Glossary. AOpen CRW2440

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Glossary English

Appendix A.



Compact Disc - Digital Audio. The typical music CD is written with this CD format. At this time, up to 74 minutes of music can be written on a CD. The corresponding standard is the Red Book.


Compact Disc - Interactive. This format allows the storage of different types of data such as images, music or video on a CD. The process is defined in the Green Book.


Compact Disc - Recordable. A technology for CD-R (recordable) media. Also refer to

CD-WO, Compact Disc - Write Once, limited to just one writing.


Compact Disc - Read Only Memory. This is described in the Yellow Book. Differing types of data that can be read by a computer such as programs, text, image data or sound may be stored with this CD format.

CD-ROM - Mode 1 and Mode 2

A supplement to the CD-ROM format which provides an additional error recognition and correction function. Mode 1 is especially used for computer data and employs a code for error correction. Mode 2 is used with CD-ROM/ XA and CD-I with audio data and contains an error recognition code only.


CD- ROM/ Extended Architecture. This CD format makes it possible to store computer data and audio or video data on one track. The different types of data are linked to each other (Interleaving) so that synchronization problems can be reduced.


Compact Disc - ReWritable. A technology for CD-RW (rewritable) media. It is not limited to just one writing, but may be erased and re-written as of ten as desired.


CD - Write Once. As the name implies, it is a CD that may only be written on once. Also refer to CD-R.

Disc At Once

Disc At Once is a method for recording of data onto a CD. With this method, the entire

CD is written in a single process. The CD-recorder first writes a Lead-In, then the data block, and finally a Lead-Out. In contrast to Track At Once, linking blocks are not used between the individual tracks with Disc At Once.

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Enhanced Music CD, CD + and CD Extra

An expansion of Audio or Mixed-Mode CD consists of two sessions. The first session corresponds to CD-DA, while the second session consists of computer data. The process is specified in the Blue Book.


Finalization is the permanent closing of the writing procedure on a CD. After that, it cannot be written to, regardless of whether it was produced as a single-session or a multi-session CD.

Green Book

A book of CD Interactive (CD-I) standards published by Philips and Sony in 1986

High Sierra

The forerunner of today’s ISO Standard 9660. It was published in 1986. With the passage of time it has lost its significance.

Hybrid Type CD

A CD-ROM disc storing "two different platforms of softwares" for Windows and

Macintosh etc.


The term “image” describes all edited data that will later be located on a CD. The creation of an image file is known as premastering.

ISO 9660

ISO Standard 9660 describes the construction of a CD-ROM, so that it may be read and processed by different types of operating systems.


This supplement to the standards comes from Microsoft and is supported by Windows

95 and Windows NT. The CDs that are created under this standard are in conformity with

ISO 9660, which allows long file names based on Unicode in additional directory structures.

Mixed Mode-CD

Music and computer data are stored on one CD with this type of CD. The computer data are generally located on track 1 and audio data are located in the ensuing tracks.


A CD which is written in several sequential sessions is known as a multi-session CD.


A process for burning data onto a CD-R. There are two different methods of doing this.

With the classical and older method, all of the data which are to be recorded onto the CD are first stored in a buffer in a large file known as an image file. From there, they are copied or burned onto the CD-R. In contrast to this, the method known as On-The-Fly transfers the data directly from their original memory locations on a hard drive onto the


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Glossary English

Orange Book

The Orange Book is a physical format of recordable CD announced in 1989 by Philips and Sony. The Orange Book describes CD-MO in part-I and CD-R in part-II. Later on part-II was updated. In 1994, version-II was announced for the CD-ROM and its double speed type. In 1996, the standards for phase change optical disc, rewritable CD (CD-RW) was added as part-III.


A CD format and system devised by Eastman Kodak to record digitized photograph data.

Rainbow Books

The collection of standards which define the different types of CDs. Through these standards, it has been achieved that CDs can be read and processed by as many devices and operating systems of the different manufacturers as possible.

Red Book

A book setting the standards for the Compact Disc physical format and audio recording methods, published by Philips and Sony in 1981.


An inter-related writing procedure is defined as a session. A session consists of the Lead

In area, the data area, and the Lead Out area. A CD can be written with several sessions.

This is then called a multi-session CD, in contrast to a single-session CD which only contains one session. A silver CD generally consists of one session.


Contents of the Lead-in, this contains the addresses of all the tracks on the CD.


In an Audio-CD, one track corresponds to one piece of music. With a CD- ROM, one track contains computer data and it may have any number of files and folders.


UDF is short for Universal Disc Format, another file layout standard for CDROM. The

UDF format can use in CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD by Packet writing method, which would not cause "Buffer Under-Run" and can be compatible with ISO9660.The advantage of

UDF is provided similar function like hard disk.

Video CD

A CD-ROM storing MPEG-1-compressed moving pictures, still pictures, audio sounds etc.

Yellow Book

A book of CD-ROM standards published by Philips and Sony in 1985.

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