ZyXEL Communications VSG1432 User`s guide

ZyXEL Communications VSG1432 User`s guide
VSG1432-B101 Series
802.11n Wireless VDSL2 4-port Gateway
Default Login Details
IP Address
http://192.168.1.1
User Name
admin
Password
1234
Firmware Version 1.10
Edition 1, 11/2010
www.zyxel.com
www.zyxel.com
Copyright © 2010
ZyXEL Communications Corporation
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the ZyXEL Device using
the web configurator. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP
networking concepts and topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It
contains information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet
access.
• Support Disc
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and
product certifications.
Documentation Feedback
Send your comments, questions or suggestions to: [email protected]
Thank you!
The Technical Writing Team, ZyXEL Communications Corp.,
6 Innovation Road II, Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu, 30099, Taiwan.
Need More Help?
More help is available at www.zyxel.com.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
3
About This User's Guide
• Download Library
Search for the latest product updates and documentation from this link. Read
the Tech Doc Overview to find out how to efficiently use the User Guide, Quick
Start Guide and Command Line Interface Reference Guide in order to better
understand how to use your product.
• Knowledge Base
If you have a specific question about your product, the answer may be here.
This is a collection of answers to previously asked questions about ZyXEL
products.
• Forum
This contains discussions on ZyXEL products. Learn from others who use ZyXEL
products and share your experiences as well.
Customer Support
In the event of problems that cannot be solved by using this manual, you should
contact your vendor. If you cannot contact your vendor, then contact a ZyXEL
office for the region in which you bought the device. See http://www.zyxel.com/
web/contact_us.php for contact information. Please have the following information
ready when you contact an office.
• Product model and serial number.
• Warranty Information.
• Date that you received your device.
• Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
Disclaimer
Graphics in this book may differ slightly from the product due to differences in
operating systems, operating system versions, or if you installed updated
firmware/software for your device. Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate.
4
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Note: Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The VSG1432-B101 may be referred to as the “ZyXEL Device”, the “device”, the
“system” or the “product” in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example,
[ENTER] means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the
[ENTER] key. “Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined
choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For
example, Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click
Maintenance in the navigation panel, then the Log sub menu and finally the
Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value.
For example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may
denote “1000000” or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other
words”.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
5
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The ZyXEL Device
icon is not an exact representation of your device.
6
ZyXEL Device
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
Firewall
Telephone
Router
Switch
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should
service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device.
• Connect the power adaptor or cord to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in
North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power
source.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.
• Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
• Use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger telecommunication line cord.
• Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when using
the included antenna(s). Only use the included antenna(s).
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark. WEEE
stands for Waste Electronics and Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical
and electronic products should not be mixed with general waste. Used electrical and
electronic equipment should be treated separately.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
7
Safety Warnings
8
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
User’s Guide ........................................................................................................................... 21
Introducing the VSG1432-B101 ................................................................................................. 23
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................... 33
Quick Start ................................................................................................................................. 41
Tutorials ..................................................................................................................................... 43
Technical Reference .............................................................................................................. 67
Network Map and Status Screens ............................................................................................. 69
Broadband ................................................................................................................................. 75
Wireless ..................................................................................................................................... 91
Home Networking .................................................................................................................... 127
Static Routing .......................................................................................................................... 147
Quality of Service (QoS) .......................................................................................................... 151
Policy Forwarding .................................................................................................................... 171
Network Address Translation (NAT) ........................................................................................ 175
Dynamic DNS Setup ................................................................................................................ 193
IGMP ....................................................................................................................................... 199
Interface Group .........................................................................................................................211
Firewall .................................................................................................................................... 215
MAC Filter ................................................................................................................................ 225
Parental Control ....................................................................................................................... 227
Scheduler Rules ...................................................................................................................... 231
Certificates ............................................................................................................................... 233
IPSec ....................................................................................................................................... 245
Service Control ........................................................................................................................ 265
ARP Table ................................................................................................................................ 267
Logs ........................................................................................................................................ 269
Traffic Status ........................................................................................................................... 273
IGMP Status ........................................................................................................................... 279
Users Configuration ................................................................................................................. 283
Remote Management .............................................................................................................. 287
Time Settings ........................................................................................................................... 291
Logs Setting ............................................................................................................................ 295
Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................... 299
Configuration ........................................................................................................................... 301
Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................ 305
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 307
Product Specifications ............................................................................................................. 315
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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Contents Overview
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VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide .......................................................................................................... 3
Document Conventions............................................................................................................ 5
Safety Warnings........................................................................................................................ 7
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 9
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... 11
Part I: User’s Guide................................................................................ 21
Chapter 1
Introducing the VSG1432-B101 ............................................................................................. 23
1.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 23
1.2 Ways to Manage the ZyXEL Device .................................................................................... 23
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the ZyXEL Device ..................................................................... 23
1.4 Applications for the ZyXEL Device ..................................................................................... 24
1.4.1 Internet Access .......................................................................................................... 24
1.4.2 ZyXEL Device’s USB Support .................................................................................... 25
1.5 Hardware Setup ................................................................................................................... 26
1.6 Hardware Connections ........................................................................................................ 28
1.7 LEDs (Lights) ....................................................................................................................... 29
1.8 The RESET Button .............................................................................................................. 31
1.9 Wireless Access .................................................................................................................. 31
1.9.1 Using the WLAN/WPS Button .................................................................................... 31
Chapter 2
The Web Configurator ............................................................................................................ 33
2.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 33
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator ................................................................................ 33
2.2 Web Configurator Layout ..................................................................................................... 36
2.2.1 Title Bar ...................................................................................................................... 36
2.2.2 Main Window .............................................................................................................. 37
2.2.3 Navigation Panel ........................................................................................................ 37
Chapter 3
Quick Start ............................................................................................................................... 41
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 41
3.2 Quick Start Setup ................................................................................................................. 41
Chapter 4
Tutorials ................................................................................................................................... 43
4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 43
4.2 Setting Up an ADSL PPPoE Connection ............................................................................. 43
4.3 Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network ............................................................................... 46
4.3.1 Configuring the Wireless Network Settings ................................................................ 46
4.3.2 Using WPS ................................................................................................................. 48
4.3.3 Without WPS .............................................................................................................. 52
4.4 Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups ................................................................................... 53
4.5 Setting Up NAT Port Forwarding ......................................................................................... 56
4.6 Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another Network ................................................... 58
4.7 Configuring QoS Queue and Class Setup ........................................................................... 60
4.8 Access the ZyXEL Device Using DDNS .............................................................................. 63
4.8.1 Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org .................................................... 64
4.8.2 Configuring DDNS on Your ZyXEL Device ................................................................. 64
4.8.3 Testing the DDNS Setting .......................................................................................... 65
4.9 Access Your Shared Files From a Computer ...................................................................... 65
Part II: Technical Reference .................................................................. 67
Chapter 5
Network Map and Status Screens ......................................................................................... 69
5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 69
5.2 The Network Map Screen .................................................................................................... 69
5.3 The Status Screen ............................................................................................................... 71
Chapter 6
Broadband ............................................................................................................................... 75
6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 75
6.1.1 What You Need to Know ............................................................................................ 75
6.1.2 Before You Begin ....................................................................................................... 76
6.2 The Broadband Screen ....................................................................................................... 77
6.2.1 Add/Edit Broadband ................................................................................................... 78
6.2.2 PPPoE Encapsulation ................................................................................................ 78
6.3 Technical Reference ............................................................................................................ 86
6.3.1 Encapsulation ............................................................................................................. 86
6.3.2 Multiplexing ................................................................................................................ 87
6.3.3 VPI and VCI ............................................................................................................... 87
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Table of Contents
6.3.4 IP Address Assignment .............................................................................................. 87
6.3.5 NAT ............................................................................................................................ 88
6.3.6 Traffic Shaping ........................................................................................................... 88
6.3.7 ATM Traffic Classes ................................................................................................... 89
6.3.8 Introduction to VLANs ............................................................................................... 89
Chapter 7
Wireless ................................................................................................................................... 91
7.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 91
7.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .............................................................................. 91
7.1.2 What You Need to Know ............................................................................................ 92
7.2 The General Screen ........................................................................................................... 92
7.2.1 No Security ................................................................................................................. 95
7.2.2 Basic (WEP Encryption) ............................................................................................. 96
7.2.3 More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK) ...................................................................................... 98
7.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication ............................................................................................... 99
7.3 The More AP Screen ......................................................................................................... 101
7.3.1 Edit More AP ........................................................................................................... 102
7.4 MAC Authentication ........................................................................................................... 103
7.5 The WPS Screen ............................................................................................................... 105
7.6 The WMM Screen .............................................................................................................. 106
7.7 The WDS Screen ............................................................................................................... 107
7.7.1 WDS Scan ................................................................................................................ 109
7.8 The Others Screen .............................................................................................................110
7.9 Technical Reference ...........................................................................................................111
7.9.1 Wireless Network Overview ......................................................................................111
7.9.2 Additional Wireless Terms .........................................................................................113
7.9.3 Wireless Security Overview ......................................................................................114
7.9.4 Signal Problems ........................................................................................................117
7.9.5 BSS ...........................................................................................................................117
7.9.6 MBSSID ....................................................................................................................118
7.9.7 Preamble Type ..........................................................................................................119
7.9.8 Wireless Distribution System (WDS) .........................................................................119
7.9.9 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) .................................................................................... 120
Chapter 8
Home Networking ................................................................................................................. 127
8.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 127
8.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ............................................................................ 127
8.1.2 What You Need To Know ......................................................................................... 128
8.1.3 Before You Begin ..................................................................................................... 129
8.2 The LAN Setup Screen ...................................................................................................... 130
8.3 The Static DHCP Screen ................................................................................................... 132
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Table of Contents
8.4 The UPnP Screen .............................................................................................................. 133
8.5 Installing UPnP in Windows Example ................................................................................ 134
8.6 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example ............................................................................... 137
8.7 Technical Reference .......................................................................................................... 142
8.7.1 LANs, WANs and the ZyXEL Device ........................................................................ 143
8.7.2 DHCP Setup ............................................................................................................. 143
8.7.3 DNS Server Addresses ............................................................................................ 143
8.7.4 LAN TCP/IP .............................................................................................................. 144
Chapter 9
Static Routing........................................................................................................................ 147
9.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................... 147
9.2 The Routing Screen ........................................................................................................... 148
9.2.1 Add/Edit Static Route .............................................................................................. 149
Chapter 10
Quality of Service (QoS)....................................................................................................... 151
10.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 151
10.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 151
10.2 What You Need to Know .................................................................................................. 152
10.3 The Quality of Service General Screen .......................................................................... 153
10.4 The Queue Setup Screen ................................................................................................ 154
10.4.1 Adding a QoS Queue ............................................................................................ 156
10.5 The Class Setup Screen ................................................................................................. 157
10.5.1 Add/Edit QoS Class .............................................................................................. 159
10.6 The QoS Policer Setup Screen ....................................................................................... 163
10.6.1 Add/Edit a QoS Policer ......................................................................................... 164
10.7 The QoS Monitor Screen ................................................................................................ 165
10.8 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 166
Chapter 11
Policy Forwarding................................................................................................................. 171
11.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 171
11.2 The Policy Forwarding Screen ......................................................................................... 171
11.2.1 Add/Edit Policy Forwarding
.................................................................................. 172
Chapter 12
Network Address Translation (NAT).................................................................................... 175
12.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 175
12.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 175
12.1.2 What You Need To Know ....................................................................................... 175
12.2 The Port Forwarding Screen .......................................................................................... 176
12.2.1 Add/Edit Port Forwarding ...................................................................................... 178
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Table of Contents
12.3 The Applications Screen .................................................................................................. 179
12.3.1 Add New Application .............................................................................................. 180
12.4 The Port Triggering Screen ............................................................................................. 181
12.4.1 Add/Edit Port Triggering Rule ................................................................................ 183
12.5 The DMZ Screen ............................................................................................................. 185
12.6 The ALG Screen .............................................................................................................. 186
12.7 The Sessions Screen ...................................................................................................... 186
12.8 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 187
12.8.1 NAT Definitions ...................................................................................................... 187
12.8.2 What NAT Does ..................................................................................................... 188
12.8.3 How NAT Works ..................................................................................................... 189
12.8.4 NAT Application ...................................................................................................... 190
Chapter 13
Dynamic DNS Setup ............................................................................................................. 193
13.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 193
13.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 194
13.1.2 What You Need To Know ....................................................................................... 194
13.2 The DNS Entry Screen .................................................................................................... 195
13.2.1 Add/Edit DNS Entry ................................................................................................ 196
13.3 The Dynamic DNS Screen .............................................................................................. 196
Chapter 14
IGMP....................................................................................................................................... 199
14.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 199
14.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 199
14.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 199
14.2 The IGMP General Screen .............................................................................................. 202
14.3 IGMP Filter Configuration ................................................................................................ 204
14.3.1 IGMP Host Limitation Edit ...................................................................................... 206
14.3.2 IGMP Service Add .................................................................................................. 207
14.3.3 IGMP Host Limitation Add ...................................................................................... 208
14.4 IGMP ACL Configuration ................................................................................................. 209
14.4.1 IGMP ACL Add ....................................................................................................... 210
Chapter 15
Interface Group ..................................................................................................................... 211
15.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................211
15.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ...........................................................................211
15.2 The Interface Group Screen .............................................................................................211
15.2.1 Interface Group Configuration ................................................................................ 213
Chapter 16
Firewall................................................................................................................................... 215
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Table of Contents
16.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 215
16.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 215
16.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 216
16.2 The Firewall Screen ......................................................................................................... 217
16.3 The Protocol Screen ....................................................................................................... 217
16.3.1 Add a Protocol ...................................................................................................... 219
16.4 The Access Control Screen ............................................................................................. 220
16.4.1 Add/Edit an ACL Rule
.......................................................................................... 222
Chapter 17
MAC Filter .............................................................................................................................. 225
17.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 225
17.2 The MAC Filter Screen .................................................................................................... 225
Chapter 18
Parental Control .................................................................................................................... 227
18.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 227
18.2 The Parental Control Screen ........................................................................................... 227
18.2.1 Add/Edit Parental Control Rule .............................................................................. 228
Chapter 19
Scheduler Rules.................................................................................................................... 231
19.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 231
19.2 The Scheduler Rules Screen ........................................................................................... 231
19.2.1 Add/Edit a Schedule ............................................................................................... 232
Chapter 20
Certificates ............................................................................................................................ 233
20.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 233
20.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 233
20.2 What You Need to Know .................................................................................................. 233
20.3 The Local Certificates Screen ......................................................................................... 234
20.3.1 Create Certificate Request .................................................................................... 235
20.3.2 Load Signed Certificate ......................................................................................... 236
20.3.3 Import Certificate ................................................................................................... 237
20.3.4 Certificate Details .................................................................................................. 239
20.4 The Trusted CA Screen ................................................................................................... 241
20.4.1 View Trusted CA Certificate ................................................................................... 242
20.4.2 Import Trusted CA Certificate ................................................................................. 243
Chapter 21
IPSec ...................................................................................................................................... 245
21.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 245
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VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Table of Contents
21.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 245
21.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 246
21.2 The IPSec Status Screen ............................................................................................... 247
21.3 The IPSec Settings Screen ............................................................................................ 248
21.3.1 Add/Edit IPSec Setting .......................................................................................... 249
21.3.2 Configuring Manual Key ........................................................................................ 254
21.4 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 256
21.4.1 IPSec Architecture ................................................................................................. 257
21.4.2 Encapsulation ......................................................................................................... 258
21.4.3 IKE Phases ........................................................................................................... 259
21.4.4 Negotiation Mode ................................................................................................... 260
21.4.5 IPSec and NAT ....................................................................................................... 260
21.4.6 VPN, NAT, and NAT Traversal ............................................................................... 261
21.4.7 ID Type and Content .............................................................................................. 262
21.4.8 Pre-Shared Key ...................................................................................................... 263
21.4.9 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups ............................................................................ 264
Chapter 22
Service Control ..................................................................................................................... 265
22.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 265
22.2 The Service Control Screen ............................................................................................ 265
Chapter 23
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................. 267
23.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 267
23.1.1 How ARP Works .................................................................................................... 267
23.2 ARP Table Screen ........................................................................................................... 268
Chapter 24
Logs ...................................................................................................................................... 269
24.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 269
24.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 269
24.1.2 What You Need To Know ....................................................................................... 269
24.2 The System Log Screen .................................................................................................. 270
24.3 The Security Log Screen ................................................................................................. 271
Chapter 25
Traffic Status ........................................................................................................................ 273
25.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 273
25.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 273
25.2 The WAN Status Screen .................................................................................................. 274
25.3 The LAN Status Screen ................................................................................................... 276
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
Chapter 26
IGMP Status .......................................................................................................................... 279
26.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 279
26.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 279
26.2 The IGMP Group Screen ................................................................................................. 279
26.3 IGMP Statistics Screen .................................................................................................... 280
Chapter 27
Users Configuration ............................................................................................................. 283
27.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 283
27.2 The Users Configuration Screen ..................................................................................... 283
27.2.1 Add/Edit a Users Account ..................................................................................... 285
Chapter 28
Remote Management............................................................................................................ 287
28.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 287
28.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter .......................................................................... 287
28.2 The TR-069 Clients Screen ............................................................................................. 287
28.3 The TR-064 Screen ......................................................................................................... 289
Chapter 29
Time Settings ........................................................................................................................ 291
29.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 291
29.2 The Time Setting Screen ................................................................................................ 291
Chapter 30
Logs Setting ......................................................................................................................... 295
30.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 295
30.2 The Log Settings Screen ................................................................................................. 295
30.2.1 Example E-mail Log ............................................................................................... 297
Chapter 31
Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................ 299
31.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 299
31.2 The Firmware Screen ...................................................................................................... 299
Chapter 32
Configuration ........................................................................................................................ 301
32.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 301
32.2 The Configuration Screen ................................................................................................ 301
32.3 The Reboot Screen ......................................................................................................... 304
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VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Chapter 33
Diagnostic.............................................................................................................................. 305
33.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 305
33.2 The Diagnostic Screen .................................................................................................... 305
Chapter 34
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 307
34.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ...................................................................... 307
34.2 ZyXEL Device Access and Login .................................................................................... 308
34.3 Internet Access ................................................................................................................ 310
34.4 Wireless Internet Access ................................................................................................. 312
Chapter 35
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 315
35.1 Hardware Specifications .................................................................................................. 315
35.2 Firmware Specifications ................................................................................................... 316
Appendix A Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 321
Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 345
Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ...................................... 355
Appendix D Wireless LANs .................................................................................................. 365
Appendix E Services ............................................................................................................ 381
Appendix F Open Software Announcements ....................................................................... 385
Appendix G Legal Information.............................................................................................. 397
Index....................................................................................................................................... 401
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
P ART I
User’s Guide
21
22
CHAPTER
1
Introducing the VSG1432-B101
1.1 Overview
The VSG1432-B101 is a wireless VDSL router and Gigabit Ethernet gateway. It has
a DSL port and a Gigabit Ethernet port for super-fast Internet access over analog
(POTS) telephone lines. The ZyXEL Device supports both Packet Transfer Mode
(PTM) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). It is backward compatible with
ADSL, ADSL2 and ADSL2+ in case VDSL is not available.
Only use firmware for your ZyXEL Device’s specific model. Refer
to the label on the bottom of your ZyXEL Device.
The ZyXEL Device has a a USB port used to share files via a USB memory stick or
a USB hard drive.
See Chapter 35 on page 315 for a full list of features.
1.2 Ways to Manage the ZyXEL Device
Use any of the following methods to manage the ZyXEL Device.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the ZyXEL
Device using a (supported) web browser.
• TR-069. This is an auto-configuration server used to remotely configure your
device.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the ZyXEL Device
Do the following things regularly to make the ZyXEL Device more secure and to
manage the ZyXEL Device more effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists
of different types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
23
Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it).
Restoring an earlier working configuration may be useful if the device becomes
unstable or even crashes. If you forget your password, you will have to reset the
ZyXEL Device to its factory default settings. If you backed up an earlier
configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the ZyXEL Device.
You could simply restore your last configuration.
1.4 Applications for the ZyXEL Device
Here are some example uses for which the ZyXEL Device is well suited.
1.4.1 Internet Access
Your ZyXEL Device provides shared Internet access by connecting the DSL port to
the DSL or MODEM jack on a splitter or your telephone jack. You can have up to
five WAN services over one ADSL, VDSL or Ethernet WAN line. The ZyXEL Device
cannot work in ADSL, VDSL and Ethernet WAN mode at the same time.
Note: The ADSL, VDSL and Ethernet WAN lines share the same five WAN (layer-2)
interfaces that you configure in the ZyXEL Device. Refer to Section 6.2 on page
77 for the Network Settings> Broadband screen.
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VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
Computers can connect to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN ports (or wirelessly).
Figure 1 ZyXEL Device’s Internet Access Application
WLAN
WAN
Bridging
IPoE
PPPoE
ADSL / VDSL
LAN
A
WLAN
WAN
IPoA / PPPoA
LAN
ADSL
A
WLAN
WAN
Bridging
IPoE
PPPoE
LAN
Ethernet
A
DSL
You can also configure IP filtering on the ZyXEL Device for secure Internet access.
When the IP filter is on, all incoming traffic from the Internet to your network is
blocked by default unless it is initiated from your network. This means that probes
from the outside to your network are not allowed, but you can safely browse the
Internet and download files.
1.4.2 ZyXEL Device’s USB Support
The USB port of the ZyXEL Device is used for file-sharing.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
File Sharing
Use the built-in USB 2.0 port to share files on a USB memory stick or a USB hard
drive (B). You can connect one USB hard drive to the ZyXEL Device at a time. Use
FTP to access the files on the USB device.
Figure 2 USB File Sharing Application
B
A
1.5 Hardware Setup
Place the ZyXEL Device flat on a desk or table or on the stand for a vertical
installation.
Remove the ZyXEL Device’s clear plastic covers before using it.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
To connect the stand, line up the arrow on the stand with the arrow on the bottom
of the device as shown.
Figure 3 Connecting the Stand
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
1.6 Hardware Connections
To connect your ZyXEL Device:
Figure 4 Hardware Connections
1
5
4
3
2
28
1
Attach the antenna and point it up.
2
Do one of the following for your Internet connection:
2a
DSL WAN: Use a telephone cable to connect your ZyXEL Device’s DSL WAN
port to a telephone jack (or the DSL or modem jack on a splitter if you have
one).
2b
ETHERNET WAN: If you already have a broadband router or modem, use an
Ethernet cable to connect the ETHERNET WAN port to it for Internet access.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
3
LAN: Use an Ethernet cable to connect a computer to a LAN port for initial
configuration and/or Internet access.
4
USB: Connect a USB (version 2.0 or lower) memory stick or a USB hard drive for
file sharing. Use a USB extension cable if the stick is too big to fit.
5
POWER: Use the provided power adaptor to connect the POWER socket to an
appropriate power source. Make sure the power at the outlet is on. After
connecting the power adaptor, look at the lights on the front panel.
1.7 LEDs (Lights)
The following graphic displays the labels of the LEDs.
Figure 5 LEDs on the Device
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
None of the LEDs are on if the ZyXEL Device is not receiving power.
Table 1 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR STATUS DESCRIPTION
POWER
Green
Red
ETHERNET
1-4
ETHERNET
WAN
USB
DSL WAN
INTERNET
Green
Green
Green
Green
Green
On
The ZyXEL Device is receiving power and ready for use.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is self-testing.
On
The ZyXEL Device detected an error while self-testing,
or there is a device malfunction.
Off
The ZyXEL Device is not receiving power.
Blinking
Firmware upgrade is in progress.
On
The ZyXEL Device has a successful 100 Mbps Ethernet
connection with a device on the Local Area Network
(LAN).
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is sending or receiving data to/from
the LAN at 100 Mbps.
Off
The ZyXEL Device does not have an Ethernet connection
with the LAN.
On
The Gigabit Ethernet connection is working.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is sending or receiving data to/from
the Gigabit Ethernet link.
Off
There is no Gigabit Ethernet link.
On
The ZyXEL Device recognizes a USB connection.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is sending/receiving data to /from the
USB device connected to it.
Off
The ZyXEL Device does not detect a USB connection.
On
The DSL line is up.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is initializing the DSL line.
Off
The DSL line is down.
On
The ZyXEL Device has an IP connection but no traffic.
Your device has a WAN IP address (either static or
assigned by a DHCP server), PPP negotiation was
successfully completed (if used) and the DSL connection
is up.
WLAN/
WPS
Green
Green
and
Orange
30
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is sending or receiving IP traffic.
Off
There is no Internet connection or the gateway is in
bridged mode.
On
The wireless network is activated.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is communicating with other wireless
clients.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is setting up a WPS connection.
Off
The wireless network is not activated.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
1.8 The RESET Button
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need
to use the RESET button at the back of the device to reload the factory-default
configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously and the password will be reset to “1234”.
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on (not blinking).
2
To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the RESET button for
ten seconds or until the POWER LED begins to blink and then release it. When the
POWER LED begins to blink, the defaults have been restored and the device
restarts.
1.9 Wireless Access
The ZyXEL Device is a wireless Access Point (AP) for wireless clients, such as
notebook computers or PDAs and iPads. It allows them to connect to the Internet
without having to rely on inconvenient Ethernet cables.
You can configure your wireless network in either the built-in Web Configurator, or
using the WPS button.
Figure 6 Wireless Access Example
1.9.1 Using the WLAN/WPS Button
If the wireless network is turned off, press the WLAN/WPS button on the front of
the ZyXEL Device for one second. Once the WLAN/WPS LED turns green, the
wireless network is active.
You can also use the WLAN/WPS button to quickly set up a secure wireless
connection between the ZyXEL Device and a WPS-compatible client by adding one
device at a time.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the VSG1432-B101
To activate WPS:
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on and not blinking.
2
Press the WLAN/WPS button for five seconds and release it.
3
Press the WPS button on another WPS-enabled device within range of the ZyXEL
Device. The WLAN/WPS LED flashes green and orange while the ZyXEL Device
sets up a WPS connection with the other wireless device.
4
Once the connection is successfully made, the WLAN/WPS LED shines green.
To turn off the wireless network, press the WLAN/WPS button on the front of the
ZyXEL Device for one to five seconds. The WLAN/WPS LED turns off when the
wireless network is off.
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CHAPTER
2
The Web Configurator
2.1 Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy
device setup and management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and
later versions or Mozilla Firefox 3 and later versions or Safari 2.0 and later
versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled
by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
See Appendix C on page 355 if you need to make sure these functions are allowed
in Internet Explorer.
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator
1
Make sure your ZyXEL Device hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick
Start Guide).
2
Launch your web browser. If the ZyXEL Device does not automatically re-direct
you to the login screen, go to http://192.168.1.1.
3
A password screen displays. To access the administrative web configurator and
manage the ZyXEL Device, type the default username admin and password 1234
in the password screen and click Login. If advanced account security is enabled
(see Section 27.2 on page 283) the number of dots that appears when you type
the password changes randomly to prevent anyone watching the password field
from knowing the length of your password. If you have changed the password,
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
enter your password and click Login. For security reasons, you will be temporarily
denied access to the ZyXEL Device for a period of time (15 minutes by default) if
you have entered the incorrect username and password for a certain number of
times (three times by default).
Figure 7 Password Screen
4
A welcome screen appears showing a summary of your last login, such as the
time, number of failed login attempts, and when the password expires. It also
shows if you are logged on from an IP address. Select Show this page next time
to see the welcome screen on your next login. Otherwise, deselect it. Click
Continue.
Figure 8 Welcome Screen
5
The following screen displays if you have not yet changed your password. It is
strongly recommended you change the default password. Enter a new password,
retype it to confirm and click Apply; alternatively click Skip to proceed to the
main menu if you do not want to change the password now.
Figure 9 Change Password Screen
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
6
The Network Map page appears.
Figure 10 Network Map
Note: For security reasons, the ZyXEL Device automatically logs you out if you do not
use the web configurator for ten minutes (default). If this happens, log in again.
7
Click Status to display the Status screen, where you can view the ZyXEL Device’s
interface and system information.
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
2.2 Web Configurator Layout
Figure 11 Screen Layout
A
B
C
As illustrated above, the main screen is divided into these parts:
• A - title bar
• B - main window
• C - navigation panel
2.2.1 Title Bar
The title bar provides some icons in the upper right corner.
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The icons provide the following functions.
Table 2 Web Configurator Icons in the Title Bar
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Quick Start: Click this icon to open screens where you can configure the
ZyXEL Device’s time zone Internet access, and wireless settings.
Logout: Click this icon to log out of the web configurator.
2.2.2 Main Window
The main window displays information and configuration fields. It is discussed in
the rest of this document.
After you click Status on the Network Map page, the Status screen is displayed.
See Chapter 5 on page 71 for more information about the Status screen.
2.2.3 Navigation Panel
Use the menu items on the navigation panel to open screens to configure ZyXEL
Device features. The following tables describe each menu item.
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
TAB
Network Map
FUNCTION
This screen shows the network status of the ZyXEL Device and
computers/devices connected to it.
Network Settings
Broadband
Wireless
Use this screen to view and configure ISP parameters, WAN IP
address assignment, and other advanced properties. You can also
add new WAN connections.
General
Use this screen to configure the wireless LAN settings and WLAN
authentication/security settings.
More AP
Use this screen to configure multiple BSSs on the ZyXEL Device.
MAC
Authentication
Use this screen to block or allow wireless traffic from wireless
devices of certain SSIDs and MAC addresses to the ZyXEL Device.
WPS
Use this screen to configure and view your WPS (Wi-Fi Protected
Setup) settings.
WMM
Use this screen to enable or disable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM).
WDS
Use this screen to set up Wireless Distribution System (WDS)
links to other access points.
Others
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings.
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
Home
Networking
Routing
QoS
NAT
DNS
IGMP
TAB
FUNCTION
LAN Setup
Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP settings, and other
advanced properties.
Static DHCP
Use this screen to assign specific IP addresses to individual MAC
addresses.
UPnP
Use this screen to turn UPnP and UPnP NAT-T on or off.
Static Route
Use this screen to view and set up static routes on the ZyXEL
Device.
Policy
Forwarding
Use this screen to configure policy routing on the ZyXEL Device.
General
Use this screen to enable QoS and traffic prioritizing. You can also
configure the QoS rules and actions.
Queue Setup
Use this screen to configure QoS queues.
Class Setup
Use this screen to define a classifier.
Policer Setup
Use these screens to configure QoS policers.
Monitor
Use this screen to view QoS packets statistics.
Port
Forwarding
Use this screen to make your local servers visible to the outside
world.
Applications
Use this screen to configure servers behind the ZyXEL Device.
Port Triggering
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s port triggering
settings.
DMZ
Use this screen to configure a default server which receives
packets from ports that are not specified in the Port Forwarding
screen.
ALG
Use this screen to enable or disable SIP ALG.
Sessions
Use this screen to limit the number of NAT sessions a single client
can establish.
DNS Entry
Use this screen to view and configure DNS routes.
Dynamic DNS
Use this screen to allow a static hostname alias for a dynamic IP
address.
General
Use this screen to configure general IGMP proxy and IGMP packet
processing settings.
IGMP Filter
Use this screen to control IGMP access.
IGMP ACL
Use this screen to block or allow access to specific multicast
media channels.
Use this screen to map a port to a PVC or bridge group.
Interface
Group
Security Settings
Firewall
MAC Filter
38
General
Use this screen to configure the security level of your firewall.
Protocol
Use this screen to add or remove predefined Internet services and
configure firewall rules.
Access Control
Use this screen to enable specific traffic directions for network
services.
Use this screen to block or allow traffic from devices of certain
MAC addresses to the ZyXEL Device.
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Chapter 2 The Web Configurator
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
Parental
Control
Use this screen to block web sites with the specific URL.
Scheduler
Rule
Use this screen to configure the days and times when a
configured restriction (such as parental control) is enforced.
Certificates
IPSec
Local
Certificates
Use this screen to view a summary list of certificates and manage
certificates and certification requests.
Trusted CA
Use this screen to view and manage the list of the trusted CAs.
Status
Use this screen to view the status of IPSec tunnels.
Settings
Use this screen to add and configure IPSec tunnels.
Service
Control
Use this screen to control service access to the ZyXEL Device.
System Monitor
ARP Table
Log
Traffic Status
IGMP Group
Status
Use this screen to view the ARP table. It displays the IP and MAC
address of each DHCP connection.
System Log
Use this screen to view the status of events that occurred to the
ZyXEL Device. You can export or e-mail the logs.
Security Log
Use this screen to view the login record of the ZyXEL Device. You
can export or e-mail the logs.
WAN
Use this screen to view the status of all network traffic going
through the WAN port of the ZyXEL Device.
LAN
Use this screen to view the status of all network traffic going
through the LAN ports of the ZyXEL Device.
IGMP Group
Use this screen to view the status of all IGMP settings on the
ZyXEL Device.
IGMP Statistics Use this screen to view the ZyXEL Device’s IGMP multicast group
and IGMP traffic statistics.
Maintenance
Users
Account
General
Use this screen to add and configure user accounts on the ZyXEL
Device.
Remote
MGMT
TR-069 Client
Use this screen to configure the ZyXEL Device to be managed by
an Auto Configuration Server (ACS).
TR-064 Client
Use this screen to enable management via TR-064 on the LAN.
Time
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s time and date.
Log Setting
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s log settings.
Firmware
Upgrade
Use this screen to upload firmware to your device.
Configuration
Use this screen to backup and restore your device’s configuration
(settings) or reset the factory default settings.
Reboot
Use this screen to reboot the ZyXEL Device without turning the
power off.
Diagnostic
Ping &
TraceRoute &
NsLookup
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Use this screen to identify problems with the DSL connection. You
can use Ping, TraceRoute, or Nslookup to help you identify
problems.
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CHAPTER
3
Quick Start
3.1 Overview
Use the Quick Start screens to configure the ZyXEL Device’s time zone and basic
Internet access and wireless settings.
Note: See the technical reference chapters (starting on page 67) for background
information on the features in this chapter.
3.2 Quick Start Setup
1
Click the Click Start icon in the top right corner of the web configurator to open
the quick start screens. Select the time zone of the ZyXEL Device’s location and
click Next.
Figure 12 Time Zone
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Chapter 3 Quick Start
2
Enter your PPPoE account’s user name and password exactly as provided by your
Internet Service Provider (ISP). If your ISP also gave you static IP address
settings to use, select Yes and enter them in the fields that display. Click Next.
Figure 13 Internet Connection
3
Turn the wireless LAN on or off. If you keep it on, record the security settings so
you can configure your wireless clients to connect to the ZyXEL Device. Click
Save.
Figure 14 Internet Connection
4
42
Your ZyXEL Device saves your settings and attempts to connect to the Internet.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
CHAPTER
4
Tutorials
4.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to use the ZyXEL Device’s various features.
• Setting Up an ADSL PPPoE Connection, see page 43
• Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network, see page 46
• Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups, see page 53
• Setting Up NAT Port Forwarding, see page 56
• Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another Network, see page 58
• Configuring QoS Queue and Class Setup, see page 60
• Access the ZyXEL Device Using DDNS, see page 63
• Access Your Shared Files From a Computer, see page 65
4.2 Setting Up an ADSL PPPoE Connection
This tutorial shows you how to set up your Internet connection using the Web
Configurator.
If you connect to the Internet through an ADSL connection, use the information
from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) to configure the ZyXEL Device. Be sure
to contact your service provider for any information you need to configure the
Broadband screens.
1
Click Network Settings > Broadband to open the following screen. Click Add
New WAN Interface.
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Chapter 4 Tutorials
2
In this example, the DSL connection has the following information.
General
Connection Name
MyDSLConnection
Type
ADSL
Connection Mode
Routing
Encapsulation
PPPoE
ATM PVC Configuration
VPI/VCI
36/48
Encapsulation Mode
LLC/SNAP-Bridging
Service Category
UBR without PCR
Account Information
PPP User Name
[email protected]
PPP Password
ABCDEF!
PPPoE Service Name
My DSL
Static IP Address
192.168.1.32
Others
PPPoE Passthrough: Disabled
NAT: Enabled
IGMP Multicast Proxy: Enabled
Apply as Default Gateway: Enabled
3
Select the Active check box. Enter the General and ATM PVC Configuration
settings as provided above.
Set the Type to ADSL.
Choose the Encapsulation specified by your DSL service provider. For this
example, the service provider requires a username and password to establish
Internet connection. Therefore, select PPPoE as the WAN encapsulation type.
44
4
Enter the account information provided to you by your DSL service provider.
5
Configure this rule as your default Internet connection by selecting the Apply as
Default Gateway check box. Then select DNS as Static and enter the DNS server
addresses provided to you, such as 192.168.5.2 (DNS server1)/192.168.5.1
(DNS server2).
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6
Click Apply to save your settings.
7
You should see a summary of your new DSL connection setup in the Broadband
screen as follows.
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Chapter 4 Tutorials
Try to connect to a website, such as zyxel.com to see if you have correctly set up
your Internet connection. Be sure to contact your service provider for any
information you need to configure the WAN screens.
4.3 Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network
Thomas wants to set up a wireless network so that he can use his notebook to
access the Internet. In this wireless network, the ZyXEL Device serves as an
access point (AP), and the notebook is the wireless client. The wireless client can
access the Internet through the AP.
Thomas has to configure the wireless network settings on the ZyXEL Device. Then
he can set up a wireless network using WPS (Section 4.3.2 on page 48) or manual
configuration (Section 4.3.3 on page 52).
4.3.1 Configuring the Wireless Network Settings
This example uses the following parameters to set up a wireless network.
46
SSID
Example
Security Mode
WPA-PSK
Pre-Shared Key
DoNotStealMyWirelessNetwork
802.11 Mode
802.11b/g/n Mixed
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1
Click Network Settings > Wireless to open the General screen. Select More
Secure as the security level and WPA-PSK as the security mode. Configure the
screen using the provided parameters (see page 46). Click Apply.
2
Go to the Wireless > Others screen and select 802.11b/g/n Mixed in the
802.11 Mode field. Click Apply.
Thomas can now use the WPS feature to establish a wireless connection between
his notebook and the ZyXEL Device (see Section 4.3.2 on page 48). He can also
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Chapter 4 Tutorials
use the notebook’s wireless client to search for the ZyXEL Device (see Section
4.3.3 on page 52).
4.3.2 Using WPS
This section shows you how to set up a wireless network using WPS. It uses the
ZyXEL Device as the AP and ZyXEL NWD210N as the wireless client which
connects to the notebook.
Note: The wireless client must be a WPS-aware device (for example, a WPS USB
adapter or PCMCIA card).
There are two WPS methods to set up the wireless client settings:
• Push Button Configuration (PBC) - simply press a button. This is the easier
of the two methods.
• PIN Configuration - configure a Personal Identification Number (PIN) on the
ZyXEL Device. A wireless client must also use the same PIN in order to
download the wireless network settings from the ZyXEL Device.
Push Button Configuration (PBC)
48
1
Make sure that your ZyXEL Device is turned on and your notebook is within the
cover range of the wireless signal.
2
Make sure that you have installed the wireless client driver and utility in your
notebook.
3
In the wireless client utility, go to the WPS setting page. Enable WPS and press
the WPS button (Start or WPS button).
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4
Push and hold the WPS button located on the ZyXEL Device’s front panel for more
than 5 seconds. Alternatively, you may log into ZyXEL Device’s web configurator
and go to the Network Settings > Wireless > WPS screen. Enable the WPS
function and click Apply. Then click the Connect button.
Note: Your ZyXEL Device has a WPS button located on its front panel as well as a
WPS button in its configuration utility. Both buttons have exactly the same
function: you can use one or the other.
Note: It doesn’t matter which button is pressed first. You must press the second
button within two minutes of pressing the first one.
The ZyXEL Device sends the proper configuration settings to the wireless client.
This may take up to two minutes. The wireless client is then able to communicate
with the ZyXEL Device securely.
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Chapter 4 Tutorials
The following figure shows you an example of how to set up a wireless network
and its security by pressing a button on both ZyXEL Device and wireless client.
Example WPS Process: PBC Method
ZyXEL Device
Wireless Client
WPS
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
Press and hold for
5 seconds
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
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PIN Configuration
When you use the PIN configuration method, you need to use both the ZyXEL
Device’s web configurator and the wireless client’s utility.
1
Launch your wireless client’s configuration utility. Go to the WPS settings and
select the PIN method to get a PIN number.
2
Log into ZyXEL Device’s web configurator and go to the Network Settings >
Wireless > WPS screen. Enable the WPS function and click Apply.
3
Enter the PIN number of the wireless client and click the Register button.
Activate WPS function on the wireless client utility screen within two minutes.
The ZyXEL Device authenticates the wireless client and sends the proper
configuration settings to the wireless client. This may take up to two minutes. The
wireless client is then able to communicate with the ZyXEL Device securely.
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Chapter 4 Tutorials
The following figure shows you how to set up a wireless network and its security
on a ZyXEL Device and a wireless client by using PIN method.
Example WPS Process: PIN Method
Wireless Client
ZyXEL Device
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
Authentication by PIN
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
4.3.3 Without WPS
Use the wireless adapter’s utility installed on the notebook to search for the
“Example” SSID. Then enter the “DoNotStealMyWirelessNetwork” pre-shared key
to establish an wireless Internet connection.
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Note: The ZyXEL Device supports IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g wireless clients.
Make sure that your notebook or computer’s wireless adapter supports one of
these standards.
4.4 Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups
Company A wants to create different wireless network groups for different types of
users as shown in the following figure. Each group has its own SSID and security
mode.
Company
Guest
VIP
• Employees in Company A will use a general Comapny wireless network group.
• Higher management level and important visitors will use the VIP group.
• Visiting guests will use the Guest group, which has a lower security mode.
Company A will use the following parameters to set up the wireless network
groups.
COMPANY
VIP
GUEST
SSID
Company
VIP
Guest
Security Level
More Secure
More Secure
Basic
Security Mode
WPA2-PSK
WPA2-PSK
Static WEP
Pre-Shared Key
ForCompanyOnly
ForVIPOnly
Guest
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Chapter 4 Tutorials
54
1
Click Network Settings > Wireless to open the General screen. Use this screen
to set up the company’s general wireless network group. Configure the screen
using the provided parameters and click Apply.
2
Click Network Settings > Wireless > More AP to open the following screen.
Click the Edit icon to configure the second wireless network group.
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3
Configure the screen using the provided parameters and click Apply.
4
In the More AP screen, click the Edit icon to configure the third wireless network
group.
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5
Configure the screen using the provided parameters and click Apply.
6
Check the status of VIP and Guest in the More AP screen. The yellow bulbs
signify that the SSIDs are active and ready for wireless access.
4.5 Setting Up NAT Port Forwarding
Thomas manages the Doom server on a computer behind the ZyXEL Device. In
order for players on the Internet (like A in the figure below) to communicate with
the Doom server, Thomas needs to configure the port settings and IP address on
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the ZyXEL Device. Traffic should be forwarded to the port 666 of the Doom server
computer which has an IP address of 192.168.1.34.
Tutorial: NAT Port Forwarding Setup
D=192.168.1.34
LAN
WAN
port 666
A
Thomas may set up the port settings by configuring the port settings for the Doom
server computer (see Section 12.2 on page 176 for more information).
1
2
Click Network Settings > NAT > Add new rule and configure the screen with
the following values:
Service Name
Doom_Server
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface through which the Doom service is
forwarded. This example uses MyDSLConnection.
External Port/s
Enter 666 as the Start and End port.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the Doom server. This is 192.168.1.34
for this example.
Protocol
Select TCP/UDP. This should be the protocol supported by the
Doom server.
The screen should look as follows. Click Apply.
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3
The port forwarding settings you configured appear in the table. The ZyXEL Device
forwards port 666 traffic to the computer with IP address 192.168.1.34.
Players on the Internet then can have access to Thomas’ Doom server.
4.6 Configuring Static Route for Routing to
Another Network
In order to extend your Intranet and control traffic flowing directions, you may
connect a router to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN. The router may be used to separate
two department networks. This tutorial shows how to configure a static routing
rule for two network routings.
In the following figure, router R is connected to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN. R
connects to two networks, N1 (192.168.1.x/24) and N2 (192.168.10.x/24). If
you want to send traffic from computer A (in N1 network) to computer B (in N2
network), the traffic is sent to the ZyXEL Device’s WAN default gateway by
default. In this case, B will never receive the traffic.
N1
A
R
N2
B
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You need to specify a static routing rule on the ZyXEL Device to specify R as the
router in charge of forwarding traffic to N2. In this case, the ZyXEL Device routes
traffic from A to R and then R routes the traffic to B.
N1
A
R
N2
B
This tutorial uses the following example IP settings:
Table 4 IP Settings in this Tutorial
DEVICE / COMPUTER
IP ADDRESS
The ZyXEL Device’s WAN
172.16.1.1
The ZyXEL Device’s LAN
192.168.1.1
A
192.168.1.34
R’s N1
192.168.1.253
R’s N2
192.168.10.2
B
192.168.10.33
To configure a static route to route traffic from N1 to N2:
1
Log into the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator in advanced mode.
2
Click Advanced > Routing.
3
Click Add New Static Route Entry in the Static Route screen.
4
Configure the Static Route Setup screen using the following settings:
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4a
Select the Active check box. Enter the Route Name as R.
4b
Type 192.168.10.0 and subnet mask 255.255.255.0 for the destination,
N2.
4c
Type 192.168.1.253 (R’s N1 address) in the Gateway IP Address field.
4a
Click Apply.
Now B should be able to receive traffic from A. You may need to additionally
configure B’s firewall settings to allow specific traffic to pass through.
4.7 Configuring QoS Queue and Class Setup
This section contains tutorials on how you can configure the QoS screen.
Let’s say you are a team leader of a small sales branch office. You want to
prioritize e-mail traffic because your task includes sending urgent updates to
clients at least twice every hour. You also upload data files (such as logs and email archives) to the FTP server throughout the day. Your colleagues use the
Internet for research, as well as chat applications for communicating with other
branch offices.
In the following figure, your Internet connection has an upstream transmission
bandwidth of 10,000 kbps. For this example, you want to configure QoS so that email traffic gets the highest priority with at least 5,000 kbps. You can do the
following:
• Configure a queue to assign the highest priority queue (1) to e-mail traffic going
to the WAN interface, so that e-mail traffic would not get delayed when there is
network congestion.
• Note the IP address (192.168.1.23 for example) and/or MAC address
(AA:FF:AA:FF:AA:FF for example) of your computer and map it to queue 7.
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Note: QoS is applied to traffic flowing out of the ZyXEL Device.
Traffic that does not match this class is assigned a priority queue based on the
internal QoS mapping table on the ZyXEL Device.
QoS Example
DSL
10,000 kbps
Your computer
IP=192.168.1.23
and/or
MAC=AA:FF:AA:FF:AA:FF
Email traffic: Highest priority
1
A colleague’s computer
Other traffic: Automatic classifier
Click Network Settings > QoS > General and select Active. Set your WAN
Managed Upstream Bandwidth to 10,000 kbps (or leave this blank to have the
ZyXEL Device automatically determine this figure). Click Apply.
Tutorial: Advanced > QoS
2
Click Queue Setup > Add new Queue to create a new queue. In the screen that
opens, check Active and enter or select the following values:
• Name: E-mail
• To Interface: WAN
• Priority: 1 (High)
• Weight: 8
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• Rate Limit: 5,000 (kbps)
Tutorial: Advanced > QoS > Queue Setup
3
Click Class Setup > Add new Classifier to create a new class. Check Active
and follow the settings as shown in the screen below.
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Class Name
Give a class name to this traffic, such as E-mail in this example.
From Interface
This is the interface from which the traffic will be coming from. Select
LAN1 for this example.
Ether Type
Select IP to identify the traffic source by its IP address or MAC
address.
IP Address
Type the IP address of your computer - 192.168.1.23. Type the IP
Subnet Mask if you know it.
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of your computer - AA:FF:AA:FF:AA:FF. Type
the MAC Mask if you know it.
To Queue Index
Link this to an item in the Network Settings > QoS > Queue
Setup screen, which is the E-mail queue created in this example.
This maps e-mail traffic coming from port 25 to the highest priority, which you
have created in the previous screen (see the IP Protocol field). This also maps
your computer’s IP address and MAC address to the E-mail queue (see the
Source fields).
4
Verify that the queue setup works by checking Network Settings > QoS >
Monitor. This shows the bandwidth allotted to e-mail traffic compared to other
network traffic.
4.8 Access the ZyXEL Device Using DDNS
If you connect your ZyXEL Device to the Internet and it uses a dynamic WAN IP
address, it is inconvenient for you to manage the device from the Internet. The
ZyXEL Device’s WAN IP address changes dynamically. Dynamic DNS (DDNS)
allows you to access the ZyXEL Device using a domain name.
http://zyxelrouter.dyndns.org
A
w.x.y.z
a.b.c.d
To use this feature, you have to apply for DDNS service at www.dyndns.org.
This tutorial covers:
• Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org
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• Configuring DDNS on Your ZyXEL Device
• Testing the DDNS Setting
Note: If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use DDNS.
4.8.1 Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org
1
Open a browser and type http://www.dyndns.org.
2
Apply for a user account. This tutorial uses UserName1 and 12345 as the
username and password.
3
Log into www.dyndns.org using your account.
4
Add a new DDNS host name. This tutorial uses the following settings as an
example.
• Hostname: zyxelrouter.dyndns.org
• Service Type: Host with IP address
• IP Address: Enter the WAN IP address that your ZyXEL Device is currently using.
You can find the IP address on the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator Status
page.
Then you will need to configure the same account and host name on the ZyXEL
Device later.
4.8.2 Configuring DDNS on Your ZyXEL Device
Configure the following settings in the Advanced > DNS Setting > Dynamic
DNS screen.
• Select Enable Dynamic DNS.
• Select DynDNS.org as the service provider.
• Type zyxelrouter.dyndns.org in the Host Name field.
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• Enter the user name (UserName1) and password (12345).
Click Apply.
4.8.3 Testing the DDNS Setting
Now you should be able to access the ZyXEL Device from the Internet. To test
this:
1
Open a web browser on the computer (using the IP address a.b.c.d) that is
connected to the Internet.
2
Type http://zyxelrouter.dyndns.org and press [Enter].
3
The ZyXEL Device’s login page should appear. You can then log into the ZyXEL
Device and manage it.
4.9 Access Your Shared Files From a Computer
Here is how to use an FTP program to access a file storage device connected to
the ZyXEL Device’s USB port.
Note: This example uses the FileZilla FTP program to browse your shared files.
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1
In FileZilla enter the IP address of the ZyXEL Device (the default is 192.168.1.1),
your account’s user name and password and port 21 and click Quickconnect. A
screen asking for password authentication appears.
File Sharing via Windows Explorer
Once you log in the USB device displays in the mnt folder.
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Technical Reference
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CHAPTER
5
Network Map and Status
Screens
5.1 Overview
After you log into the Web Configurator, the Network Map screen appears. This
shows the network connection status of the ZyXEL Device and clients connected to
it.
You can use the Status screen to look at the current status of the ZyXEL Device,
system resources, and interfaces (LAN, WAN, and WLAN).
5.2 The Network Map Screen
Use this screen to view the network connection status of the device and its clients.
A warning message appears if there is a connection problem.
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If you prefer to view the status in a list, click List View in the Viewing Mode
selection box. You can configure how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update
this screen in Refresh Interval.
Figure 15 Network Map: Icon Mode
Figure 16 Network Map: List Mode
In Icon Mode, if you want to view information about a client, click the client’s
name and Info. Click the IP address if you want to change it. If you want to
change the name or icon of the client, click Change name/icon.
In List Mode, you can also view the client’s information and click on the IP
address if you want to change it.
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5.3 The Status Screen
Use this screen to view the status of the ZyXEL Device. Click Status to open this
screen.
Figure 17 Status Screen
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 5 Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval Select how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update this screen.
Device Information
Host Name
This field displays the ZyXEL Device system name. It is used for
identification.
Model
Number
This shows the model number of your ZyXEL Device.
Firmware
Version
This is the current version of the firmware inside the device.
WAN Information (These fields display when you have a WAN connection.)
MAC Address
This shows the WAN Ethernet adapter MAC (Media Access Control)
Address of your device.
This field is available only when your WAN type is IPoE or PPPoE.
IP Address
This field displays the current IP address of the ZyXEL Device in the
WAN.
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Table 5 Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the current subnet mask in the WAN.
This field is available only when your WAN type is IPoE or IPoA.
WAN Type
This field displays the current WAN connection type.
LAN Information
MAC
Address
This shows the LAN Ethernet adapter MAC (Media Access Control)
Address of your device.
IP Address
This is the current IP address of the ZyXEL Device in the LAN.
IP Subnet
Mask
This is the current subnet mask in the LAN.
DHCP
This field displays what DHCP services the ZyXEL Device is providing to
the LAN. Choices are:
Server - The ZyXEL Device is a DHCP server in the LAN. It assigns IP
addresses to other computers in the LAN.
Relay - The ZyXEL Device acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays
DHCP requests and responses between the remote server and the
clients.
None - The ZyXEL Device is not providing any DHCP services to the
LAN.
WLAN Information
MAC
Address
This shows the wireless adapter MAC (Media Access Control) Address of
your device.
Status
This displays whether WLAN is activated.
Name
(SSID)
This is the descriptive name used to identify the ZyXEL Device in a
wireless LAN.
Channel
This is the channel number used by the ZyXEL Device now.
Security
Mode
This displays the type of security mode the ZyXEL Device is using in the
wireless LAN.
802.11
Mode
This displays the type of 802.11 mode the ZyXEL Device is using in the
wireless LAN.
WPS
This displays whether WPS is activated.
Interface Status
Interface
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This column displays each interface the ZyXEL Device has.
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Table 5 Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field indicates whether or not the ZyXEL Device is using the
interface.
For the LAN interfaces or the Ethernet WAN interface, this field displays
Up when the ZyXEL Device is using the interface and NoLink when the
line is disconnected.
For the WLAN interface, it displays Active when WLAN is enabled or
InActive when WLAN is disabled.
For the DSL interface, this field displays NoLink (line is down), Up (line
is up or connected) if you're using Ethernet encapsulation and NoLink
(line is down), Up (line is up or connected), Idle (line (ppp) idle), Dial
(starting to trigger a call) and Drop (dropping a call) if you're using
PPPoE encapsulation.
Rate
For the LAN interface, this displays the port speed and duplex setting.
For the DSL interface, it displays the downstream and upstream
transmission rate.
For the WLAN interface, it displays the maximum transmission rate
when WLAN is enabled or N/A when WLAN is disabled.
System Status
System Up
Time
This field displays how long the ZyXEL Device has been running since it
last started up. The ZyXEL Device starts up when you plug it in, when
you restart it (Maintenance > Reboot), or when you reset it.
Current
Date/Time
This field displays the current date and time in the ZyXEL Device. You
can change this in Maintenance> Time Setting.
System Resource
CPU Usage
This field displays what percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s processing
ability is currently used. When this percentage is close to 100%, the
ZyXEL Device is running at full load, and the throughput is not going to
improve anymore. If you want some applications to have more
throughput, you should turn off other applications (for example, using
QoS; see Chapter 10 on page 151).
Memory
Usage
This field displays what percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s memory is
currently used. Usually, this percentage should not increase much. If
memory usage does get close to 100%, the ZyXEL Device is probably
becoming unstable, and you should restart the device. See Section 32.2
on page 301, or turn off the device (unplug the power) for a few
seconds.
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CHAPTER
6
Broadband
6.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to configure WAN settings from the Broadband
screen. Use this screen to configure your ZyXEL Device for Internet access.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is an outside connection to another
network or the Internet. It connects your private networks (such as a LAN (Local
Area Network) and other networks, so that a computer in one location can
communicate with computers in other locations.
Figure 18 LAN and WAN
LAN
WAN
6.1.1 What You Need to Know
Encapsulation Method
Encapsulation is used to include data from an upper layer protocol into a lower
layer protocol. To set up a WAN connection to the Internet, you need to use the
same encapsulation method used by your ISP (Internet Service Provider). If your
ISP offers a dial-up Internet connection using PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet) or PPPoA,
they should also provide a username and password (and service name) for user
authentication.
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WAN IP Address
The WAN IP address is an IP address for the ZyXEL Device, which makes it
accessible from an outside network. It is used by the ZyXEL Device to
communicate with other devices in other networks. It can be static (fixed) or
dynamically assigned by the ISP each time the ZyXEL Device tries to access the
Internet.
If your ISP assigns you a static WAN IP address, they should also assign you the
subnet mask and DNS server IP address(es) (and a gateway IP address if you use
the Ethernet encapsulation method).
Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1
sender - 1 recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network).
Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on the network - not everybody
and not just one.
IGMP
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data.
There are three versions of IGMP. IGMP version 2 and 3 are improvements over
version 1, but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use.
Finding Out More
See Section 6.3 on page 86 for technical background information on WAN.
6.1.2 Before You Begin
You need to know your Internet access settings such as encapsulation and WAN IP
address. Get this information from your ISP.
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6.2 The Broadband Screen
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s Internet access settings. Click
Network Settings> Broadband from the menu. The summary table shows you
the configured WAN services (connections) on the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 19 Network Settings > Broadband
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 Network Settings > Broadband
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new WAN
interface
Click this button to create a new connection.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This is the status of the connection.
Name
This is the service name of the connection.
Type
This shows whether it is a VDSL, ADSL, or Ethernet connection.
Encapsulation
This is the method of encapsulation used by this connection.
VLAN
This is the Virtual LAN (VLAN) number configured for this WAN
connection.
VPI/VCI
This is the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier
(VCI) numbers configured for this WAN connection.
ATM QoS
This is the type of ATM QoS of the connection.
IGMP Proxy
This shows whether the ZyXEL Device act as an IGMP proxy on this
connection.
NAT
This shows whether NAT is activated or not for this connection.
Default Gateway
This shows whether the ZyXEL Device use the WAN interface of this
connection as the system default gateway.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the WAN connection.
Click the Delete icon to remove the WAN connection.
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6.2.1 Add/Edit Broadband
Click Add new WAN interface in the Broadband screen or the Edit icon next to
an existing WAN interface to configure a WAN connection. The screen differs
according to the mode and encapsulation you choose.
6.2.2 PPPoE Encapsulation
The ZyXEL Device supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is
an IETF standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC) interacts
with a broadband modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The PPPoE
option is for a dial-up connection using PPPoE.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that
works with existing access control systems (for example Radius).
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network
services, a function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service
provider to easily create and offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as
it requires no specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the ZyXEL Device (rather than individual
computers), the computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed,
since the ZyXEL Device does that part of the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of
the LANs’ computers will have access.
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This screen displays when you select the Routing mode and PPPoE
encapsulation.
Figure 20 Broadband: Add/Edit: ADSL, PPPoE Encapsulation
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 Broadband: Add/Edit: Routing Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Active
Select this to activate the WAN configuration settings.
Name
Specify a descriptive name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters for this
connection.
Type
Select whether it is a VDSL, ADSL, or Ethernet connection.
Mode
Select Routing (default) from the drop-down list box if your ISP give
you one IP address only and you want multiple computers to share an
Internet account.
Select Bridge when your ISP provides you more than one IP address
and you want the connected computers to get individual IP address
from ISP’s DHCP server directly. If you select Bridge, you cannot use
routing functions, such as Firewall, DHCP server and NAT on traffic
from the selected LAN port(s).
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the dropdown list box. This option is available only when you select Routing in
the Mode field.
The choices are PPPoE, PPPoA, IPoE and IPoA.
ATM PVC Configuration (These fields appear when the Type is set to ADSL.)
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local
management of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
DSL Link Type
This field is not editable. The selection depends on the setting in the
Encapsulation field.
EoA (Ethernet over ATM) uses an Ethernet header in the packet, so
that you can have multiple services/connections over one PVC. You can
set each connection to have its own MAC address or all connections
share one MAC address but use different VLAN IDs for different
services. EoA supports ENET ENCAP (IPoE), PPPoE and RFC1483/2684
bridging encapsulation methods.
PPPoA (PPP over ATM) allows just one PPPoA connection over a PVC.
IPoA (IP over ATM) allows just one RFC 1483 routing connection over a
PVC.
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Table 7 Broadband: Add/Edit: Routing Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
Mode
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the dropdown list box. Choices are:
•
•
•
•
Service
Category
LLC/SNAP-BRIDGING: In LCC encapsulation, bridged PDUs are
encapsulated by identifying the type of the bridged media in the
SNAP header. This is available only when you select IPoE or PPPoE
in the Select DSL Link Type field.
VC/MUX: In VC multiplexing, each protocol is carried on a single
ATM virtual circuit (VC). To transport multiple protocols, the ZyXEL
Device needs separate VCs. There is a binding between a VC and
the type of the network protocol carried on the VC. This reduces
payload overhead since there is no need to carry protocol
information in each Protocol Data Unit (PDU) payload.
LLC/ENCAPSULATION: More than one protocol can be carried
over the same VC. This is available only when you select PPPoA in
the Encapsulation field.
LLC/SNAP-ROUTING: In LCC encapsulation, an IEEE 802.2
Logical Link Control (LLC) header is prefixed to each routed PDU to
identify the PDUs. The LCC header can be followed by an IEEE
802.1a SubNetwork Attachment Point (SNAP) header. This is
available only when you select IPoA in the Encapsulation field.
Select UBR Without PCR or UBR With PCR for applications that are
non-time sensitive, such as e-mail.
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on)
bandwidth for voice or data traffic.
Select Non Realtime VBR (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) for
connections that do not require closely controlled delay and delay
variation.
Select Realtime VBR (real-time Variable Bit Rate) for applications with
bursty connections that require closely controlled delay and delay
variation.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find
the Peak Cell Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender
can send cells. Type the PCR here.This field is not available when you
select UBR Without PCR.
Sustain Cell
Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that
can be transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR.
Note that system default is 0 cells/sec.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or
Realtime VBR.
Maximum Burst
Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that
can be sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or
Realtime VBR.
PPP Information
This is available only when you select PPPoE or PPPoA in the Mode
field.
PPP Username
Enter the user name exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name
in the form [email protected] where domain identifies a service name, then
enter both components exactly as given.
PPP Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
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Table 7 Broadband: Add/Edit: Routing Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PPP Auto
Connect
Select this option if you do not want the connection to time out.
IDLE Timeout
This value specifies the time in minutes that elapses before the router
automatically disconnects from the PPPoE server.
This field is not configurable if you select PPP Auto Connect.
PPPoE Service
Name
Enter the name of your PPPoE service here.
PPPoE
Passthrough
This field is available when you select PPPoE encapsulation.
In addition to the ZyXEL Device’s built-in PPPoE client, you can enable
PPPoE pass through to allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE
client software on their computers to connect to the ISP via the ZyXEL
Device. Each host can have a separate account and a public WAN IP
address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for application where NAT
is not appropriate.
Disable PPPoE pass through if you do not need to allow hosts on the
LAN to use PPPoE client software on their computers to connect to the
ISP.
IP Address
Obtain an IP
Address
Automatically
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP
address is not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you
connect to the Internet. Select this if you have a dynamic IP address.
Static IP
Address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
IP Address
Enter the static IP address provided by your ISP.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask provided by your ISP.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
Routing Feature
NAT Enable
Select this option to activate NAT on this connection.
IGMP Proxy
Enable
Internet Group Multicast Protocol (IGMP) is a network-layer protocol
used to establish membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to
carry user data.
Select this option to have the ZyXEL Device act as an IGMP proxy on
this connection. This allows the ZyXEL Device to get subscribing
information and maintain a joined member list for each multicast
group. It can reduce multicast traffic significantly.
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Apply as Default
Gateway
Select this option to have the ZyXEL Device use the WAN interface of
this connection as the system default gateway.
DNS Server
This is available only when you select Apply as Default Gateway in
the Routing Feature field.
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Table 7 Broadband: Add/Edit: Routing Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DNS
Select Dynamic if you want the ZyXEL Device use the DNS server
addresses assigned by your ISP.
Select Static if you want the ZyXEL Device use the DNS server
addresses you configure manually.
DNS Server 1
Enter the first DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
DNS Server 2
Enter the second DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
VLAN (These fields appear when the Type is set to VDSL or Ethernet)
Active
Select this option to add the VLAN tag (specified below) to the outgoing
traffic through this connection.
802.1P
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic types by inserting a tag
into a MAC-layer frame that contains bits to define class of service.
Select the IEEE 802.1p priority level (from 0 to 7) to add to traffic
through this connection. The greater the number, the higher the
priority level.
802.1Q
Type the VLAN ID number (from 1 to 4094) for traffic through this
connection.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
6.2.2.1 Bridge
This screen displays when you select the Bridge mode.
Figure 21 Broadband: Add/Edit: Bridge Mode
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Broadband: Add/Edit: Bridge Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Active
Select this to activate the WAN configuration settings.
Name
Specify a descriptive name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters for this
connection.
Type
Select whether it is a VDSL, ADSL, or Ethernet connection.
Mode
Select Routing (default) from the drop-down list box if your ISP give
you one IP address only and you want multiple computers to share an
Internet account.
Select Bridge when your ISP provides you more than one IP address
and you want the connected computers to get individual IP address
from ISP’s DHCP server directly. If you select Bridge, you cannot use
routing functions, such as Firewall, DHCP server and NAT on traffic
from the selected LAN port(s).
ATM PVC Configuration
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local
management of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
DSL Link Type
This field is not editable. EoA (Ethernet over ATM) uses an Ethernet
header in the packet, so that you can have multiple services/
connections over one PVC. You can set each connection to have its own
MAC address or all connections share one MAC address but use
different VLAN IDs for different services.
Encapsulation
Mode
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the dropdown list box. Choices are:
•
•
Service
Category
LLC/SNAP-BRIDGING: In LCC encapsulation, bridged PDUs are
encapsulated by identifying the type of the bridged media in the
SNAP header.
VC/MUX: In VC multiplexing, each protocol is carried on a single
ATM virtual circuit (VC). To transport multiple protocols, the ZyXEL
Device needs separate VCs. There is a binding between a VC and
the type of the network protocol carried on the VC. This reduces
payload overhead since there is no need to carry protocol
information in each Protocol Data Unit (PDU) payload.
Select UBR Without PCR or UBR With PCR for applications that are
non-time sensitive, such as e-mail.
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on)
bandwidth for voice or data traffic.
Select Non Realtime VBR (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) for
connections that do not require closely controlled delay and delay
variation.
Select Realtime VBR (real-time Variable Bit Rate) for applications with
bursty connections that require closely controlled delay and delay
variation.
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Table 8 Broadband: Add/Edit: Bridge Mode
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find
the Peak Cell Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender
can send cells. Type the PCR here.This field is not available when you
select UBR Without PCR.
Sustain Cell
Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that
can be transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR.
Note that system default is 0 cells/sec.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or
Realtime VBR.
Maximum Burst
Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that
can be sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
This field is available only when you select Non Realtime VBR or
Realtime VBR.
VLAN (These fields appear when the Type is set to VDSL or Ethernet)
Active
Select this option to add the VLAN tag (specified below) to the outgoing
traffic through this connection.
802.1P
IEEE 802.1p defines up to 8 separate traffic types by inserting a tag
into a MAC-layer frame that contains bits to define class of service.
Select the IEEE 802.1p priority level (from 0 to 7) to add to traffic
through this connection. The greater the number, the higher the
priority level.
802.1Q
Type the VLAN ID number (from 1 to 4094) for traffic through this
connection.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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6.3 Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
6.3.1 Encapsulation
Be sure to use the encapsulation method required by your ISP. The ZyXEL Device
supports the following methods.
6.3.1.1 PPP over Ethernet
The ZyXEL Device supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is
an IETF Draft standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC)
interacts with a broadband modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The
PPPoE option is for a dial-up connection using PPPoE.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that
works with existing access control systems (for example RADIUS).
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network
services, a function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service
provider to easily create and offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as
it requires no specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the ZyXEL Device (rather than individual
computers), the computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed,
since the ZyXEL Device does that part of the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of
the LANs’ computers will have access.
6.3.1.2 PPPoA
PPPoA stands for Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). A
PPPoA connection functions like a dial-up Internet connection. The ZyXEL Device
encapsulates the PPP session based on RFC1483 and sends it through an ATM PVC
(Permanent Virtual Circuit) to the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) DSLAM (Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) Access Multiplexer). Please refer to RFC 2364 for more
information on PPPoA. Refer to RFC 1661 for more information on PPP.
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6.3.2 Multiplexing
There are two conventions to identify what protocols the virtual circuit (VC) is
carrying. Be sure to use the multiplexing method required by your ISP.
VC-based Multiplexing
In this case, by prior mutual agreement, each protocol is assigned to a specific
virtual circuit; for example, VC1 carries IP, etc. VC-based multiplexing may be
dominant in environments where dynamic creation of large numbers of ATM VCs is
fast and economical.
LLC-based Multiplexing
In this case one VC carries multiple protocols with protocol identifying information
being contained in each packet header. Despite the extra bandwidth and
processing overhead, this method may be advantageous if it is not practical to
have a separate VC for each carried protocol, for example, if charging heavily
depends on the number of simultaneous VCs.
6.3.3 VPI and VCI
Be sure to use the correct Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel
Identifier (VCI) numbers assigned to you. The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255
and for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of ATM
traffic). Please see the appendix for more information.
6.3.4 IP Address Assignment
A static IP is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP is not fixed; the ISP
assigns you a different one each time. The Single User Account feature can be
enabled or disabled if you have either a dynamic or static IP.
IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation
If you have a dynamic IP, then the IP Address and Gateway IP Address fields
are not applicable (N/A). If you have a static IP, then you only need to fill in the IP
Address field and not the Gateway IP Address field.
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6.3.5 NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP
address of a host in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing
packet, used within one network to a different IP address known within another
network.
6.3.6 Traffic Shaping
Traffic Shaping is an agreement between the carrier and the subscriber to regulate
the average rate and fluctuations of data transmission over an ATM network. This
agreement helps eliminate congestion, which is important for transmission of real
time data such as audio and video connections.
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. This
parameter may be lower (but not higher) than the maximum line speed. 1 ATM
cell is 53 bytes (424 bits), so a maximum speed of 832Kbps gives a maximum
PCR of 1962 cells/sec. This rate is not guaranteed because it is dependent on the
line speed.
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) is the mean cell rate of each bursty traffic source. It
specifies the maximum average rate at which cells can be sent over the virtual
connection. SCR may not be greater than the PCR.
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) is the maximum number of cells that can be sent at
the PCR. After MBS is reached, cell rates fall below SCR until cell rate averages to
the SCR again. At this time, more cells (up to the MBS) can be sent at the PCR
again.
If the PCR, SCR or MBS is set to the default of "0", the system will assign a
maximum value that correlates to your upstream line rate.
The following figure illustrates the relationship between PCR, SCR and MBS.
Figure 22 Example of Traffic Shaping
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6.3.7 ATM Traffic Classes
These are the basic ATM traffic classes defined by the ATM Forum Traffic
Management 4.0 Specification.
Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) provides fixed bandwidth that is always available even if
no data is being sent. CBR traffic is generally time-sensitive (doesn't tolerate
delay). CBR is used for connections that continuously require a specific amount of
bandwidth. A PCR is specified and if traffic exceeds this rate, cells may be
dropped. Examples of connections that need CBR would be high-resolution video
and voice.
Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
The Variable Bit Rate (VBR) ATM traffic class is used with bursty connections.
Connections that use the Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic class can be grouped into
real time (VBR-RT) or non-real time (VBR-nRT) connections.
The VBR-RT (real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty connections that
require closely controlled delay and delay variation. It also provides a fixed
amount of bandwidth (a PCR is specified) but is only available when data is being
sent. An example of an VBR-RT connection would be video conferencing. Video
conferencing requires real-time data transfers and the bandwidth requirement
varies in proportion to the video image's changing dynamics.
The VBR-nRT (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty
connections that do not require closely controlled delay and delay variation. It is
commonly used for "bursty" traffic typical on LANs. PCR and MBS define the burst
levels, SCR defines the minimum level. An example of an VBR-nRT connection
would be non-time sensitive data file transfers.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
The Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) ATM traffic class is for bursty data transfers.
However, UBR doesn't guarantee any bandwidth and only delivers traffic when the
network has spare bandwidth. An example application is background file transfer.
6.3.8 Introduction to VLANs
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) allows a physical network to be partitioned
into multiple logical networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A
device can belong to more than one group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly
talk to or hear from devices that are not in the same group(s); the traffic must
first go through a router.
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In Multi-Tenant Unit (MTU) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and
security among the subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one
subscriber from accessing the network resources of another on the same LAN,
thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of another user in the same
building.
VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and
more manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments,
all broadcast packets go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all
broadcasts are confined to a specific broadcast domain.
Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the
VLAN membership of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch
on which they were created. The VLANs can be created statically by hand or
dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a frame with a specific VLAN
and provides the information that switches need to process the frame across the
network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an untagged frame and
contains two bytes of TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier), residing within the type/
length field of the Ethernet frame) and two bytes of TCI (Tag Control Information),
starts after the source address field of the Ethernet frame).
The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for
Ethernet switches. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then
that frame should not be forwarded as it is to an untagged port. The remaining
twelve bits define the VLAN ID, giving a possible maximum number of 4,096
VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A
frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that
only the priority level is significant and the default VID of the ingress port is given
as the VID of the frame. Of the 4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify
priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN
configurations are 4,094.
TPID
User Priority
2 Bytes 3 Bits
90
CFI
VLAN ID
1 Bit
12 Bits
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CHAPTER
7
Wireless
7.1 Overview
This chapter describes the ZyXEL Device’s Network Settings > Wireless
screens. Use these screens to set up your ZyXEL Device’s wireless connection.
7.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
This section describes the ZyXEL Device’s Wireless screens. Use these screens to
set up your ZyXEL Device’s wireless connection.
• Use the General screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select
the wireless security mode (Section 7.2 on page 92).
• Use the More AP screen to set up multiple wireless networks on your ZyXEL
Device (Section 7.3 on page 101).
• Use the MAC Authentication screen to allow or deny wireless clients based on
their MAC addresses from connecting to the ZyXEL Device (Section 7.4 on page
103).
• Use the WPS screen to enable or disable WPS, view or generate a security PIN
(Personal Identification Number) (Section 7.5 on page 105).
• Use the WMM screen to enable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) to ensure quality of
service in wireless networks for multimedia applications (Section 7.6 on page
106).
• Use the WDS screen to set up a Wireless Distribution System, in which the
ZyXEL Device acts as a bridge with other ZyXEL access points (Section 7.7 on
page 107).
• Use the Others screen to configure wireless advanced features, such as the
RTS/CTS Threshold (Section 7.8 on page 110).
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7.1.2 What You Need to Know
Wireless Basics
“Wireless” is essentially radio communication. In the same way that walkie-talkie
radios send and receive information over the airwaves, wireless networking
devices exchange information with one another. A wireless networking device is
just like a radio that lets your computer exchange information with radios
attached to other computers. Like walkie-talkies, most wireless networking
devices operate at radio frequency bands that are open to the public and do not
require a license to use. However, wireless networking is different from that of
most traditional radio communications in that there a number of wireless
networking standards available with different methods of data encryption.
Finding Out More
See Section 7.9 on page 111 for advanced technical information on wireless
networks.
7.2 The General Screen
Use this screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the wireless
security mode.
Note: If you are configuring the ZyXEL Device from a computer connected to the
wireless LAN and you change the ZyXEL Device’s SSID, channel or security
settings, you will lose your wireless connection when you press Apply to
confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of your computer to match
the ZyXEL Device’s new settings.
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Click Network Settings > Wireless to open the General screen.
Figure 23 Network Settings > Wireless > General
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
Table 9 Network Settings > Wireless > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Network Setup
Wireless
You can Enable or Disable the wireless LAN in this field.
Channel
Set the channel depending on your particular region.
Select a channel or use Auto to have the ZyXEL Device automatically
determine a channel to use. If you are having problems with wireless
interference, changing the channel may help. Try to use a channel that is
as many channels away from any channels used by neighboring APs as
possible. The channel number which the ZyXEL Device is currently using
then displays next to this field.
more.../less
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Table 9 Network Settings > Wireless > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Passphrase
Type
If you set security for the wireless LAN and have the ZyXEL Device
generate a password, the setting in this field determines how the ZyXEL
Device generates the password.
Select None to set the ZyXEL Device’s password generation to not be
based on a passphrase.
Select Fixed to use a 16 character passphrase for generating a password.
Select Variable to use a 16 to 63 character passphrase for generating a
password.
Passphrase
Key
For a fixed type passphrase enter 16 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z,
with no spaces). It must contain both letters and numbers and is casesensitive.
For a variable type passphrase enter 16 to 63 alphanumeric characters (09, A-Z, with no spaces). It must contain both letters and numbers and is
case-sensitive.
Bandwidth
Select whether the ZyXEL Device uses a wireless channel width of 20MHz
or 40MHz.
A standard 20MHz channel offers transfer speeds of up to 150Mbps
whereas a 40MHz channel uses two standard channels and offers speeds
of up to 300 Mbps.
40MHz (channel bonding or dual channel) bonds two adjacent radio
channels to increase throughput. The wireless clients must also support 40
MHz. It is often better to use the 20 MHz setting in a location where the
environment hinders the wireless signal.
Select 20MHz if you want to lessen radio interference with other wireless
devices in your neighborhood or the wireless clients do not support
channel bonding.
Control
Sideband
This is available for some regions when you select a specific channel and
set the Bandwidth field to 40MHz. Set whether the control channel (set in
the Channel field) should be in the Lower or Upper range of channel
bands.
Wireless Network Settings
Wireless
Network
Name (SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which a
wireless device is associated. Wireless devices associating to the access
point (AP) must have the same SSID.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 English keyboard characters) for the
wireless LAN.
94
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a
station cannot obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Client
Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating
with each other through the ZyXEL Device.
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Table 9 Network Settings > Wireless > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MBSSID/LAN
Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating
with clients in other SSIDs or wired LAN devices through the ZyXEL
Device.
Select both Client Isolation and MBSSID/LAN Isolation to allow this
SSID’s wireless clients to only connect to the Internet through the ZyXEL
Device.
Enhanced
Multicast
Forwarding
Select this check box to allow the ZyXEL Device to convert wireless
multicast traffic into wireless unicast traffic.
Security Level
Security
Mode
Select Basic (WEP) or More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK, WPA(2)) to add
security on this wireless network. The wireless clients which want to
associate to this network must have same wireless security settings as the
ZyXEL Device. When you select to use a security, additional options
appears in this screen.
Or you can select No Security to allow any client to associate this
network without any data encryption or authentication.
See the following sections for more details about this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.2.1 No Security
Select No Security to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access
points without any data encryption or authentication.
Note: If you do not enable any wireless security on your ZyXEL Device, your network
is accessible to any wireless networking device that is within range.
Figure 24 Wireless > General: No Security
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Wireless > General: No Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security
Level
Choose No Security from the drop-down list box.
7.2.2 Basic (WEP Encryption)
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and
the access points (AP) to keep network communications private. Both the wireless
stations and the access points must use the same WEP key.
Note: WEP is extremely insecure. Its encryption can be broken by an attacker, using
widely-available software. It is strongly recommended that you use a more
effective security mechanism. Use the strongest security mechanism that all the
wireless devices in your network support. For example, use WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK if all your wireless devices support it, or use WPA or WPA2 if your
wireless devices support it and you have a RADIUS server. If your wireless
devices support nothing stronger than WEP, use the highest encryption level
available.
Your ZyXEL Device allows you to configure up to four 64-bit or 128-bit WEP keys
but only one key can be enabled at any one time.
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption, click Network Settings >
Wireless to display the General screen, then select Basic as the security level.
Figure 25 Wireless > General: Basic (WEP)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Wireless > General: Basic (WEP)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security
Level
Select Basic to enable WEP data encryption.
Generate
Select this option to have the ZyXEL Device automatically generate a
password
password. The password field will not be configurable when you select this
automatically option.
Password
1~4
The password (WEP keys) are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyXEL
Device and the wireless stations must use the same password (WEP key)
for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26
hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure at least one password, only one password can be
activated at any one time. The default password is Passowrd 1.
more.../less
Click more... to show more fields in this section. Click less to hide them.
WEP
Encryption
Select 64-bits or 128-bits.
This dictates the length of the security key that the network is going to
use.
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7.2.3 More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK)
The WPA-PSK security mode provides both improved data encryption and user
authentication over WEP. Using a Pre-Shared Key (PSK), both the ZyXEL Device
and the connecting client share a common password in order to validate the
connection. This type of encryption, while robust, is not as strong as WPA, WPA2
or even WPA2-PSK. The WPA2-PSK security mode is a newer, more robust version
of the WPA encryption standard. It offers slightly better security, although the use
of PSK makes it less robust than it could be.
Click Network Settings > Wireless to display the General screen. Select More
Secure as the security level. Then select WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the
Security Mode list.
Figure 26 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select More Secure to enable WPA(2)-PSK data encryption.
Security Mode
Select WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the drop-down list box.
Generate
password
automatically
Select this option to have the ZyXEL Device automatically generate a
password. The password field will not be configurable when you select
this option.
Password
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the
same. The only difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a
simple common password, instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 64 case-sensitive keyboard characters.
more.../less
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them.
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Table 12 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WPA-PSK
Compatible
This field appears when you choose WPA-PSK2 as the Security Mode.
Encryption
Check this field to allow wireless devices using WPA-PSK security
mode to connect to your ZyXEL Device. The ZyXEL Device supports
WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK simultaneously.
Select the encryption type (AES or TKIP+AES) for data encryption.
Select AES if your wireless clients can all use AES.
Select TKIP+AES to allow the wireless clients to use either TKIP or
AES.
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the RADIUS server
sends a new group key out to all clients.
7.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication
The WPA2 security mode is currently the most robust form of encryption for
wireless networks. It requires a RADIUS server to authenticate user credentials
and is a full implementation the security protocol. Use this security option for
maximum protection of your network. However, it is the least backwards
compatible with older devices.
The WPA security mode is a security subset of WPA2. It requires the presence of a
RADIUS server on your network in order to validate user credentials. This
encryption standard is slightly older than WPA2 and therefore is more compatible
with older devices.
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Click Network Settings > Wireless to display the General screen. Select More
Secure as the security level. Then select WPA or WPA2 from the Security Mode
list.
Figure 27 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select More Secure to enable WPA(2)-PSK data encryption.
Security Mode
Choose WPA or WPA2 from the drop-down list box.
Authentication Server
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted
decimal notation.
Port Number
Enter the port number of the external authentication server. The
default port number is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator
instructs you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the ZyXEL
Device.
The key must be the same on the external authentication server and
your ZyXEL Device. The key is not sent over the network.
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more.../less
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them.
WPA Compatible
This field is only available for WPA2. Select this if you want the ZyXEL
Device to support WPA and WPA2 simultaneously.
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Table 13 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Select the encryption type (AES or TKIP+AES) for data encryption.
Select AES if your wireless clients can all use AES.
Select TKIP+AES to allow the wireless clients to use either TKIP or
AES.
WPA2 PreAuthentication
This field is available only when you select WPA2.
Network Re-auth
Interval
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and
passwords in order to stay connected.
Pre-authentication enables fast roaming by allowing the wireless client
(already connecting to an AP) to perform IEEE 802.1x authentication
with another AP before connecting to it. Select Enabled to turn on
preauthentication in WAP2. Otherwise, select Disabled.
If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS server,
the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has priority.
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the RADIUS server
sends a new group key out to all clients.
7.3 The More AP Screen
This screen allows you to enable and configure multiple Basic Service Sets (BSSs)
on the ZyXEL Device.
Click Network Settings > Wireless > More AP. The following screen displays.
Figure 28 Network Settings > Wireless > More AP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Network Settings > Wireless > More AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field indicates whether this SSID is active. A yellow bulb signifies
that this SSID is active. A gray bulb signifies that this SSID is not active.
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Table 14 Network Settings > Wireless > More AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the ZyXEL
Device’s BSSs. The SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service
Set with which a wireless device is associated.
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When
a wireless client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that
is broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Security
This field indicates the security mode of the SSID profile.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the SSID profile.
7.3.1 Edit More AP
Use this screen to edit an SSID profile. Click the Edit icon next to an SSID in the
More AP screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 29 More AP: Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 15 More AP: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Network Setup
Wireless
You can Enable or Disable the wireless LAN in this field.
Wireless Network Settings
Wireless Network
Name (SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which
a wireless device is associated. Wireless devices associating to the
access point (AP) must have the same SSID.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 English keyboard characters) for
the wireless LAN.
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Table 15 More AP: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame
so a station cannot obtain the SSID through scanning using a site
survey tool.
Client Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from
communicating with each other.
MBSSID/LAN
Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from
communicating with clients in other SSIDs or LAN devices.
Enhanced Multicast
Forwarding
Select this check box to allow the ZyXEL Device to convert wireless
multicast traffic into wireless unicast traffic.
Security Level
Security Mode
Select Basic (WEP) or More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK, WPA(2)) to
add security on this wireless network. The wireless clients which
want to associate to this network must have same wireless security
settings as the ZyXEL Device. After you select to use a security,
additional options appears in this screen.
Or you can select No Security to allow any client to associate this
network without any data encryption or authentication.
See Section 7.2.1 on page 95 for more details about this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
7.4 MAC Authentication
This screen allows you to configure the ZyXEL Device to give exclusive access to
specific devices (Allow) or exclude specific devices from accessing the ZyXEL
Device (Deny). Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control)
address. The MAC address is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of
hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the
MAC addresses of the devices to configure this screen.
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Use this screen to view your ZyXEL Device’s MAC filter settings and add new MAC
filter rules. Click Wireless > MAC Authentication. The screen appears as
shown.
Figure 30 Wireless > MAC Authentication
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Wireless > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
Select the SSID for which you want to configure MAC filter settings.
MAC Restrict
Mode
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address
table.
Select Disable to turn off MAC filtering.
Select Deny to block access to the ZyXEL Device. MAC addresses not listed
will be allowed to access the ZyXEL Device.
Select Allow to permit access to the ZyXEL Device. MAC addresses not
listed will be denied access to the ZyXEL Device.
104
Add new
MAC
address
Click this if you want to add a new MAC address entry to the MAC filter list
below.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
MAC
Address
This is the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied
access to the ZyXEL Device.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
Enter the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied
access to the ZyXEL Device in these address fields. Enter the MAC
addresses in a valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character
pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
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7.5 The WPS Screen
Use this screen to configure WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) on your ZyXEL Device.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without
having to configure security settings manually. Set up each WPS connection
between two devices. Both devices must support WPS. See Section 7.9.9.3 on
page 122 for more information about WPS.
Note: The ZyXEL Device applies the security settings of the SSID1 profile (see
Section 7.2 on page 92). If you want to use the WPS feature, make sure you
have set the security mode of SSID1 to WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or No Security.
Click Network Settings > Wireless > WPS. The following screen displays.
Select Enable and click Apply to activate the WPS function. Then you can
configure the WPS settings in this screen.
Figure 31 Network Settings > Wireless > WPS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Network Settings > Wireless > WPS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable WPS
Select Enable to activate WPS on the ZyXEL Device.
Method 1
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network using Push Button
Configuration (PBC).
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Table 17 Network Settings > Wireless > WPS
LABEL
Connect
DESCRIPTION
Click this button to add another WPS-enabled wireless device (within
wireless range of the ZyXEL Device) to your wireless network. This
button may either be a physical button on the outside of device, or a
menu button similar to the Connect button on this screen.
Note: You must press the other wireless device’s WPS button
within two minutes of pressing this button.
Method 2
Register
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network by entering the PIN
of the client into the ZyXEL Device.
Enter the PIN of the device that you are setting up a WPS connection
with and click Register to authenticate and add the wireless device to
your wireless network.
You can find the PIN either on the outside of the device, or by checking
the device’s settings.
Note: You must also activate WPS on that device within two
minutes to have it present its PIN to the ZyXEL Device.
Method 3
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network by entering the PIN
of the ZyXEL Device into the client.
Release
The default WPS status is configured.
Configuration
Click this button to remove all configured wireless and wireless security
settings for WPS connections on the ZyXEL Device.
Generate
New PIN
Number
The PIN (Personal Identification Number) of the ZyXEL Device is shown
here. Enter this PIN in the configuration utility of the device you want
to connect to using WPS.
The PIN is not necessary when you use WPS push-button method.
Click the Generate New PIN Number button to have the ZyXEL
Device create a new PIN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.6 The WMM Screen
Use this screen to enable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) and WMM Power Save in
wireless networks for multimedia applications.
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Click Network Settings > Wireless > WMM. The following screen displays.
Figure 32 Network Settings > Wireless > WMM
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Network Settings > Wireless > WMM
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WMM
Select On to have the ZyXEL Device automatically give a service a
priority level according to the ToS value in the IP header of packets it
sends. WMM QoS (Wifi MultiMedia Quality of Service) gives high priority
to voice and video, which makes them run more smoothly.
WMM Power
Save
Select this option to extend the battery life of your mobile devices
(especially useful for small devices that are running multimedia
applications). The ZyXEL Device goes to sleep mode to save power when
it is not transmitting data. The AP buffers the packets sent to the ZyXEL
Device until the ZyXEL Device "wakes up". The ZyXEL Device wakes up
periodically to check for incoming data.
Note: Note: This works only if the wireless device to which the
ZyXEL Device is connected also supports this feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.7 The WDS Screen
An AP using the Wireless Distribution System (WDS) can function as a wireless
network bridge allowing you to wirelessly connect two wired network segments.
The WDS screen allows you to configure the ZyXEL Device to connect to two or
more APs wirelessly when WDS is enabled.
Use this screen to set up your WDS (Wireless Distribution System) links between
the ZyXEL Device and other wireless APs. You need to know the MAC address of
the peer device. Once the security settings of peer sides match one another, the
connection between devices is made.
Note: WDS security is independent of the security settings between the ZyXEL
Device and any wireless clients.
Note: At the time of writing, WDS is compatible with other ZyXEL APs only. Not all
models support WDS links. Check your other AP’s documentation.
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Click Network Settings > Wireless > WDS. The following screen displays.
Figure 33 Network Settings > Wireless > WDS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Network Settings > Wireless > WDS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Bridge Setup
AP Mode
Select the operating mode for your ZyXEL Device.
•
•
Bridge Restrict
Access Point - The ZyXEL Device functions as a bridge and access
point simultaneously.
Wireless Bridge - The ZyXEL Device acts as a wireless network
bridge and establishes wireless links with other APs. In this mode,
clients cannot connect to the ZyXEL Device wirelessly.
This field is available only when you set operating mode to Access
Point.
Select Enabled to turn on WDS and enter the peer device’s MAC
address manually in the table below. Select Disable to turn off WDS.
Remote Bridge
MAC Address
You can enter the MAC address of the peer device by clicking the Edit
icon under Modify.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
MAC Address
This shows the MAC address of the peer device.
You can connect to up to 4 peer devices.
Modify
Click the Edit icon and type the MAC address of the peer device in a
valid MAC address format (six hexadecimal character pairs, for example
12:34:56:78:9a:bc).
Click the Delete icon to remove this entry.
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Table 19 Network Settings > Wireless > WDS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Scan
Click the Scan icon to search and display the available APs within range.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.7.1 WDS Scan
You can click the Scan icon in Wireless > WDS to have the ZyXEL Device
automatically search and display the available APs within range. Select an AP and
click Apply to have the ZyXEL Device establish a wireless link with the selected
wireless device.
Figure 34 WDS: Scan
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 WDS: Scan
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Bridge Scan Setup
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the table.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
SSID
This shows the SSID of the available wireless device within range.
BSSID
This shows the MAC address of the available wireless device within
range.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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7.8 The Others Screen
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings. Click Network Settings
> Wireless > Others. The screen appears as shown.
See Section 7.9.2 on page 113 for detailed definitions of the terms listed in this
screen.
Figure 35 Network Settings > Wireless > Others
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Network Settings > Wireless > Others
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS
Threshold
Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS
(Request To Send)/CTS (Clear To Send) handshake.
Enter a value between 0 and 2347.
Fragmentation
Threshold
This is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value
between 256 and 2346.
Auto Channel
Timer
If you set the channel to Auto in the Network Settings > Wireless >
General screen, specify the interval in minutes for how often the ZyXEL
Device scans for the best channel. Enter 0 to disable the periodical scan.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device. If there is a high density of
APs in an area, decrease the output power to reduce interference with
other APs. Select one of the following: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% or
100%.
Beacon
Interval
When a wirelessly networked device sends a beacon, it includes with it a
beacon interval. This specifies the time period before the device sends
the beacon again.
The interval tells receiving devices on the network how long they can wait
in low power mode before waking up to handle the beacon. This value
can be set from20ms to 1000ms. A high value helps save current
consumption of the access point.
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Table 21 Network Settings > Wireless > Others
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DTIM Interval
Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) is the time period after which
broadcast and multicast packets are transmitted to mobile clients in the
Power Saving mode. A high DTIM value can cause clients to lose
connectivity with the network. This value can be set from 1 to 100.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11n Only to allow only IEEE 802.11n compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11b/g Mixed to allow either IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g
compliant WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The
transmission rate of your ZyXEL Device might be reduced.
Select 802.11b/g/n Mixed to allow IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g or
IEEE802.11n compliant WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL
Device. The transmission rate of your ZyXEL Device might be reduced.
802.11
Protection
Enabling this feature can help prevent collisions in mixed-mode networks
(networks with both IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g traffic).
Select Auto to have the wireless devices transmit data after a RTS/CTS
handshake. This helps improve IEEE 802.11g performance.
Select Off to disable 802.11 protection. The transmission rate of your
ZyXEL Device might be reduced in a mixed-mode network.
This field displays Off and is not configurable when you set 802.11
Mode to 802.11b Only.
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list box. Choices are Long or
Short. See Section 7.9.7 on page 119 for more information.
This field is configurable only when you set 802.11 Mode to 802.11b.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
7.9 Technical Reference
This section discusses wireless LANs in depth. For more information, see the
appendix.
7.9.1 Wireless Network Overview
Wireless networks consist of wireless clients, access points and bridges.
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• A wireless client is a radio connected to a user’s computer.
• An access point is a radio with a wired connection to a network, which can
connect with numerous wireless clients and let them access the network.
• A bridge is a radio that relays communications between access points and
wireless clients, extending a network’s range.
Traditionally, a wireless network operates in one of two ways.
• An “infrastructure” type of network has one or more access points and one or
more wireless clients. The wireless clients connect to the access points.
• An “ad-hoc” type of network is one in which there is no access point. Wireless
clients connect to one another in order to exchange information.
The following figure provides an example of a wireless network.
Figure 36 Example of a Wireless Network
The wireless network is the part in the blue circle. In this wireless network,
devices A and B use the access point (AP) to interact with the other devices (such
as the printer) or with the Internet. Your ZyXEL Device is the AP.
Every wireless network must follow these basic guidelines.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use the same SSID.
The SSID is the name of the wireless network. It stands for Service Set
IDentifier.
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• If two wireless networks overlap, they should use a different channel.
Like radio stations or television channels, each wireless network uses a specific
channel, or frequency, to send and receive information.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use security compatible with
the AP.
Security stops unauthorized devices from using the wireless network. It can also
protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Radio Channels
In the radio spectrum, there are certain frequency bands allocated for unlicensed,
civilian use. For the purposes of wireless networking, these bands are divided into
numerous channels. This allows a variety of networks to exist in the same place
without interfering with one another. When you create a network, you must select
a channel to use.
Since the available unlicensed spectrum varies from one country to another, the
number of available channels also varies.
7.9.2 Additional Wireless Terms
The following table describes some wireless network terms and acronyms used in
the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator.
Table 22 Additional Wireless Terms
TERM
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS Threshold
In a wireless network which covers a large area, wireless devices
are sometimes not aware of each other’s presence. This may cause
them to send information to the AP at the same time and result in
information colliding and not getting through.
By setting this value lower than the default value, the wireless
devices must sometimes get permission to send information to the
ZyXEL Device. The lower the value, the more often the devices must
get permission.
If this value is greater than the fragmentation threshold value (see
below), then wireless devices never have to get permission to send
information to the ZyXEL Device.
Preamble
A preamble affects the timing in your wireless network. There are
two preamble modes: long and short. If a device uses a different
preamble mode than the ZyXEL Device does, it cannot communicate
with the ZyXEL Device.
Authentication
The process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to use
the wireless network.
Fragmentation
Threshold
A small fragmentation threshold is recommended for busy networks,
while a larger threshold provides faster performance if the network
is not very busy.
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7.9.3 Wireless Security Overview
By their nature, radio communications are simple to intercept. For wireless data
networks, this means that anyone within range of a wireless network without
security can not only read the data passing over the airwaves, but also join the
network. Once an unauthorized person has access to the network, he or she can
steal information or introduce malware (malicious software) intended to
compromise the network. For these reasons, a variety of security systems have
been developed to ensure that only authorized people can use a wireless data
network, or understand the data carried on it.
These security standards do two things. First, they authenticate. This means that
only people presenting the right credentials (often a username and password, or a
“key” phrase) can access the network. Second, they encrypt. This means that the
information sent over the air is encoded. Only people with the code key can
understand the information, and only people who have been authenticated are
given the code key.
These security standards vary in effectiveness. Some can be broken, such as the
old Wired Equivalent Protocol (WEP). Using WEP is better than using no security at
all, but it will not keep a determined attacker out. Other security standards are
secure in themselves but can be broken if a user does not use them properly. For
example, the WPA-PSK security standard is very secure if you use a long key
which is difficult for an attacker’s software to guess - for example, a twenty-letter
long string of apparently random numbers and letters - but it is not very secure if
you use a short key which is very easy to guess - for example, a three-letter word
from the dictionary.
Because of the damage that can be done by a malicious attacker, it’s not just
people who have sensitive information on their network who should use security.
Everybody who uses any wireless network should ensure that effective security is
in place.
A good way to come up with effective security keys, passwords and so on is to use
obscure information that you personally will easily remember, and to enter it in a
way that appears random and does not include real words. For example, if your
mother owns a 1970 Dodge Challenger and her favorite movie is Vanishing Point
(which you know was made in 1971) you could use “70dodchal71vanpoi” as your
security key.
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up
in the wireless network.
7.9.3.1 SSID
Normally, the ZyXEL Device acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID
in the area. You can hide the SSID instead, in which case the ZyXEL Device does
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not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you should change the default SSID to
something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for
unauthorized wireless devices to get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized wireless
devices can still see the information that is sent in the wireless network.
7.9.3.2 MAC Address Filter
Every device that can use a wireless network has a unique identification number,
called a MAC address.1 A MAC address is usually written using twelve hexadecimal
characters2; for example, 00A0C5000002 or 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. To get the MAC
address for each device in the wireless network, see the device’s User’s Guide or
other documentation.
You can use the MAC address filter to tell the ZyXEL Device which devices are
allowed or not allowed to use the wireless network. If a device is allowed to use
the wireless network, it still has to have the correct information (SSID, channel,
and security). If a device is not allowed to use the wireless network, it does not
matter if it has the correct information.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized wireless devices to get the
MAC address of an authorized device. Then, they can use that MAC address to use
the wireless network.
7.9.3.3 User Authentication
Authentication is the process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to
use the wireless network. You can make every user log in to the wireless network
before using it. However, every device in the wireless network has to support IEEE
802.1x to do this.
For wireless networks, you can store the user names and passwords for each user
in a RADIUS server. This is a server used in businesses more than in homes. If you
do not have a RADIUS server, you cannot set up user names and passwords for
your users.
Unauthorized wireless devices can still see the information that is sent in the
wireless network, even if they cannot use the wireless network. Furthermore,
there are ways for unauthorized wireless users to get a valid user name and
password. Then, they can use that user name and password to use the wireless
network.
1.
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless networks.
These kinds of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
2.
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
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7.9.3.4 Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the
wireless network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret
code, you cannot understand the message.
The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of authentication.
(See Section 7.9.3.3 on page 115 for information about this.)
Table 23 Types of Encryption for Each Type of Authentication
NO AUTHENTICATION RADIUS SERVER
Weakest
No Security
WPA
Static WEP
WPA-PSK
Strongest
WPA2-PSK
WPA2
For example, if the wireless network has a RADIUS server, you can choose WPA
or WPA2. If users do not log in to the wireless network, you can choose no
encryption, Static WEP, WPA-PSK, or WPA2-PSK.
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every device in the
wireless network supports. For example, suppose you have a wireless network
with the ZyXEL Device and you do not have a RADIUS server. Therefore, there is
no authentication. Suppose the wireless network has two devices. Device A only
supports WEP, and device B supports WEP and WPA. Therefore, you should set up
Static WEP in the wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless networks use WPA-PSK, WPA, or stronger
encryption. The other types of encryption are better than none at all, but it is still
possible for unauthorized wireless devices to figure out the original information
pretty quickly.
When you select WPA2 or WPA2-PSK in your ZyXEL Device, you can also select
an option (WPA compatible) to support WPA as well. In this case, if some of the
devices support WPA and some support WPA2, you should set up WPA2-PSK or
WPA2 (depending on the type of wireless network login) and select the WPA
compatible option in the ZyXEL Device.
Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless
network. The longer the key, the stronger the encryption. Every device in the
wireless network must have the same key.
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7.9.4 Signal Problems
Because wireless networks are radio networks, their signals are subject to
limitations of distance, interference and absorption.
Problems with distance occur when the two radios are too far apart. Problems with
interference occur when other radio waves interrupt the data signal. Interference
may come from other radio transmissions, such as military or air traffic control
communications, or from machines that are coincidental emitters such as electric
motors or microwaves. Problems with absorption occur when physical objects
(such as thick walls) are between the two radios, muffling the signal.
7.9.5 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless
stations or between a wireless station and a wired network client go through one
access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS
traffic blocking is disabled, wireless station A and B can access the wired network
and communicate with each other. When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is enabled,
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wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but cannot
communicate with each other.
Figure 37 Basic Service set
7.9.6 MBSSID
Traditionally, you need to use different APs to configure different Basic Service
Sets (BSSs). As well as the cost of buying extra APs, there is also the possibility of
channel interference. The ZyXEL Device’s MBSSID (Multiple Basic Service Set
IDentifier) function allows you to use one access point to provide several BSSs
simultaneously. You can then assign varying QoS priorities and/or security modes
to different SSIDs.
Wireless devices can use different BSSIDs to associate with the same AP.
7.9.6.1 Notes on Multiple BSSs
• A maximum of eight BSSs are allowed on one AP simultaneously.
• You must use different keys for different BSSs. If two wireless devices have
different BSSIDs (they are in different BSSs), but have the same keys, they
may hear each other’s communications (but not communicate with each other).
• MBSSID should not replace but rather be used in conjunction with 802.1x
security.
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7.9.7 Preamble Type
Preamble is used to signal that data is coming to the receiver. Short and long refer
to the length of the synchronization field in a packet.
Short preamble increases performance as less time sending preamble means
more time for sending data. All IEEE 802.11 compliant wireless adapters support
long preamble, but not all support short preamble.
Use long preamble if you are unsure what preamble mode other wireless devices
on the network support, and to provide more reliable communications in busy
wireless networks.
Use short preamble if you are sure all wireless devices on the network support it,
and to provide more efficient communications.
Use the dynamic setting to automatically use short preamble when all wireless
devices on the network support it, otherwise the ZyXEL Device uses long
preamble.
Note: The wireless devices MUST use the same preamble mode in order to
communicate.
7.9.8 Wireless Distribution System (WDS)
The ZyXEL Device can act as a wireless network bridge and establish WDS
(Wireless Distribution System) links with other APs. You need to know the MAC
addresses of the APs you want to link to. Once the security settings of peer sides
match one another, the connection between devices is made.
At the time of writing, WDS security is compatible with other ZyXEL access points
only. Refer to your other access point’s documentation for details.
The following figure illustrates how WDS link works between APs. Notebook
computer A is a wireless client connecting to access point AP 1. AP 1 has no
wired Internet connection, but it can establish a WDS link with access point AP 2,
which has a wired Internet connection. When AP 1 has a WDS link with AP 2, the
notebook computer can access the Internet through AP 2.
Figure 38 WDS Link Example
WDS
A
AP 1
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7.9.9 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS)
Your ZyXEL Device supports WiFi Protected Setup (WPS), which is an easy way to
set up a secure wireless network. WPS is an industry standard specification,
defined by the WiFi Alliance.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without
having to configure security settings manually. Each WPS connection works
between two devices. Both devices must support WPS (check each device’s
documentation to make sure).
Depending on the devices you have, you can either press a button (on the device
itself, or in its configuration utility) or enter a PIN (a unique Personal Identification
Number that allows one device to authenticate the other) in each of the two
devices. When WPS is activated on a device, it has two minutes to find another
device that also has WPS activated. Then, the two devices connect and set up a
secure network by themselves.
7.9.9.1 Push Button Configuration
WPS Push Button Configuration (PBC) is initiated by pressing a button on each
WPS-enabled device, and allowing them to connect automatically. You do not need
to enter any information.
Not every WPS-enabled device has a physical WPS button. Some may have a WPS
PBC button in their configuration utilities instead of or in addition to the physical
button.
Take the following steps to set up WPS using the button.
1
Ensure that the two devices you want to set up are within wireless range of one
another.
2
Look for a WPS button on each device. If the device does not have one, log into its
configuration utility and locate the button (see the device’s User’s Guide for how to
do this - for the ZyXEL Device, see Section 7.6 on page 106).
3
Press the button on one of the devices (it doesn’t matter which). For the ZyXEL
Device you must press the WPS button for more than three seconds.
4
Within two minutes, press the button on the other device. The registrar sends the
network name (SSID) and security key through an secure connection to the
enrollee.
If you need to make sure that WPS worked, check the list of associated wireless
clients in the AP’s configuration utility. If you see the wireless client in the list,
WPS was successful.
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7.9.9.2 PIN Configuration
Each WPS-enabled device has its own PIN (Personal Identification Number). This
may either be static (it cannot be changed) or dynamic (in some devices you can
generate a new PIN by clicking on a button in the configuration interface).
Use the PIN method instead of the push-button configuration (PBC) method if you
want to ensure that the connection is established between the devices you specify,
not just the first two devices to activate WPS in range of each other. However, you
need to log into the configuration interfaces of both devices to use the PIN
method.
When you use the PIN method, you must enter the PIN from one device (usually
the wireless client) into the second device (usually the Access Point or wireless
router). Then, when WPS is activated on the first device, it presents its PIN to the
second device. If the PIN matches, one device sends the network and security
information to the other, allowing it to join the network.
Take the following steps to set up a WPS connection between an access point or
wireless router (referred to here as the AP) and a client device using the PIN
method.
1
Ensure WPS is enabled on both devices.
2
Access the WPS section of the AP’s configuration interface. See the device’s User’s
Guide for how to do this.
3
Look for the client’s WPS PIN; it will be displayed either on the device, or in the
WPS section of the client’s configuration interface (see the device’s User’s Guide
for how to find the WPS PIN - for the ZyXEL Device, see Section 7.5 on page 105).
4
Enter the client’s PIN in the AP’s configuration interface.
5
If the client device’s configuration interface has an area for entering another
device’s PIN, you can either enter the client’s PIN in the AP, or enter the AP’s PIN
in the client - it does not matter which.
6
Start WPS on both devices within two minutes.
7
Use the configuration utility to activate WPS, not the push-button on the device
itself.
8
On a computer connected to the wireless client, try to connect to the Internet. If
you can connect, WPS was successful.
If you cannot connect, check the list of associated wireless clients in the AP’s
configuration utility. If you see the wireless client in the list, WPS was successful.
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The following figure shows a WPS-enabled wireless client (installed in a notebook
computer) connecting to the WPS-enabled AP via the PIN method.
Figure 39 Example WPS Process: PIN Method
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
WPS
This device’s
WPS PIN: 123456
WPS
Enter WPS PIN
from other device:
WPS
START
WPS
START
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
SECURE EAP TUNNEL
SSID
WPA(2)-PSK
COMMUNICATION
7.9.9.3 How WPS Works
When two WPS-enabled devices connect, each device must assume a specific role.
One device acts as the registrar (the device that supplies network and security
settings) and the other device acts as the enrollee (the device that receives
network and security settings. The registrar creates a secure EAP (Extensible
Authentication Protocol) tunnel and sends the network name (SSID) and the WPAPSK or WPA2-PSK pre-shared key to the enrollee. Whether WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK
is used depends on the standards supported by the devices. If the registrar is
already part of a network, it sends the existing information. If not, it generates
the SSID and WPA(2)-PSK randomly.
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The following figure shows a WPS-enabled client (installed in a notebook
computer) connecting to a WPS-enabled access point.
Figure 40 How WPS works
ACTIVATE
WPS
ACTIVATE
WPS
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
WPS HANDSHAKE
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURE TUNNEL
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
The roles of registrar and enrollee last only as long as the WPS setup process is
active (two minutes). The next time you use WPS, a different device can be the
registrar if necessary.
The WPS connection process is like a handshake; only two devices participate in
each WPS transaction. If you want to add more devices you should repeat the
process with one of the existing networked devices and the new device.
Note that the access point (AP) is not always the registrar, and the wireless client
is not always the enrollee. All WPS-certified APs can be a registrar, and so can
some WPS-enabled wireless clients.
By default, a WPS devices is “unconfigured”. This means that it is not part of an
existing network and can act as either enrollee or registrar (if it supports both
functions). If the registrar is unconfigured, the security settings it transmits to the
enrollee are randomly-generated. Once a WPS-enabled device has connected to
another device using WPS, it becomes “configured”. A configured wireless client
can still act as enrollee or registrar in subsequent WPS connections, but a
configured access point can no longer act as enrollee. It will be the registrar in all
subsequent WPS connections in which it is involved. If you want a configured AP to
act as an enrollee, you must reset it to its factory defaults.
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7.9.9.4 Example WPS Network Setup
This section shows how security settings are distributed in an example WPS setup.
The following figure shows an example network. In step 1, both AP1 and Client 1
are unconfigured. When WPS is activated on both, they perform the handshake. In
this example, AP1 is the registrar, and Client 1 is the enrollee. The registrar
randomly generates the security information to set up the network, since it is
unconfigured and has no existing information.
Figure 41 WPS: Example Network Step 1
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURITY INFO
AP1
CLIENT 1
In step 2, you add another wireless client to the network. You know that Client 1
supports registrar mode, but it is better to use AP1 for the WPS handshake with
the new client since you must connect to the access point anyway in order to use
the network. In this case, AP1 must be the registrar, since it is configured (it
already has security information for the network). AP1 supplies the existing
security information to Client 2.
Figure 42 WPS: Example Network Step 2
REGISTRAR
EXISTING CONNECTION
AP1
CLIENT 1
ENROLLEE
O
NF
YI
T
I
R
CU
SE
CLIENT 2
In step 3, you add another access point (AP2) to your network. AP2 is out of
range of AP1, so you cannot use AP1 for the WPS handshake with the new access
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point. However, you know that Client 2 supports the registrar function, so you use
it to perform the WPS handshake instead.
Figure 43 WPS: Example Network Step 3
EXISTING CONNECTION
CLIENT 1
IS
EX
N
TIO
EC
N
ON
GC
N
I
T
AP1
REGISTRAR
CLIENT 2
SE
CU
RIT
Y
ENROLLEE
INF
O
AP2
7.9.9.5 Limitations of WPS
WPS has some limitations of which you should be aware.
• WPS works in Infrastructure networks only (where an AP and a wireless client
communicate). It does not work in Ad-Hoc networks (where there is no AP).
• When you use WPS, it works between two devices only. You cannot enroll
multiple devices simultaneously, you must enroll one after the other.
For instance, if you have two enrollees and one registrar you must set up the
first enrollee (by pressing the WPS button on the registrar and the first enrollee,
for example), then check that it successfully enrolled, then set up the second
device in the same way.
• WPS works only with other WPS-enabled devices. However, you can still add
non-WPS devices to a network you already set up using WPS.
WPS works by automatically issuing a randomly-generated WPA-PSK or WPA2PSK pre-shared key from the registrar device to the enrollee devices. Whether
the network uses WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depends on the device. You can check
the configuration interface of the registrar device to discover the key the
network is using (if the device supports this feature). Then, you can enter the
key into the non-WPS device and join the network as normal (the non-WPS
device must also support WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK).
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• When you use the PBC method, there is a short period (from the moment you
press the button on one device to the moment you press the button on the
other device) when any WPS-enabled device could join the network. This is
because the registrar has no way of identifying the “correct” enrollee, and
cannot differentiate between your enrollee and a rogue device. This is a possible
way for a hacker to gain access to a network.
You can easily check to see if this has happened. WPS works between only two
devices simultaneously, so if another device has enrolled your device will be
unable to enroll, and will not have access to the network. If this happens, open
the access point’s configuration interface and look at the list of associated
clients (usually displayed by MAC address). It does not matter if the access
point is the WPS registrar, the enrollee, or was not involved in the WPS
handshake; a rogue device must still associate with the access point to gain
access to the network. Check the MAC addresses of your wireless clients
(usually printed on a label on the bottom of the device). If there is an unknown
MAC address you can remove it or reset the AP.
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8
Home Networking
8.1 Overview
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many
networking devices are connected. It is usually located in one immediate area
such as a building or floor of a building.
Use the LAN screens to help you configure a LAN DHCP server and manage IP
addresses.
LAN
DSL
8.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the LAN Setup screen to set the LAN IP address, subnet mask, and DHCP
settings of your ZyXEL device (Section 8.2 on page 130).
• Use the Static DHCP screen to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific
individual computers based on their MAC Addresses (Section 8.3 on page 132).
• Use the UPnP screen to enable UPnP and UPnP NAT traversal on the ZyXEL
Device (Section 8.4 on page 133).
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8.1.2 What You Need To Know
8.1.2.1 About LAN
IP Address
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device
(including computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to
communicate across the network. These networking devices are also known as
hosts.
Subnet Mask
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network.
You can also use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
DHCP
A DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server can assign your ZyXEL
Device an IP address, subnet mask, DNS and other routing information when it's
turned on.
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding
IP address and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because
without it, you must know the IP address of a networking device before you can
access it.
8.1.2.2 About UPnP
Identifying UPnP Devices
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder
(Windows XP). Each UPnP compatible device installed on your network will appear
as a separate icon. Selecting the icon of a UPnP device will allow you to access the
information and properties of that device.
NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate
through NAT. UPnP network devices can automatically configure network
addressing, announce their presence in the network to other UPnP devices and
enable exchange of simple product and service descriptions. NAT traversal allows
the following:
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• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
• Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal
and UPnP.
See the Chapter 12 on page 175 for more information on NAT.
Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own
services and opening firewall ports may present network security issues. Network
information and configuration may also be obtained and modified by users in some
network environments.
When a UPnP device joins a network, it announces its presence with a multicast
message. For security reasons, the ZyXEL Device allows multicast messages on
the LAN only.
All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without
additional configuration. Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has achieved UPnP certification from the Universal Plug and Play Forum
UPnP™ Implementers Corp. (UIC). ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports
Internet Gateway Device (IGD) 1.0.
See Section 8.5 on page 134 for examples of installing and using UPnP.
Finding Out More
See Section 8.7 on page 142 for technical background information on LANs.
8.1.3 Before You Begin
Find out the MAC addresses of your network devices if you intend to add them to
the DHCP Client List screen.
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8.2 The LAN Setup Screen
Use this screen to set the Local Area Network IP address and subnet mask of your
ZyXEL Device. Click Network Settings > Home Networking to open the LAN
Setup screen.
Follow these steps to configure your LAN settings.
1
Enter an IP address into the IP Address field. The IP address must be in dotted
decimal notation. This will become the IP address of your ZyXEL Device.
2
Enter the IP subnet mask into the IP Subnet Mask field. Unless instructed
otherwise it is best to leave this alone, the configurator will automatically compute
a subnet mask based upon the IP address you entered.
3
Click Apply to save your settings.
Figure 44 Network Settings > Home Networking > LAN Setup
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 24 Network Settings > Home Networking > LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Name
Select the interface group name for which you want to configure LAN
settings. See Chapter 15 on page 211 for how to create a new
interface group.
LAN IP Setup
IP Address
Enter the LAN IP address you want to assign to your ZyXEL Device in
dotted decimal notation, for example, 192.168.1.1 (factory default).
Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask of your network in dotted decimal notation, for
example 255.255.255.0 (factory default). Your ZyXEL Device
automatically computes the subnet mask based on the IP Address you
enter, so do not change this field unless you are instructed to do so.
DHCP Server State
DHCP
Select Enable to have the ZyXEL Device act as a DHCP server or DHCP
relay agent.
Select Disable to stop the DHCP server on the ZyXEL Device.
Select DHCP Relay to have the ZyXEL Device forward DHCP request
to the DHCP server.
DHCP Relay
Server Address
This field is only available when you select DHCP Relay in the DHCP
field.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the actual remote DHCP server in this field.
IP Addressing
Values
This field is only available when you select Enable in the DHCP field.
Beginning IP
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP
address pool.
Ending IP
Address
This field specifies the last of the contiguous addresses in the IP
address pool.
DHCP Server
Lease Time
This is the period of time DHCP-assigned addresses is used. DHCP
automatically assigns IP addresses to clients when they log in. DHCP
centralizes IP address management on central computers that run the
DHCP server program. DHCP leases addresses, for a period of time,
which means that past addresses are “recycled” and made available
for future reassignment to other systems.
This field is only available when you select Enable in the DHCP field.
Days/Hours/
Minutes
Enter the lease time of the DHCP server.
DNS Values
This field is only available when you select Enable in the DHCP field.
DNS
Select the type of service that you are registered for from your
Dynamic DNS service provider.
Select Dynamic if you have the Dynamic DNS service.
Select Static if you have the Static DNS service.
DNS Server 1
DNS Server 2
Enter the first and second DNS (Domain Name System) server IP
address the ZyXEL Device passes to the DHCP clients.
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Table 24 Network Settings > Home Networking > LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
8.3 The Static DHCP Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual
computers based on their MAC Addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC
address is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal
characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s static DHCP settings. Click
Network Settings > Home Networking > Static DHCP to open the following
screen.
Figure 45 Network Settings > Home Networking > Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 Network Settings > Home Networking > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new static
lease
Click this to add a new static DHCP entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the client is connected to the ZyXEL Device.
MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address on a LAN (Local
Area Network) is unique to your computer (six pairs of hexadecimal
notation).
A network interface card such as an Ethernet adapter has a hardwired
address that is assigned at the factory. This address follows an industry
standard that ensures no other adapter has a similar address.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the # field listed above.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to have the IP address field editable and change it.
Click the Delete icon to delete a static DHCP entry. A window displays
asking you to confirm that you want to delete the selected entry.
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If you click Add new static lease in the Static DHCP screen or the Edit icon next
to a static DHCP entry, the following screen displays.
Figure 46 Static DHCP: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 Static DHCP: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field displays whether the client is connected to the ZyXEL Device.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of a computer on your LAN.
IP Address
Enter the IP address that you want to assign to the computer on your
LAN with the MAC address that you will also specify.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.4 The UPnP Screen
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that
uses TCP/IP for simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A
UPnP device can dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address, convey its
capabilities and learn about other devices on the network. In turn, a device can
leave a network smoothly and automatically when it is no longer in use.
See page 128 for more information on UPnP.
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Use the following screen to configure the UPnP settings on your ZyXEL Device.
Click Network Settings > Home Networking > UPnP to display the screen
shown next.
Figure 47 Network Settings > Home Networking > UPnP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Network Settings > Home Networking > UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
UPnP
Select Enable to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use a
UPnP application to open the web configurator's login screen without
entering the ZyXEL Device's IP address (although you must still enter
the password to access the web configurator).
UPnP NAT-T
State
Select Enable to allow UPnP-enabled applications to automatically
configure the ZyXEL Device so that they can communicate through the
ZyXEL Device by using NAT traversal. UPnP applications automatically
reserve a NAT forwarding port in order to communicate with another
UPnP enabled device; this eliminates the need to manually configure
port forwarding for the UPnP enabled application.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
8.5 Installing UPnP in Windows Example
This section shows how to install UPnP in Windows Me and Windows XP.
Installing UPnP in Windows Me
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows Me.
1
134
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
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2
Click on the Windows Setup tab and select Communication in the
Components selection box. Click Details.
Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication
3
In the Communications window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box
in the Components selection box.
Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components
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4
Click OK to go back to the Add/Remove Programs Properties window and click
Next.
5
Restart the computer when prompted.
Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows XP.
1
Click Start and Control Panel.
2
Double-click Network Connections.
3
In the Network Connections window, click Advanced in the main menu and
select Optional Networking Components ….
Network Connections
4
The Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard window displays.
Select Networking Service in the Components selection box and click Details.
Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard
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5
In the Networking Services window, select the Universal Plug and Play check
box.
Networking Services
6
Click OK to go back to the Windows Optional Networking Component Wizard
window and click Next.
8.6 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must
already have UPnP installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the ZyXEL
Device.
Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the ZyXEL Device. Turn on
your computer and the ZyXEL Device.
Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device
1
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Network Connections. An icon
displays under Internet Gateway.
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2
Right-click the icon and select Properties.
Network Connections
3
In the Internet Connection Properties window, click Settings to see the port
mappings there were automatically created.
Internet Connection Properties
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4
You may edit or delete the port mappings or click Add to manually add port
mappings.
Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings
Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add
5
When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port
mappings will be deleted automatically.
6
Select Show icon in notification area when connected option and click OK.
An icon displays in the system tray.
System Tray Icon
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7
Double-click on the icon to display your current Internet connection status.
Internet Connection Status
Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the ZyXEL Device
without finding out the IP address of the ZyXEL Device first. This comes helpful if
you do not know the IP address of the ZyXEL Device.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator.
140
1
Click Start and then Control Panel.
2
Double-click Network Connections.
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3
Select My Network Places under Other Places.
Network Connections
4
An icon with the description for each UPnP-enabled device displays under Local
Network.
5
Right-click on the icon for your ZyXEL Device and select Invoke. The web
configurator login screen displays.
Network Connections: My Network Places
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6
Right-click on the icon for your ZyXEL Device and select Properties. A properties
window displays with basic information about the ZyXEL Device.
Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example
8.7 Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
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8.7.1
LANs, WANs and the ZyXEL Device
The actual physical connection determines whether the ZyXEL Device ports are
LAN or WAN ports. There are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN
network and the other outside the WAN network as shown next.
Figure 48 LAN and WAN IP Addresses
LAN
WAN
8.7.2 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows
individual clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can
configure the ZyXEL Device as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a
server, the ZyXEL Device provides the TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If you
turn DHCP service off, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else
the computer must be manually configured.
IP Pool Setup
The ZyXEL Device is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP
clients (DHCP Pool). See the product specifications in the appendices. Do not
assign static IP addresses from the DHCP pool to your LAN computers.
8.7.3 DNS Server Addresses
DNS (Domain Name System) maps a domain name to its corresponding IP
address and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without
it, you must know the IP address of a computer before you can access it. The DNS
server addresses you enter when you set up DHCP are passed to the client
machines along with the assigned IP address and subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
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• The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an
information sheet, when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server
addresses, enter them in the DNS Server fields in the DHCP Setup screen.
• Some ISPs choose to disseminate the DNS server addresses using the DNS
server extensions of IPCP (IP Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If
your ISP did not give you explicit DNS servers, chances are the DNS servers are
conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The ZyXEL Device supports the IPCP DNS
server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server
extensions. It does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP
setup under all circumstances. If your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make
sure that you enter their IP addresses in the DHCP Setup screen.
8.7.4 LAN TCP/IP
The ZyXEL Device has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses
and DNS servers to systems that support DHCP client capability.
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do
computers on a LAN share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If
the ISP or your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP
addresses, follow their instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet
mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you
have a single user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when
the connection is established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select
a network number from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the
Network Address Translation (NAT) feature of the ZyXEL Device. The Internet
Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses specifically for
private use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise.
Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254
individual addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are
reserved). In other words, the first three numbers specify the network number
while the last number identifies an individual computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to
remember, for instance, 192.168.1.1, for your ZyXEL Device, but make sure that
no other device on your network is using that IP address.
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The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
ZyXEL Device will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP
address that you entered. You don't need to change the subnet mask computed by
the ZyXEL Device unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are
isolated from the Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you
can assign any IP addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP
addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned
from a private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet
access is through an ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for
your local networks. On the other hand, if you are part of a much larger
organization, you should consult your network administrator for the appropriate IP
addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, “Address Allocation for Private
Internets” and RFC 1466, “Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space”.
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CHAPTER
9
Static Routing
9.1 Overview
The ZyXEL Device usually uses the default gateway to route outbound traffic from
computers on the LAN to the Internet. To have the ZyXEL Device send data to
devices not reachable through the default gateway, use static routes.
For example, the next figure shows a computer (A) connected to the ZyXEL
Device’s LAN interface. The ZyXEL Device routes most traffic from A to the
Internet through the ZyXEL Device’s default gateway (R1). You create one static
route to connect to services offered by your ISP behind router R2. You create
another static route to communicate with a separate network behind a router R3
connected to the LAN.
Figure 49 Example of Static Routing Topology
A
R1
LAN
WAN
R3
R2
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9.2 The Routing Screen
Use this screen to view and configure the static route rules on the ZyXEL Device.
Click Network Settings > Routing > Static Route to open the following screen.
Figure 50 Network Settings > Routing > Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Network Settings > Routing > Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
Static Route
Entry
Click this to configure a new static route.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the static route is active or not. A yellow bulb
signifies that this route is active. A gray bulb signifies that this route is
not active.
Name
This is the name that describes or identifies this route.
Destination IP
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number.
Subnet Mask
This parameter specifies the IP network subnet mask of the final
destination.
Gateway
This is the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch
on the same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The
gateway helps forward packets to their destinations.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the static route on the ZyXEL Device.
Click the Delete icon to remove a static route from the ZyXEL Device. A
window displays asking you to confirm that you want to delete the route.
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9.2.1 Add/Edit Static Route
Use this screen to add or edit a static route. Click Add new Static Route Entry in
the Routing screen or the Edit icon next to the static route you want to edit. The
screen shown next appears.
Figure 51 Routing: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Routing: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Select this to enable the static route. Clear this to disable this static route
without having to delete the entry.
Route Name
Enter a descriptive name for the static route.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number. If you need to specify a
route to a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the
subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical to the host
ID.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask here.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on
the same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The
gateway helps forward packets to their destinations.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
10
Quality of Service (QoS)
10.1 Overview
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network’s ability to deliver data with
minimum delay, and the networking methods used to control the use of
bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is equally likely to be dropped when the
network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network performance and
make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as video-ondemand.
Configure QoS on the ZyXEL Device to group and prioritize application traffic and
fine-tune network performance. Setting up QoS involves these steps:
1
Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2
Assign priority and define actions to be performed for a classified traffic flow.
The ZyXEL Device assigns each packet a priority and then queues the packet
accordingly. Packets assigned a high priority are processed more quickly than
those with low priority if there is congestion, allowing time-sensitive applications
to flow more smoothly. Time-sensitive applications include both those that require
a low level of latency (delay) and a low level of jitter (variations in delay) such as
Voice over IP (VoIP) or Internet gaming, and those for which jitter alone is a
problem such as Internet radio or streaming video.
This chapter contains information about configuring QoS and editing classifiers.
10.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• The General screen lets you enable or disable QoS and set the upstream
bandwidth (Section 10.3 on page 153).
• The Queue Setup screen lets you configure QoS queue assignment (Section
10.4 on page 154).
• The Class Setup screen lets you add, edit or delete QoS classifiers (Section
10.5 on page 157).
• The Policer Setup screen lets you add, edit or delete QoS policers (Section
10.5 on page 157).
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• The Monitor screen lets you view the ZyXEL Device's QoS-related packet
statistics (Section 10.7 on page 165).
10.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
QoS versus Cos
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the same
flow are given the same priority. CoS (class of service) is a way of managing traffic
in a network by grouping similar types of traffic together and treating each type as
a class. You can use CoS to give different priorities to different packet types.
CoS technologies include IEEE 802.1p layer 2 tagging and DiffServ (Differentiated
Services or DS). IEEE 802.1p tagging makes use of three bits in the packet
header, while DiffServ is a new protocol and defines a new DS field, which replaces
the eight-bit ToS (Type of Service) field in the IP header.
Tagging and Marking
In a QoS class, you can configure whether to add or change the DSCP (DiffServ
Code Point) value, IEEE 802.1p priority level and VLAN ID number in a matched
packet. When the packet passes through a compatible network, the networking
device, such as a backbone switch, can provide specific treatment or service
based on the tag or marker.
Traffic Shaping
Bursty traffic may cause network congestion. Traffic shaping regulates packets to
be transmitted with a pre-configured data transmission rate using buffers (or
queues). Your ZyXEL Device uses the Token Bucket algorithm to allow a certain
amount of large bursts while keeping a limit at the average rate.
Time
(Before Traffic Shaping)
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Traffic Rate
Traffic
Traffic
Traffic Rate
Time
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Traffic Policing
Traffic policing is the limiting of the input or output transmission rate of a class of
traffic on the basis of user-defined criteria. Traffic policing methods measure traffic
flows against user-defined criteria and identify it as either conforming, exceeding
or violating the criteria.
Traffic Rate
Traffic
Traffic
Traffic Rate
Time
(Before Traffic Policing)
Time
(After Traffic Policing)
The ZyXEL Device supports three incoming traffic metering algorithms: Token
Bucket Filter (TBF), Single Rate Two Color Maker (srTCM), and Two Rate Two Color
Marker (trTCM). You can specify actions which are performed on the colored
packets. See Section 10.8 on page 166 for more information on each metering
algorithm.
10.3 The Quality of Service General Screen
Click Network Settings > QoS > General to open the screen as shown next.
Use this screen to enable or disable QoS and set the upstream bandwidth. See
Section 10.1 on page 151 for more information.
Figure 52 Network Settings > QoS > General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Network Settings > QoS > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
QoS
Select the Enable check box to turn on QoS to improve your network
performance.
WAN Managed
Upstream
Bandwidth
Enter the amount of upstream bandwidth for the WAN interfaces that
you want to allocate using QoS.
The recommendation is to set this speed to match the interfaces’ actual
transmission speed. For example, set the WAN interfaces’ speed to
100000 kbps if your Internet connection has an upstream transmission
speed of 100 Mbps.
You can set this number higher than the interfaces’ actual transmission
speed. The ZyXEL Device uses up to 95% of the DSL port’s actual
upstream transmission speed even if you set this number higher than
the DSL port’s actual transmission speed.
You can also set this number lower than the interfaces’ actual
transmission speed. This will cause the ZyXEL Device to not use some of
the interfaces’ available bandwidth.
If you leave this field blank, the ZyXEL Device automatically sets this
number to be 95% of the WAN interfaces’ actual upstream transmission
speed.
LAN Managed
Downstream
Bandwidth
Enter the amount of downstream bandwidth for the LAN interfaces
(including WLAN) that you want to allocate using QoS.
The recommendation is to set this speed to match the WAN interfaces’
actual transmission speed. For example, set the LAN managed
downstream bandwidth to 100000 kbps if you use a 100 Mbps wired
Ethernet WAN connection.
You can also set this number lower than the WAN interfaces’ actual
transmission speed. This will cause the ZyXEL Device to not use some of
the interfaces’ available bandwidth.
If you leave this field blank, the ZyXEL Device automatically sets this to
the LAN interfaces’ maximum supported connection speed.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
10.4 The Queue Setup Screen
Click Network Settings > QoS > Queue Setup to open the screen as shown
next.
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Use this screen to configure QoS queue assignment.
Figure 53 Network Settings > QoS > Queue Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Network Settings > QoS > Queue Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
Queue
Click this button to create a new queue entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the queue is active or not. A yellow bulb
signifies that this queue is active. A gray bulb signifies that this queue is
not active.
Name
This shows the descriptive name of this queue.
Interface
This shows the name of the ZyXEL Device’s interface through which traffic
in this queue passes.
Priority
This shows the priority of this queue.
Weight
This shows the weight of this queue.
Buffer
Management
This shows the queue management algorithm used for this queue.
Rate Limit
This shows the maximum transmission rate allowed for traffic on this
queue.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the queue.
Queue management algorithms determine how the ZyXEL Device should
handle packets when it receives too many (network congestion).
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing queue. Note that subsequent
rules move up by one when you take this action.
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10.4.1 Adding a QoS Queue
Click Add new Queue or the edit icon in the Queue Setup screen to configure a
queue.
Figure 54 Queue Setup: Add
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Queue Setup: Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select to enable or disable this queue.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of this queue.
Interface
Select the interface to which this queue is applied.
This field is read-only if you are editing the queue.
Priority
Select the priority level (from 1 to 3) of this queue.
The smaller the number, the higher the priority level. Traffic assigned to
higher priority queues gets through faster while traffic in lower priority
queues is dropped if the network is congested.
Weight
Select the weight (from 1 to 8) of this queue.
If two queues have the same priority level, the ZyXEL Device divides the
bandwidth across the queues according to their weights. Queues with
larger weights get more bandwidth than queues with smaller weights.
156
Buffer
Management
This field displays Drop Tail (DT). Drop Tail (DT) is a simple queue
management algorithm that allows the ZyXEL Device buffer to accept as
many packets as it can until it is full. Once the buffer is full, new packets
that arrive are dropped until there is space in the buffer again (packets
are transmitted out of it).
Rate Limit
Specify the maximum transmission rate (in Kbps) allowed for traffic on
this queue.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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10.5 The Class Setup Screen
Use this screen to add, edit or delete QoS classifiers. A classifier groups traffic into
data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination
address, source port number, destination port number or incoming interface. For
example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol
port (such as Telnet) to form a flow.
You can give different priorities to traffic that the ZyXEL Device forwards out
through the WAN interface. Give high priority to voice and video to make them run
more smoothly. Similarly, give low priority to many large file downloads so that
they do not reduce the quality of other applications.
Click Network Settings > QoS > Class Setup to open the following screen.
Figure 55 Network Settings > QoS > Class Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Network Settings > QoS > Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
Classifier
Click this to create a new classifier.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the classifier is active or not. A yellow bulb
signifies that this classifier is active. A gray bulb signifies that this
classifier is not active.
Class Name
This is the name of the classifier.
Classification
Criteria
This shows criteria specified in this classifier, for example the interface
from which traffic of this class should come and the source MAC
address of traffic that matches this classifier.
DSCP Mark
This is the DSCP number added to traffic of this classifier.
802.1P Mark
This is the IEEE 802.1p priority level assigned to traffic of this
classifier.
VLAN ID Tag
This is the VLAN ID number assigned to traffic of this classifier.
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Table 33 Network Settings > QoS > Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
To Queue
This is the name of the queue in which traffic of this classifier is put.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the classifier.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing classifier. Note that
subsequent rules move up by one when you take this action.
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10.5.1 Add/Edit QoS Class
Click Add new Classifier in the Class Setup screen or the Edit icon next to a
classifier to open the following screen.
Figure 56 Class Setup: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Class Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable this classifier.
Class Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 15 printable English keyboard
characters, not including spaces.
Classification
Order
Select an existing number for where you want to put this classifier to
move the classifier to the number you selected after clicking Apply.
Select Last to put this rule in the back of the classifier list.
From Interface
If you want to classify the traffic by an ingress interface, select an
interface from the From Interface drop-down list box.
To Interface
If you want to classify the traffic by an egress interface, select an
interface from the To Interface drop-down list box.
Ether Type
Select a predefined application to configure a class for the matched
traffic.
If you select IP, you also need to configure source or destination MAC
address, IP address, DHCP options, DSCP value or the protocol type.
If you select 802.1Q, you can configure an 802.1p priority level.
Source
Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted
decimal notation. A blank source IP address means any source IP
address.
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the source subnet mask.
Port Range
If you select TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field, select the check
box and enter the port number(s) of the source.
MAC
Select the check box and enter the source MAC address of the packet.
MAC Mask
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits
a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the
traffic’s MAC address should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the
matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a
MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified
criteria from this classifier.
Destination
160
Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted
decimal notation. A blank source IP address means any source IP
address.
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the source subnet mask.
Port Range
If you select TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field, select the check
box and enter the port number(s) of the source.
MAC
Select the check box and enter the source MAC address of the packet.
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Table 34 Class Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
MAC Mask
DESCRIPTION
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits
a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the
traffic’s MAC address should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the
matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a
MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified
criteria from this classifier.
Others
Service
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
This field simplifies classifier configuration by allowing you to select a
predefined application. When you select a predefined application, you
do not configure the rest of the filter fields.
IP Protocol
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and select the protocol (service type) from TCP,
UDP, ICMP or IGMP. If you select User defined, enter the protocol
(service type) number.
DHCP
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and select a DHCP option.
If you select Vendor Class ID (DHCP Option 60), enter the Vendor
Class Identifier (Option 60) of the matched traffic, such as the type of
the hardware or firmware.
If you select User Class ID (DHCP Option 77), enter a string that
identifies the user’s category or application type in the matched DHCP
packets.
Packet Length
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and enter the minimum and maximum packet
length (from 46 to 1500) in the fields provided.
DSCP
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number
between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
802.1P
This field is available only when you select 802.1Q in the Ether Type
field.
Select this option and select a priority level (between 0 and 7) from
the drop-down list box.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
VLAN ID
This field is available only when you select 802.1Q in the Ether Type
field.
Select this option and specify a VLAN ID number.
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Table 34 Class Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
TCP ACK
DESCRIPTION
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
If you select this option, the matched TCP packets must contain the
ACK (Acknowledge) flag.
Exclude
DSCP Mark
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified
criteria from this classifier.
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
If you select Mark, enter a DSCP value with which the ZyXEL Device
replaces the DSCP field in the packets.
If you select Unchange, the ZyXEL Device keep the DSCP field in the
packets.
802.1P Mark
Select a priority level with which the ZyXEL Device replaces the IEEE
802.1p priority field in the packets.
If you select Unchange, the ZyXEL Device keep the 802.1p priority
field in the packets.
VLAN ID
If you select Remark, enter a VLAN ID number with which the ZyXEL
Device replaces the VLAN ID of the frames.
If you select Remove, the ZyXEL Device deletes the VLAN ID of the
frames before forwarding them out.
If you select Add, the ZyXEL Device treat all matched traffic untagged
and add a second VLAN ID.
If you select Unchange, the ZyXEL Device keep the VLAN ID in the
packets.
To Queue Index
Select a queue that applies to this class.
You should have configured a queue in the Queue Setup screen
already.
162
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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10.6 The QoS Policer Setup Screen
Use this screen to configure QoS policers that allow you to limit the transmission
rate of incoming traffic. Click Network Settings > QoS > Policer Setup. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 57 Network Settings > QoS > Policer Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 Network Settings > QoS > Policer Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new Policer
Click this to create a new entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the policer is active or not. A yellow bulb
signifies that this policer is active. A gray bulb signifies that this
policer is not active.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name of this policer.
Regulated
Classes
This field displays the name of a QoS classifier
Meter Type
This field displays the type of QoS metering algorithm used in this
policer.
Maximum Rate
This field displays the maximum rate configured for the metering
algorithm in the policer.
Burst Size
This field displays the burst size configured for the metering algorithm
in the policer.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the policer.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing policer. Note that
subsequent rules move up by one when you take this action.
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10.6.1 Add/Edit a QoS Policer
Click Add new Officer in the Policer Setup screen or the Edit icon next to a
policer to show the following screen.
Figure 58 Policer Setup: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 Policer Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to activate this policer.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of this policer.
Meter Type
This shows the traffic metering algorithm used in this policer.
The Simple Token Bucket algorithm uses tokens in a bucket to control
when traffic can be transmitted. Each token represents one byte. The
algorithm allows bursts of up to b bytes which is also the bucket size.
Maximum
Rate
Specify the guaranteed rate at which packets are admitted to the network.
Burst Size
Specify the guaranteed amount of bytes that are admitted at the
committed rate.
This is to specify how many bytes of tokens are added to a bucket every
second.
This is the maximum size of the (first) token bucket in a traffic metering
algorithm.
Available
Class
Select a QoS classifier to apply this QoS policer to traffic that matches the
QoS classifier.
Selected
Class
Highlight a QoS classifier in the Available Class box and use the > button
to move it to the Selected Class box.
To remove a QoS classifier from the Selected Class box, select it and use
the < button.
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Table 36 Policer Setup: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
10.7 The QoS Monitor Screen
To view the ZyXEL Device’s QoS packet statistics, click Network Settings > QoS
> Monitor. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 59 Network Settings > QoS > Monitor
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Network Settings > QoS > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Enter how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update this screen.
Select No Refresh to stop refreshing statistics.
Interface Monitor
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Name
This shows the name of the interface on the ZyXEL Device.
Pass Rate
This shows how many packets forwarded to this interface are
transmitted successfully.
Drop Rate
This shows how many packets forwarded to this interface are
dropped.
Queue Monitor
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Name
This shows the name of the queue.
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Table 37 Network Settings > QoS > Monitor (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Pass Rate
This shows how many packets assigned to this queue are transmitted
successfully.
Drop Rate
This shows how many packets assigned to this queue are dropped.
10.8 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the ZyXEL
Device features described in this chapter.
IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The IEEE 802.1Q standard defines an explicit VLAN tag in the MAC header to
identify the VLAN membership of a frame across bridges. A VLAN tag includes the
12-bit VLAN ID and 3-bit user priority. The VLAN ID associates a frame with a
specific VLAN and provides the information that devices need to process the frame
across the network.
IEEE 802.1p specifies the user priority field and defines up to eight separate traffic
types. The following table describes the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d
standard (which incorporates the 802.1p).
Table 38 IEEE 802.1p Priority Level and Traffic Type
PRIORITY
LEVEL
166
TRAFFIC TYPE
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration
messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the
variations in delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to
jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA
(Systems Network Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would
include important business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk
transfers that are allowed but that should not affect other applications and
users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
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DiffServ
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the flow
are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different
priorities to different packet types.
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks
packets so that they receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant
network devices along the route based on the application types and traffic flow.
Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the level of
service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices
to handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to
negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition,
applications do not have to request a particular service or give advanced notice of
where the traffic is going.
DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new Differentiated Services (DS) field to replace the Type of
Service (TOS) field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and
a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure
illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so
that non-DiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the
DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior),
that each packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule,
different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources
can then be allocated according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
IP Precedence
Similar to IEEE 802.1p prioritization at layer-2, you can use IP precedence to
prioritize packets in a layer-3 network. IP precedence uses three bits of the eightbit ToS (Type of Service) field in the IP header. There are eight classes of services
(ranging from zero to seven) in IP precedence. Zero is the lowest priority level and
seven is the highest.
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Automatic Priority Queue Assignment
If you enable QoS on the ZyXEL Device, the ZyXEL Device can automatically base
on the IEEE 802.1p priority level, IP precedence and/or packet length to assign
priority to traffic which does not match a class.
The following table shows you the internal layer-2 and layer-3 QoS mapping on
the ZyXEL Device. On the ZyXEL Device, traffic assigned to higher priority queues
gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Table 39 Internal Layer2 and Layer3 QoS Mapping
LAYER 2
LAYER 3
PRIORITY
QUEUE
IEEE 802.1P
USER PRIORITY
(ETHERNET
PRIORITY)
TOS (IP
PRECEDENCE) DSCP
0
1
0
000000
1
2
2
0
0
000000
>1100
3
3
1
001110
250~1100
IP PACKET
LENGTH (BYTE)
001100
001010
001000
4
4
2
010110
010100
010010
010000
5
5
3
011110
<250
011100
011010
011000
6
6
4
100110
100100
100010
100000
5
101110
101000
7
168
7
6
110000
7
111000
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Token Bucket
The token bucket algorithm uses tokens in a bucket to control when traffic can be
transmitted. The bucket stores tokens, each of which represents one byte. The
algorithm allows bursts of up to b bytes which is also the bucket size, so the
bucket can hold up to b tokens. Tokens are generated and added into the bucket
at a constant rate. The following shows how tokens work with packets:
• A packet can be transmitted if the number of tokens in the bucket is equal to or
greater than the size of the packet (in bytes).
• After a packet is transmitted, a number of tokens corresponding to the packet
size is removed from the bucket.
• If there are no tokens in the bucket, the ZyXEL Device stops transmitting until
enough tokens are generated.
• If not enough tokens are available, the ZyXEL Device treats the packet in either
one of the following ways:
In traffic shaping:
• Holds it in the queue until enough tokens are available in the bucket.
In traffic policing:
• Drops it.
• Transmits it but adds a DSCP mark. The ZyXEL Device may drop these marked
packets if the network is overloaded.
Configure the bucket size to be equal to or less than the amount of the bandwidth
that the interface can support. It does not help if you set it to a bucket size over
the interface’s capability. The smaller the bucket size, the lower the data
transmission rate and that may cause outgoing packets to be dropped. A larger
transmission rate requires a big bucket size. For example, use a bucket size of 10
kbytes to get the transmission rate up to 10 Mbps.
Single Rate Three Color Marker
The Single Rate Three Color Marker (srTCM, defined in RFC 2697) is a type of
traffic policing that identifies packets by comparing them to one user-defined rate,
the Committed Information Rate (CIR), and two burst sizes: the Committed Burst
Size (CBS) and Excess Burst Size (EBS).
The srTCM evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three colors
which refer to packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred
to as red, medium is referred to as yellow and low is referred to as green.
The srTCM is based on the token bucket filter and has two token buckets (CBS and
EBS). Tokens are generated and added into the bucket at a constant rate, called
Committed Information Rate (CIR). When the first bucket (CBS) is full, new
tokens overflow into the second bucket (EBS).
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All packets are evaluated against the CBS. If a packet does not exceed the CBS it
is marked green. Otherwise it is evaluated against the EBS. If it is below the EBS
then it is marked yellow. If it exceeds the EBS then it is marked red.
The following shows how tokens work with incoming packets in srTCM:
• A packet arrives. The packet is marked green and can be transmitted if the
number of tokens in the CBS bucket is equal to or greater than the size of the
packet (in bytes).
• After a packet is transmitted, a number of tokens corresponding to the packet
size is removed from the CBS bucket.
• If there are not enough tokens in the CBS bucket, the ZyXEL Device checks the
EBS bucket. The packet is marked yellow if there are sufficient tokens in the
EBS bucket. Otherwise, the packet is marked red. No tokens are removed if the
packet is dropped.
Two Rate Three Color Marker
The Two Rate Three Color Marker (trTCM, defined in RFC 2698) is a type of traffic
policing that identifies packets by comparing them to two user-defined rates: the
Committed Information Rate (CIR) and the Peak Information Rate (PIR). The CIR
specifies the average rate at which packets are admitted to the network. The PIR
is greater than or equal to the CIR. CIR and PIR values are based on the
guaranteed and maximum bandwidth respectively as negotiated between a
service provider and client.
The trTCM evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three colors
which refer to packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred
to as red, medium is referred to as yellow and low is referred to as green.
The trTCM is based on the token bucket filter and has two token buckets
(Committed Burst Size (CBS) and Peak Burst Size (PBS)). Tokens are generated
and added into the two buckets at the CIR and PIR respectively.
All packets are evaluated against the PIR. If a packet exceeds the PIR it is marked
red. Otherwise it is evaluated against the CIR. If it exceeds the CIR then it is
marked yellow. Finally, if it is below the CIR then it is marked green.
The following shows how tokens work with incoming packets in trTCM:
• A packet arrives. If the number of tokens in the PBS bucket is less than the size
of the packet (in bytes), the packet is marked red and may be dropped
regardless of the CBS bucket. No tokens are removed if the packet is dropped.
• If the PBS bucket has enough tokens, the ZyXEL Device checks the CBS bucket.
The packet is marked green and can be transmitted if the number of tokens in
the CBS bucket is equal to or greater than the size of the packet (in bytes).
Otherwise, the packet is marked yellow.
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CHAPTER
11
Policy Forwarding
11.1 Overview
Traditionally, routing is based on the destination address only and the ZyXEL
Device takes the shortest path to forward a packet. Policy forwarding allows the
ZyXEL Device to override the default routing behavior and alter the packet
forwarding based on the policy defined by the network administrator. Policy-based
routing is applied to outgoing packets, prior to the normal routing.
You can use source-based policy forwarding to direct traffic from different users
through different connections or distribute traffic among multiple paths for load
sharing.
11.2 The Policy Forwarding Screen
The Policy Forwarding screens let you view and configure routing policies on the
ZyXEL Device. Click Network Settings > Routing > Policy Forwarding to open
the Policy Forwarding screen.
Figure 60 Network Settings > Routing > Policy Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 Network Settings > Routing > Policy Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
Policy Forward
Rule
Click this to create a new policy forwarding rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Policy Name
This is the name of the rule.
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Table 40 Network Settings > Routing > Policy Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source IP
This is the source IP address.
Source
Subnet Mask
This is the source subnet mask address.
Protocol
This is the transport layer protocol.
SourcePort
This is the source port number.
Source MAC
This is the source MAC address.
WAN
This is the WAN interface through which the traffic is routed.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this policy.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing policy.
11.2.1 Add/Edit Policy Forwarding
Click Add new Policy Forward Rule in the Policy Forwarding screen or click
the Edit icon next to a policy. Use this screen to configure the required
information for a policy route.
Figure 61 Policy Forwarding: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Policy Forwarding: Add/Edit
172
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Policy Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 8 printable English keyboard
characters, not including spaces.
Source IP
Address
Enter the source IP address.
Source Subnet
Mask
Enter the source subnet mask address.
Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol (TCP or UDP).
Source Port
Enter the source port number.
Source Mac
Enter the source MAC address.
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Table 41 Policy Forwarding: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN
Select a WAN interface through which the traffic is sent. You must have
the WAN interface(s) already configured in the Broadband screens.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
12
Network Address Translation
(NAT)
12.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the ZyXEL Device. NAT (Network
Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host
in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within
one network to a different IP address known within another network.
12.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Port Forwarding screen to configure forward incoming service
requests to the server(s) on your local network (Section 12.2 on page 176).
• Use the Applications screen to forward incoming service requests to the
server(s) on your local network (Section 12.3 on page 179).
• Use the Port Triggering screen to add and configure the ZyXEL Device’s
trigger port settings (Section 12.4 on page 181).
• Use the DMZ screen to configure a default server (Section 12.5 on page 185).
• Use the ALG screen to enable and disable the SIP (VoIP) ALG in the ZyXEL
Device (Section 12.6 on page 186).
• Use the Sessions screen to limit the number of concurrent NAT sessions all
clients can use (Section 12.7 on page 186).
12.1.2 What You Need To Know
Inside/Outside
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the ZyXEL Device, for
example, the computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web
servers on the Internet are the outside hosts.
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Global/Local
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a
router, for example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the
packet is in the local network, while the global address refers to the IP address of
the host when the same packet is traveling in the WAN side.
NAT
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from
a subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address)
before forwarding the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back,
NAT translates the destination address (the inside global address) back to the
inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host.
Port Forwarding
A port forwarding set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for
example, web or FTP, that you can make visible to the outside world even though
NAT makes your whole inside network appear as a single computer to the outside
world.
Finding Out More
See Section 12.8 on page 187 for advanced technical information on NAT.
12.2 The Port Forwarding Screen
Use the Port Forwarding screen to forward incoming service requests to the
server(s) on your local network.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded,
and the local IP address of the desired server. The port number identifies a
service; for example, web service is on port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some
cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can support more than
one service (for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to specify
a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that corresponds to
a port or a range of ports.
The most often used port numbers and services are shown in Appendix E on page
381. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information about port numbers.
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Note: Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server
processes (such as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may
periodically check for servers and may suspend your account if it discovers any
active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your ISP.
Configuring Servers Behind Port Forwarding (Example)
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in
the example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP
address of 192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP
addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a
single host on the Internet.
Figure 62 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
A=192.168.1.33
WAN
LAN
B=192.168.1.34
192.168.1.1
IP Address assigned by ISP
C=192.168.1.3
D=192.168.1.36
Click Network Settings > NAT > Port Forwarding to open the following
screen.
See Appendix E on page 381 for port numbers commonly used for particular
services.
Figure 63 Network Settings > NAT > Port Forwarding
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 42 Network Settings > NAT > Port Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to add a new rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the NAT rule is active or not. A yellow bulb
signifies that this rule is active. A gray bulb signifies that this rule is not
active.
Service Name
This shows the service’s name.
WAN Interface
This shows the WAN interface through which the service is forwarded.
External Start
Port
This is the first external port number that identifies a service.
External End
Port
This is the last external port number that identifies a service.
Internal Start
Port
This is the first internal port number that identifies a service.
Internal End
Port
This is the last internal port number that identifies a service.
Server IP
Address
This is the server’s IP address.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
12.2.1 Add/Edit Port Forwarding
Click Add new rule in the Port Forwarding screen or click the Edit icon next to
an existing rule to open the following screen.
Figure 64 Port Forwarding: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Port Forwarding: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Clear the check box to disable the rule. Select the check box to enable it.
This field is read-only in the Port Forwarding Configuration screen.
Service Name
Enter a name to identify this rule using keyboard characters (A-Z, a-z, 12 and so on).
This field is read-only in the Port Forwarding Edit screen.
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface through which the service is forwarded.
You must have already configured a WAN connection with NAT enabled.
External Start
Port
Enter the original destination port for the packets.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the External
End Port field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the start port number here and the
end port number in the External End Port field.
External End
Port
Enter the last port of the original destination port range.
To forward only one port, enter the port number in the External Start
Port field above and then enter it again in this field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the last port number in a series that
begins with the port number in the External Start Port field above.
Internal Start
Port
This shows the port number to which you want the ZyXEL Device to
translate the incoming port. For a range of ports, enter the first number
of the range to which you want the incoming ports translated.
Internal End
Port
This shows the last port of the translated port range.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the virtual server here.
Protocol Type
Select the protocol supported by this virtual server. Choices are TCP,
UDP, or TCP/UDP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
12.3 The Applications Screen
This screen provides a summary of all NAT applications and their configuration. In
addition, this screen allows you to create new applications and/or remove existing
ones.
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To access this screen, click Network Settings > NAT > Applications. The
following screen appears.
Figure 65 Network Settings > NAT > Applications
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Network Settings > NAT > Applications
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new
application
Click this to add a new NAT application rule.
Application
Forwarded
This field shows the type of application that the service forwards.
WAN Interface
This field shows the WAN interface through which the service is
forwarded.
Server IP
Address
This field displays the destination IP address for the service.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to delete the rule.
12.3.1 Add New Application
This screen lets you create new NAT application rules. Click Add new application
in the Applications screen to open the following screen.
Figure 66 Applications: Add
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Applications: Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Interface
Select the WAN interface that you want to apply this NAT rule to.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the application here.
Application
Category
Select the category of the application from the drop-down list box.
Application
Forwarded
Select a service from the drop-down list box and the ZyXEL Device
automatically configures the protocol, start, end, and map port number
that define the service.
View Rule
Click this to display the configuration of the service that you have chosen
in Application Fowarded.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
12.4 The Port Triggering Screen
Some services use a dedicated range of ports on the client side and a dedicated
range of ports on the server side. With regular port forwarding you set a
forwarding port in NAT to forward a service (coming in from the server on the
WAN) to the IP address of a computer on the client side (LAN). The problem is
that port forwarding only forwards a service to a single LAN IP address. In order to
use the same service on a different LAN computer, you have to manually replace
the LAN computer's IP address in the forwarding port with another LAN
computer's IP address.
Trigger port forwarding solves this problem by allowing computers on the LAN to
dynamically take turns using the service. The ZyXEL Device records the IP address
of a LAN computer that sends traffic to the WAN to request a service with a
specific port number and protocol (a "trigger" port). When the ZyXEL Device's
WAN port receives a response with a specific port number and protocol ("open"
port), the ZyXEL Device forwards the traffic to the LAN IP address of the computer
that sent the request. After that computer’s connection for that service closes,
another computer on the LAN can use the service in the same manner. This way
you do not need to configure a new IP address each time you want a different LAN
computer to use the application.
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For example:
Figure 67 Trigger Port Forwarding Process: Example
1
Jane requests a file from the Real Audio server (port 7070).
2
Port 7070 is a “trigger” port and causes the ZyXEL Device to record Jane’s
computer IP address. The ZyXEL Device associates Jane's computer IP address
with the "open" port range of 6970-7170.
3
The Real Audio server responds using a port number ranging between 6970-7170.
4
The ZyXEL Device forwards the traffic to Jane’s computer IP address.
5
Only Jane can connect to the Real Audio server until the connection is closed or
times out. The ZyXEL Device times out in three minutes with UDP (User Datagram
Protocol) or two hours with TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
Click Network Settings > NAT > Port Triggering to open the following screen.
Use this screen to view your ZyXEL Device’s trigger port settings.
Figure 68 Network Settings > NAT > Port Triggering
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Network Settings > NAT > Port Triggering
182
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to create a new rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the port triggering rule is active or not. A
yellow bulb signifies that this rule is active. A gray bulb signifies that this
rule is not active.
Service Name
This field displays the name of the service used by this rule.
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Table 46 Network Settings > NAT > Port Triggering (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Interface
This field shows the WAN interface through which the service is
forwarded.
Trigger Port
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers)
the ZyXEL Device to record the IP address of the LAN computer that sent
the traffic to a server on the WAN.
Start
This is the first port number that identifies a service.
End
This is the last port number that identifies a service.
Trigger Proto.
This is the trigger transport layer protocol.
Open
The open port is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN
uses when it sends out a particular service. The ZyXEL Device forwards
the traffic with this port (or range of ports) to the client computer on the
LAN that requested the service.
Start
This is the first port number that identifies a service.
End
This is the last port number that identifies a service.
Open Proto.
This is the open transport layer protocol.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit this rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
12.4.1 Add/Edit Port Triggering Rule
This screen lets you create new port triggering rules. Click Add new rule in the
Port Triggering screen or click a rule’s Edit icon to open the following screen.
Figure 69 Port Triggering: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Port Triggering: Configuration Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to enable this rule.
This field is read-only in the Port Triggering Configuration screen.
Service Name
Enter a name to identify this rule using keyboard characters (A-Z, a-z, 12 and so on).
This field is read-only in the Port Triggering Edit screen.
WAN Interface
Select a WAN interface for which you want to configure port triggering
rules.
Trigger Start
Port
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers)
the ZyXEL Device to record the IP address of the LAN computer that sent
the traffic to a server on the WAN.
Type a port number or the starting port number in a range of port
numbers.
Trigger End
Port
Type a port number or the ending port number in a range of port
numbers.
Trigger
Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol from TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP.
Open Start
Port
The open port is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN
uses when it sends out a particular service. The ZyXEL Device forwards
the traffic with this port (or range of ports) to the client computer on the
LAN that requested the service.
Type a port number or the starting port number in a range of port
numbers.
184
Open End Port
Type a port number or the ending port number in a range of port
numbers.
Open Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol from TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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12.5 The DMZ Screen
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP
address. A default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in the
NAT Port Forwarding Setup screen.
Figure 70 Network Settings > NAT > DMZ
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 48 Network Settings > NAT > DMZ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default Server
Address
Enter the IP address of the default server which receives packets from
ports that are not specified in the NAT Port Forwarding screen.
Note: If you do not assign a Default Server Address, the ZyXEL
Device discards all packets received for ports that are not
specified in the NAT Port Forwarding screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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12.6 The ALG Screen
Some NAT routers may include a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). A SIP ALG
allows SIP calls to pass through NAT by examining and translating IP addresses
embedded in the data stream. When the ZyXEL Device registers with the SIP
register server, the SIP ALG translates the ZyXEL Device’s private IP address
inside the SIP data stream to a public IP address. You do not need to use STUN or
an outbound proxy if your ZyXEL Device is behind a SIP ALG.
Use this screen to enable and disable the SIP (VoIP) ALG in the ZyXEL Device. To
access this screen, click Network Settings > NAT > ALG.
Figure 71 Network Settings > NAT > ALG
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 49 Network Settings > NAT > ALG
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ALG
Enable this to make sure applications such as FTP and file transfer in IM
applications work correctly with port-forwarding and address-mapping
rules.
SIP ALG
Enable this to make sure SIP (VoIP) works correctly with portforwarding and address-mapping rules.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
12.7 The Sessions Screen
Use the Sessions screen to limit the number of concurrent NAT sessions all clients
can use.
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Click Network Settings > NAT > Sessions to display the following screen.
Figure 72 Network Settings > NAT > Sessions
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 50 Network Settings > NAT > Sessions
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAX NAT
Session
Use this field to set a common limit to the number of concurrent NAT
sessions all client computers can have.
If only a few clients use peer to peer applications, you can raise this
number to improve their performance. With heavy peer to peer
application use, lower this number to ensure no single client uses too
many of the available NAT sessions.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
12.8 Technical Reference
This part contains more information regarding NAT.
12.8.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the ZyXEL Device, for
example, the computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web
servers on the Internet are the outside hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a
router, for example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the
packet is in the local network, while the global address refers to the IP address of
the host when the same packet is traveling in the WAN side.
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Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to
the IP address of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the
IP address of an inside host in a packet when the packet is still in the local
network, while an inside global address (IGA) is the IP address of the same inside
host when the packet is on the WAN side. The following table summarizes this
information.
Table 51 NAT Definitions
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels
on the LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels
on the WAN.
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
12.8.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from
a subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address)
before forwarding the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back,
NAT translates the destination address (the inside global address) back to the
inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host. Note that the
IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically
assigned by the ISP. In addition, you can designate servers, for example, a web
server and a telnet server, on your local network and make them accessible to the
outside world. If you do not define any servers (for Many-to-One and Many-toMany Overload mapping), NAT offers the additional benefit of firewall protection.
With no servers defined, your ZyXEL Device filters out all incoming inquiries, thus
preventing intruders from probing your network. For more information on IP
address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).
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12.8.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For
outgoing packets, the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN,
and the IGA (Inside Global Address) is the source address on the WAN. For
incoming packets, the ILA is the destination address on the LAN, and the IGA is
the destination address on the WAN. NAT maps private (local) IP addresses to
globally unique ones required for communication with hosts on other networks. It
replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source port numbers for
Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet and then
forwards it to the Internet. The ZyXEL Device keeps track of the original addresses
and port numbers so incoming reply packets can have their original values
restored. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 73 How NAT Works
NAT Table
LAN
Inside Local
IP Address
192.168.1.10
192.168.1.11
192.168.1.12
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.12
SA
SA
192.168.1.10
IGA1
Inside Local
Address (ILA)
192.168.1.11
Inside Global
IP Address
IGA 1
IGA 2
IGA 3
IGA 4
WAN
Inside Global
Address (IGA)
192.168.1.10
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12.8.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs
(logical LANs using IP alias) behind the ZyXEL Device can communicate with three
distinct WAN networks.
Figure 74 NAT Application With IP Alias
Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer
to RFC 1700 for further information about port numbers. Please also refer to the
Supporting CD for more examples and details on port forwarding and NAT.
Table 52 Services and Port Numbers
190
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
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Table 52 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
Port Forwarding Example
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in
the example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP
address of 192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP
addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a
single host on the Internet.
Figure 75 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
A=192.168.1.33
192.168.1.1
B=192.168.1.34
IP address assigned by ISP
C=192.168.1.35
D=192.168.1.36
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CHAPTER
13
Dynamic DNS Setup
13.1 Overview
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding
IP address and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because
without it, you must know the IP address of a machine before you can access it.
In addition to the system DNS server(s), each WAN interface (service) is set to
have its own static or dynamic DNS server list. You can configure a DNS static
route to forward DNS queries for certain domain names through a specific WAN
interface to its DNS server(s). The ZyXEL Device uses a system DNS server (in the
order you specify in the Broadband screen) to resolve domain names that do not
match any DNS routing entry. After the ZyXEL Device receives a DNS reply from a
DNS server, it creates a new entry for the resolved IP address in the routing table.
In the following example, the DNS server 168.92.5.1 obtained from the WAN
interface eth10.0 is set to be the system DNS server. The DNS server 10.10.23.7
is obtained from the WAN interface VDSL_PoE/ppp0.1. You configure a DNS route
for *example.com to have the ZyXEL Device forward DNS requests for the domain
name mail.example.com through the WAN interface VDSL_PoE/ppp0.1 to the DNS
server 10.10.23.7.
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Figure 76 Example of DNS Routing Topology
LAN
WAN
eth10.0
DNS:168.92.5.1
(Default)
sip.service.com
VDSL_PPoE/ppp0.1
mail.example.com
DNS:10.10.23.7
Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or
many dynamic DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CUSeeMe, etc.). You can also access your FTP server or Web site on your own
computer using a domain name (for instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a
name of your choice) that will never change instead of using an IP address that
changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives will always be able to
call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with
www.dyndns.org. This is for people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP
server that would still like to have a domain name. The Dynamic DNS service
provider will give you a password or key.
13.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the DNS Entry screen to view, configure, or remove DNS routes (Section
13.2 on page 195).
• Use the Dynamic DNS screen to enable DDNS and configure the DDNS settings
on the ZyXEL Device (Section 13.3 on page 196).
13.1.2 What You Need To Know
DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be
aliased to the same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if
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you want to be able to use, for example, www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach
your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
13.2 The DNS Entry Screen
Use this screen to view and configure DNS routes on the ZyXEL Device. Click
Advanced > DNS Setting to open the DNS Entry screen.
Figure 77 Advanced > DNS Setting > DNS Setting
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 53 Advanced > DNS Setting > DNS Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new DNS
entry
Click this to create a new DNS entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Hostname
This indicates the host name or domain name.
IP Address
This indicates the IP address assigned to this computer.
Source
This indicates the source of the IP address.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
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13.2.1 Add/Edit DNS Entry
You can manually add or edit the ZyXEL Device’s DNS name and IP address entry.
Click Add new DNS entry in the DNS Entry screen or the Edit icon next to the
entry you want to edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 78 DNS Entry: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 DNS Entry: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Host Name
Enter the host name of the DNS entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the DNS entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
13.3 The Dynamic DNS Screen
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s DDNS. Click Advanced > DNS
Setting > Dynamic DNS. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 79 Advanced > DNS Setting > Dynamic DNS
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 55 Advanced > DNS Setting > Dynamic DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dynamic DNS
Select this check box to use dynamic DNS.
Service
Provider
Select your Dynamic DNS service provider from the drop-down list box.
Hostname
Type the domain name assigned to your ZyXEL Device by your Dynamic
DNS provider.
You can specify up to two host names in the field separated by a comma
(",").
User Name
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Email
If you select TZO in the Service Provider field, enter the user name
you used to register for this service.
Key
If you select TZO in the Service Provider field, enter the password you
used to register for this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
14
IGMP
14.1 Overview
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1
sender to 1 recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network).
Multicast delivers IP packets to just a group of hosts on the network.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. See
RFC 1112, RFC 2236, and RFC 3376 for information on IGMP versions 1, 2, and 3
respectively.
14.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the IGMP General screen to configure general IGMP proxy and IGMP
packet processing settings (Section 14.2 on page 202).
• Use the IGMP Filter screens to control IGMP access (Section 14.3 on page
204).
• Use the IGMP ACL screens to block or allow access to specific multicast media
channels (Section 14.4 on page 209).
14.1.2 What You Need to Know
IP Multicast Addresses
In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of
hosts (multicast group) in a different sub-network. A multicast IP address
represents a traffic receiving group, not individual receiving devices. IP addresses
in the Class D range (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255) are used for IP multicasting.
Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by IANA for special purposes (see the
IANA web site for more information).
IGMP Snooping
A layer-2 switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query, Report and Leave (IGMP
version 2) packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP
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Chapter 14 IGMP
multicast hosts to learn the IP multicast group membership. It checks IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures multicasting accordingly. IGMP snooping allows the ZyXEL Device to
learn multicast groups without you having to manually configure them.
The ZyXEL Device forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it
has learned from IGMP snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports
that are members of that group. The ZyXEL Device discards multicast traffic
destined for multicast groups that it does not know. IGMP snooping generates no
additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly reduce multicast traffic
passing through your device.
IGMP Proxy
To allow better network performance, you can use IGMP proxy instead of a
multicast routing protocol in a simple tree network topology.
Note: Your ZyXEL Device is an IGMP proxy.
In IGMP proxy, an upstream interface is the port that is closer to the source (or
the root of the multicast tree) and is able to receive multicast traffic. There should
only be one upstream interface (also known as the query port) for one query VLAN
on the ZyXEL Device. A downstream interface is a port that connects to a host
(such as a computer).
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The following figure shows a network example where A is the multicast source
while computers 1, 2 and 3 are the receivers. In the figure A is connected to the
upstream interface and 1, 2 and 3 are connected to the downstream interface.
Figure 80 IGMP Proxy Network Example
Multicast
Server
Proxy
Hosts
The ZyXEL Device will not respond to IGMP join and leave messages on the
upstream interface. The ZyXEL Device only responds to IGMP query messages on
the upstream interface. The ZyXEL Device sends IGMP query messages to the
hosts that are members of the query VLAN.
The ZyXEL Device only sends an IGMP leave message via the upstream interface
when the last host leaves a multicast group.
Router Alert Option
The router alert option provides a way to let routers intercept packets not
addressed to them directly, without incurring any significant performance penalty.
The router alert option in the IP header of an IGMP control packet tells the router
to examine the packet more closely for routing information. Regular data packets
do not receive the extra checking and are forwarded with little or no performance
penalty. IGMP v2 and IGMP v3 both require the router alert option while IGMP v1
does not use it at all. See RFC 2113 for more information.
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14.2 The IGMP General Screen
Use the IGMP General screen to configure general IGMP proxy and IGMP packet
processing settings.
Click Network Settings > IGMP Setting > General to open the following
screen.
Figure 81 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > General
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 56 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > General
202
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP Proxy
Enable this to have the ZyXEL Device reduce multicast traffic by
issuing IGMP host messages to a multicast router or server on behalf
of the multicast hosts connected to the IGMP proxy device.
Query Interval
Specify how many seconds since the last query the ZyXEL Device waits
before it queries all directly connected networks to gather multicast
group membership.
Query Response
Interval
Specify how many seconds the host allots for gathering membership
information from directly connected networks before it sends a report.
Robustness
Value
This is the number of times the host sends a report to the ZyXEL
Device when the ZyXEL Device queries for the host’s status.
IGMP Packet
Process
Select one or more of these fields to increase the IGMP network’s
security or control which types of IGMP packets the ZyXEL Device
forwards.
Ignore IGMP
packets not from
LAN subnet
Select this to discard IGMP packets from IP addresses other than the
LAN subnet.
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Chapter 14 IGMP
Table 56 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > General (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ignore IGMP
report without
router alert
option
Select this to discard IGMP report packets that do not include a router
alert option.
Ignore IGMP
leave without
router alert
option
Select this to discard IGMP leave packets that do not include a router
alert option.
Ignore IGMP
query without
router alert
option
Select this to discard IGMP query packets that do not include a router
alert option.
Ignore IGMP
query which
destination IP is
not 224.0.0.1
Select this to discard IGMP query packets with a destination IP address
other than 224.0.0.1, the all-hosts multicast address.
Apply
Click this button to save your settings back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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14.3 IGMP Filter Configuration
Use this screen to control IGMP access. Click Network Settings > IGMP Setting
> IGMP Filter to open the following screen.
Figure 82 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 57 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter
204
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Allow IGMP
packets from
Ethernet
interface
Select this to accept IGMP packets received on any of the LAN
Ethernet ports. Clear this to discard IGMP packets received on any of
the LAN Ethernet ports.
Allow IGMP
packets from
WiFi interface
Select this to accept IGMP packets received through the wireless LAN
interface. Clear this to discard IGMP packets received through the
wireless LAN interface.
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Table 57 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Allow IGMP
packets from
Ethernet LAN
port1 ~ 4
Select specific LAN Ethernet ports upon which to accept IGMP packets.
Clear individual LAN Ethernet port options to discard IGMP packets
received on those ports.
LAN Host
This table lists the LAN computers the ZyXEL Device has detected.
LAN Host IP
This is the IP address of a computer on the ZyXEL Device’s LAN.
Type
This shows whether or not the LAN device is a Set Top Box (STB).
IGMP Enabled
This shows whether or not the LAN device is allowed to access IGMP
services through the ZyXEL Device.
Max Allowed
Channel
This is how many IGMP channels the LAN device is allowed to
subscribe to.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to change the entry.
Multicast Service
Use this section to limit access to IGMP multicast service domains.
Add a new
service
Click this to add a new IGMP multicast service domain.
Service Name
This is the name of an IGMP multicast service domain.
Multicast Group
This is the multicast address and subnet that the service domain uses.
STB Max
Channels
This is to how many of the service domain’s IGMP channels a LAN STB
device is allowed to subscribe.
Non-STB Max
Channels
This is to how many of the service domain’s IGMP channels LAN
devices other than STBs are allowed to subscribe.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to change the entry.
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
Add a new host
limitation
Click this to limit a LAN host’s IGMP access.
Service Name
This is the name of an IGMP multicast service domain.
LAN IP
This is the IP address of a computer on the ZyXEL Device’s LAN.
IGMP Enabled
This shows whether or not the LAN device using the specified IP
address is allowed to use the IGMP multicast service domain.
Max Allowed
Channel
This shows to how many of the IGMP multicast service domain’s
channels the LAN device using the specified IP address can subscribe.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to change the entry.
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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14.3.1 IGMP Host Limitation Edit
Use this screen to control a LAN host’s access to IGMP services through the ZyXEL
Device. Click Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter and then a LAN
host’s Edit icon to open the following screen.
Figure 83 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > LAN Host Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 58 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > LAN Host Edit
206
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN Host
This is the IP address of one of the ZyXEL Device’s LAN hosts.
IGMP Enabled
Select whether or not the LAN device using the specified IP address is
allowed to access IGMP services through the ZyXEL Device.
Max Allowed
Channels
Specify to how many IGMP channels the LAN device is allowed to
subscribe.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Chapter 14 IGMP
14.3.2 IGMP Service Add
Use this screen to add or edit an IGMP multicast service domain. Click Network
Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > Add a new rule to open the
following screen.
Figure 84 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > Add a new service
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 59 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > Add a new service
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
Specify a name to identify the IGMP service domain. You can enter up
to 30 characters. You can use letters, numbers, hyphens (-) and
underscores (_). Spaces are not allowed.
Maximum active
channels for STB
Specify to how many of the service domain’s IGMP channels a LAN STB
device is allowed to subscribe.
Maximum active
channels for
Non-STB
Specify to how many of the service domain’s IGMP channels LAN
devices other than STBs are is allowed to subscribe.
Group List
Use this section to specify the multicast groups and subnet masks for
this IGMP service domain.
Add a group
Click this to add a multicast group and subnet mask to this IGMP
service domain.
Group
This column lists the multicast groups and subnet masks for this IGMP
service domain.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Chapter 14 IGMP
14.3.3 IGMP Host Limitation Add
Use this screen to control a LAN host’s access to an IGMP multicast service
domain. Click Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > Add a new
host limitation to open the following screen.
Figure 85 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > Add a new host
limitation
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 60 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP Filter > Add a new host limitation
208
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service
Specify the name of the IGMP multicast service domain to which you
want to block or allow access.
LAN Host
Select the IP address of one of the ZyXEL Device’s LAN hosts.
IGMP Enabled
Select whether or not the LAN device using the specified IP address is
allowed to use the IGMP multicast service domain.
Max Allowed
Channels
This shows to how many of the IGMP multicast service domain’s
channels the LAN device using the specified IP address can subscribe.
IGMP Enabled
Select whether or not the LAN device is allowed to access IGMP
services through the ZyXEL Device.
Max Allowed
Channels
Specify to how many IGMP channels the LAN device is allowed to
subscribe.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Chapter 14 IGMP
14.4 IGMP ACL Configuration
Use the IGMP Access Control List (ACL) to block or allow access to specific
multicast media channels. Click Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP
ACL to open the following screen.
Figure 86 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP ACL
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 61 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP ACL
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP ACL List
Select Black List to block access to specific multicast channels and
allow access to other multicast channels.
Select White List to allow access to only specific multicast channels
and block access to other multicast channels.
Select Disabled to have the ZyXEL Device not restrict which multicast
channels the multimedia devices on the LAN can access.
Add a new rule
Click this to create a new IGMP ACL rule.
White List
These rules are for allowing access to specified multicast IP addresses.
Multicast
Address
This is the multicast IP address of a multicast media channel to which
you want to allow access.
Multicast
Address Mask
This is the subnet mask of the multicast IP address.
Black List
These rules are for blocking access to specific multicast IP addresses.
Multicast
Address
This is the multicast IP address of a multicast media channel to which
you want to block access.
Multicast
Address Mask
This is the subnet mask of the multicast IP address.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to change the entry.
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
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Table 61 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP ACL (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
14.4.1 IGMP ACL Add
Use this screen to configure the multicast IP address of a multicast media channel
to which you want to block or allow access. Click Network Settings > IGMP
Setting > IGMP ACL > Add a new rule to open the following screen.
Figure 87 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP ACL > Add a new rule
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 62 Network Settings > IGMP Setting > IGMP ACL > Add a new rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast IP
Address
Enter the multicast IP address of a multicast media channel to which
you want to block or allow access.
Multicast IP Mask Enter the subnet mask of the multicast IP address.
Type
Select Black List to have this entry block access to the specified
multicast IP address.
Select White List to have this entry allow access to the specified
multicast IP address.
210
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
15
Interface Group
15.1 Overview
By default, all LAN and WAN interfaces on the ZyXEL Device are in the same group
and can communicate with each other. Create interface groups to have the ZyXEL
Device assign the IP addresses in different domains to different groups. Each
group acts as an independent network on the ZyXEL Device. This lets devices
connected to an interface group’s LAN interfaces communicate through the
interface group’s WAN or LAN interfaces but not other WAN or LAN interfaces.
15.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
The Interface Group screens let you create multiple networks on the ZyXEL
Device (Section 15.2 on page 211).
15.2 The Interface Group Screen
You can manually add a LAN interface to a new group. Alternatively, you can have
the ZyXEL Device automatically add the incoming traffic and the LAN interface on
which traffic is received to an interface group when its DHCP Vendor ID option
information matches one listed for the interface group.
Use the LAN screen to configure the private IP addresses the DHCP server on the
ZyXEL Device assigns to the clients in the default and/or user-defined groups. If
you set the ZyXEL Device to assign IP addresses based on the client’s DHCP
Vendor ID option information, you must enable DHCP server and configure LAN
TCP/IP settings for both the default and user-defined groups. See Chapter 8 on
page 127 for more information.
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In the following example, the client that sends packets with the DHCP Vendor ID
option set to MSFT 5.0 (meaning it is a Windows 2000 DHCP client) is assigned the
IP address 192.168.2.2 and uses the WAN VDSL_PoE/ppp0.1 interface.
Figure 88 Interface Grouping Application
Default: ETH 2~4
192.168.1.x/24
eth10.0
Internet
VDSL_PoE/ppp0.1
192.168.2.x/24
DHCP Vendor ID option: MSFT 5.0
Click Network Settings > Interface Group to open the following screen.
Figure 89 Network Settings > Interface Group
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 63 Network Settings > Interface Group
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New
Interface Group
Click this button to create a new interface group.
Group Name
This shows the descriptive name of the group.
WAN Interface
This shows the WAN interfaces in the group.
LAN Interfaces
This shows the LAN interfaces in the group.
DHCP Vendor IDs The ZyXEL Device automatically adds LAN hosts sending traffic with
any of the Vendor Class Identifiers listed here to the interface group.
This field is blank if you do not have the ZyXEL Device automatically
add clients to the interface group based on their Vendor Class
Identifiers.
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Modify
Click the Delete icon to remove the group.
Add
Click this button to create a new group.
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15.2.1 Interface Group Configuration
Click the Add New Interface Group button in the Interface Group screen to
open the following screen. Use this screen to create a new interface group.
Note: An interface can belong to only one group at a time.
Figure 90 Interface Group Configuration
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 64 Interface Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Name
Enter a name to identify this group. You can enter up to 30 characters.
You can use letters, numbers, hyphens (-) and underscores (_).
Spaces are not allowed.
WAN Interface
used in the
grouping
Select the WAN interface this group uses.
Grouped LAN
Interfaces
Select one or more LAN interfaces (Ethernet LAN or wireless LAN) in
the Available LAN Interfaces list and use the left arrow to move
them to the Grouped LAN Interfaces list to add the interfaces to this
group.
Available LAN
Interfaces
Select No Interface/None to not add a WAN interface to this group.
To remove a LAN or wireless LAN interface from the Grouped LAN
Interfaces, use the right-facing arrow.
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Table 64 Interface Group Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Automatically
Enter the Vendor Class Identifiers (DHCP Option 60) to identify LAN
Add Clients With hosts to add to the interface group by criteria such as the type of the
the following
hardware or firmware.
DHCP Vendor IDs
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Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
16
Firewall
16.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to enable and configure the ZyXEL Device firewall.
Use the firewall to protect your ZyXEL Device and network from attacks by
hackers on the Internet and control access to it. By default the firewall:
• allows traffic that originates from your LAN computers to go to all other
networks.
• blocks traffic that originates on other networks from going to the LAN.
The following figure illustrates the default firewall action. User A can initiate an IM
(Instant Messaging) session from the LAN to the WAN (1). Return traffic for this
session is also allowed (2). However other traffic initiated from the WAN is blocked
(3 and 4).
Figure 91 Default Firewall Action
WAN
LAN
A
1
2
3
4
16.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Firewall screen to configure the security level of the firewall on the
ZyXEL Device (Section 16.2 on page 217).
• Use the Protocol screen to add or remove predefined Internet services and
configure firewall rules (Section 16.3 on page 217).
• Use the Access Control screen to view and configure incoming/outgoing
filtering rules (Section 16.4 on page 220).
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16.1.2 What You Need to Know
SYN Attack
A SYN attack floods a targeted system with a series of SYN packets. Each packet
causes the targeted system to issue a SYN-ACK response. While the targeted
system waits for the ACK that follows the SYN-ACK, it queues up all outstanding
SYN-ACK responses on a backlog queue. SYN-ACKs are moved off the queue only
when an ACK comes back or when an internal timer terminates the three-way
handshake. Once the queue is full, the system will ignore all incoming SYN
requests, making the system unavailable for legitimate users.
DoS
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a
connection to the Internet. Their goal is not to steal information, but to disable a
device or network so users no longer have access to network resources. The
ZyXEL Device is pre-configured to automatically detect and thwart all known DoS
attacks.
DDoS
A DDoS attack is one in which multiple compromised systems attack a single
target, thereby causing denial of service for users of the targeted system.
LAND Attack
In a LAND attack, hackers flood SYN packets into the network with a spoofed
source IP address of the target system. This makes it appear as if the host
computer sent the packets to itself, making the system unavailable while the
target system tries to respond to itself.
Ping of Death
Ping of Death uses a "ping" utility to create and send an IP packet that exceeds
the maximum 65,536 bytes of data allowed by the IP specification. This may
cause systems to crash, hang or reboot.
SPI
Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) tracks each connection crossing the firewall and
makes sure it is valid. Filtering decisions are based not only on rules but also
context. For example, traffic from the WAN may only be allowed to cross the
firewall in response to a request from the LAN.
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16.2 The Firewall Screen
Use this screen to set the security level of the firewall on the ZyXEL Device.
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they
apply.
Click Security Settings > Firewall to display the following screen.
Figure 92 Security Settings > Firewall
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 Security Settings > Firewall
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Low
Select Low to allow LAN to WAN and WAN to LAN packet directions.
Medium
Select Medium to allow LAN to WAN but deny WAN to LAN packet
directions.
High
Select High to deny LAN to WAN and WAN to LAN packet directions.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
16.3 The Protocol Screen
You can configure customized services and port numbers in the Protocol screen.
For a comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet
Assigned Number Authority) website. See Appendix E on page 381 for some
examples.
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Click Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol to display the following screen.
Figure 93 Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New
Protocol
Entry
Click this to add a new protocol.
Name
This is the name of your customized service.
Description
This is the description of your customized service.
Ports/
Protocol
Number
This shows the IP protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP, or TCP/UDP) and the port
number or range of ports that defines your customized service. Other and
the protocol number displays if the service uses another IP protocol.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the entry.
Click the Delete icon to remove this entry.
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16.3.1 Add a Protocol
Use this screen to add a customized service rule that you can use in the firewall’s
ACL rule configuration. Click Add New Protocol Entry in the Protocol screen to
display the following screen.
Figure 94 Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol > Add
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol > Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add Protocol
Protocol
Choose the IP protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP, or Other) that defines your
customized port from the drop-down list box. Select Other to be able to
enter a protocol number.
Source/
Destination
Port
These fields are displayed if you select TCP or UDP as the IP port.
Select Single to specify one port only or Range to specify a span of ports
that define your customized service. If you select Any, the service is
applied to all ports.
Type a single port number or the range of port numbers that define your
customized service.
Protocol
Number
Add
This field is displayed if you select Other as the protocol.
Enter the protocol number of your customized port.
Click this to add the protocol to the Rule List below.
Rule List
Protocol
This is the IP port (TCP, UDP, ICMP, or Other) that defines your
customized port.
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Table 67 Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol > Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ports/
Protocol
Number
For TCP, UDP, ICMP, or TCP/UDP protocol rules this shows the port
number or range that defines the custom service. For other IP protocol
rules this shows the protocol number.
Modify
Click the Delete icon to remove the rule.
Service
Name
Enter a unique name (up to 32 printable English keyboard characters,
including spaces) for your customized port.
Service
Description
Enter a description for your customized port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
16.4 The Access Control Screen
Click Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control to display the following
screen. This screen displays a list of the configured incoming or outgoing filtering
rules.
Figure 95 Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DoS Protection
DoS (Denial of Service) attacks can flood your Internet connection with
invalid packets and connection requests, using so much bandwidth and
so many resources that Internet access becomes unavailable.
Select the Enable check box to enable protection against DoS attacks.
220
Add New ACL
Rule
Click this to go to add a filter rule for incoming or outgoing IP traffic.
Name
This displays the name of the rule.
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Table 68 Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Src IP
This displays the source IP addresses to which this rule applies. Please
note that a blank source address is equivalent to Any.
Dst IP
This displays the destination IP addresses to which this rule applies.
Please note that a blank destination address is equivalent to Any.
Protocol
This displays the transport layer protocol that defines the service to
which this rule applies.
Direction
This displays the direction of traffic to which this rule applies.
Action
This field displays whether the rule silently discards packets (DROP),
discards packets and sends a TCP reset packet or an ICMP destinationunreachable message to the sender (REJECT) or allows the passage of
packets (ACCEPT).
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule. Note that subsequent
rules move up by one when you take this action.
Apply
Click Apply to save the DoS Protection settings.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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16.4.1 Add/Edit an ACL Rule
Click Add New ACL Rule or the Edit icon next to an existing ACL rule in the
Access Control screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 96 Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control > Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control > Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Filter Name
Enter a descriptive name of up to 16 alphanumeric characters, not
including spaces, underscores, and dashes.
You must enter the filter name to add an ACL rule. This field is readonly if you are editing the ACL rule.
222
Select Source
Device
Select the source device to which the ACL rule applies. If you select
Specific IP Address, enter the source IP address in the field below.
Source IP
Address
Enter the source IP address.
Select
Destination
Device
Select the destination device to which the ACL rule applies. If you
select Specific IP Address, enter the destiniation IP address in the
field below.
Destination IP
Address
Enter the destination IP address.
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Table 69 Security Settings > Firewall > Access Control > Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select Protocol
Select the transport layer protocol that defines your customized port
from the drop-down list box. The specific protocol rule sets you add in
the Security Settings > Firewall > Protocol > Add screen display
in this list.
If you want to configure a customized protocol, select Specific
Protocol.
Protocol
This field is displayed only when you select Specific Protocol in
Select Protocol.
Choose the IP port (TCP/UDP, TCP, UDP, or ICMP) that defines your
customized port from the drop-down list box.
Custom Source
Port
This field is displayed only when you select Specific Protocol in
Select Protocol.
Enter a single port number or the range of port numbers of the source.
Custom
Destination Port
This field is displayed only when you select Specific Protocol in
Select Protocol.
Enter a single port number or the range of port numbers of the
destination.
Policy
Use the drop-down list box to select whether to discard (DROP), deny
and send an ICMP destination-unreachable message to the sender of
(REJECT) or allow the passage of (ACCEPT) packets that match this
rule.
Direction
Use the drop-down list box to select the direction of traffic to which
this rule applies.
Enable Rate Limit Select this check box to set a limit on the upstream/downstream
transmission rate for the specified protocol.
Specify how many packets per minute or second the transmission rate
is.
Scheduler Rules
Select a schedule rule for this ACL rule form the drop-down list box.
You can configure a new schedule rule by click Add new rule. This
will bring you to the Security Settings > Scheduler Rules screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
17
MAC Filter
17.1 Overview
This screen allows you to configure the ZyXEL Device to give exclusive access to
specific devices or exclude specific devices from accessing the ZyXEL Device.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC
address is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal
characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC
addresses of the devices to configure this screen.
17.2 The MAC Filter Screen
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s MAC filter settings. Click Security
Settings > MAC Filter. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 97 Security Settings > MAC Filter
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Chapter 17 MAC Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 Security Settings > MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Filter Setup
MAC Filter
Select Enable to activate the MAC filter function. Otherwise,
select Disable.
Add new devices to the
Allow List automatically
Select this check box if you want the ZyXEL Device to
automatically add the newly connected devices to the Allow
List.
MAC Filter Lists
Allow List
Block List
The devices in this list are permitted or denied access to the
ZyXEL Device.
Select an entry from the Allow List and use the > button to
add it to the Block List.
Select an entry from the Block List and use the < button to
add it to the Allow List.
226
Add Device
Select this to display the Add Device screen which you can add
a device to the MAC filter Allow List. Enter the device’s MAC
address and click OK.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Device
This is the name of the device that is allowed access to the
ZyXEL Device.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device that is allowed access to
the ZyXEL Device.
Modify
Select the entry(ies) that you want to delete in the Remove
column, then click the Delete icon.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
18
Parental Control
18.1 Overview
Parental control allows you to permit or block access to certain web sites from
home network computers.
You can define time periods and days during which the ZyXEL Device performs
parental control on a specific user in the Security Settings > Scheduler Rules
screen (see Chapter 19 on page 231 for detailed information).
18.2 The Parental Control Screen
Use this screen to configure parental control settings to block the users on your
network from accessing certain web sites.
Click Parental Control to open the following screen.
Note: You must configure a scheduler rule in the Advanced > Scheduler Rule
screen (Section 19.2 on page 231) before the parental control function can be
enabled. Click Scheduler Rule in the note to go to the Scheduler Rule screen
for configurations.
Figure 98 Parental Control
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Chapter 18 Parental Control
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 71 Parental Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to create a new parental control rule.
#
This is the index number of the rule.
PC Name/IP/MAC The ZyXEL Device allows or prohibits the users from viewing the Web
sites with the URLs listed below.
Access Type
This shows the access type that is applied on the user to the web site
of this rule.
Web Site
This is the URL of the web site in this rule.
Scheduler Name
This is the name of the schedule rule that is applied.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
18.2.1 Add/Edit Parental Control Rule
Click Add new rule in the Parental Control screen or click the Edit icon next to
a rule to open the following screen.
Figure 99 Parental Control: Add/Edit
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 72 Parental Control: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PC Name/IP/MAC Select the user that you want to apply this rule to from the drop-down
list box. If you want to add an user that is not listed, select User
Defined and enter its MAC address.
This field is read-only if you are editing the parental control rule.
Access Type
Select the access type that is applied on the user to the web site of
this rule.
If you select Block Web Site, the ZyXEL Device prohibits the users
from viewing the web sites with the URLs listed below.
If you select Allow Web Site, the ZyXEL Device blocks access to all
URLs except ones listed below.
If you select Block All, the ZyXEL Device blocks access to all URLs.
Web Site
Enter the URL of web site to which the ZyXEL Device blocks or allows
access. Click Add to add this URL to the list below.
Remove
Select an URL from the list and click Remove to delete it.
Scheduler Rule
Select the scheduler rule that you want to apply from the drop-down
list box. If you have not configured a scheduler rule or want to add a
new one, click the Add New Rule button to go to the Scheduler
Rule screen. See Chapter 19 on page 231 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
19
Scheduler Rules
19.1 Overview
You can define time periods and days during which the ZyXEL Device performs
scheduled rules of certain features (such as Firewall Access Control, Parental
Control) on a specific user in the Scheduler Rules screen.
19.2 The Scheduler Rules Screen
Use this screen to view, add, or edit time schedule rules.
Click Advanced > Scheduler Rules to open the following screen.
Figure 100 Advanced > Scheduler Rules
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 73 Advanced > Scheduler Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new rule
Click this to create a new rule.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Rule Name
This shows the name of the rule.
Day
This shows the day(s) on which this rule is enabled.
Time
This shows the period of time on which this rule is enabled.
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Table 73 Advanced > Scheduler Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Description
This shows the description of this rule.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the schedule.
Click the Delete icon to delete a scheduler rule.
Note: You cannot delete a scheduler rule once it is applied to a
certain feature.
19.2.1 Add/Edit a Schedule
Click the Add button in the Scheduler Rules screen or click the Edit icon next to
a schedule rule to open the following screen. Use this screen to configure a
restricted access schedule for a specific user on your network.
Figure 101 Scheduler Rules: Add/Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 74 Scheduler Rules: Add/Edit
232
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Name
Enter a name (up to 31 printable English keyboard characters, not
including spaces) for this schedule.
Day
Select check boxes for the days that you want the ZyXEL Device to
perform this scheduler rule.
Time if Day
Range
Enter the time period of each day, in 24-hour format, during which
parental control will be enforced.
Description
Enter a description for this scheduler rule.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
CHAPTER
20
Certificates
20.1 Overview
The ZyXEL Device can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate
users. Certificates are based on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the
certificate owner’s identity and public key. Certificates provide a way to exchange
public keys for use in authentication.
20.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• The Local Certificates screen lets you generate certification requests and
import the ZyXEL Device's CA-signed certificates (Section 20.4 on page 241).
• The Trusted CA screen lets you save the certificates of trusted CAs to the
ZyXEL Device (Section 20.4 on page 241).
20.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Certification Authority
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of
each certificate owner. There are commercial certification authorities like
CyberTrust or VeriSign and government certification authorities. The certification
authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone can then use the
certification authority's public key to verify the certificates. You can use the ZyXEL
Device to generate certification requests that contain identifying information and
public keys and then send the certification requests to a certification authority.
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20.3 The Local Certificates Screen
Click Security Settings > Certificates to open the Local Certificates screen.
This is the ZyXEL Device’s summary list of certificates and certification requests.
Figure 102 Security Settings > Certificates > Local Certificates
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Security Settings > Certificates > Local Certificates
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Create
Certificate
Request
Click this button to go to the screen where you can have the ZyXEL
Device generate a certification request.
Import
Certificate
Click this button to open a screen where you can save the certificate
that you have enrolled from a certification authority from your
computer to the ZyXEL Device.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is
recommended that you give each certificate a unique name.
In Use
This field displays whether the certificate is in use and how many
applications use the certificate.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner,
such as CN (Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department),
O (Organization or company) and C (Country). It is recommended that
each certificate have unique subject information.
Type
This field displays what kind of certificate this is.
request represents a certification request and is not yet a valid
certificate. Send a certification request to a certification authority, which
then issues a certificate. Use the Load Certificate screen to import the
certificate and replace the request.
signed represents a certificate issued by a certification authority.
Modify
Click the View icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information
about the certificate (or certification request).
For a certification request, click Load Signed to import the signed
certificate.
Click the Remove icon to delete the certificate (or certification
request). You cannot delete a certificate that one or more features is
configured to use.
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20.3.1 Create Certificate Request
Click Security Settings > Certificates > Local Certificates and then Create
Certificate Request to open the following screen. Use this screen to have the
ZyXEL Device generate a certification request.
Figure 103 Create Certificate Request
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Create Certificate Request
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
Type up to 63 ASCII characters (not including spaces) to identify this
certificate.
Common Name
Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation), domain name or email address in the field provided. The domain name or e-mail
address can be up to 63 ASCII characters. The domain name or email address is for identification purposes only and can be any
string.
Organization Name Type up to 63 characters to identify the company or group to which
the certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including
spaces, but the ZyXEL Device drops trailing spaces.
State/Province
Name
Type up to 32 characters to identify the state or province where the
certificate owner is located. You may use any character, including
spaces, but the ZyXEL Device drops trailing spaces.
Country/Region
Name
Select a country to identify the nation where the certificate owner is
located.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
After you click Apply, the following screen displays to notify you that you need to
get the certificate request signed by a Certificate Authority. If you already have,
click Load_Signed to import the signed certificate into the ZyXEL Device.
Otherwise click Back to return to the Local Certificates screen.
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Figure 104 Certificate Request Created
20.3.2 Load Signed Certificate
After you create a certificate request and have it signed by a Certificate Authority,
in the Local Certificates screen click the certificate request’s Load Signed icon
to import the signed certificate into the ZyXEL Device.
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Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import it.
Figure 105 Load Signed Certificate
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Load Signed Certificate
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
Name
This is the name of the signed certificate.
Certificate
Copy and paste the signed certificate into the text box to store it on the
ZyXEL Device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
20.3.3 Import Certificate
Click Security Settings > Local Certificates and then Import Certificate to
open the Import Local Certificate screen. Follow the instructions in this screen
to save an existing certificate to the ZyXEL Device.
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Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import it.
Figure 106 Import Local Certificate
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 Import Local Certificate
238
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Import
from file
Click this check box to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a
certification authority that you trust, from your computer to the ZyXEL
Device.
Certificate
Name
Type up to 63 ASCII characters (not including spaces) to identify this
certificate.
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Table 78 Import Local Certificate
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
Copy and paste the certificate into the text box to store it on the ZyXEL
Device.
Private
Key
Copy and paste the private key into the text box to store it on the ZyXEL
Device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
If you click Import from file in the Import Local Certificate screen, the
following screen is displayed.
Figure 107 Import Local Certificate > Import from file
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 Import Local Certificate > Import from file
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
File Path
Type in the location of the certificate you want to upload in this field or click
Browse ... to find it.
Private
Key is
protected
by a
password?
Enter the private key into the text box to store it on the ZyXEL Device. The
private key should not exceed 63 ASCII characters (not including spaces).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
20.3.4 Certificate Details
Click Security Settings> Certificates > Local Certificates to open the My
Certificates screen. Click the View icon to open the Certificate Details screen.
Use this screen to view in-depth certificate information and change the
certificate’s name.
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Figure 108 Certificate Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Certificate Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want
to change the name, type up to 63 characters to identify this
certificate. You may use any character (not including spaces).
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. signed
means that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. request
means this is a certification request.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the
certificate, such as Common Name (CN), Organization (O), State (ST)
and Country (C).
Certificate
This read-only text box displays the certificate in Privacy Enhanced
Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses base 64 to convert the binary certificate
into a printable form.
This displays null in a certification request.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to
friends or colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a
text editor and save the file on a management computer for later
distribution (via floppy disk for example).
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Table 80 Certificate Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Private Key
This read-only text box displays the private key in Privacy Enhanced
Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses base 64 to convert the binary certificate
into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the private key into an e-mail to send to
friends or colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a
text editor and save the file on a management computer for later
distribution (via floppy disk for example).
Signing Request
This read-only text box displays the request information in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses base 64 to convert the binary
certificate into a printable form.
This displays null in a signed certificate.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
20.4 The Trusted CA Screen
Click Security Settings > Certificates > Trusted CA to open the following
screen. This screen displays a summary list of certificates of the certification
authorities that you have set the ZyXEL Device to accept as trusted. The ZyXEL
Device accepts any valid certificate signed by a certification authority on this list
as being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any certificate that is signed
by one of these certification authorities.
Figure 109 Security Settings > Certificates > Trusted CA
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 81 Security Settings > Certificates > Trusted CA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Import
Certificate
Click this button to open a screen where you can save the certificate of
a certification authority that you trust to the ZyXEL Device.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
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Table 81 Security Settings > Certificates > Trusted CA (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the
certificate, such as Common Name (CN), OU (Organizational Unit or
department), Organization (O), State (ST) and Country (C). It is
recommended that each certificate have unique subject information.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. ca means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate.
Action
Click the View icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of
information about the certificate (or certification request).
Click the Remove button to delete the certificate (or certification
request). You cannot delete a certificate that one or more features is
configured to use.
20.4.1 View Trusted CA Certificate
Click the View icon in the Trusted CA screen to open the following screen. Use
this screen to view in-depth information about the certification authority’s
certificate.
Figure 110 Trusted CA: View
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 82 Trusted CA: View
242
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. ca means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate.
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Table 82 Trusted CA: View (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the
certificate, such as Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU),
Organization (O) and Country (C).
Certificate
This read-only text box displays the certificate in Privacy Enhanced
Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses base 64 to convert the binary certificate
into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to friends
or colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a text
editor and save the file on a management computer for later
distribution (via floppy disk for example).
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
20.4.2 Import Trusted CA Certificate
Click the Import Certificate button in the Trusted CA screen to open the
following screen. The ZyXEL Device trusts any valid certificate signed by any of
the imported trusted CA certificates.
Figure 111 Trusted CA: Import Certificate
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 83 Trusted CA: Import Certificate
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Import from file
Click this check box to open a screen where you can save the
certificate of a certification authority that you trust, from your
computer to the ZyXEL Device.
Certificate Name
Enter the name that identifies this certificate. The certificate name
should not exceed 63 ASCII characters (not including spaces).
Certificate
Copy and paste the certificate into the text box to store it on the
ZyXEL Device.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
If you click Import from file in the Import Local Certificate screen, the following
screen is displayed.
Figure 112 Trusted CA: Import Certificate > Import from file
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Import Local Certificate
244
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate
File Path
Type in the location of the certificate you want to upload in this field or click
Browse ... to find it.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
21
IPSec
21.1 Overview
A virtual private network (VPN) provides secure communications between sites
without the expense of leased site-to-site lines. A secure VPN is a combination of
tunneling, encryption, authentication, access control and auditing. It is used to
transport traffic over the Internet or any insecure network that uses TCP/IP for
communication.
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a standards-based VPN that offers flexible
solutions for secure data communications across a public network like the
Internet. IPSec is built around a number of standardized cryptographic techniques
to provide confidentiality, data integrity and authentication at the IP layer. The
following figure is an example of an IPSec VPN tunnel.
Figure 113 VPN: Example
VPN Tunnel
X
Y
21.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Status screen to display and manage the current active VPN
connections (Section 21.2 on page 247).
• Use the Settings screen to view the configured IPSec policies and add, edit or
remove a policy (Section 21.3 on page 248).
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21.1.2 What You Need to Know
A VPN tunnel is usually established in two phases. Each phase establishes a
security association (SA), a contract indicating what security parameters the
ZyXEL Device and the remote IPSec router will use. The first phase establishes an
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) SA between the ZyXEL Device and remote IPSec
router. The second phase uses the IKE SA to securely establish an IPSec SA
through which the ZyXEL Device and remote IPSec router can send data between
computers on the local network and remote network. The following figure
illustrates this.
Figure 114 VPN: IKE SA and IPSec SA
B
A
IPSec SA
X
IKE SA
Y
In this example, a computer in network A is exchanging data with a computer in
network B. Inside networks A and B, the data is transmitted the same way data is
normally transmitted in the networks. Between routers X and Y, the data is
protected by tunneling, encryption, authentication, and other security features of
the IPSec SA. The IPSec SA is established securely using the IKE SA that routers X
and Y established first.
Remote IPSec Gateway Address
Remote IPSec Gateway Address is the WAN IP address or domain name of the
remote IPSec router (secure gateway).
If the remote secure gateway has a static WAN IP address, enter it in the Remote
IPSec Gateway Address field. You may alternatively enter the remote secure
gateway’s domain name (if it has one) in the Remote IPSec Gateway Address
field.
You can also enter a remote secure gateway’s domain name in the Remote IPSec
Gateway Address field if the remote secure gateway has a dynamic WAN IP
address and is using DDNS. The ZyXEL Device has to rebuild the VPN tunnel each
time the remote secure gateway’s WAN IP address changes (there may be a delay
until the DDNS servers are updated with the remote gateway’s new WAN IP
address).
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Finding Out More
See Section 21.4 on page 256 for advanced technical information on IPSec VPN.
21.2 The IPSec Status Screen
Click Security Settings > IPSec > Status to open the screen as shown. Use this
screen to display and manage active VPN connections.
A Security Association (SA) is the group of security settings related to a specific
VPN tunnel. This screen displays active VPN connections. Use Refresh to display
active VPN connections. This screen is read-only. The following table describes the
fields in this tab.
Figure 115 Security Settings > IPSec > Status
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 85 Security Settings > IPSec > Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh
Interval
Select how often the screen should be refreshed from the drop-down list
box.
Status
This field displays whether the VPN connection is up (a yellow bulb) or
down (a gray bulb).
Connection
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Remote
Gateway
This is the static WAN IP address or URL of the remote IPSec router.
Local
Addresses
This is the IP address of computer(s) on your local network behind your
ZyXEL Device.
Remote
Addresses
This is the IP address of computer(s) on the remote network behind the
remote IPSec router.
Action
Click Trigger to establish a VPN connection with the remote network.
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21.3 The IPSec Settings Screen
The following figure helps explain the main fields in the web configurator.
Figure 116 IPSec Summary Fields
Remote Network
Local Network
Remote
IPSec Router
VPN Tunnel
Remote IP Address
Local IP Address
My IP Address
Secure Gateway IP Address
Local and remote IP addresses must be static.
Click Security Settings > IPSec to open the Settings screen. This is a menu of
your IPSec tunnels.
Figure 117 Security Settings > IPSec > Settings
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 86 Security Settings > IPSec > Settings
248
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add New
Connection
Click this to configure a new VPN policy.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the VPN policy is active or not. A yellow bulb
signifies that this VPN policy is active. A gray bulb signifies that this VPN
policy is not active.
Connection
Name
This field displays the identification name for this VPN policy.
Remote
Gateway
This is the static WAN IP address or URL of the remote IPSec router.
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Table 86 Security Settings > IPSec > Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local
Addresses
This is the IP address of computer(s) on your local network behind your
ZyXEL Device.
Remote
Addresses
This is the IP address of computer(s) on the remote network behind the
remote IPSec router.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the VPN configuration.
Click the Delete icon to remove an existing VPN configuration.
21.3.1 Add/Edit IPSec Setting
Click Add New Connection or a policy’s Edit icon in the IPSec > Settings
screen to edit VPN policies.
Note: The ZyXEL Device uses the system default gateway interface’s WAN IP
address as its WAN IP address to set up a VPN tunnel.
21.3.1.1 Auto(IKE) Key Setup
Auto(IKE) provides more protection so it is generally recommended. You only
configure VPN manual key when you select Auto(IKE) in the Key Exchange
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Method field on the IPSec > Setting: Add/Edit screen. The following is the
IPSec Setting - Auto(IKE) screen.
Figure 118 Settings > Add/Edit: Auto(IKE)
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 87 Settings > Add/Edit: Auto(IKE)
250
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
Select this check box to activate this VPN policy. This option
determines whether a VPN rule is applied before a packet leaves the
firewall.
IPSec
Connection
Name
Type up to 39 alphanumeric characters to identify this VPN policy. You
may use spaces, underscores and dashes, but the ZyXEL Device drops
trailing spaces.
Remote IPSec
Gateway
Address
Type the WAN IP address or the URL (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec
router with which you're making the VPN connection.
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Table 87 Settings > Add/Edit: Auto(IKE)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Tunnel access
from local IP
addresses
Specify the IP addresses of the devices behind the ZyXEL Device that
can use the VPN tunnel. The local IP addresses must correspond to the
remote IPSec router's configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both
the same. Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP
address, but not both. You can configure multiple SAs between the
same local and remote IP addresses, as long as only one is active at
any time.
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address or Subnet.
Select Single Address for a single IP address. Select Subnet to
specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address
for VPN
When the local IP address type is configured to Single Address, enter
a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your ZyXEL Device.
When the local IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a
(static) IP address on the LAN behind your ZyXEL Device.
IP Subnet
mask
When the local IP address type is configured to Single Address, this
field is not available.
When the local IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a subnet
mask on the LAN behind your ZyXEL Device.
Tunnel access
from remote IP
addresses
Specify the IP addresses of the devices behind the remote IPSec router
that can use the VPN tunnel. The remote IP addresses must correspond
to the remote IPSec router's configured local IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both
the same. Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP
address, but not both. You can configure multiple SAs between the
same local and remote IP addresses, as long as only one is active at
any time.
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address or Subnet.
Select Single Address with a single IP address. Select Subnet to
specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address
for VPN
When the remote IP address type is configured to Single Address,
enter a (static) IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec
router.
When the remote IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a
(static) IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
IP
Subnetmask
When the remote IP address type is configured to Single Address,
this field is not available.
When the remote IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a
subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Protocol
This field displays ESP and the ZyXEL Device uses ESP (Encapsulation
Security Payload) for VPN. The ESP protocol (RFC 2406) provides
encryption as well as some of the services offered by AH.
Key Exchange
Method
Select Auto(IKE) or Manual from the drop-down list box. Auto(IKE)
provides more protection so it is generally recommended. Manual is a
useful option for troubleshooting if you have problems using
Auto(IKE) key management.
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Table 87 Settings > Add/Edit: Auto(IKE)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Method
Select Pre-Shared Key to use a pre-shared key for authentication. A
pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE
negotiation. It is called "pre-shared" because you have to share it with
another party before you can communicate with them over a secure
connection.
Select Certificates (X.509) to use a certificate for authentication.
Pre-Shared Key
This field is available only when you select Pre-Shared Key in the
Authentication Method field.
Type up to 15 alphanumeric characters for the pre-shared key. Both
ends of the VPN tunnel must use the same pre-shared key. You will
receive a “PYLD_MALFORMED” (payload malformed) packet if the same
pre-shared key is not used on both ends.
Local/Remote ID
Type
Select IP to identify this ZyXEL Device by its IP address.
Select DNS to identify this ZyXEL Device by a domain name.
Select E-mail to identify this ZyXEL Device by an e-mail address.
Select ASN1DN (Abstract Syntax Notation one - Distinguished Name)
to identify the remote IPSec router by the subject field in a certificate.
This is used only with certificate-based authentication.
Local/Remote ID
Content
When you select IP in the Local/Remote ID Type field, type the IP
address of your computer in the Local/Remote ID Content field.
When you select DNS or E-mail in the Local/Remote ID Type field,
type a domain name or e-mail address by which to identify this ZyXEL
Device in the Local/Remote ID Content field. Use up to 31 ASCII
characters including spaces, although trailing spaces are truncated.
The domain name or e-mail address is for identification purposes only
and can be any string.
Advanced IKE
Settings
Click Show Advanced Settings to display and configure more
detailed settings of your IKE key management. Otherwise, click Hide
Advanced Settings.
NAT_Traversal
Select Enable if you want to set up a VPN tunnel when there are NAT
routers between the ZyXEL Device and remote IPSec router. The
remote IPSec router must also enable NAT traversal, and the NAT
routers have to forward UDP port 500 packets to the remote IPSec
router behind the NAT router. Otherwise, select Disable.
Phase 1/Phase 2
Mode
252
Select Main or Aggressive from the drop-down list box. Multiple SAs
connecting through a secure gateway must have the same negotiation
mode.
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Table 87 Settings > Add/Edit: Auto(IKE)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Algorithm
Select DES, 3DES, AES-128, ES-192 or AES-256 from the dropdown list box.
When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data
communications, both the sending device and the receiving device
must use the same secret key, which can be used to encrypt and
decrypt the message or to generate and verify a message
authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a
result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more
processing power, resulting in increased latency and decreased
throughput. This implementation of AES uses a 128-bit, 192-bit or
256-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Integrity
Algorithm
Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message
Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used
to authenticate packet data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally
considered stronger than MD5, but is slower. Select MD5 for minimal
security and SHA1 for maximum security.
Select DiffieHellman Group
for Key
Exchange
You must choose a key group for key exchange in SA setup. 768bit
refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 1 a 768 bit random number. 1024bit
refers to Diffie-Hellman Group 2 a 1024 bit (1Kb) random number.
Other options include 1536, 2048, and 3072 bit Diffie-Hellman
groups.
Key Life Time
(Seconds)
Define the length of time before an IKE or IPSec SA automatically
renegotiates in this field. It may range from 1 to 2,000,000,000
seconds.
A short SA Life Time increases security by forcing the two VPN
gateways to update the encryption and authentication keys. However,
every time the VPN tunnel renegotiates, all users accessing remote
resources are temporarily disconnected.
Apply
Click Apply/Save to save your changes and return to the IPSec
screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
21.3.1.2 Manual Key Setup
Manual key management is useful if you have problems with Auto(IKE) key
management.
21.3.1.3 Security Parameter Index (SPI)
An SPI is used to distinguish different SAs terminating at the same destination and
using the same IPSec protocol. This data allows for the multiplexing of SAs to a
single gateway. The SPI (Security Parameter Index) along with a destination IP
address uniquely identify a particular Security Association (SA). The SPI is
transmitted from the remote VPN gateway to the local VPN gateway. The local VPN
gateway then uses the network, encryption and key values that the administrator
associated with the SPI to establish the tunnel.
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Current ZyXEL implementation assumes identical outgoing and incoming SPIs.
21.3.2 Configuring Manual Key
You only configure VPN manual key when you select Manual in the Key
Exchange Method field on the IPSec > Setting: Add/Edit screen. The
following is the IPSec Setting - Manual screen.
Figure 119 Settings > Add/Edit: Manual
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 88 IPSec Settings > Add/Edit: Manual
254
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
Select this check box to activate this VPN policy. This option
determines whether a VPN rule is applied before a packet leaves the
firewall.
IPSec
Connection
Name
Type up to 39 alphanumeric characters to identify this VPN policy. You
may use spaces, underscores and dashes, but the ZyXEL Device drops
trailing spaces.
Remote IPSec
Gateway
Address
Type the WAN IP address or the URL (up to 31 characters) of the IPSec
router with which you're making the VPN connection.
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Table 88 IPSec Settings > Add/Edit: Manual
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Tunnel access
from local IP
addresses
Specify the IP addresses of the devices behind the ZyXEL Device that
can use the VPN tunnel. The local IP addresses must correspond to the
remote IPSec router's configured remote IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both
the same. Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP
address, but not both. You can configure multiple SAs between the
same local and remote IP addresses, as long as only one is active at
any time.
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address or Subnet.
Select Single Address for a single IP address. Select Subnet to
specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address
for VPN
When the local IP address type is configured to Single Address, enter
a (static) IP address on the LAN behind your ZyXEL Device.
When the local IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a
(static) IP address on the LAN behind your ZyXEL Device.
IP
Subnetmask
When the local IP address type is configured to Single Address, this
field is not available.
When the local IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a subnet
mask on the LAN behind your ZyXEL Device.
Tunnel access
from remote IP
addresses
Specify the IP addresses of the devices behind the remote IPSec router
that can use the VPN tunnel. The remote IP addresses must correspond
to the remote IPSec router's configured local IP addresses.
Two active SAs cannot have the local and remote IP address(es) both
the same. Two active SAs can have the same local or remote IP
address, but not both. You can configure multiple SAs between the
same local and remote IP addresses, as long as only one is active at
any time.
Use the drop-down list box to choose Single Address or Subnet.
Select Single Address with a single IP address. Select Subnet to
specify IP addresses on a network by their subnet mask.
IP Address
for VPN
When the remote IP address type is configured to Single Address,
enter a (static) IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec
router.
When the remote IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a
(static) IP address on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
IP
Subnetmask
When the remote IP address type is configured to Single Address,
this field is not available.
When the remote IP address type is configured to Subnet, enter a
subnet mask on the network behind the remote IPSec router.
Protocol
This field displays ESP and the ZyXEL Device uses ESP (Encapsulation
Security Payload) for VPN. The ESP protocol (RFC 2406) provides
encryption as well as some of the services offered by AH.
Key Exchange
Method
Select Auto(IKE) or Manual from the drop-down list box. Auto(IKE)
provides more protection so it is generally recommended. Manual is a
useful option for troubleshooting if you have problems using
Auto(IKE) key management.
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Table 88 IPSec Settings > Add/Edit: Manual
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encryption
Algorithm
Select DES, 3DES, AES(aes-cbc) or ESP_NULL from the drop-down
list box.
When you use one of these encryption algorithms for data
communications, both the sending device and the receiving device
must use the same secret key, which can be used to encrypt and
decrypt the message or to generate and verify a message
authentication code. The DES encryption algorithm uses a 56-bit key.
Triple DES (3DES) is a variation on DES that uses a 168-bit key. As a
result, 3DES is more secure than DES. It also requires more
processing power, resulting in increased latency and decreased
throughput. This implementation of AES(aes-cbc) in Cipher Block
Chaining (CBC) mode uses a 128-bit key. AES is faster than 3DES.
Select ESP_NULL to set up a tunnel without encryption. When you
select ESP_NULL, you do not enter an encryption key.
Encryption Key
Type 16 hexadecimal ("0-9", "A-F") characters if you select to use the
DES encryption algorithm or 48 hexadecimal characters if you use the
3DES encryption algorithm.
Authentication
Algorithm
Select SHA1 or MD5 from the drop-down list box. MD5 (Message
Digest 5) and SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) are hash algorithms used
to authenticate packet data. The SHA1 algorithm is generally
considered stronger than MD5, but is slower. Select MD5 for minimal
security and SHA1 for maximum security.
Authentication
Key
Type 32 hexadecimal ("0-9", "A-F") characters if you select to use the
MD5 authentication algorithm or 40 hexadecimal characters if you use
the SHA1 authentication algorithm.
SPI
Type a hexadecimal number from 111 to FFFFFFFF for the Security
Parameter Index.
Apply
Click Apply/Save to save your changes and return to the IPSec
screen.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
21.4 Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
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21.4.1 IPSec Architecture
The overall IPSec architecture is shown as follows.
Figure 120 IPSec Architecture
IPSec Algorithms
The ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Protocol (RFC 2406) and AH
(Authentication Header) protocol (RFC 2402) describe the packet formats and the
default standards for packet structure (including implementation algorithms).
The Encryption Algorithm describes the use of encryption techniques such as DES
(Data Encryption Standard) and Triple DES algorithms.
The Authentication Algorithms, HMAC-MD5 (RFC 2403) and HMAC-SHA-1 (RFC
2404, provide an authentication mechanism for the AH and ESP protocols.
Key Management
Key management allows you to determine whether to use IKE (ISAKMP) or
manual key configuration in order to set up a VPN.
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21.4.2 Encapsulation
The two modes of operation for IPSec VPNs are Transport mode and Tunnel
mode. At the time of writing, the ZyXEL Device supports Tunnel mode only.
Figure 121 Transport and Tunnel Mode IPSec Encapsulation
Transport Mode
Transport mode is used to protect upper layer protocols and only affects the data
in the IP packet. In Transport mode, the IP packet contains the security protocol
(AH or ESP) located after the original IP header and options, but before any upper
layer protocols contained in the packet (such as TCP and UDP).
With ESP, protection is applied only to the upper layer protocols contained in the
packet. The IP header information and options are not used in the authentication
process. Therefore, the originating IP address cannot be verified for integrity
against the data.
With the use of AH as the security protocol, protection is extended forward into
the IP header to verify the integrity of the entire packet by use of portions of the
original IP header in the hashing process.
Tunnel Mode
Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire IP packet to transmit it securely. A Tunnel
mode is required for gateway services to provide access to internal systems.
Tunnel mode is fundamentally an IP tunnel with authentication and encryption.
This is the most common mode of operation. Tunnel mode is required for
gateway to gateway and host to gateway communications. Tunnel mode
communications have two sets of IP headers:
• Outside header: The outside IP header contains the destination IP address of
the VPN gateway.
• Inside header: The inside IP header contains the destination IP address of the
final system behind the VPN gateway. The security protocol appears after the
outer IP header and before the inside IP header.
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21.4.3 IKE Phases
There are two phases to every IKE (Internet Key Exchange) negotiation – phase 1
(Authentication) and phase 2 (Key Exchange). A phase 1 exchange establishes an
IKE SA and the second one uses that SA to negotiate SAs for IPSec.
Figure 122 Two Phases to Set Up the IPSec SA
In phase 1 you must:
• Choose a negotiation mode.
• Authenticate the connection by entering a pre-shared key.
• Choose an encryption algorithm.
• Choose an authentication algorithm.
• Choose a Diffie-Hellman public-key cryptography key group (DH1 or DH2).
• Set the IKE SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long an IKE SA
should stay up before it times out. An IKE SA times out when the IKE SA lifetime
period expires. If an IKE SA times out when an IPSec SA is already established,
the IPSec SA stays connected.
In phase 2 you must:
• Choose an encryption algorithm.
• Choose an authentication algorithm
• Choose a Diffie-Hellman public-key cryptography key group.
• Set the IPSec SA lifetime. This field allows you to determine how long the IPSec
SA should stay up before it times out. The ZyXEL Device automatically
renegotiates the IPSec SA if there is traffic when the IPSec SA lifetime period
expires. If an IPSec SA times out, then the IPSec router must renegotiate the
SA the next time someone attempts to send traffic.
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21.4.4 Negotiation Mode
The phase 1 Negotiation Mode you select determines how the Security
Association (SA) will be established for each connection through IKE negotiations.
• Main Mode ensures the highest level of security when the communicating
parties are negotiating authentication (phase 1). It uses 6 messages in three
round trips: SA negotiation, Diffie-Hellman exchange and an exchange of
nonces (a nonce is a random number). This mode features identity protection
(your identity is not revealed in the negotiation).
• Aggressive Mode is quicker than Main Mode because it eliminates several
steps when the communicating parties are negotiating authentication (phase 1).
However the trade-off is that faster speed limits its negotiating power and it also
does not provide identity protection. It is useful in remote access situations
where the address of the initiator is not know by the responder and both parties
want to use pre-shared key authentication.
21.4.5 IPSec and NAT
Read this section if you are running IPSec on a host computer behind the ZyXEL
Device.
NAT is incompatible with the AH protocol in both Transport and Tunnel mode.
An IPSec VPN using the AH protocol digitally signs the outbound packet, both data
payload and headers, with a hash value appended to the packet. When using AH
protocol, packet contents (the data payload) are not encrypted.
A NAT device in between the IPSec endpoints will rewrite either the source or
destination address with one of its own choosing. The VPN device at the receiving
end will verify the integrity of the incoming packet by computing its own hash
value, and complain that the hash value appended to the received packet doesn't
match. The VPN device at the receiving end doesn't know about the NAT in the
middle, so it assumes that the data has been maliciously altered.
IPSec using ESP in Tunnel mode encapsulates the entire original packet
(including headers) in a new IP packet. The new IP packet's source address is the
outbound address of the sending VPN gateway, and its destination address is the
inbound address of the VPN device at the receiving end. When using ESP protocol
with authentication, the packet contents (in this case, the entire original packet)
are encrypted. The encrypted contents, but not the new headers, are signed with
a hash value appended to the packet.
Tunnel mode ESP with authentication is compatible with NAT because integrity
checks are performed over the combination of the "original header plus original
payload," which is unchanged by a NAT device.
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Transport mode ESP with authentication is not compatible with NAT.
Table 89 VPN and NAT
SECURITY PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
AH
Transport
N
AH
Tunnel
N
ESP
Transport
N
ESP
Tunnel
Y
21.4.6 VPN, NAT, and NAT Traversal
NAT is incompatible with the AH protocol in both transport and tunnel mode. An
IPSec VPN using the AH protocol digitally signs the outbound packet, both data
payload and headers, with a hash value appended to the packet, but a NAT device
between the IPSec endpoints rewrites the source or destination address. As a
result, the VPN device at the receiving end finds a mismatch between the hash
value and the data and assumes that the data has been maliciously altered.
NAT is not normally compatible with ESP in transport mode either, but the ZyXEL
Device’s NAT Traversal feature provides a way to handle this. NAT traversal
allows you to set up an IKE SA when there are NAT routers between the two IPSec
routers.
Figure 123 NAT Router Between IPSec Routers
A
B
Normally you cannot set up an IKE SA with a NAT router between the two IPSec
routers because the NAT router changes the header of the IPSec packet. NAT
traversal solves the problem by adding a UDP port 500 header to the IPSec
packet. The NAT router forwards the IPSec packet with the UDP port 500 header
unchanged. In the above figure, when IPSec router A tries to establish an IKE SA,
IPSec router B checks the UDP port 500 header, and IPSec routers A and B build
the IKE SA.
For NAT traversal to work, you must:
• Use ESP security protocol (in either transport or tunnel mode).
• Use IKE keying mode.
• Enable NAT traversal on both IPSec endpoints.
• Set the NAT router to forward UDP port 500 to IPSec router A.
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Finally, NAT is compatible with ESP in tunnel mode because integrity checks are
performed over the combination of the "original header plus original payload,"
which is unchanged by a NAT device. The compatibility of AH and ESP with NAT in
tunnel and transport modes is summarized in the following table.
Table 90 VPN and NAT
SECURITY
PROTOCOL
MODE
NAT
AH
Transport
N
AH
Tunnel
N
ESP
Transport
Y*
ESP
Tunnel
Y
Y* - This is supported in the ZyXEL Device if you enable NAT traversal.
21.4.7 ID Type and Content
With aggressive negotiation mode (see Section 21.4.4 on page 260), the ZyXEL
Device identifies incoming SAs by ID type and content since this identifying
information is not encrypted. This enables the ZyXEL Device to distinguish
between multiple rules for SAs that connect from remote IPSec routers that have
dynamic WAN IP addresses.
Regardless of the ID type and content configuration, the ZyXEL Device does not
allow you to save multiple active rules with overlapping local and remote IP
addresses.
With main mode (see Section 21.4.4 on page 260), the ID type and content are
encrypted to provide identity protection. In this case the ZyXEL Device can only
distinguish between up to 12 different incoming SAs that connect from remote
IPSec routers that have dynamic WAN IP addresses. The ZyXEL Device can
distinguish up to 48 incoming SAs because you can select between three
encryption algorithms (DES, 3DES and AES), two authentication algorithms (MD5
and SHA1) and eight key groups when you configure a VPN rule (see Section 21.3
on page 248). The ID type and content act as an extra level of identification for
incoming SAs.
The type of ID can be a domain name, an IP address or an e-mail address. The
content is the IP address, domain name, or e-mail address.
Table 91 Local ID Type and Content Fields
262
LOCAL ID
TYPE=
CONTENT=
IP
Type the IP address of your computer.
DNS
Type a domain name (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this
ZyXEL Device.
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Table 91 Local ID Type and Content Fields
LOCAL ID
TYPE=
E-mail
CONTENT=
Type an e-mail address (up to 31 characters) by which to identify this
ZyXEL Device.
The domain name or e-mail address that you use in the Local ID
Content field is used for identification purposes only and does not need
to be a real domain name or e-mail address.
21.4.7.1 ID Type and Content Examples
Two IPSec routers must have matching ID type and content configuration in order
to set up a VPN tunnel.
The two ZyXEL Devices in this example can complete negotiation and establish a
VPN tunnel.
Table 92 Matching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
ZYXEL DEVICE A
ZYXEL DEVICE B
Local ID type: E-mail
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: [email protected]
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Remote ID type: IP
Remote ID type: E-mail
Remote ID content: 1.1.1.2
Remote ID content: [email protected]
The two ZyXEL Devices in this example cannot complete their negotiation because
ZyXEL Device B’s Local ID type is IP, but ZyXEL Device A’s Remote ID type is
set to E-mail. An “ID mismatched” message displays in the IPSEC LOG.
Table 93 Mismatching ID Type and Content Configuration Example
ZYXEL DEVICE A
ZYXEL DEVICE B
Local ID type: IP
Local ID type: IP
Local ID content: 1.1.1.10
Local ID content: 1.1.1.2
Remote ID type: E-mail
Remote ID type: IP
Remote ID content: [email protected]
Remote ID content: 1.1.1.0
21.4.8 Pre-Shared Key
A pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE
negotiation (see Section 21.4.3 on page 259 for more on IKE phases). It is called
“pre-shared” because you have to share it with another party before you can
communicate with them over a secure connection.
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21.4.9 Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Groups
Diffie-Hellman (DH) is a public-key cryptography protocol that allows two parties
to establish a shared secret over an unsecured communications channel. DiffieHellman is used within IKE SA setup to establish session keys. 768-bit, 1024-bit
1536-bit, 2048-bit, and 3072-bit Diffie-Hellman groups are supported. Upon
completion of the Diffie-Hellman exchange, the two peers have a shared secret,
but the IKE SA is not authenticated. For authentication, use pre-shared keys.
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22
Service Control
22.1 Overview
This chapter provides information on the Service Control screens.
Service Control allows you to manage your ZyXEL Device from a remote location
through the following interfaces:
• LAN
• WAN
Note: The ZyXEL Device is managed using the Web Configurator.
22.2 The Service Control Screen
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) users can use which
service(s) to manage the ZyXEL Device.
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Click Security Settings > Service Control to open the following screen.
Figure 124 Security Settings > Service Control
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 94 Security Settings > Service Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Services Name
This is the service you may use to access the ZyXEL Device.
LAN
Select the Enable check box for the corresponding services that you
want to allow access to the ZyXEL Device from the LAN.
WAN
Select the Enable check box for the corresponding services that you
want to allow access to the ZyXEL Device from the WAN.
Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed,
however you must use the same port number in order to use that
service for remote management.
Certificate
HTTPS Certificate Select a certificate the HTTPS server (the ZyXEL Device) uses to
authenticate itself to the HTTPS client. You must have certificates
already configured in the Certificates screen.
266
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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ARP Table
23.1 Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol
address (IP address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access
Control or MAC address, on the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are
48 bits long. The ARP Table maintains an association between each MAC address
and its corresponding IP address.
23.1.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network
arrives at the device, the device's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and, if it
finds the address, sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the
devices on the LAN. The device fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender
address fields, and puts the known IP address of the target in the target IP
address field. In addition, the device puts all ones in the target MAC field
(FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is
either the IP address of the device being sought or the router that knows the way)
replaces the broadcast address with the target's MAC address, swaps the sender
and target pairs, and unicasts the answer directly back to the requesting machine.
ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference and then sends the packet to the
MAC address that replied.
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23.2 ARP Table Screen
Use the ARP table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s). To open this screen,
click System Monitor > ARP Table.
Figure 125 System Monitor > ARP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 95 System Monitor > ARP Table
268
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the ARP table entry number.
IP Address
This is the learned IP address of a device connected to a port.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with the listed IP address.
Device
This is the type of interface used by the device. You can click on the
device type to go to its configuration screen.
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24
Logs
24.1 Overview
The web configurator allows you to choose which categories of events and/or
alerts to have the ZyXEL Device log and then display the logs or have the ZyXEL
Device send them to an administrator (as e-mail) or to a syslog server.
24.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the System Log screen to see the system logs for the categories that you
select (Section 24.2 on page 270).
• Use the Security Log screen to see the security-related logs for the categories
that you select (Section 24.3 on page 271).
24.1.2 What You Need To Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read this chapter.
Alerts and Logs
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system
errors, attacks (access control) and attempted access to blocked web sites. Some
categories such as System Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may
differentiate them by their color in the View Log screen. Alerts display in red and
logs display in black.
Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an
IP network to syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled
device can generate a syslog message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and
system log related information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a
facility and severity level. The syslog facility identifies a file in the syslog server.
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Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for details. The following table
describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 96 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
24.2 The System Log Screen
Use the System Log screen to see the system logs for the categories that you
select in Maintenance > Log Setting. Click System Monitor > Log to open the
System Log screen.
Figure 126 System Monitor > Log > System Log
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 97 System Monitor > Log > System Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Level
Select a severity level from the drop-down list box. This filters search
results according to the severity level you have selected. When you
select a severity, the ZyXEL Device searches through all logs of that
severity or higher.
Category
Select the type of logs to display.
Clear Log
Click this to delete all the logs.
Refresh
Click this to renew the log screen.
Export Log
Click this to export the selected log(s).
Email Log Now Click this to send the log file(s) to the E-mail address you specify in the
Maintenance > Logs Setting screen.
System Log
#
This field is a sequential value and is not associated with a specific entry.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog
server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for more
details.
Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send
to this syslog server.
Messages
This field states the reason for the log.
24.3 The Security Log Screen
Use the Security Log screen to see the security-related logs for the categories
that you select. Click System Monitor > Log > Security Log to open the
following screen.
Figure 127 System Monitor > Log > Security Log
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 98 System Monitor > Log > Security Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Level
Select a severity level from the drop-down list box. This filters search
results according to the severity level you have selected. When you
select a severity, the ZyXEL Device searches through all logs of that
severity or higher.
Category
Select the type of logs to display.
Clear Log
Click this to delete all the logs.
Refresh
Click this to renew the log screen.
Export Log
Click this to export the selected log(s).
Email Log Now Click this to send the log file(s) to the E-mail address you specify in the
Maintenance > Logs Setting screen.
272
#
This field is a sequential value and is not associated with a specific entry.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog
server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for more
details.
Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send
to this syslog server.
Messages
This field states the reason for the log.
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25
Traffic Status
25.1 Overview
Use the Traffic Status screens to look at network traffic status and statistics of
the WAN and LAN interfaces.
25.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the WAN screen to view the WAN traffic statistics (Section 25.2 on page
274).
• Use the LAN screen to view the LAN traffic statistics (Section 25.3 on page
276).
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25.2 The WAN Status Screen
Click System Monitor > Traffic Status to open the WAN screen. The figure in
this screen shows the number of bytes received and sent on the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 128 System Monitor > Traffic Status > WAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 99 System Monitor > Traffic Status > WAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Connected
Interface
This shows the name of the WAN interface that is currently connected.
Packets Sent
Data
This indicates the number of transmitted packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors transmitted on this
interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of outgoing packets dropped on this interface.
Packets Received
274
Data
This indicates the number of received packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors received on this
interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of received packets dropped on this interface.
more.../less
Click more... to show more information. Click less to hide them.
Disabled
Interface
This shows the name of the WAN interface that is currently disconnected.
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Table 99 System Monitor > Traffic Status > WAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Packets Sent
Data
This indicates the number of transmitted packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors transmitted on this
interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of outgoing packets dropped on this interface.
Packets Received
Data
This indicates the number of received packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors received on this
interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of received packets dropped on this interface.
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25.3 The LAN Status Screen
Click System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN to open the following screen. The
figure in this screen shows the interface that is currently connected on the ZyXEL
Device.
Figure 129 System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 100 System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN
276
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Polls
Interval(s)
Select how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update this screen.
Interface
This shows the LAN or WLAN interface.
Bytes Sent
This indicates the number of bytes transmitted on this interface.
Bytes
Received
This indicates the number of bytes received on this interface.
more.../less
Click more... to show more information. Click less to hide them.
Interface
This shows the LAN or WLAN interface.
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Table 100 System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Packets Sent
Data
This indicates the number of transmitted packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors transmitted on this
interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of outgoing packets dropped on this interface.
Packets Received
Data
This indicates the number of received packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors received on this
interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of received packets dropped on this interface.
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CHAPTER
26
IGMP Status
26.1 Overview
Use the IGMP Status screens to look at IGMP group status and traffic statistics.
26.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the IGMP Group screen to look at the current list of multicast groups the
ZyXEL Device has joined and which ports have joined each (Section 26.2 on
page 279.
• Use the IGMP Statistics screen to look at the current number of IGMP-related
packets received for each IGMP multicast group and from each LAN host
(Section 26.3 on page 280).
26.2 The IGMP Group Screen
Use this screen to look at the current list of multicast groups the ZyXEL Device has
joined and which ports have joined it. To open this screen, click System Monitor
> IGMP Group Status > IGMP Group.
Figure 130 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Group
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 101 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Group
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
This field displays the name of an interface on the ZyXEL Device that
belongs to an IGMP multicast group.
Multicast
Group
This field displays the name of the IGMP multicast group to which the
interface belongs.
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Table 101 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Group (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Filter Mode
INCLUDE means that only the IP addresses in the Source List get to
receive the multicast group’s traffic.
EXCLUDE means that the IP addresses in the Source List are not
allowed to receive the multicast group’s traffic but other IP addresses can.
Source List
This is the list of IP addresses that are allowed or not allowed to receive
the multicast group’s traffic depending on the filter mode.
26.3 IGMP Statistics Screen
Use this screen to look at the current number of IGMP-related packets received for
each IGMP multicast group and from each LAN host. To open this screen, click
System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Statistics.
Figure 131 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 102 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Statistics
280
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP
Multicast
Group
Statistics
This section shows statistics about the number of IGMP-related packets
received for each IGMP multicast group.
Multicast
Group
This field displays the name of the IGMP multicast group for which the
ZyXEL Device received IGMP-related packets.
Last Report
Time
This field displays when the ZyXEL Device received the latest packet for
this IGMP multicast group.
Total Time
(sec)
This field displays the total amount of time the ZyXEL Device counted
from when the IGMP multicast group was joined to when it was left.
Total Joins
This field displays the total number of Join packets the ZyXEL Device has
received for this IGMP multicast group.
Total Leaves
This field displays the total number of Leave packets the ZyXEL Device
has received for this IGMP multicast group.
IGMP LAN
Host
Statistics
This section shows statistics about the number of IGMP-related packets
received from each LAN host.
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Table 102 System Monitor > IGMP Group Status > IGMP Statistics (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
This field displays the IP address of a LAN computer that has sent the
ZyXEL Device IGMP-related packets.
Last Report
Time
This field displays when the ZyXEL Device received the latest packet from
this LAN IP address for this IGMP multicast group.
Total Time
(sec)
This field displays the total amount of time the ZyXEL Device counted
from when the LAN IP address joined the IGMP multicast group to when it
left.
Total Joins
This field displays the total number of Join packets the ZyXEL Device has
received from this LAN IP address.
Total Leaves
This field displays the total number of Leave packets the ZyXEL Device
has received from this LAN IP address.
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27
Users Configuration
27.1 Overview
In the Users Configuration screen, you can view, add, and configure user
accounts of the ZyXEL Device.
27.2 The Users Configuration Screen
Click Maintenance > Users Configuration to open the following screen.
Figure 132 Maintenance > Users Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 103 Maintenance > Users Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Advanced
Account
Security
Turn on advanced account security to enforce tighter security for the
ZyXEL Device’s user accounts. This includes:
•
•
•
•
The user names must be a minimum length of six characters and
include both letters and numbers.
The number of dots that appears when you type the password in the
login screen’s password field changes randomly to prevent anyone
watching the password field from knowing the length of your
password.
The ZyXEL Device notifies users when their passwords expire and
forces them to change to a new one in order to log in.
The new password the user selects cannot match any of the user’s
three previously used passwords.
Add new user
Click this to configure a new user account.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
User Name
This field displays the name of the user.
Expire Time
This field indicates the date that this user’s password will expire. If there
is no expire date, Not Available will be displayed.
Expire Period
This field indicates how many days this user’s password is available.
Retry Times
This field indicates how many times a user can re-enter his/her account
information before the ZyXEL Device locks the user out.
Idle Timeout
This field indicates the number of minutes that the system can idle before
being logged out.
Lock Period
This field indicates the number of minutes for the lockout period. A user
cannot log into the ZyXEL Device during the lockout period, even if he/
she enters correct account information.
Group
This field displays the login account type of the user.
Different login account types have different privilege levels. The web
configurator screens and privileges vary depending on which account
type you use to log in.
Modify
284
Click the Edit icon to edit this user account.
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27.2.1 Add/Edit a Users Account
Use this screen to add or edit a users account. Click Add new user in the Users
Configuration screen or the Edit icon next to the user account you want to edit.
The screen shown next appears.
Figure 133 Users Configuration: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 104 Users Configuration: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
This field is read-only if you are editing the user account.
Enter a descriptive name for the user account. The user name can be up
to 15 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, a-z, -, _ with no spaces). With
advanced account security enabled, the user names must be a minimum
length of six characters and include both letters and numbers.
Password
Specify the password associated to this account. The password can be 6
to 15 alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z, a-z, -, _ with no spaces), not
containing the user name. It must contain both letters and numbers.
The characters are displayed as asterisks (*) in this field.
Old Password
This field is displayed only when you are editing the user account.
Type the default password or the existing password you use to access the
system in this field.
Verify
Password
Enter the exact same password that you just entered in the above field.
New Password
This field is displayed only when you are editing the user account.
Type your new system password (6 to 15 alphanumeric characters (0-9,
A-Z, a-z, -, _ with no spaces), not containing the user name).
Verify New
Password
This field is displayed only when you are editing the user account.
Enter the exact same password that you just entered in the above field.
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Table 104 Users Configuration: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Expire Period
Enter a number of days to specify how many days this user’s password is
available.
Retry Times
The ZyXEL Device can lock a user out if you use a wrong user name or
password to log in the ZyXEL Device.
Enter up to how many times a user can re-enter his/her account
information before the ZyXEL Device locks the user out.
Idle Timeout
Enter the number of minutes that the system can idle before being
logged out.
Lock Period
Enter the number of minutes for the lockout period. A user cannot log
into the ZyXEL Device during the lockout period, even if he/she enters
correct account information.
Group
This field is read-only if you are editing the user account.
Select a type of login account. The web configurator screens and
privileges vary depending on which account type you use to log in.
Administrator accounts can configure the ZyXEL Device while User
accounts can only view some status information.
Users logged in with either type of account can access the Internet.
286
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
28
Remote Management
28.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to configure the ZyXEL Device’s TR-069 and TR-064
auto-configuration settings.
28.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• The TR-069 screen lets you configure the ZyXEL Device’s TR-069 autoconfiguration settings (Section 28.2 on page 287).
• The TR-064 screen lets you enable management via TR-064 on the ZyXEL
Device (Section 28.3 on page 289).
28.2 The TR-069 Clients Screen
TR-069 defines how Customer Premise Equipment (CPE), for example your ZyXEL
Device, can be managed over the WAN by an Auto Configuration Server (ACS).
TR-069 is based on sending Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) between an ACS and a
client device. RPCs are sent in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format over
HTTP or HTTPS.
An administrator can use an ACS to remotely set up the ZyXEL Device, modify
settings, perform firmware upgrades as well as monitor and diagnose the ZyXEL
Device. You have to enable the device to be managed by the ACS and specify the
ACS IP address or domain name and username and password.
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Click Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-069 Client to open the
following screen. Use this screen to configure your ZyXEL Device to be managed
by an ACS.
Figure 134 Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-069 Client
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 105 Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-069 Client
288
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Inform
Select Enable for the ZyXEL Device to send periodic inform via TR-069
on the WAN. Otherwise, select Disable.
Inform Interval
Enter the time interval (in seconds) at which the ZyXEL Device sends
information to the auto-configuration server.
ACS URL
Enter the URL or IP address of the auto-configuration server.
ACS User Name
Enter the TR-069 user name for authentication with the autoconfiguration server.
ACS Password
Enter the TR-069 password for authentication with the autoconfiguration server.
WAN Interface
used by TR-069
client
Select a WAN interface through which the TR-069 traffic passes.
Display SOAP
messages on
serial console
Select Enable to show the SOAP messages on the console.
Connection
Request
Authentication
Select this option to enable authentication when there is a connection
request from the ACS.
Connection
Request User
Name
Enter the connection request user name.
If you select Any_WAN, you should also select the pre-configured
WAN connection(s).
When the ACS makes a connection request to the ZyXEL Device, this
user name is used to authenticate the ACS.
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Table 105 Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-069 Client
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Connection
Request
Password
Enter the connection request password.
Connection
Request URL
This shows the connection request URL.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
When the ACS makes a connection request to the ZyXEL Device, this
password is used to authenticate the ACS.
The ACS can use this URL to make a connection request to the ZyXEL
Device.
28.3 The TR-064 Screen
TR-064 is a LAN-Side DSL CPE Configuration protocol defined by the DSL Forum.
TR-064 is built on top of UPnP. It allows the users to use a TR-064 compliant CPE
management application on their computers from the LAN to discover the CPE and
configure user-specific parameters, such as the username and password.
Click Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-064 Client to open the
following screen.
Figure 135 Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-064 Client
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 106 Maintenance > Remote Management > TR-064 Client
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable TR064
Select the check box to activate management via TR-064 on the LAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
29
Time Settings
29.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure system related settings, such as system
time, password, name, the domain name and the inactivity timeout interval.
29.2 The Time Setting Screen
To change your ZyXEL Device’s time and date, click Maintenance > Time
Setting. The screen appears as shown. Use this screen to configure the ZyXEL
Device’s time based on your local time zone.
Figure 136 Maintenance > Time Setting
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 107 Maintenance > Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Date/Time
System Time
This field displays the time and fate of your ZyXEL Device.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyXEL Device synchronizes the
time and date with the time server.
NTP Time Server
First ~ Fifth NTP
time server
Select an NTP time server from the drop-down list box.
Otherwise, select Other and enter the IP address or URL (up to 29
extended ASCII characters in length) of your time server.
Select None if you don’t want to configure the time server.
Check with your ISP/network administrator if you are unsure of this
information.
Time zone offset Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference
between your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
Daylight Saving Time is a period from late spring to early fall when
many countries set their clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour
to give more daytime light in the evening.
State
Select Enable if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start rule:
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you
enabled Daylight Saving. You can select a specific date in a particular
month or a specific day of a specific week in a particular month. The
Time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the
second Sunday of March. Each time zone in the United States starts
using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United
States, set the day to Second, Sunday, the month to March and the
time to 2 in the Hour field.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday
of March. All of the time zones in the European Union start using
Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in
the European Union you would set the day to Last, Sunday and the
month to March. The time you select in the o'clock field depends on
your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2 in the
Hour field because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or
UTC (GMT+1).
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Table 107 Maintenance > Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End rule
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you
enabled Daylight Saving. You can select a specific date in a particular
month or a specific day of a specific week in a particular month. The
Time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of
November. Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight
Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would set
the day to First, Sunday, the month to November and the time to 2
in the Hour field.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of
October. All of the time zones in the European Union stop using
Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in
the European Union you would set the day to Last, Sunday, and the
month to October. The time you select in the o'clock field depends on
your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2 in the
Hour field because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or
UTC (GMT+1).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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CHAPTER
30
Logs Setting
30.1 Overview
You can configure where the ZyXEL Device sends logs and which logs and/or
immediate alerts the ZyXEL Device records in the Logs Setting screen.
30.2 The Log Settings Screen
To change your ZyXEL Device’s log settings, click Maintenance > Logs Setting.
The screen appears as shown.
Figure 137 Maintenance > Logs Setting
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 108 Maintenance > Logs Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
Logging
The ZyXEL Device sends a log to an external syslog server.
Active
Select the Active check box to enable syslog logging.
Mode
Select the syslog destination from the drop-down list box.
If you select Remote, the log(s) will be sent to a remote syslog server. If
you select Local File, the log(s) will be saved in a local file. If you want
to send the log(s) to a remote syslog server and save it in a local file,
select Local File and Remote.
Syslog Server
IP Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the
selected categories of logs.
UDP Port
Enter the port number used by the syslog server.
E-mail Log Settings
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert
messages will not be sent via E-mail.
System Log
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the system log email message that the ZyXEL Device sends.
Security Log
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the security log email message that the ZyXEL Device sends.
From
Specify where the logs are sent from.
Send Log to
The ZyXEL Device sends logs to the e-mail address specified in this field.
If this field is left blank, the ZyXEL Device does not send logs via E-mail.
Send Alarm to
Alerts are real-time notifications that are sent as soon as an event, such
as a DoS attack, system error, or forbidden web access attempt occurs.
Enter the E-mail address where the alert messages will be sent. Alerts
include system errors, attacks and attempted access to blocked web
sites. If this field is left blank, alert messages will not be sent via E-mail.
Alarm Interval
Specify how often the alarm should be updated.
Allowed
Capacity
Before Email
Set what percent of the ZyXEL Device’s log storage space can be filled
before the ZyXEL Device sends a log e-mail.
SMTP
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is the message-exchange standard
Authentication for the Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one E-mail
server to another.
Select the check box to activate SMTP authentication. If mail server
authentication is needed but this feature is disabled, you will not receive
the E-mail logs.
User Name
Enter the user name (up to 32 characters) (usually the user name of a
mail account).
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
Clear log after
sending mail
Select this to delete all the logs after the ZyXEL Device sends an E-mail of
the logs.
Active Log and Alert
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Table 108 Maintenance > Logs Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Log
Select the categories of system logs that you want to record.
Security Log
Select the categories of security logs that you want to record.
Send
immediate
alert
Select log categories for which you want the ZyXEL Device to send E-mail
alerts immediately.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
30.2.1 Example E-mail Log
An "End of Log" message displays for each mail in which a complete log has been
sent. The following is an example of a log sent by e-mail.
• You may edit the subject title.
• The date format here is Day-Month-Year.
• The date format here is Month-Day-Year. The time format is Hour-MinuteSecond.
• "End of Log" message shows that a complete log has been sent.
Figure 138 E-mail Log Example
Subject:
Firewall Alert From
Date:
Fri, 07 Apr 2000 10:05:42
From:
[email protected]
To:
[email protected]
1|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy |forward
| 09:54:03 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
2|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy |forward
| 09:54:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
3|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.6
To:10.10.10.10 |match
|forward
| 09:54:19 |UDP
src port:03516 dest port:00053 |<1,01>
|
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
126|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:00 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
127|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
128|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:30 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
End of Firewall Log
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CHAPTER
31
Firmware Upgrade
31.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to upload new firmware to your ZyXEL Device. You can
download new firmware releases from your nearest ZyXEL FTP site (or
www.zyxel.com) to use to upgrade your device’s performance.
Only use firmware for your device’s specific model. Refer to the
label on the bottom of your ZyXEL Device.
31.2 The Firmware Screen
Click Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to open the following screen. The
upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two
minutes. After a successful upload, the system will reboot.
Do NOT turn off the ZyXEL Device while firmware upload is in
progress!
Figure 139 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 109 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
Firmware
Version
This is the present Firmware version and the date created.
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click
Browse ... to find it.
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Table 109 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Browse...
Click this to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you
must decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two
minutes.
After you see the firmware updating screen, wait two minutes before logging into
the ZyXEL Device again.
Figure 140 Firmware Uploading
The ZyXEL Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network
disconnect. In some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your
desktop.
Figure 141 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the
Status screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click OK to go
back to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Figure 142 Error Message
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32
Configuration
32.1 Overview
The Configuration screen allows you to backup and restore device
configurations. You can also reset your device settings back to the factory default.
32.2 The Configuration Screen
Click Maintenance > Configuration. Information related to factory defaults,
backup configuration, and restoring configuration appears in this screen, as shown
next.
Figure 143 Maintenance > Configuration
Backup Configuration
Backup Configuration allows you to back up (save) the ZyXEL Device’s current
configuration to a file on your computer. Once your ZyXEL Device is configured
and functioning properly, it is highly recommended that you back up your
configuration file before making configuration changes. The backup configuration
file will be useful in case you need to return to your previous settings.
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Click Backup to save the ZyXEL Device’s current configuration to your computer.
Restore Configuration
Restore Configuration allows you to upload a new or previously saved
configuration file from your computer to your ZyXEL Device.
Table 110 Restore Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click
Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click this to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process.
Do not turn off the ZyXEL Device while configuration file upload is
in progress.
After the ZyXEL Device configuration has been restored successfully, the login
screen appears. Login again to restart the ZyXEL Device.
The ZyXEL Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network
disconnect. In some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your
desktop.
Figure 144 Network Temporarily Disconnected
If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default device IP
address (192.168.1.1). See Appendix A on page 321 for details on how to set up
your computer’s IP address.
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If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click OK to go
back to the Configuration screen.
Figure 145 Configuration Upload Error
Reset to Factory Defaults
Click the Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and
return the ZyXEL Device to its factory defaults. The following warning screen
appears.
Figure 146 Reset Warning Message
Figure 147 Reset In Process Message
You can also press the RESET button on the rear panel to reset the factory
defaults of your ZyXEL Device. Refer to Section 1.8 on page 31 for more
information on the RESET button.
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32.3 The Reboot Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the ZyXEL Device remotely without turning
the power off. You may need to do this if the ZyXEL Device hangs, for example.
Click Maintenance > Reboot. Click Reboot to have the ZyXEL Device reboot.
This does not affect the ZyXEL Device's configuration.
Figure 148 Maintenance > Reboot
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CHAPTER
33
Diagnostic
33.1 Overview
You can use different diagnostic methods to test a connection and see detailed
results. These read-only screens display information to help you identify problems
with the ZyXEL Device.
33.2 The Diagnostic Screen
Use this screen to ping, traceroute, or nslookup an IP address. Click Maintenance
> Diagnostic > Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup to open the screen shown
next.
Figure 149 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup
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Chapter 33 Diagnostic
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 111 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping & TraceRoute & NsLookup
306
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
URL or IP
Address
Type the IP address of a computer that you want to perform ping,
traceroute, or nslookup in order to test a connection.
Ping
Click this to ping the IP address that you entered.
TraceRoute
Click this button to perform the traceroute function. This determines the
path a packet takes to the specified computer.
Nslookup
Click this button to perform a DNS lookup on the IP address of a computer
you enter.
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CHAPTER
34
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The
potential problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• ZyXEL Device Access and Login
• Internet Access
34.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The ZyXEL Device does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure the ZyXEL Device is turned on.
2
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the ZyXEL
Device.
3
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the ZyXEL Device and
plugged in to an appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned
on.
4
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.7 on
page 29.
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2
Check the hardware connections.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged
cables.
4
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
34.2 ZyXEL Device Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the ZyXEL Device.
1
The default LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1.
2
If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address
of the ZyXEL Device by looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your
computer. To do this in most Windows computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd,
and then enter ipconfig. The IP address of the Default Gateway might be the IP
address of the ZyXEL Device (it depends on the network), so enter this IP address
in your Internet browser.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Section 1.8 on page 31.
I forgot the password.
1
The default admin password is 1234.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Section 1.8 on page 31.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.1.1.
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• If you changed the IP address (Section 8.2 on page 130), use the new IP
address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for I forgot the IP address for the ZyXEL Device.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See Section 1.6 on page 28.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has
JavaScripts and Java enabled. See Appendix C on page 355.
4
If it is possible to log in from another interface, check the service control settings
for HTTP and HTTPS (Security Settings > Service Control).
5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the ZyXEL Device with
the default IP address. See Section 1.8 on page 31.
6
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one
of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Make sure you have logged out of any earlier management sessions using the
same user account even if they were through a different interface or using a
different browser.
• Try to access the ZyXEL Device using another service, such as Telnet. If you can
access the ZyXEL Device, check the remote management settings and firewall
rules to find out why the ZyXEL Device does not respond to HTTP.
• If your computer is connected to the WAN port or is connected wirelessly, use a
computer that is connected to an ETHERNET port.\
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the ZyXEL Device.
1
Make sure you have entered the password correctly. The default admin password
is 1234. The field is case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2
You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using Telnet to access
the ZyXEL Device. Log out of the ZyXEL Device in the other session, or ask the
person who is logged in to log out.
3
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Section 34.1 on page 307.
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I cannot Telnet to the ZyXEL Device.
1
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in
the web configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
2
Check the service control settings for Telnet. See Chapter 22 on page 265.
I cannot use FTP to upload / download the configuration file. / I cannot use FTP to
upload new firmware.
1
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in
the web configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
2
Check the service control settings for FTP. See Chapter 22 on page 265.
34.3 Internet Access
I cannot access the Internet.
310
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See Section 1.6 on page 28 and Section 1.7 on page 29.
2
Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly in the Network
Settings > Broadband screen. These fields are case-sensitive, so make sure
[Caps Lock] is not on.
3
If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure that you enabled the
wireless LAN in the ZyXEL Device and your wireless client and that the wireless
settings in the wireless client are the same as the settings in the ZyXEL Device.
4
Disconnect all the cables from your device, and follow the directions in Section 1.6
on page 28 again.
5
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
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Chapter 34 Troubleshooting
I cannot access the Internet through a DSL connection.
1
Make sure you have the DSL WAN port connected to a telephone jack (or the DSL
or modem jack on a splitter if you have one).
2
Make sure you configured a proper DSL WAN interface (Network Settings >
Broadband screen) with the Internet account information provided by your ISP
and that it is enabled.
3
Check that the LAN interface you are connected to is in the same interface group
as the DSL connection (Network Settings > Interface Group).
4
If you set up a WAN connection using bridging service, make sure you turn off the
DHCP feature in the LAN screen to have the clients get WAN IP addresses directly
from your ISP’s DHCP server.
I cannot access the Internet through an Ethernet WAN connection.
1
Make sure you have the ETHERNET WAN port connected to a broadband modem
or router in your network.
2
Make sure you configured a proper Ethernet WAN interface (Network Settings >
Broadband screen) with the Internet account information provided by your ISP
and that it is enabled.
3
Check that the LAN interface you are connected to is in the same interface group
as the Ethernet WAN connection (Network Settings > Interface Group).
4
If you set up a WAN connection using bridging service, make sure you turn off the
DHCP feature in the LAN screen to have the clients get WAN IP addresses directly
from your ISP’s DHCP server.
I cannot connect to the Internet using a second DSL connection.
ADSL and VDSL connections cannot work at the same time. You can only use one
type of DSL connection, either ADSL or VDSL connection at one time.
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Chapter 34 Troubleshooting
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with the ZyXEL
Device), but my Internet connection is not available anymore.
1
Your session with the ZyXEL Device may have expired. Try logging into the ZyXEL
Device again.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See Section 1.6 on page 28 and Section 1.7 on page 29.
3
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
4
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
34.4 Wireless Internet Access
What factors may cause intermittent or unstabled wireless connection? How can I
solve this problem?
The following factors may cause interference:
• Obstacles: walls, ceilings, furniture, and so on.
• Building Materials: metal doors, aluminum studs.
• Electrical devices: microwaves, monitors, electric motors, cordless phones, and
other wireless devices.
To optimize the speed and quality of your wireless connection, you can:
• Move your wireless device closer to the AP if the signal strength is low.
• Reduce wireless interference that may be caused by other wireless networks or
surrounding wireless electronics such as cordless phones.
• Place the AP where there are minimum obstacles (such as walls and ceilings)
between the AP and the wireless client.
• Reduce the number of wireless clients connecting to the same AP
simultaneously, or add additional APs if necessary.
• Try closing some programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer
applications. If the wireless client is sending or receiving a lot of information, it
may have too many programs open that use the Internet.
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Chapter 34 Troubleshooting
What is a Server Set ID (SSID)?
An SSID is a name that uniquely identifies a wireless network. The AP and all the
clients within a wireless network must use the same SSID.
What wireless security modes does my ZyXEL Device support?
Wireless security is vital to your network. It protects communications between
wireless stations, access points and the wired network.
The available security modes in your ZyXEL device are as follows:
• WPA2-PSK: (recommended) This uses a pre-shared key with the WPA2
standard.
• WPA-PSK: This has the device use either WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depending on
which security mode the wireless client uses.
• WPA2: WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines
stronger encryption, authentication and key management than WPA. It requires
the use of a RADIUS server and is mostly used in business networks.
• WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. It
requires the use of a RADIUS server and is mostly used in business networks.
• WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption scrambles the data
transmitted between the wireless stations and the access points to keep
network communications private.
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CHAPTER
35
Product Specifications
The following tables summarize the ZyXEL Device’s hardware and firmware
features.
35.1 Hardware Specifications
Table 112 Hardware Specifications
Dimensions
210 (L) x 153 (W) x 40 (H) mm
Weight
471 g
Power Adaptor
Output
12 V 1.5 A
Power Adaptor Input
100 ~ 240 VAC 50~60HZ
RESET Button
Restores factory defaults
WLAN/WPS Button
If the wireless network is turned off, press the WLAN/WPS
button on the front of the ZyXEL Device for one second. Once the
WLAN/WPS LED turns green, the wireless network is active.
While the WLAN/WPS LED is green press the WLAN/WPS
button for five seconds and release it to enable WPS (Wi-Fi
Protected Setup).
To turn off the wireless network, press the WLAN/WPS button on
the front of the ZyXEL Device for one to five seconds. The WLAN/
WPS LED turns off when the wireless network is off.
Antennas
Two: One detachable external, 2dBi antenna and one internal,
2dBi antenna.
Built-in Switch
Four auto-negotiating, auto MDI/MDI-X 10/100 Mbps RJ-45
Ethernet ports
DSL Port
One RJ-11 connector for DSL over POTS
Gigabit Ethernet WAN
Port
One RJ-45 connector for GBE WAN
USB Ports
One USB v2.0 port for file sharing
Operation
Temperature
0º C ~ 40º C
Storage Temperature
-20º ~ 60º C
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Chapter 35 Product Specifications
Table 112 Hardware Specifications (continued)
Operation Humidity
20% ~ 85% RH (non-condensing)
Storage Humidity
20% ~ 90% RH (non-condensing)
35.2 Firmware Specifications
Table 113 Firmware Specifications
Default IP Address
192.168.1.1
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
Default User Name
admin
Default Password
1234
DHCP Server IP Pool
192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.132
Static Routes
16
Device Management
Use the web configurator to easily configure the rich range of
features on the ZyXEL Device.
Wireless
Functionality
Allow the IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g and/or IEEE 802.11n
wireless clients to connect to the ZyXEL Device wirelessly. Enable
wireless security (WEP, WPA(2), WPA(2)-PSK) and/or MAC filtering
to protect your wireless network.
(wireless devices
only)
Firmware Upgrade
Download new firmware (when available) from the web site and
use the web configurator to put it on the ZyXEL Device.
Note: Only upload firmware for your specific model!
316
Configuration Backup
& Restoration
Make a copy of the ZyXEL Device’s configuration. You can put it
back on the ZyXEL Device later if you decide to revert back to an
earlier configuration.
Port Forwarding
If you have a server (mail or web server for example) on your
network, you can use this feature to let people access it from the
Internet.
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration
Protocol)
Use this feature to have the ZyXEL Device assign IP addresses, an
IP default gateway and DNS servers to computers on your
network. Your device can also act as a surrogate DHCP server
(DHCP Relay) where it relays IP address assignment from the
actual real DHCP server to the clients.
Dynamic DNS
Support
With Dynamic DNS (Domain Name System) support, you can use
a fixed URL with a dynamic IP address. You must register for this
service with a Dynamic DNS service provider.
IP Multicast
IP multicast is used to send traffic to a specific group of
computers. The ZyXEL Device supports versions 2 and 3 of IGMP
(Internet Group Management Protocol) used to join multicast
groups (see RFC 2236).
Time and Date
Get the current time and date from an external server when you
turn on your ZyXEL Device. You can also set the time manually.
These dates and times are then used in logs.
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Table 113 Firmware Specifications (continued)
Logs
Use logs for troubleshooting. You can send logs from the ZyXEL
Device to an external syslog server.
Universal Plug and
Play (UPnP)
A UPnP-enabled device can dynamically join a network, obtain an
IP address and convey its capabilities to other devices on the
network.
QoS (Quality of
Service)
You can efficiently manage traffic on your network by reserving
bandwidth and giving priority to certain types of traffic and/or to
particular computers.
Remote Management
This allows you to decide whether a service (HTTPS or FTP traffic
for example) from a computer on a network (LAN or WAN for
example) can access the ZyXEL Device.
PPPoE Support
(RFC2516)
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) emulates a dial-up
connection. It allows your ISP to use their existing network
configuration with newer broadband technologies such as ADSL.
The PPPoE driver on your device is transparent to the computers
on the LAN, which see only Ethernet and are not aware of PPPoE
thus saving you from having to manage PPPoE clients on individual
computers.
Other PPPoE Features PPPoE idle time out
PPPoE dial on demand
Packet Filters
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security and management.
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Table 113 Firmware Specifications (continued)
VDSL Standards
ITU-T G.993.1 VDSL Annex A (North American) Standard
ITU G.993.2 (2/06) VDSL2 Annex A (North American) Standard
•
•
Corrigendum 1 (12/06) + Amendment 1 (4/07) + Amendment
1 Corrigendum 1 (7/07)
Corrigendum 2 (7/07) + Amendment 2 (2/08) + Amendment 4
(1/09)
Supported band plans:
•
•
Plan 997 (symmetrical)
Plan 998 (asymmetrical)
Supported profiles: 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 12a, 12b, 17a
POTS overlay, Supported US0 types: A (normal US0), M (extended
US0), - (no US0)
ITU G.994.1 (2/07) (G.hs) Handshake
Amendment 1 (11/07) + Amendment 2 (4/08)
Supported Transport Protocol Specific Transmission Convergence
(TPS-TC) functions:
PTM (via 64/65b encapsulation method defined in IEEE
802.3ah-2004)
HDLC encapsulation for pre-VDSL2 standard interoperability
Impulse Noise Protection (INP) up to 16 symbols
SNR target met, delay maximized: The maximum allowable delay
will be 16 ms for down and 16ms for up.
Support for ITU-T G.INP
Dying Gasp support
Modulation: Multi-Carrier-Modulation (MCM)
Interleaving: General Convolution
Support of maximum SNRM configuration (directed by the central
office)
Seamless Rate Adaptation (SRA) as described in Amendment 1 of
G.993.2
Tone Spacing: 4.3KHz/8.6KHz
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Table 113 Firmware Specifications (continued)
ADSL Standards
ADSL ITU-T G.992.1 (G.dmt), Annex A and ETSI TS 101 388
V1.3.1 (05/2002)
1TR112 (U-R2 Deutsche Telekom AG) Version 7.0 including
support of Dying Gasp and report of Self-Test-Result (ATU-T
Register#3)
EOC as specified in ITU-T G.992.1 (G.dmt)
Handshake ITU G.994.1 (G.hs)
Supported Transport Protocol Specific Transmission Convergence
(TPS-TC) functions:
ATM
PTM (via 64/65b encapsulation method defined in IEEE
802.3ah-2004)
Support of Vendor ID during Handshake in the Vendor ID
information block including vendor specific information as
specified in 1TR112 and ITU-T G.994.1 (G.hs)
ADSL ITU-T G.992.2 (G.lite)
ADSL2 ITU-T G.992.3 (G.dmt.bis), Annex A
RE-ADSL2 ITU-T G.992.3 (G.dmt.bis), Annex L
ADSL2 ITU-T G.992.4 (G.lite.bis), Annex A
ADSL2+ ITU-T G.992.5, Annex A
Support Multi-Mode Standard: ANSI T1.413 Issue 2; G.dmt (ITU-T
G.992.1), ADSL2 (ITU-T G.992.3), ADSL2+ (ITU-T G.992.5)
Dual Latency support
Other Protocol
Support
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) link layer protocol
Transparent bridging for unsupported network layer protocols
RIP I/RIP II
ICMP
ATM QoS
IP Multicasting IGMP v2 and v3
IGMP Proxy
Management
Embedded Web Configurator
Remote Firmware Upgrade
Embedded FTP/TFTP Server for firmware upgrade and
configuration file backup and restore
Syslog
TR-069
TR-064
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The following list, which is not exhaustive, illustrates the standards supported in
the ZyXEL Device.
Table 114 Standards Supported
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 1058
RIP-1 (Routing Information Protocol)
RFC 1112
IGMP v1
RFC 1305
Network Time Protocol (NTP version 3)
RFC 1483
Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
RFC 1631
IP Network Address Translator (NAT)
RFC 1661
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
RFC 1723
RIP-2 (Routing Information Protocol)
RFC 2236
Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2.
RFC 2364
PPP over AAL5 (PPP over ATM over ADSL)
RFC 2516
A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE)
RFC 2684
Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
RFC 2766
Network Address Translation - Protocol
IEEE 802.11
Also known by the brand Wi-Fi, denotes a set of Wireless LAN/
WLAN standards developed by working group 11 of the IEEE
LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802).
IEEE 802.11b
Uses the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band
IEEE 802.11g
Uses the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band
IEEE 802.11d
Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Media
Access Control (MAC) Bridges
IEEE 802.11x
Port Based Network Access Control.
IEEE 802.11e QoS
IEEE 802.11 e Wireless LAN for Quality of Service
ANSI T1.413, Issue 2
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) standard.
G dmt(G.992.1)
G.992.1 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
Transceivers
ITU G.992.1 (G.DMT)
ITU standard for ADSL using discrete multitone modulation.
ITU G.992.2 (G. Lite)
ITU standard for ADSL using discrete multitone modulation.
ITU G.992.3
(G.dmt.bis)
ITU standard (also referred to as ADSL2) that extends the
capability of basic ADSL in data rates.
ITU G.992.4
(G.lite.bis)
ITU standard (also referred to as ADSL2) that extends the
capability of basic ADSL in data rates.
ITU G.992.5 (ADSL2+) ITU standard (also referred to as ADSL2+) that extends the
capability of basic ADSL by doubling the number of downstream
bits.
320
ITU-T G.993.2
(VDSL2)
ITU standard that defines VDSL2.
TR-069
DSL Forum Standard for CPE Wan Management.
TR-064
DSL Forum LAN-Side DSL CPE Configuration
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX
A
Setting up Your Computer’s IP
Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP
installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/Vista, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating
systems and all versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you
need to install and use TCP/IP on your computer. Windows 3.1 requires the
purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP,
Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP
settings in order to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make
sure that your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet
as the ZyXEL Device’s LAN port.
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Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open
the Network window.
Figure 150 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components.
You need a network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft
Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Adapter and then click Add.
3
Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
322
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Protocol and then click Add.
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3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1
Click Add.
2
Select Client and then click Add.
3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then
click OK.
5
Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1
In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP
entry and click Properties
2
Click the IP Address tab.
• If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type your
information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 151 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
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3
Click the DNS Configuration tab.
• If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
• If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the
information in the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
Figure 152 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4
Click the Gateway tab.
• If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously installed
gateways.
• If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field and click
Add.
5
Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6
Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7
Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
324
1
Click Start and then Run.
2
In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP
Configuration window.
3
Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway.
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Windows 2000/NT/XP
The following example figures use the default Windows XP GUI theme.
1
Click start (Start in Windows 2000/NT), Settings, Control Panel.
Figure 153 Windows XP: Start Menu
2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network Connections (Network and Dialup Connections in Windows 2000/NT).
Figure 154 Windows XP: Control Panel
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3
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
Figure 155 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and then
click Properties.
Figure 156 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5
326
The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in
Windows XP).
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• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address and fill in
the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
• Click Advanced.
Figure 157 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed
gateways in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in
Subnet mask, and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add
in Default gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in
Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission
hops), clear the Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
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• Click OK when finished.
Figure 158 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
7
In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in
Windows XP):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your
DNS server IP address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS
server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and
Alternate DNS server fields.
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the
DNS tab to order them.
Figure 159 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8
Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9
Click Close (OK in Windows 2000/NT) to close the Local Area Connection
Properties window.
10
Close the Network Connections window (Network and Dial-up Connections
in Windows 2000/NT).
11 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You
can also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click
Status and then click the Support tab.
Windows Vista
This section shows screens from Windows Vista Enterprise Version 6.0.
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1
Click the Start icon, Control Panel.
Figure 160 Windows Vista: Start Menu
2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network and Internet.
Figure 161 Windows Vista: Control Panel
3
Click Network and Sharing Center.
Figure 162 Windows Vista: Network And Internet
330
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4
Click Manage network connections.
Figure 163 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
5
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
Note: During this procedure, click Continue whenever Windows displays a screen
saying that it needs your permission to continue.
Figure 164 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
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6
Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties.
Figure 165 Windows Vista: Local Area Connection Properties
7
The Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window opens (the
General tab).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP address and fill in
the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
332
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• Click Advanced.
Figure 166 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
8
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed
gateways in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in
Subnet mask, and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add
in Default gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in
Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission
hops), clear the Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
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• Click OK when finished.
Figure 167 Windows Vista: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
9
In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window, (the
General tab):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your
DNS server IP address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS
server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and
Alternate DNS server fields.
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the
DNS tab to order them.
Figure 168 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
10 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
window.
11 Click Close to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
12
Close the Network Connections window.
13 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You
can also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click
Status and then click the Support tab.
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Macintosh OS 8/9
1
Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/
IP Control Panel.
Figure 169 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
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2
Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 170 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the
Configure: list.
4
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in the Router address box.
5
Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6
Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7
Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
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Macintosh OS X
1
Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System
Preferences window.
Figure 171 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2
Click Network in the icon bar.
• Select Automatic from the Location list.
• Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
• Click the TCP/IP tab.
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
Figure 172 Macintosh OS X: Network
4
338
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
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Appendix A Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in the Router address box.
5
Click Apply Now and close the window.
6
Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
Linux
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in Red
Hat Linux 9.0. Procedure, screens and file location may vary depending on your
Linux distribution and release version.
Note: Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Using the K Desktop Environment (KDE)
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address using the KDE.
1
Click the Red Hat button (located on the bottom left corner), select System
Setting and click Network.
Figure 173 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Devices
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2
Double-click on the profile of the network card you wish to configure. The
Ethernet Device General screen displays as shown.
Figure 174 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Ethernet Device: General
• If you have a dynamic IP address, click Automatically obtain IP address
settings with and select dhcp from the drop down list.
• If you have a static IP address, click Statically set IP Addresses and fill in
the Address, Subnet mask, and Default Gateway Address fields.
3
Click OK to save the changes and close the Ethernet Device General screen.
4
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the DNS tab in the Network
Configuration screen. Enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 175 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: DNS
5
340
Click the Devices tab.
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6
Click the Activate button to apply the changes. The following screen displays.
Click Yes to save the changes in all screens.
Figure 176 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Activate
7
After the network card restart process is complete, make sure the Status is
Active in the Network Configuration screen.
Using Configuration Files
Follow the steps below to edit the network configuration files and set your
computer IP address.
1
Assuming that you have only one network card on the computer, locate the
ifconfig-eth0 configuration file (where eth0 is the name of the Ethernet card).
Open the configuration file with any plain text editor.
• If you have a dynamic IP address, enter dhcp in the BOOTPROTO= field. The
following figure shows an example.
Figure 177 Red Hat 9.0: Dynamic IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
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• If you have a static IP address, enter static in the BOOTPROTO= field. Type
IPADDR= followed by the IP address (in dotted decimal notation) and type
NETMASK= followed by the subnet mask. The following example shows an
example where the static IP address is 192.168.1.10 and the subnet mask is
255.255.255.0.
Figure 178 Red Hat 9.0: Static IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.1.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
2
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), enter the DNS server information in
the resolv.conf file in the /etc directory. The following figure shows an example
where two DNS server IP addresses are specified.
Figure 179 Red Hat 9.0: DNS Settings in resolv.conf
nameserver 172.23.5.1
nameserver 172.23.5.2
3
After you edit and save the configuration files, you must restart the network card.
Enter ./network restart in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. The following
figure shows an example.
Figure 180 Red Hat 9.0: Restart Ethernet Card
[[email protected] init.d]# network restart
Shutting down interface eth0:
Shutting down loopback interface:
Setting network parameters:
Bringing up loopback interface:
Bringing up interface eth0:
342
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
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Verifying Settings
Enter ifconfig in a terminal screen to check your TCP/IP properties.
Figure 181 Red Hat 9.0: Checking TCP/IP Properties
[[email protected]]# ifconfig
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:72:5B:44
inet addr:172.23.19.129 Bcast:172.23.19.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:717 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:730412 (713.2 Kb) TX bytes:1570 (1.5 Kb)
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x1000
[[email protected]]#
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APPENDIX
B
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device
(including computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to
communicate across the network. These networking devices are also known as
hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network.
You can also use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host
ID. In the same way that houses on a street share a common street name, the
hosts on a network share a common network number. Similarly, as each house
has its own house number, each host on the network has its own unique
identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network number to send packets
to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on the network
the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for
example, 192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is
an eight-digit binary number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal
notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or
0 to 255 in decimal.
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The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets
(192.168.1) are the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
Figure 182 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID
varies according to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number,
and which bits are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term
“subnet” is short for “sub-network”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the
subnet mask is “0” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host
ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in
bold text) and host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 115 Subnet Masks
1ST
OCTET:
2ND
OCTET:
3RD
OCTET:
4TH
OCTET
(192)
(168)
(1)
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
346
00000010
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By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones
beginning from the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of
zeros, for a total number of 32 bits.
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits
with a “1” value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the
mask are ones and the remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The
following examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit
and 29-bit subnet masks.
Table 116 Subnet Masks
BINARY
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH
OCTET
DECIMAL
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit
mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit
mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit
mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.24
8
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible
hosts you can have on your network. The larger the number of network number
bits, the smaller the number of remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network
(192.168.1.0 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host
IDs of all ones is the broadcast address for that network (192.168.1.255 with a
24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the
maximum number of possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 117 Maximum Host Numbers
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
HOSTS
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
8 bits
24 bits
224 – 2
16777214
16 bits
216
65534
255.0.0.0
16 bits 255.255.0.0
–2
8
24 bits 255.255.255.0
8 bits
2 –2
254
29 bits 255.255.255.2
48
3 bits
23 – 2
6
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Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left,
followed by a continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask,
you can simply specify the number of ones instead of writing the value of each
octet. This is usually specified by writing a “/” followed by the number of bits in
the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask
255.255.255.128.
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 118 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the
following example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a
group of servers from the rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three
octets of the address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining
octet is the host ID, allowing a maximum of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
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Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 183 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into
two separate sub-networks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or
/25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two
subnets; 192.168.1.0 /25 and 192.168.1.128 /25.
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now
two sub-networks, A and B.
Figure 184 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
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Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of
27 – 2 or 126 possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself,
all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127
with mask 255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP
address that can be assigned to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and
the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit
address into two subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets,
you need to “borrow” two host ID bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01,
10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a
host ID of all zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast
address).
Table 119 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Table 120 Subnet 2
350
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
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Table 121 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 122 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100,
101, 110 and 111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 123 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
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Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit
network number.
Table 124 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit
network number.
Table 125 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If
the ISP or your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP
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Appendix B IP Addresses and Subnetting
addresses, follow their instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet
mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you
have a single user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when
the connection is established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select
a network number from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned
Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses specifically for private
use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise. You must
also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the ZyXEL Device.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your ZyXEL
Device that is easy to remember (for instance, 192.168.1.1) but make sure that
no other device on your network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
ZyXEL Device will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP
address that you entered. You don't need to change the subnet mask computed by
the ZyXEL Device unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are
isolated from the Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example)
you can assign any IP addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three
blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned
from a private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet
access is through an ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for
your local networks. On the other hand, if you are part of a much larger
organization, you should consult your network administrator for the appropriate IP
addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466,
Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
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APPENDIX
C
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
Note: Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service
Pack) 2) or allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP
address.
Disable Pop-up Blockers
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off
Pop-up Blocker.
Figure 185 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in
the Privacy tab.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
2
Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen.
This disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 186 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable Pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the
following steps.
1
356
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
2
Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
Figure 187 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have
blocked) with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.167.1.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
4
Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 188 Pop-up Blocker Settings
5
Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6
Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check
that JavaScripts are allowed.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
1
In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 189 Internet Options: Security
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Scripting.
4
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
5
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the
default).
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
6
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 190 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
360
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security
tab.
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
4
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
5
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 191 Security Settings - Java
JAVA (Sun)
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced
tab.
2
Make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
3
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 192 Java (Sun)
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox 2.0 screens are used here. Screens for other versions may vary.
You can enable Java, Javascripts and pop-ups in one screen. Click Tools, then
click Options in the screen that appears.
Figure 193 Mozilla Firefox: Tools > Options
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Click Content.to show the screen below. Select the check boxes as shown in the
following screen.
Figure 194 Mozilla Firefox Content Security
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APPENDIX
D
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects
a set of computers with wireless adapters (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless
adapters are within range of each other, they can set up an independent network,
which is commonly referred to as an ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service
Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an example of notebook computers
using wireless adapters to form an ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 195 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless
clients or between a wireless client and a wired network client go through one
access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless clients in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is
enabled, wireless client A and B can access the wired network and communicate
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
with each other. When Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless client A and B can still
access the wired network but cannot communicate with each other.
Figure 196 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each
containing an access point, with each access point connected together by a wired
network. This wired connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access
Points not only provide communication with the wired network but also mediate
wireless network traffic in the immediate neighborhood.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and
their associated wireless clients within the same ESS must have the same ESSID
in order to communicate.
Figure 197 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by wireless devices to transmit and
receive data. Channels available depend on your geographical area. You may have
a choice of channels (for your region) so you should use a channel different from
an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce interference. Interference occurs when
radio signals from different access points overlap causing interference and
degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap,
your AP should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an
adjacent AP is using. For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent
AP is using channel 1, then you need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access
point, but are not within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
hidden node. Both stations (STA) are within range of the access point (AP) or
wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other, so they cannot "hear" each
other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being used. Therefore,
they are considered hidden from each other.
Figure 198
RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is
already using the channel. If these two stations send data at the same time,
collisions may occur when both sets of data arrive at the AP at the same time,
resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS
defines the biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To
Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432
bytes), the station that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS
(Request To Send) message to the AP for permission to send it. The AP then
responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all other stations within its range
to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and confirms with the
requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP
without the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on
your network and the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra
network overhead involved in the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see
next), then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never
occur as data frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256
and 2432 bytes) that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will
fragment the packet into smaller data frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to
interference while you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or
networks that are prone to interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see
previously) you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake will never occur as data frames will be fragmented before they reach
RTS/CTS size.
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an
IEEE 802.11b adapter can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point
(and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has
several intermediate rate steps between the maximum and minimum data rates.
The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation are as follows:
Table 126 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE
(MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/
48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication
between wireless clients, access points and the wired network.
Wireless security methods available on the ZyXEL Device are data encryption,
wireless client authentication, restricting access by device MAC address and hiding
the ZyXEL Device identity.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security
methods available on your ZyXEL Device.
Table 127 Wireless Security Levels
SECURITY
LEVEL
Least
Secure
SECURITY TYPE
Unique SSID (Default)
Unique SSID with Hide SSID Enabled
MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
IEEE802.1x EAP with RADIUS Server
Authentication
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
WPA2
Most Secure
Note: You must enable the same wireless security settings on the ZyXEL Device and
on all wireless clients that you want to associate with it.
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of
IEEE 802.11 to support extended authentication as well as providing additional
accounting and control features. It is supported by Windows XP and a number of
network devices. Some advantages of IEEE 802.1x are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138,
2139) for centralized user profile and accounting management on a network
RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows
additional authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access
point or the wireless clients.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication,
authorization and accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the
RADIUS server. The RADIUS server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are
connected to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay
between the wireless client and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point
and the RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access.
The access point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another
Access-Request message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point
and the RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a
shared secret key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over
the network. In addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is
also encrypted to protect the network from unauthorized access.
Types of EAP Authentication
This section discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS,
EAP-TTLS, PEAP and LEAP. Your wireless LAN device may not support all
authentication types.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on
top of the IEEE 802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of
user authentication. By using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS
server, an access point helps a wireless station and a RADIUS server perform
authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server and an
intermediary AP(s) that supports IEEE 802.1x.
For EAP-TLS authentication type, you must first have a wired connection to the
network and obtain the certificate(s) from a certificate authority (CA). A certificate
(also called digital IDs) can be used to authenticate users and a CA issues
certificates and guarantees the identity of each certificate owner.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The
authentication server sends a challenge to the wireless client. The wireless client
‘proves’ that it knows the password by encrypting the password with the challenge
and sends back the information. Password is not sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication
server needs to get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus
someone other than the authentication server may access the password file. In
addition, it is possible to impersonate an authentication server as MD5
authentication method does not perform mutual authentication. Finally, MD5
authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session
key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless
clients for mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client.
After validating the identity of the server, the client sends a different certificate to
the server. The exchange of certificates is done in the open before a secured
tunnel is created. This makes user identity vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital
certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the sender’s identity.
However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to handle
certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for
only the server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client
authentication is then done by sending username and password through the
secure connection, thus client identity is protected. For client authentication, EAP-
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy authentication methods such as PAP,
CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure
connection, then use simple username and password methods through the
secured connection to authenticate the clients, thus hiding client identity.
However, PEAP only supports EAP methods, such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2
and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card), for client authentication. EAP-GTC is
implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of
IEEE 802.1x.
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key
expires when the wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication
times out. A new WEP key is generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key
in the wireless security configuration screen. You may still configure and store
keys, but they will not be used while dynamic WEP is enabled.
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and
PEAP) use dynamic keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate
environments, but for public deployment, a simple user name and password pair
is more practical. The following table is a comparison of the features of
authentication types.
Table 128 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity
Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
WPA and WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2
(IEEE 802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption,
authentication and key management than WPA.
Key differences between WPA or WPA2 and WEP are improved data encryption and
user authentication.
If both an AP and the wireless clients support WPA2 and you have an external
RADIUS server, use WPA2 for stronger data encryption. If you don't have an
external RADIUS server, you should use WPA2-PSK (WPA2-Pre-Shared Key) that
only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless
gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a wireless client will
be granted access to a WLAN.
If the AP or the wireless clients do not support WPA2, just use WPA or WPA-PSK
depending on whether you have an external RADIUS server or not.
Select WEP only when the AP and/or wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2.
WEP is less secure than WPA or WPA2.
Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP),
Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. WPA2 also uses TKIP when
required for compatibility reasons, but offers stronger encryption than TKIP with
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block
chaining Message authentication code Protocol (CCMP).
TKIP uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by the
authentication server. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a block cipher that
uses a 256-bit mathematical algorithm called Rijndael. They both include a perpacket key mixing function, a Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an
extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying
mechanism.
WPA and WPA2 regularly change and rotate the encryption keys so that the same
encryption key is never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that
then sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to
dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet
that is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all
happens in the background automatically.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from
capturing data packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a
strong mathematical function in which the receiver and the transmitter each
compute and then compare the MIC. If they do not match, it is assumed that the
data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating
an integrity checking mechanism (MIC), with TKIP and AES it is more difficult to
decrypt data on a Wi-Fi network than WEP and difficult for an intruder to break
into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The
only difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common
password, instead of user-specific credentials. The common-password approach
makes WPA(2)-PSK susceptible to brute-force password-guessing attacks but it’s
still an improvement over WEP as it employs a consistent, single, alphanumeric
password to derive a PMK which is used to generate unique temporal encryption
keys. This prevent all wireless devices sharing the same encryption keys. (a
weakness of WEP)
User Authentication
WPA and WPA2 apply IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to
authenticate wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. WPA2 reduces
the number of key exchange messages from six to four (CCMP 4-way handshake)
and shortens the time required to connect to a network. Other WPA2
authentication features that are different from WPA include key caching and preauthentication. These two features are optional and may not be supported in all
wireless devices.
Key caching allows a wireless client to store the PMK it derived through a
successful authentication with an AP. The wireless client uses the PMK when it tries
to connect to the same AP and does not need to go with the authentication
process again.
Pre-authentication enables fast roaming by allowing the wireless client (already
connecting to an AP) to perform IEEE 802.1x authentication with another AP
before connecting to it.
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system
instructing the wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most
widely available supplicant is the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's
Odyssey client.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows
XP's built-in "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows
XP to use it.
WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
To set up WPA(2), you need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number
(default is 1812), and the RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example
with an external RADIUS server looks as follows. "A" is the RADIUS server. "DS" is
the distribution system.
1
The AP passes the wireless client's authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2
The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and
grants or denies network access accordingly.
3
A 256-bit Pairwise Master Key (PMK) is derived from the authentication process by
the RADIUS server and the client.
4
The RADIUS server distributes the PMK to the AP. The AP then sets up a key
hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to dynamically generate
unique data encryption keys. The keys are used to encrypt every data packet that
is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
Figure 199 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
1
376
First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared
Key (PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters or 64 hexadecimal
characters (including spaces and symbols).
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Appendix D Wireless LANs
2
The AP checks each wireless client's password and allows it to join the network
only if the password matches.
3
The AP and wireless clients generate a common PMK (Pairwise Master Key). The
key itself is not sent over the network, but is derived from the PSK and the SSID.
4
The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process, the PMK and
information exchanged in a handshake to create temporal encryption keys. They
use these keys to encrypt data exchanged between them.
Figure 200 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for
each authentication method or key management protocol type. MAC address
filters are not dependent on how you configure these security features.
Table 129 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT
PROTOCOL
ENCRYPTIO ENTER
N METHOD MANUAL KEY IEEE 802.1X
Open
None
No
Disable
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Open
Shared
WEP
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Yes
Disable
WPA
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
Table 129 Wireless Security Relational Matrix (continued)
AUTHENTICATION
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT
PROTOCOL
ENCRYPTIO ENTER
IEEE 802.1X
N METHOD MANUAL KEY
WPA2
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA2-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
Antenna Overview
An antenna couples RF signals onto air. A transmitter within a wireless device
sends an RF signal to the antenna, which propagates the signal through the air.
The antenna also operates in reverse by capturing RF signals from the air.
Positioning the antennas properly increases the range and coverage area of a
wireless LAN.
Antenna Characteristics
Frequency
An antenna in the frequency of 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g) or 5GHz
(IEEE 802.11a) is needed to communicate efficiently in a wireless LAN
Radiation Pattern
A radiation pattern is a diagram that allows you to visualize the shape of the
antenna’s coverage area.
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain, measured in dB (decibel), is the increase in coverage within the RF
beam width. Higher antenna gain improves the range of the signal for better
communications.
For an indoor site, each 1 dB increase in antenna gain results in a range increase
of approximately 2.5%. For an unobstructed outdoor site, each 1dB increase in
gain results in a range increase of approximately 5%. Actual results may vary
depending on the network environment.
Antenna gain is sometimes specified in dBi, which is how much the antenna
increases the signal power compared to using an isotropic antenna. An isotropic
antenna is a theoretical perfect antenna that sends out radio signals equally well
in all directions. dBi represents the true gain that the antenna provides.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
Types of Antennas for WLAN
There are two types of antennas used for wireless LAN applications.
• Omni-directional antennas send the RF signal out in all directions on a horizontal
plane. The coverage area is torus-shaped (like a donut) which makes these
antennas ideal for a room environment. With a wide coverage area, it is possible
to make circular overlapping coverage areas with multiple access points.
• Directional antennas concentrate the RF signal in a beam, like a flashlight does
with the light from its bulb. The angle of the beam determines the width of the
coverage pattern. Angles typically range from 20 degrees (very directional) to
120 degrees (less directional). Directional antennas are ideal for hallways and
outdoor point-to-point applications.
Positioning Antennas
In general, antennas should be mounted as high as practically possible and free of
obstructions. In point-to–point application, position both antennas at the same
height and in a direct line of sight to each other to attain the best performance.
For omni-directional antennas mounted on a table, desk, and so on, point the
antenna up. For omni-directional antennas mounted on a wall or ceiling, point the
antenna down. For a single AP application, place omni-directional antennas as
close to the center of the coverage area as possible.
For directional antennas, point the antenna in the direction of the desired
coverage area.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
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APPENDIX
E
Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated
protocols and port numbers.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or
create a different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/
UDP, then the service uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is
USER-DEFINED, the Port(s) is the IP protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service
or the situations in which this service is used.
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Appendix E Services
Table 130 Examples of Services
382
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP/UDP
7648
A popular videoconferencing solution
from White Pines Software.
TCP/UDP
24032
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for instance
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation
Security Protocol) tunneling protocol
uses this service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out
if a user is logged on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Protocol, a program to
enable fast transfer of files, including
large files that may not be possible by
e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/
server protocol for the world wide
web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often
used in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is
often used for diagnostic purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat
program.
IGMP
(MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is
used when sending packets to a
specific group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm
is used for key distribution and
management.
IMAP4
TCP
143
The Internet Message Access Protocol
is used for e-mail.
IMAP4S
TCP
993
This is a more secure version of IMAP4
that runs over SSL.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
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Appendix E Services
Table 130 Examples of Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger
service uses this protocol.
NetBIOS
TCP/UDP
137
TCP/UDP
138
The Network Basic Input/Output
System is used for communication
between computers in a LAN.
TCP/UDP
139
TCP/UDP
445
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/
server distributed file service that
provides transparent file sharing for
network environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is
the delivery mechanism for the
USENET newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol
that sends out ICMP echo requests to
test whether or not a remote host is
reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a
client computer get e-mail from a
POP3 server through a temporary
connection (TCP/IP or other).
POP3S
TCP
995
This is a more secure version of POP3
that runs over SSL.
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
enables secure transfer of data over
public networks. This is the control
channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL
(GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol) enables secure transfer of
data over public networks. This is the
data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that
enables real time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
ROADRUNNER
TCP/UDP
1026
This is an ISP that provides services
mainly for cable modems.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media
control) Protocol (RTSP) is a remote
control for multimedia on the
Internet.
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Appendix E Services
Table 130 Examples of Services (continued)
384
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
SFTP
TCP
115
The Simple File Transfer Protocol is an
old way of transferring files between
computers.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SMTPS
TCP
465
This is a more secure version of SMTP
that runs over SSL.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management
Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP
(RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an
interface to access data on many
different types of database systems,
including mainframes, midrange
systems, UNIX systems and network
servers.
SSDP
UDP
1900
The Simple Service Discovery Protocol
supports Universal Plug-and-Play
(UPnP).
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs
to a UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control
System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal
emulation protocol common on the
Internet and in UNIX environments. It
operates over TCP/IP networks. Its
primary function is to allow users to
log into remote host systems.
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
UDP
userdefined
A videoconferencing solution. The UDP
port number is specified in the
application.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
APPENDIX
F
Open Software Announcements
End-User License Agreement for “VSG1432-B101”
WARNING: ZyXEL Communications Corp. IS WILLING TO LICENSE THE
SOFTWARE TO YOU ONLY UPON THE CONDITION THAT YOU ACCEPT ALL OF THE
TERMS CONTAINED IN THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THE TERMS
CAREFULLY BEFORE COMPLETING THE INSTALLATION PROCESS AS INSTALLING
THE SOFTWARE WILL INDICATE YOUR ASSENT TO THEM. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE
TO THESE TERMS, THEN ZyXEL IS UNWILLING TO LICENSE THE SOFTWARE TO
YOU, IN WHICH EVENT YOU SHOULD RETURN THE UNINSTALLED SOFTWARE AND
PACKAGING TO THE PLACE FROM WHICH IT WAS ACQUIRED OR ZyXEL, AND
YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED. HOWEVER, CERTAIN ZYXEL’S PRODUCTS MAY
CONTAIN–IN PART-SOME THIRD PARTY’S FREE AND OPEN SOFTWARE PROGRAMS
WHICH ALLOW YOU TO FREELY COPY, RUN, DISTRIBUTE, MODIFY AND IMPROVE
THE SOFTWARE UNDER THE APPLICABLE TERMS OF SUCH THRID PARTY’S
LICENSES (“OPEN-SOURCED COMPONENTS”). THE OPEN-SOURCED
COMPONENTS ARE LISTED IN THE NOTICE OR APPENDIX BELOW. ZYXEL MAY
HAVE DISTRIBUTED TO YOU HARDWARE AND/OR SOFTWARE, OR MADE
AVAILABLE FOR ELECTRONIC DOWNLOADS THESE FREE SOFTWARE PROGRAMS
OF THRID PARTIES AND YOU ARE LICENSED TO FREELY COPY, MODIFY AND
REDISTIBUTE THAT SOFTWARE UNDER THE APPLICABLE LICENSE TERMS OF
SUCH THIRD PARTY. NONE OF THE STATEMENTS OR DOCUMENTATION FROM
ZYXEL INCLUDING ANY RESTRICTIONS OR CONDITIONS STATED IN THIS END
USER LICENSE AGREEMENT SHALL RESTRICT ANY RIGHTS AND LICENSES YOU
MAY HAVE WITH RESPECT TO THE OPEN-SOURCED COMPONENTS UNDER THE
APPLICABLE LICENSE TERMS OF SUCH THIRD PARTY.
1.Grant of License for Personal Use
ZyXEL Communications Corp. ("ZyXEL") grants you a non-exclusive, nonsublicense, non-transferable license to use the program with which this license is
distributed (the "Software"), including any documentation files accompanying the
Software ("Documentation"), for internal business use only, for up to the number
of users specified in sales order and invoice. You have the right to make one
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Appendix F Open Software Announcements
backup copy of the Software and Documentation solely for archival, back-up or
disaster recovery purposes. You shall not exceed the scope of the license granted
hereunder. Any rights not expressly granted by ZyXEL to you are reserved by
ZyXEL, and all implied licenses are disclaimed.
2.Ownership
You have no ownership rights in the Software. Rather, you have a license to use
the Software as long as this License Agreement remains in full force and effect.
Ownership of the Software, Documentation and all intellectual property rights
therein shall remain at all times with ZyXEL. Any other use of the Software by any
other entity is strictly forbidden and is a violation of this License Agreement.
3.Copyright
The Software and Documentation contain material that is protected by
international copyright law, trade secret law, international treaty provisions, and
the applicable national laws of each respective country. All rights not granted to
you herein are expressly reserved by ZyXEL. You may not remove any proprietary
notice of ZyXEL or any of its licensors from any copy of the Software or
Documentation.
4.Restrictions
You may not publish, display, disclose, sell, rent, lease, modify, store, loan,
distribute, or create derivative works of the Software, or any part thereof. You
may not assign, sublicense, convey or otherwise transfer, pledge as security or
otherwise encumber the rights and licenses granted hereunder with respect to the
Software. ZyXEL is not obligated to provide any maintenance, technical or other
support for the resultant modified Software. You may not copy, reverse engineer,
decompile, reverse compile, translate, adapt, or disassemble the Software, or any
part thereof, nor shall you attempt to create the source code from the object code
for the Software. Except as and only to the extent expressly permitted in this
License, you may not market, co-brand, and private label or otherwise permit
third parties to link to the Software, or any part thereof. You may not use the
Software, or any part thereof, in the operation of a service bureau or for the
benefit of any other person or entity. You may not cause, assist or permit any
third party to do any of the foregoing. Portions of the Software utilize or include
third party software and other copyright material. Acknowledgements, licensing
terms and disclaimers for such material are contained in the License Notice as
below for the third party software, and your use of such material is exclusively
governed by their respective terms. ZyXEL has provided, as part of the Software
package, access to certain third party software as a convenience. To the extent
that the Software contains third party software, ZyXEL has no express or implied
obligation to provide any technical or other support for such software other than
compliance with the applicable license terms of such third party, and makes no
warranty (express, implied or statutory) whatsoever with respect thereto. Please
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contact the appropriate software vendor or manufacturer directly for technical
support and customer service related to its software and products.
5.Confidentiality
You acknowledge that the Software contains proprietary trade secrets of ZyXEL
and you hereby agree to maintain the confidentiality of the Software using at least
as great a degree of care as you use to maintain the confidentiality of your own
most confidential information. You agree to reasonably communicate the terms
and conditions of this License Agreement to those persons employed by you who
come into contact with the Software, and to use reasonable best efforts to ensure
their compliance with such terms and conditions, including, without limitation, not
knowingly permitting such persons to use any portion of the Software for the
purpose of deriving the source code of the Software.
6.No Warranty
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS." TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY
LAW, ZyXEL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT. ZyXEL DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE FUNCTIONS CONTAINED
IN THE SOFTWARE WILL MEET ANY REQUIREMENTS OR NEEDS YOU MAY HAVE,
OR THAT THE SOFTWARE WILL OPERATE ERROR FREE, OR IN AN UNINTERUPTED
FASHION, OR THAT ANY DEFECTS OR ERRORS IN THE SOFTWARE WILL BE
CORRECTED, OR THAT THE SOFTWARE IS COMPATIBLE WITH ANY PARTICULAR
PLATFORM. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE WAIVER OR EXCLUSION
OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES SO THEY MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. IF THIS EXCLUSION
IS HELD TO BE UNENFORCEABLE BY A COURT OF COMPETENT JURISDICTION,
THEN ALL EXPRESS AND IMPLIED WARRANTIES SHALL BE LIMITED IN DURATION
TO A PERIOD OF THIRTY (30) DAYS FROM THE DATE OF PURCHASE OF THE
SOFTWARE, AND NO WARRANTIES SHALL APPLY AFTER THAT PERIOD.
7.Limitation of Liability
IN NO EVENT WILL ZyXEL BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF
BUSINESS, LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF BUSINESS
INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE
SOFTWARE OR PROGRAM, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY, EVEN IF
ZyXEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. ZyXEL's
TOTAL AGGREGATE LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO ITS OBLIGATIONS UNDER THIS
AGREEMENT OR OTHERWISE WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE AND
DOCUMENTATION OR OTHERWISE SHALL BE EQUAL TO THE PURCHASE PRICE,
BUT SHALL IN NO EVENT EXCEED THE PRODUCT’S PRICE. BECAUSE SOME
STATES/COUNTRIES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
387
Appendix F Open Software Announcements
LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE
LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
8.Export Restrictions
THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT IS EXPRESSLY MADE SUBJECT TO ANY APPLICABLE
LAWS, REGULATIONS, ORDERS, OR OTHER RESTRICTIONS ON THE EXPORT OF
THE SOFTWARE OR INFORMATION ABOUT SUCH SOFTWARE WHICH MAY BE
IMPOSED FROM TIME TO TIME. YOU SHALL NOT EXPORT THE SOFTWARE,
DOCUMENTATION OR INFORMATION ABOUT THE SOFTWARE AND
DOCUMENTATION WITHOUT COMPLYING WITH SUCH LAWS, REGULATIONS,
ORDERS, OR OTHER RESTRICTIONS. YOU AGREE TO INDEMNIFY ZyXEL AGAINST
ALL CLAIMS, LOSSES, DAMAGES, LIABILITIES, COSTS AND EXPENSES,
INCLUDING REASONABLE ATTORNEYS' FEES, TO THE EXTENT SUCH CLAIMS
ARISE OUT OF ANY BREACH OF THIS SECTION 8.
9.Audit Rights
ZyXEL SHALL HAVE THE RIGHT, AT ITS OWN EXPENSE, UPON REASONABLE PRIOR
NOTICE, TO PERIODICALLY INSPECT AND AUDIT YOUR RECORDS TO ENSURE
YOUR COMPLIANCE WITH THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS LICENSE
AGREEMENT.
10.Termination
This License Agreement is effective until it is terminated. You may terminate this
License Agreement at any time by destroying or returning to ZyXEL all copies of
the Software and Documentation in your possession or under your control. ZyXEL
may terminate this License Agreement for any reason, including, but not limited
to, if ZyXEL finds that you have violated any of the terms of this License
Agreement. Upon notification of termination, you agree to destroy or return to
ZyXEL all copies of the Software and Documentation and to certify in writing that
all known copies, including backup copies, have been destroyed. All provisions
relating to confidentiality, proprietary rights, and non-disclosure shall survive the
termination of this Software License Agreement.
11.General
This License Agreement shall be construed, interpreted and governed by the laws
of Republic of China without regard to conflicts of laws provisions thereof. The
exclusive forum for any disputes arising out of or relating to this License
Agreement shall be an appropriate court or Commercial Arbitration Association
sitting in ROC, Taiwan if the parties agree to a binding arbitration. This License
Agreement shall constitute the entire Agreement between the parties hereto. This
License Agreement, the rights granted hereunder, the Software and
Documentation shall not be assigned by you without the prior written consent of
ZyXEL. Any waiver or modification of this License Agreement shall only be
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Appendix F Open Software Announcements
effective if it is in writing and signed by both parties hereto. If any part of this
License Agreement is found invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent
jurisdiction, the remainder of this License Agreement shall be interpreted so as to
reasonably effect the intention of the parties.
NOTE: Some components of this product incorporate free software programs
covered under the open source code licenses which allows you to freely copy,
modify and redistribute the software. For at least three (3) years from the date of
distribution of the applicable product or software, we will give to anyone who
contacts us at the ZyXEL Technical Support ([email protected]), for a charge
of no more than our cost of physically performing source code distribution, a
complete machine-readable copy of the complete corresponding source code for
the version of the Programs that we distributed to you if we are in possession of
such.
Notice
Information herein is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and
data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part may
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, for any purpose, except the express written permission of ZyXEL
Communications Corporation.
This Product includes MIPS Linux kernel , Bridge-Utils, BusyBox 1.0.0 toolset ,
Dproxy, ebtables, bftpd, iproute2, iptables, udhcp and zebra software under GPL
2.0 license.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share
and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to
guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the
software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the
Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors
commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your
programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our
General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to
distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you
receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software
or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these
things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny
you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate
to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you
modify it. For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis
or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must
make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show
them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer
you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify
the software. Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the
software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to
know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by
others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to
avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain
patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent this, we
have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not
licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
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Appendix F Open Software Announcements
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this
General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or
work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any
derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program
or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into
another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the
term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you". Activities other than
copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are
outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output
from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether
that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as
you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately
publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty;
keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a
copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus
forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications
or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of
these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you
changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part
contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a
whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you
must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary
way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright
notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a
warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions,
and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program
itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work
based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
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Appendix F Open Software Announcements
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections
of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered
independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms,
do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But
when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on
the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License,
whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to
each and every part regardless of who wrote it. Thus, it is not the intent of this
section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you;
rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program. In addition, mere aggregation of another
work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the
Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the
other work under the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section
2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above
provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code,
which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a
medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any
third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source
distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code,
to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or, c) Accompany it with the
information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code.
(This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in
accord with Subsection b above.) The source code for a work means the preferred
form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete
source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the
scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as
a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is
normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components
(compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable
runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If distribution of
executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated
place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same
place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
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4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as
expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your
rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it.
However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program
or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept
this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work
based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or
works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program),
the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy,
distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may
not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted
herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this
License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or
for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you
(whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of
this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you
cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not
distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit
royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly
or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this
License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. If any
portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular
circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a
whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. It is not the purpose of this
section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to
contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting
the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by
public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the
wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent
application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is
believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries
either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who
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393
Appendix F Open Software Announcements
places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical
distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted
only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License
incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the
General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in
spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or
concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later
version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any
version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs
whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for
permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation,
write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.
Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all
derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of
software generally.
NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.
EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/
OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND
PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE
DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR
CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY
MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR
A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN
IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGES.
394
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Appendix F Open Software Announcements
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
All other trademarks or trade names mentioned herein, if any, are the property of
their respective owners.
This Product includes ppp software under below license
This directory contains source code and precompiled binaries for ppp-2.4, a
package which implements the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) to provide Internet
connections over serial lines. ppp-2.4 currently supports Linux and Solaris.
All of the code here can be freely used and redistributed. Theindividual source
files each have their own copyright and permission
notice; some have a BSD-style notice and some are under the GPL.
This Product includes Ssh server: dropbear software under MIT-style license
The MIT License
Copyright (c) <year> <copyright holders>
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY,
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix F Open Software Announcements
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR
OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.
This Product includes openssl: openSSL library software under BSD-style license
Copyright (c) <YEAR>, <OWNER>
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of
conditions and the following disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list
of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
materials provided with the distribution.
Neither the name of the <ORGANIZATION> nor the names of its contributors may
be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
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APPENDIX
G
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic,
optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any
products, or software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under
its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right
to make changes in any products described herein without notice. This publication
is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
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Appendix G Legal Information
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operations.
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This device generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy,
and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee
that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this device does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which
can be determined by turning the device off and on, the user is encouraged to try
to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
1
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2
Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
4
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
• This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any
other antenna or transmitter.
• IEEE 802.11b or 802.11g operation of this product in the U.S.A. is firmwarelimited to channels 1 through 11.
• To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, a separation
distance of at least 20 cm must be maintained between the antenna of this
device and all persons.
注意 !
依據
低功率電波輻射性電機管理辦法
第十二條 經型式認證合格之低功率射頻電機,非經許可,公司、商號或使用
者均不得擅自變更頻率、加大功率或變更原設計之特性及功能。
第十四條 低功率射頻電機之使用不得影響飛航安全及干擾合法通信;經發現
有干擾現象時,應立即停用,並改善至無干擾時方得繼續使用。
前項合法通信,指依電信規定作業之無線電信。低功率射頻電機須忍
受合法通信或工業、科學及醫療用電波輻射性電機設備之干擾。
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Appendix G Legal Information
本機限在不干擾合法電臺與不受被干擾保障條件下於室內使用。
減少電磁波影響,請妥適使用。
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This device has been designed for the WLAN 2.4 GHz network throughout the EC
region and Switzerland, with restrictions in France.
Ce produit est conçu pour les bandes de fréquences 2,4 GHz et/ou 5 GHz
conformément à la législation Européenne. En France métropolitaine, suivant les
décisions n°03-908 et 03-909 de l’ARCEP, la puissance d’émission ne devra pas
dépasser 10 mW (10 dB) dans le cadre d’une installation WiFi en extérieur pour
les fréquences comprises entre 2454 MHz et 2483,5 MHz.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du
Canada.
Viewing Certifications
1
Go to http://www.zyxel.com.
2
Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3
Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from
any defects in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the
date of purchase. During the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should
the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or
materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective products or
components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it
shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally
equivalent product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of
ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused,
tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working
conditions.
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
399
Appendix G Legal Information
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of
the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied,
including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or
purpose. ZyXEL shall in no event be held liable for indirect or consequential
damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your
Return Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage
Prepaid. It is recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned
products without proof of purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be
repaired or replaced (at the discretion of ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed
for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products will be shipped by ZyXEL to
the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty gives you specific
legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and
information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for
North American products.
400
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Index
Index
A
Basic Service Set, See BSS 365
ACL rule 222
blinking LEDs 30
ACS 287
broadcast 76
activation
firewalls 217
SIP ALG 186
SSID 101
BSS 117, 365
example 118
Address Resolution Protocol 267
administrator password 34
Basic Service Set, see BSS
C
ADSL
compliance 319
dual latency 319
EOC 319
multi-mode 319
TPS-TC 319
vendor ID 319
CA 233, 372
AH 257
Certificate Authority
See CA.
algorithms 257
alternative subnet mask notation 348
antenna 315
directional 379
gain 378
omni-directional 379
AP (access point) 367
applications
Internet access 24
Canonical Format Indicator See CFI
CBR 89
certificate
details 239
factory default 234
certificates 233
authentication 233
CA
creating 235
importing 237
public key 233
replacing 234
storage space 234
Certification Authority 233
applications, NAT 190
Certification Authority. see CA
ARP Table 267
certifications 397
notices 399
viewing 399
ATM
QoS 89
authentication 113, 115
RADIUS server 115
Auto Configuration Server, see ACS 287
CFI 90
channel 367
interference 367
channel, wireless LAN 113
client list 132
B
compatibility, WDS 107
compliance 318
backup
configuration 301
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
configuration
backup 301
401
Index
firewalls 217
reset 303
restoring 302
static route 149, 196, 285
copyright 397
CoS 167
CoS technologies 152
E
EAP Authentication 371
ECHO 190
e-mail
log example 297
CTS (Clear to Send) 368
encapsulation 75, 258
PPPoA 86
PPPoE 86
CTS threshold 110, 113
encryption 116, 374
creating certificates 235
ESP 257
ESS 366
D
Extended Service Set IDentification 94, 102
Extended Service Set, See ESS 366
data fragment threshold 110, 113
DDoS 216
default server address 185
Denials of Service, see DoS
F
DH 264
FCC interference statement 397
DHCP 128, 143
file sharing 26
DHCP relay 316
DHCP server 316
filters
MAC address 103, 115
diagnostic 305
Finger 190
Differentiated Services, see DiffServ 167
firewalls 215
add protocols 217
configuration 217
DDoS 216
DoS 216
LAND attack 216
Ping of Death 216
SYN attack 216
Diffie-Hellman key groups 264
DiffServ 167
marking rule 167
digital IDs 233
disclaimer 397
DMZ 185
DNS 128, 143
Domain Name 190
firmware 299
version 71
Domain Name System, see DNS
forwarding ports 176
DoS 216
fragmentation threshold 110, 113, 369
DS field 167
FTP 176, 190
DS, dee differentiated services
DSCP 167
dynamic DNS 194
wildcard 194
G
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, see DHCP
General wireless LAN screen 92
dynamic WEP key exchange 373
DYNDNS wildcard 194
402
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Index
H
hidden node 367
HTTP 190
humidity 316
Internet Protocol Security, see IPSec
IP address 76, 87, 128, 144
ping 305
private 145
IP alias
NAT applications 190
IP multicasting 319
I
IANA 353
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
see IANA
IP Sec 245
IPSec 245
algorithms 257
architecture 257
NAT 260
see also VPN
IBSS 365
ID type and content 262
IEEE 802.11g 369
IEEE 802.1Q 90
IGA 188
L
IGMP 76
Access Control List 209
ACL 209
filter 204
multicast group list 279
router alert option 201
statistics 280
LAN 127
client list 132
DHCP 128, 143
DNS 128, 143
IP address 128, 130, 144
MAC address 132
status 72
subnet mask 128, 130, 144
IGMP proxy 319
LAND attack 216
IGMP snooping 200
LAN-Side DSL CPE Configuration 289
IGMP v1 319
IKE phases 259
limitations
wireless LAN 117
WPS 125
ILA 188
Local Area Network, see LAN
importing certificates 237
login 33
passwords 33, 34
IGMP v2 319
Independent Basic Service Set
See IBSS 365
logs 269, 273, 279, 295
initialization vector (IV) 374
Inside Global Address, see IGA
inside header 258
M
Inside Local Address, see ILA
interface group 211
Internet
wizard setup 41
Internet access 24
wizard setup 41
MAC address 104, 132
filter 103, 115
MAC authentication 103
Mac filter 225
Internet Group Multicast Protocol, see IGMP
managing the device
good habits 23
Internet Key Exchange 259
MBS 88
MBSSID 118
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
403
Index
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 90
multicast 76
IGMP 76
P
Pairwise Master Key (PMK) 374, 377
Multiple BSS, see MBSSID
passwords 33, 34
multiplexing 87
LLC-based 87
VC-based 87
PBC 120
PCR 88
Per-Hop Behavior, see PHB 167
PHB 167
N
PIN, WPS 121
example 122
Ping of Death 216
NAT 175, 176, 177, 187, 188, 353
applications 190
IP alias 190
example 189
global 188
IGA 188
ILA 188
inside 188
IPSec 260
local 188
outside 188
port forwarding 176
port number 190
services 190
SIP ALG 186
activation 186
traversal 261
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet 78
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 191
POP3 190
port forwarding 176
ports 30
power adaptor 320
power specifications 315
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) Link Layer
Protocol 319
PPPoA 86
PPPoE 78, 86
dial-up connection
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet)
317
PPTP 191
NAT example 191
preamble 111, 113
negotiation mode 260
preamble mode 119
Network Address Translation
see NAT
pre-shared key 263
Network Address Translation, see NAT
product registration 400
Network Map 69
PSK 375
network map 37
push button 31
NNTP 190
Push Button Configuration, see PBC
private IP address 145
push button, WPS 120
O
Q
operation humidity 316
operation temperature 315
outside header 258
404
QoS 151, 167
marking 152
setup 151
tagging 152
versus CoS 152
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Index
Quality of Service, see QoS
firewalls 217
static route 149, 196, 285
shaping traffic 88
R
RADIUS 370
message types 371
messages 371
shared secret key 371
Single Rate Three Color Marker, see srTCM
SIP ALG 186
activation 186
SMTP 190
SNMP 190, 319
SNMP trap 191
RADIUS server 115
SPI 216, 253
registration
product 400
srTCM 169
related documentation 3
remote management
TR-069 287
SSID 114
activation 101
MBSSID 118
reset 31, 303
static route 147
configuration 149, 196, 285
example 147
restart 304
static VLAN
restoring configuration 302
router alert option 201
status 69, 73
firmware version 71
LAN 72
WAN 71
wireless LAN 72
router features 24
status indicators 30
RPPCs 287
storage humidity 316
RTS (Request To Send) 368
threshold 367, 368
storage temperature 315
Remote Procedure Calls, see RPCs 287
RFC 2516 317
RFC 3164 269
RTS threshold 110, 113
subnet 345
subnet mask 128, 144, 346
subnetting 348
SYN attack 216
S
syntax conventions 5
safety warnings 7
syslog
protocol 269
severity levels 269
SCR 88
secure gateway address 246
security
wireless LAN 114
security associations, see VPN
Security Log 271
Security Parameter Index 253
Security Parameter Index, see SPI
service access control 265
Service Set 94, 102
system
firmware 299
version 71
passwords 33, 34
reset 31
status 69
LAN 72
WAN 71
wireless LAN 72
time 291
Services 190
setup
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
405
Index
T
Tag Control Information See TCI
Tag Protocol Identifier See TPID
TCI
temperature 315
thresholds
data fragment 110, 113
RTS/CTS 110, 113
time 291
TPID 90
TR-064 289
VCI 87
VDSL 318
band plans 318
HDLC 318
INP 318
MCM 318
profiles 318
SNR 318
SNRM 318
SRA 318
tone spacing 318
TPS-TC 318
US0 types 318
TR-069 287
ACS setup 287
authentication 288
VID
trademarks 397
VLAN 89
Introduction 89
number of possible VIDs
priority frame
static
traffic shaping 88
example 88
transparent bridging 319
transport mode 258
trTCM 170
tunnel mode 258
Two Rate Three Color Marker, see trTCM
U
UBR 89
Virtual Local Area Network See VLAN
Virtual Private Network, see VPN
VLAN ID 90
VLAN Identifier See VID
VLAN tag 90
VPI 87
VPN 245
established in two phases 246
IPSec 245
security associations (SA) 246
see also IKE SA, IPSec SA
unicast 76
Universal Plug and Play, see UPnP
upgrading firmware 299
UPnP 133
cautions 129
example 134
installation 134
NAT traversal 128
VBR-nRT 89
WAN 75
ATM QoS 89
encapsulation 75
IGMP 76
IP address 76, 87
multicast 76
multiplexing 87
status 71
traffic shaping 88
example 88
VCI 87
VPI 87
VBR-RT 89
warranty 399
USB features 26
V
VBR 89
406
W
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
Index
note 400
WDS 107, 119
compatibility 107
example 119
web configurator 33
login 33
passwords 33, 34
WEP 116
WEP Encryption 97, 98
WEP encryption 96
WLAN
interference 367
security parameters 377
WPA 116, 374
key caching 375
pre-authentication 375
user authentication 375
vs WPA-PSK 375
wireless client supplicant 375
with RADIUS application example 376
wireless client WPA supplicants 375
WPA2 374
user authentication 375
vs WPA2-PSK 375
wireless client supplicant 375
with RADIUS application example 376
Wireless Distribution System, see WDS
WPA2-Pre-Shared Key 374
wireless LAN 91, 111
authentication 113, 115
BSS 117
example 118
channel 113
encryption 116
example 112
fragmentation threshold 110, 113
limitations 117
MAC address filter 103, 115
MBSSID 118
preamble 111, 113
RADIUS server 115
RTS/CTS threshold 110, 113
security 114
SSID 114
activation 101
status 72
WDS 107, 119
compatibility 107
example 119
WEP 116
WPA 116
WPA-PSK 116
WPS 120, 122
example 124
limitations 125
PIN 121
push button 31, 120
WPA2-PSK 374, 375
application example 376
WEP key 96
Wide Area Network, see WAN
Wi-Fi Protected Access 374
WPA-PSK 116, 374, 375
application example 376
WPS 120, 122
example 124
limitations 125
PIN 121
example 122
push button 31, 120
wireless security 369
Wireless tutorial 48
wizard setup
Internet 41
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
407
Index
408
VSG1432-B101 Series User’s Guide
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