Agilent Technologies 85309B IF Specifications

Agilent PNA-X Series
Microwave Network
Analyzers
Reach for unrivaled excellence
1
Choose the leader in network analysis
Industry’s
Most Advanced
RF Test Solution
Reach for unrivaled
excellence
The PNA-X Series of microwave network analyzers are the culmination of Agilent’s 40-year legacy
of technical leadership and innovation in radio frequency (RF) network analysis. More than
just a vector network analyzer, the PNA-X is the world’s most integrated and flexible microwave
test engine for measuring active devices like amplifiers, mixers, and frequency converters.
The combination of two internal signal sources, a signal combiner, S-parameter and noise
receivers, pulse modulators and generators, and a flexible set of switches and RF access points
provide a powerful hardware core for a broad range of linear and nonlinear measurements,
all with a single set of connections to your device-under-test (DUT).
When you’re characterizing active devices, the right mix of speed and performance gives you an
edge. In R&D, the PNA family provides a level of measurement integrity that helps you transform
deeper understanding into better designs. On the production line, our PNAs deliver the throughput
and repeatability you need to transform great designs into competitive products. Every Agilent VNA
is the ultimate expression of our expertise in linear and nonlinear device characterization. Choose a
PNA --and reach for unrivaled excellence in your measurements and your designs.
World´s widest range of measurement applications
PNA-X applications bring speed, accuracy, and ease-of-use to common RF measurements,
in coaxial, fixtured, and on-wafer environments. Applications include:
• S-parameters (CW and pulsed)
• Noise figure
• Gain compression
• Intermodulation and
harmonic distortion
• Conversion gain/loss
• True-differential stimulus
• Nonlinear waveform and
X-parameter* characterization
• Antenna test
Network analysis technology down to the nanoscale
The PNA-X is also compatible with these Agilent measurement solutions:
All of the PNA-X’s powerful
measurement applications can be used
for on-wafer devices.
• Physical layer test system (PLTS) software to calibrate, measure, and analyze linear
passive interconnects, such as cables, connectors, backplanes, and printed circuit boards.
• Materials test equipment and accessories to help determine how your materials
interact with electromagnetic fields, by calculating permittivity and permeability.
• Award-winning scanning microwave microscope to create a powerful and unique
combination for topography measurements of calibrated capacitance and dopant
densities at nanoscale dimensions.
The right frequency for your application
N5249A 10 MHz to 8.5 GHz
N5241A
10 MHz to 13.5 GHz
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
N5242A
N5244A
10 MHz to 43.5 GHz
10 MHz to 50 GHz
N5245A
10 MHz to 67 GHz
N5247A
*X-parameters is a registered trademark of Agilent Technologies. The X-parameter format and
underlying equations are open and documented.
For more information, visit;
http://www.agilent.com/find/eesof-x-parameters-info
PNA-X with mm-wave modules
10 MHz to 1.05 THz
Build your optimal test system by selecting the frequency range for your specific device-test
needs without paying for functionality you don’t need.
2
Replace racks and stacks
With its highly integrated and versatile hardware and re-configurable
measurement paths, the PNA-X replaces racks and stacks
of equipment – with a single instrument. One PNA-X
can take the place of the following test gear:
Multiple
measurements
with a single
instrument
• Network analyzer
• Spectrum analyzer
• Two signal sources
• Noise figure meter/analyzer
• Power meters
• Switch matrix
• Digital voltmeter
Benefits of a PNA-X-based solution
• Simpler test systems for...
...lower hardware and software costs
...quicker development time and faster time to manufacturing
...less downtime and lower maintenance costs
...smaller size and lower power consumption
• Faster test times for...
...improved throughput
• Higher accuracy for...
...better yields and better specifications
• Flexible hardware for...
...greater adaptability to future test requirements
With a single set of connections
to an amplifier or frequency converter,
the PNA-X can measure CW and pulsed
S-parameters, intermodulation distortion,
gain and phase compression versus frequency,
noise figure, and more.
3
Bottom Line
Results –
PNA-X
Case Studies
“We selected Agilent’s PNA-X because
it eliminated unnecessary cable
swaps between measurements and
it makes more active measurements than any other network
analyzer out there. We used to make
S-parameter, vector-signal, and noisefigure measurements with separate test
equipment—and now with the PNA-X,
we can perform all of our active
measurements in one box.”
Test Engineering Manager
CASE STUDY 1
Aerospace/defense component supplier reduces test time by 95%
Challenges
This customer manufacturers over 4600 RF components, with typically 1000 devices in the
manufacturing process at any given time. Devices included filters, multipliers, amplifiers,
and switches, from 10 MHz to 60 GHz. They needed to simplify the test system for one
particular multiport device, so they set out to develop an operator-independent automated
test system (ATS). Key challenges included:
• Complicated and expensive test systems with multiple racks of equipment
and miles of test cables
• Multiple cable swaps and recalibrations required with extensive operator
intervention and downtime
• Significant retesting of devices and high system downtime
Results
The PNA-X’s ability to incorporate more active measurements into a single instrument
than any other product on the market provided:
• Faster test times: Reduced test times from four hours per temperature to 24 minutes
when compared to the prior ATS, resulting in a test-time reduction of 95%
• Reduced equipment count: Replaced nine racks of equipment with three,
12-port PNA-X network analyzers
• Increased operator productivity: Enabled operators to monitor four test stations
simultaneously and eliminated the need for single-operator test stations
• Reduced re-testing and cable swaps
CASE STUDY 2
Satellite designer and manufacturer reduces test time from three hours
to three minutes
Challenges
This aerospace company was conducting a specific panel-level test and wanted to modernize
its test systems and improve its test productivity and throughput. Its legacy satellite payload
test systems utilized a large amount of rack and stack equipment accompanied by a big test
overhead. The company was required to exert a great deal of time and effort to program
and maintain the test systems.
Results
Initially the aerospace company purchased four PNA-Xs (26.5 and 50 GHz models). They were
so impressed with the throughput and test productivity results, that they purchased eight more
analyzers. In one test case, the level of improvement exceeded expectations—taking a 20-minute
gain-transfer test to just under a minute. Replacing their test system with the PNA-X effectively
modernized and simplified their test system which enabled:
• Faster test times: Complete test suite cut measurement times from
three hours to three minutes
• Reduced equipment count: Replaced a two-rack payload test system
with a single four-port PNA-X
• Smaller test system: Reduced the amount of equipment space and
power consumption
4
CASE STUDY 3
Wireless networking systems manufacturer reduces throughput from
30 to 10 minutes
Challenges
The manufacturer was developing a new broadband wireless network system and needed
a faster test system. Its existing test system consisted of two sources, a spectrum analyzer,
and power meters. Using this system, they estimated their new product would take 30 minutes to
test; however their speed goal was 15 minutes. In addition to needing a faster test solution, the
company also needed better noise figure and distortion measurements, and it required singleconnection measurements on both up and down converters.
Results
Replacing their existing multi-instrument test system with a single four-port
50 GHz PNA-X enabled the company to realize:
• Faster test times: Complete test suite cut test throughput from an estimated
30 minutes to under ten minutes
• Less downtime and reduced maintenance costs: Reducing the equipment count
reduced the setup time, as well as the headaches associated with multiple equipment faults,
and resulted in lowered annual calibration costs
• Cost savings on equipment: The cost of a four-port PNA-X was substantially less
expensive than the legacy multi-instrument test system.
