device
must place the configuration data one bit at a time on DATA[0]. If you use
configuration data in .rbf, .ttf, or .hex, you must first send the LSB of each data byte.
For example, if the .rbf contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01 FA, the serial bitstream
you must send to the device is:
0100-0000 1101-1000 0111-0111 1000-0000 0101-1111
Cyclone IV devices receive configuration data on DATA[0] and the clock is received on
DCLK. Data is latched into the device on the rising edge of DCLK. Data is continuously
clocked into the target device until CONF_DONE goes high and the device enters
initialization state.
1
Two DCLK falling edges are required after CONF_DONE goes high to begin the
initialization of the device.
INIT_DONE is released and pulled high when initialization is complete. The external
host device must be able to detect this low-to-high transition which signals the device
has entered user mode. When initialization is complete, the device enters user mode.
In user mode, the user I/O pins no longer have weak pull-up resistors and function as
assigned in your design.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–34
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
To ensure DCLK and DATA[0] are not left floating at the end of configuration, the
MAX II device must drive them either high or low, whichever is convenient on your
board. The DATA[0] pin is available as a user I/O pin after configuration. In the PS
scheme, the DATA[0] pin is tri-stated by default in user mode and must be driven by
the external host device. To change this default option in the Quartus II software,
select the Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box.
The configuration clock (DCLK) speed must be below the specified system frequency to
ensure correct configuration. No maximum DCLK period exists, which means you can
pause configuration by halting DCLK for an indefinite amount of time.
The external host device can also monitor CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE to ensure
successful configuration. The CONF_DONE pin must be monitored by the external device
to detect errors and to determine when programming is complete. If all configuration
data is sent, but CONF_DONE or INIT_DONE has not gone high, the external device must
reconfigure the target device.
Figure 8–14 shows how to configure multiple devices using an external host device.
This circuit is similar to the PS configuration circuit for a single device, except that
Cyclone IV devices are cascaded for multi-device configuration.
Figure 8–14. Multi-Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (2)
Cyclone IV Device 1
ADDR DATA[0]
10 k
10 k
(4)
MSEL[ ]
(4)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (3)
DATA[0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
DATA[0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
MSEL[ ]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
Cyclone IV Device 2
10 k
GND
Buffers (5)
Notes to Figure 8–14:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly
to VCCA or GND.
(5) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–35
After the first device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration chain,
its nCEO pin drives low to activate the nCE pin of the second device, which prompts the
second device to begin configuration. The second device in the chain begins
configuration in one clock cycle. Therefore, the transfer of data destinations is
transparent to the external host device. nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA[0], and
CONF_DONE configuration pins are connected to every device in the chain. To ensure
signal integrity and prevent clock skew problems, configuration signals may require
buffering. Ensure that DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. All devices initialize and enter
user mode at the same time because all CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
If any device detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and you must
reconfigure the entire chain because all nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
For example, if the first device flags an error on nSTATUS, it resets the chain by pulling
its nSTATUS pin low. This behavior is similar to a single device detecting an error.
You can have multiple devices that contain the same configuration data in your
system. To support this configuration scheme, all device nCE inputs are tied to GND,
while the nCEO pins are left floating. nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA[0], and CONF_DONE
configuration pins are connected to every device in the chain. To ensure signal
integrity and prevent clock skew problems, configuration signals may require
buffering. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. Devices must be of the
same density and package. All devices start and complete configuration at the same
time.
Figure 8–15 shows a multi-device PS configuration when both Cyclone IV devices are
receiving the same configuration data.
Figure 8–15. Multi-Device PS Configuration When Both Devices Receive the Same Data
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
ADDR
Cyclone IV Master Device
Cyclone IV Slave Device
DATA[0]
10 k
10 k
MSEL[ ]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
GND
DATA[0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
(3)
MSEL[ ]
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (2)
(3)
N.C. (2)
GND
DATA[0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Buffers (4)
Notes to Figure 8–15:
(1) You must connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the chain.
VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pins of both devices are left unconnected or used as user I/O pins when configuring the same configuration
data into multiple devices.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly
to VCCA or GND.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–36
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
PS Configuration Timing
A PS configuration must meet the setup and hold timing parameters and the
maximum clock frequency. When using a microprocessor or another intelligent host
to control the PS interface, ensure that you meet these timing requirements.
Figure 8–16 shows the timing waveform for PS configuration when using an external
host device.
Figure 8–16. PS Configuration Timing Waveform
(1)
tCF2ST1
tCFG
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (2)
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
t
CLK
CONF_DONE (3)
tCF2CD
tST2CK
tCH tCL
DCLK (4)
tDH
Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3
DATA[0]
Bit n
(5)
tDSU
User I/O User mode Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
User Mode
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 8–16:
(1) The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode, nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE
are at logic-high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
(2) After power up, the Cyclone IV device holds nSTATUS low during POR delay.
(3) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(4) In user mode, drive DCLK either high or low when using the PS configuration scheme, whichever is more convenient.
When using the AS configuration scheme, DCLK is a Cyclone IV device output pin and must not be driven externally.
(5) Do not leave the DATA[0]pin floating after configuration. Drive the DATA[0]pin high or low, whichever is more
convenient.
Table 8–12 lists the PS configuration timing parameters for Cyclone IV devices.
Table 8–12. PS Configuration Timing Parameters For Cyclone IV Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Minimum
Symbol
Maximum
Parameter
Unit
Cyclone IV
(1)
Cyclone IV E
(2)
Cyclone IV
(1)
Cyclone IV E
(2)
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to
CONF_DONE low
—
500
ns
tCF2ST0
nCONFIG low to
nSTATUS low
—
500
ns
tCFG
nCONFIG low pulse
width
500
—
ns
tSTATUS
nSTATUS low pulse
width
45
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
230
(3)
May 2013
µs
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–37
Table 8–12. PS Configuration Timing Parameters For Cyclone IV Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Minimum
Symbol
Maximum
Parameter
Unit
Cyclone IV
(1)
Cyclone IV E
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG high to
nSTATUS high
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to first
rising edge on DCLK
230
tST2CK
nSTATUS high to first
rising edge of DCLK
tDH
(2)
Cyclone IV
—
(1)
Cyclone IV E
230
(3)
(2)
(4)
µs
—
µs
2
—
µs
Data hold time after
rising edge on DCLK
0
—
ns
tCD2UM
CONF_DONE high to
user mode (5)
300
650
µs
tCD2CU
CONF_DONE high to
CLKUSR enabled
4 × maximum DCLK period
—
—
tCD2UMC
CONF_DONE high to
user mode with
CLKUSR option on
tCD2CU + (3,192 × CLKUSR period)
—
—
tDSU
Data setup time before
rising edge on DCLK
tCH
5
8
—
—
ns
DCLK high time
3.2
6.4
—
—
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
3.2
6.4
—
—
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
7.5
15
—
—
ns
fMAX
DCLK frequency
—
—
133
66
MHz
(6)
Notes to Table 8–12:
(1) Applicable for Cyclone IV GX and Cyclone IV E devices with 1.2-V core voltage.
(2) Applicable for Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage.
(3) This value is applicable if you do not delay configuration by extending the nCONFIG or nSTATUS low pulse width.
(4) This value is applicable if you do not delay configuration by externally holding the nSTATUS low.
(5) The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if you choose the internal oscillator as the clock source for starting the device.
(6) Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage have slower FMAX when compared with Cyclone IV GX devices with 1.2-V core voltage.
PS Configuration Using a Download Cable
In this section, the generic term “download cable” includes the Altera USB-Blaster
USB port download cable, MasterBlaster™ serial and USB communications cable,
ByteBlaster II parallel port download cable, the ByteBlasterMV ™ parallel port
download cable, and the EthernetBlaster communications cable.
In the PS configuration with a download cable, an intelligent host (such as a PC)
transfers data from a storage device to the Cyclone IV device through the download
cable.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–38
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
The programming hardware or download cable then places the configuration data
one bit at a time on the DATA[0] pin of the device. The configuration data is clocked
into the target device until CONF_DONE goes high. The CONF_DONE pin must have an
external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor for the device to initialize.
When you use a download cable, setting the Auto-restart configuration after error
option does not affect the configuration cycle because you must manually restart
configuration in the Quartus II software if an error occurs. Additionally, the Enable
user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option has no effect on device initialization,
because this option is disabled in the .sof when programming the device with the
Quartus II Programmer and download cable. Therefore, if you turn on the CLKUSR
option, you do not have to provide a clock on CLKUSR when you configure the device
with the Quartus II Programmer and a download cable.
Figure 8–17 shows PS configuration for Cyclone IV devices with a download cable.
Figure 8–17. PS Configuration Using a Download Cable
VCCA (1)
(2)
VCCA (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(2)
Cyclone IV Device
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL[ ] (5)
nCE
nCEO
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
N.C. (4)
GND
DCLK
DATA[0]
nCONFIG
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
GND
VIO (3)
Shield
GND
Notes to Figure 8–17:
(1) You must connect the pull-up resistor to the same supply voltage as the VCCA supply.
(2) The pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK are only required if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA[0] and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example,
if you also use a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK are not required.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. With the USB-Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, ByteBlaster MV, and EthernetBlaster, this pin is a no connect.
(4) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(5) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9 for PS configuration schemes.
Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(6) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5-V supply from VCCA.
Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable.
The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from
the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–39
You can use a download cable to configure multiple Cyclone IV device configuration
pins. nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA[0], and CONF_DONE are connected to every device in
the chain. All devices in the chain utilize and enter user mode at the same time
because all CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
In addition, the entire chain halts configuration if any device detects an error because
the nSTATUS pins are tied together. Figure 8–18 shows the PS configuration for
multiple Cyclone IV devices using a MasterBlaster, USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, or
ByteBlasterMV cable.
Figure 8–18. Multi-Device PS Configuration Using a Download Cable
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
VCCA (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(2)
VCCIO (4)
10 kΩ
VCCA (1)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
10 kΩ
(2)
VCCA (1)
(Passive Serial Mode)
10 kΩ
Cyclone IV Device 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL[ ] (6)
Pin 1
VCCA (7)
GND
VIO (3)
nCE
10 kΩ
GND
DATA[0]
nCONFIG
nCEO
GND
Cyclone IV Device 2
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL[ ]
DCLK
(6)
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (5)
DATA[0]
nCONFIG
Notes to Figure 8–18:
(1) You must connect the pull-up resistor to the same supply voltage as the VCCA supply.
(2) The pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK are only required if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This ensures that DATA[0] and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if you
also use a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA[0] and DCLK are not required.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. When using the
ByteBlasterMV download cable, this pin is a no connect. When using USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, and EthernetBlaster
cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming. Otherwise, it is a no connect.
(4) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(5) The nCEO pin of the last device in the chain is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin.
(6) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL for PS
configuration schemes, refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect
the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(7) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5 V supply from VCCA. Third-party
programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable. The
MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from the
USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–40
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
FPP Configuration
The FPP configuration in Cyclone IV devices is designed to meet the increasing
demand for faster configuration time. Cyclone IV devices are designed with the
capability of receiving byte-wide configuration data per clock cycle.
You can perform FPP configuration of Cyclone IV devices with an intelligent host,
such as a MAX II device or microprocessor with flash memory. If your system already
contains a CFI flash memory, you can use it for the Cyclone IV device configuration
storage as well. The MAX II PFL feature in MAX II devices provides an efficient
method to program CFI flash memory devices through the JTAG interface and the
logic to control configuration from the flash memory device to the Cyclone IV device.
f For more information about the PFL, refer to AN 386: Using the Parallel Flash Loader
with the Quartus II Software.
1
FPP configuration is supported in EP4CGX30 (only for F484 package), EP4CGX50,
EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, EP4CGX150, and all Cyclone IV E devices.
1
The FPP configuration is not supported in E144 package of Cyclone IV E devices.
1
Cyclone IV devices do not support enhanced configuration devices for FPP
configuration.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–41
FPP Configuration Using an External Host
FPP configuration using an external host provides a fast method to configure
Cyclone IV devices. In the FPP configuration scheme, you can use an external host
device to control the transfer of configuration data from a storage device, such as flash
memory, to the target Cyclone IV device. You can store configuration data in an .rbf,
.hex, or .ttf format. When using the external host, a design that controls the
configuration process, such as fetching the data from flash memory and sending it to
the device, must be stored in the external host device. Figure 8–19 shows the
configuration interface connections between the Cyclone IV devices and an external
device for single-device configuration.
Figure 8–19. Single-Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO(1) VCCIO(1)
ADDR
DATA[7..0]
10 k
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
Cyclone IV Device
10 k
GND
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (2)
DATA[7..0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Notes to Figure 8–19:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for the device. VCC must be high
enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–4 on page 8–8 and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[7..0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
After nSTATUS is released, the device is ready to receive configuration data and the
configuration stage begins. When nSTATUS is pulled high, the external host device
places the configuration data one byte at a time on the DATA[7..0]pins.
Cyclone IV devices receive configuration data on the DATA[7..0] pins and the clock is
received on the DCLK pin. Data is latched into the device on the rising edge of DCLK.
Data is continuously clocked into the target device until CONF_DONE goes high. The
CONF_DONE pin goes high one byte early in FPP configuration mode. The last byte is
required for serial configuration (AS and PS) modes.
1
Two DCLK falling edges are required after CONF_DONE goes high to begin initialization
of the device.
Supplying a clock on CLKUSR does not affect the configuration process. After the
CONF_DONE pin goes high, CLKUSR is enabled after the time specified as tCD2CU. After
this time period elapses, Cyclone IV devices require 3,192 clock cycles to initialize
properly and enter user mode. For more information about the supported CLKUSR fMAX
value for Cyclone IV devices, refer to Table 8–13 on page 8–44.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–42
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
The INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high when initialization is complete. The
external host device must be able to detect this low-to-high transition, which signals
the device has entered user mode. When initialization is complete, the device enters
user mode. In user mode, the user I/O pins no longer have weak pull-up resistors and
function as assigned in your design.
To ensure that DCLK and DATA[0] are not left floating at the end of the configuration,
the MAX II device must drive them either high or low, whichever is convenient on
your board. The DATA[0] pin is available as a user I/O pin after configuration. When
you choose the FPP scheme in the Quartus II software, the DATA[0] pin is tri-stated by
default in user mode and must be driven by the external host device. To change this
default option in the Quartus II software, select the Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the
Device and Pin Options dialog box.
The DCLK speed must be below the specified system frequency to ensure correct
configuration. No maximum DCLK period exists, which means you can pause
configuration by halting DCLK for an indefinite amount of time.
The external host device can also monitor the CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE pins to ensure
successful configuration. The CONF_DONE pin must be monitored by the external device
to detect errors and to determine when programming is complete. If all configuration
data is sent, but CONF_DONE or INIT_DONE has not gone high, the external device must
reconfigure the target device.
Figure 8–20 shows how to configure multiple devices with a MAX II device. This
circuit is similar to the FPP configuration circuit for a single device, except the
Cyclone IV devices are cascaded for multi-device configuration.
Figure 8–20. Multi-Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCCIO (1) VCCIO (1)
ADDR DATA[7..0]
Cyclone IV Device 2
10 k
10 k
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
VCCIO (2)
Cyclone IV Device 1
10 k
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
MSEL[3..0]
(4)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (3)
DATA[7..0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
DATA[7..0] (5)
nCONFIG
DCLK (5)
GND
Buffers (5)
Notes to Figure 8–20:
(1) The pull-up resistor must be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of the I/O bank in which the nCE pin resides.
(3) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–4 on page 8–8 and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[7..0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–43
After the first device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration chain,
its nCEO pin drives low to activate the nCE pin of the second device, which prompts the
second device to begin configuration. The second device in the chain begins
configuration in one clock cycle; therefore, the transfer of data destinations is
transparent to the MAX II device. All other configuration pins (nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
DCLK, DATA[7..0], and CONF_DONE) are connected to every device in the chain.
Configuration signals may require buffering to ensure signal integrity and prevent
clock skew problems. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. All devices
initialize and enter user mode at the same time, because all device CONF_DONE pins are
tied together.
All nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are tied together and if any device detects an error,
configuration stops for the entire chain and the entire chain must be reconfigured. For
example, if the first device flags an error on nSTATUS, it resets the chain by pulling its
nSTATUS pin low. This behavior is similar to a single device detecting an error.
