Glossary. Dell 1400

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Glossary. Dell 1400 | Manualzz


Terms in this Glossary are provided for informational purposes only and may or may not describe features included with your particular computer.


AC — alternating current — The form of electricity that powers your computer when you plug the AC adapter power cable in to an electrical outlet.

ACPI — advanced configuration and power interface — A power management specification that enables Microsoft




operating systems to put a computer in standby or hibernate mode to conserve the amount of electrical power allocated to each device attached to the computer.

AGP — accelerated graphics port — A dedicated graphics port that allows system memory to be used for video-related tasks. AGP delivers a smooth, true-color video image because of the faster interface between the video circuitry and the computer memory.

AHCI — Advanced Host Controller Interface — An interface for a SATA hard drive

Host Controller which allows the storage driver to enable technologies such as Native

Command Queuing (NCQ) and hot plug.

ALS — ambient light sensor — A feature that helps to control display brightness.

antivirus software — A program designed to identify, quarantine, and/or delete viruses from your computer.

ASF — alert standards format — A standard to define a mechanism for reporting hardware and software alerts to a management console. ASF is designed to be platform- and operating system-independent.


battery life span — The length of time (years) during which a portable computer battery is able to be depleted and recharged.

battery operating time — The length of time (minutes or hours) that a portable computer battery powers the computer.



BIOS — basic input/output system — A program (or utility) that serves as an interface between the computer hardware and the operating system. Unless you understand what effect these settings have on the computer, do not change them. Also referred to as system setup.

bit — The smallest unit of data interpreted by your computer.

Blu-ray Disc™ (BD)— An optical storage technology offering storage capacity of up to 50 GB, full 1080p video resolution (HDTV required), and as many as 7.1 channels of native, uncompressed surround sound.

Blue-ray Disk Recordable (BD-R) — Blu-ray Disk recordable refers to two optical disc formats that can be recorded with an optical disk recorder. BD-R discs can be written to once.

Blu-ray Disk RE (BD-RE) — Blu-ray Disk RE can be erased and recorded multiple times.



wireless technology — A wireless technology standard for short-range

(9 m [29 feet]) networking devices that allows for enabled devices to automatically recognize each other.

boot sequence — Specifies the order of the devices from which the computer attempts to boot.

bootable CD — A CD that you can use to start your computer. In case your hard drive is damaged or your computer has a virus, ensure that you always have a bootable CD or floppy disk available. Your Drivers and Utilities media is a bootable CD.

bootable disk — A disk that you can use to start your computer. In case your hard drive is damaged or your computer has a virus, ensure that you always have a bootable

CD or floppy disk available.

bps — bits per second — The standard unit for measuring data transmission speed.

BTU — British thermal unit — A measurement of heat output.

bus — A communication pathway between the components in your computer.

bus speed — The speed, given in MHz, that indicates how fast a bus can transfer information.

byte — The basic data unit used by your computer. A byte is usually equal to 8 bits.


C — Celsius — A temperature measurement scale where 0° is the freezing point and

100° is the boiling point of water.



cache — A special high-speed storage mechanism which can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device. The cache enhances the efficiency of many processor operations.

L1 cache — Primary cache stored inside the processor.

L2 cache — Secondary cache which can either be external to the processor or incorporated into the processor architecture.

carnet — An international customs document that facilitates temporary imports into foreign countries. Also known as a merchandise passport.

CD-R — CD recordable — A recordable version of a CD. Data can be recorded only once onto a CD-R. Once recorded, the data cannot be erased or written over.

CD-RW — CD rewritable — A rewritable version of a CD. Data can be written to a

CD-RW disc, and then erased and written over (rewritten).

CD-RW drive — A drive that can read CDs and write to CD-RW (rewritable CDs) and CD-R (recordable CDs) discs. You can write to CD-RW discs multiple times, but you can write to CD-R discs only once.

CD-RW/DVD drive — A drive, sometimes referred to as a combo drive, that can read

CDs and DVDs and write to CD-RW (rewritable CDs) and CD-R (recordable CDs) discs. You can write to CD-RW discs multiple times, but you can write to CD-R discs only once.

clock speed — The speed, given in MHz, that indicates how fast computer components that are connected to the system bus operate.

