null  User manual
INSTALLATION MANUAL
MARINE ENGINES/GENERATORS
DIESEL AND GASOLINE
PUBLICATION #43268
2nd Edition
May 2004
CALIFORNIA
PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some of
its constituents are known to the
State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other
reproductive harm.
n WARNING:
Exhaust gasses contain Carbon Monoxide, an odorless and
colorless gas. Carbon Monoxide is poisonous and can cause
unconsciousness and death. Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide exposure can include:
• Dizziness
• Throbbing in Temples
• Nausea
• Muscular Twitching
• Headache
• Vomiting
• Weakness and Sleepiness • Inability to Think Coherently
IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE EXPERIENCE ANY OF THESE SYMPTOMS,
GET OUT INTO THE FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY. If symptoms persist,
seek medical attention. Shut down the unit and do not restart until
it has been inspected and repaired.
A WARNING DECAL is provided by
WESTERBEKE and should be fixed to a
bulkhead near your engine or generator.
WESTERBEKE also recommends installing
CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS in the
living/sleeping quarters of your vessel.
They are inexpensive and easily
obtainable at your local marine store.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
INTRODUCTION
PREVENT BURNS — FIRE
Read this safety manual carefully. Most accidents are caused
by failure to follow fundamental rules and precautions.
Know when dangerous conditions exist and take the
necessary precautions to protect yourself, your personnel,
and your machinery.
The following safety instructions are in compliance with
the American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) standards.
▲ WARNING: Fire can cause injury or death!
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PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK
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▲ WARNING: Do not touch AC electrical connections
while engine is running, or when connected to shore
power. Lethal voltage is present at these connections!
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Do not operate this machinery without electrical
enclosures and covers in place.
Shut off electrical power before accessing electrical
equipment.
Use insulated mats whenever working on electrical
equipment.
Make sure your clothing and skin are dry, not damp
(particularly shoes) when handling electrical equipment.
Remove wristwatch and all jewelry when working on
electrical equipment.
Do not connect utility shore power to vessel’s AC
circuits, except through a ship-to-shore double throw
transfer switch. Damage to vessel’s AC generator may
result if this procedure is not followed.
Electrical shock results from handling a charged capacitor.
Discharge capacitor by shorting terminals together.
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PREVENT BURNS — EXPLOSION
▲ WARNING: Explosions from fuel vapors can cause
injury or death!
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PREVENT BURNS — HOT ENGINE
▲
WARNING: Do not touch hot engine parts or
exhaust system components. A running engine gets very
hot!
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Always check the engine coolant level at the coolant
recovery tank.
▲ WARNING: Steam can cause injury or death!
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Prevent flash fires. Do not smoke or permit flames or
sparks to occur near the carburetor, fuel line, filter, fuel
pump, or other potential sources of spilled fuel or fuel
vapors. Use a suitable container to catch all fuel when
removing the fuel line, carburetor, or fuel filters.
Do not operate with a Coast Guard Approved flame
arrester removed. Backfire can cause severe injury or
death.
Do not operate with the air cleaner/silencer removed.
Backfire can cause severe injury or death.
Do not smoke or permit flames or sparks to occur near the
fuel system. Keep the compartment and the engine/generator clean and free of debris to minimize the chances of
fire. Wipe up all spilled fuel and engine oil.
Be aware — diesel fuel will burn.
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In case of an engine overheat, allow the engine to cool
before touching the engine or checking the coolant.
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Follow re-fueling safety instructions. Keep the vessel’s
hatches closed when fueling. Open and ventilate cabin
after fueling. Check below for fumes/vapor before
running the blower. Run the blower for four minutes
before starting your engine.
All fuel vapors are highly explosive. Use extreme care when
handling and storing fuels. Store fuel in a well-ventilated
area away from spark-producing equipment and out of the
reach of children.
Do not fill the fuel tank(s) while the engine is running.
Shut off the fuel service valve at the engine when servicing
the fuel system. Take care in catching any fuel that might
spill. DO NOT allow any smoking, open flames, or other
sources of fire near the fuel system or engine when
servicing. Ensure proper ventilation exists when servicing
the fuel system.
Do not alter or modify the fuel system.
Be sure all fuel supplies have a positive shutoff valve.
Be certain fuel line fittings are adequately tightened and
free of leaks.
Make sure a fire extinguisher is installed nearby and is
properly maintained. Be familiar with its proper use.
Extinguishers rated ABC by the NFPA are appropriate
for all applications encountered in this environment.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
ACCIDENTAL STARTING
TOXIC EXHAUST GASES
▲ WARNING: Accidental starting can cause injury
▲ WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas!
or death!
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Disconnect the battery cables before servicing the engine/
generator. Remove the negative lead first and reconnect
it last.
Make certain all personnel are clear of the engine before
starting.
Make certain all covers, guards, and hatches are reinstalled before starting the engine.
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BATTERY EXPLOSION
▲ WARNING: Battery explosion can cause injury
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or death!
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▲ WARNING: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible
Do not smoke or allow an open flame near the battery
being serviced. Lead acid batteries emit hydrogen, a
highly explosive gas, which can be ignited by electrical
arcing or by lit tobacco products. Shut off all electrical
equipment in the vicinity to prevent electrical arcing
during servicing.
Never connect the negative (–) battery cable to the
positive (+) connection terminal of the starter solenoid.
Do not test the battery condition by shorting the terminals
together. Sparks could ignite battery gases or fuel vapors.
Ventilate any compartment containing batteries to prevent
accumulation of explosive gases. To avoid sparks, do not
disturb the battery charger connections while the battery
is being charged.
Avoid contacting the terminals with tools, etc., to prevent
burns or sparks that could cause an explosion. Remove
wristwatch, rings, and any other jewelry before handling
the battery.
Always turn the battery charger off before disconnecting
the battery connections. Remove the negative lead first
and reconnect it last when servicing the battery.
odorless gas. Inhalation produces flu-like symptoms,
nausea or death!
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BATTERY ACID
▲
WARNING: Sulphuric acid in batteries can cause
severe injury or death!
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Ensure that the exhaust system is adequate to expel gases
discharged from the engine. Check the exhaust system
regularly for leaks and make sure the exhaust
manifolds/water-injected elbow is securely attached.
Be sure the unit and its surroundings are well ventilated.
Run blowers when running the generator set or engine.
Do not run the generator set or engine unless the boat is
equipped with a functioning marine carbon monoxide
detector that complies with ABYCA-24. Consult your boat
builder or dealer for installation of approved
detectors.
For additional information refer to ABYC T-22
(educational information on Carbon Monoxide).
Do not use copper tubing in diesel exhaust systems. Diesel
fumes can rapidly destroy copper tubing in exhaust systems.
Exhaust sulfur causes rapid deterioration of copper tubing
resulting in exhaust/water leakage.
Do not install exhaust outlet where exhaust can be drawn
through portholes, vents, or air conditioners. If the engine
exhaust discharge outlet is near the waterline, water could
enter the exhaust discharge outlet and close or restrict the
flow of exhaust. Avoid overloading the craft.
Although diesel engine exhaust gases are not as toxic as
exhaust fumes from gasoline engines, carbon monoxide
gas is present in diesel exhaust fumes. Some of the
symptoms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or
poisoning are:
Vomiting
Inability to think coherently
Dizziness
Throbbing in temples
Headache
Muscular twitching
Nausea
Weakness and sleepiness
AVOID MOVING PARTS
▲ WARNING: Rotating parts can cause injury
When servicing the battery or checking the electrolyte
level, wear rubber gloves, a rubber apron, and eye protection. Batteries contain sulfuric acid which is destructive. If
it comes in contact with your skin, wash it off at once with
water. Acid may splash on the skin or into the eyes inadvertently when removing electrolyte caps.
or death!
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Do not service the engine while it is running. If a
situation arises in which it is absolutely necessary to make
operating adjustments, use extreme care to avoid touching
moving parts and hot exhaust system components.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
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Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry when servicing
equipment; avoid wearing loose jackets, shirts, sleeves,
rings, necklaces or bracelets that could be caught in
moving parts.
Make sure all attaching hardware is properly tightened.
Keep protective shields and guards in their respective
places at all times.
Do not check fluid levels or the drive belts’ tension while
the engine/generator is operating.
Stay clear of the drive shaft and the transmission coupling
when the engine is running; hair and clothing can easily be
caught in these rotating parts.
ABYC, NFPA AND USCG PUBLICATIONS FOR
INSTALLING DIESEL ENGINES
Read the following ABYC, NFPA and USCG publications
for safety codes and standards. Follow their
recommendations when installing your engine.
ABYC (American Boat and Yacht Council)
“Safety Standards for Small Craft”
Order from:
ABYC
3069 Solomon’s Island Rd.
Edgewater, MD 21037
NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
“Fire Protection Standard for Motor Craft”
Order from:
NFPA
11 Tracy Drive
Avon Industrial Park
Avon, MA 02322
USCG (United States Coast Guard)
“USCG 33CFR183”
Order from:
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20404
HAZARDOUS NOISE
▲ WARNING: High noise levels can cause hearing
loss!
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Never operate a generator without its muffler installed.
Do not run an engine with the air intake (silencer)
removed.
Do not run engines or generators for long periods with
their enclosures open.
▲ WARNING: Do not work on machinery when you
are mentally or physically incapacitated by fatigue!
OPERATORS MANUAL
Many of the preceding safety tips and warnings are repeated
in your Operators Manual along with other cautions and
notes to highlight critical information. Read your manual
carefully, maintain your equipment, and follow all safety
procedures.
GASOLINE ENGINE AND GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS
Preparations to install an engine should begin with a
thorough examination of the American Boat and Yacht
Council’s (ABYC) standards. These standards are a
combination of sources including the USCG and the NFPA.
Sections of the ABYC standards of particular interest are:
H-2 Ventilation
P-1 Exhaust Systems
P-4 Inboard Engines
E-9 DC Electrical Systems
All installations must comply with the Federal Code of
Regulations (FCR).
iii
INSTALLATION
When installing WESTERBEKE engines and generators it is important that strict
attention be paid to the following information:
CODES AND REGULATIONS
Strict federal regulations, ABYC guidelines, and safety codes must be complied with
when installing engines and generators in a marine environment.
SIPHON-BREAK
For installations where the exhaust manifold/water injected exhaust elbow is close to
or will be below the vessel’s waterline, provisions must be made to install a siphonbreak in the raw water supply hose to the exhaust elbow. This hose must be looped a
minimum of 20” above the vessel’s waterline. Failure to use a siphon-break when
the exhaust manifold injection port is at or below the load waterline will result in
raw water damage to the engine and possible flooding of the boat.
If you have any doubt about the position of the water-injected exhaust elbow relative
to the vessel’s waterline under the vessel’s various operating conditions, install a
siphon-break.
NOTE: A siphon-break requires periodic inspection and cleaning to ensure proper
operation. Failure to properly maintain a siphon-break can result in catastrophic
engine damage. Consult the siphon-break manufacturer for proper maintenance.
EXHAUST SYSTEM
The exhaust hose must be certified for marine use. The system must be designed to
prevent water from entering the exhaust under any sea conditions and at any angle
of the vessels hull.
A detailed 40 page Marine Installation Manual covering gasoline and
diesel, engines and generators, is available from your WESTERBEKE
dealer.