Figure 8–21 shows multi-device FPP configuration when both Cyclone IV devices are
receiving the same configuration data. Configuration pins (nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK,
DATA[7..0], and CONF_DONE) are connected to every device in the chain. Configuration
signals may require buffering to ensure signal integrity and prevent clock skew
problems. Ensure that the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered. Devices must be of the
same density and package. All devices start and complete configuration at the same
time.
Figure 8–21. Multi-Device FPP Configuration Using an External Host When Both Devices Receive
the Same Data
Memory
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
Cyclone IV Device 1
Cyclone IV Device 2
ADDR DATA[7..0]
10 k
10 k
MSEL[3..0]
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
GND
(3)
N.C. (2)
GND
DATA[7..0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
MSEL[3..0]
(3)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCEO
nCE
N.C. (2)
DATA[7..0] (4)
nCONFIG
DCLK (4)
Buffers (4)
Notes to Figure 8–21:
(1) You must connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the chain.
VCC must be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
(2) The nCEO pins of both devices are left unconnected or used as user I/O pins when configuring the same configuration
data into multiple devices.
(3) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect the MSEL pins,
refer to Table 8–4 on page 8–8 and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. DATA[7..0] and DCLK must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
You can use a single configuration chain to configure Cyclone IV devices with other
Altera devices that support FPP configuration. To ensure that all devices in the chain
complete configuration at the same time or that an error flagged by one device starts
reconfiguration in all devices, tie all the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–44
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
f For more information about configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, refer to Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains in volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
FPP Configuration Timing
Figure 8–22 shows the timing waveform for the FPP configuration when using an
external host.
Figure 8–22. FPP Configuration Timing Waveform
(1)
tCF2ST1
tCFG
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (2)
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
t
CLK
CONF_DONE (3)
tCF2CD
tST2CK
tCH tCL
(4)
DCLK
tDH
DATA[7..0]
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte n-1
(5)
Byte n
User Mode
tDSU
User Mode
User I/O User mode Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 8–22:
(1) The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode, nCONFIG, nSTATUS, and CONF_DONE
are at logic-high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
(2) After power up, the Cyclone IV device holds nSTATUS low during POR delay.
(3) After power up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
(4) Do not leave DCLK floating after configuration. It must be driven high or low, whichever is more convenient.
(5) DATA[7..0] is available as a user I/O pin after configuration; the state of the pin depends on the dual-purpose pin
settings.
Table 8–13 lists the FPP configuration timing parameters for Cyclone IV devices.
Table 8–13. FPP Timing Parameters for Cyclone IV Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Minimum
Symbol
Maximum
Parameter
Unit
Cyclone IV
(1)
Cyclone IV E
(2)
Cyclone IV
(1)
Cyclone IV E
(2)
tCF2CD
nCONFIG low to
CONF_DONE low
—
500
ns
tCF2ST0
nCONFIG low to
nSTATUS low
—
500
ns
tCFG
nCONFIG low pulse
width
500
—
ns
tSTATUS
nSTATUS low pulse
width
45
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
230
(3)
May 2013
µs
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–45
Table 8–13. FPP Timing Parameters for Cyclone IV Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Minimum
Symbol
Maximum
Parameter
Unit
Cyclone IV
(1)
Cyclone IV E
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG high to
nSTATUS high
tCF2CK
nCONFIG high to
first rising edge on
DCLK
230
tST2CK
nSTATUS high to
first rising edge of
DCLK
tDH
(2)
Cyclone IV
—
(1)
Cyclone IV E
230
(3)
(2)
(4)
µs
—
µs
2
—
µs
Data hold time after
rising edge on
DCLK
0
—
ns
tCD2UM
CONF_DONE high to
user mode (5)
300
650
µs
tCD2CU
CONF_DONE high to
CLKUSR enabled
4 × maximum DCLK period
—
—
tCD2UMC
CONF_DONE high to
user mode with
CLKUSR option on
—
—
tDSU
Data setup time
before rising edge
on DCLK
tCH
tCD2CU + (3,192 × CLKUSR period)
5
8
—
—
ns
DCLK high time
3.2
6.4
—
—
ns
tCL
DCLK low time
3.2
6.4
—
—
ns
tCLK
DCLK period
7.5
15
—
—
ns
fMAX
DCLK frequency
—
—
133
66
MHz
(6)
Notes to Table 8–13:
(1) Applicable for Cyclone IV GX and Cyclone IV E with 1.2-V core voltage.
(2) Applicable for Cyclone IV E with 1.0-V core voltage.
(3) This value is applicable if you do not delay configuration by extending the nCONFIG or nSTATUS low pulse width.
(4) This value is applicable if you do not delay configuration by externally holding the nSTATUS low.
(5) The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if you choose the internal oscillator as the clock source for starting the device.
(6) Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage have slower FMAX when compared with Cyclone IV GX devices with 1.2-V core voltage.
JTAG Configuration
JTAG has developed a specification for boundary-scan testing (BST). The BST
architecture offers the capability to efficiently test components on PCBs with tight
lead spacing. The BST architecture can test pin connections without using physical
test probes and capture functional data while a device is normally operating. You can
also use the JTAG circuitry to shift configuration data into the device. The Quartus II
software automatically generates .sof for JTAG configuration with a download cable
in the Quartus II software Programmer.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–46
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
f For more information about the JTAG boundary-scan testing, refer to the JTAG
Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
JTAG instructions have precedence over any other configuration modes. Therefore,
JTAG configuration can take place without waiting for other configuration modes to
complete. For example, if you attempt JTAG configuration in Cyclone IV devices
during PS configuration, PS configuration terminates and JTAG configuration begins.
If the MSEL pins are set to AS mode, the Cyclone IV device does not output a DCLK
signal when JTAG configuration takes place.
The four required pins for a device operating in JTAG mode are TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK.
All the JTAG input pins are powered by the VCCIO pin and support the LVTTL I/O
standard only. All user I/O pins are tri-stated during JTAG configuration. Table 8–14
explains the function of each JTAG pin.
Table 8–14. Dedicated JTAG Pins
Pin Name
Pin Type
Description
TDI
Test data
input
Serial input pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data shifts in on the
rising edge of TCK. If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG circuitry is
disabled by connecting this pin to VCC. TDI pin has weak internal pull-up resistors (typically 25
kΩ).
TDO
Test data
output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as test and programming data. Data shifts out on
the falling edge of TCK. The pin is tri-stated if data is not being shifted out of the device. If the
JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG circuitry is disabled by leaving this pin
unconnected.
TMS
Test mode
select
Input pin that provides the control signal to determine the transitions of the TAP controller
state machine. Transitions in the state machine occur on the rising edge of TCK. Therefore,
TMS must be set up before the rising edge of TCK. TMS is evaluated on the rising edge of TCK.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG circuitry is disabled by connecting
this pin to VCC. TMS pin has weak internal pull-up resistors (typically 25 kΩ).
TCK
Test clock
input
The clock input to the BST circuitry. Some operations occur at the rising edge, while others
occur at the falling edge. If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG circuitry
is disabled by connecting this pin to GND. The TCK pin has an internal weak pull-down resistor.
You can download data to the device through the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster,
ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV download cable, or the EthernetBlaster
communications cable during JTAG configuration. Configuring devices with a cable is
similar to programming devices in-system. Figure 8–23 and Figure 8–24 show the
JTAG configuration of a single Cyclone IV device.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–47
For device using VCCIO of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.3 V, refer to Figure 8–23. All I/O inputs must
maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V because JTAG pins do not have the internal
PCI clamping diodes to prevent voltage overshoot when using VCCIO of 2.5, 3.0, and
3.3 V. You must power up the VCC of the download cable with a 2.5-V supply from
VCCA. For device using VCCIO of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 V, refer to Figure 8–24. You can power
up the VCC of the download cable with the supply from VCCIO.
Figure 8–23. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable (2.5, 3.0, and 3.3-V
VCCIO Powering the JTAG Pins)
VCCA
(7)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCA
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
GND
N.C. (5)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Cyclone IV Device
nCE (4)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[ ]
DATA[0]
DCLK
(7)
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
TMS
TDI
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
GND
VIO (3)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 8–23:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use JTAG
configuration, connect the nCONFIG pin to logic-high and the MSEL pins to GND. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0]
to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the device’s VCCA.
For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. When using the USB-Blaster,
ByteBlaster II, ByteBlasterMV, and EthernetBlaster cables, this pin is a no connect.
(4) The nCE pin must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(6) Power up the VCC of the EthernetBlaster, ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5-V supply from
VCCA. Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster
cable. The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V
from the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
(7) Resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ..
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–48
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Figure 8–24. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable (1.5-V or 1.8-V VCCIO
Powering the JTAG Pins)
VCCIO
(7)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
GND
N.C. (5)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Cyclone IV Device
nCE (4)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[ ]
DATA[0]
DCLK
(7)
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
TMS
TDI
Pin 1
VCCIO (6)
GND
VIO (3)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 8–24:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use JTAG
configuration, connect the nCONFIG pin to logic-high and the MSEL pins to GND. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0]
to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(3) In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming;
otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) The nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(6) Power up the VCC of the EthernetBlaster, ByteBlaster II or USB-Blaster cable with supply from VCCIO. The
Ethernet-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, and USB-Blaster cables do not support a target supply voltage of 1.2 V. For the target
supply voltage value, refer to the ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide, the USB-Blaster Download Cable User
Guide, and the EthernetBlaster Communications Cable User Guide.
(7) Resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ.
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software places all
other devices in bypass mode. In bypass mode, devices pass programming data from
the TDI pin to the TDO pin through a single bypass register without being affected
internally. This scheme enables the programming software to program or verify the
target device. Configuration data driven into the device appears on the TDO pin one
clock cycle later.
The Quartus II software verifies successful JTAG configuration after completion. At
the end of configuration, the software checks the state of CONF_DONE through the JTAG
port. When Quartus II generates a .jam for a multi-device chain, it contains
instructions so that all the devices in the chain are initialized at the same time. If
CONF_DONE is not high, the Quartus II software indicates that configuration has failed.
If CONF_DONE is high, the software indicates that configuration was successful. After
the configuration bitstream is serially sent using the JTAG TDI port, the TCK port
clocks an additional clock cycles to perform device initialization.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–49
You can perform JTAG testing on Cyclone IV devices before, during, and after
configuration. Cyclone IV devices support the BYPASS, IDCODE, and SAMPLE
instructions during configuration without interrupting configuration. All other JTAG
instructions can only be issued by first interrupting configuration and
reprogramming I/O pins with the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE and CONFIG_IO instructions.
The CONFIG_IO instruction allows you to configure the I/O buffers through the JTAG
port and interrupts configuration when issued after the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
instruction. This instruction allows you to perform board-level testing prior to
configuring the Cyclone IV device or waiting for a configuration device to complete
configuration. Prior to issuing the CONFIG_IO instruction, you must issue the
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction. This is because in Cyclone IV devices, the CONFIG_IO
instruction does not hold nSTATUS low until reconfiguration, so you must disengage
the active configuration mode controller when active configuration is interrupted.
The ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction places the active configuration mode controllers in
an idle state prior to JTAG programming. Additionally, the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction
allows you to re-engage a disengaged active configuration mode controller.
1
You must follow a specific flow when executing the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE, CONFIG_IO,
and ACTIVE_ENGAGE JTAG instructions in Cyclone IV devices.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE) pins in
Cyclone IV devices do not affect JTAG boundary-scan or programming operations.
Toggling these pins do not affect JTAG operations (other than the usual
boundary-scan operation).
When designing a board for JTAG configuration of Cyclone IV devices, consider the
dedicated configuration pins. Table 8–15 describes how you must connect these pins
during JTAG configuration.
Table 8–15. Dedicated Configuration Pin Connections During JTAG Configuration
Signal
Description
nCE
On all Cyclone IV devices in the chain, nCE must be driven low by connecting it to GND, pulling it low
through a resistor, or driving it by some control circuitry. For devices that are also in multi-device AS, AP,
PS, or FPP configuration chains, you must connect the nCE pins to GND during JTAG configuration or
JTAG configured in the same order as the configuration chain.
nCEO
On all Cyclone IV devices in the chain, nCEO is left floating or connected to the nCE of the next device.
MSEL
These pins must not be left floating. These pins support whichever non-JTAG configuration that you used
in production. If you only use JTAG configuration, tie these pins to GND.
nCONFIG
Driven high by connecting to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides and pulling up through
a resistor or driven high by some control circuitry.
nSTATUS
Pull to the V CCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides through a 10-kΩ resistor. When configuring
multiple devices in the same JTAG chain, each nSTATUS pin must be pulled up to the VCCIO individually.
CONF_DONE
Pull to the V CCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides through a 10-kΩ resistor. When configuring
multiple devices in the same JTAG chain, each CONF_DONE pin must be pulled up to V CCIO supply of the
bank in which the pin resides individually. CONF_DONE going high at the end of JTAG configuration
indicates successful configuration.
DCLK
Must not be left floating. Drive low or high, whichever is more convenient on your board.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–50
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
When programming a JTAG device chain, one JTAG-compatible header is connected
to several devices. The number of devices in the JTAG chain is limited only by the
drive capability of the download cable. When four or more devices are connected in a
JTAG chain, Altera recommends buffering the TCK, TDI, and TMS pins with an on-board
buffer.
JTAG-chain device programming is ideal when the system contains multiple devices,
or when testing your system with JTAG BST circuitry. Figure 8–25 and Figure 8–26
show multi-device JTAG configuration.
For devices using 2.5-, 3.0-, and 3.3-V VCCIO supply, you must refer to Figure 8–25. All
I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V because JTAG pins do not
have the internal PCI clamping diodes to prevent voltage overshoot when using 2.5-,
3.0-, and 3.3- V VCCIO supply. You must power up the VCC of the download cable with
a 2.5-V V CCA supply. For device using VCCIO of 1.2, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V, refer to
Figure 8–26. You can power up the VCC of the download cable with the supply from
VCCIO.
Figure 8–25. JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable (2.5, 3.0, and 3.3-V V CCIO Powering the
JTAG Pins)
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
Pin 1
VCCA
VCCIO(1)
10 kΩ Cyclone IV Device
(6)
VCCA (5) V
CCA
(6)
VIO
(3)
VCCIO (1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[ ]
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
CONF_DONE
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ Cyclone IV Device
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
CONF_DONE
MSEL[ ]
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ Cyclone IV Device
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[ ]
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
TDO
TCK
1 kΩ
Notes to Figure 8–25:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG configuration, connect the nCONFIG
pin to logic-high and the MSEL pins to GND. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0] to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO must match the VCCA of the device. For this value, refer to the
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. In the ByteBlasterMV cable, this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and
ByteBlaster II cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) You must connect the nCE pin to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5-V supply from VCCA. Third-party programmers must switch
to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable. The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V
circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User
Guide.
(6) Resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–51
Figure 8–26. JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable (1.2, 1.5, and 1.8-V V CCIO Powering the
JTAG Pins)
VCCIO
Download Cable
10-Pin Male Header
Pin 1
VCCIO (5)
VCCIO
10 kΩ
(6)
VCCIO (1)
(6)
VIO
(3)
VCCIO (1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Cyclone IV Device
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL[ ]
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
CONF_DONE
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Cyclone IV Device
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG CONF_DONE
MSEL[ ]
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
VCCIO (1)
Cyclone IV Device
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCONFIG CONF_DONE
MSEL[ ]
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
1 kΩ
Notes to Figure 8–26:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG configuration, connect the nCONFIG
pin to logic-high and the MSEL pins to GND. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0] to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(3) In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II cable, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) You must connect the nCE pin to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) Power up the VCC of the ByteBlaster II or USB-Blaster cable with supply from VCCIO. The ByteBlaster II and USB-Blaster cables do not support a
target supply voltage of 1.2 V. For the target supply voltage value, refer to the ByteBlaster II Download Cable User Guide and the USB-Blaster
Download Cable User Guide.
(6) Resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ.
1
If a non-Cyclone IV device is cascaded in the JTAG-chain, TDO of the non-Cyclone IV
device driving into TDI of the Cyclone IV device must fit the maximum overshoot
outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
The CONF_DONE and nSTATUS signals are shared in multi-device AS, AP, PS, and FPP
configuration chains to ensure that the devices enter user mode at the same time after
configuration is complete. When the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS signals are shared among
all the devices, you must configure every device when JTAG configuration is
performed.
If you only use JTAG configuration, Altera recommends that you connect the circuitry
as shown in Figure 8–25 or Figure 8–26, in which each of the CONF_DONE and nSTATUS
signals are isolated so that each device can enter user mode individually.
