Editing MIDI Notes and Velocities. AUTOHELM ABLETON

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Editing MIDI Notes and Velocities. AUTOHELM ABLETON | Manualzz

135

Chapter 10

Editing MIDI Notes and Velocities

A MIDI clip in Live contains notes and controller data for playing a MIDI instrument. This instrument can be a virtual instrument in a MIDI track's

device chain

or an external synth fed via the track's

output routing . The

MIDI clip

provides the device with a musical score to play, specifying note pitch, length, position and dynamics (referred to as velocity in the

MIDI lexicon). MIDI is composed and edited in Live's MIDI Editor.

10.1

Creating an Empty MIDI Clip

MIDI clips are created

ˆ by means of

recording ;

ˆ or by double-clicking an empty Session slot in a MIDI track;

ˆ or by selecting an empty Session slot in a MIDI track and choosing the Create menu's

Insert MIDI Clip command;

ˆ or, in the Arrangement View, by selecting a timespan in a MIDI track and choosing the

Create menu's Insert MIDI Clip command.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

10.2

The MIDI Editor

136

To bring up the MIDI Editor, double-click a MIDI clip to open the Clip View. You can use the

Clip View Box selector to make sure the

Notes box

is showing, then click in the title bar of the Notes box to bring up the MIDI Editor on the right-hand side of the screen.

The MIDI Editor is divided into two editing windows: the upper Note Editor and the lower

Velocity Editor. You can resize the Velocity Editor by dragging on the split line that runs between it and the Note Editor. You can also show and hide the Velocity Editor using the triangular button on the left-hand side of the split line.

The MIDI Editor.

The Control Bar's Draw

Mode Switch.

Switch to Draw Mode by activating the Control Bar's Draw Mode switch. You can now draw

MIDI notes into the Note Editor with the mouse. Deactivating Draw Mode allows notes to be selected and moved around via clipboard operations or by clicking and dragging, either vertically to change their transposition, or horizontally to change their position in time. MIDI notes can also be added and deleted by double-clicking when Draw Mode is inactive.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

137

Provided your MIDI track's device chain contains an

instrument , activating the Preview switch

in the MIDI Editor allows you to hear notes as you select and move them. If the MIDI track is armed, activating Preview also allows you to

step record

new notes into the clip.

Note velocity is adjusted in the Velocity Editor, by clicking and dragging on the associated markers. You can also use Draw Mode in the Velocity Editor: It will draw identical velocities for all notes within a grid tile.

After drawing a few notes and moving them around, you will probably want to know how to get around in the Note Editor. So, before we get into detailed editing information, we will rst explain MIDI Editor navigation.

Previewing MIDI Notes.

10.3

MIDI Editor Navigation and Transport

Note Scale Position Is

Shown Vertically and

Beat-Time Horizontally.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

138

The MIDI Editor has both vertical and horizontal navigation. Along the horizontal axis lies a time ruler, which shows note position along a musical timeline. The vertical axis contains the note ruler, displaying octaves C0 C10, and a representation of a piano keyboard (the piano roll). Note that if the Preview switch at the top of the piano roll is activated, you can listen to the results of your piano roll playing.

2 1

3 5 6

1. To smoothly change the time-zoom level, click and drag vertically in the time ruler. Drag horizontally in the time ruler to scroll from left to right.

2. Click and drag vertically in the note ruler to change which octaves are shown, or drag horizontally to change the vertical zoom size of MIDI notes and the keyboard.

3. Click and drag over one or more notes to select them, or over a portion of the editor's background to select a range of time. Then, double-click on the note ruler or time ruler to automatically zoom in on your selection. If nothing is selected, double-clicking the note ruler will zoom in on the area from the lowest to the highest note in the clip, while double-clicking the time ruler will zoom out to show the time between the rst and last note.

4. To zoom in and out around the current selection, use the computer keyboard's

+ and - keys.

5. The Clip Overview just beneath the MIDI Editor can also be used for navigation.

MIDI Editor Navigation.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

It always shows the complete contents of the selected MIDI clip. The black rectangular outline represents the part of the clip that is currently displayed in the Editor above. To scroll, click within the outline and drag left or right; to zoom in and out, drag up and down.