CMOS — A type of electronic circuit. Computers use a small amount of batterypowered CMOS memory to hold date, time, and system setup options.

COA — Certificate of Authenticity — The Windows alpha-numeric code located on a sticker on your computer. Also referred to as the Product Key or

Product ID.

Consumer IR — A port that allows you to transfer data between the computer and infrared-compatible devices without using a cable connection.

Control Panel — A Windows utility that allows you to modify operating system and hardware settings, such as display settings.

controller — A chip that controls the transfer of data between the processor and memory or between the processor and devices.

CRIMM — continuity rambus in-line memory module — A special module that has no memory chips and is used to fill unused RIMM slots.

cursor — The marker on a display or screen that shows where the next keyboard, touch pad, or mouse action will occur. It often is a blinking solid line, an underline character, or a small arrow.




DDR SDRAM — double-data-rate SDRAM — A type of SDRAM that doubles the data burst cycle, improving system performance.

DDR2 SDRAM — double-data-rate 2 SDRAM — A type of DDR SDRAM that uses a

4-bit prefetch and other architectural changes to boost memory speed to over

400 MHz.

device — Hardware such as a disk drive, printer, or keyboard that is installed in or connected to your computer.

device driver — See driver.

DIMM — dual in-line memory module — A circuit board with memory chips that connects to a memory module on the system board.

DIN connector — A round, six-pin connector that conforms to DIN (Deutsche

Industrie-Norm) standards; it is typically used to connect PS/2 keyboard or mouse cable connectors.

disk striping — A technique for spreading data over multiple disk drives. Disk striping can speed up operations that retrieve data from disk storage. Computers that use disk striping generally allow the user to select the data unit size or stripe width.

DMA — direct memory access — A channel that allows certain types of data transfer between RAM and a device to bypass the processor.

DMTF — Distributed Management Task Force — A consortium of hardware and software companies who develop management standards for distributed desktop, network, enterprise, and Internet environments.

domain — A group of computers, programs, and devices on a network that are administered as a unit with common rules and procedures for use by a specific group of users. A user logs on to the domain to gain access to the resources.

DRAM — dynamic random-access memory — Memory that stores information in integrated circuits containing capacitors.

driver — Software that allows the operating system to control a device such as a printer. Many devices do not work properly if the correct driver is not installed in the computer.

DSL — Digital Subscriber Line — A technology that provides a constant, high-speed

Internet connection through an analog telephone line. dual-core — An Intel


technology in which two physical computational units exist inside a single processor package, thereby increasing computing efficiency and multitasking ability.



dual display mode — A display setting that allows you to use a second monitor as an extension of your display. Also referred to as extended display mode.

DVD-R — DVD recordable — A recordable version of a DVD. Data can be recorded only once onto a DVD-R. Once recorded, the data cannot be erased or written over.

DVD+RW — DVD rewritable — A rewritable version of a DVD. Data can be written to a DVD+RW disc, and then erased and written over (rewritten). (DVD+RW technology is different from DVD-RW technology.)

DVD+RW drive — drive that can read DVDs and most CD media and write to

DVD+RW (rewritable DVDs) discs.

DVI — digital video interface — A standard for digital transmission between a computer and a digital video display.


ECC — error checking and correction — A type of memory that includes special circuitry for testing the accuracy of data as it passes in and out of memory.

ECP — extended capabilities port — A parallel connector design that provides improved bidirectional data transmission. Similar to EPP, ECP uses direct memory access to transfer data and often improves performance.

EIDE — enhanced integrated device electronics — An improved version of the IDE interface for hard drives and CD drives.

EMI — electromagnetic interference — Electrical interference caused by electromagnetic radiation.



— Environmental Protection Agency requirements that decrease the overall consumption of electricity.

EPP — enhanced parallel port — A parallel connector design that provides bidirectional data transmission.