After the first device completes configuration in a multi-device configuration chain,
its nCEO pin drives low to activate the nCE pin of the second device, which prompts the
second device to begin configuration. Therefore, if these devices are also in a JTAG
chain, ensure that the nCE pins are connected to GND during JTAG configuration or
that the devices are JTAG configured in the same order as the configuration chain. As
long as the devices are JTAG configured in the same order as the multi-device
configuration chain, the nCEO of the previous device drives the nCE pin of the next
device low when it has successfully been JTAG configured. You can place other Altera
devices that have JTAG support in the same JTAG chain for device programming and
configuration.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–52
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
1
JTAG configuration allows an unlimited number of Cyclone IV devices to be cascaded
in a JTAG chain.
f For more information about configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, refer to the Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains chapter in
volume 2 of the Configuration Handbook.
Figure 8–27 shows JTAG configuration with a Cyclone IV device and a
microprocessor.
Figure 8–27. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Microprocessor
Cyclone IV Device
Memory
nCE(3)
ADDR
DATA
N.C.
(2)
(2)
(2)
Microprocessor
nCEO
nCONFIG
DATA[0]
DCLK
TDI (4)
TCK (4)
TMS (4)
MSEL[ ]
(2)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
TDO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
Notes to Figure 8–27:
(1) You must connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the chain.
(2) Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If you only use a JTAG
configuration, connect the nCONFIG pin to logic-high and the MSEL pins to GND. In addition, pull DCLK and DATA[0]
to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
(3) You must connect the nCE pin to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(4) All I/O inputs must maintain a maximum AC voltage of 4.1 V. Signals driving into TDI, TMS, and TCK must fit the
maximum overshoot outlined in Equation 8–1 on page 8–5.
Configuring Cyclone IV Devices with Jam STAPL
Jam™ STAPL, JEDEC standard JESD-71, is a standard file format for in-system
programmability (ISP) purposes. Jam STAPL supports programming or configuration
of programmable devices and testing of electronic systems, using the IEEE 1149.1
JTAG interface. Jam STAPL is a freely licensed open standard. The Jam Player
provides an interface for manipulating the IEEE Std. 1149.1 JTAG TAP state machine.
f For more information about JTAG and Jam STAPL in embedded environments, refer
to AN 425: Using Command-Line Jam STAPL Solution for Device Programming. To
download the Jam Player, visit the Altera website (www.altera.com).
Configuring Cyclone IV Devices with the JRunner Software Driver
The JRunner software driver allows you to configure Cyclone IV devices through the
ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV cables in JTAG mode. The supported programming
input file is in .rbf format. The JRunner software driver also requires a Chain
Description File (.cdf) generated by the Quartus II software. The JRunner software
driver is targeted for embedded JTAG configuration. The source code is developed for
the Windows NT operating system (OS). You can customize the code to make it run
on your embedded platform.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
1
8–53
The .rbf used by the JRunner software driver cannot be a compressed .rbf because the
JRunner software driver uses JTAG-based configuration. During JTAG-based
configuration, the real-time decompression feature is not available.
f For more information about the JRunner software driver, refer to AN 414: JRunner
Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG Configuration and the source files
on the Altera website at (www.altera.com).
Combining JTAG and AS Configuration Schemes
You can combine the AS configuration scheme with the JTAG-based configuration
(Figure 8–28). This setup uses two 10-pin download cable headers on the board. One
download cable is used in JTAG mode to configure the Cyclone IV device directly
through the JTAG interface. The other download cable is used in AS mode to program
the serial configuration device in-system through the AS programming interface. If
you try configuring the device using both schemes simultaneously, JTAG
configuration takes precedence and AS configuration terminates.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–54
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Figure 8–28. Combining JTAG and AS Configuration Schemes
VCCIO (1) VCCIO(1) VCCIO (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial 10kΩ
Configuration
Device
GND
Pin 1
10 kΩ
Cyclone IV Device
VCCA
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE nCEO N.C.
(8)
nCONFIG
(9)
nCE
CLKUSR
VCCA
3.3 V
3.3 V
(4)
MSEL[ ]
3.3 V
3.3 V
(8)
(6)
DATA
DATA[0]
TCK
DCLK
DCLK
TDO
nCS
nCSO (7)
TMS
ASDI
ASDO (7)
TDI
Download Cable
(JTAG Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
(top view)
Pin 1
VCCA (5)
VIO (3)
3.3 V (2)
1 kΩ
10 pf
GND
10 pf
10 pf
Download Cable
(AS Mode)
10-Pin Male Header
GND
GND
10 pf
(6)
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 8–28:
(1) Connect these pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) Power up the VCC of the EthernetBlaster, ByteBlaster II, or USB-Blaster cable with the 3.3-V supply.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver.The VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. When using the
ByteBlasterMV download cable, this pin is a no connect. When using the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II cables, this
pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL for AS
configuration schemes, refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect
the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(5) Power up the VCC of the EthernetBlaster, ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5-V VCCA supply.
Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable.
The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from
the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
(6) You must place the diodes and capacitors as close as possible to the Cyclone IV device. Altera recommends using
the Schottky diode, which has a relatively lower forward diode voltage (VF) than the switching and Zener diodes, for
effective voltage clamping.
(7) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions
as DATA[1] pin in AP and FPP modes.
(8) Resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ..
(9) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for
DCLK.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–55
Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System with the JTAG Interface
Cyclone IV devices in a single- or multiple-device chain support in-system
programming of a serial configuration device with the JTAG interface through the SFL
design. The intelligent host or download cable of the board can use the four JTAG pins
on the Cyclone IV device to program the serial configuration device in system, even if
the host or download cable cannot access the configuration pins (DCLK, DATA, ASDI, and
nCS pins).
The SFL design is a JTAG-based in-system programming solution for Altera serial
configuration devices. The SFL is a bridge design for the Cyclone IV device that uses
their JTAG interface to access the EPCS JTAG Indirect Configuration Device
Programming (.jic) file and then uses the AS interface to program the EPCS device.
Both the JTAG interface and AS interface are bridged together inside the SFL design.
In a multiple device chain, you must only configure the master device that controls
the serial configuration device. Slave devices in the multiple device chain that are
configured by the serial configuration device do not have to be configured when
using this feature. To successfully use this feature, set the MSEL pins of the master
device to select the AS configuration scheme (Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on
page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9). The serial configuration device in-system
programming through the Cyclone IV device JTAG interface has three stages, which
are described in the following sections:
■
“Loading the SFL Design”
■
“ISP of the Configuration Device” on page 8–56
■
“Reconfiguration” on page 8–57
Loading the SFL Design
The SFL design is a design inside the Cyclone IV device that bridges the JTAG
interface and AS interface with glue logic.
The intelligent host uses the JTAG interface to configure the master device with a SFL
design. The SFL design allows the master device to control the access of four serial
configuration device pins, also known as the Active Serial Memory Interface (ASMI)
pins, through the JTAG interface. The ASMI pins are serial clock input (DCLK), serial
data output (DATA), AS data input (ASDI), and active-low chip select (nCS) pins.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–56
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
If you configure a master device with an SFL design, the master device enters user
mode even though the slave devices in the multiple device chain are not being
configured. The master device enters user mode with a SFL design even though the
CONF_DONE signal is externally held low by the other slave devices in chain.
Figure 8–29 shows the JTAG configuration of a single Cyclone IV device with a SFL
design.
Figure 8–29. Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System Using the JTAG Interface
VCCA
(9)
VCCIO (1)
VCCIO (1)
VCCA
10 kΩ
(9)
Cyclone IV Device
Serial Configuration
VCCIO (1)
Device
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
DATA
DCLK
nCS
ASDI
25 Ω (7)
nCE (4)
GND
N.C. (5)
(2)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL[ ]
DATA[0]
DCLK
nCSO (8)
ASDO (8)
Download Cable 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
TMS
TDI
Serial
Flash
Loader
Pin 1
VCCA (6)
GND
VIO (3)
CLKUSR
(10)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 8–29:
(1) Connect the pull-up resistors to the VCCIO supply of the bank in which the pin resides.
(2) The MSEL pin settings vary for different configuration voltage standards and POR time. To connect MSEL for AS
configuration schemes, refer to Table 8–3 on page 8–8, Table 8–4 on page 8–8, and Table 8–5 on page 8–9. Connect
the MSEL pins directly to VCCA or GND.
(3) Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. The VIO must match the VCCA of the
device. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide. When using the
ByteBlasterMV download cable, this pin is a no connect. When using USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II, and EthernetBlaster
cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
(4) You must connect the nCE pin to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
(5) The nCEO pin is left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed the nCE pin of another device.
(6) Power up the VCC of the EthernetBlaster, ByteBlaster II, USB-Blaster, or ByteBlasterMV cable with a 2.5- V VCCA supply.
Third-party programmers must switch to 2.5 V. Pin 4 of the header is a VCC power supply for the MasterBlaster cable.
The MasterBlaster cable can receive power from either 5.0- or 3.3-V circuit boards, DC power supply, or 5.0 V from
the USB cable. For this value, refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable User Guide.
(7) Connect the series resistor at the near end of the serial configuration device.
(8) These pins are dual-purpose I/O pins. The nCSO pin functions as FLASH_nCE pin in AP mode. The ASDO pin functions
as DATA[1] pin in AP and FPP modes.
(9) Resistor value can vary from 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ.
(10) Only Cyclone IV GX devices have an option to select CLKUSR (40 MHz maximum) as the external clock source for
DCLK.
ISP of the Configuration Device
In the second stage, the SFL design in the master device allows you to write the
configuration data for the device chain into the serial configuration device with the
Cyclone IV device JTAG interface. The JTAG interface sends the programming data
for the serial configuration device to the Cyclone IV device first. The Cyclone IV
device then uses the ASMI pins to send the data to the serial configuration device.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–57
Reconfiguration
After the configuration data is successfully written into the serial configuration
device, the Cyclone IV device does not automatically start reconfiguration. The
intelligent host issues the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction to initialize the
reconfiguration process. During reconfiguration, the master device is reset and the
SFL design no longer exists in the Cyclone IV device and the serial configuration
device configures all the devices in the chain with the user design.
f For more information about the SFL, refer to AN 370: Using the Serial FlashLoader with
Quartus II Software.
JTAG Instructions
f For more information about the JTAG binary instruction code, refer to the JTAG
Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
I/O Reconfiguration
Use the CONFIG_IO instruction to reconfigure the I/O configuration shift register
(IOCSR) chain. This instruction allows you to perform board-level testing prior to
configuring the Cyclone IV device or waiting for a configuration device to complete
configuration. After the configuration is interrupted and JTAG testing is complete,
you must reconfigure the part through the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction or by
pulsing the nCONFIG pin low.
You can issue the CONFIG_IO instruction any time during user mode.
You must meet the following timing restrictions when using the CONFIG_IO
instruction:
■
The CONFIG_IO instruction cannot be issued when the nCONFIG pin is low
■
You must observe a 230 μs minimum wait time after any of the following
conditions:
■
May 2013
Altera Corporation
■
nCONFIG pin goes high
■
Issuing the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction
■
Issuing the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction, before issuing the CONFIG_IO instruction
You must wait 230 μs after power up, with the nCONFIG pin high before issuing the
CONFIG_IO instruction (or wait for the nSTATUS pin to go high)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–58
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Use the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction with the CONFIG_IO instruction to interrupt
configuration. Table 8–16 lists the sequence of instructions to use for various
CONFIG_IO usage scenarios.
Table 8–16. JTAG CONFIG_IO (without JTAG_PROGRAM) Instruction Flows
(1)
Configuration Scheme and Current State of the Cyclone IV Device
Prior to User Mode
(Interrupting Configuration)
JTAG Instruction
PS
FPP
AS
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
O
O
CONFIG_IO
R
R
JTAG Boundary Scan
Instructions (no
JTAG_PROGRAM)
O
O
ACTIVE_ENGAGE
A
PULSE_NCONFIG
A
Pulse nCONFIG pin
JTAG TAP Reset
R
R
User Mode
Power Up
AP
PS
FPP
AS
O
0
O
O
O
0
—
—
—
—
R
R
R
R
R
R
NA
NA
NA
NA
O
0
O
O
O
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
R
(2)
A
(3)
A
(3)
R
R
(2)
A
(3)
A
(3)
R
R
A
R
A
R
(2)
AP
R
(2)
PS
FPP
AS
AP
O
0
—
—
—
—
O
0
—
—
—
—
R
R
—
—
—
—
Notes to Table 8–16:
(1) You must execute “R” indicates that the instruction before the next instruction, “O” indicates the optional instruction, “A” indicates
that the instruction must be executed, and “NA” indicates that the instruction is not allowed in this mode.
(2) Required if you use ACTIVE_DISENGAGE.
(3) Neither of the instruction is required if you use ACTIVE_ENGAGE.
The CONFIG_IO instruction does not hold nSTATUS low until reconfiguration. You must
disengage the AS or AP configuration controller by issuing the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE and
ACTIVE_ENGAGE instructions when active configuration is interrupted. You must issue
the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction alone or prior to the CONFIG_IO instruction if the
JTAG_PROGRAM instruction is to be issued later (Table 8–17). This puts the active
configuration controllers into the idle state. The active configuration controller is reengaged after user mode is reached through JTAG programming (Table 8–17).
1
While executing the CONFIG_IO instruction, all user I/Os are tri-stated.
If reconfiguration after interruption is performed using configuration modes (rather
than using JTAG_PROGRAM), it is not necessary to issue the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
instruction prior to CONFIG_IO. You can start reconfiguration by either pulling nCONFIG
low for at least 500 ns or issuing the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction. If the
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction was issued and the JTAG_PROGRAM instruction fails to
enter user mode, you must issue the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction to reactivate the active
configuration controller. Issuing the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction also triggers
reconfiguration in configuration modes; therefore, it is not necessary to pull nCONFIG
low or issue the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–59
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
The ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction places the active configuration controller (AS and
AP) into an idle state prior to JTAG programming. The two purposes of placing the
active controller in an idle state are:
■
To ensure that it is not trying to configure the device during JTAG programming
■
To allow the controllers to properly recognize a successful JTAG programming
that results in the device reaching user mode
The ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction is required before JTAG programming regardless
of the current state of the Cyclone IV device if the MSEL pins are set to an AS or AP
configuration scheme. If the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction is issued during a passive
configuration scheme (PS or FPP), it has no effect on the Cyclone IV device. Similarly,
the CONFIG_IO instruction is issued after an ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction, but is no
longer required to properly halt configuration. Table 8–17 lists the required,
recommended, and optional instructions for each configuration mode. The ordering
of the required instructions is a hard requirement and must be met to ensure
functionality.
Table 8–17. JTAG Programming Instruction Flows
(1)
Configuration Scheme and Current State of the Cyclone IV Device
Prior to User Mode (Interrupting
Configuration)
JTAG Instruction
PS
User Mode
Power Up
FPP
AS
AP
PS
FPP
AS
AP
PS
FPP
AS
AP
ACTIVE_DISENGAGE
O
O
R
R
O
O
O
R
O
O
R
R
CONFIG_IO
Rc
Rc
O
O
O
O
O
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
Other JTAG instructions
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
0
O
O
O
0
JTAG_PROGRAM
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
CHECK_STATUS
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
Rc
JTAG_STARTUP
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
JTAG TAP Reset/other
instruction
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Note to Table 8–17:
(1) “R” indicates that the instruction must be executed before the next instruction, “O” indicates the optional instruction, “Rc” indicates the
recommended instruction, and “NA” indicates that the instruction is not allowed in this mode.
In the AS or AP configuration scheme, the ACTIVE_DISENGAGE instruction puts the
active configuration controller into idle state. If a successful JTAG programming is
executed, the active controller is automatically re-engaged after user mode is reached
through JTAG programming. This causes the active controller to transition to their
respective user mode states.
If JTAG programming fails to get the Cyclone IV device to enter user mode and
re-engage active programming, there are available methods to achieve this:
May 2013
■
In AS configuration scheme, you can re-engage the AS controller by moving the
JTAG TAP controller to the reset state or by issuing the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–60
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
■
In AP configuration scheme, the only way to re-engage the AP controller is to issue
the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction. In this case, asserting the nCONFIG pin does not reengage either active controller.
ACTIVE_ENGAGE
The ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction allows you to re-engage a disengaged active controller.