AVAILABLE FROM
YOUR WESTERBEKE
DEALER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction .......................................................................2
Fuel System .....................................................................24
Installation Codes and Safety Standards......................2
Recommended Reading ...............................................2
Product Software ..........................................................3
Notes, Cautions and Warnings .....................................3
Inspection of Shipment ................................................3
Engine Location and Mounting ......................................4
Engine Location ...........................................................4
Engine Bed ...................................................................4
SSB Radio/Electronic Grounding ................................4
Engine Mounting..........................................................5
Generator Location and Mounting ................................6
Generator Location.......................................................6
Generator Mounting .....................................................6
SOUND GUARD.........................................................7
Rigging and Lifting ...........................................................8
Propeller Shaft Alignment ..............................................9
Propeller Shaft Coupling (Engines) .............................9
Flexible Couplings .......................................................9
Alignment...................................................................10
Propeller Selection ........................................................11
Exhaust System ...............................................................12
Recommended Guidelines .........................................12
Water Separator Exhaust Systems..............................15
Dry Stack Exhaust Systems .......................................15
Exhaust Back Pressure ...............................................15
Exhaust Hose..............................................................16
Exhaust Elbow ...........................................................17
Precautions .................................................................18
Electrical System ...........................................................19
DC Electrical Connections .........................................19
Control Panels for Propulsion Engines ......................19
Diesel Generator Instrument Panels...........................19
Optional Instrument Panel (Gasoline Generators).....19
Optional Remote Start/Stop Panel
(Diesel and Gasoline Generators) ..............................19
Control Wiring ...........................................................20
AC Wiring (Generators).............................................20
Batteries......................................................................20
Grounding...................................................................20
Admiral Control Panel ...............................................22
Captain Control Panel ................................................23
Fuel Tanks – General .................................................24
Fuel Tanks – Gasoline................................................24
Fuel Tanks Located Above The Engine/Generator ....25
Fuel Tanks Located Below The Engine/Generator ....25
Gasoline Engine Fuel Tanks.......................................25
Diesel Fuel System Anti-Siphon Devices ..................25
Dual Purpose Fuel Tank .............................................26
Fuel Lines...................................................................26
Rigid Fuel Lines ......................................................26
Flexible Fuel Lines ..................................................26
Shut-Off Valves ..........................................................27
Fuel Filters .................................................................27
Fuel.............................................................................27
Cooling System ...............................................................28
Raw Water Intake .......................................................28
Raw Water Outlet .......................................................28
Fittings........................................................................28
Coolant Recovery Tank..............................................29
Coolant .......................................................................29
Engine Oil .........................................................................30
Oil Specifications .......................................................30
Oil Drain Hose ...........................................................30
Oil Dipstick ................................................................30
Pressure Sensing Devices...........................................30
Relocating Engine Parts .............................................30
Remote Oil Filter ............................................................31
Installation ..................................................................31
Ventilation .......................................................................32
Water Heater Connections............................................33
Installation ..................................................................33
Transmission ...................................................................34
Transmission ..............................................................34
Shipment.....................................................................34
Fluid ...........................................................................34
Control Cables - ZF ...................................................34
Borg Warner Velvet Drive..........................................35
Installation - Final Check .............................................36
Wire Sizing Chart ............................................................37
Metric Conversion Chart ...............................................38
1
INTRODUCTION
This marine Installation Manual covers all WESTERBEKE
Engine and Generator models, both diesel and gasoline. The
purpose of this manual is to provide boatyards and installers
who are already familiar with installation procedures, additional detailed installation instructions to ensure the safest
and most efficient operating conditions. These instructions
may vary due to the many WESTERBEKE Engines and
Generators available and the diversity of boat designs.
Proper location and installation of the engine or generator in
the vessel are of prime importance. Factors in the installation
that must be considered are:
1. Ventilation, to provide air for engine combustion and
to remove heat produced by the engine/generator while
operating.
2. Exhaust System, to properly discharge cooling water,
quiet the exhaust, and expel exhaust gas. Install a
siphon-break.
3. Cooling Water Supply, to cool the engine with a
continuous flow of filtered raw water.
4. Fuel System, to provide an unrestricted fuel supply and
properly filtered fuel to the fuel pump.
5. Electrical Connections, both AC and DC and proper
grounding.
6. Transmission Propeller Connections (Engines only)
Please read this manual carefully and observe the safety
precautions. Should your engine or generator require
servicing, contact your WESTERBEKE dealer. For Serial
Number location, Decal information or Parts Ordering
information, refer to your WESTERBEKE Operators
Manual.
Within the CFRs are the detailed requirements applicable
to boats with gasoline engines. The majority of requirements
pertinent to recreational vessels are contained in 33 CFR
Part 183.
• Subpart I—Electrical Systems 183.401–183.460
• Subpart J—Fuel Systems 183.501–183.572
• Subpart K—Ventilation 183.601–183.630
Standards for marine carburetors and the requirements for the
backfire flame arrester are contained in 46 CFR Subparts
25.35 and 58.10. Also within Subpart 58.10 are the exhaust
manifold and exhaust system requirements for both gasoline
and diesel engine installations. Several publications that
address these federal mandates, making compliance easier,
include:
• The USCG Fuel System, Electrical System and
Ventilation Compliance Guidelines
• The USCG Safety Standards for Backyard Boat Builders
• The National Fire Prevention Association NFPA–302
Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial
Motor Craft
• The ABYC Standards and Recommended Practices for
Small Craft
The ABYC Standards Manual is the most comprehensive and
widely used reference. ABYC constantly revises and updates
its “projects,” as it calls each topic section. The manual is
easy to read and quite detailed. Adherence with these
standards will put the recreational boater in compliance with
federal mandates. Anyone considering installing an engine
or generator should start with a thorough review of these
standards:
• H-2—Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline
• H-24—Gasoline Fuel Systems
• P-1—Installation of Exhaust Systems
• P-4—Marine Inboard Engines
• E-9—DC Electrical Systems Under 50 Volts
USCG “inspected vessels,” especially those carrying
passengers for hire, are required to meet even more stringent
standards than those discussed above. A very thorough
review of the applicable CFRs is necessary before the Coast
Guard arrives for their inspection.
INSTALLATION CODES AND SAFETY STANDARDS
Recommended publications concerning Safety Codes and
standards are listed in this safety section. Following is a
summary of what these standards include. Both the U.S.
Code (USC), which are the laws passed by Congress, and the
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which are agency
generated rules, contain pertinent information.
Title 46 Chapter 43 of the USC applies specifically to
recreational vessels. It gives the Secretary of Transportation
the authority to set the standards for boats that are
manufactured and operated in the United States. It also spells
out the penalties for violation of the standards.
According to Title 46 USC 4307, a person may not
manufacture, construct, assemble, offer for sale, introduce
into interstate commerce, or import into the United States
any recreational vessel that does not comply with the federal
regulations. Any associated equipment or component used on
one of these vessels must also be in compliance. Further, a
person is prohibited from operating any vessel that does not
comply with the regulations.
Recommended Reading
For added information on installing Marine Engines and
Generators, WESTERBEKE recommends the following
books:
• Elements of Yacht Design – Skene
• Marine Engines – Calder
• The Propeller Handbook – Gerr
2
INTRODUCTION
PRODUCT SOFTWARE
INSPECTION OF SHIPMENT
Product software, (tech data, parts lists, manuals, brochures
and catalogs) provided from sources other than
WESTERBEKE are not within WESTERBEKE’s control.
The engine/generator is shipped from the factory securely
mounted and properly crated. Accessory equipment is
shipped in a separate small box, usually packed within the
engine’s crate.
WESTERBEKE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO
WARRANTIES OR REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT
THERETO, INCLUDING ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR
COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO EVENT
BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGE OR INJURY
INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH OR ARISING OUT
OF THE FURNISHING OR USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.
Before accepting shipment of the engine from the
transportation company, the crate should be opened and the
contents inspected for damage. If there is either visible or
concealed damages, you should require the delivery agent to
write “Received in damaged condition” on the delivery
receipt. Also compare the contents of the shipment against
the packing list and make sure that any discrepancies are
properly noted. This is your protection against loss or
damage. Claims concerning loss or damage must be made to
the carrier, not to WESTERBEKE Corporation.
WESTERBEKE customers should also keep in mind the
time span between printings of WESTERBEKE product
software and the unavoidable existence of earlier
WESTERBEKE manuals. In summation, product software
provided with WESTERBEKE products, whether from
WESTERBEKE or other suppliers, must not and cannot be
relied upon exclusively as the definitive authority on the
respective product. It not only makes good sense but is
imperative that appropriate representatives of
WESTERBEKE or the supplier in question be consulted to
determine the accuracy and currentness of the product
software being consulted by the customer.
NOTE: For safety reasons, the engine is NOT filled with
lubricating oil for shipment. Before leaving the factory,
however, each engine/generator is thoroughly tested with oil
in its engine. This testing, among other things, provides all
internal parts with a coating of oil. This oil acts as a
preservative, providing reliable protection against corrosion
for at least one year if the engine/generator is properly
stored.
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
As this manual takes you through the installation procedures
for your engine/generator, critical information will be highlighted by NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. An
explanation follows:
NOTE: An operating procedure essential to note.
▲ CAUTION: Procedures which, if not strictly
observed, can result in the damage or destruction of
your engine.
▲ WARNING: Procedures which, if not properly
fol-
lowed, can result in personal injury or loss of life.
3
ENGINE LOCATION AND MOUNTING
Many boat manufacturers are now providing preformed
fiberglass mounting beds for their engine installations. These
beds, when used, should be of sufficient thickness for proper
support and should be well-glassed to the hull when installed.
ENGINE LOCATION
The overall layout of the engine room should be planned for
easy inspection, servicing, and handling of the engine.
Thoroughly study all the equipment to be installed and make
a paper plan to provide optimum engine room space.
Consider the following:
1. Ventilation – Since an increase in engine room
temperature causes a reduction in the intake air and thus a
drop in engine output, ventilation inside the engine room
must be ample. See your Operators Manual for the
ventilation requirements for your engine/generator.
a. Dimension and capacity with a ventilator installed
b. Dimension and capacity with an intake duct
installed
2. Engine Room Height – For engines having a top oil fill,
the distance from the oil cap at the top of the rocker cover
to the overhead must be enough that oil can easily be
added.
3. Space to move the propeller shaft flange – Allow
approximately 3 - 4 in (7.7 - 10.0 cm) of space to move
the flange toward the stern for changing the transmission,
etc.
4. Exhaust System – Make sure there is adequate space for
all exhaust system components, including the exhaust
silencer. See the BASIC EXHAUST SYSTEMS section in
this manual.
Avoid the temptation to install the engine on a pair of angle
irons glassed in place. Such a construction will allow
vibration to pass through to the hull. Flexible engine
mounts require a firm foundation.
ENGINE BED
A strong mounting bed contributes to the satisfactory
alignment and operating of the engine. The bed must be
rigidly constructed, and neither deflect nor twist when it is
subjected to the engine’s weight or to the pressures that the
boat may experience while operating in rough seas. The bed
must be strong enough to keep the engine’s alignment within
one or two thousands of an inch at all times. The bed has to
withstand the forward push of the propeller shaft. It is also
critical that the beds are parallel to one another and to the
line of the propeller shaft when viewed from above. They
also must be offset an equal distance from the line of the
propeller shaft.
In fiberglass hulls, we recommend that solid wooden support
stringers similar to those in wooden hulls be formed and
fitted, then glassed securely to the hull. This will allow the
hanger bolts to be installed firmly in the wood, thereby
reducing noise and transmitted vibration.