6. Change the length of what is shown in the Editor by dragging the left or right edges of the outline in the Clip Overview.

7. To quickly change what is shown in the Editor, click on a section that you want to examine in the Clip Overview, then drag downwards to zoom in, or scroll by dragging left and right.

139

The area displayed in the Note Editor can be set to scroll with playback using the Follow switch from the Control Bar.

When Permanent Scrub Areas is enabled in Live's Look/Feel Preferences, clicking in the scrub area below the beat-time ruler starts playback from that point, rounded by the global quantization setting. When the Permanent Scrub Areas preference is off, you can still scrub by -clicking anywhere in the scrub area or in the beat-time ruler. Learning about the

loop/region controls

and associated shortcuts can also be helpful in getting around in the

MIDI Editor and playing selections quickly and easily.

As you work with MIDI, you may nd yourself needing extra screen space. You can click and drag vertically on the window split between the Session or Arrangement View and the Clip

View to enlarge the MIDI Editor.

The Control Bar's Follow

Switch.

Enlarge the MIDI Editor by Dragging the

Window Split Between

Session and Clip Views.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

10.4

Editing MIDI

140

10.4.1

Non-Destructive Editing

You can always return your MIDI clip to its previous state by using the Edit menu's Undo command. Furthermore, if the MIDI clip being edited originated in a MIDI le on your hard drive, none of your editing will alter the original MIDI le, as Live incorporates its contents into your Live Set when importing.

10.4.2

Folding and Looping

An important feature of the MIDI Editor is the Fold button, located in the upper left corner.

Activating this button will immediately hide all rows, or key tracks, that do not contain MIDI notes in any clips in the track. This is very useful when working with percussion kits, for example, which are oftentimes mapped out along a keyboard in sections corresponding to percussion type (e.g., snares grouped together two octaves down from hi-hat cymbals, etc.). When working with a MIDI le created by such a mapping, sometimes only one or two of each type of percussion sound is used, and it becomes unnecessary to view the entire keyboard range.

When editing MIDI, you might nd that you want to change which part of the clip you are listening to, or loop the clip in order to listen to it repeatedly. You can use the

loop/region markers

for this.

The Fold Button Extracts

Key Tracks Containing

Notes.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

141

10.4.3

Grid Snapping

Most functions in the MIDI Editor are subject to

grid snapping . You can hold down the

Alt

(PC) / (Mac) modi er while performing an action to bypass grid snapping.

Note movements will also snap to an offset, which is based on the original placement of the note relative to the grid. This is useful for preserving a groove or loose playing style that you do not necessarily want to set straight.

10.4.4

Editing Notes

Editing in the MIDI Editor is similar to

editing in the Arrangement . In both cases, your

actions are selection-based: you select something using the mouse, then execute a menu command (e.g., Cut, Copy, Paste, Duplicate) on the selection.

Here is how selection works:

ˆ Clicking a note selects the note. Multiple notes can be selected in unison: rubberband select more than one note with one mouse motion by clicking in empty space, then dragging to enclose the notes in the dotted line that appears.

Esc deselects all selected notes.

ˆ Clicking into the background of the MIDI Editor selects a point in time, represented by a ashing insert mark.

Use the Loop/Region

Markers to Select a

Speci c Region of the

Clip to Play.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

142

ˆ Clicking and dragging in the background selects a timespan. To select all of the notes that begin during the timespan, press

Return

.

After placing the insert mark, you can manipulate it using your computer keyboard.

ˆ Press or to move the insert mark to the left or right, according to the grid settings.

Ctrl

(PC) /

Alt

(Mac) or moves the insert mark to the next note boundary.

ˆ Hold down while pressing the arrow keys to extend or retract the selected timespan by moving the insert mark.

Alt

(PC) /

Alt

(Mac)+ while pressing the arrow keys extends or retracts from the opposite side of the selection.

ˆ The insert mark can be moved to the beginning or end of a MIDI clip by pressing the

Home or End key, respectively.