ESD — electrostatic discharge — A rapid discharge of static electricity. ESD can damage integrated circuits found in computer and communications equipment.

expansion card — A circuit board that installs in an expansion slot on the system board in some computers, expanding the capabilities of the computer. Examples include video, modem, and sound cards.

expansion slot — A connector on the system board (in some computers) where you insert an expansion card, connecting it to the system bus.

ExpressCard — A removable I/O card adhering to the PCMCIA standard. Modems and network adapters are common types of ExpressCards. ExpressCards support both the PCI Express and USB 2.0 standard.



Express Service Code — A numeric code located on a sticker on your Dell™ computer. Use the Express Service Code when contacting Dell for assistance. Express

Service Code service may not be available in some countries.

extended display mode — A display setting that allows you to use a second monitor as an extension of your display. Also referred to as dual display mode.

extended PC Card — A PC Card that extends beyond the edge of the PC Card slot when installed.


Fahrenheit — A temperature measurement scale where 32° is the freezing point and

212° is the boiling point of water.

FBD — fully-buffered DIMM — A DIMM with DDR2 DRAM chips and an

Advanced Memory Buffer (AMB) that speeds communication between the DDR2

SDRAM chips and the system.

FCC — Federal Communications Commission — A U.S. agency responsible for enforcing communications-related regulations that state how much radiation computers and other electronic equipment can emit.

fingerprint reader — A strip sensor that uses your unique fingerprint to authenticate your user identity to help secure your computer. folder — A term used to describe space on a disk or drive where files are organized and grouped. Files in a folder can be viewed and ordered in various ways, such as alphabetically, by date, and by size.

format — The process that prepares a drive or disk for file storage. When a drive or disk is formatted, the existing information on it is lost.

FSB — front side bus — The data path and physical interface between the processor and RAM.

FTP — file transfer protocol — A standard Internet protocol used to exchange files between computers connected to the Internet.


G — gravity — A measurement of weight and force.

GB — gigabyte — A measurement of data storage that equals 1024 MB

(1,073,741,824 bytes). When used to refer to hard drive storage, the term is often rounded to 1,000,000,000 bytes.



GHz — gigahertz — A measurement of frequency that equals one thousand million

Hz, or one thousand MHz. The speeds for computer processors, buses, and interfaces are often measured in GHz.

graphics mode — A video mode that can be defined as x horizontal pixels by y vertical pixels by z colors. Graphics modes can display an unlimited variety of shapes and fonts.

GUI — graphical user interface — Software that interacts with the user by means of menus, windows, and icons. Most programs that operate on the Windows operating systems are GUIs.


hard drive — A drive that reads and writes data on a hard disk. The terms hard drive and hard disk are often used interchangeably.

heat sink — A metal plate on some processors that helps dissipate heat.

hibernate mode — A power management mode that saves everything in memory to a reserved space on the hard drive and then turns off the computer. When you restart the computer, the memory information that was saved to the hard drive is automatically restored.

HTTP — hypertext transfer protocol — A protocol for exchanging files between computers connected to the Internet.

Hyper-Threading — Hyper-Threading is an Intel technology that can enhance overall computer performance by allowing one physical processor to function as two logical processors, capable of performing certain tasks simultaneously.

Hz — hertz — A unit of frequency measurement that equals 1 cycle per second.

Computers and electronic devices are often measured in kilohertz (kHz), megahertz

(MHz), gigahertz (GHz), or terahertz (THz).


IC — integrated circuit — A semiconductor wafer, or chip, on which thousands or millions of tiny electronic components are fabricated for use in computer, audio, and video equipment.

IDE — integrated device electronics — An interface for mass storage devices in which the controller is integrated into the hard drive or CD drive.

IEEE 1394 — Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. — A highperformance serial bus used to connect IEEE 1394-compatible devices, such as digital cameras and DVD players, to the computer.



infrared sensor — A port that allows you to transfer data between the computer and infrared-compatible devices without using a cable connection.

integrated — Usually refers to components that are physically located on the computer’s system board. Also referred to as built-in.

I/O — input/output — An operation or device that enters and extracts data from your computer. Keyboards and printers are I/O devices.

I/O address — An address in RAM that is associated with a specific device (such as a serial connector, parallel connector, or expansion slot) and allows the processor to communicate with that device.