The stringers must be as wide or wider than the engine
mounting isolator. Avoid excessive height. Isolator overhang
and/or rounded stringer surfaces are detrimental to the
flexible mounts’ ability to retain vibration.
Supports between the bed stringers and supports extending at
right angles from the stringers to the hull may be required for
proper strength and to aid in the absorption of vibrations.
The engine bed must be constructed so that a wrench can be
set at the engine base to retighten the engine mounting bolts
at the mounting feet.
When preparing the engine load, also plan out and build an
engine drip pan. To simplify cleaning up after oil changes,
consider a separate drip pan for use under the oil and fuel
filters.
SSB RADIO/ELECTRONIC GROUNDING
If your boat needs a ground plane for a radio and other
electronic gear, this is the ideal time to bond a substantial
area of copper mesh into the base of the engine space while
it is accessible.
4
ENGINE LOCATION AND MOUNTING
The engine’s mounting angle cannot exceed 15L from the
horizontal plane. Refer to the specification section in your
operating manual for the angle limit of your engine.
NOTE: There are various transmissions that provide down
angle output flanges to help in positioning the engine on a
more level plane.
ENGINE MOUNTING
Bronze or stainless steel hanger bolts of appropriate size are
recommended for use through the engine’s flexible mounts.
Less preferred are lag screws because their hold on the wood
is weakened every time they are moved, whereas hanger
bolts stay in position. If the nut on top of the hanger bolt is
removed to allow the engine to be lifted, the hanger bolt
itself remains in place as a stud. Consequently, the bond
between the hanger bolt and the wood is not weakened by
the removal of the nut or the engine.
To screw a hanger bolt onto a stringer, thread two nuts onto
the hanger bolt, jam them together, then turn the hanger bolt
into the stringer using a wrench on the uppermost nut.
5
GENERATOR LOCATION AND MOUNTING
GENERATOR LOCATION
GENERATOR MOUNTING
A solid, level mounting platform is very important for the
proper operation of your generator. Select a location that will
allow adequate space on all sides for ventilation and
servicing, preferably on, and parallel with, the keel or vessel
center line. Keep the generator away from living quarters,
and away from bilge splash and vapors.
Make sure there is room to access the following service
points:
• Negative and positive battery connections
• Fuel inlet and outlet connections
• Oil fill and oil drain hose
• Raw water inlet and outlet
• Location of the (owner supplied) fuel/water fuel filter.
A generator will rock on its mounts in rough seas, therefore
clearance is necessary on all sides. Larger generators require
up to a three-inch (76mm) clearance.
Avoid supporting the generator from bulkheads which can
create drumming effects and transmit noise and vibration
throughout the boat.
Generator location is preferable in the same room or
compartment as the propulsion engine, as this is usually a
well ventilated area, insulated, close to the fuel supply and
the center of the electrical load distribution. However, a
generator cannot be installed in the propulsion engine
compartment unless specific conditions are met.
USCG regulation 33CFR183 pertains to gasoline fuel
systems, and requires a generator operating in a gasoline fuel
environment to be “ignition protected.” This means a
generator capable of operating in an explosive environment
without igniting that environment. Properly installed and
operated, a WESTERBEKE gasoline generator can operate
in an explosive environment.
Generator mounting rails have numerous pre-drilled bolt
holes to ensure that the generator is properly positioned and
secured to its mounting platform.
▲ WARNING: Gasoline fire or explosion can result in
severe personal injury or death. Do not install a
gasoline generator in the same room or compartment as
a diesel engine or generator. The diesel unit may not be
ignition protected and may ignite gasoline fumes. Be
sure a gasoline generator is installed in its own room or
compartment on a diesel powered boat.
Do not install a diesel generator in the same room or
compartment as a gasoline engine.
6
SOUND ENCLOSURE
There are custom designed sound enclosures for each model
of WESTERBEKE generators. The Sound Guard is a rigid,
attractive, easy to clean enclosure that reduces the generator
noise to a pleasant hum. The enclosure can be assembled
easily in close quarters.
Quick action fittings allow for easy access for inspection or
routine maintenance of the generator. If major repairs are
needed, all the panels can be disassembled in a few minutes.
No tools required.
Sound Guard is pre-packaged with the skirt and base
assembled to assure a safe arrival and easy assembly.
WESTERBEKE provides the necessary fittings and
connecting hoses for water, exhaust, fuel and battery
attachments.
For a quiet, dependable sound enclosure, contact your
WESTERBEKE dealer.
7
RIGGING AND LIFTING
The engine/generator is fitted with lifting eyes. Attach wire
rope or chain slings capable of supporting the engine/
generator's weight to the eyes and lift the engine/generator by
means of tackle attached to these slings. The lifting eyes have
been designed to carry the full weight; auxiliary slings are
not necessary.
If it becomes necessary to hoist the engine/generator
front-end (pulley/drive belt end) upwards or rear-end (flywheel/generator end) upwards, the attachment of lifting
slings must be done carefully to avoid damaging the parts on
which the weight of the slings may bear.
NOTE: Rigging work is best done by someone experienced
and competent in handling heavy machinery.
▲ WARNING: Sings must NOT be so short as to place
stress on the lifting eyes. A sling must be long enough so
that its angle to the vertical plane does not exceed 10 .
The general rule in moving an engine/generator is to ensure
that all equipment used is adequately strong and firmly fixed
in place. Move the engine/generator a little at a time and
make sure it is firmly supported. Eliminate the possibility of
accidents by avoiding haste. Do not lift by the crankshaft
pulley.
▲ WARNING: Make certain all personnel stand clear
during lifting and lowering operations.
In certain situations it may be necessary to lift the
engine/generator in positions other than the horizontal
position. Certain situations require it to be lowered endwise
through a small hatchway which cannot be made larger. If
the opening of the hatchway is extremely small, it is possible
to reduce the outside dimensions of the engine/generator by
removing external components such as the cooling system
piping, the heat exchanger, certain filters, the mounting rails
(on generators) and other obstructive components. These
should be removed by a competent mechanic and special
care should be taken to avoid damage to any exposed parts.
Be careful not to allow dirt to enter any openings created by
the removal of equipment. Reinstall the components in their
original positions after the engine is in its installation area.
Replace gaskets as needed for the parts that were removed.
8
PROPELLER SHAFT ALIGNMENT
PROPELLER SHAFT COUPLING (Engines)
A propeller shaft half-coupling is available for all engine
models. It is bored to shaft size for the specific order, and has
either a keyway with set screws and two locking bolts, or is
of the clamping type with a keyway.
This coupling is carefully machined to allow a slight
forced-fit onto the shaft and to make an accurate mating
surface between the coupling and the output flange of the
transmission.
The forward end of the propeller shaft has a long straight
keyway. Any burrs should be removed from the shaft’s end.
The coupling should be a light drive fit onto the shaft, and
the shaft should not have to be scraped down or filed in order
to get a fit. It is important that the key be properly fitted to
both the shaft and to the coupling. The key should fit the side
of the keyway closely but should not touch the top of the
keyway in the hub of the coupling.
If driving the coupling over the shaft is difficult, the coupling
can be expanded by heating it in a pail of boiling water. The
face of the propeller coupling must be exactly perpendicular
to the center line (axis) of the propeller shaft. Have a
machine shop fit the coupling and face the coupling so that
the mating surface of the flange is at a perfect right angle to
the propeller shaft.
After driving the coupling over the shaft, remove the two
locking bolts from the coupling and countersink the shaft
below each locking bolt hole. Insert and tighten the two
bolts, then wire the two bolt heads together with stainless
wire. This will secure the coupling to the shaft. For
additional security a stainless hose clamp can be tightened
around the coupling shoulder and over the two bolt heads.
These illustrations show typical propeller shaft installations
with variations on stuffing boxes and stern tubes. The
propeller shaft on the boat with the spade rudder is supported
by the stern tube. An external strut supports the shaft on the
other boat.
FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS
A flexible coupling or a “drive saver” can be installed
between the WESTERBEKE shaft coupling and the
transmission coupling to reduce vibration and absorb thrust
and torque. This is an important consideration when using
flexible engine mounts. Follow the manufacturers’
recommendations and instructions.
9
PROPELLER SHAFT ALIGNMENT
ALIGNMENT
The engine must be exactly aligned with the propeller shaft.
No matter what material is used to build a boat, the material
will be flexible to some extent. The boat’s hull will change
its shape to a greater extent than is usually realized when the
boat is launched and operated in the water. Therefore, it
becomes extremely important to check the engine’s
alignment at frequent intervals and to correct any errors
when they appear.
Misalignment between the engine and the propeller shaft
often creates serious problems which are often blamed on
other areas suspected of causing the trouble. Misalignment
will cause excessive bearing wear, rapid shaft wear, and will,
in many cases, reduce the life of the boat’s hull by loosening
the hull’s fastenings. A bent propeller shaft will produce these
same effects, therefore a perfectly straight propeller shaft is
absolutely necessary. One result of misalignment may be
leakage of transmission oil through the transmission's rear oil
seal. If oil should leak from this seal, check and make sure
that the alignment is within the limits prescribed.
Never attempt a final alignment when the boat is on land.
The boat should be in the water and have had an opportunity
to assume its final water form. The propeller shaft/
transmission coupling alignment is best performed with the
fuel and water tanks about half full, with all the usual
equipment on board, and, on sailboats, after the mainmast
has been stepped and the final rigging has been installed.
Take sufficient time to make this alignment — don’t be
satisfied with less than perfect results.
The alignment is correct when the propeller shaft can be
easily slipped backward and forward into the counterbore,
and when a feeler gauge indicates that the flanges come
together at all points. The alignment between the propeller
shaft half-coupling and the transmisson half-coupling can
contain an error no greater than .001in (.25 mm) per inch of
the coupling diameter. For example, if your propeller shaft
half-coupling is 3” (76mm) in diameter, the maximum error
that can be allowed in the alignment is .003 in (.076mm).
In making the final check for alignment, the transmisson
half-coupling should be held in one position and the alignment with the propeller shaft half-coupling tested with the
propeller shaft half-coupling in each of four positions A,
while rotated 90 between each position. This test will also
check whether the propeller shaft half-coupling is in exact
alignment on its shaft. Then, keeping the propeller shaft
half-coupling in one position, the alignment should be
checked by rotating the transmission half-coupling in 90L
increments, checking dimension A while in each 90L
position until it has been rotated full-circle.
The engine’s alignment should be rechecked after the boat
has been in service for one to three weeks and, if necessary,
the alignment performed again. Usually it will be found that
the engine is no longer in alignment. This does not mean that
the first alignment has been done improperly, rather, it means
that the boat has taken some time to take its final shape and
that the engine’s bed and stringers have probably absorbed
some moisture. It may even be necessary to realign the
coupling halves again at a later time.
10
PROPELLER SELECTION
The type and size of propeller varies with the gear ratio and
must be selected to fit the application, based upon boat tests.
To utilize the full power of the engine and to achieve ideal
loading conditions, use a propeller which will permit the
engine to reach its full rated rpm at full throttle while under a
normal load and while the boat is moving forward through
the water.
The following information is needed to calculate and match a
marine propeller to a boat.
a. The engine output in hp.
b. The maximum rpm of the engine.
c. The reduction of the transmission.
d. The maximum hull speed of the boat.
e. The type of boat and its displacement.
f. The waterline length (LWL).