As we have seen, notes in the MIDI Editor can be moved both horizontally (changing their position in time) and vertically (changing their transposition). They can be moved either by clicking and dragging, or with the arrow keys on your computer keyboard; in either case, they are subject to grid and offset snapping. If you are playing the clip while you edit notes, you can listen to them play in their new assignments as you change them.

Several key modi ers also apply to note editing:

ˆ To transpose selected notes by octave, hold down

ˆ or grid settings.

while pressing or .

extends or retracts the duration of selected notes, according to the

ˆ To change the selection to the next note in the same key track, hold the

Alt

(Mac) while pressing or .

Alt

(PC) / (Mac) or the selection to the next note in time.

(PC) / moves

ˆ You can use the modi er to click and add individual notes or additional rubberband selections to your current selection. You can also remove a single note from your selection by holding down and clicking on it. Holding and clicking on the piano roll adds all notes in a single key track to the current selection, or removes them if they were already selected.

Selecting a note (or notes) makes it subject to commands from the Edit menu, such as Copy and Paste. Notes in the clipboard will be pasted starting at the location of the insert mark.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

143

You can also use the

Ctrl

(PC) /

Alt

(Mac) modi er to click and drag copies of notes to a new location. If you click and drag to move notes but then decide that you would like to copy them instead, you can press the starting the drag.

Ctrl

(PC) /

Alt

(Mac) modi er even after

When editing or drawing, you may sometimes place a new note on top of one that already exists. If the new note overlaps with the beginning of the original note, the original note will vanish. If the new note overlaps with the tail of the original, the original note's length will change so that it lasts just until the new note's beginning.

10.4.5

Changing Note Length

Clicking and dragging on a note's left or right edges changes its length. Note length can only be changed when Draw Mode is inactive, and will be quantized unless the

/ (Mac) modi er is held down while dragging.

Alt

(PC)

Tip: To set a group of notes to the same length, select them all, grab the end of the longest one, drag them all down to zero length and then extend them.

Changing Note Length.

10.4.6

The ...Time Commands in the MIDI Editor

The standard clipboard commands like Cut, Copy and Paste only affect the currently selected notes (or the notes within a time selection). But,

as in Arrangement editing , there are ...

Time commands that act upon the entire MIDI clip by inserting and deleting time.

Note that these operations do not change the clip start/end position or the loop brace settings.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

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ˆ Cut Time cuts a selection of time from the MIDI clip, thereby moving any notes on either side of the cut area closer together in the timeline.

ˆ Paste Time places copied time into the MIDI clip, along with any notes that were in the copied time.

ˆ Duplicate Time places a copy of the selected timespan into the clip, along with any contained notes.

ˆ Delete Time deletes a selection of time from the MIDI clip, thereby moving any notes on either side of the deleted area closer together in the timeline.

ˆ Insert Silence inserts as much empty time as is currently selected into the clip, before the selection.

A Gap Between MIDI

Notes Has Been Cut by

First Selecting It, Then

Executing the Cut Time

Command.

10.4.7

Quantizing Notes

There are three options for quantizing MIDI notes in Live. First, you can

quantize MIDI notes as you record them . Secondly, as

previously mentioned , you can move notes so that

they snap to the visible grid lines. Finally, you can select a note or notes and choose the

Quantize command from the Edit menu, or use the

Ctrl U

(PC) /

U

(Mac) hotkey.

The rst time you do this, you will see a dialog box with several quantization options. This will quantize using default settings, or the settings that you previously applied.

To adjust your quantization parameters, open the Quantization Settings dialog from the Edit menu.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

145

Using the options presented here, you can select either the current grid size or a speci c meter value for quantization and set either the note start or end (or both) to be quantized.

Quantizing the note end will stretch the note so that it ends at the chosen meter subdivision.

You can also quantize notes without giving them that quantized feel using the Amount control, which will move notes only by a percentage of the set quantization value.

Quantizing MIDI Notes.

10.4.8

Editing Velocities

To change velocity for a MIDI note, click and drag on the associated marker in the Velocity

Editor. (To help you locate the velocity marker belonging to a MIDI note that may be stacked vertically with others, Live highlights the velocity marker for whichever note your mouse is hovering over.) Velocity changes will be shown numerically in a small display in the time ruler.