IrDA — Infrared Data Association — The organization that creates international standards for infrared communications.

IRQ — interrupt request — An electronic pathway assigned to a specific device so that the device can communicate with the processor. Each device connection must be assigned an IRQ. Although two devices can share the same IRQ assignment, you cannot operate both devices simultaneously.

ISP — Internet service provider — A company that allows you to access its host server to connect directly to the Internet, send and receive e-mail, and access websites. The

ISP typically provides you with a software package, user name, and access phone numbers for a fee.


Kb — kilobit — A unit of data that equals 1024 bits. A measurement of the capacity of memory integrated circuits.

KB — kilobyte — A unit of data that equals 1024 bytes but is often referred to as

1000 bytes.

key combination — A command requiring you to press multiple keys at the same time.

kHz — kilohertz — A measurement of frequency that equals 1000 Hz.



LAN — local area network — A computer network covering a small area. A LAN usually is confined to a building or a few nearby buildings. A LAN can be connected to another LAN over any distance through telephone lines and radio waves to form a wide area network (WAN).

LCD — liquid crystal display — The technology used by portable computer and flatpanel displays.


LED — light-emitting diode — An electronic component that emits light to indicate the status of the computer.

local bus — A data bus that provides a fast throughput for devices to the processor.

LPT — line print terminal — The designation for a parallel connection to a printer or other parallel device.


Mb — megabit — A measurement of memory chip capacity that equals 1024 Kb.

Mbps — megabits per second — One million bits per second. This measurement is typically used for transmission speeds for networks and modems.

MB — megabyte — A measurement of data storage that equals 1,048,576 bytes. 1 MB equals 1024 KB. When used to refer to hard drive storage, the term is often rounded to

1,000,000 bytes.

MB/sec — megabytes per second — One million bytes per second. This measurement is typically used for data transfer ratings.

media bay — A bay that supports devices such as optical drives, a second battery, or a

Dell TravelLite™ module.

memory — A temporary data storage area inside your computer. Because the data in memory is not permanent, it is recommended that you frequently save your files while you are working on them, and always save your files before you shut down the computer. Your computer can contain several different forms of memory, such as

RAM, ROM, and video memory. Frequently, the word memory is used as a synonym for RAM.

memory address — A specific location where data is temporarily stored in RAM.

memory mapping — The process by which the computer assigns memory addresses to physical locations at start-up. Devices and software can then identify information that the processor can access.

memory module — A small circuit board containing memory chips, which connects to the system board.

MHz — megahertz — A measure of frequency that equals 1 million cycles per second.

The speeds for computer processors, buses, and interfaces are often measured in MHz.

Mini PCI — A standard for integrated peripheral devices with an emphasis on communications such as modems and NICs. A Mini PCI card is a small external card that is functionally equivalent to a standard PCI expansion card.



Mini-Card — A small card designed for integrated peripherals, such as communication NICs. The Mini-Card is functionally equivalent to a standard PCI expansion card.

Mobile Broadband network — (also known as a WWAN) is a series of interconnected computers that communicate with each other through wireless cellular technology and provides Internet access in the same varied locations from which cellular telephone service is available. Your computer can maintain the Mobile Broadband network connection regardless of its physical location, as long as the computer remains in the service area of your cellular service provider.

modem — A device that allows your computer to communicate with other computers over analog telephone lines. Three types of modems include: external, PC Card, and internal. You typically use your modem to connect to the Internet and exchange e-mail.

module bay — See media bay.

MP — megapixel — A measure of image resolution used for digital cameras.

ms — millisecond — A measure of time that equals one thousandth of a second.

Access times of storage devices are often measured in ms.


network adapter — A chip that provides network capabilities. A computer may include a network adapter on its system board, or it may contain a PC Card with an adapter on it. A network adapter is also referred to as a NIC (network interface controller).

NIC — See network adapter.

notification area — The section of the Windows taskbar that contains icons for providing quick access to programs and computer functions, such as the clock, volume control, and print status. Also referred to as system tray.

ns — nanosecond — A measure of time that equals one billionth of a second.