Most propeller shops now have computer programs that will
analyze all this data and select the propeller choices in
number of blades, diameter and pitch. In-water testing
however, is always the final answer.
For more information on propellers, read The Propeller
Handbook by Gerr published by International Marine
Publishers.
11
EXHAUST SYSTEM INSTALLATION
RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES
Sea Water Intrusion Through The Exhaust Outlet
These guidelines dated February 2004 supercede all
previous guidelines published by Westerbeke
Corporation for all types of exhaust systems. Water
intrusion is not covered by warranty because it is not
caused by a product defect. Please study these guidelines
carefully before planning your exhaust system installation.
The diagram above illustrates a below waterline installation
of an engine or genset. The letters A through H are the
important dimensions that are discussed in detail in the
following text:
Throughout these guidelines our use of the word “engine” is
generic, it refers equally to either a propulsion engine or to the
engine driving a generator set, sea water and raw water are the
same.
Beyond conveying exhaust gases and cooling system sea
water out of the boat, the other purpose of the exhaust system
is to prevent sea water intrusion into the engine (at the exhaust
outlet) under all conceivable conditions of boat trim, boat
operation, sea conditions, and heel angle while not exceeding
the manufacturer’s back pressure recommendations. Seawater
intrusion is usually catastrophic to catalytic converters and
engines. The engine/genset supplier is not in a position to
judge what installation characteristics will prevent water
intrusion in all conceivable circumstances. That judgment is
the responsibility of the engine installer. What we as the
manufacturer can do is advise the best practice, as we see it,
leaving final judgments to the installer.
12
Let’s start with A, the difference between the highest
underside of the boat deck near the engine/generator and the
high point of the exhaust run from the water lift muffler to
the exhaust outlet. A should be minimized. There is every
reason to attach the high point of the exhaust hose directly to
the underside of the deck. There is no reason to fail to take
full advantage of this maximum available height because it
forms the primary barrier to water intrusion.
We need to define the water line for exhaust installation
purposes. By water line we mean the highest point the water
level can reach, at the location of the exhaust through hull
fitting, from all conceivable causes - other than passing
waves of a duration of not more than a second or two. This
worst case water level could be caused by any of the
following: backing down aggressively, turning aggressively,
coming up onto a plane, decelerating off a plane, extreme
boat trim, high seas, wallowing in following seas, heeling,
etc. Hereafter these instructions will refer exclusively to this
worst case water level as the relevant water level to plan a
good installation.
EXHAUST SYSTEM INSTALLATION
This leads to B, the amount by which the spill over point of
the exhaust outlet is above the worst case water level. B
should be maximized (and certainly always positive). Then
the exhaust loop height, C, from the high point spill over
point to the through hull fitting spillover point, becomes a
back up to B for preventing water intrusion, rather than being
the primary defense – as becomes the case whenever the
exhaust outlet spillover point dips beneath the water level.
G is the length of exhaust hose leading from the water lift
muffler to the high point. The shorter this length, the lower
the back pressure and the greater will be the reserve capacity
inside a given water lift muffler. The shorter the better, but it
is much more important to minimize A than to minimize G.
The water lift muffler should be sized to hold multiples of
the volume of water that spills back from the exhaust high
point when the engine/generator shuts off. The actual amount
of normal spill back at shut down is a function of length G,
the exhaust hose inside diameter, E, and the sea water pump
flow rate. The larger the muffler the better. Remember when all else fails and water comes pouring over the high
point, only reserve capacity in the muffler can contain it and
prevent it from entering the engine/generator.
H is the height of the engine’s water injected exhaust elbow
outlet above the top of the water lift muffler. This should be
maximized. This length of hose is additional reserve capacity
to contain both intruding water and splashing inside the water
lift muffler.
J is the total height engine exhaust gas pressure must move
water up hill – from the bottom of the muffler to the spillover
point at the exhaust run high point. J is driven by other
installation dimensions. It results from a conservative
installation, rather than being a driving factor. In most
installations, J would not exceed 4’ (1.2m), this height should
produce adequate exhaust system back pressure level.
But the height of C is also important. The only defense
against momentary passing waves, when they immerse the
exhaust outlet, is the exhaust loop height, C. If A has been
minimized, C will probably be in excess of a couple of feet.
The higher the better. Maximize this height, C, because it is
your only defense against a passing wave, rogue waves
included!
The verticality, D, of the hose run from the high point to the
exhaust outlet is also important. When a momentarily rising
water level immerses the exhaust outlet and is accompanied
by water velocity towards that through hull fitting, it is easier
for the intruding water to rise along a sloping hose towards
the high point than to rise vertically towards that high point.
Minimize D and keep this part of the exhaust hose as vertical
as possible.
Similarly, it is desirable that angle N be a 90 degree angle
with the exhaust hose rising vertically. This will further
discourage water intrusion, especially when backing down,
turning, or otherwise experiencing sea water velocity
towards the exhaust outlet.
E is the inside diameter of the exhaust hose. This should be
no less than F, the outside diameter of the generator’s water
injected exhaust elbow. E should only exceed F if exhaust
system back pressure requirements are not met.
NOTE: When the length of G is more than 20 ft, increase the
hose diameter E by 1/2 in to relieve back pressure.
▲
WARNING: Use extreme care during installation
to ensure a tight exhaust system. Exhaust gases are
deadly.
13
EXHAUST SYSTEM INSTALLATION
Sea water Intrusion Through The Intake Seacock
Generator-Not in Operation Water Intrusion
Another means of water intrusion is though the sea water
intake seacock. This can occur when any part of the sea
water system or exhaust system are below the worst case
water level (other than the seacock itself which is already
below the water level, of course). What happens is that, upon
engine shutdown, sea water siphons from the intake seacock,
up through the sea water cooling circuit containing the sea
water pump, heat exchanger, and water injected exhaust
elbow, into the water lift muffler. This seawater will siphon
past the impeller of the sea water pump and fill the muffler
and all hoses attached to the muffler until the outside water
level is reached. If the engine exhaust manifold is below the
worst-case water level, seawater will simply pour into the
cylinders, destroying the engine.
Boat operators may be accustomed to seeing a propulsion
engine exhaust outlet dip beneath the water frequently when
underway and think this is acceptable for a generator exhaust
outlet as well. Not so! When the boat is underway, exhaust
pressure keeps water out of the propulsion engine exhaust.
But when the generator is not running, there is no exhaust
pressure to keep water out of its exhaust outlet. The exhaust
outlet of engines which may not be operating when the
vessel is underway – sailboat engines and generators – must
be well above the worst case water level.
Cumulative Process
Water intrusion between operations of the engine is a
cumulative process. If just a little bit of water spills over the
high point, but it happens many times, it will fill the muffler
and endanger the engine. This could easily be the case for a
power boat not using its generator or for a sailboat not using
its engine. If you suspect that water is intruding, run the
engine frequently until the suspected problem is confirmed
and fixed.
This form of water intrusion is avoided by the proper
installation of an anti siphon valve in the sea water circuit
between the sea water pump outlet and the water injected
exhaust elbow inlet. Refer again to the generic drawing of a
below water line engine/generator installation utilizing a
water lift muffler.
NOTE: Running the engine or Genset will normally preclude
water intrusion as the exhaust flow under pressure prevents
water from entering the exhaust outlet.
Cranking the Starter: Draining the Muffler
Prolonged cranking of the starter may cause excessive sea
water to build up between the engine and the high point.
Each time cranking is interrupted additional water may spill
back into the muffler. In time this cumulative spill back can
flood the engine. Unusual cranking and/or cranking
interruptions must be monitored and the muffler drained
before excessive water buildup occurs. This may be made
more convenient by installing a suitable, non-corrosive valve
at the muffler drain fitting.
K is the difference between the highest underside of the boat
deck near the engine/generator and the anti siphon valve. K
should be minimized. There is every reason to attach the
anti-siphon valve directly to the underside of the deck. There
is no reason to fail to take full advantage of this maximum
available height because it forms the only barrier to water
intrusion by siphoning. The anti siphon valve must be well
above the worst case water level under all conceivable conditions of boat trim, boat operation, sea conditions, and heel
angle. The anti-siphon break and the exhaust hose point
should be located as near to the boats centerline as possible;
especially on sailboats due to large and steady healing. The
siphon must be accessible for maintenance,
14
EXHAUST SYSTEM INSTALLATION
Check Valves
Dry Stack Exhaust Systems
Various types of check valves are available and suitable for
exhaust runs. Examples are in-line check valves offered by
some exhaust component manufacturers and flapper valves
on exhaust outlets. None of these may be considered as an
alternative to a good installation. They can leak, they can
foul, and they can open intermittently. Think of them as an
emergency means to keep out that rogue wave or extreme
following sea. Never rely on them to stay closed for more
than a second or two. Read again “CUMULATIVE
PROCESS” on the previous page.
Commonly seen on commercial fishing boats, dry stack
exhausts can also be used on trawler style pleasure boats. A
dry stack exhaust directs the exhaust gas straight from the
generator or engine without obstructions. A dry stack exhaust
becomes very hot when the engine is operating and should
not be close to any combustible materials (wood, fiberglass,
etc.) unless it is properly shielded or insulated.
Make certain the exhaust and muffler are of sufficient
diameter to clear the exhaust gasses and prevent excessive
back pressure. Provisions must also be made for discharging
the raw cooling water.
After final assembly, test run the generator and check all
connections and elbows for exhaust leaks. A back-pressure
test should also be performed at this time. Back pressure
should not exceed 1.5 psi (0.11 kg/cm2).
Regulations require that the exhaust muffler be constructed
of aluminized steel or other corrosion resistant material and
be of welded or crimped construction. An approved spark
arrestor must be installed with the muffler in gasoline
installations.
NOTE: Liability for damage or injury and warranty expenses
becomes the responsibility of the person installing an exhaust
system. Contact WESTERBEKE or your WESTERBEKE
dealer regarding any exhaust system problems.
Water Separators Exhaust Systems
Water separators are the latest innovation in exhaust systems.
The separator uses gravity and centrifugal force to separate
the cooling water from the exhaust gas and then discharges
then separately under the vessels hull. This makes for a quiet
and efficient system that reduces back pressure and prevents
sea water intrusion by wave action.
Installation
The separator must be securely mounted as high as possible
(point A in the previous diagrams) above the water lift
muffler and well above the vessels waterline in all attitudes
of operation.
The discharge (drain) hose for the separated cooling water
must go directly and vertically down from the separator to a
thru hull fitting on the hull below the waterline. This
provides a very quiet exhaust.
The discharge (drain) hose for the exhaust gas must also go
directly and vertically down to a thru hull fitting under the
hull just above the waterline. This gas discharge hose will
still contain some water, to prevent this water from becoming
trapped and impeding the flow of gases, make certain the
hose leads down hill without any loops or dips.
Water separators are manufactured by:
Halyard Limited
Whadden Business Park
Southhampton Road
Whadden, Salisbury SP5-3HF
United Kingdom
WWW.halyard.eu.com
Exhaust Back Pressure
After the installation is operational, exhaust back pressure
must be measured at the outlet of the water injected exhaust
elbow. Measure with an appropriate gauge or manometer.
Operate a propulsion engine underway at cruising RPM.
Operate a generator at rated load. As the engine/genset
operates it continuously pushes the exhaust gases and raw
water thru the exhaust system, up hill and overboard thru the
exhaust outlet. This causes significant back pressure.
Excessive back pressure reduces engine power, higher
temperatures and cab reduce the life of the engine.