You can issue this instruction any time during configuration or user mode to reengage an already disengaged active controller, as well as trigger reconfiguration of
the Cyclone IV device in the active configuration scheme.
The ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction functions as the PULSE_NCONFIG instruction when the
device is in the PS or FPP configuration schemes. The nCONFIG pin is disabled when
the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction is issued.
1
Altera does not recommend using the ACTIVE_ENGAGE instruction, but it is provided as
a fail-safe instruction for re-engaging the active configuration controller (AS and AP).
Overriding the Internal Oscillator
This feature allows you to override the internal oscillator during the active
configuration scheme. The AS and AP configuration controllers use the internal
oscillator as the clock source. You can change the clock source to CLKUSR through the
JTAG instruction.
The EN_ACTIVE_CLK and DIS_ACTIVE_CLK JTAG instructions toggle on or off whether
or not the active clock is sourced from the CLKUSR pin or the internal configuration
oscillator. To source the active clock from the CLKUSR pin, issue the EN_ACTIVE_CLK
instruction. This causes the CLKUSR pin to become the active clock source. When using
the EN_ACTIVE_CLK instruction, you must enable the internal oscillator for the clock
change to occur. By default, the configuration oscillator is disabled after configuration
and initialization is complete as well as the device has entered user mode.
However, the internal oscillator is enabled in user mode by any of the following
conditions:
1
■
A reconfiguration event (for example, driving the nCONFIG pin to go low)
■
Remote update is enabled
■
Error detection is enabled
When using the EN_ACTIVE_CLK and DIS_ACTIVE_CLK JTAG instructions to override
the internal oscillator, you must clock the CLKUSR pin at two times the expected DCLK
frequency. The CLKUSR pin allows a maximum frequency of 40 MHz (40 MHz DCLK).
Normally, a test instrument uses the CLKUSR pin when it wants to drive its own clock
to control the AS state machine.
To revert the clock source back to the configuration oscillator, issue the
DIS_ACTIVE_CLK instruction. After you issue the DIS_ACTIVE_CLK instruction, you
must continue to clock the CLKUSR pin for 10 clock cycles. Otherwise, even toggling the
nCONFIG pin does not revert the clock source and reconfiguration does not occur. A
POR reverts the clock source back to the configuration oscillator. Toggling the nCONFIG
pin or driving the JTAG state machine to reset state does not revert the clock source.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–61
EN_ACTIVE_CLK
The EN_ACTIVE_CLK instruction causes the CLKUSR pin signal to replace the internal
oscillator as the clock source. When using the EN_ACTIVE_CLK instruction, you must
enable the internal oscillator for the clock change to occur. After this instruction is
issued, other JTAG instructions can be issued while the CLKUSR pin signal remains as
the clock source. The clock source is only reverted back to the internal oscillator by
issuing the DIS_ACTIVE_CLK instruction or a POR.
DIS_ACTIVE_CLK
The DIS_ACTIVE_CLK instruction breaks the CLKUSR enable latch set by the
EN_ACTIVE_CLK instruction and causes the clock source to revert back to the internal
oscillator. After the DIS_ACTIVE_CLK instruction is issued, you must continue to clock
the CLKUSR pin for 10 clock cycles.
Changing the Start Boot Address of the AP Flash
In the AP configuration scheme (for Cyclone IV E devices only), you can change the
default configuration boot address of the parallel flash memory to any desired
address using the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction.
APFC_BOOT_ADDR
The APFC_BOOT_ADDR instruction is for Cyclone IV E devices only and allows you to
define a start boot address for the parallel flash memory in the AP configuration
scheme.
This instruction shifts in a start boot address for the AP flash. When this instruction
becomes the active instruction, the TDI and TDO pins are connected through a 22-bit
active boot address shift register. The shifted-in boot address bits get loaded into the
22-bit AP boot address update register, which feeds into the AP controller. The content
of the AP boot address update register can be captured and shifted-out of the active
boot address shift register from TDO.
The boot address in the boot address shift register and update register are shifted to
the right (in the LSB direction) by two bits versus the intended boot address. The
reason for this is that the two LSB of the address are not accessible. When this boot
address is fed into the AP controller, two 0s are attached in the end as LSB, thereby
pushing the shifted-in boot address to the left by two bits, which become the actual
AP boot address the AP controller gets.
If you have enabled the remote update feature, the APFC_BOOT_ADDR instruction sets
the boot address for the factory configuration only.
1
May 2013
The APFC_BOOT_ADDR instruction is retained after reconfiguration while the system
board is still powered on. However, you must reprogram the instruction whenever
you restart the system board.
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–62
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Device Configuration Pins
Table 8–18 through Table 8–21 describe the connections and functionality of all the
configuration related pins on Cyclone IV devices. Table 8–18 and Table 8–19 list the
device pin configuration for the Cyclone IV GX and Cyclone IV E, respectively.
Table 8–18. Configuration Pin Summary for Cyclone IV GX Devices
Bank
Description
Input/Output
Dedicated
Powered By
Configuration Mode
8
Data[4:2]
Input
—
VCCIO
FPP
3
Data[7:5]
Input
—
VCCIO
FPP
9
(2)
Output
—
VCCIO
3
nCSO
CRC_ERROR
(2)
9
DATA[0]
9
DATA[1]/ASDO
3
INIT_DONE
3
nSTATUS
9
nCE
9
DCLK
3
CONF_DONE
9
(2)
Output
—
Input
Yes
Input
Output
—
Optional, all modes
VCCIO
PS, FPP, AS
VCCIO
FPP
VCCIO
AS
Output
—
Pull-up
Optional, all modes
Bidirectional
Yes
Pull-up
All modes
Input
Yes
VCCIO
All modes
VCCIO
PS, FPP
VCCIO
AS
Input
(2)
VCCIO/Pull-up
AS
(1)
Output
Yes
Bidirectional
Yes
Pull-up
All modes
TDI
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
9
TMS
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
9
TCK
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
9
nCONFIG
Input
Yes
VCCIO
All modes
8
CLKUSR
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional
3
nCEO
Output
—
VCCIO
Optional, all modes
3
MSEL
Input
Yes
VCCINT
All modes
9
TDO
Output
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
6
DEV_OE
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional
6
DEV_CLRn
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional
Notes to Table 8–18:
(1) The CRC_ERROR pin is a dedicated open-drain output or an optional user I/O pin. Active high signal indicates that the error detection circuit has
detected errors in the configuration SRAM bits. This pin is optional and is used when the CRC error detection circuit is enabled in the Quartus II
software from the Error Detection CRC tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box. When using this pin, connect it to an external 10-kΩ
pull-up resistor to an acceptable voltage that satisfies the input voltage of the receiving device.
(2) To tri-state AS configuration pins in the AS configuration scheme, turn on the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in user mode
option from the Device and Pin Options dialog box. This tri-states DCLK, nCSO, Data[0], and Data[1]/ASDO pins. Dual-purpose pins settings
for these pins are ignored. To set these pins to different settings, turn off the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in user mode
option and set the desired setting from the Dual-purpose Pins Setting menu.
Table 8–19. Configuration Pin Summary for Cyclone IV E Devices (Part 1 of 3)
Bank
Description
1
nCSO (1)
FLASH_nCE
(2)
6
CRC_ERROR
(3)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Input/Output
Dedicated
Powered By
Configuration Mode
Output
—
VCCIO
AS, AP
Output
—
VCCIO/Pull-up
(4)
Optional, all modes
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–63
Table 8–19. Configuration Pin Summary for Cyclone IV E Devices (Part 2 of 3)
Bank
Description
1
DATA[0]
(1), (2)
1
DATA[1]
(2)
Input/Output
Input
Bidirectional
Dedicated
—
Input
/ASDO
(1)
Output
—
Bidirectional
8
DATA[7..2]
8
DATA[15..8]
6
INIT_DONE
1
nSTATUS
1
nCE
(2)
(1), (2)
Input
Bidirectional
(2)
—
Powered By
Configuration Mode
VCCIO
PS, FPP, AS
VCCIO
AP
VCCIO
FPP
VCCIO
AS
VCCIO
AP
VCCIO
FPP
VCCIO
AP
Bidirectional
—
VCCIO
AP
Output
—
Pull-up
Optional, all modes
Bidirectional
Yes
Pull-up
All modes
Input
Yes
VCCIO
All modes
Input
Yes
VCCIO
PS, FPP
Output
—
VCCIO
AS, AP
Bidirectional
Yes
Pull-up
All modes
1
DCLK
6
CONF_DONE
1
TDI
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
1
TMS
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
1
TCK
Input
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
1
nCONFIG
Input
Yes
VCCIO
All modes
6
CLKUSR
6
nCEO
6
MSEL[]
1
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional
Output
—
VCCIO
Optional, all modes
Input
Yes
VCCINT
All modes
TDO
Output
Yes
VCCIO
JTAG
7
PADD[14..0]
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
8
PADD[19..15]
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
6
PADD[23..20]
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
1
nRESET
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
6
nAVD
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
6
nOE
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
6
nWE
Output
—
VCCIO
AP
5
DEV_OE
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional, AP
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–64
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Table 8–19. Configuration Pin Summary for Cyclone IV E Devices (Part 3 of 3)
Bank
5
Description
DEV_CLRn
Input/Output
Dedicated
Powered By
Configuration Mode
Input
—
VCCIO
Optional, AP
Notes to Table 8–19:
(1) To tri-state AS configuration pins in the AS configuration scheme, turn-on the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in user mode
option from the Device and Pin Options dialog box. This tri-states DCLK, nCSO, Data[0], and Data[1]/ASDO pins. Dual-purpose pins settings
for these pins are ignored. To set these pins to different settings, turn off the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in user mode
option and set the desired setting from the Dual-purpose Pins Setting menu.
(2) To tri-state AP configuration pins in the AP configuration scheme, turn-on the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in user mode
option from the Device and Pin Options dialog box. This tri-states DCLK, Data[0..15], FLASH_nCE, and other AP pins. Dual-purpose pins
settings for these pins are ignored. To set these pins to different settings, turn off the Enable input tri-state on active configuration pins in
user mode option and set the desired setting from the Dual-purpose Pins Setting menu.
(3) The CRC_ERROR pin is not available in Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage.
(4) The CRC_ERROR pin is a dedicated open-drain output or an optional user I/O pin. Active high signal indicates that the error detection circuit has
detected errors in the configuration SRAM bits. This pin is optional and is used when the CRC error detection circuit is enabled in the Quartus II
software from the Error Detection CRC tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog box. When using this pin, connect it to an external 10-kΩ
pull-up resistor to an acceptable voltage that satisfies the input voltage of the receiving device.
Table 8–20 describes the dedicated configuration pins. You must properly connect
these pins on your board for successful configuration. You may not need some of
these pins for your configuration schemes.
Table 8–20. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone IV Device (Part 1 of 4)
Pin Name
MSEL
nCONFIG
User Mode
N/A
N/A
Configuration
Scheme
All
All
Pin Type
Description
Input
Configuration input that sets the Cyclone IV device
configuration scheme. You must hardwire these pins to
VCCA or GND. The MSEL pins have internal 9-kΩ pull-down
resistors that are always active.
Input
Configuration control input. Pulling this pin low with
external circuitry during user mode causes the Cyclone IV
device to lose its configuration data, enter a reset state, and
tri-state all I/O pins. Returning this pin to a logic-high level
starts a reconfiguration.
The Cyclone IV device drives nSTATUS low immediately
after power-up and releases it after the POR time.
nSTATUS
N/A
All
Bidirectional
open-drain
■
Status output—if an error occurs during configuration,
nSTATUS is pulled low by the target device.
■
Status input—if an external source (for example,
another Cyclone IV device) drives the nSTATUS pin low
during configuration or initialization, the target device
enters an error state.
Driving nSTATUS low after configuration and initialization
does not affect the configured device. If you use a
configuration device, driving nSTATUS low causes the
configuration device to attempt to configure the device, but
because the device ignores transitions on nSTATUS in user
mode, the device does not reconfigure. To start a
reconfiguration, you must pull nCONFIG low.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–65
Table 8–20. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone IV Device (Part 2 of 4)
Pin Name
CONF_DONE
User Mode
N/A
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Bidirectional
open-drain
All
Description
■
Status output—the target Cyclone IV device drives the
CONF_DONE pin low before and during configuration.
After all the configuration data is received without error
and the initialization cycle starts, the target device
releases CONF_DONE.
■
Status input—after all the data is received and
CONF_DONE goes high, the target device initializes and
enters user mode. The CONF_DONE pin must have an
external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor in order for the device to
initialize.
Driving CONF_DONE low after configuration and initialization
does not affect the configured device. Do not connect bus
holds or ADC to CONF_DONE pin.
N/A
nCE
N/A if
option is on.
I/O if option
is off.
nCEO
All
Input
Output
open-drain
All
Active-low chip enable. The nCE pin activates the Cyclone
IV device with a low signal to allow configuration. You must
hold nCE pin low during configuration, initialization, and
user-mode. In a single-device configuration, you must tie
the nCE pin low. In a multi-device configuration, nCE of the
first device is tied low while its nCEO pin is connected to
nCE of the next device in the chain. You must hold the nCE
pin low for successful JTAG programming of the device.
Output that drives low when configuration is complete. In a
single-device configuration, you can leave this pin floating
or use it as a user I/O pin after configuration. In a multidevice configuration, this pin feeds the nCE pin of the next
device. The nCEO of the last device in the chain is left
floating or used as a user I/O pin after configuration.
If you use the nCEO pin to feed the nCE pin of the next
device, use an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to pull the
nCEO pin high to the VCCIO voltage of its I/O bank to help the
internal weak pull-up resistor.
If you use the nCEO pin as a user I/O pin after configuration,
set the state of the pin on the Dual-Purpose Pin settings.
nCSO,
FLASH_nCE
Output control signal from the Cyclone IV device to the
serial configuration device in AS mode that enables the
configuration device. This pin functions as nCSO in AS
mode and FLASH_nCE in AP mode.
I/O
(1)
AS, AP
(2)
Output
Output control signal from the Cyclone IV device to the
parallel flash in AP mode that enables the flash. Connects to
the CE# pin on the Micron P30 or P33 flash. (2)
This pin has an internal pull-up resistor that is always
active.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–66
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Table 8–20. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone IV Device (Part 3 of 4)
Pin Name
User Mode
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Input (PS,
FPP) (2)
N/A
Description
In PS and FPP configuration, DCLK is the clock input used
to clock data from an external source into the target
Cyclone IV device. Data is latched into the device on the
rising edge of DCLK.
In AS mode, DCLK is an output from the Cyclone IV device
that provides timing for the configuration interface. It has
an internal pull-up resistor (typically 25 kΩ) that is always
active.
DCLK (1)
I/O
PS, FPP, AS,
AP (2)
Output (AS,
AP)
In AP mode, DCLK is an output from the Cyclone IV E device
that provides timing for the configuration interface. (2)
In AS or AP configuration schemes, this pin is driven into
an inactive state after configuration completes.
Alternatively, in active schemes, you can use this pin as a
user I/O during user mode. In PS or FPP schemes that use
a control host, you must drive DCLK either high or low,
whichever is more convenient. In passive schemes, you
cannot use DCLK as a user I/O in user mode. Toggling this
pin after configuration does not affect the configured
device.
Data input. In serial configuration modes, bit-wide
configuration data is presented to the target Cyclone IV
device on the DATA[0] pin.
DATA[0] (1)
I/O
PS, FPP, AS,
AP (2)
Input (PS,
FPP, AS).
Bidirectional
(AP) (2)
In AS mode, DATA[0] has an internal pull-up resistor that
is always active. After AS configuration, DATA[0] is a
dedicated input pin with optional user control.
After PS or FPP configuration, DATA[0] is available as a
user I/O pin. The state of this pin depends on the
Dual-Purpose Pin settings.
After AP configuration, DATA[0]is a dedicated bidirectional
pin with optional user control. (2)
The DATA[1] pin functions as the ASDO pin in AS mode.
Data input in non-AS mode. Control signal from the
Cyclone IV device to the serial configuration device in AS
mode used to read out configuration data.
In AS mode, DATA[1] has an internal pull-up resistor that
is always active. After AS configuration, DATA[1] is a
dedicated output pin with optional user control.
DATA[1]/
ASDO (1)
I/O
FPP, AS, AP
(2)
Input (FPP).
Output (AS).