CASE STUDY 4
“We chose the PNA-X for its unique
single-connection, multiplemeasurement capability. The PNA-X
is also the only solution we found
that can make accurate nonlinear
measurements by using its extended
NVNA software option. This saves us an
amazing amount of design time because
it means we can quickly and accurately characterize the nonlinear
behavior of our devices even at crazy
high power levels.”
Test Engineering Manager
Global security company speeds test and improves measurement
accuracy
Challenges
The company needed to upgrade its legacy test systems, which consisted of large switch matrices
with network analyzers. They required technicians to keep connecting and disconnecting the
device-under-test (DUT) to multiple instruments to make a range of different measurements. This
approach was slow, costly, prone to inaccuracy, and required a good deal of user intervention and
additional hardware. The company sought a solution that was easy to set up and use, decreased
test time and cost, minimized measurement inaccuracy, and offered a smaller footprint
Results
The company decided to purchase PNA-Xs rather than simply upgrade to newer, code-compatible, drop-in instruments offered by the provider of its legacy test equipment. This decision was
made despite the fact that it meant significant rewrite of legacy software. The company saved
time over their existing test solutions and realized:
• Easy setup and use: Technicians were able to easily connect to a DUT and measure
all different parameters in one pass—without additional hardware
• Faster and more accurate tests: Using just one instrument technicians were able
to conduct their required tests in significantly less time and improve accuracy
• Smaller test system: A single four-port PNA-X reduced their initial capital expense,
equipment count, floor space, and power consumption, which resulted in lower overall
test costs
5
Intuitive, Speed-driven Features
Flexible user interface:
hard keys, soft keys,
pull-down menus,
and touch screen
Configurable
test set available
on all models
Up to
10 markers
per trace
State-of-the-art
calibration
capabilities
Linear, log,
power, CW, phase,
and segment sweeps
200 measurement
channels and
unlimited traces
Equation editor
and time-domain
analysis
6
On-line
help
Quick access
for ECal and
other USB
devices
Hardware for Exceptional Flexibility
Second GPIB
interface for
controlling signal
sources, power
meters or other
instruments
Pulse I/O connector for controlling external modulators
or synchronizing internal
pulse generators
RF jumpers for
adding signalconditioning
hardware
or other test
instruments
Direct IF access for
remote mixing in
antenna ranges
Test set I/O for
controlling external
multiport and
millimeter-wave
test sets
LAN and device-side
USB interfaces provide
alternatives to GPIB for
remote programming
Flexible triggers for
measurement control
and for synchronizing
external sources or
other instruments
7
Removeable
hard drive
for secure
environments
Power I/O connector
provides analog
inputs and outputs
for PAE and other
measurements
Flexible
Architecture
1
Each test port includes test and reference couplers and receivers, source and receiver
attenuators, and a bias tee, for maximum accuracy and flexibility.
1
2
The built-in signal combiner greatly simplifies the setup for intermodulation
distortion and X-parameter measurements.
2
3
Internal pulse modulators enable integrated pulsed-RF testing over the full frequency
range of the instrument, eliminating expensive and bulky external modulators.
Rear panel
+28 V
J11
J10
J9
J8
J7
Signal
combiner
+
–
2
Source 2
Source 1
OUT 1
3
OUT 2
OUT 1
R1
OUT 2
Pulse
modulator
Pulse
modulator
R3
A
C
1
Test port 1
8
Test port 3
3
4
Switchable rear-panel jumpers provide the flexibility to add signal-conditioning
hardware or route additional test equipment to the DUT without moving test cables.
4
5
Setting up pulse timing for the pulse modulators and internal IF gates is easy
using the built-in pulse generators.
5
6
Internal low-noise receivers, along with advanced calibration and measurement
algorithms, provide the industry’s most accurate noise figure measurements.
Rear panel
J4
J3
3
Pulse
generators
J2
J1
4
1
2
3
5
4
LO
Noise receiver
To
receivers
6
8.5/13.5/26.5
43.5/50 GHz
R2
R4
D
B
Test port 4
Test port 2
9
Pulsed-RF measurement challenges
• Pulse generators and modulators required for pulsed-RF measurements add
complexity in test setups
• For narrow pulses:
– Maximum IF bandwidth of analyzer is often too small for wideband detection
– Narrowband detection is slow, and measurements are noisy for low duty cycle pulses
Innovative
Applications
Simple, fast and
accurate pulsed-RF
measurements
PNA-X pulsed-RF measurements provide:
(Options 008, 021, 022, 025)
By the 1990s,
the HP 8510 was
the industrystandard for
pulsed-RF
vector network
analyzers.
• A simple user interface for full control of two internal pulse modulators (Option 021
and 022), and four internal independent pulse generators (Option 025)
• Point-in-pulse measurements with 20 ns minimum pulse width, and pulse profile
measurements with 10 ns minimum resolution (Option 008)
• Improved measurement speed and accuracy for narrowband detection using hardware
filters and patented spectral-nulling and software IF-gating techniques
• Measurements using wideband detection with pulse widths as narrow as 100 ns
• Pulse I/O connector on rear panel for synchronization
with external equipment and DUT
• Accurate active-component
characterization using unique
application measurement
classes for gain compression,
swept-frequency/power IMD,
and noise figure
The PNA Series
replaced the
pulsed 8510 with a
bench-top solution.
Pulsed-RF measurement application automatically optimizes
internal hardware configuration for specified pulse conditions to
dramatically simplify test setups. Alternately, users can choose
to manually set up the hardware for unique test requirements.
Providing the first one-box
pulsed-RF test system, the
PNA-X sets a new standard for
simplicity, speed, and accuracy.
Pulse profile measurement using narrowband detection
technique allows 30 measurement points within 300 ns pulse,
with 10 ns timing resolution.
10
Tips from the experts
• Compared to sweep averaging, point averaging typically
provides faster results when averaging is needed
to lower noise and improve accuracy of measurements
using wideband detection.
• During source power calibrations, power sensors read the
average power, while the analyzer sets the peak power
of the pulsed stimulus. To compensate for the difference
between the peak and average power, use the power
offset feature with the value of 10 log (duty cycle).
• The minimum pulse width for point-in-pulse measurements using wideband detection is determined by the
number of samples required for the IF bandwidth (IFBW).
For example, the minimum pulse width is 100 ns with
15 MHz IFBW, 300 ns with 5 MHz IFBW, and 1.44 µs with
1 MHz IFBW. When working at the minimum pulse width
for a particular IFBW, it is important to precisely set
the measurement delay (with 10 ns resolution) to align
the pulse modulation and the data acquisition period.
• In pulse mode, it is important to use receiver leveling
to maintain power-level accuracy for power-dependent
measurements, such as output power, compression,
and intermodulation distortion.
PNA-X’s narrowband detection method used for narrow pulse
widths (< 267 ns) employs special hardware and patented
software-gating techniques to improve system dynamic
range for low duty cycle measurements by 40 dB compared
to PNA-based pulsed-RF systems.
The PNA-X accurately characterizes active devices under pulsed
operation with a single set of connections to the DUT—pulsed
S-parameters, pulse profile (input and output power in the
time domain), gain compression versus frequency, and sweptfrequency IMD are measured in this example.
Output power
@ compression
Gain @ linear input power
Open loop
Gain @
compression
R1 receiver leveling
Input power @ compression
Using receiver leveling improves the pulsed-RF power
accuracy from +/- 1 dB to less than 0.05 dB.
Above measurements compare the results with and without
receiver leveling in GCA measurements. Inaccurate stimulus
causes large errors in power-dependent measurements such
as input and output power at the compression point versus
frequency.
11
Noise figure measurement challenges with traditional, Y-factor approach
Innovative
Applications
Fast and accurate
noise figure
measurements
(Options 028, 029)
• Multiple instruments and multiple connections required
to fully characterize DUT
• Measurement accuracy degrades in-fixture, on-wafer,
and automated-test environments, where noise source
cannot be connected directly to DUT
• Measurements are slow, often leading
to fewer measured data points and
misleading results due to under-sampling
PNA-X noise figure solution provides:
• Amplifier and frequency converter measurements with the highest accuracy
in the industry, using advanced error-correction methods
• Fast measurements: typically 4 to 10 times faster than Agilent’s NFA Series
noise figure analyzers
• Ultra-fast noise-parameter measurements when used with Maury Microwave
automated tuners, giving 200 to 300 times speed improvements
5
On-wafer
automated-test
environment
Noise Figure (dB)
4
PNA-X method using source correction
3
2
Wafer
probes
Under-sampled data
1
AUT
Traditional Y-factor technique
Noise source
0
0
5
10
15
Frequency (GHz)
20
25
For this 401 point measurement of an unmatched transistor, the
PNA-X exhibits much less ripple compared to the Y-factor method.
The NFA default of 11 trace points would give under-sampled and
therefore misleading results of the amplifier’s performance.
For Y-factor measurements, any electrical network connected
between the noise source and the DUT, such as cables, switch
matrices, and wafer probes, causes significant accuracy
degradation.
“I have several instruments in my equipment pool that can measure noise igure—
8970s, NFAs, and spectrum analyzers. My biggest problem for noise igure
measurements was lack of correlation—I’d get different answers depending
on which instrument I used. Now, with the PNA-X’s high accuracy, I know I’ll get
the right answer every time, no matter which PNA-X I use.”
Test Engineering Manager
12
Noise-parameter measurements in minutes rather than days
Setting up and making noise-parameter measurements is simple and fast using a PNA-X
and a Maury Microwave automated tuner. Maury’s latest software dramatically improves
both the speed and accuracy of noise-parameter measurements, making them a practical
option for all RF engineers.
Noise figure measurement methods
DUT
DUT
Noise
receiver
Noise
receiver
Y-FACTOR: The most prevalent method for measuring noise figure is the Y-factor technique.
It relies on a noise source connected to the input of the device under test (DUT). When the
noise source is turned off, it presents a room temperature (cold) source termination. When
the noise source is turned on, it creates excess noise, equivalent to a hot source termination.
Under these two conditions, noise power is measured at the output of the DUT, and the scalar
gain and noise figure of the amplifier is calculated. The Y-factor method is used by Agilent’s
NFA Series and by spectrum analyzers with preamplifiers and a noise figure personality option.
COLD SOURCE: An alternate method for measuring noise figure is the cold source or
direct noise technique. With this method, only one noise power measurement is made at the
output of the DUT, with the input of the amplifier terminated with a room temperature source
impedance. The cold source technique requires an independent measurement of the
amplifier’s gain. This technique is well suited for vector network analyzers (VNAs) because
VNAs can measure gain (S21) extremely accurately by utilizing vector error correction.
The other advantage of the cold source method is that both S-parameter and noise figure
measurements can be made with a single connection to the DUT.
13
PNA-X’s unique source-corrected noise figure solution
• Uses modified cold-source method, eliminating need for noise source when measuring DUT
• Corrects for imperfect system source match by using vector correction to remove mismatch
errors plus an ECal module used as an impedance tuner to remove noise-parameterinduced errors
• Maintains high measurement accuracy in fixtured, on-wafer, or automated-test environments
• Accurately measures differential devices using vector
deembedding of baluns or hybrids
Innovative
Applications
Fast and accurate
noise figure
measurements
(Option 028, 029)
continued
DUT
Measure differential devices by
deembedding baluns or hybrids.
+28 V
J11
J10
J9
J8
At each test frequency, four or more noise measurements
are made with known, non-50-ohm source impedances.
From these measurements, 50-ohm noise figure is
accurately calculated.
REAR PANEL
J7
+
–
J2
J1
LO
Source 2
OUT 1
Source 1
OUT 1
R1
OUT 2
Noise receivers
To receivers
Pulse
modulator
OUT 2
10 MHz to
3 GHz
3 to
26.5 GHz
Pulse
modulator
R2
Pulse generators
A
B
1
2
3
4
Test port 1
Noise source used
for calibration only
Source 2
Output 1
Impedance
tuner for
noise figure
measurements
Source 2
Output 2
DUT
14
Test port 2
Block diagram of a two-port N5242A PNA-X with Options
200, 219, 224, and Noise Figure Option 029. A standard
ECal module is used as an impedance tuner to help
remove the effects of imperfect system source match.
N5244/45/47A models include a built-in impedance tuner.
Tips from the experts
• Noise figure measurements are best done in a screen room to eliminate
spurious interference from mobile phones, wireless LAN, handheld
transceivers, etc.
• Batteries are sometimes used instead of mains-based power supplies
to eliminate conducted interference from sensitive LNA measurements
• Overall measurement accuracy can be estimated by using Agilent’s
Monte-Carlo-based noise figure uncertainty calculator
Agilent’s PNA-X noise figure
uncertainty calculator
(www.agilent.com/find/nfcalc)
includes the effects of mismatch
and noise-parameter-induced
errors caused by imperfect
system source match.
Noise figure measurement
uncertainty example in an
automated test environment
(ATE). The PNA-X’s sourcecorrected technique is
considerably more accurate
than the Y-factor method.
15
Gain compression measurement challenges
Innovative
Applications
Fast and accurate gain
compression versus
frequency measurements of amplifiers
and converters
(Option 086)
Gain
• Characterizing amplifier or frequency converter compression over its operating frequency
range requires measurements at many frequency and power points, so setting up the
measurements, calibration, and data manipulation takes a lot of time and effort
• A variety of errors degrade measurement accuracy, such as mismatch between the test
port and the power sensor and DUT during absolute power measurements, and using linear
S-parameter error correction in nonlinear compression measurements
PNA-X gain compression application (GCA) provides:
• Fast and convenient measurements with SMART Sweep
• Highly accurate results using a guided calibration that provides power and
mismatch correction
• Complete device characterization with two-dimensional (2D) sweeps, with the choice
of sweeping power per frequency, or sweeping frequency per power
• Flexibility with a variety of compression methods—compression from linear gain, maximum
gain, X/Y compression, compression from back-off, or compression from saturation
Compression
point
Gain
Pin
Iteration point
Compression point
Pin
Frequency
Frequency
A network analyzer is commonly used for gain compression
measurements by performing power sweeps at multiple CW
frequencies. The PNA-X’s GCA makes it easy to characterize
compression over the DUT’s operating frequency range with
extreme speed and accuracy, and a simple setup.
Instead of a linear power sweep with many points, GCA’s
SMART Sweep uses an adaptive algorithm to find the desired
compression point at each frequency with just a few power
measurements, thus significantly reducing test times.
Using only power correction, incident
power at compression point exhibits
large ripple due to DUT mismatch
Measurement ripple is reduced with GCA
by using power and mismatch correction
Complete device response to 2D sweeps—gain versus frequency
and power—can be extracted for device modeling.
16
Available compression methods
The linear gain is measured using the specified
linear (input) power level. The compression
point is calculated as the linear gain minus the
specified compression level.
Linear gain
Compression
point
Specified compression level
Gain
Compression from linear gain
Input power
The highest gain value that is found at each
frequency is used as the max gain. The compression
point is calculated as the max gain minus the
specified compression level.
Max gain
Compression
point
Specified compression level
Gain
Compression from max gain
Input power
Compression from saturation
Gain
Specified compression level
Compression
point
Back off level
Input power
The output powers at two input powers that are
different with the specified delta X are compared.
The compression point is found as the highest
input power with the output power difference
of the specified delta Y.
Compression point
Delta Y
Output power
X/Y compression
The gains at two input powers that are different
with the specified back off level are compared.
The compression point is found as the highest input
power with the gain difference of the specified
compression level.
Delta X
Input power
The compression point is found at the highest
output power minus the value specified as
“From Max Pout”.
Highest output power
Output power
Compression from back off
From Max Pout
Input power
q.
Fre
Pin
Measured background data in
SMART Sweep with Safe Mode
Off (above) and On (below)—
more iterations are used
as the gain becomes closer
to the 1 dB compression point
with Safe Mode On, which
minimizes excess drive power.
Gain Compression
• Use the safe mode in SMART Sweep to
increment the input power first with coarse
and then with fine steps to prevent over
driving the DUT
• When the DUT’s hysteresis or thermal
effects are in doubt, it is recommended to
sweep frequency per power rather than
power per frequency, or to add dwell
time to lower the effects from previous
measurements
• Compression analysis capability extracts
the DUT response over the power range at
a specified frequency point on any of the
compression traces
• Use the CompAI1 and CompAI2 internal
voltmeter readings that are synchronized to
the compression point to measure poweradded efficiency (PAE) at compression for
each frequency
Gain Compression
Tips from the experts
Pin
17
q.
Fre
IMD measurement challenges
Innovative
Applications
Fast two-tone
intermodulation
distortion (IMD)
measurements
with simple setup
(Option 087)
Swept-frequency IMD
• Two signal generators, a spectrum analyzer, and an external
combiner are most commonly used, requiring manual
setup of all instruments and accessories
• Test times are slow when swept-frequency or
swept-power IMD is measured
• Instruments and test setups often cause significant
measurement errors due to source-generated
harmonics, cross-modulation, and phase noise,
plus receiver compression and noise floor
PNA-X with IMD application provides:
• Fast swept IMD measurements of amplifiers
and frequency converters, using internal
combiner and two internal sources
The PNA-X with IMD application
replaces two signal generators and a
• Quick and easy measurements with simplified
spectrum analyzer in the system rack,
hardware setup and intuitive user interface
simplifying the system configuration
• Guided calibration that simplifies the calibration
and increasing test throughput.
procedure and provides high measurement accuracy
• Spectrum analyzer mode for troubleshooting or making spurious measurements,
eliminating the need for a separate spectrum analyzer
• Very clean internal sources and wide receiver dynamic range, minimizing
the measurement errors caused by other instruments
Swept-power IMD
REAR PANEL
J11
J10
IMD application measures third order IMD
and IP3 at 201 frequency (or power) points
in a matter of seconds, compared to several
minutes using signal generators and a
spectrum analyzer.
J9
J8
J2
J7
J1
LO
Source 2
OUT 1
OUT 1
R1
OUT 2
To receivers
Pulse
modulator
Source 1
OUT 2
Pulse
modulator
Frequency
offset mode
R2
B
A
Test port 1
IM Spectrum
Source 2
Output 1
Source 2
Output 2
Test port 2
DUT
Frequency-offset mode is commonly
available in VNA’s, but conventional IF filter
responses exhibit high side lobes. The IM
Spectrum mode employs an optimized
digital IF filter and provides true spectrum
measurement capability in the PNA-X.
Two internal sources with high output power, wide ALC range, -60 dBc harmonics, and a
high-isolation combiner, make the PNA-X an ideal instrument to drive the DUT for two-tone
IMD measurements. Wide dynamic-range receivers with high compression points enable
accurate measurements of low-power IMD products while the higher power main tones
are present.
18
Swept IMD sweep types
Sweep fc
Sweep Delta F
Power Sweep
CW
Center
Frequency
Swept
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Tone
Spacing
Fixed
Swept
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Tone
Powers
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Diagram
Swept (coupled
or uncoupled)
LO Power Sweep
Segments
Swept (as defined
by segment table)
Delta F
Delta F
f1
fc
Delta F
f2
f1
fc
Delta F
Delta F
f2
f1
f1
fc
Delta F
Delta F
f2
f2
f1
fc
f1
f2
fc
f2
LO
f1 fc f2
f1
fc
Delta F
f2
f1
fc
f2
Tips from the experts
Cal all frequencies
Cal center frequencies
• Calibrate at all measurement frequencies or at center frequencies only, trading off
productivity and accuracy
• Let the PNA-X control external signal generators to greatly simplify swept IMD
measurements of mixers and converters
• Use the Marker to IM Spectrum feature to show the spectrum at a specified point
on the swept IMD trace
• Use point averaging with IM Spectrum, especially when using a wide resolution bandwidth, to reduce the noise deviation of the noise floor with minimum speed impact
Calibrating all frequencies is recommended for wide tone spacing.
Although the calibration takes longer with “all frequencies”,
measurement speed is not affected.
The IM Spectrum in the lower window shows the spectrum
corresponding to the Swept IMD marker at the center of the
trace in the upper window. Point averaging is applied to
the IM Spectrum to reduce the noise deviation.
IMD and IP3 versus LO power yields maximum IP3 with lowest
possible LO drive power. This helps specify the mixer setup to
achieve maximum efficiency while minimizing power consumption.
19
Mixer and converter measurement challenges
SMC+Phase
• Traditional approach with spectrum analyzer
and external signal sources is cumbersome,
slow, and does not provide phase or
group delay information
• Conventional VNAs require an external
signal source, which degrades sweep speed
• Conventional VNAs provide phase or group
delay data relative to a “golden” device
• Attenuators are often used to
minimize ripple due to input and output
mismatch, at the expense of dynamic Option 083’s Scalar Mixer/Converter plus Phase
(SMC+Phase) makes mixer and converter mearange and calibration stability
Innovative
Applications
Accurate
characterization
of mixers and
converters
surements simple to set up since reference and
calibration mixers are not required. Calibration is
easy to perform using three broadband standards:
a power meter as a magnitude standard, a comb
generator as a phase standard, and an S-parameter calibration kit (mechanical or ECal module).
(Options 082, 083, 084)
PNA-X frequency converter applications provide:
• Simple setup using internal second signal source as a local oscillator (LO) signal
• Typical measurement time improvement of 100x compared to spectrum analyzer-based
approach
• High measurement accuracy using two patented techniques:
- Scalar Mixer/Converter (SMC) provides match and most accurate conversion
loss/gain measurements by combining two-port and power-meter calibrations
(Option 082), and with Option 083, calibrated
absolute group delay measurements without a
reference or calibration mixer
VMC
- Vector Mixer/Converter (VMC) provides
measurements of match, conversion loss/gain,
delay, phase difference between multiple
paths or devices, and phase shifts
within a device, using a vectorReference
mixer
calibrated through mixer (Option 083)
• Input and output mismatch correction
reduces ripple and eliminates the need
for attenuators
• Embedded-LO feature (Option 084)
extends SMC and VMC measurements
to converters with embedded LOs
without access to internal time bases
Calibration
mixer/filter
DUT
The Vector Mixer/Converter technique provides
measurements of match, conversion loss/gain,
delay, phase difference between multiple paths
or devices, and phase shifts within a device.
Calibration mixer/filter pair
OPEN
IF -
SHORT
LOAD
RF
IF +
IF - = RF-LO
LO
20
Agilent’s patented Vector Mixer/Converter
calibration method uses open, short, and load
standards to create a characterized-mixer
through standard.
Swept LO
Fixed IF
Fixed LO
Swept IF
DUT
Both SMC and VMC can be used to
measure converters with embedded
LOs, without need for access to
internal time bases.
With two internal signal sources, the PNA-X provides fast measurements
of both fixed and swept IF responses.
SMC’s match correction greatly reduces mismatch errors in
conversion loss/gain measurements, eliminating the need for
attenuators at the ends of the test cables.
VMC’s match correction greatly reduces mismatch errors in
group delay measurements, eliminating the need for attenuators
at the ends of the test cables.
Tips from the experts
• Narrowing the IF bandwidth helps eliminate
spikes on the measurement trace that result
from LO feed through and other spurious signals
from the DUT
• To prevent source-unleveled errors when
measuring devices with high-level spurious
outputs (such as unfiltered mixers), it is often
helpful to increase the amount of source
attenuation to provide better isolation between
the DUT and the PNA-X
• When making VMC measurements on multistage converters, it is best to create a single
“meta-LO” signal that can be used to drive the
reference and calibration mixers
• When measuring unfiltered mixers, time-domain
gating can be a useful tool to reduce ripple by
removing undesired, time-delayed responses
due to spurious signals
Time-domain gating can remove ripple by removing unwanted,
time-delayed responses due to spurious signals.
21
Amplifier load-pull measurement challenges
Innovative
Applications
Control relative
magnitude and phase
between two sources
for active output-load
control
• Amplifier gain, output power, and power efficiency are commonly measured under different output-load conditions to determine the optimum large-signal match
• Traditional approach uses mechanical tuners which can handle high power, but are slow
and cannot supply highly reflective loads
PNA-X with source-phase control provides
• Control of second source to electronically tune reflection coefficient at output of amplifier
• Fast tuning speed and full reflection
• Match correction for accurate amplitude and phase control
• Measurements of amplifier output power, match, gain, and PAE under different load
conditions
(Option 088)
Generate arbitrary
output-load impedances
by controlling the magnitude and phase of the
signal coming out of port
3 while the DUT is driven
from port 1
Tips from the experts
• Measurement setups can use receiver (R3, C...) or wave
(a3, b3…) terminology
• Use the equation editor to calculate the power delivered to the load (forward power - reverse power) as
sqrt(pow(mag(b3_3),2) - pow(mag(a3_3),2))
• Use mechanical tuners and external software for hybrid
load-pull systems that can handle high output power and
achieve full reflection
• When using external signal sources, connect instruments to
a common 10 MHz frequency reference
Example of load circles generated by keeping the magnitude of
GL constant while sweeping phase
22
I/Q and differential converter measurement challenges
Innovative
Applications
Simplified test of I/Q
converters and modulators, and differential
mixers
(Option 089)
• Requires signals with 90% or 180% phase difference
• Traditional approach uses hybrid couplers and/or baluns which are:
• Inherently band-limited, requiring multiple components for broadband measurements
• Limited to fixed phase offsets, preventing phase sweeps to determine optimum alignment
• Lossy and inaccurate (+/- 3% to 12% typically)
• Difficult to use with on-wafer setups
PNA-X differential and I/Q devices application
• Provides accurate phase control of internal and external sources, eliminating the need for
hybrid couplers and baluns
• Tunes receivers to all user-specified output frequencies needed to fully characterize the DUT
• Sweeps frequency to measure operating bandwidth or sweeps phase and power at a fixed
frequency to measure quadrature or differential imbalance
• Includes match-corrected power measurements for highest accuracy
The I/Q inputs of this
modulator can be directly
driven with the internal
sources of the PNA-X,
eliminating the need for
a 90° hybrid coupler
Tips from the experts
• Two additional external sources can be used to create differential I/Q drive signals.
The external sources must be routed through the PNA-X test set to measurement
receivers in order to achieve the desired phase offsets.
• For I/Q modulators, DC power supplies or source-measurement units (SMUs) can
be routed through the bias tees to the I/Q inputs of the DUT. Voltage sweeps can
then be performed to help find the optimum I/Q-voltage offsets for the greatest
amount of LO suppression.
• Measure harmonics and total-harmonic distortion (THD) of differential amplifiers by
establishing a true-differential drive and tuning the PNA-X receivers to all desired
harmonics
• Measure compression of differential mixers using power sweeps
23
Differential amplifier measurement challenges
Innovative
Applications
Testing differential
amplifiers under
real operating
conditions
(Option 460)
• Conventional two-port VNAs with baluns do not provide
common-mode, differential to common-mode,
and common to differential-mode responses Differential
• Baluns are inherently band-limited devices, (180 out-of-phase)
which forces multiple test setups for broad
frequency coverage
• Phase errors of baluns provide inaccurate
Common
differential responses
(in-phase)
• Modern four-port VNAs provide mixed-mode
S-parameter measurements with singleended stimulus, but differential amplifiers
may respond differently when in compression
during real operating environments
PNA-X integrated true-mode stimulus
application (iTMSA) provides:
• Mixed-mode S-parameters of differential
amplifiers driven by true differential and
common-mode signals
• Mismatch correction at the DUT input to minimize
phase errors between two sources
• Input-only drive mode that prevents damage on
amplifiers caused by stimulus on the output port
• In-fixture arbitrary phase offset and phase-offset
sweeps to optimize input matching network for
maximum amplifier gain
3
4
1
2
Using the PNA-X’s two internal sources,
iTMSA drives the differential amplifier
under real world conditions, providing
accurate mixed-mode S-parameters
in all operating environments.
Mixed-mode S-parameters.
DUT
mismatch
Phase after mismatch correction
Phase without mismatch correction
Phase Error (Deg)
Source
mismatch
Amplitude error
Phase error
Frequency (Hz)
Without mismatch correction, the delivered signals to the DUT
will not be truly differential due to reflection from the DUT input
and the subsequent re-reflection from the sources. The reflected
signals overlay the original signals, causing phase and amplitude imbalance. This effect can be corrected with mismatch
correction.
iTMSA compensates for mismatch errors by measuring the
raw matches of the VNA and DUT, and precisely adjusting the
amplitude and phase of the two signals at the reference plane
to achieve ideal true-mode signals.
24
Actual Sdd21:
Peaked at -5 degree phase offset
Power or Gain
Ideal Sdd21:
peaked at 0 degree phase offset
3
4
Differential
-10 input power-5
0
+10
Phase Offset (degrees from perfect differential)
In-fixture phase-offset sweeps reveal the optimal phase offset to achieve the highest
amplifier gain, which is essential to the design of the input matching circuit.
1
2
Phase-offset sweeps change the phaseoffset value as if it were added in the
fixture, enabling input-matching circuit
validation.
Various stimulus and sweep settings are available in the Balanced DUT
Topology dialog, which allow you to set the right setup for your devices
characterization.
Tips from the experts
• Input-only true-mode drive assumes a perfect match between the DUT output and
the VNA’s test ports, which is a good assumption when the DUT’s reverse isolation
is high. When the reverse isolation is low, adding attenuators on the output port
improves the system match and reduces mismatch errors.
• When comparing the test results between single-ended and true-mode drive
conditions with the same effective delivered differential power, the individual port
powers with true-differential drive must be set 6 dB lower than the port powers
used with single-ended drive.
Single-ended drive
0 dBm port power = -3 dBm differential power + -3 dBm common-mode power
True differential drive
-3 dBm port power = -6 dBm port 1 single-ended power + -6 dBm port 3 single-ended power
25
Powerful AFR features can handle a variety of measurement needs
Innovative
Applications
Powerful, fast and
accurate automatic
fixture removal (AFR)
• Single ended and differential devices
• Left and right side of fixture can be asymmetrical
• Thru lengths can be specified or determined from open or short measurements
• Band-pass time-domain mode for band-limited devices
• Extrapolation to match DUT frequency range
• Power correction compensates for fixture loss versus frequency
• De-embed files can be saved in a variety of formats for later use in PNA, ADS, and PLTS
AFR is the fastest way to de-embed a fixture from the measurement
(Option 007)
Measurement Challenge:
Many of today’s devices do not
have coaxial connectors and are
put in fixtures in order to measure them in a coaxial environment. Accurately removing the
effects of the fixture is required
to get a good measurement of
the device under test (DUT).
A five-step wizard guides you through the process to characterize
your fixture and remove it from your measurement.
Yesterday without AFR
Complicated modeling in EM simulation software or multiple calibration standards fabricated
on board were needed to characterize and remove a fixture.
Today with AFR
First calibrate in coax with the reference planes at the inputs to your fixture. Then measure
one or more standards designed as a replica of the fixture’s 2-port thru, or fixture half terminated with an open or short.
Or, even faster: just measure the actual fixture itself before the DUT is installed for the open
standard. AFR automatically characterizes and removes your fixture from the measurement.
DUT and Fixture
coax
input
coax
input
left-half fixture
right-half fixture
Open or Short Standard
Thru Standard
coax
input
coax
input
left-half fixture right-half fixture
26
coax
input
coax
input
left-half fixture
right-half fixture
AFR accuracy is comparable to on-board TRL calibration, but much easier
to accomplish.
A relative comparison of various fixture error-correction methods
Measurement example
Beatty Standard DUT
In the plots below, the green trace is a measurement of a Beatty Standard DUT before AFR
fixture removal. The red trace is the DUT with AFR open-standard fixture removal. The blue
trace is the DUT with AFR thru-standard fixture removal. Fixture mismatch and length is
removed from the DUT measurements. Good correlation is shown between the AFR open- and
thru-standard fixture characterizations.
S11 and S21 in frequency domain
27
PNA-X’s unique hardware architecture provides:
• Two- and four-port solutions for measurements on a wide variety of single-ended and
balanced millimeter-wave devices
• True-mode differential measurements at millimeter-wave frequencies using two internal sources
• Fully integrated solution for millimeter-wave pulse measurements using built-in pulse
modulators, pulse generators, and receiver gates
• Accurate leveled power at millimeter-wave frequencies with advanced source-power
calibration methods
• Direct connection of terahertz modules driven by a 50 GHz PNA-X
• Single-sweep network analysis from 10 MHz to 110 GHz with full power-level control,
using the 67 GHz PNA-X and millimeter-wave extension modules
Innovative
Applications
Extending the
PNA-X to
millimeter-wave
frequencies
Two- and four-port configurations
The N5262A millimeter-wave test-set
controller connects four millimeter-wave
test modules to the PNA-X. For two-port
measurements, the N5261A millimeterwave test-set controller is available.
Four-port system architecture
Four-port single sweep 10 MHz to 110 GHz
PNA-X-based 110 GHz systems come in
two- and four-port versions, with powerlevel control, true-differential stimulus, and
the ability to measure frequency converters
with SMC. These systems are table-top
replacements for 8510XF systems, with
superior performance.
IF inputs
R
A
B
C
Terahertz measurements
D
LO
Source 2
OUT 1
Source 1
OUT 1
OUT 2
Pulse generators
OUT 2
1
2
3
4
R3
R1
R4
A
R2
B
D
C
Test Set
Interface
Test port 1
Test port 3
ALC
RF
Test port 4
IF outputs
Test port 2
ALC
ALC
RF
R
A
B
C
D
LO
Module Power
IF Multiplexer
+
-
R1 T1 R2 T2 R3 T3 R4 T4
M1
M3
M1
M2
M2
M3
M4
Direct connection of VDI modules to a
50 GHz PNA-X enables S-parameter
measurements to 1.05 THz.
M1 M2 M3 M4
Block diagram of a 4-port millimeter-wave system with
coherent source control of OML modules using the
N5262A millimeter-wave test-set controller.
M4
28
Integrated pulse measurements
Gain compression
The PNA-X’s internal pulse modulators create
pulsed-RF signals for the millimeter-wave
modules, making it easy to set up and perform pulsed millimeter-wave measurements.
Using calibrated source-power sweeps, the
PNA-X provides the most accurate millimeterwave gain-compression measurements
in the industry.
Pulse profile at 77 GHz using the
internal pulsed source and IF gates
of the PNA-X.
Example gain compression measurement
of a 75 to 110 GHz packaged PHEMT
transistor amplifier.
Scalar mixer measurements
True-mode differential measurements
at millimeter-wave frequencies
Millimeter-wave
applications
with the PNA-X
A two-module system can be used to
provide fundamental RF and LO signals
to a millimeter-wave mixer for conversion
loss measurements.
IF Output
1 GHz
• Highest measurement accuracy in the industry
using advanced error-correction methods
• Integrated phase sweeps with power control
3
4
1
2
LO Input
78 to 82 GHz
RF Input
77 to 81 GHz
DUT fundamental mixer
Two-module system.
True differential measurement of a
balanced LNA using a PNA-X, the N5262A
millimeter-wave test-set controller, and
four millimeter-wave test modules.
Tips from the experts
• Use a four-port N5262A test-set controller to configure two different two-port
waveguide-band setups.
• If you do not have a millimeter-wave power sensor, you can still create a power-calibration
table using the PNA-X’s internal reference receiver, for accurate relative source-power
changes of the millimeter test modules.
• For applications that don’t require a test-set controller, Agilent’s downloadable macro
makes it easy to configure direct-connection millimeter-wave setups.
29
High-power design challenges
Innovative
Applications
Nonlinear waveform
and X-parameter
characterization
• Active devices are commonly driven into nonlinear regions, often by design to increase power
efficiency, information capacity, and output power
• Under large-signal drive conditions, active devices distort time-domain waveforms,
generating harmonics, intermodulation distortion, and spectral regrowth
• Current circuit simulation tools that rely on S-parameters and limited nonlinear
behavioral models are no longer sufficient to fully analyze and predict nonlinear
behavior of devices and systems
• Fewer design iterations are
required to meet current
time-to-market demands
(Options 510, 514, 518,
and 520)
S-parameters in a nonlinear world
In the past, when designing systems with high-power amplifiers (HPAs), designers measured
amplifier S-parameters using a vector network analyzer, loaded the results into an RF simulator,
added other measured or modeled circuit elements, and then ran a simulation to predict system
performance such as gain and power-efficiency under various loads.
Since S-parameters assume that all elements in the system are linear, this approach does not
work well when attempting to simulate performance when the amplifier is in compression or
saturation, as real-world HPAs often are. The errors are particularly apparent when simulating the
combined performance of two cascaded devices that exhibit nonlinear behavior. While engineers
may live with this inaccuracy, it invariably results in extensive and costly empirical-based iterations
of the design, adding substantial time and cost to the design and verification process.
30
Breakthrough technology accurately characterizes nonlinear behaviors
Testing today’s high-power devices demands an alternate solution—one that quickly and
accurately measures and displays the device’s nonlinear behavior under large signal conditions,
and provides an accurate behavioral model that can be used for linear and nonlinear circuit
simulations. The Agilent nonlinear vector network analyzer (NVNA) and X-parameters*
provide that solution.
Agilent’s award-winning NVNA goes beyond S-parameters to:
• Efficiently and accurately analyze and design active devices and systems under real-world
operating conditions, to reduce design cycles by as much as 50%
• Gain valuable insight into device behavior with full nonlinear component characterization
(Option 510)
– Display calibrated time-domain waveforms of incident, reflected, and transmitted
waves of the DUT in coaxial, in-fixture, or on-wafer environments
– Show the amplitude and phase of all harmonic and distortion spectral products
to design optimal matching circuits
– Create user-defined displays such as dynamic load lines
– Measure with full traceability to the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST)
• Provide fast and powerful measurements of DUT nonlinear behavior using
X-parameters (Option 514)
– Extend linear S-parameters into nonlinear operating regions for accurate predictions
of cascaded nonlinear device behavior using measurement-based data
– Easily import the NVNA’s X-parameters into Agilent’s Advanced Design System (ADS) to
quickly and accurately simulate and design nonlinear components, modules and systems
• Measure memory effects such as self heating and signal-dependent bias changes
(Option 518)
• Capture complete load-dependent nonlinear component behavior with X-parameters
and external impedance tuners (Option 520)
Measure complete linear and nonlinear component behavior
with the Agilent NVNA, and then accurately perform
simulations and optimizations with Agilent’s Advanced
Design System.
*X-parameters is a registered trademark of Agilent Technologies.
Agilent’s NVNA software options and accessories
convert an Agilent 4-port PNA-X network analyzer into a
high-performance nonlinear vector network analyzer.
The X-parameter format and underlying equations are open
and documented. For more information, visit
http://www.agilent.com/find/eesof-x-parameters-info
31
Challenges of antenna and radar cross-section (RCS) measurements
Innovative
Applications
Fast and accurate
RF subsystem
for antenna
measurements
• Many data points must be collected, resulting in long test times
• Far-field and RCS measurements, signals can be close to the noise floor of the
test receiver, resulting in noisy measurements
• Large installed-software base exists for 8530A antenna receivers, which have been
discontinued and are no longer supported
AUT
Delta
elevation
Sum
Delta
Azimuth
Scanner controller
B/R2
Source 2 out
A/R2
PNA-X configured for
near-field measurements.
R1/R2
LAN
PNA-X
network analyzer
PNA-X-based antenna solutions provide:
• Flexibility in system design: choose a standard PNA-X or an N5264A low-cost
dedicated measurement receiver based on PNA-X hardware
• Fast measurements: 400,000 data points per second simultaneously on five receivers,
yielding three to five times improvement in test times compared to the 8530A
• Large data collections with 500 million point circular FIFO data buffer
• Excellent measurement sensitivity via selectable IF bandwidths and pointaveraging mode
• Built-in 8530A code emulation
for easy migration
Controller
Simplified transceiver
Isolation housing
RF cable
Gating PA
TR
PNA-X configured for radar
cross-section measurements.
Isolation housing
RF cable
32
Gating LNA
Customer
furnished
antenna
RF cable
Why should I migrate my 8530A system to the new
PNA-X measurement receiver?
• 8530A is no longer supported, so maintaining existing systems is getting
harder and harder
• PNA-X measurement receiver…
– Offers built-in 8530A code emulation for full reuse of existing
measurement software
– Is fully compatible with your existing 8530A system components
– Features 80 times improvement in data acquisition time
– Contains an optional built-in high-output power source (Option 108) that can
be used as an LO for remote mixers or frequency converters
What is the best choice for an antenna receiver?
Application
N5264A
measurement
receiver
N524xA
PNA-X
Comments
Near-field
No
(requires
external source)
Yes
Achieve faster measurement throughput
with internal source
Can use VNA for general-purpose component test
Compact
range
Yes
Yes
Choice depends on the size of the antenna range
Far-field
Yes
No
(higher cost)
Distributed approach increases measurement sensitivity
by strategic placement of system components
Pulsed RF
No
Yes
PNA-X offers built-in pulse generators and modulators
that simplify the system configuration
Optional
amplifier
Source
antenna
85320A
test mixer
Trigger in/out
PSG or MXG
signal
source
85320B
reference mixer
LO in
7.606
MHz
LO out (Opt. 108)
Router hub
10 MHz
Trigger in/out
PNA-X measurement receiver
configured for far-field measurements
(PNA-X Option 020 with IF inputs
can also be used).
33
N5264A Opt. 108
85309B
LO/IF
distribution
unit Innovative
Applications
Tips from the experts
Fast and accurate
RF subsystem
for antenna
measurements
continued
How can I control
external sources?
1. Connect PNA-X to source via LAN or GPIB
2. Use External Device Configuration feature
3. Under Properties section:
– Type name of external source, change Device Type to Source, and choose
appropriate driver
– Under Device Properties, choose between two trigger modes:
Software CW (trigger cables not needed, but slow), or Hardware List
(fast, but requires TTL triggers)
– When distance between PNA-X and source is too far to use
BNC trigger cables (> 40 meters), then Agilent E5818A trigger box
with LAN hub offers good alternative
How do I get a common 10 MHz
reference signal to my source and PNA-X
when it’s too far to use BNC cables?
• Use low-cost GPS-based satellite
receivers to obtain high-accuracy
10 MHz reference signals
• Place a GPS receiver near transmit
source, and one near the PNA-X
• This approach works for arbitrary
distances, from 100’s of meters
to many kilometers
GPS
receiver
GPS
receiver
10 MHz in
10 MHz in
Agilent N5181A
34
Agilent N5264A
Outstanding Performance
Specification and Feature Comparison
N5249A
N5241A
N5242A
N5244A
N5245A
N5247A
Frequency range
10 MHz to 8.5 GHz
10 MHz to 13.5 GHz
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
N5244A 10 MHz to 43.5 GHz
N5245A 10 MHz to 50 GHz
10 MHz to 67 GHz
System
dynamic range
(at 20 GHz)
121 to 130 dB
depending on configuration
124 to 141 dB
with direct receiver access (typical)
121 to 125 dB
depending on configuration
133 to 137 dB
with direct receiver access (typical)
122 to 129 dB
depending on configuration
136 to 140 dB
with direct receiver access (typical)
Maximum output
power at test port
(at 20 GHz)
+13 dBm
+10 dBm
-+15 dBm
-+10 dBm
+13 dBm (Option 200, 400)
+10 dBm (Option 219, 419)
+10 dBm (Option 224, 423)
+11 dBm (Option 200, 400)
+8 dBm (Option 219, 419)
+7 dBm (Option 224, 423)
(Option 200, 400)
(Option 219, 419)
(Option 224)
(Option 423)
Maximum power
sweep range
Corrected
specifications1
38 dB
(2-port cal, 3.5 mm)
Dir 44 to 48 dB
SM 31 to 40 dB
LM 44 to 48 dB
Refl trk +/-0.003 to 0.006 dB
Trans trk +/-0.015 to 0.104 dB
(2-port cal, 2.4 mm)
Dir 36 to 42 dB
SM 31 to 41 dB
LM 35 to 42 dB
Refl trk +/-0.001 to 0.027 dB
Trans trk +/-0.020 to 0.182 dB
0.002 dB rms (1 kHz BW)
Trace noise
Harmonics
10 MHz to 2 GHz
> 2 GHz
1
-51 dBc typical
-60 dBc typical
Dir = directivity; SM = source match; LM = load match; Refl trk= reflection tracking; Trans trk = transmission tracking
35
(2-port, 1.85 mm)
Dir 34 to 41 dB
SM 34 to 44 dB
LM 33 to 41
Refl trk 0.01 to 0.33
Trans trk 0.061 to 0.17 dB
PNA-X Configuration Information
PNA-X Network Analyzers
Available options
Description
Additional information
2-ports, single source
2-ports, add internal 2nd source,
combiner and mechanical switches
4-ports, dual source
4-ports, add internal combiner and
mechanical switches
Requires Options 200, one of 219
or H85, and 080
Option 080 recommended
Requires Options 400, one of 419
or H85, and 080
Test set
Option 200
Option 224
Option 400
Option 423
Power configuration
Option 219
Option 419
Option H851
2-ports, extended powerrange and bias-tees
4-ports, extended power range and bias-tees
High power configurable (for 2- or 4-port)
Measurement applications
Option 007
Automatic fixture removal
Option 010
Time-domain measurements
Windows 7 OS required (upgrade kit N8983A) and N52xxAU-007
Option 028 2
Noise figure measurements using standard receivers
Option 0292
Fully-corrected noise figure measurements
Requires Option 082 or 083 for
measuring frequency converters
Requires Option 080 and for N5241/42A, one of Options 219, 224, 419, 423 or H85. For N5244/45/47A,
requires Option 224 or 423. On N5247A, noise receivers work up to 50 GHz only. For measuring frequency
converters, requires Option 082 or 083.
Option 080
Option 0823
Option 0833
Requires Option 080
Requires Option 080
Option 084
Frequency offset
Scalar-calibrated converter measurements
Vector- and scalar-calibrated converter
measurements
Embedded LO measurements
Option 086
Option 087
Gain compression application
Intermodulation distortion application
Option 088
Option 460
Option 5514
Source phase control
Integrated true-mode stimulus application
N-port capabilities
Requires at least one of Options
028, 029, 082, 083, 086, or 087
Recommend Options 219, 419 or H85 and for measuring frequency converters, requires Option 082 or 083
Requires Options 224 or 423 and for measuring frequency converters, requires Option 082 or 083
Requires Option 400
Nonlinear vector network analysis
Option 510
Nonlinear component characterization
Requires Options 419 and 080,
or 400, H85 and 080
Option 514
Nonlinear X-parameters5
Requires Options 423 and 510
Option 518
Nonlinear pulse envelope domain
Requires Options 021 and 025
and either one of 510 or 514
Option 520
Arbitrary load-impedance X-parameters
Requires Option 514
Required NVNA accessories
•U9391C10MHzto26.5GHzorU9391F10MHzto50GHzcombgenerator(tworequiredfornonlinearmeasurements)
•AgilentpowermeterandsensororUSBpowersensor
•Agilentcalibrationkit,mechanicalorECal
•Agilentsignalgenerator,MXGorPSGusedforX-parameterextraction(internal10MHzreferenceoutputcanbeusedfor10MHztonespacingapplications)
1. Order special model N524xAS instead of N524xA and add items N524xA-200 and
3. Option 082 is a subset of Option 083; therefore, they cannot be ordered together.
N524xAS-H85 for 2-port, extended power range, high power configuration, or items
N524xA-400 and N524xAS-H85 for 4-port, extended power range, high power configura- 4. When configured as a multiport analyzer using Option 551 and a multiport test set, the
combiner feature of Option 224 or 423 is temporarily disabled. When configured as a
tion. Order N524xA-xxx items for other standard options. Option H85 includes the extended
standalone analyzer, the combiner feature is enabled. When ordering a test set, select an
power range of Options 219 and 419, and therefore, they cannot be ordered together.
option to specify the appropriate interconnect jumper cable set between the analyzer and
2. For source-corrected measurements, Options 028 and 029 on N5241/42/49A units require
the test set.
an ECal module for use as an impedance tuner. N5244/45/47A units include a built-in
tuner. For calibration, Options 029 requires either a 346-series noise source (Agilent 346C 5. X-parameters is a trademark of Agilent Technologies
recommended) or a power meter, while Option 028 requires a power meter. All options
require a power meter for measuring mixers and converters.
36
PNA-X Configuration Information
PNA-X Network Analyzers
Available options, continued
Description
Pulse, antenna, mm-wave
Additional information
Option 008
Pulsed-RF measurements
Requires Option 025
Option 020
Add IF inputs for antenna and mm-wave
Option 021
Add pulse modulator to internal 1st source
Option 022
Add pulse modulator tointernal 2nd source
Option 025
Add four internal pulsegenerators
Option 118
Fast CW sweep
Requires Option 224 or 400
Accessories
Option 1CM
Rack mount kit for use without handles
Option 1CP
Rack mount kit for use with handles
Calibration software
Option 8971
Perpetual license for built-in performance test software
forAgilent inclusive calibration
Option 8981
Perpetual license for built-in performance test software
for standards compliant calibration
Calibration documentation
Option 1A7
ISO 17025 compliant calibration
Option UK6
Commercial calibration certificate with test data
Option A6J
ANSI Z540 compliant calibration
1. Additional hardware required. Please refer to the analyzer’s Service Guide for required service test equipment.
Additional Information
Download the latest PNA-X application notes:
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37
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