Centek Industries, Inc.
116 Plantation Oak Drive
P.O. Box 3028
Thomasville, GA 31799-3028
WWW.centekindustries.com
15
EXHAUST SYSTEM INSTALLATION
Exhaust Back Pressure (cont.)
Exhaust Hose
Back pressure should not exceed 1.5 psi or 41” WC.
Excessive back pressure can be reduced by increasing E,
increasing the size of the water lift muffler, reducing J, and
reducing G. However A, C, and B should not be compromised
to relieve back pressure.
To ensure that engine/generator vibration doesn’t transmit to
the hull, most installations use flexible rubber exhaust hose
for the water cooled section of the exhaust line because of
the ease of installation and flexibility. This exhaust hose must
be marine certified. Provide adequate support for the rubber
hose, to prevent sagging, bending, and formation of water
pockets. Always use corrosion resistant carriers and hangers.
Back pressure should not exceed the following
specifications:
3 inches of mercury
For dry or custom pipe exhaust systems, use a flexible
section, preferably of stainless steel, no less than 12” (30 cm)
overall, threaded at each end and installed as close to the
engine as possible. This flexible section should be installed
with no bends and covered with insulating material. The
exhaust line should be properly supported by brackets to
eliminate any strain on the manifold flange studs.
▲ WARNING: Do not install rubber hose with sharp
bends as this will reduce efficiency. Do not use rubber
hose on dry type exhaust applications. Doing so may
cause hose failure and leakage of deadly exhaust gas.
Make sure that the water discharge into the rubber hose
section is behind a riser elbow or sufficiently below the
exhaust flange so that water cannot possibly flow back into
the engine. Also, in custom systems, make sure that entering
raw water cannot spray directly against the inside of the
exhaust piping. Otherwise excessive erosion will occur.
Dry components of the exhaust system between the exhaust
manifold and the water injected exhaust elbow must be
properly insulated to hold in the heat, prior to the cooling
water being injected.
Sea Trial
A sea trial must be conducted to confirm that no water
intrusion takes place, either via the exhaust outlet or via the
sea water intake seacock. Do not operate the engine during
the trial. Disconnect the exhaust hose at the muffler outlet
and place it in an empty bucket (bucket #1). Disconnect the
sea water hose entering the exhaust elbow and place it into a
second empty bucket (bucket #2).
Select the worst sea conditions available. Operate the boat as
aggressively as possible, putting it through as large a variety
of operating situations as you would ever encounter. Operate
the boat in this way for as long as possible.
Periodically verify that no water enters either bucket. Any
water in bucket #1 is water intrusion via the exhaust outlet.
Any water in bucket #2 is water intrusion via the sea water
intake seacock. Either instance of water intrusion shows that
the installation is not adequate, since you will someday
experience conditions worse than the sea trial.
Scoop-Type Intake
Where generators are installed in very high speed vessels
(50-60 knots), it has been necessary to use a scoop-type raw
water intake to insure an adequate supply of cooling water to
the generator. Generally, this is not recommended, but if it
needs to be done, the generator must be mounted high
enough so that the exhaust piping has a continuous
downward pitch from the muffler to the exhaust outlet in the
hull. The pitch should be adequate so that the muffler will
continuously drain and no water can back-up into the engine
(see illustration).
16
EXHAUST SYSTEM
EXHAUST ELBOW INSTALLATION
Exhaust elbows are standard on generators, optional on
engines.
For installation on your engine/generator, we offer
,
450 700 and 900 exhaust elbows.
NOTE: Fabricated exhaust elbows or risers attached to the
exhaust manifold shall not exceed 8 lbs. when unsupported.
1. Coat only one side of the exhaust gasket with High Tack
(manufactured by Permatex Company, Brooklyn, N.Y.)
adhesive sealant. Place this coated surface against the
exhaust manifold’s exhaust port flange (the gasket should
stick to the flange without falling off).
2. Place the clamp over the elbow’s flange. Place your
exhaust elbow against the exhaust manifold’s flange so
the exhaust manifold’s flange rests snug against the
exhaust elbow’s flange with the gasket centered between
the two. Now slip the exhaust clamp over both flanges.
3. Tighten the clamp just enough so the exhaust elbow can
remain attached to the manifold and still be rotated. The
exhaust elbow discharge must be directed downward so
the mixture of raw water and exhaust gases will flow/fall
downward into the exhaust muffler which must be positioned below the exhaust elbow. There should be no loops
or rises in the exhaust hose connected between the
exhaust elbow and the muffler, as these would trap water
and possibly allow water to flow back into the engine during starting or at shut-down.
4. Adjust the elbow by rotating it until the desired alignment
with the exhaust piping is acquired.
5. Carefully tighten the clamp between 8 to 10 lb-ft, or 24 to
35 lb-in, or 0.27 to 0.41 kg-m.
▲ CAUTION: 10 lb-ft (1.4 kg-m) Torque Limit:
approach the 10 lb-ft (1.4 kg-m) torque limit with
caution. The clamp’s threads will break if more than
10 lb-ft (1.4 kg-m) is applied to the clamp.
6. When the engine is started for the first time with the new
elbow, check this exhaust manifold/elbow connection for
leaks. If a leak exists, correct it immediately.
17
EXHAUST SYSTEM
EXHAUST SYSTEM PRECAUTIONS
Raw Water Erosion
When the engine’s raw water is fed into an exhaust system so
that the full stream of this water strikes a surface, erosion
takes place. This erosion may cause premature failures. The
proper design of either a water-jacketed or water-injected
“wet” exhaust system to prevent this problem requires that
the raw water inlet be positioned so that the entering stream
of raw water does not directly strike a surface. In addition,
the velocity of the entering raw water stream should be as
low as possible, which can be achieved by having inlet fittings as big in diameter as possible.
Carbon Monoxide
The best protection against carbon monoxide poisoning is a
daily inspection of the complete exhaust system. Check for
leaks around manifolds, gaskets, and welds. Make sure
exhaust lines are not heating surrounding areas excessively.
If excessive heat is present, correct the situation immediately.
If you notice a change in the sound or appearance of the
exhaust system, shut down the unit immediately and have the
system inspected and repaired at once by a qualified
mechanic.
Excessive Weight
Make sure there are no unnecessary objects suspended from
any portion of the exhaust lines. Exhaust risers installed off
the exhaust manifold should not exceed 8 lbs in total weight
when rigidly constructed. Excessive weight could cause
deflection or distortion of the manifold resulting in damage
and/or internal leaks.
▲
WARNING: Carbon Monoxide Gas is Deadly!
Carbon monoxide is a dangerous gas that can cause
unconsciousness and is potentially lethal. Some of the
symptoms or signs of carbon monoxide inhalation or poisoning are:
• Dizziness
• Throbbing in Temples
• Nausea
• Muscular Twitching
• Headache
• Vomiting
• Weakness and
• Inability to Think
Sleepiness
Coherently
If you experience any of the above symptoms, get out
into fresh air immediately.
Insulation
Inspect insulated portions of the exhaust system to ensure
there is no deterioration of the insulation.
Overcranking
Prolonged cranking intervals without the engine starting can
result in filling the engine-mounted exhaust system with raw
water coolant. This may happen because the raw water pump
is pumping raw water through the raw water cooling system
during cranking. This raw water can enter the engine’s cylinders by the way of the exhaust manifold once the exhaust
system fills. To prevent this from happening, close the raw
water supply through-hull shut-off, drain the exhaust muffler,
and correct the cause for the excessive engine cranking
needed to obtain a start. Engine damage resulting form this
type of raw water entry is not a warrantable issue.
A carbon monoxide warning decal has been provided by
Westerbeke. Display this decal near your engine or generator,
on your cabin bulkhead, or in some other nearby location.
NOTE: It is extremely important that a carbon monoxide
detector be installed in your boat’s living quarters. Make
sure it is manufactured for the marine industry. They are
inexpensive and easily available at your marine supplier.
18
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The panel can also be remote mounted by using optional
plug-in extension harnesses which are available in 15 ft.
(4.6 m) increments. A maximum of two harnesses, 30 ft
(9.2 m) can be connected. For longer distances, hard wiring
can be used as shown in the Operators Manual. An optional
cover plate is available to cover the face of the panel box
when the instrument panel is remote mounted. An optional
plate with pre-heat and start and stop switches is also
available for mounting in place of the instrument panel for
operation at the unit.
The 5.7/7.6 BTD comes standard with an instrument panel
for remote mounting (see illustration) and one 15 ft (4.6 m)
extension harness. Pre-heat and start and stop switches are
provided on the unit.
DC ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS
WESTERBEKE engines and generators are supplied
pre-wired and with plug-in connectors. Never make or break
connections while the engine is running. Carefully follow all
instructions on the wiring diagram supplied, especially those
relating to fuse/circuit breaker requirements. Wiring diagrams
are included in your Operators Manual.
NOTE: WESTERBEKE manufactures marine engines and
generators using components that meet very rigid safety
standards. If a component on the engine or generator is
replaced with one that is non-compliant, then the safety of
the boat is jeopardized. Make certain that any engine
component you replace is a genuine WESTERBEKE
replacement part.
CONTROL PANELS FOR PROPULSION ENGINES
Two optional manually-operated control panels for
propulsion engines are available from WESTERBEKE.
These are the ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL and the
CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEl. Both panels come with 15 ft.
(4.6 m) of connecting harness. The features of these two
panels are described in detail at the end of this section.
DIESEL GENERATOR INSTRUMENT PANELS
All WESTERBEKE diesel generators come with a standard
engine instrument panel (see illustration). With the exception
of the 5.7/7.6 BTD, they are mounted in a panel box attached
to the AC alternator. The panel faces the service side of the
generator and can be rotated to suit particular installations.
Two instrument panels can be installed using the optional
dual gauge sender kit. This second panel must be hard-wired
by the installer
OPTIONAL INSTRUMENT PANEL
(GASOLINE GENERATORS)
An optional instrument panel is available supplied with an
engine oil pressure gauge, water temperature gauge, engine
mounted alternator voltage gauge, engine operating
hourmeter and control switches. This panel must be wired
into the terminal strip in the main control panel on the
engine/generator and must be mounted in a remote location
where the instruments can be monitored and the switches
activated.
NOTE: This panel must not be located in an engine or
generator compartment because it is not ignition protected,
and has not been Coast Guard approved.
OPTIONAL REMOTE START/STOP PANEL
(DIESEL AND GASOLINE GENERATORS)
An optional remote Start/Stop panel is available containing
three switches and a run indicator light (green). This panel
must be wired into the terminal strip in the main control
panel on the engine/generator and must be mounted in a
remote location such as the vessel’s wheelhouse.
NOTE: This panel must not be located in an engine or generator compartment because it is not ignition protected, and
has not been Coast Guard approved.
19
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Starter batteries must be of a type which permits a high rate
of discharge.
See your Operators Manual specifications for cold cranking
ampere hours requirements. Most marine batteries on the
market today have large cranking capacities. The battery
compartment must be well ventilated to prevent
accumulation of explosive battery gases.
Mount the battery in an acid-resistant tray on a platform
above the floor. It must be secured to prevent shifting. If
mounted in an engine compartment, always install a
non-metallic cover to prevent battery damage and arcing
from accidentally dropped tools. Be sure the battery
connections are clean and tight, then cover the battery
terminals with a dielectric grease to retard corrosion.