Bidirectional
(AP) (2)
In a PS configuration scheme, DATA[1] functions as a user
I/O pin during configuration, which means it is tri-stated.
After FPP configuration, DATA[1] is available as a user I/O
pin and the state of this pin depends on the Dual-Purpose
Pin settings.
In an AP configuration scheme, for Cyclone IV E devices
only, the byte-wide or word-wide configuration data is
presented to the target Cyclone IV E device on DATA[7..0]
or DATA[15..0], respectively. After AP configuration,
DATA[1]is a dedicated bidirectional pin with optional user
control. (2)
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
8–67
Table 8–20. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone IV Device (Part 4 of 4)
Pin Name
User Mode
Configuration
Scheme
Pin Type
Description
In an AS or PS configuration scheme, DATA[7..2]
function as user I/O pins during configuration, which
means they are tri-stated.
DATA[7..2]
I/O
FPP, AP
(2)
Inputs (FPP).
Bidirectional
(AP) (2)
After FPP configuration, DATA[7..2] are available as user
I/O pins and the state of these pin depends on the
Dual-Purpose Pin settings.
In an AP configuration scheme, for Cyclone IV E devices
only, the byte-wide or word-wide configuration data is
presented to the target Cyclone IV E device on DATA[7..0]
or DATA[15..0], respectively. After AP configuration,
DATA[7..2]are dedicated bidirectional pins with optional
user control. (2)
Data inputs. Word-wide configuration data is presented to
the target Cyclone IV E device on DATA[15..0].
DATA[15..8]
I/O
AP
(2)
Bidirectional
In a PS, FPP, or AS configuration scheme, DATA[15:8]
function as user I/O pins during configuration, which
means they are tri stated.
After AP configuration, DATA[15:8]are dedicated
bidirectional pins with optional user control.
PADD[23..0]
I/O
AP
(2)
Output
In AP mode, it is a 24-bit address bus from the Cyclone IV E
device to the parallel flash. Connects to the A[24:1]bus on
the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
nRESET
I/O
AP
(2)
Output
Active-low reset output. Driving the nRESET pin low resets
the parallel flash. Connects to the RST# pin on the Micron
P30 or P33 flash.
Output
Active-low address valid output. Driving the nAVD pin low
during read or write operation indicates to the parallel flash
that a valid address is present on the PADD[23..0]address
bus. Connects to the ADV# pin on the Micron P30 or P33
flash.
Output
Active-low output enable to the parallel flash. During the
read operation, driving the nOE pin low enables the parallel
flash outputs (DATA[15..0]). Connects to the OE# pin on
the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
Output
Active-low write enable to the parallel flash. During the
write operation, driving the nWE pin low indicates to the
parallel flash that data on the DATA[15..0]bus is valid.
Connects to the WE# pin on the Micron P30 or P33 flash.
I/O
nAVD
I/O
nOE
I/O
nWE
AP
(2)
AP
(2)
AP
(2)
Note to Table 8–20:
(1) If you are accessing the EPCS device with the ALTASMI_PARALLEL megafunction or your own user logic in user mode, in the Device and Pin
Options window of the Quartus II software, in the Dual-Purpose Pins category, select Use as regular I/O for this pin.
(2) The AP configuration scheme is for Cyclone IV E devices only.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–68
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Configuration
Table 8–21 lists the optional configuration pins. If you do not enable these optional
configuration pins in the Quartus II software, they are available as general-purpose
user I/O pins. Therefore, during configuration, these pins function as user I/O pins
and are tri-stated with weak pull-up resistors.
Table 8–21. Optional Configuration Pins
Pin Name
CLKUSR
INIT_DONE
User Mode
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
Pin Type
Description
Optional user-supplied clock input synchronizes the
initialization of one or more devices. This pin is enabled by
turning on the Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR)
option in the Quartus II software.
Input
Output
open-drain
In AS configuration for Cyclone IV GX devices, you can use this
pin as an external clock source to generate the DCLK by
changing the clock source option in the Quartus II software in
the Configuration tab of the Device and Pin Options dialog
box.
Status pin is used to indicate when the device has initialized and
is in user-mode. When nCONFIG is low, the INIT_DONE pin is
tri-stated and pulled high due to an external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor during the beginning of configuration. After the option
bit to enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the device (during
the first frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin goes
low. When initialization is complete, the INIT_DONE pin is
released and pulled high and the device enters user mode.
Thus, the monitoring circuitry must be able to detect a low-tohigh transition. This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable
INIT_DONE output option in the Quartus II software.
The functionality of this pin changes if the Enable OCT_DONE
option is enabled in the Quartus II software. This option
controls whether the INIT_DONE signal is gated by the
OCT_DONE signal, which indicates the power-up on-chip
termination (OCT) calibration is complete. If this option is
turned off, the INIT_DONE signal is not gated by the OCT_DONE
signal.
DEV_OE
DEV_CLRn
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
N/A if option is on.
I/O if option is off.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Input
Optional pin that allows you to override all tri-states on the
device. When this pin is driven low, all I/O pins are tri-stated;
when this pin is driven high, all I/O pins behave as
programmed. This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable
device-wide output enable (DEV_OE) option in the Quartus II
software.
Input
Optional pin that allows you to override all clears on all device
registers. When this pin is driven low, all registers are cleared;
when this pin is driven high, all registers behave as
programmed. You can enable this pin by turning on the Enable
device-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) option in the Quartus II
software.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
8–69
Remote System Upgrade
Cyclone IV devices support remote system upgrade in AS and AP configuration
schemes. You can also implement remote system upgrade with advanced Cyclone IV
features such as real-time decompression of configuration data in the AS
configuration scheme.
1
Remote system upgrade is not supported in a multi-device configuration chain for
any configuration scheme.
Functional Description
The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry in Cyclone IV devices manages
remote configuration and provides error detection, recovery, and status information.
A Nios® II processor or a user logic implemented in the Cyclone IV device logic array
provides access to the remote configuration data source and an interface to the
configuration memory.
1
Configuration memory refers to serial configuration devices (EPCS) or supported
parallel flash memory, depending on the configuration scheme that is used.
The remote system upgrade process of the Cyclone IV device consists of the following
steps:
1. A Nios II processor (or user logic) implemented in the Cyclone IV device logic
array receives new configuration data from a remote location. The connection to
the remote source is a communication protocol, such as the transmission control
protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), peripheral component interconnect (PCI),
user datagram protocol (UDP), universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
(UART), or a proprietary interface.
2. The Nios II processor (or user logic) writes this new configuration data into a
configuration memory.
3. The Nios II processor (or user logic) starts a reconfiguration cycle with the new or
updated configuration data.
4. The dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry detects and recovers from any
error that might occur during or after the reconfiguration cycle and provides error
status information to the user design.
Figure 8–30 shows the steps required for performing remote configuration updates
(the numbers in Figure 8–30 coincide with steps 1–3).
Figure 8–30. Functional Diagram of Cyclone IV Device Remote System Upgrade
1
2
Development
Location
Data
Data
Cyclone IV
Device
Control Module
Configuration
Memory
Data
Device Configuration
3
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–70
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
Figure 8–31 shows the block diagrams to implement remote system upgrade in
Cyclone IV devices.
Figure 8–31. Remote System Upgrade Block Diagrams for AS and AP Configuration Schemes
Serial Configuration Device
Cyclone IV Device
Nios Processor or User Logic
Serial Configuration Device
Parallel Flash Memory
Cyclone IV E Device
Nios Processor or User Logic
Supported Parallel Flash
The MSEL pin setting in the remote system upgrade mode is the same as the standard
configuration mode. Standard configuration mode refers to normal Cyclone IV device
configuration mode with no support for remote system upgrades (the remote system
upgrade circuitry is disabled). When using remote system upgrade in Cyclone IV
devices, you must enable the remote update mode option setting in the Quartus II
software.
Enabling Remote Update
You can enable or disable remote update for Cyclone IV devices in the Quartus II
software before design compilation (in the Compiler Settings menu). To enable remote
update in the compiler settings of the project, perform the following steps:
1. On the Assignments menu, click Device. The Settings dialog box appears.
2. Click Device and Pin Options. The Device and Pin Options dialog box appears.
3. Click the Configuration tab.
4. From the Configuration Mode list, select Remote.
5. Click OK.
6. In the Settings dialog box, click OK.
Configuration Image Types
When using remote system upgrade, Cyclone IV device configuration bitstreams are
classified as factory configuration images or application configuration images. An
image, also referred to as a configuration, is a design loaded into the device that
performs certain user-defined functions. Each device in your system requires one
factory image or with addition of one or more application images. The factory image
is a user-defined fall-back or safe configuration and is responsible for administering
remote updates with the dedicated circuitry. Application images implement
user-defined functionality in the target Cyclone IV device. You can include the default
application image functionality in the factory image.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
8–71
Remote System Upgrade Mode
In remote update mode, Cyclone IV devices load the factory configuration image after
power up. The user-defined factory configuration determines the application
configuration to be loaded and triggers a reconfiguration cycle. The factory
configuration can also contain application logic.
When used with configuration memory, the remote update mode allows an
application configuration to start at any flash sector boundary. Additionally, the
remote update mode features a user watchdog timer that can detect functional errors
in an application configuration.
Remote Update Mode
In AS configuration scheme, when a Cyclone IV device is first powered up in remote
update, it loads the factory configuration located at address
boot_address[23:0] = 24b'0. Altera recommends storing the factory configuration
image for your system at boot address 24b'0, which corresponds to the start address
location 0×000000 in the serial configuration device. A factory configuration image is
a bitstream for the Cyclone IV device in your system that is programmed during
production and is the fall-back image when an error occurs. This image is stored in
non-volatile memory and is never updated or modified using remote access.
When you use the AP configuration in Cyclone IV E devices, the Cyclone IV E device
loads the default factory configuration located at the following address after device
power-up in remote update mode:
boot_address[23:0] = 24'h010000 = 24'b1 0000 0000 0000 0000.
You can change the default factory configuration address to any desired address using
the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction. The factory configuration image is stored in
non-volatile memory and is never updated or modified using remote access. This
corresponds to the default start address location 0×010000 represented in 16-bit word
addressing (or the updated address if the default address is changed) in the
supported parallel flash memory. For more information about the application of the
APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction in AP configuration scheme, refer to the “JTAG
Instructions” on page 8–57.
The factory configuration image is user-designed and contains soft logic (Nios II
processor or state machine and the remote communication interface) to:
May 2013
■
Process any errors based on status information from the dedicated remote system
upgrade circuitry
■
Communicate with the remote host and receive new application configurations
and store the new configuration data in the local non-volatile memory device
■
Determine the application configuration to be loaded into the Cyclone IV device
■
Enable or disable the user watchdog timer and load its time-out value (optional)
■
Instruct the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry to start a reconfiguration
cycle
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–72
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
Figure 8–32 shows the transitions between the factory configuration and application
configuration in remote update mode.
Figure 8–32. Transitions Between Configurations in Remote Update Mode
Configuration Error
Power Up
Application 1
Configuration
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Reload a Different Application
Configuration
Error
Factory
Configuration
Reload a Different Application
Set Control Register
and Reconfigure
Application n
Configuration
Configuration Error
After power up or a configuration error, the factory configuration logic writes the
remote system upgrade control register to specify the address of the application
configuration to be loaded. The factory configuration also specifies whether or not to
enable the user watchdog timer for the application configuration and, if enabled,
specifies the timer setting.
1
Only valid application configurations designed for remote update mode include the
logic to reset the timer in user mode. For more information about the user watchdog
timer, refer to the “User Watchdog Timer” on page 8–79.
If there is an error while loading the application configuration, the remote system
upgrade status register is written by the dedicated remote system upgrade circuitry of
the Cyclone IV device to specify the cause of the reconfiguration.
The following actions cause the remote system upgrade status register to be written:
■
nSTATUS driven low externally
■
Internal cyclical redundancy check (CRC) error
■
User watchdog timer time-out
■
A configuration reset (logic array nCONFIG signal or external nCONFIG pin assertion)
The Cyclone IV device automatically loads the factory configuration when an error
occurs. This user-designed factory configuration reads the remote system upgrade
status register to determine the reason for reconfiguration. Then the factory
configuration takes the appropriate error recovery steps and writes to the remote
system upgrade control register to determine the next application configuration to be
loaded.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
8–73
When Cyclone IV devices successfully load the application configuration, they enter
user mode. In user mode, the soft logic (the Nios II processor or state machine and the
remote communication interface) assists the Cyclone IV device in determining when a
remote system update is arriving. When a remote system update arrives, the soft logic
receives the incoming data, writes it to the configuration memory device and triggers
the device to load the factory configuration. The factory configuration reads the
remote system upgrade status register, determines the valid application configuration
to load, writes the remote system upgrade control register accordingly, and starts
system reconfiguration.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–74
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
Dedicated Remote System Upgrade Circuitry
This section describes the implementation of the Cyclone IV device remote system
upgrade dedicated circuitry. The remote system upgrade circuitry is implemented in
hard logic. This dedicated circuitry interfaces with the user-defined factory
application configurations implemented in the Cyclone IV device logic array to
provide the complete remote configuration solution. The remote system upgrade
circuitry contains the remote system upgrade registers, a watchdog timer, and state
machines that control those components. Figure 8–33 shows the data path of the
remote system upgrade block.
(1)
Figure 8–33. Remote System Upgrade Circuit Data Path
Status Register (SR)
Previous
State
Register 2
Bit[30..0]
Previous
State
Register 1
Bit[30..0]
Internal Oscillator/
CLKUSR
Current
State
Logic
Bit[31..0]
Control Register
Bit [38..0]
Logic
Update Register
Bit [38..0]
update
RSU
Master
State
Machine
Logic
Shift Register
din
dout
din
Bit [40..39]
dout
Bit [38..0]
RU_SHIFTnLD
RU_CAPTnUPDT
timeout User
Watchdog
Timer
capture
clkout
RU_DIN
RSU
Reconfiguration
State
Machine
capture update
Logic
clkin
RU_CLK (2) RU_DOUT
RU_nCONFIG
RU_nRSTIMER
Logic Array
Notes to Figure 8–33:
(1) The RU_DOUT, RU_SHIFTnLD, RU_CAPTnUPDT, RU_CLK, RU_DIN,RU_nCONFIG, and RU_nRSTIMER signals are internally controlled
by the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction.
(2) The RU_CLK refers to the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction block "clock" input. For more information, refer to the Remote Update Circuitry
(ALTREMOTE_UPDATE) Megafunction User Guide.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
8–75
Remote System Upgrade Registers
The remote system upgrade block contains a series of registers that stores the
configuration addresses, watchdog timer settings, and status information. Table 8–22
lists these registers.
Table 8–22. Remote System Upgrade Registers
Register
Description
Shift
register
This register is accessible by the logic array and allows the update, status, and control registers to be written
and sampled by user logic. Write access is enabled in remote update mode for factory configurations to allow
writing to the update register. Write access is disabled for all application configurations in remote update
mode.
Control
register
This register contains the current configuration address, the user watchdog timer settings, one option bit for
checking early CONF_DONE, and one option bit for selecting the internal oscillator as the startup state machine
clock. During a read operation in an application configuration, this register is read into the shift register. When
a reconfiguration cycle is started, the contents of the update register are written into the control register.
Update
register
This register contains data similar to that in the control register. However, it can only be updated by the factory
configuration by shifting data into the shift register and issuing an update operation. When a reconfiguration
cycle is triggered by the factory configuration, the control register is updated with the contents of the update
register. During a read in a factory configuration, this register is read into the shift register.
Status
register
This register is written by the remote system upgrade circuitry on every reconfiguration to record the cause of
the reconfiguration. This information is used by the factory configuration to determine the appropriate action
following a reconfiguration. During a capture cycle, this register is read into the shift register.
The control and status registers of the remote system upgrade are clocked by the
10-MHz internal oscillator (the same oscillator that controls the user watchdog timer)
or the CLKUSR. However, the shift and update registers of the remote system upgrade
are clocked by the maximum frequency of 40-MHz user clock input (RU_CLK). There is
no minimum frequency for RU_CLK.