Changing Note Velocity.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

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As in the Note Editor, you can select multiple velocity markers to change by clicking with the modi er held down.

Tip: To set a group of notes so that they all have the same velocity, select their markers in the Velocity Editor, drag them up or down to either maximum or minimum velocity, and then adjust velocity to the desired value.

As we saw earlier, Draw Mode allows drawing identical velocities for all notes within a grid tile. While in Draw Mode, velocity drawing is limited to only those notes that are currently selected. To draw markers individually (as you would want to with a crescendo, for instance) deactivate grid snapping with the

Ctrl

4

(PC) /

4

(Mac) shortcut, or simply hold down the

Alt

(PC) / (Mac) modi er.

Tip: To draw a velocity ramp with notes that are all in the same key track, press and click on the piano roll to select all notes within the desired key track, make sure Draw Mode is activated and draw the ramp into the Velocity Editor while holding the so that you affect only the selected notes.

modi er,

Tip #2: To draw a linear velocity ramp across a selection of notes, rst select the notes that should be affected (using the modi er to select non-adjacent notes if necessary).

Make sure Draw Mode is not activated and draw the line into the Velocity Editor while holding the

Ctrl

(PC) / (Mac) modi er.

Notes in the Note Editor display their velocity in their coloring light notes play softly, and vice versa. To change the velocity of notes without the Velocity Editor open, click any selected note and drag vertically while pressing the

Alt

(PC) / (Mac) modi er.

Vertical movements in Draw Mode correspond to velocity changes. This means that, with one horizontal motion and one vertical motion, you can draw multiple notes and their velocities without releasing the mouse button. If you change velocity with this vertical

Drawing Identical

Velocities (Left) and a

Crescendo (Right).

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

147 movement, Live will remember the change and use your new velocity on any notes that you draw afterward.

Note-Off Velocity

By default, the Velocity Editor allows you to adjust note-on velocities. But you can toggle the editor to show note-off velocities via options in the editor's (PC) /

Ctrl

(Mac) context menu.

Please note that note-off (or release ) velocity is a somewhat esoteric parameter, and is only supported by certain devices. Ableton's

Sampler

instrument, for example, provides note-off velocity as a controller for a variety of parameters.

The Velocity Editor

Showing Note-Off

Velocities.

10.4.9

MIDI Note Stretch

Three Variations Created with the Stretch Notes

Command.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

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When multiple notes are selected in the Note Editor, the Stretch Notes command becomes available from the context menu, if you invoke it with (PC) /

Ctrl

(Mac). Note Stretch

markers will then appear in the Note Editor, allowing notes to be scaled proportionally in time. The markers are a pair of downward-pointing indicators that snap to the beginning of the rst and last notes in the selection.

By clicking and dragging one of the markers horizontally, the selected notes will move and stretch so that they continue to occupy the same proportion of time that they did when they were initially selected. The Note Stretch markers will always snap to the Note Editor's grid lines unless the grid is not shown, or the dragging.

Alt

(PC) / (Mac) modi er is held while

If one marker is dragged beyond the boundary of the other, then the order of the stretched notes will be re ected in relation to their initial sequence; this is sometimes referred to as retrograde behavior.

Any changes occurring to the notes included in the Note Stretch before the mouse button is released will cancel the stretch operation. This can occur, for example, if the MIDI clip is simultaneously being overdubbed with new notes.

10.4.10

Cropping MIDI Clips

Unused MIDI data can be deleted by means of the Crop Clip command. Simply

Ctrl

(PC) /

(Mac) on a MIDI clip in the Session or Arrangement View and select this option.

Unlike

cropping audio clips , cropping a MIDI clip does not create a new le on disk.

10.4.11

Deactivating Notes

To deactivate, or mute, a note (or notes) in the MIDI Editor, select it and (PC) /

Ctrl

(Mac) to access the context menu. The Deactivate Note(s) command will mute the note, making it appear gray in the display. To reactivate notes, use the context menu's Activate

Note(s) command. You can de- or reactivate all of the notes in a single key track at once by

(PC) /

Ctrl

(Mac) on a key in the piano roll.

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