U.S. Coast Guard regulations and Marine Insurance
Companies require that the ship’s batteries have a fixed cover
or holdown straps to keep the batteries in place should a
rollover occur.
Carefully follow the recommended wire sizes shown
in WESTERBEKE’S wiring diagrams for the battery
connections:
CONTROL WIRING
For control wiring, see the DC WIRE SIZING page in this
manual.
NOTE: All wiring should be tied down with clamps or plastic
ties, and spaced at intervals close enough to prevent chafing
from vibration. Check to make sure all the harness connections are tight and that they are made to the appropriate
terminals.
▲
CAUTION: The electrical code will not allow DC
wiring to be routed together with AC wiring.
Refer to the wire size chart (DC) in this manual when
selecting the wire size to be used between the engine control
panel and remote start/stop panel. Use color codes to comply
with ABYC Standards. See your WESTERBEKE Operators
Manual for the remote panel wiring schematic.
NOTE: Generator AC load connections, shore power
connections, voltage adjustments and all the necessary
wiring diagrams are included in your WESTERBEKE
Operators Manual.
BATTERY CABLE REQUIREMENTS
Maximum Length of One Cable
Cable Size
2
1
0
00
000
Length ft.
4
5
7
9
11
Length m..
1.2
1.5
2.1
2.7
3.4
AC WIRING (GENERATORS)
Various AC output voltages and frequencies are available for
your generator. For these specifications, and for information
about AC wiring connections and adjustments, refer to your
Operators Manual.
The generator’s data plate gives the voltage, current and frequency rating of the generator. A diagram of the various AC
voltage connections is provided on the AC wiring decal that
is affixed to the inside of the louvered cover at the generator
end of the unit.
Recommended publications concerning electrical installation
standards and safety codes are listed in the SAFETY
INSTRUCTIONS section of this manual. Make sure that all
electrical connections, tests and adjustments are performed
by a qualified electrician.
0000
14
4.3
▲ WARNING: Do not connect the starting battery
until installation is complete. Accidental starting of the
engine or generator could cause serious personal injury.
GROUNDING
Generators and propulsion engines must be grounded in
accordance with USCG regulation 33CFR183.415. The
regulation requires that a common ground conductor be
connected between the generator and the vessel’s main
propulsion engine’s grounded cranking motor circuit.
The engine or generator must be bonded to the vessel’s
common bonding conductor with a bonding strap. If a
metallic fuel line is installed between the fuel tank and the
engine/generator shutoff valve, it too must be bonded to the
same vessel common conductor.
This conductor prevents accidental passage of cranking
current through the fuel systems and smaller electrical
conductors common to engines and generators. This can
happen if a cranking motor ground circuit becomes resistive
or opens from corrosion, vibration, a bad cable, etc.
BATTERIES
Starter batteries should be located as close to the engine or
generator as possible to avoid voltage drop through long
leads. Install a battery disconnect switch in the B+ cable so
the battery can be disconnected when the engine/generator is
serviced. It is bad practice to use the starter batteries for other
services unless they require low amperage or are intermittent.
In cases where there are substantial loads (from lights,
refrigerators, radios, depth sounders, etc.) it is essential to
have a complete, separate system and to provide charging
current for this by means of a second alternator, dual output
alternator or alternator output splitter. The output splitter is a
standard marine accessory. It comes with complete
instructions on how it can be integrated with an electrical
system.
20
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
▲ WARNING: An improper ground can cause severe
personal injury or death from fire or explosion. Be sure
to install a common ground conductor between all onboard cranking circuits.
A common ground for (–) negative DC is located at the
bellhousing of the engine/generator next to the starter in the
form of a threaded grounding stud. This location is tagged. It
is recommended that the battery ground be connected here.
Failure to do so can cause arcing or resistance in the cranking
circuit.
▲ WARNING: The ignition of gasoline fuel or fumes
can result in severe personal injury or death. Connect
the engine/generator battery ground lead only at the
location shown.
Connect battery (+) positive to the starter solenoid terminal
tagged for this connection.
The DC power source for the generator can be obtained from
the main engine’s starting battery. A battery disconnect switch
should be installed in the B+ battery cable to the generator.
21
ADMIRAL CONTROL PANEL
When the engine is shut down with the key switch turned off,
the water temperature gauge will continue to register the last
temperature reading indicated by the gauge before electrical
power was turned off. The oil pressure gauge will fall to zero
when the key switch is turned off. The temperature gauge
will once again register the engine’s true temperature when
electrical power is restored to the gauge.
A separate alarm buzzer with harness is supplied with every
Admiral Panel. The installer is responsible for electrically connecting the buzzer to the four-pin connection on the engine’s
electrical harness. The installer is also responsible for installing
the buzzer in a location where it will be dry and where it will
be audible to the operator should it sound while the engine is
running. The buzzer will sound when the ignition key is turned
on and should silence when the engine has started and the
engine’s oil pressure rises above 15 psi (1.1 kg/cm2).
DESCRIPTION
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a
KEY switch and RPM gauge with an ELAPSED TIME
meter which measures the engine’s running time in hours and
in 1/10 hours. The panel also includes a WATER TEMPERATURE gauge which indicates water temperature in degrees
Fahrenheit, an OIL PRESSURE gauge which measures the
engine’s oil pressure in pounds per square inch, and a DC
control circuit VOLTAGE gauge which measures the system’s voltage. All gauges are illuminated when the key
switch is turned on and remain illuminated while the engine
is in operation. The panel also contains two rubber-booted
pushbuttons, one for PREHEAT and one for START.
22
CAPTAIN CONTROL PANEL
DESCRIPTION
The panel also includes an alarm buzzer for low OIL
PRESSURE or high COOLANT TEMPERATURE. The
RPM gauge is illuminated when the KEY switch is turned on
and remains illuminated while the engine is in operation.
This manually-operated control panel is equipped with a
KEY switch, an RPM gauge, PREHEAT and START buttons, an INSTRUMENT TEST button and three indicator
lamps, one for ALTERNATOR DISCHARGE, one for low
OIL PRESSURE, and one for high ENGINE COOLANT
TEMPERATURE.
23
FUEL SYSTEM
Mount the fuel tank and secure it into position. The NFPA
recommends that the bottom tanks be installed on slatted
wooden platforms to help prevent moisture condensation.
Cylindrical tanks should be set in chocks or cradles and
securely fastened.Insulate all wood or metal surfaces from
the tank surface with a non-abrasive and non-absorbent
material.
FUEL TANKS—GENERAL
It is very important that the design, construction and
installation of all fuel system components meet the highest
possible standards. Use only products specified for marine
applications.
Fuel tanks for diesel engines and generators may be made of
fiberglass, aluminum or stainless. Fuel tanks for gasoline
engines and generators may be made of only fiberglass or
aluminum; stainless is not appropriate for gasoline because
improper welding can remove carbon leaving only steel,
which will rust and then leak.
If the tank is made of fiberglass, be certain that the interior is
gel-coated to prevent fibers from contaminating the fuel system. Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not be used. The
nominal thickness of a fuel tank depends on the material
used. Any fitting or opening must be at the top of the tank. A
drain plug at the bottom of the tank is not acceptable.
Avoid the use of fittings made of copper-based alloys such as
brass as they will deteriorate the aluminum fittings.
Fastenings for an aluminum tank should be 300 series stainless steel.
It is not necessary to mount the tank above the engine level,
as the fuel lift pump provided will raise the fuel from the
tank. The amount of lift should be kept to a minimum (6 feet
being maximum). If a tank is already installed above engine
level, it can be utilized in this position.
Cleanliness and care are especially important when the fuel
tank is installed because any dirt left in the tank will cause
fouling when the engine is started for the first time.
FUEL TANKS—GASOLINE
Tanks must be labeled with the manufacturer’s name, tank
material and capacity. They also must be marked that they
have been pressure tested to the requirements of Title 33
CFR, sub part J. If either the fuel-fill fitting or the tank is
metallic, it will need to be grounded. A 10-gauge or larger
stranded copper wire must be fastened from the metal components to the boat’s ground.
Design the fuel tank vent line so that gasoline cannot spill
onto the boat. A loop in the vent line from the top of the tank
to the underside of the deck and then to the through-hull fitting will prevent this. The line should drain back to the tank
with no traps. The vent line should be no less than 9/160 I.D.
The through-hull vent fittings must be equipped with a flame
arrestor.
Fuel Tanks Located Above the Engine/Generator
A carburetor float valve cannot be trusted to hold back fuel in
an installation having a fuel tank located at or above the
engine/generator's fuel system. This type of system, with
some or all of the fuel supply line to the carburetor routed
below the level of the fuel tank’s top, requires a shut-off
valve to shut off the fuel supply to the engine or generator
when the engine isn’t running.
▲
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tank filler is
properly sealed to prevent water re-entry should it
become awash. The fuel tank’s vent should be routed
so as to prevent water entry as well.
The fuel tank’s fuel pickup tube should be clear and unobstructed, without screens or gauze strainers. Make sure that
all fittings are sufficiently tightened to prevent leaking.
Fuel tanks that are located below the engine’s fuel system
level must have their fuel return connection at the tank
extending down into the tank in the same manner as the
pickup tube; otherwise, air will replace fuel siphoning out of
the engine’s fuel system through the return.
The fuel tank’s vent should be located so that its discharge
route cannot allow water to enter through to the fuel tank(s).
Moisture must not be allowed to accumulate in the vent’s line.
24
FUEL TANKS/ FUEL SYSTEM
This shutoff valve is necessary to guard against the possibility of gasoline siphoning through the supply line to the carburetor and into the engine in case the carburetor float valve
doesn’t close, the carburetor needle valve doesn’t operate
properly, or the fuel line ruptures between the engine and the
fuel tank at a point below the fuel level. The shut-off valve
can be installed at the tank withdrawal fitting, or at a location
where the line from the fuel tank will no longer remain
above the fuel tank top level. It can be electrically operated
automatically (with manual override) to open when the
engine starts and close when it shuts down. A manually operated valve can also be used, operated either from the
Start/Stop panel area or from the vessel’s deck. The shut-off
valve should be of the fuel oil type, and it is important that
all joints be free of pressure leaks.
NOTE: The use of mechanical spring-type check valves
instead of a solenoid shut-off valve is not recommended since
these may tax the fuel lift pump’s ability to draw fuel through
a check valve. A check valve can trap debris under its seat
which inhibits the valve’s ability to close. In addition, if a
check valve’s cracking pressure is too high, it can contribute
to vapor lock. Should a mechanical-type spring-loaded check
valve be used, it should be an adjustable type, such as a
Weatherhead #43 x 6. This adjustable type valve should be
adjusted to have a cracking pressure that will prevent
siphoning when the engine or generator is not operating but
not so excessive as to prevent the fuel lift pump from drawing
fuel through the valve.
GASOLINE ENGINE/FUEL TANKS
Fuel Tanks Located Below the Engine/Generator
An installation having a fuel tank located below the engine or
generator’s fuel system, with the fuel supply line to the carburetor routed above the level of the fuel tank’s top, does not
require an anti-siphon shut-off valve, but does require two
manually-operated service shut-off valves — one located at
the fuel connection to the tank, and another located at the
fuel connection to the engine/generator.
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM ANTI-SIPHON DEVICES
Fuel system anti-siphon devices should not be used with a
diesel engine/generator. It is not necessary and, in addition,
introduces air into the fuel which may cause erratic operation.
The fuel system should include one or more fuel shutoff
valves.