NVRAM — nonvolatile random access memory — A type of memory that stores data when the computer is turned off or loses its external power source. NVRAM is used for maintaining computer configuration information such as date, time, and other system setup options that you can set.




optical drive — A drive that uses optical technology to read or write data from CDs,

DVDs, or DVD+RWs. Example of optical drives include CD drives, DVD drives,

CD-RW drives, and CD-RW/DVD combo drives.


parallel connector — An I/O port often used to connect a parallel printer to your computer. Also referred to as an LPT port.

partition — A physical storage area on a hard drive that is assigned to one or more logical storage areas known as logical drives. Each partition can contain multiple logical drives.

PC Card — A removable I/O card adhering to the PCMCIA standard. Modems and network adapters are common types of PC Cards.

PCI — peripheral component interconnect — PCI is a local bus that supports 32-and

64-bit data paths, providing a high-speed data path between the processor and devices such as video, drives, and networks.

PCI Express — A modification to the PCI interface that boosts the data transfer rate between the processor and the devices attached to it. PCI Express can transfer data at speeds from 250 MB/sec to 4 GB/sec. If the PCI Express chip set and the device are capable of different speeds, they will operate at the slower speed.

PCMCIA — Personal Computer Memory Card International Association — The organization that establishes standards for PC Cards.

PIO — programmed input/output — A method of transferring data between two devices through the processor as part of the data path.

pixel — A single point on a display screen. Pixels are arranged in rows and columns to create an image. A video resolution, such as 800 x 600, is expressed as the number of pixels across by the number of pixels up and down.

Plug-and-Play — The ability of the computer to automatically configure devices. Plug and Play provides automatic installation, configuration, and compatibility with existing hardware if the BIOS, operating system, and all devices are Plug and Play compliant.

POST — power-on self-test — Diagnostics programs, loaded automatically by the

BIOS, that perform basic tests on the major computer components, such as memory, hard drives, and video. If no problems are detected during POST, the computer continues the start-up.



232 processor — A computer chip that interprets and executes program instructions.

Sometimes the processor is referred to as the CPU (central processing unit).

PS/2 — personal system/2 — A type of connector for attaching a PS/2-compatible keyboard, mouse, or keypad.

PXE — pre-boot execution environment — A WfM (Wired for Management) standard that allows networked computers that do not have an operating system to be configured and started remotely.


RAID — redundant array of independent disks — A method of providing data redundancy. Some common implementations of RAID include RAID 0, RAID 1,

RAID 5, RAID 10, and RAID 50.

RAM — random-access memory — The primary temporary storage area for program instructions and data. Any information stored in RAM is lost when you shut down your computer.

readme file — A text file included with a software package or hardware product.

Typically, readme files provide installation information and describe new product enhancements or corrections that have not yet been documented.

read-only — Data and/or files you can view but cannot edit or delete. A file can have read-only status if:

• It resides on a physically write-protected floppy disk, CD, or DVD.

• It is located on a network in a directory and the system administrator has assigned rights only to specific individuals.

refresh rate — The frequency, measured in Hz, at which your screen's horizontal lines are recharged (sometimes also referred to as its vertical frequency). The higher the refresh rate, the less video flicker can be seen by the human eye.

resolution — The sharpness and clarity of an image produced by a printer or displayed on a monitor. The higher the resolution, the sharper the image.

RFI — radio frequency interference — Interference that is generated at typical radio frequencies, in the range of 10 kHz to 100,000 MHz. Radio frequencies are at the lower end of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum and are more likely to have interference than the higher frequency radiations, such as infrared and light.

ROM — read-only memory — Memory that stores data and programs that cannot be deleted or written to by the computer. ROM, unlike RAM, retains its contents after you shut down your computer. Some programs essential to the operation of your computer reside in ROM.


RPM — revolutions per minute — The number of rotations that occur per minute.

Hard drive speed is often measured in rpm.

RTC — real time clock — Battery-powered clock on the system board that keeps the date and time after you shut down the computer.

RTCRST — real-time clock reset — A jumper on the system board of some computers that can often be used for troubleshooting problems.


SAS — serial attached SCSI — A faster, serial version of the SCSI interface (as opposed to the original SCSI parallel architecture).

