Glossary. Nero Express 6

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13 Glossary

Nero Express


Analogue/Digital. The conversion of analog signals to digital characters.


An acronym for Apple Interchange File Format. This is the music file format for tracks that are extracted from a disc and saved to the hard drive on a Macintosh system.


Acronym for Advanced SCSI Programming Interface. This is the interpreter between the software, SCSI card, and your operating system. This allows the device to communicate with the SCSI card.


Part of the EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) interface that provides additional commands to control a CD-ROM drive, CD-ROM recorder, hard drive, etc…..

Audio CD

An audio CD is generally comprised of several tracks (titles). Discs in this format only contain pure audio data. They can be played on commercially available audio CD players and with the appropriate plug-in, also on a computer.

Note: Please note that when creating audio discs, there are some audio players on the market which are not able to play re-writable discs. For this reason, you should use CD-R discs.


A block is the smallest addressable information unit on a CD-ROM. A block corresponds to a sector.

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Blue Book

This is the standard for CD's that are created in the CD-Extra and CD Enhanced format.

Bootable CD

Booting means that the operating system is loaded on your computer. Under normal circumstances, your PC boots from the hard drive. If you need to boot from something else besides your hard disk for any reason, you can boot from a floppy disk or CD. Special “bootable CD’s” must be produced to be able to boot from your CD-ROM/CD-R/RW drive.

Bridge Disc

A CD-ROM which can be read by a normal CD drive as well as by CD-I devices.

It is specified in the White Book. An example of a Bridge Disc is the Photo-CD.


Memory built into your CD-Rom or recorder that temporarily stores information.

Buffer Underrun

Buffer underruns are caused when there is an interruption to the flow of data to the internal buffer of the recorder. This is can be the fault of the software or the hardware itself. When recording, data is fed continuously to the recorder’s buffer in order to keep a steady flow of data which is required when recording. When something interrupts that steady flow, it can cause a buffer underrun and your disc is no longer useable.


A fast intermediate or buffer memory which is applied at many different areas in a computer system. With Nero, cache memory is used to store files in buffer from drives which cannot be accessed quickly enough in order to ensure that the writing process continues without interruption.


A special plastic housing used to protect the CD. The CD is inserted into the drive in the caddy.

CD-DA (with the extension .CDA)

The acronym for Compact Disc - Digital Audio, this is the first standard for an audio CD. An audio CD is comprised of several audio tracks whereby generally, one track corresponds to one song. Each track is additionally sub-divided into sectors. Music CD’s generally make up this category.

CD-Extra/Enhanced Music CD

CD Extra is the latest standard for audio CD’s and with a multi-media component.

A disc in this format always has two sessions. The first session only contains pure audio data which can be played on an audio CD player while the second

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This means Compact Disc Interactive. This format is considered a multi-media

CD that blends video, data, and audio. This type of CD can only be played in a

CD-I player or a CD Rom drive that is "CD-I ready".


An acronym for Compact Disc - Recordable. A technology for CD-R (recordable) media.


An acronym for Compact Disc - Read Only Memory. This is described in the

Yellow Book. Differing types of data which can be read by a computer such as programs, text, image data or sound may be stored with this CD format.

CD-ROM - Mode 1 and 2

A supplement to the CD-ROM format which provides an additional error recognition and correction function. Mode 1 is especially used for computer data and employs a code for error correction. Mode 2 is used with CD-ROM/ XA and

CD-I with audio data and contains an error recognition code only.


CD - Write Once. A CD which, as the name implies, may only be written on one time. Refer also to CD-R.


This format means Compact Disc Extended Architecture. It was based on the

Yellow Book standard but adds audio and video to the CD in addition to the data.

CD-ROM/ Extended Architecture. This CD format makes it possible to store computer data and audio or video data on one track. The different types of data are linked to each other (Interleaving) so that synchronization problems can be reduced.

Chapter Marks

These are marks set in the video which identify a scene change or place.


Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code. An error-recognition and correction process which is integrated permanently in the hardware of a CD player or the



Constant Linear Velocity. CLV describes a method by which the data of a CD may be read with a constant scanning rate.

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Conversion of analog signals to digital signals.