25
FUEL SYSTEM
Run fuel lines at the top level of the fuel tank to a point as
close to the engine or generator as possible to reduce the
danger of fuel siphoning out of the tank if the line should
break.
Fuel piping should always be routed and securely anchored
to prevent leaks from vibration and chafing. Fuel piping is
usually secured by copper straps every 12-14 in (30-36 cm).
Use as few connections as possible, and install the lines so
they are accessible and protected. Avoid locked-in torsional
stresses.
DUAL PURPOSE FUEL TANK
If you’re running both a generator and a propulsion engine
and they use the same fuel, you can use the same fuel tank.
However, before that decision is made, the following factors
must be considered:
4 There must be adequate fuel capacity for both
engines — refer to the specifications section of
your owner’s manual for fuel consumption figures.
4 In diesel installations the fuel returning to the tank is
warm. To obtain maximum engine efficiency, fuel
delivered to the injectors must be cooled. The fuel
tank volume must be adequate to cool the returned
fuel.
If a fuel tank is shared, a fuel line tee should not be used. A
tee can cause erratic genset operation due to fuel starvation.
The genset’s fuel pump does not have the capacity to
overcome the draw of the propulsion engine’s fuel pump.
This is true also of the return lines. Pressure from one engine
could be higher than the other and force return fuel back into
the lower-pressure engine injector. The return line should
enter the tank as far as possible from the supply lines.
RIGID FUEL LINES
For installations with rigid fuel lines, Westerbeke recommends using copper tubing with suitable flated fittings, both
for the supply line and the return line. Use seamless annealed
double flared fuel lines that are approved for marine installations. Run the tubing in the longest pieces obtainable to
avoid the use of unnecessary fittings and connectors. The
minimum size of the fuel supply line and fuel return line is
1/4 inch, inside diameter.
When a copper fuel line is used, electrically bond the fuel
line to the vessel’s common bonding conductor with a
suitable strap or 10 gauge wire.
FLEXIBLE FUEL LINES
If a rigid metallic fuel line is run into the engine/generator
compartment, a length of flexible hose must be installed to
absorb vibration from the engine/generator. Install a
non-organic flexible hose without metal reinforcement
between the rigid fuel line and the engine/generator to absorb
the vibration. This line must be long enough to prevent
binding or stretching because of engine/generator movement.
A flexible fuel line may also be installed between the fuel
yank and the engine/generator for both the supply line and
the return line. For the supply line, flexible hose may be
installed from the fuel tank outlet to the fuel filter/water
separator, and from the fuel filter/water separator to the
engine-mounted fuel pump inlet.
Use suitable end fittings, and install all the hose in the
longest runs possible to avoid the use of unnecessary fittings
and connectors. There must not be an electrical connection
between the hose end fittings as a bad ground in the cranking
circuit will cause a wire-reinforced hose to become charged
and ignite the fuel during cranking.
FUEL LINES
The proper installation of fuel lines is very important. All
fuel line materials must be approved for marine installations
and meet the requirements of both the USCG and the ABYC.
The fuel system should be installed in such a manner as to
allow the engine-mounted fuel lift pump to maintain a
positive inlet pressure to the injection pump under all
operating conditions. As the fuel lift pump has a capacity in
excess of that required by the injection pump, the overflow is
piped to the fuel tank and should be connected at the top of
the tank.
Great care should be taken to ensure that the fuel system is
correctly installed so that airlocks are eliminated and
precautions taken against dirt and water entering the fuel.
NOTE: The fuel supply line to the engine/generator should be
from its own pick-up in the fuel tank and NOT teed off the
supply line to another engine/generator.
Keep the fuel lines as far as possible from the exhaust pipe
and hot engine areas; this is to keep the fuel at a minimum
temperature to reduce the chance of vapor lock in gasoline
installations.
▲ WARNING: Ignition of fuel can cause fire and
severe personal injury or death. Be sure any flexible fuel
line used between the fuel tank and the engine/
generator meets ABYC and USCG requirements.
26
FUEL SYSTEM
SHUT-OFF VALVES
FUEL
Make sure your fuel system has positive shut-off valves;
know their locations and how they operate.
NOTE: See the U.S. Coast Guard publication “Fuel System
Compliance Guideline” for basic fuel system layouts and
shut-off valve locations.
To insure satisfactory operation, an engine or generator must
have a dependable supply of clean fuel.
Diesel Fuel – use No. 2 oil with a cetane rating of 45 or
higher.
Gasoline – use unleaded 89 octane or higher.
FUEL FILTERS
▲
WARNING: Gasoline leakage in or around the
engine/generator compartment is a potential for fire
and/or explosions. Repair leaks promptly and ensure that
the compartment is properly ventilated.
A primary fuel/water separator should be installed in the fuel
supply line between the fuel tank and the engine/generator to
help remove contaminants in the fuel before the fuel reaches
the engine mounted fuel lift pump. It should be mounted in
an accessible location for ease in monitoring for water and
contaminates, and for servicing. Such contaminants can
cause the failure of components, and such failures are not
warrantable. A recommended type of fuel/water separator is
available from the list of accessories. A secondary fuel filter
is mounted on the engine/generator, and it has a replacement
filter element.
After installation, test the fuel system for tightness per USCG
specification 33CFR183.542.
Make sure there is a fire-extinguisher installed near the
engine/generator and that it is properly maintained. Be familiar with its use. An extinguisher with the NFPA rating of
ABC is appropriate for all applications.
NOTE: Fuel filters for gasoline installations must use metal
bowls to meet Coast Guard regulations.
27
COOLING SYSTEM
A through-hull fitting that is completely flush with the
surface of the boat’s hull and without an external strainer
may be necessary for the generator raw water intake on very
high-speed boats. The protrusion of a standard type throughhull fitting and a strainer can cause a venturi effect on the
intake of a high speed boat, creating a suction which works
against the raw water pump causing an inadequate supply of
cooling water to the engine.
RAW WATER INTAKE
Raw water should be supplied to the raw water pump
through a standard-type through-hull fitting, located on the
hull so as to be below the waterline during all angles of boat
operation.
▲ CAUTION: Do not use a high speed scoop-type
through-hull fitting for the raw water supply for
generators and auxiliary sailboat engines as it will tend
to encourage siphoning. Water pressure against this type
of fitting while the vessel is underway with the
generator off or when sailing can push water past the
raw water pump impeller and into the exhaust system,
filling it and the engine as well.
▲ CAUTION: On some extremely high-speed boats,
the use of a sea scoop type strainer may be necessary to
provide an adequate supply of cooling to the generator
when the boat is underway. If this is necessary, the
exhaust piping from the generator must have a
continuous downward pitch to the outlet at the transom
so that no water can be trapped and back-up into the
engine. A solenoid operated shut-off valve can also be
installed in the raw water supply to the raw water pump
and wired to close when the generator is not in
operation.
The raw water should be directed from the through-hull
fitting through a seacock, to a visual-type raw water strainer,
and then delivered to the pump. The strainer should be of the
type that may be withdrawn for cleaning while the vessel is
underway, and should be mounted below the waterline to
ensure self-priming. Seacocks and strainers should be at least
one size greater than the inlet thread of the raw water pump.
Hoses routed from the through-hull fitting to the strainer and
to the raw water pump should be wire-reinforced to prevent
the hose from collapsing during the engine/generator’s
operation (suction from the pump may collapse a
non-reinforced hose).
▲ CAUTION: Water intrusion into the engine through
the exhaust system is not covered by warranty.
If a generator set is located above the waterline of the boat, it
is good practice to provide a loop or loops above the inlet of
the raw water pump in the raw water supply hose from the
raw water strainer. The loop(s) provide a head of water on
the raw water pump which, on start-up, lubricates the pump
impeller until the pump starts drawing water from the intake.
RAW WATER OUTLET
Wire-reinforced flexible hose should be used between the
raw water outlet on the heat exchanger and the exhaust
system. This reduces vibration and permits the engine to be
moved slightly when it’s being realigned.
FITTINGS
Make sure this system is in proper order. Check that the hull
inlet, seacock and strainer are unobstructed. Inspect the raw
water lines to make sure there are no collapsed sections
which would restrict water flow. Make sure there are no air
leaks at any of the connections; use double clamps on hose
connections below the waterline.
All pipe and fittings should be of bronze. Use sealing
compound or tape at all connections to prevent air leaks. The
neoprene impeller in the raw water pump should never be
run dry. All hose joints should be double clamped with
304/306 stainless-steel hose clamps. T-bolt clamps are even
better but must be 304/306 stainless.
Be sure that the raw water intake is clear of any cavitation
created by the propellers.
▲ CAUTION: The use of common street elbows is
The raw water intake to the engine or generator should be
separate and not combined with any other inlet for the main
engine(s) or air conditioners. The use of “sea chest” intakes
is permissible but they must be engineered to provide an
adequate supply of water for all equipment connected to
them.
not recommended in plumbing the raw water circuit.
These generally have a very restrictive inside diameter.
The use of machine-type fittings is preferred.
28
COOLING SYSTEM
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK
A coolant recovery tank kit is supplied with each
WESTERBEKE engine/generator. The purpose of this
recovery tank is to allow for engine coolant expansion and
contraction during engine operation, without the loss of
coolant and without introducing air into the cooling system.
This coolant recovery tank should be installed at or above
engine manifold level, in a location where it can be easily
monitored. A wire mounting bracket is supplied with each
kit, along with a 30 in (76 cm) length of clear plastic hose
and clamps, to connect the hose between the engine’s
manifold fitting and the hose spud on the base of the
recovery tank.
COOLANT
WESTERBEKE recommends a mixture of 50% antifreeze
(good quality and compatible with aluminum components)
and 50% distilled water.
29
ENGINE OIL
When additional sensing devices such as switches or sensors
need to be installed that function on engine oil pressure, these
devices must be bulkhead-mounted and connected to the oil
sump using an appropriate grade of lubricating oil hose. Any
fittings used to connect the hose to the gallery must be of
steel or malleable iron composition. Brass must not be used
for this application.
OIL SPECIFICATIONS
Refer to your Westerbeke Operator’s Manual for the oil
specifications for your engine/generator.
OIL DRAIN HOSE
An oil sump drain hose is located at the front or side of the
engine. Oil may be drained from this hose by removing the
cap and the discharge end of the hose from its mounting
bracket and lowering the hose into a container. The hose cap
fitting is 1/4 NPT and it can be extended, or have a pump
added, for easier removal of the old oil.
When installing the engine make certain that this drain hose
is accessible and that the drain hose fitting at the bottom of
the engine oil pan is well clear of the boat’s oil pan.
RELOCATING ENGINE PARTS
Any reassembly or relocation of engine parts such as fuel
filters, dipstick senders and switches to accommodate a
restricted engine space must be authorized by the
WESTERBEKE Corporation and the work must be
performed by a WESTERBEKE approved mechanic or the
engine’s warranty will be void. The oil filter can be relocated
to a convenient bulkhead location by using a
WESTERBEKE Remote Oil Filter kit.
OIL DIPSTICK
If the engine is going to be mounted at an angle (instead of
level), it’s a good idea to add the proper amount of lube oil to
the engine and check the dipstick before installation, with the
engine level. After installation, check the dipstick to see
where the oil now rests, and mark the dipstick at this point
for future reference.
PRESSURE SENSING DEVICES
Oil pressure sensing devices, such as senders and switches,
must not be connected to an engine’s oil sump with the use
of extended nipples or tees. The reason is simply that
continued engine vibration causes fatigue of the fittings used
to make such a connection. If these fittings fail during engine
operation, lubricating oil will be lost and internal engine
damage will result.
NOTE: Oil filter assemblies vary with each engine model,
switches, senders,coolers, etc. are shown in detail in all
Operators Manuals.
30
REMOTE OIL FILTER
Always install this kit with the oil filter facing down, as
illustrated.
Contact your WESTERBEKE dealer for more information.
NOTE: WESTERBEKE is not responsible for engine failure
due to incorrect installation of the Remote Oil Filter.
INSTALLATION
This popular accessory is used to relocate the engine’s oil
filter from the engine to a more convenient location such as
an engine room bulkhead.
To install, simply remove the engine oil filter and thread on
WESTERBEKE’S Remote Oil Filter kit as shown.
31
VENTILATION
The ventilation requirements of the engine or generator
include the following: combustion air is required for the
engine’s cylinders, and cooling air is required for the engine
and generator electrical end and also for removing the heat
produced during operation.
▲
WARNING: Ventilating air is required to clear the
bilges, as well as the compartment in which the engine
or generator is located, of potentially toxic and
flammable vapors.
Keep in mind that hot air rises, so heated air should be
removed from the upper area of the engine or generator
compartment and cool fresh air should be directed to the
lower areas of the compartment. Ventilation should be
accomplished with the aid of power ventilation especially
when the vessel is not underway.
Power ventilation incorporates a powered exhaust blower to
draw air from the compartment and discharge to the
atmosphere. The exhaust blower must meet a specific
capacity rating based on compartment volume. The graph
below is used to calculate the required capacity.
NOTE: See your Operators Manual for the ventilation
requirements of your generator. Refer to the ABYC standards
and U.S. Coast Guard regulations for ventilation requirements on both engines and generators.
32
WATER HEATER CONNECTIONS
INSTALLATION
REMOTE EXPANSION TANK
Water heater hose connections vary from one engine to
another. Refer to your WESTERBEKE Operators Manual for
your engine’s water heater connections.
NOTE: Water heater connections are not standard on marine
generator products.
WESTERBEKE marine engines are equipped with
connections for the plumbing of engine coolant to heat an
on-board water heater. The water heater should be mounted
in a convenient location either in a high or low position in
relation to the engine, so that the connecting hoses from the
heater to the engine can run in a reasonably direct line without any loops which might trap air.
Hoses should rise continuously from their low point at the
heater to the engine so that air will rise naturally from the
heater to the engine. If trapped air is able to rise to the
heater, then an air bleed petcock must be installed at the
higher fitting on the heater for bleeding air while filling
the system.
NOTE: If any portion of the heating circuit rises above the
engine’s closed cooling system pressure cap, then a
pressurized (aluminum) remote expansion tank must be
installed in the circuit to become the highest point. Tee the
remote expansion tank into the heater circuit, choosing the
higher of the two connections for the return. Tee at the
heater, and plumb a single line up to the tank’s location and
the other back to the engine's return. Install the remote
expansion tank in a convenient location so the fresh water
coolant level can easily be checked. The remote expansion
tank will now serve as a check and system fill point. The
plastic coolant recovery tank is not used when the
remote expansion tank kit is installed, since this tank
serves the same function. The remote expansion tank has
an overflow fitting that should be directed by a hose to an
area where any overflow will not cause damage.
The pressure cap on the engine’s manifold should be
installed after the engine’s cooling system is filled with
coolant. Finish filling the cooling system from the remote
tank after the system is filled and is free of air and exhibits
good coolant circulation. During engine operation, checking
the engine’s coolant should be done at the remote tank and
not at the engine manifold cap. The hose connection from the
heater to the remote expansion tank should be routed and
supported so it rises continuously from the heater to the tank,
enabling any air in the system to rise up to the tank and out
of the system.
NOTE: Air bleed petcocks are located on the engine’s heat
exchanger and on the thermostat housing. Open these petcocks when filling the engine’s fresh water system to allow
air in the coolant circuit to escape. Close tightly after all the
air is removed.
33
TRANSMISSIONS
SHIPMENT
CONTROL CABLES
For safety reasons, the transmission is not filled with
transmission fluid during shipment and the selector lever is
temporarily attached to the actuating shaft.
Before leaving the WESTERBEKE plant, each transmission
undergoes a test run, with Dextron III ATF transmission fluid.
The residual fluid remaining in the transmission after
draining acts as a preservative and provides protection
against corrosion for at least one year if properly stored.
NOTE: When installing the transmission, make certain that
shifting is not impeded by restricted movability of the
Bowden cable or rod linkage, by unsuitably positioned guide
sheaves, too small a bending radius, etc. In order to mount a
support for shift control cable connections, use the two
threaded holes located above the shift cover on top of the
gear housing. Refer to the WESTERBEKE parts list.
CONTROL CABLES
The transmission is suitable for single lever remote control.
Upon loosening the retaining screw, the actuating lever can
be moved to any position required for the control elements
(cable or rod linkage). Make certain that the shift lever does
not contact the actuating lever cover plate: the minimum
distance between lever and cover should be 0.5mm.
The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angle to
the actuating shift lever when in the neutral position. The
neutral position of the operating lever on the control console
should coincide with the neutral position of this lever.
The shifting travel, as measured at the pivot point of the
actuating lever, between the neutral position and end
positions A and B should be at least 35mm for the outer and
30mm for the inner pivot point.
A greater amount of shift lever travel is in no way
detrimental and is recommended. However, if the lever
travel is shorter, proper clutch engagement might be impeded
which, in turn, would mean premature wear, excessive heat
generation and clutch plate failure. This would be indicated
by slow clutch engagement or no engagement at all.
NOTE Check for proper lever travel at least each season.
TRANSMISSION FLUID
Fill the transmission with Dextron III ATF. The fluid level
should be up to the mark on the dipstick. After checking the
level, press the dipstick into the case and turn it to tighten.
During the first 25 operating hours, inspect the bell housing,
output shaft and transmission cooler for leakage. The fluid
should be changed after the first 25 hours and every 300
hours thereafter.
NEUTRAL SWITCH
These transmissions are equipped with a neutral safety
switch. This is to prevent the engine from starting in gear.
Unless the transmission selector lever is perfectly aligned in
neutral, the engine starter will not activate.
CONNECTION OF GEAR BOX WITH PROPELLER
Use a flexible connection between the transmission gearbox
and the propeller shaft if the engine is flexibly mounted, in
order to compensate for angular deflections. The installation
of a special propeller thrust bearing is not required, since the
propeller thrust will be taken by the transmission bearing,
provided the value specified under SPECIFICATIONS is not
exceeded. However, the output shaft should be protected
from additional loads. Special care should be taken to prevent
torsional vibration. When using a universal joint shaft, make
certain to observe the manufacturers instructions.
Even with the engine solidly mounted, the use of flexible
coupling or *“DRIVESAVER” will reduce stress in the
gearbox bearings caused by hull distortions, especially in
wooden boats or where the distance between transmission
output flange and stern gland is less than about 800mm.
*DRIVESAVER is a product of Globe Marine, Rockland, MA.
For additional information contact:
ZF Industries
Marine US Headquarters
3131 SW 42nd Street
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312
Tel.: (954) 581-4040
Fax: (954) 581-4077
WWW.ZF-MARINE.COM
34
TRANSMISSIONS
BORG WARNER VELVET DRIVE
Shifting Into Gear
Check the transmission fluid level on the dipstick. If the
transmission has not been filled, fill with Dextron III and
continue to use this fluid. During the first 50 hours of
operation, keep a lookout for any leakage at the bell housing,
output shaft, and transmission cooler. This fluid should be
changed after the first 50 hours and approximately every
1000 operating hours or at winter lay-up.
NOTE: Some transmissions are equipped with a neutral
safety switch. Unless the transmission shift lever is perfectly
aligned in neutral the engine starter will not activate.
Place the transmission selector control in Neutral before
starting the engine. Shifting from one selector position to
another selector position may be made at any time below
1000 rpm and in any order. Shifts should be made at the
lowest practical engine speed. Start the engine and set the
throttle at idle speed; allow the transmission fluid to warm up
for a few minutes.
Neutral
Move the shift control handle to the middle position. You
should feel the detent. Center the shift lever on the
transmission through the linkage to the selector lever. With
the control in this position, hydraulic power is completely
interrupted and the output shaft of the transmission does not
turn.
Shift Lever Position
The shift control handle and linkage must position the shift
lever on the transmission exactly in Forward (F), Neutral (N),
and Reverse (R) shifting positions. A detent ball located
behind the transmission shift lever must work freely to center
the lever in each position. The shift control positions at the
helm(s) must be coordinated with those of the Velvet Drive
shift lever through shift mechanism adjustments. An
improperly adjusted shift mechanism can cause damage to
the transmission. The shifting mechanism and transmission
shift lever should be free of dirt to ensure proper operation.
NOTE: Do not remove the detent ball!
NOTE: If the boat moves backwards with the selector control
in the forward position, shut off the engine! This problem
may be the result of incorrect movement of the shift lever by
the shift control.
Forward
Move the shift control handle to the forward position. You
should feel the detent. The shift lever on the transmission is
in the forward position. The output shaft and the propeller
shaft move the boat in a forward direction.
Reverse
Move the shift control handle to the reverse position. You
should feel the detent. The shift lever on the transmission is
in the reverse position. The output shaft and the propeller
should move the boat in a reverse direction (astern).
NOTE: Moving the transmission shift lever from Neutral
Position to Forward is always towards the engine. Reverse is
always away from the engine.
NOTE: Be aware of any unusual noises or vibrations and
investigate to determine the cause.
NOTE: Low engine idle rpm can produce damper plate and
gear box chatter/rattle. This is the result of unstable rotation
through the damper plate and the gear box. Increase the idle
rpm until this chatter.rattle is eliminated.
Refer to your transmission manufacturer’s operator’s manual
for more detailed information on installation and operation.
For additional information on throttle and shift controls
contact Edson International, New Bedford, Massachusetts.
35
FINAL INSTALLATION CHECKS
NOTE: Also refer to PREPARATIONS FOR INITIAL START-UP in your Operator’s Manual.
Before starting the engine or generator complete the following checklist:
With the engine or generator running, check the following:
■
Make certain that water is flowing from the exhaust.
■
Check the instrument gauges for proper readings.
■
Inspect the engine for fuel, water, coolant, and oil
leaks.
Has the proper coolant mix been added?
■
Listen for unusual sounds and vibrations.
■
Are the battery cables properly connected?
■
Will the engine shift in and out of gear?
■
Is the exhaust system secure and all connections tight?
■
■
Is the transmission linkage positioned correctly? Is the
gear in Neutral?
Can you throttle up to the recommended rpm’s? Is the
throttle action smooth?
■
Apply a load to the generator; check the output frequency.
■
Is there fuel in the tanks and are the fuel valves open?
■
Has lube oil been added to the engine?
■
Is there transmission fluid in the transmission?
■
■
■
Is the raw water petcock open? Is the raw water pump
primed?
NOTE: See your operator’s manual for the output
adjustment.
Are the AC and load connection wires securely
connected to the circuit breaker?
After shutdown, check the engine or generator carefully.
inspect all fluid levels, check hose clamps, fuel lines, etc.
36
ENGLISH TO METRIC CONVERSION CHART
37
WIRE SIZING
38
DECIMAL TO METRIC EQUIVALENT CHART
39
604WMDW1082
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