Remote System Upgrade Control Register
The remote system upgrade control register stores the application configuration
address, the user watchdog timer settings, and option bits for a application
configuration. In remote update mode for the AS configuration scheme, the control
register address bits are set to all zeros (24'b0) at power up to load the AS factory
configuration. In remote update mode for the AP configuration scheme, the control
register address bits are set to 24'h010000 (24'b1 0000 0000 0000 0000) at power up to
load the AP default factory configuration. However, for the AP configuration scheme,
you can change the default factory configuration address to any desired address using
the APFC_BOOT_ADDR JTAG instruction. Additionally, a factory configuration in remote
update mode has write access to this register.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–76
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
Figure 8–34 shows the control register bit positions. Table 8–23 defines the control
register bit contents. The numbers in Figure 8–34 show the bit position of a setting in a
register. For example, bit number 35 is the enable bit for the watchdog timer.
Figure 8–34. Remote System Upgrade Control Register
38
Rsv2
37
36
35
34 33
12 11
0
Cd_early Osc_int Wd_en Rsv1 Ru_address[21..0] Wd_timer[11..0]
Table 8–23. Remote System Upgrade Control Register Contents
Control Register Bit
Value
Definition
User watchdog time-out value (most significant 12 bits of
29-bit count value:
{Wd_timer[11..0],17'b1000})
Wd_timer[11..0]
12'b000000000000
Ru_address[21..0]
Configuration address (most significant 22 bits of 24-bit
22'b0000000000000000000000 boot address value:
boot_address[23:0] = {Ru_address[21..0],2'b0})
Rsv1
1'b0
Reserved bit
1'b1
User watchdog timer enable bit
1'b1
Internal oscillator as startup state machine clock enable bit
1'b1
Early CONF_DONE check
1'b1
Reserved bit
Wd_en
Osc_int
Cd_early
(1)
(1)
Rsv2
Note to Table 8–23:
(1) Option bit for the application configuration.
When enabled, the early CONF_DONE check (Cd_early) option bit ensures that there is a
valid configuration at the boot address specified by the factory configuration and that
it is of the proper size. If an invalid configuration is detected or the CONF_DONE pin is
asserted too early, the device resets and then reconfigures the factory configuration
image. The internal oscillator (as the startup state machine clock [Osc_int] option bit)
ensures a functional startup clock to eliminate the hanging of startup. When all option
bits are turned on, they provide complete coverage for the programming and startup
portions of the application configuration. Altera recommends turning on both the
Cd_early and Osc_int option bits.
1
The Cd_early and Osc_int option bits for the application configuration must be
turned on by the factory configuration.
Remote System Upgrade Status Register
The remote system upgrade status register specifies the reconfiguration trigger
condition. The various trigger and error conditions include:
■
Cyclical redundancy check (CRC) error during application configuration
■
nSTATUS assertion by an external device due to an error
■
Cyclone IV device logic array triggers a reconfiguration cycle, possibly after
downloading a new application configuration image
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
8–77
■
External configuration reset (nCONFIG) assertion
■
User watchdog timer time out
Table 8–24 lists the contents of the current state logic in the status register, when the
remote system upgrade master state machine is in factory configuration or
application configuration accessing the factory information or application
information, respectively. The status register bit in Table 8–24 lists the bit positions in
a 32-bit logic.
Table 8–24. Remote System Upgrade Current State Logic Contents In Status Register
Remote System Upgrade
Master State Machine
Factory information
(1)
Application information 1
Application information 2
(2)
(2)
Status
Register Bit
Definition
31:30
Master state machine
current state
The current state of the remote system upgrade
master state machine
29:24
Reserved bits
Padding bits that are set to all 0’s
23:0
Boot address
The current 24-bit boot address that was used by
the configuration scheme as the start address to
load the current configuration.
31:30
Master state machine
current state
The current state of the remote system upgrade
master state machine
29
User watchdog timer
enable bit
The current state of the user watchdog enable,
which is active high
28:0
User watchdog timer
time-out value
The current entire 29-bit watchdog time-out
value.
31:30
Master state machine
current state
The current state of the remote system upgrade
master state machine
29:24
Reserved bits
Padding bits that are set to all 0’s
23:0
Boot address
The current 24-bit boot address that was used as
the start address to load the current configuration
Description
Notes to Table 8–24:
(1) The remote system upgrade master state machine is in factory configuration.
(2) The remote system upgrade master state machine is in application configuration.
The previous two application configurations are available in the previous state
registers (previous state register 1 and previous state register 2), but only for
debugging purposes.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–78
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
Table 8–25 lists the contents of previous state register 1 and previous state register 2 in
the status register. The status register bit in Table 8–25 shows the bit positions in a
3-bit register. The previous state register 1 and previous state register 2 have the same
bit definitions. The previous state register 1 reflects the current application
configuration and the previous state register 2 reflects the previous application
configuration.
Table 8–25. Remote System Upgrade Previous State Register 1 and Previous State Register 2 Contents in Status
Register
Status Register Bit
Definition
30
nCONFIG source
29
CRC error source
28
nSTATUS source
27
User watchdog timer source
26
Remote system upgrade
nCONFIG source
Description
One-hot, active-high field that describes the reconfiguration source
that caused the Cyclone IV device to leave the previous application
configuration. If there is a tie, the higher bit order indicates
precedence. For example, if nCONFIG and remote system upgrade
nCONFIG reach the reconfiguration state machine at the same time,
the nCONFIG precedes the remote system upgrade nCONFIG.
25:24
Master state machine
current state
The state of the master state machine during reconfiguration causes
the Cyclone IV device to leave the previous application configuration.
23:0
Boot address
The address used by the configuration scheme to load the previous
application configuration.
If a capture is inappropriately done while capturing a previous state before the system
has entered remote update application configuration for the first time, a value outputs
from the shift register to indicate that the capture is incorrectly called.
Remote System Upgrade State Machine
The remote system upgrade control and update registers have identical bit
definitions, but serve different roles (Table 8–22 on page 8–75). While both registers
can only be updated when the device is loaded with a factory configuration image,
the update register writes are controlled by the user logic, and the control register
writes are controlled by the remote system upgrade state machine.
In factory configurations, the user logic should send the option bits (Cd_early and
Osc_int), the configuration address, and watchdog timer settings for the next
application configuration bit to the update register. When the logic array
configuration reset (RU_nCONFIG) goes high, the remote system upgrade state machine
updates the control register with the contents of the update register and starts system
reconfiguration from the new application page.
1
To ensure the successful reconfiguration between the pages, assert the RU_nCONFIG
signal for a minimum of 250 ns. This is equivalent to strobing the reconfig input of
the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction high for a minimum of 250 ns.
If there is an error or reconfiguration trigger condition, the remote system upgrade
state machine directs the system to load a factory or application configuration (based
on mode and error condition) by setting the control register accordingly.
Table 8–26 lists the contents of the control register after such an event occurs for all
possible error or trigger conditions.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Remote System Upgrade
8–79
The remote system upgrade status register is updated by the dedicated error
monitoring circuitry after an error condition, but before the factory configuration is
loaded.
Table 8–26. Control Register Contents After an Error or Reconfiguration Trigger Condition
Reconfiguration Error/Trigger
Control Register Setting In Remote Update
nCONFIG reset
All bits are 0
nSTATUS error
All bits are 0
CORE triggered reconfiguration
Update register
CRC error
All bits are 0
Wd time out
All bits are 0
User Watchdog Timer
The user watchdog timer prevents a faulty application configuration from indefinitely
stalling the device. The system uses the timer to detect functional errors after an
application configuration is successfully loaded into the Cyclone IV device.
The user watchdog timer is a counter that counts down from the initial value loaded
into the remote system upgrade control register by the factory configuration. The
counter is 29 bits wide and has a maximum count value of 229. When specifying the
user watchdog timer value, specify only the most significant 12 bits. The remote
system upgrade circuitry appends 17'b1000 to form the 29-bits value for the watchdog
timer. The granularity of the timer setting is 217 cycles. The cycle time is based on the
frequency of the 10-MHz internal oscillator or CLKUSR (maximum frequency of
40 MHz).
Table 8–27 lists the operating range of the 10-MHz internal oscillator.
Table 8–27. 10-MHz Internal Oscillator Specifications
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
5
6.5
10
MHz
The user watchdog timer begins counting after the application configuration enters
device user mode. This timer must be periodically reloaded or reset by the application
configuration before the timer expires by asserting RU_nRSTIMER. If the application
configuration does not reload the user watchdog timer before the count expires, a
time-out signal is generated by the remote system upgrade dedicated circuitry. The
time-out signal tells the remote system upgrade circuitry to set the user watchdog
timer status bit (Wd) in the remote system upgrade status register and reconfigures the
device by loading the factory configuration.
1
To allow the remote system upgrade dedicated circuitry to reset the watchdog timer,
you must assert the RU_nRSTIMER signal active for a minimum of 250 ns. This is
equivalent to strobing the reset_timer input of the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE
megafunction high for a minimum of 250 ns.
Errors during configuration are detected by the CRC engine. Functional errors must
not exist in the factory configuration because it is stored and validated during
production and is never updated remotely.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–80
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
1
The user watchdog timer is disabled in factory configurations and during the
configuration cycle of the application configuration. It is enabled after the application
configuration enters user mode.
Quartus II Software Support
Implementation in your design requires a remote system upgrade interface between
the Cyclone IV device logic array and remote system upgrade circuitry. You must also
generate configuration files for production and remote programming of the system
configuration memory. The Quartus II software provides these features.
The two implementation options, ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction and remote
system upgrade atom, are for the interface between the remote system upgrade
circuitry and the device logic array interface. Using the megafunction block instead of
creating your own logic saves design time and offers more efficient logic synthesis
and device implementation.
f For more information about the ALTREMOTE_UPDATE megafunction, refer to the
Remote Update Circuitry (ALTREMOTE_UPDATE) Megafunction User Guide.
Document Revision History
Table 8–28 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 8–28. Document Revision History (Part 1 of 2)
Date
Version
May 2013
February 2013
October 2012
November 2011
December 2010
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
Changes
■
Added Table 8–6.
■
Updated Table 8–9 to add new device options and packages.
■
Updated Figure 8–16 and Figure 8–22 to include user mode.
■
Updated the “Dedicated” column for DATA[0] and DCLK in Table 8–19.
■
Updated the “User Mode” and “Pin Type” columns for DCLK in Table 8–20.
Updated Table 8–9 to add new device options and packages.
■
Updated “AP Configuration Supported Flash Memories”, “Configuration Data
Decompression”, and “Overriding the Internal Oscillator” sections.
■
Updated Figure 8–3, Figure 8–4, Figure 8–5, Figure 8–7, Figure 8–8, Figure 8–9,
Figure 8–10, and Figure 8–11.
■
Updated Table 8–2, Table 8–8, Table 8–12, Table 8–13, Table 8–18, and Table 8–19.
■
Added information about how to gain control of EPCS pins.
■
Updated “Reset”, “Single-Device AS Configuration”, “Single-Device AP
Configuration”, and “Overriding the Internal Oscillator” sections.
■
Added Table 8–7.
■
Updated Table 8–6 and Table 8–19.
■
Updated Figure 8–3, Figure 8–4, and Figure 8–5.
■
Updated for the Quartus II software version 10.1 release.
■
Added Cyclone IV E new device package information.
■
Updated Table 8–7, Table 8–10, and Table 8–11.
■
Minor text edits.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
8–81
Table 8–28. Document Revision History (Part 2 of 2)
Date
Version
Changes
Updated for the Quartus II software 10.0 release:
July 2010
■
Updated “Power-On Reset (POR) Circuit”, “Configuration and JTAG Pin I/O
Requirements”, and “Reset” sections.
■
Updated Figure 8–10.
■
Updated Table 8–16 and Table 8–17.
1.2
Updated for the Quartus II software 9.1 SP1 release:
February 2010
November 2009
May 2013
Altera Corporation
1.1
1.0
■
Added “Overriding the Internal Oscillator” and “AP Configuration (Supported Flash
Memories)” sections.
■
Updated “JTAG Instructions” section.
■
Added Table 8–6.
■
Updated Table 8–2, Table 8–3, Table 8–4, Table 8–6, Table 8–11, Table 8–13,
Table 8–14, Table 8–15, and Table 8–18.
■
Updated Figure 8–4, Figure 8–5, Figure 8–6, Figure 8–13, Figure 8–14,
Figure 8–15, Figure 8–17, Figure 8–18, Figure 8–23, Figure 8–24, Figure 8–25,
Figure 8–26, Figure 8–27, Figure 8–28, and Figure 8–29.
Initial release.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
8–82
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Chapter 8: Configuration and Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
May 2013
Altera Corporation
9. SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
May 2013
CYIV-51009-1.3
CYIV-51009-1.3
This chapter describes the cyclical redundancy check (CRC) error detection feature in
user mode and how to recover from soft errors.
1
Configuration error detection is supported in all Cyclone® IV devices including
Cyclone IV GX devices, Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage, and
Cyclone IV E devices with 1.2-V core voltage. However, user mode error detection is
only supported in Cyclone IV GX devices and Cyclone IV E devices with 1.2-V core
voltage.
Dedicated circuitry built into Cyclone IV devices consists of a CRC error detection
feature that can optionally check for a single-event upset (SEU) continuously and
automatically.
In critical applications used in the fields of avionics, telecommunications, system
control, medical, and military applications, it is important to be able to:
■
Confirm the accuracy of the configuration data stored in an FPGA device
■
Alert the system to an occurrence of a configuration error
Using the CRC error detection feature for Cyclone IV devices does not impact fitting
or performance.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
“Configuration Error Detection” on page 9–1
■
“User Mode Error Detection” on page 9–2
■
“Automated SEU Detection” on page 9–3
■
“CRC_ERROR Pin” on page 9–3
■
“Error Detection Block” on page 9–4
■
“Error Detection Timing” on page 9–5
■
“Software Support” on page 9–6
■
“Recovering from CRC Errors” on page 9–9
Configuration Error Detection
1
Configuration error detection is available in all Cyclone IV devices including
Cyclone IV GX devices, Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage, and
Cyclone IV E devices with 1.2-V core voltage.
© 2013 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Feedback Subscribe
9–2
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
User Mode Error Detection
Configuration error detection determines if the configuration data received through
an external memory device is corrupted during configuration. To validate the
configuration data, the Quartus® II software uses a function to calculate the CRC
value for each configuration data frame and stores the frame-based CRC value in the
configuration data as part of the configuration bit stream.
During configuration, Cyclone IV devices use the same methodology to calculate the
CRC value based on the frame of data that is received and compares it against the
frame CRC value in the data stream. Configuration continues until either the device
detects an error or all the values are calculated.
In addition to the frame-based CRC value, the Quartus II software generates a 32-bit
CRC value for the whole configuration bit stream. This 32-bit CRC value is stored in
the 32-bit storage register at the end of the configuration and is used for user mode
error detection that is discussed in “User Mode Error Detection”.
User Mode Error Detection
1
User mode error detection is available in Cyclone IV GX and Cyclone IV E devices
with 1.2-V core voltage. Cyclone IV E devices with 1.0-V core voltage do not support
user mode error detection.
Soft errors are changes in a configuration random-access memory (CRAM) bit state
due to an ionizing particle. Cyclone IV devices have built-in error detection circuitry
to detect data corruption by soft errors in the CRAM cells.
This error detection capability continuously computes the CRC of the configured
CRAM bits based on the contents of the device and compares it with the
pre-calculated CRC value obtained at the end of the configuration. If the CRCs match,
there is no error in the current configuration CRAM bits. The process of error
detection continues until the device is reset (by setting nCONFIG to low).
The Cyclone IV device error detection feature does not check memory blocks and I/O
buffers. These device memory blocks support parity bits that are used to check the
contents of memory blocks for any error. The I/O buffers are not verified during error
detection because the configuration data uses flip-flops as storage elements that are
more resistant to soft errors. Similar flip-flops are used to store the pre-calculated CRC
and other error detection circuitry option bits.
The error detection circuitry in Cyclone IV devices uses a 32-bit CRC IEEE 802
standard and a 32-bit polynomial as the CRC generator. Therefore, a single 32-bit CRC
calculation is performed by the device. If a soft error does not occur, the resulting
32-bit signature value is 0x00000000, that results in a 0 on the CRC_ERROR output
signal. If a soft error occurs in the device, the resulting signature value is non-zero and
the CRC_ERROR output signal is 1.
You can inject a soft error by changing the 32-bit CRC storage register in the CRC
circuitry. After verifying the induced failure, you can restore the 32-bit CRC value to
the correct CRC value with the same instruction and inserting the correct value.