SATA — serial ATA — A faster, serial version of the ATA (IDE) interface.

ScanDisk — A Microsoft utility that checks files, folders, and the hard disk’s surface for errors. ScanDisk often runs when you restart the computer after it has stopped responding.

SCSI — small computer system interface — A high-speed interface used to connect devices to a computer, such as hard drives, CD drives, printers, and scanners. The

SCSI can connect many devices using a single controller. Each device is accessed by an individual identification number on the SCSI controller bus.

SDRAM — synchronous dynamic random-access memory — A type of DRAM that is synchronized with the optimal clock speed of the processor.

serial connector — An I/O port often used to connect devices such as a handheld digital device or digital camera to your computer.

Service Tag — A bar code label on your computer that identifies your computer when you access Dell Support at or when you call Dell for customer service or technical support.

setup program — A program that is used to install and configure hardware and software. The setup.exe or install.exe program comes with most Windows software packages. Setup program differs from system setup.

shortcut — An icon that provides quick access to frequently used programs, files, folders, and drives. When you place a shortcut on your Windows desktop and doubleclick the icon, you can open its corresponding folder or file without having to find it first. Shortcut icons do not change the location of files. If you delete a shortcut, the original file is not affected. Also, you can rename a shortcut icon.

SIM — Subscriber Identity Module — A SIM card contains a microchip that encrypts voice and data transmissions. SIM cards can be used in phones or portable computers.



smart card — A card that is embedded with a processor and a memory chip. Smart cards can be used to authenticate a user on computers equipped for smart cards.

S/PDIF — Sony/Philips Digital Interface — An audio transfer file format that allows the transfer of audio from one file to another without converting it to and from an analog format, which could degrade the quality of the file.

standby mode — A power management mode that shuts down all unnecessary computer operations to save energy.

Strike Zone™ — Reinforced area of the platform base that protects the hard drive by acting as a dampening device when a computer experiences resonating shock or is dropped (whether the computer is on or off).

surge protectors — Prevent voltage spikes, such as those that may occur during an electrical storm, from entering the computer through the electrical outlet. Surge protectors do not protect against lightning strikes or against brownouts, which occur when the voltage drops more than 20 percent below the normal AC-line voltage level.

Network connections cannot be protected by surge protectors. Always disconnect the network cable from the network connector during electrical storms.

SVGA — super-video graphics array — A video standard for video cards and controllers. Typical SVGA resolutions are 800 x 600 and 1024 x 768.

The number of colors and resolution that a program displays depends on the capabilities of the monitor, the video controller and its drivers, and the amount of video memory installed in the computer.

S-video TV-out — A connector used to attach a TV or digital audio device to the computer.

SXGA — super-extended graphics array — A video standard for video cards and controllers that supports resolutions up to 1280 x 1024.

SXGA+ — super-extended graphics array plus — A video standard for video cards and controllers that supports resolutions up to 1400 x 1050.

system board — The main circuit board in your computer. Also known as the motherboard.

system setup — A utility that serves as an interface between the computer hardware and the operating system. System setup allows you to configure user-selectable options in the BIOS, such as date and time or system password. Unless you understand what effect the settings have on the computer, do not change the settings for this program.




TAPI — telephony application programming interface — Enables Windows programs to operate with a wide variety of telephony devices, including voice, data, fax, and video.

text editor — A program used to create and edit files that contain only text; for example, Windows Notepad uses a text editor. Text editors do not usually provide word wrap or formatting functionality (the option to underline, change fonts, and so on).

TPM — trusted platform module — A hardware-based security feature that when combined with security software enhances network and computer security by enabling features such as file and e-mail protection.

travel module — A plastic device designed to fit inside the module bay of a portable computer to reduce the weight of the computer.


UAC — user account control— Microsoft Windows


Vista™ security feature that, when enabled, provides an added layer of security between user accounts and access to operating system settings.

UMA — unified memory allocation — System memory dynamically allocated to video.

UPS — uninterruptible power supply — A backup power source used when the electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. A UPS keeps a computer running for a limited amount of time when there is no electrical power. UPS systems typically provide surge suppression and may also provide voltage regulation.

Small UPS systems provide battery power for a few minutes to enable you to shut down your computer.

USB — universal serial bus — A hardware interface for a low-speed device such as a

USB-compatible keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, set of speakers, printer, broadband devices (DSL and cable modems), imaging devices, or storage devices.

Devices are plugged directly in to a 4-pin socket on your computer or in to a multi-port hub that plugs in to your computer. USB devices can be connected and disconnected while the computer is turned on, and they can also be daisy-chained together.

UTP — unshielded twisted pair — Describes a type of cable used in most telephone networks and some computer networks. Pairs of unshielded wires are twisted to protect against electromagnetic interference, rather than relying on a metal sheath around each pair of wires to protect against interference.




UXGA — ultra extended graphics array — A video standard for video cards and controllers that supports resolutions up to 1600 x 1200.


video controller — The circuitry on a video card or on the system board (in computers with an integrated video controller) that provides the video capabilities—in combination with the monitor—for your computer.

video memory — Memory that consists of memory chips dedicated to video functions.

Video memory is usually faster than system memory. The amount of video memory installed primarily influences the number of colors that a program can display.

video mode — A mode that describes how text and graphics are displayed on a monitor. Graphics-based software, such as Windows operating systems, displays in video modes that can be defined as x horizontal pixels by y vertical pixels by z colors.

Character-based software, such as text editors, displays in video modes that can be defined as x columns by y rows of characters.

video resolution — See resolution.

virus — A program that is designed to inconvenience you or to destroy data stored on your computer. A virus program moves from one computer to another through an infected disk, software downloaded from the Internet, or e-mail attachments. When an infected program starts, its embedded virus also starts.

A common type of virus is a boot virus, which is stored in the boot sectors of a floppy disk. If the floppy disk is left in the drive when the computer is shut down and then turned on, the computer is infected when it reads the boot sectors of the floppy disk expecting to find the operating system. If the computer is infected, the boot virus may replicate itself onto all the floppy disks that are read or written in that computer until the virus is eradicated.

V — volt — The measurement of electric potential or electromotive force. One V appears across a resistance of 1 ohm when a current of 1 ampere flows through that resistance.


W — watt — The measurement of electrical power. One W is 1 ampere of current flowing at 1 volt.

WHr — watt-hour — A unit of measure commonly used to indicate the approximate capacity of a battery. For example, a 66-WHr battery can supply 66 W of power for

1 hour or 33 W for 2 hours.


wallpaper — The background pattern or picture on the Windows desktop. Change your wallpaper through the Windows Control Panel. You can also scan in your favorite picture and make it wallpaper.

WLAN — wireless local area network. A series of interconnected computers that communicate with each other over the air waves using access points or wireless routers to provide Internet access.

write-protected — Files or media that cannot be changed. Use write-protection when you want to protect data from being changed or destroyed. To write-protect a 3.5-inch floppy disk, slide its write-protect tab to the open position.

WPAN — wireless personal area network. A computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person.

WWAN — wireless wide area network. A wireless high-speed data network using cellular technology and covering a much larger geographic area than WLAN.

WXGA — wide-aspect extended graphics array — A video standard for video cards and controllers that supports resolutions up to 1280 x 800."


XGA — extended graphics array — A video standard for video cards and controllers that supports resolutions up to 1024 x 768.


ZIF — zero insertion force — A type of socket or connector that allows a computer chip to be installed or removed with no stress applied to either the chip or its socket.

Zip — A popular data compression format. Files that have been compressed with the

Zip format are called Zip files and usually have a filename extension of .zip. A special kind of zipped file is a self-extracting file, which has a filename extension of .exe. You can unzip a self-extracting file by double-clicking it.

Zip drive — A high-capacity floppy drive developed by Iomega Corporation that uses

3.5-inch removable disks called Zip disks. Zip disks are slightly larger than regular floppy disks, about twice as thick, and hold up to 100 MB of data.






Key Features

  • Rack (2U) Black, Grey
  • HDD Storage drives installed 0.6 TB
  • 600 W

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