Disc-At-Once (DAO)

In this mode, all of the tracks are written in a single process onto the disc without the laser being switched off. This format is best for audio CD’s that will be played in home and car stereo equipment.

Disc Image

This process can be used when having system performance problems or do not have a recorder available. When choosing the disc image option, it takes the file you want to copy and places it temporarily on your hard drive. From that image it builds the file.

When creating a disc image, you will need a certain amount of drive space to perform this function.


A software file that will allow your hardware to be seen by the operating system or software program and/or enhance its performance.


An acronym for Digital Versatile or Video Disc.


DVD was originally only known for being specific to the movie and the games market; you can now burn data and your own home videos to a DVD disc that can be played by all DVD-ROMs. You have the advantage of storing much more data on this disc than on a regular CD-R/RW. The DVD-R is a non rewritable format that is compatible with most DVD-ROM drives and DVD players.


Is another form of rewritable media however, it is not compatible with most DVD-

ROM drives and DVD players.

It was originally designed to be used like a floppy disc so that users could copy and delete files from it just like a floppy.


An acronym for DVD ReWriteable. The DVD-RW disc is rewritable and performs the same function as that of a DVD-R. However, the compatibility with DVD-

ROMs and DVD players are less. Please check with the manufacturer for compatibility issues.

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A rewritable and non-rewritable format developed in cooperation by Hewlett-

Packard, Mitsubishi Chemical, Philips, Ricoh, Sony and Yamaha. It is a rewritable format that provides full, non-cartridge, compatibility with existing DVD-Video players and DVD-ROM drives for both real-time video recording and random data recording for many PC and entertainment software applications.


Error Detection Code/ Error Correction Code. This process serves for the recognition and correction of scan errors which might be caused on the CD surface by scratches or dirt.

Enhanced MusicCD/CD-Extra

CD Extra is the latest standard for audio CD’s and with a multi-media component.

A disc in this format always has two sessions. The first session only contains pure audio data which can be played on an audio CD player while the second session contains computer data in any format. This format puts audio AND data on the same CD. The audio is recorded first with the data recorded in a second session.

Fast Copy

With the fast copy method, Nero reads the data directly from your CD-ROM/DVD drive and writes it directly onto the target disc in your CD recorder. This method is faster than copying an image file and it does not require an approx. 100MB of space on your hard disk. The disadvantage of this method is that a “buffer underrun” can occur. A buffer underrun always occurs if the CD recorder writes faster than the data can be sent. The reasons for this can be a source which is too slow (either hard disk or CD-ROM/DVD drive) or the hard disk is too fragmented and the data flow is slowed down due to the excessive number of accessed operations. This means that the data on your hard drive is scattered into many parts of the drive and the CD-ROM/DVD drive needs time to look for all the pieces and put them together.


Finalization is the permanent closing of the writing procedure on a CD. After that, it cannot be written to, regardless of whether it was produced as a single-session or a multi-session CD.


A sector is made up of 98 frames. A frame contains 24 data bytes and 9 control bytes. With an Audio-CD, 75 sectors provide one second of played music.

Green Book

This is the standard for CD's that are created in the CD-I format.

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HFS is a file system used by Apple© Macintosh systems. This format is only suitable for Macintosh discs.

High Sierra

The forerunner of today's ISO Standard 9660. It was published in 1986. During the course of time it has lost its significance.

Host Adapter

An adapter which connects a CD-recorder with the SCSI bus of the computer.


A hybrid CD contains data in the HFS (Mac) section and in the ISO 9660 (PC) section. If the disc is inserted in a Macintosh, only the data relevant for the

Macintosh is displayed and on a PC, only the ISO data can be seen.


The term "image" describes all edited data which will later be located on a CD.

The creation of an image file is known as premastering.

Image Copy

One of two different copying methods can be selected: Image Copy or Copy On-


Nero reads-in the files to be written on the disc and saves these as an image file on the hard disk. The image file means that copying errors can be eliminated.

These errors could occur if you use a slow hard disk or a slow CD-ROM/DVD drive as the CD recorder would not be supplied with a continuous data flow.

However, please note that up to 800MB will be required on the hard disk and the copying times are somewhat longer.

Interlaced Video

This format displays video in two parts: Each part displays and contains a line in every other row and the second part fills in the alternating rows until the screen is complete. This method is faster than the Progressive Scan in which all rows are displayed one at a time until the screen is complete.


This is the designation for the storage of computer data on the CD-ROM/ XA in linked form. Another term here is nesting. This makes possible the synchronization of audio and computer data during playback.

ISO 9660

A universal standard for CD’s as defined by the High Sierra standard that defines a disc’s capabilities. Data can be written onto a disc with this format. This format can easily be used in many computer environments. If a disc must be able to be

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12345678.ext as an example.

Jitter Control

Many CD-ROM devices are not able to read a single sector of an audio disc. The results are little gaps due to the difference in the data stream. Jitter correction synchronizes the data stream by overlapping the sectors and therefore no gaps are created.


Microsoft created standard for filenames that was made for Windows 95 and NT.

It supports up to 64 characters in the filename, unicode character set, and DOS

8.3 (eight characters in the main filename with a 3 character extension) names.


Most CDs are provided with an imprint. This is known as the label. It is possible to place it on the CD with different technologies, for example, with screen printing.

Lead-In Area

The initial area of every session is known as the Lead-In Area at the beginning of the disc. This is where the “table of contents” for your disc and additional information concerning the CD is stored.

Lead-Out Area

This defines the closing stages of a session and is place at the end of the disc. If the CD has not yet been finalized, the reference to the next session is stored here.

Mixed Mode

This format combines both data and audio onto the CD. With this format, the data is recorded first and the audio tracks second. However, both are recorded in one session.

Mode 1/ Mode :

Nero normally writes ISO data in the CD sector format Mode 1. However Nero also supports the so-called XA-Format for ISO data. The XA format is an extension of ISO structures and can only be burned onto the CD in Mode 2

(another CD sector format).


When data is written to the CD more than once. After you have written your first session to the CD, you can then add/write additional information with a different data set.

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MP3 Files (with the extension of .MP3)

The MP3 audio format has established itself as the most frequently used format to transfer audio data via the internet. MP3 stands for MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3.

Using MP3, audio files can be reduced (or compressed) to a fraction of their orginal size (factor 1:10), without diminishing the quality.


An Acronym for Motion Picture Experts Group, it is a standard that was created for highly compressed video such as SVCD and Video CD.


Which is a part of the MPEG compression family has the highest compression rate.


There are very little differences between MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 with the exception that MPEG-2 works better with televisions that are interlaced and is the broadcast standard.


This standard was created to define High Definition T.V.


This standard is the next generation of MPEG-2 and is currently still in development.


After the creation of an image file, the actual process of CD production occurs. If the CD is to be used for reproduction purposes, it is known as a master.

Mixed Mode-CD

Music and computer data are stored on one CD with this type of CD. The computer data is generally located on track 1 and audio data is located in the ensuing tracks.


A CD which is written in several sequential sessions is known as a multi-session



NTSC is the standard for video and television in the United States and Japan.

Other parts of the world have another standard. NTSC has more frames per second than PAL however. NTSC has less horizontal lines than PAL.

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OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer. A product that states it is OEM means that it was made by one company, for another company, to sell as its own.

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A process for burning data onto a CD-R. There are two different methods of doing this. With the classical and older method, all of the data which is to be recorded onto the CD is first stored in a buffer in a large file known as an image file. From there, it is copied or burned onto the CD-R. In contrast to this, the method known as On-The-Fly transfers the data directly from their original memory locations on a hard drive onto the CD-R. With Nero, a so-called compilation is used for this purpose. This is a small file which only crossreferences the data to be transferred.

Orange Book

The standard in which the CD-MO (Magneto-Optical) and CD-WO (Write Once) technologies are defined. It provides the basis for CD-R.


PAL is the standard video and television in Europe. PAL has more horizontal lines than NTSC however, PAL has less frames per second than NTSC.


A CD which is used for storing images, photos, slides and other visual data. The

Photo-CD is generally capable of multi-sessions. The standard originates from

Kodak and Philips.


A plugin is a software file that allows one to have or use extra features with their software or to help fix an issue.


The preparation of data which is to be written onto a CD at some later time. An image, which represents an exact replica of the data and the directory structure, is usually created first.

Red Book

This standard describes the CD-DA.


An old outdated data structure standard which was created by Adaptec to support filenames up to 128 characters long including spaces. Files used with the

Romeo standard can only be read under Windows ’95 and NT operating systems. Unicode characters are not supported, however, they can be read on the Macintosh systems provided that the characters do not exceed 31 characters.

Scan Rate

This is the indication of the frequency with which analog signals are converted into digital characters.

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Small Computer System Interface. SCSI is a modern bus system to which different terminal devices such as an SCSI hard drive, streamers or a CDrecorder may be connected. At this time, SCSI is the only possibility of operating a CD-recorder on a typically-used computer system.


A sector is the smallest addressable information unit of a CD. It is composed of

2352 bytes of which - depending on the type of CD used - differing amounts are available as user data. A sector generally consists of a header, synchronization bits and user data. It may also have error recognition and correction data. To read a sector, a drive with simple reading speed requires 1/75th of a second.


When data is written onto a disc, this is called a session. A session is marked at the start and at the end. You can write onto a disc and complete it in a single session. If more than one session is recorded on a disc, then this is known as a multi-session disc.


The session-at-once method is mainly used for CD-Extra. With the session-atonce recording type, a first session with several audio tracks is recorded in one operation. The latter is then switched off but the CD is not closed (meaning you are still able to write additional data to it). A second (data) session is then written and then the disc is closed.

Simulated Recording

Simulation of the burn process in order to test whether there is a constant writing flow. The procedure is the same as the writing of the disc, with the only difference being that the laser writer is switched off.

Single Session

When the data/audio is written or recorded to the blank disc one time only.

Super Video CD (SVCD)

Super Video CD or (SVCD) is very similar to a video CD however this format uses a compression standard called MPEG to store the audio and data. When creating Super Video CD’s, the source data must be MPEG-2 coded and the parameters must be suitable for Super Video CD’s. An encoder must be used to create Super Video CD’s, which must have the required options. As the encoder supplier whether it supports coding for Super Video CD’s or visit the Nero AG website at for additional information on purchasing the encoder.

SVCD discs can be played on DVD players, PC’s with DVD-ROM’s or a CD-ROM drive with software which allows this type of video format to be seen.

Table of Contents (T.O.C.)

This designates the contents of every session and is stored in the Lead-In.

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Thermal Recalibration

As your hard drive platters rotate, they expand due to the heat that is generated.

The hard drive will stop for a split second to readjust the heads (which does the reading of data) to the newly expanded platter(s).


A disc is sub-divided into individual tracks - for example, separate songs or pieces of music on an audio disc are each a track.

Track-At-Once (TAO)

With this method, each track is individually written onto the disc. The write operation is briefly interrupted after each track. This means that a CD-R or CD-

RW can be written onto just like any standard disk.


The UDF file system has been especially optimized to handle large data quantities and to also be able easily modify an existing file system just like you would on a floppy however with a CD. This file format uses separate software and also formats your disc differently.

Video CD

An acronym for “Video Compact Disc”, it holds movies and audio/video in stereo with a compression standard called MPEG. One can also say that it is also based on an ISO file system and contain digital video films. A video disc can be played on most CD-ROM’s, DVD players, and DVD-ROM drives with the help of software.

Volume Descriptor

The Volume Descriptor is the area at the beginning of a CD in which the structure of the file system is contained. It may also contain additional and optional information about the CD, such as the name of the CD, the publisher, a copyright notice, etc.

WAV/Wave File (with the extension .wav on your computer)

Audio files are saved on the hard disk in the wave format. The wave format is part of the general RIFF Standard (Resource Interchange File Format). This format supports various scanning rates and depths. This is the PC format for saving audio files on the hard drive (Mac's use AIFF files). Audio files that are on a commercial CD (store bought CD), are in digital form. When saving your sound/audio that originates from a CD-ROM onto your hard drive, it must be saved in analog form. Audio files cannot be saved in digital form on the hard drive.

White Book

The format created by Sony, Philips, and JVC in 1993 that extended the Red

Book CD format to include digital video in MPEG-1 format which is referred to as

Video CD.

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Write Once. A medium which may be written to once. This includes the CD-


WMA File

Windows media audio

Yellow Book

This standard defines the CD-ROM.

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