1
Before updating it with a known bad value, Altera recommends reading out the
correct value.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Automated SEU Detection
9–3
In user mode, Cyclone IV devices support the CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction, that
allows you to write to the 32-bit storage register. You can use Jam™ STAPL files (.jam)
to automate the testing and verification process. You can only execute this instruction
when the device is in user mode, and it is a powerful design feature that enables you
to dynamically verify the CRC functionality in-system without having to reconfigure
the device. You can then use the CRC circuit to check for real errors induced by an
SEU.
Table 9–1 describes the CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instructions.
Table 9–1. CHANGE_EDREG JTAG Instruction
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
CHANGE_EDREG
00 0001 0101
This instruction connects the 32-bit CRC storage register between TDI and TDO.
Any precomputed CRC is loaded into the CRC storage register to test the operation
of the error detection CRC circuitry at the CRC_ERROR pin.
1
After the test completes, Altera recommends that you power cycle the device.
Automated SEU Detection
Cyclone IV devices offer on-chip circuitry for automated checking of SEU detection.
Applications that require the device to operate error-free at high elevations or in close
proximity to earth’s north or south pole require periodic checks to ensure continued
data integrity. The error detection cyclic redundancy code feature controlled by the
Device and Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus II software uses a 32-bit CRC
circuit to ensure data reliability and is one of the best options for mitigating SEU.
You can implement the error detection CRC feature with existing circuitry in
Cyclone IV devices, eliminating the need for external logic. The CRC is computed by
the device during configuration and checked against an automatically computed CRC
during normal operation. The CRC_ERROR pin reports a soft error when configuration
CRAM data is corrupted. You must decide whether to reconfigure the FPGA by
strobing the nCONFIG pin low or ignore the error.
CRC_ERROR Pin
A specific CRC_ERROR error detection pin is required to monitor the results of the error
detection circuitry during user mode. Table 9–2 describes the CRC_ERROR pin.
Table 9–2. Cyclone IV Device CRC_ERROR Pin Description
CRC_ERROR Pin Type
Description
I/O, Output (open-drain)
Active high signal indicates that the error detection circuit has detected errors in the
configuration SRAM bits. This pin is optional and is used when the CRC error detection
circuit is enabled in the Quartus II software from the Error Detection CRC tab of the Device
and Pin Options dialog box.
When using this pin, connect it to an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to an acceptable
voltage that satisfies the input voltage of the receiving device.
f The CRC_ERROR pin information for Cyclone IV devices is reported in the Cyclone IV
Devices Pin-Outs on the Altera® website.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
9–4
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Error Detection Block
1
WYSIWYG is an optimization technique that performs optimization on a VQM
(Verilog Quartus Mapping) netlist in the Quartus II software.
Error Detection Block
Table 9–3 lists the types of CRC detection to check the configuration bits.
Table 9–3. Types of CRC Detection to Check the Configuration Bits
First Type of CRC Detection
■
■
CRAM error checking ability (32-bit CRC)
during user mode, for use by the
CRC_ERROR pin.
There is only one 32-bit CRC value. This
value covers all the CRAM data.
Second Type of CRC Detection
■
16-bit CRC embedded in every configuration data frame.
■
During configuration, after a frame of data is loaded into the device, the
pre-computed CRC is shifted into the CRC circuitry.
■
Simultaneously, the CRC value for the data frame shifted-in is calculated.
If the pre-computed CRC and calculated CRC values do not match,
nSTATUS is set low.
■
Every data frame has a 16-bit CRC. Therefore, there are many 16-bit CRC
values for the whole configuration bit stream.
■
Every device has a different length of configuration data frame.
This section focuses on the first type—the 32-bit CRC when the device is in user
mode.
Error Detection Registers
There are two sets of 32-bit registers in the error detection circuitry that store the
computed CRC signature and pre-calculated CRC value. A non-zero value on the
signature register causes the CRC_ERROR pin to set high.
Figure 9–1 shows the block diagram of the error detection block and the two related
32-bit registers: the signature register and the storage register.
Figure 9–1. Error Detection Block Diagram
Error Detection
State Machine
Control Signals
Compute & Compare
CRC
32
32-bit Storage
Register
32
32-bit Signature
Register
32
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Error Detection Timing
9–5
Table 9–4 defines the registers shown in Figure 9–1.
Table 9–4. Error Detection Registers
Register
Function
This register contains the CRC signature. The signature register contains the result of the user
mode calculated CRC value compared against the pre-calculated CRC value. If no errors are
detected, the signature register is all zeros. A non-zero signature register indicates an error in the
configuration CRAM contents.
32-bit signature
register
The CRC_ERROR signal is derived from the contents of this register.
This register is loaded with the 32-bit pre-computed CRC signature at the end of the configuration
stage. The signature is then loaded into the 32-bit CRC circuit (called the Compute and Compare
CRC block, as shown in Figure 9–1) during user mode to calculate the CRC error. This register
forms a 32-bit scan chain during execution of the CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction. The
CHANGE_EDREG JTAG instruction can change the content of the storage register. Therefore, the
functionality of the error detection CRC circuitry is checked in-system by executing the instruction
to inject an error during the operation. The operation of the device is not halted when issuing the
CHANGE_EDREG instruction.
32-bit storage register
Error Detection Timing
When the error detection CRC feature is enabled through the Quartus II software, the
device automatically activates the CRC process upon entering user mode after
configuration and initialization is complete.
The CRC_ERROR pin is driven low until the error detection circuitry detects a corrupted
bit in the previous CRC calculation. After the pin goes high, it remains high during
the next CRC calculation. This pin does not log the previous CRC calculation. If the
new CRC calculation does not contain any corrupted bits, the CRC_ERROR pin is driven
low. The error detection runs until the device is reset.
The error detection circuitry runs off an internal configuration oscillator with a divisor
that sets the maximum frequency.
Table 9–5 lists the minimum and maximum error detection frequencies.
Table 9–5. Minimum and Maximum Error Detection Frequencies for Cyclone IV Devices
Error Detection
Frequency
Maximum Error
Detection Frequency
Minimum Error
Detection Frequency
Valid Divisors (2n)
80 MHz/2n
80 MHz
312.5 kHz
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
You can set a lower clock frequency by specifying a division factor in the Quartus II
software (for more information, refer to “Software Support”). The divisor is a power
of two (2), where n is between 0 and 8. The divisor ranges from one through 256. Refer
to Equation 9–1.
Equation 9–1.
80 MH
rror detection frequency = ------------------n
2
CRC calculation time depends on the device and the error detection clock frequency.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
9–6
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Software Support
Table 9–6 lists the estimated time for each CRC calculation with minimum and
maximum clock frequencies for Cyclone IV devices.
Table 9–6. CRC Calculation Time
Device
EP4CE6
Cyclone IV E
Minimum Time (ms)
(3)
Maximum Time (s)
5
2.29
EP4CE10
(3)
5
2.29
EP4CE15
(3)
7
3.17
EP4CE22
(3)
9
4.51
EP4CE30
(3)
15
7.48
EP4CE40
(3)
15
7.48
EP4CE55
(3)
23
11.77
EP4CE75
(3)
31
15.81
45
22.67
EP4CGX15
6
2.93
EP4CGX22
12
5.95
12
5.95
EP4CE115
(3)
EP4CGX30
Cyclone IV GX
(1)
34
(4)
17.34
(2)
(4)
EP4CGX50
34
17.34
EP4CGX75
34
17.34
EP4CGX110
62
31.27
EP4CGX150
62
31.27
Notes to Table 9–6:
(1) The minimum time corresponds to the maximum error detection clock frequency and may vary with different processes, voltages, and
temperatures (PVT).
(2) The maximum time corresponds to the minimum error detection clock frequency and may vary with different PVT.
(3) Only applicable for device with 1.2-V core voltage
(4) Only applicable for the F484 device package.
Software Support
Enabling the CRC error detection feature in the Quartus II software generates the
CRC_ERROR output to the optional dual purpose CRC_ERROR pin.
To enable the error detection feature using CRC, perform the following steps:
1. Open the Quartus II software and load a project using Cyclone IV devices.
2. On the Assignments menu, click Settings. The Settings dialog box appears.
3. In the Category list, select Device. The Device page appears.
4. Click Device and Pin Options. The Device and Pin Options dialog box appears as
shown in Figure 9–2.
5. In the Device and Pin Options dialog box, click the Error Detection CRC tab.
6. Turn on Enable error detection CRC.
7.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
In the Divide error check frequency by box, enter a valid divisor as documented
in Table 9–5 on page 9–5.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Software Support
1
9–7
The divisor value divides the frequency of the configuration oscillator
output clock. This output clock is used as the clock source for the error
detection process.
8. Click OK.
Figure 9–2. Enabling the Error Detection CRC Feature in the Quartus II Software
Accessing Error Detection Block Through User Logic
The error detection circuit stores the computed 32-bit CRC signature in a 32-bit
register, which is read out by user logic from the core. The cycloneiv_crcblock
primitive is a WYSIWYG component used to establish the interface from the user
logic to the error detection circuit. The cycloneiv_crcblock primitive atom contains
the input and output ports that must be included in the atom. To access the logic
array, the cycloneiv_crcblock WYSIWYG atom must be inserted into your design.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
9–8
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Software Support
Figure 9–3 shows the error detection block diagram in FPGA devices and shows the
interface that the WYSIWYG atom enables in your design.
Figure 9–3. Error Detection Block Diagram
80 MHz Internal Chip Oscillator
Clock Divider
(1 to 256 Factor)
VCC
CRC_ERROR
(Shown in BIDIR Mode)
Pre-Computed CRC
(Saved in the Option Register)
REGOUT
LDSRC
SHIFTNLD
CRC
Computation
CLK
SRAM
Bits
CRC_ERROR
Error Detection
Logic
Logic Array
1
The user logic is affected by the soft error failure, so reading out the 32-bit CRC
signature through the regout should not be relied upon to detect a soft error. You
should rely on the CRC_ERROR output signal itself, because this CRC_ERROR output
signal cannot be affected by a soft error.
To enable the cycloneiv_crcblock WYSIWYG atom, you must name the atom for
each Cyclone IV device accordingly.
Example 9–1 shows an example of how to define the input and output ports of a
WYSIWYG atom in a Cyclone IV device.
Example 9–1. Error Detection Block Diagram
cycloneiv_crcblock<crcblock_name>
(
.clk(<clock source>),
.shiftnld(<shiftnld source>),
.ldsrc(<ldsrc source>),
.crcerror(<crcerror out destination>),
.regout(<output destination>),
);
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Recovering from CRC Errors
9–9
Table 9–7 lists the input and output ports that you must include in the atom.
Table 9–7. CRC Block Input and Output Ports
Port
Input/Output
Definition
Input
Unique identifier for the CRC block, and represents any identifier name that is legal
for the given description language (for example, Verilog HDL, VHDL, and AHDL).
This field is required.
Input
This signal designates the clock input of this cell. All operations of this cell are
with respect to the rising edge of the clock. Whether it is the loading of the data
into the cell or data out of the cell, it always occurs on the rising edge. This port is
required.
Input
This signal is an input into the error detection block. If shiftnld=1, the data is
shifted from the internal shift register to the regout at each rising edge of clk. If
shiftnld=0, the shift register parallel loads either the pre-calculated CRC value
or the update register contents, depending on the ldsrc port input. To do this,
the shiftnld must be driven low for at least two clock cycles. This port is
required.
Input
This signal is an input into the error detection block. If ldsrc=0, the
pre-computed CRC register is selected for loading into the 32-bit shift register at
the rising edge of clk when shiftnld=0. If ldsrc=1, the signature register
(result of the CRC calculation) is selected for loading into the shift register at the
rising edge of clk when shiftnld=0. This port is ignored when
shiftnld=1. This port is required.
.crcerror (<crcerror
indicator
output>)
Output
This signal is the output of the cell that is synchronized to the internal oscillator of
the device (80-MHz internal oscillator) and not to the clk port. It asserts high if
the error block detects that a SRAM bit has flipped and the internal CRC
computation has shown a difference with respect to the pre-computed value. You
must connect this signal either to an output pin or a bidirectional pin. If it is
connected to an output pin, you can only monitor the CRC_ERROR pin (the core
cannot access this output). If the CRC_ERROR signal is used by core logic to
read error detection logic, you must connect this signal to a BIDIR pin. The
signal is fed to the core indirectly by feeding a BIDIR pin that has its output
enable port connected to VCC (see Figure 9–3 on page 9–8).
.regout (<registered
output>)
Output
This signal is the output of the error detection shift register synchronized to the
clk port to be read by core logic. It shifts one bit at each cycle, so you should
clock the clk signal 31 cycles to read out the 32 bits of the shift register.
<crcblock_name>
.clk(<clock source>
.shiftnld (<shiftnld
source>)
.ldsrc (<ldsrc
source>)
Recovering from CRC Errors
The system that the Altera FPGA resides in must control device reconfiguration. After
detecting an error on the CRC_ERROR pin, strobing the nCONFIG low directs the system
to perform the reconfiguration at a time when it is safe for the system to reconfigure
the FPGA.
When the data bit is rewritten with the correct value by reconfiguring the device, the
device functions correctly.
While soft errors are uncommon in Altera devices, certain high-reliability applications
might require a design to account for these errors.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
9–10
Chapter 9: SEU Mitigation in Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
Document Revision History
Table 9–8 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 9–8. Document Revision History
Date
Version
Changes
May 2013
1.3
Updated “CRC_ERROR Pin Type” in Table 9–2.
October 2012
1.2
Updated Table 9–2.
Updated for the Quartus II software version 9.1 SP1 release:
February 2010
November 2009
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
1.1
1.0
■
Updated “Configuration Error Detection” section.
■
Updated Table 9–6.
■
Added Cyclone IV E devices in Table 9–6.
Initial release.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
10. JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for
Cyclone IV Devices
December 2013
CYIV-51010-1.3
CYIV-51010-1.3
This chapter describes the boundary-scan test (BST) features that are supported in
Cyclone® IV devices. The features are similar to Cyclone III devices, unless stated in
this chapter.
Cyclone IV devices (Cyclone IV E devices and Cyclone IV GX devices) support IEEE
Std. 1149.1. Cyclone IV GX devices also support IEEE Std. 1149.6. The IEEE Std. 1149.6
(AC JTAG) is only supported on the high-speed serial interface (HSSI) transceivers in
Cyclone IV GX devices. The purpose of IEEE Std. 1149.6 is to enable board-level
connectivity checking between transmitters and receivers that are AC coupled.
This chapter includes the following sections:
■
“IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register” on page 10–2
■
“BST Operation Control” on page 10–3
■
“I/O Voltage Support in a JTAG Chain” on page 10–5
■
“Boundary-Scan Description Language Support” on page 10–6
f For more information about the JTAG instructions code with descriptions and IEEE
Std.1149.1 BST guidelines, refer to the IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for
Cyclone III Devices chapter.
f For more information about the following topics, refer to AN 39: IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG)
Boundary-Scan Testing in Altera Devices:
■
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST architecture and circuitry
■
TAP controller state-machine
■
Instruction mode
© 2013 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
December 2013
Feedback Subscribe
10–2
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register
IEEE Std. 1149.6 Boundary-Scan Register
The boundary-scan cell (BSC) for HSSI transmitters (GXB_TX[p,n]) and receivers
(GXB_RX[p,n]) in Cyclone IV GX devices are different from the BSCs for I/O pins.
Figure 10–1 shows the Cyclone IV GX HSSI transmitter boundary-scan cell.
Figure 10–1. HSSI Transmitter BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST Circuitry for Cyclone IV GX Devices
BSCAN
PMA
SDOUT
0
AC JTAG
Output
Buffer
BSTX1
0
OE
D
Q
D
Q
1
1
Pad
Mission
(DATAOUT)
0
D
D
Q
Q
Tx Output
Buffer
0
1
BS0EB
1
nOE
Pad
OE Logic
M0 RHZ
0
0
OE
BSTX0
D
D
Q
Q
AC JTAG
Output
Buffer
1
1
MEM_INIT
SDIN
SHIFT
CLK
UPDATE HIGHZ
AC_TEST
AC_MODE
MODE
Capture
Update
Registers
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
December 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
BST Operation Control
10–3
Figure 10–2 shows the Cyclone IV GX HSSI receiver BSC.
Figure 10–2. HSSI Receiver BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.6 BST Circuitry for the Cyclone IV GX Devices
BSCAN
SDOUT
PMA
BSRX1
AC JTAG Test
Receiver
Hysteretic
Memory
0
BSOUT1
D
Q
Pad
Mission
(DATAIN)
Optional INTEST/RUNBIST
not supported
1
D
BSOUT0
Q
Pad
AC JTAG Test
Receiver
BSRX0
0
Rx Input
Buffer
Hysteretic
Memory
1
HIGHZ
SDIN SHIFT
CLK
UPDATE
AC_TEST MEM_INIT
MODE
AC_MODE
Capture
Update
Registers
f For more information about Cyclone IV devices user I/O boundary-scan cells, refer to
the IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone III Devices chapter.
BST Operation Control
Table 10–1 lists the boundary-scan register length for Cyclone IV devices.
Table 10–1. Boundary-Scan Register Length for Cyclone IV Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Device
EP4CE6
603
EP4CE10
603
EP4CE15
1080
EP4CE22
732
EP4CE30
1632
EP4CE40
1632
EP4CE55
1164
EP4CE75
1314
EP4CE115
1620
EP4CGX15
260
EP4CGX22
EP4CGX30
EP4CGX50
December 2013
Boundary-Scan Register Length
Altera Corporation
494
(1)
494
1006
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
10–4
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
BST Operation Control
Table 10–1. Boundary-Scan Register Length for Cyclone IV Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Device
Boundary-Scan Register Length
EP4CGX75
1006
EP4CGX110
1495
EP4CGX150
1495
Note to Table 10–1:
(1) For the F484 package of the EP4CGX30 device, the boundary-scan register length is 1006.
Table 10–2 lists the IDCODE information for Cyclone IV devices.
Table 10–2. IDCODE Information for 32-Bit Cyclone IV Devices
IDCODE (32 Bits)
Device
(1)
Version
(4 Bits)
Part Number
(16 Bits)
Manufacturer Identity
(11 Bits)
EP4CE6
0000
0010 0000 1111 0001
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE10
0000
0010 0000 1111 0001
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE15
0000
0010 0000 1111 0010
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE22
0000
0010 0000 1111 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE30
0000
0010 0000 1111 0100
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE40
0000
0010 0000 1111 0100
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE55
0000
0010 0000 1111 0101
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE75
0000
0010 0000 1111 0110
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CE115
0000
0010 0000 1111 0111
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX15
0000
0010 1000 0000 0001
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX22
LSB
(1 Bit)
0000
0010 1000 0001 0010
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX30
(3)
0000
0010 1000 0000 0010
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX30
(4)
0000
0010 1000 0010 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX50
0000
0010 1000 0001 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX75
0000
0010 1000 0000 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX110
0000
0010 1000 0001 0100
000 0110 1110
1
EP4CGX150
0000
0010 1000 0000 0100
000 0110 1110
1
(2)
Notes to Table 10–2:
(1) The MSB is on the left.
(2) The IDCODE LSB is always 1.
(3) The IDCODE is applicable for all packages except for the F484 package.
(4) The IDCODE is applicable for the F484 package only.
IEEE Std.1149.6 mandates the addition of two new instructions: EXTEST_PULSE and
EXTEST_TRAIN. These two instructions enable edge-detecting behavior on the signal
path containing the AC pins.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
December 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
I/O Voltage Support in a JTAG Chain
10–5
EXTEST_PULSE
The instruction code for EXTEST_PULSE is 0010001111. The EXTEST_PULSE instruction
generates three output transitions:
1
■
Driver drives data on the falling edge of TCK in UPDATE_IR/DR.
■
Driver drives inverted data on the falling edge of TCK after entering the
RUN_TEST/IDLE state.
■
Driver drives data on the falling edge of TCK after leaving the RUN_TEST/IDLE
state.
If you use DC-coupling on HSSI signals, you must execute the EXTEST instruction. If
you use AC-coupling on HSSI signals, you must execute the EXTEST_PULSE
instruction. AC-coupled and DC-coupled HSSI are only supported in
post-configuration mode.
EXTEST_TRAIN
The instruction code for EXTEST_TRAIN is 0001001111. The EXTEST_TRAIN instruction
behaves the same as the EXTEST_PULSE instruction with one exception. The output
continues to toggle on the TCK falling edge as long as the test access port (TAP)
controller is in the RUN_TEST/IDLE state.
1
These two instruction codes are only supported in post-configuration mode for
Cyclone IV GX devices.
1
When you perform JTAG boundary-scan testing before configuration, the nCONFIG pin
must be held low.
I/O Voltage Support in a JTAG Chain
A Cyclone IV device operating in BST mode uses four required pins: TDI, TDO, TMS,
and TCK. The TDO output pin and all JTAG input pins are powered by the VCCIO power
supply of I/O Banks (I/O Bank 9 for Cyclone IV GX devices and I/O Bank 1 for
Cyclone IV E devices).
A JTAG chain can contain several different devices. However, you must use caution if
the chain contains devices that have different VCCIO levels. The output voltage level of
the TDO pin must meet the specification of the TDI pin it drives. For example, a device
with a 3.3-V TDO pin can drive a device with a 5.0-V TDI pin because 3.3 V meets the
minimum TTL-level VIH for the 5.0-V TDI pin.
1
For multiple devices in a JTAG chain with the 3.0-V/3.3-V I/O standard, you must
connect a 25-Ω series resistor on a TDO pin driving a TDI pin.
You can also interface the TDI and TDO lines of the devices that have different VCCIO
levels by inserting a level shifter between the devices. If possible, the JTAG chain
should have a device with a higher V CCIO level driving a device with an equal or
lower VCCIO level. This way, a level shifter may be required only to shift the TDO level
to a level acceptable to the JTAG tester.
December 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
10–6
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
Boundary-Scan Description Language Support
Figure 10–3 shows the JTAG chain of mixed voltages and how a level shifter is
inserted in the chain.
Figure 10–3. JTAG Chain of Mixed Voltages
Must be
3.3-V
tolerant
TDI
3.3-V
VCCIO
2.5-V
VCCIO
Tester
TDO
Level
Shifter
1.5-V
VCCIO
1.8-V
VCCIO
Shift TDO to
level accepted by
tester if necessary
Must be
1.8-V
tolerant
Must be
2.5-V
tolerant
Boundary-Scan Description Language Support
The boundary-scan description language (BSDL), a subset of VHDL, provides a
syntax that allows you to describe the features of an IEEE Std. 1149.1/IEEE Std. 1149.6
BST-capable device that can be tested.
f For more information about how to download BSDL files for IEEE Std.
1149.1-compliant Cyclone IV E devices, refer to IEEE Std. 1149.1 BSDL Files.
f For more information about how to download BSDL files for IEEE Std.
1149.6-compliant Cyclone IV GX devices, refer to IEEE Std. 1149.6 BSDL Files.
f You can also generate BSDL files (pre-configuration and post-configuration) for
IEEE Std. 1149.1/IEEE Std. 1149.6-compliant Cyclone IV devices with the Quartus® II
software version 9.1 SP1 and later. For more information about the procedure to
generate BSDL files using the Quartus II software, refer to BSDL Files Generation in
Quartus II.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
December 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
10–7
Document Revision History
Table 10–3 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 10–3. Document Revision History
Date
Version
December 2013
1.3
November 2011
1.2
February 2010
November 2009
December 2013
1.1
1.0
Altera Corporation
Changes
■
Updated the “EXTEST_PULSE” section.
■
Updated the “BST Operation Control” section.
■
Updated Table 10–2.
■
Added Cyclone IV E devices in Table 10–1 and Table 10–2 for the Quartus II
software version 9.1 SP1 release.
■
Updated Figure 10–1 and Figure 10–2.
■
Minor text edits.
Initial release.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
10–8
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
Chapter 10: JTAG Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
December 2013
Altera Corporation
11. Power Requirements for Cyclone IV
Devices
May 2013
CYIV-51011-1.3
CYIV-51011-1.3
This chapter describes information about external power supply requirements,
hot-socketing specifications, power-on reset (POR) requirements, and their
implementation in Cyclone IV devices.
This chapter includes the following sections:
■
“External Power Supply Requirements” on page 11–1
■
“Hot-Socketing Specifications” on page 11–2
■
“Hot-socketing Feature Implementation” on page 11–3
■
“Power-On Reset Circuitry” on page 11–3
External Power Supply Requirements
This section describes the different external power supplies required to power
Cyclone IV devices. Table 11–1 and Table 11–2 list the descriptions of external power
supply pins for Cyclone IV GX and Cyclone IV E devices, respectively.
f For each Altera recommended power supply’s operating conditions, refer to the
Cyclone IV Device Datasheet chapter.
f For power supply pin connection guidelines and power regulator sharing, refer to the
Cyclone IV Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines.
Table 11–1. Power Supply Descriptions for the Cyclone IV GX Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Power Supply Pin
VCCINT
VCCA
(1)
VCCD_PLL
VCCIO
(2)
VCC_CLKIN
(3), (4)
Nominal Voltage Level (V)
Description
1.2
Core voltage, PCI Express (PCIe) hard IP block, and
transceiver physical coding sublayer (PCS) power
supply
2.5
PLL analog power supply
1.2
PLL digital power supply
1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.5, 3.0, 3.3
I/O banks power supply
1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.5, 3.0, 3.3
Differential clock input pins power supply
VCCH_GXB
2.5
Transceiver output (TX) buffer power supply
VCCA_GXB
2.5
Transceiver physical medium attachment (PMA) and
auxiliary power supply
© 2013 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. ALTERA, ARRIA, CYCLONE, HARDCOPY, MAX, MEGACORE, NIOS, QUARTUS and STRATIX words and logos
are trademarks of Altera Corporation and registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries. All other words and logos identified as
trademarks or service marks are the property of their respective holders as described at www.altera.com/common/legal.html. Altera warrants performance of its
semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and
services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service
described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying
on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Feedback Subscribe
11–2
Chapter 11: Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
Hot-Socketing Specifications
Table 11–1. Power Supply Descriptions for the Cyclone IV GX Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Power Supply Pin
Nominal Voltage Level (V)
1.2
VCCL_GXB
Description
Transceiver PMA and auxiliary power supply
Notes to Table 11–1:
(1) You must power up VCCA even if the phase-locked loop (PLL) is not used.
(2) I/O banks 3, 8, and 9 contain configuration pins. You can only power up the VCCIO level of I/O banks 3 and 9 to 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.0 V, or 3.3 V.
For Fast Passive Parallel (FPP) configuration mode, you must power up the VCCIO level of I/O bank 8 to 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.0 V, or 3.3 V.
(3) All device packages of EP4CGX15, EP4CGX22, and device package F169 and F324 of EP4CGX30 devices have two VCC_CLKIN dedicated clock
input I/O located at Banks 3A and 8A. Device package F484 of EP4CGX30, all device packages of EP4CGX50, EP4CGX75, EP4CGX110, and
EP4CGX150 devices have four VCC_CLKIN dedicated clock input I/O bank located at banks 3A, 3B, 8A, and 8B.
(4) You must set VCC_CLKIN to 2.5V if the CLKIN is used as a high-speed serial interface (HSSI) transceiver refclk. When not used as a transceiver
refclk, VCC_CLKIN supports 1.2 V/ 1.5 V/ 1.8 V/ 2.5 V/ 3.0 V/ 3.3V voltages.
Table 11–2. Power Supply Descriptions for the Cyclone IV E Devices
Power Supply Pin
VCCINT
VCCA
(2)
Description
1.0, 1.2
Core voltage power supply
2.5
PLL analog power supply
1.0, 1.2
PLL digital power supply
1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.5, 3.0, 3.3
I/O banks power supply
(1)
VCCD_PLL
VCCIO
Nominal Voltage Level (V)
Notes to Table 11–2:
(1) You must power up VCCA even if the PLL is not used.
(2) I/O banks 1, 6, 7, and 8 contain configuration pins.
Hot-Socketing Specifications
Cyclone IV devices are hot-socketing compliant without the need for any external
components or special design requirements. Hot-socketing support in Cyclone IV
devices has the following advantages:
■
You can drive the device before power up without damaging the device.
■
I/O pins remain tri-stated during power up. The device does not drive out before
or during power-up. Therefore, it does not affect other buses in operation.
Devices Driven Before Power-Up
You can drive signals into regular Cyclone IV E I/O pins and transceiver
Cyclone IV GX I/O pins before or during power up or power down without
damaging the device. Cyclone IV devices support any power-up or power-down
sequence to simplify system-level designs.
I/O Pins Remain Tri-stated During Power-Up
The output buffers of Cyclone IV devices are turned off during system power up or
power down. Cyclone IV devices do not drive out until the device is configured and
working in recommended operating conditions. The I/O pins are tri-stated until the
device enters user mode.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Chapter 11: Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
Hot-socketing Feature Implementation
1
11–3
The user I/O pins and dual-purpose I/O pins have weak pull-up resistors, which are
always enabled (after POR) before and during configuration. The weak pull up
resistors are not enabled prior to POR.
A possible concern for semiconductor devices in general regarding hot socketing is
the potential for latch up. Latch up can occur when electrical subsystems are hot
socketed into an active system. During hot socketing, the signal pins may be
connected and driven by the active system before the power supply can provide
current to the VCC of the device and ground planes. This condition can lead to latch up
and cause a low-impedance path from VCC to GND in the device. As a result, the
device extends a large amount of current, possibly causing electrical damage.
The design of the I/O buffers and hot-socketing circuitry ensures that Cyclone IV
devices are immune to latch up during hot-socketing.
f For more information about the hot-socketing specification, refer to the Cyclone IV
Device Datasheet chapter and the Hot-Socketing and Power-Sequencing Feature and Testing
for Altera Devices white paper.
Hot-socketing Feature Implementation
The hot-socketing circuit does not include the CONF_DONE, nCEO, and nSTATUS pins to
ensure that they are able to operate during configuration. The expected behavior for
these pins is to drive out during power-up and power-down sequences.
1
Altera uses GND as reference for hot-socketing operation and I/O buffer designs. To
ensure proper operation, Altera recommends connecting the GND between boards
before connecting the power supplies. This prevents the GND on your board from
being pulled up inadvertently by a path to power through other components on your
board. A pulled up GND can otherwise cause an out-of-specification I/O voltage or
current condition with the Altera device.
Power-On Reset Circuitry
Cyclone IV devices contain POR circuitry to keep the device in a reset state until the
power supply voltage levels have stabilized during power up. During POR, all user
I/O pins are tri-stated until the power supplies reach the recommended operating
levels. In addition, the POR circuitry also ensures the V CCIO level of I/O banks that
contain configuration pins reach an acceptable level before configuration is triggered.
The POR circuit of the Cyclone IV device monitors the VCCINT, VCCA, and VCCIO that
contain configuration pins during power-on. You can power up or power down the
VCCINT, VCCA, and VCCIO pins in any sequence. The VCCINT, VCCA, and VCCIO must have
a monotonic rise to their steady state levels. All V CCA pins must be powered to 2.5V
(even when PLLs are not used), and must be powered up and powered down at the
same time.
After the Cyclone IV device enters the user mode, the POR circuit continues to
monitor the VCCINT and VCCA pins so that a brown-out condition during user mode is
detected. If the V CCINT or VCCA voltage sags below the POR trip point during user
mode, the POR circuit resets the device. If the VCCIO voltage sags during user mode,
the POR circuit does not reset the device.
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
11–4
Chapter 11: Power Requirements for Cyclone IV Devices
Document Revision History
In some applications, it is necessary for a device to wake up very quickly to begin
operation. Cyclone IV devices offer the Fast-On feature to support fast wake-up time
applications. The MSEL pin settings determine the POR time (tPOR) of the device.
f For more information about the MSEL pin settings, refer to the Configuration and
Remote System Upgrades in Cyclone IV Devices chapter.
f For more information about the POR specifications, refer to the Cyclone IV Device
Datasheet chapter.
Document Revision History
Table 11–3 lists the revision history for this chapter.
Table 11–3. Document Revision History
Date
Version
May 2013
July 2010
1.3
1.2
Changes
Updated Note (4) in Table 11–1.
■
Updated for the Quartus II software version 10.0 release.
■
Updated “I/O Pins Remain Tri-stated During Power-Up” section.
■
Updated Table 11–1.
February 2010
1.1
Updated Table 11–1 and Table 11–2 for the Quartus II software version 9.1 SP1
release.
November 2009
1.0
Initial release.
Cyclone IV Device Handbook,
Volume 1
May 2013
Altera Corporation
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement