DLS | Reference 200 | Specifications | DLS Reference 200 Specifications

SOUND HANDBOOK
2000
Hints and advices for car sound builders using
DLS / GENESIS amplifiers and DLS speakers
CONTENTS:
Page
1
2-3
4
5-7
8 - 10
11
12 - 15
16 - 22
23 - 29
30 - 36
37
Introduction
Formulas and facts
Speaker facts
Amplifier data
Passive crossover filters
The cables
Installation
Amplifier wiring examples
Speaker boxes
Bass boxes for DLS subwoofers
Some useful tables
DLS Svenska AB
P.O. Box 13029, SE-402 51 Göteborg, Sweden
Tel. +46 31 84 00 60
Fax +46 31 84 40 21
E-mail: info@dls.se
www.dls.se / www.audiophiles.nu
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
AMPLIFIER CLASSES
We have made this handbook as a small help for
thoose who want to do a first class car sound installation.
This book advices the reader in matters concerning
amplifier and speaker installation and wiring, passive
crossovers, cable choice and different bass box
constructions. Information about DLS products can
also be found on our Internet WEB-site www.dls.se
Depending upon the construction, amplifiers are
divided into different classes, there are class A, AB,
B or C. The characteristic mark for a class A amplifier
is the lack of switching noise distortion, which the
other types have. The class A amplifier also has a
higher idle current, but instead it creates a much
better resoulution and dynamics. For home use the
class A amplifiers are not very common, many people
think they are only for sound connoisseurs and Hi-Fi
entusiasts.Powers from 2x15 up to 2x50 Watts are
common on these types, no high power, but instead
real good AC/DC-converters with reliable power
resources.
The most common amplifier type is class AB.
DLS SOUND PHILOSOPHY
DLS sound philosophy is based upon providing
equipment that will accurately and faithfully reproduce
all kinds of music without distortion and colouration.
The sound reproduction must be natural, the
soundstage well imaged and stable even when the
tweeters are mounted apart from the bass/midrange
elements.
If you close your eyes the sound should be as close
as possible to the real. You should be able to
experience the sound as it is in the concert hall or on
a rock concert. Every instrument and singer should
be on it´s correct place on the stage. To achieve this
you need a good front stage image and to do such
an installation is not easy. DLS or GENESIS
amplifiers and DLS speaker systems will help you to
achive a sound as good as possible, but you also
have to do a correct installation if you want a perfect
result. This book will give you hints about doing a
good installation.
DLS lay a great job in developing and refining the
different products in order to give the market the best
Car-Hi-Fi products possible to the worlds most
demanding listeners.
DLS AMPLIFIER PHILOSOPHY
A wellknown french sound philosopher, Jean Hiraga,
said regarding home Hi-Fi: A good sound starts in
the mains plug and then through the AC/DCconverter, which must be oversized.
The same is valid for Car Hi-Fi, the amplifier must at
all occasions have enough power to make a good
job. Remember to use well oversized cables from
the battery to the amplifier. It is also essential that
the DC/DC-converter is well oversized to make it
distribute enough power to the amplifiers final stage
when it´s needed, otherwise both the dynamics and
the good sound will be lost. The amplifier will sound
"tired" and the sound will be strained. The bass will
lack the real "bass-kick" and the treble becomes
sharp instead of soft and airy.
The built-in amplifers in most CD:s and stereo casette
players can´t stand up to these demands. To achieve
a good sound it´s necessary to install. an external
high quality amplifier.
CLASS A - IN A NEW WAY
To make a pure class A amplifier for in-car use would
be relatively easy, but would cause many problems.
the main problem is the efficiency of true class A
operation. To provide 50 watts per channel would
require a power consumption of about 250 watts
continuous. This is around 21 A from a 12 V system.
A second battery and maybee alternator would be
required for most installations.This would also require
fan cooling to get rid of the heat.
In a class "A" amplifier, the improvement in sound
quality is thanks to absence of switching noise from
the output transistors. The penalty for this is that the
amplifier is not efficient and wastes energy. By using
a special biasing circuit to ensure the output
transistors do not switch off, the GENESIS amplifiers
achieve all the advantages of a class "A" operation
with only a small reduction in efficiency.
All amplifiers can be used in bridgemode and multimode applications.
The new GENESIS series 3 amplifiers can not be
defined either as class A or AB. They are a unique
GENESIS construction. All amplifiers are 2 Ω stable
except for Monoblock and the subwoofer channel on
Five Channel which are 1 Ω stable.
GENESIS AMPLIFIERS
SA-30
class "A"
SA-50
"
DA-100
"
Q-100X
"
P-300X
" + AB
MONO-250
"
TO 97-10.
B-40
SM-60
SM-100
DM-200
Q-200X
class "AB"
"
"
"
"
GENESIS AMPLIFIERS FROM 97-11.
Stereo 60
Stereo 100
Dual Mono
Four Channel
Five Channel
Monoblock
DLS amplifiers Reference-100 and reference 200
uses class "AB" operation.
1
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - FORMULAS AND FACTS
FORMULAS
MEASURE CONVERSION
It´s easier to understand some parts in this book if
you know some of the formulas on this page. They
are also useful at many other occasions.
The following relation between some units are
useful to know of.
1 yard (yd) = 3 ft = 36 in = 0,9144 m
1 foot (ft) = 0,3048 m
1 inch (in) = 2,54 cm
1 square yard (yd2) = 9 ft2 = 1296 in2 = 0,8361 m2
1 square foot (ft2) = 144 in2 = 9,290 dm2
1 square inch (in2) = 6,452 cm2
1 cubic yard (yd3) = 27 ft3 = 0,7646 m3
1 cubic foot (ft3) = 1728 in3 = 28,32 dm3
1 cubic inch (in3) = 16,39 cm3
1 pound (lb) = 16 oz = 0,4536 kg
1 ounce (oz) = 28,35 gram
OHMS LAW:
R = resistance in ohm, U = voltage in Volt
I = current in Ampere, P = power in Watt
CONVERSION GAUGE - mm2
Gauge (ga) is an American measure for cable
areas, also called AWG (American Wire Gauge).
GEOMETHRY:
Circel:
r = radius
d= diameter
1 AWG
2 AWG
3 AWG
4 AWG
5 AWG
6 AWG
7 AWG
8 AWG
O = periphery
A = area
Radius (r) = O
2π
Diameter (d) = O
π
Periphery (O) = 2π x r
Area (A) = π x r2
= 42 mm2
= 33 mm2
= 27 mm2
= 21 mm2
= 16 mm2
= 13 mm2
= 10 mm2
= 8 mm2
9 AWG = 6,8 mm2
10 AWG = 5,3 mm2
11 AWG = 4,2 mm2
12 AWG = 3 mm2
13 AWG = 2,7 mm2
14 AWG = 2 mm2
15 AWG = 1,65 mm2
16 AWG = 1,3 mm2
SPEAKER TERMS
Box volumes (V):
When caculating the volume of a box you simply
multiply the width (W) x heigth (H) x depth (D).
Use measures in dm and you will get the answer in
liters.
A trapezoid box is calulated as below:
It´s useful to know what the most common speaker
data terms stands for.
Fs = speaker resonant frequency in Hz
Fc = box resonant frequency in Hz
F3 = approximative lower frequency for vented
boxes in Hz. Often called F-3 dB point = the point
where the power is half.
Qes = the speakers electrical Q-value
Qms = the speakers mechanical Q-value
Qts = the speakers total Q-value
Vas = Eqvivalent air volume. The air volume having
the same aqoustic compliance as the speaker
suspension.
X-max = voice coil length - 2 x thickness of the
inner pole plate.
Sd = the speakers effective cone area
Vb = net volyme of the box
SPL = sound pressure level in dB
Sens. = speaker sensitivity in dB at 1Watt / 1 mtr
Re = speaker DC resistance in ohms
Mms (Mmd) = moving mass
Le (Lbm) = Voice coil inductance
RMS = AC mean power
BL = The factor of theflux density in the magnetic
gap in the speaker x the wire length of the voice coil
V = width (W) x heigth (H) x upper depth + lower depth
2
To get the net volume use the inner measures of
the box.
W
UD
H
LD
Volume (V) of a pipe:
D = depth (length) r = radius
V = r2 x 3,14 x D
r
Use measures in dm
and you will get the
answer in liters.
2
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - FORMULAS AND FACTS
DECIBEL - dB
CONNECTING RESISTORS
dB is a unit used to describe a realation. It´s used to
describe an amplification as well as an attentuation.
At an attentuation a minus sign is put before the
figure.
An amplification is the relation between the input and
the output signal. In can be valid for voltage, current
or power.
When used for power amplification you must
remember that current x voltage = power.This means
that the relation becomes larger, see the table below.
The formualas below is valid when connecting
resistors and inductances in series or in parallel.
It can also be used for speakers.
IN SERIES:
The total resistance is equal to the sum of all
resistors in the connection.
R tot = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 etc.
4Ω
Examples of fixed dB relations:
For voltage and current:
dB
Amplification
0 dB
1 time
1 dB
1,1 times
3 db
1,4 times
6 dB
2 times (double)
10 dB
3,16 times
20 dB
10 times
The amplification increases logarithmic.
For power:
dB
0 dB
3 dB
6 dB
10 dB
20 dB
8Ω
12 Ω
R tot = 4 + 6 + 8 + 12 = 30 Ω
IN PARALLEL:
When connecting in parallel the total resistance
always becomes lower, it is always lower than the
lowest resistor value in the connection.
Formula:1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
R
R1
R2
R3
R4
Amplification
1 time
2 times
4 times
10 times
100 times
4Ω
8Ω
8Ω
R = 1,33 Ω
When connecting only two resistors in parallel you
can use the formula below.
R1 x R2
R = R1 + R2
CONNECTION OF CAPACITORS
Capacitors acts in the opposite way as resistors when
connected in series or parallel.
Ex.
4x8
4+8
=
32
= 2,66Ω
12
IN SERIES:
When connecting capacitors in series you calculate
in the same way as for resistors connected in parallel.
IN PARALLEL:
The total capacitance when connecting capacitors
in parallel is the sum of each capacitor.
Formula: 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
C
C1
C2 C3
C4
C tot = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 etc.
50 µF
4Ω
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
R
4
4
8
8
An attentuation of -6 dB is a half for voltage and
current and a quarter when talking about power.
10 µF
6Ω
50 µF 100 µF
C tot = 10 + 50 + 50 + 100 = 210 µF
10 µF
50 µF
100 µF
50 µF
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
C
10
50
50
100
1 µF = 0,000001 Farad (10-6)
1 nF = 0,000000001 Farad (10-9)
1 pF = 0,000000000001 Farad (10-12)
C= 6,66 µF
When connecting only two capacitors you can use
the same formula as in the example with two
resistors connected in parallel above.
3
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - SPEAKER FACTS
PARAMETERS DLS SPEAKERS
Model
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
DLS
C4/P4
C5/P5
C6/P6
PS4
PS5
PS6
425 slimline
426 slimline
428
962
960
DLS R4/RC4
DLS R4 Al-cone
DLS R5 Al-cone
DLS R6 Al-cone
R8/RC8
R36 4" element
R36 6" element
T20 tweeter
RC 1 tweeter
RC1 from 8-98
U 2,5 mid
U4 bass
U5 bass
U5 bass from 8-98
U6 bass
U6 bass from 7-96
U6 bass from 9-98
UC5 bass
UC6 bass
UX5
UX6
UW 10
DLS W108/108C
DLS W110/110C
DLS W112/112C
DLS W108B
DLS W110B
DLS W112B
DLS W310
DLS W312
DLS W310B
DLS W312B
DLS W510C
DLS W512C
DLS W610
DLS W612
DLS W710
DLS W712
DLS MW10
DLS MW12
DLS MW110
DLS MW112
DLS X-12
Fs
Re
Res
Qms
Qes
Data 1/1-2000
Qts
Vas
Mms
Cms
Le
BL
µM/NewtonmH
Sd
2
SPL
X max
mm
Hz
ohm
ohm
liter
gram
Tesla-M cm
dB
89
62
63
113
87
65,8
87
65,8
56
81
50
2,98
3,09
3,02
4,23
4,15
4,15
4,15
4,15
3,35
3,37
7,32
20,91
14,27
16,36
13,65
10,89
13,65
10,89
34,08
40,89
3,51
4,93
4,62
4,07
3,20
3,23
3,20
3,23
8,29
10,62
1,43
0,73
0,98
1,05
0,97
1,23
0,97
1,23
0,82
0,87
0.67
0,64
0,81
0,84
0,75
0,89
0,75
0,89
0,74
0,81
0,59
1,79
6,02
13,49
1,10
5,78
14,34
5,78
14,34
20,34
11,98
47,50
6,15
6,94
10,02
4,89
6,06
8,65
6,06
8,65
18,17
13,92
222
694
645
403
550
677
550
677
442
275
0,25
0,29
0,25
0,18
0,18
0,20
0,18
0,20
0,36
0,28
3,31
3,95
3,49
3,74
3,76
3,47
3,76
3,47
5,14
5,23
44,13
78,54
122,0
44,13
86,5
122,8
86,5
122,8
181,0
176,0
82,1
84,8
87,1
83,7
87,8
87,0
87,8
87,0
88,3
90,5
89
96,4
61
52
37
89
54
1500
950
950
350
80
61
65
48
68
60
78
68
90
75
38
41,7
39,9
34,5
40,3
34,5
30,7
36,0
30,0
34,4
29,7
28,6
30,4
32,9
28,1
32,4
28,8
35,1
31,7
36,7
31,8
35,7
2,87
3,43
3,00
3,48
16,69
28,78
7,63
45,00
5,78
7,61
7,21
8,18
1,00
0,91
0,72
0,63
468
377
633
736
0,26
0,26
0,27
0,27
3,32
4,07
4,13
4,78
44,13
44,13
86,50
122,8
81,4
81,9
86,0
87,2
16,69 5,78
1,00
6,79
468
0,26
3,32
44,13 81,4
5,2
4,0
3,5
2,5
3,65
3,6
3,57
3,30
3,6
3,30
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,8
3,40
3,37
3,33
3,34
3,44
3,50
3,43
3,43
3,42
3,42
3,38
3,31
3,58
3,30
3,57
3,24
3,23
3.57
3,20
3,34
5,00
-
-
-
1,28
1,03
8,11
15,59
43
1,28
11
-
6,79
7,23
10,77
12,73
2,87
0,85
0,81
0,66
0,59
0,34
0,85
0,40
-
0,04
-
-
-
3,14
3,55
3,83
2,90
3,91
4,2
3,49
3,93
4,90
4,20
2,15
3,77
3,77
4,32
1,81
1,50
2,03
2,49
3,26
2,46
2,47
3,46
3,63
3,63
3,93
3,76
3,13
2,32
2,14
2,34
1,71
5,16
0,74
0,49
0,45
0,55
0,64
0,63
0,93
1,51
1,21
1,09
0,52
0,62
0,70
0,68
0,57
0,46
0,55
0,32
0,36
0,35
0,34
0,30
0,31
0,23
0,32
0,19
0,23
0,36
0,24
0,44
0,31
0,35
0,59
0,43
0,40
0,46
0,55
0,55
0,86
0,97
0,95
0,86
0,42
0,54
0,59
0,59
0,43
0,35
0,43
0,28
0,34
0,31
0,30
0,28
0,28
0,22
0,30
0,18
0,21
0,31
0,21
0,37
0,26
0,33
4,08 4,3
854
7,77 9,91 683
7,20 7,5
634
18,37 11,69 850
7,65 14,08 385
16
8,9
800
6,5
5,8
571
11
8,13 561
7,80 3,25 674
20
4,40 1017
77
31,4 525
29,55 22,91 635
49,11 45,14 353
97,77 62,72 339
27,10 26,65 586
69,86 42,45 503
134,9357,39 470
48,6 55,15 349
115,0 79,65 317
39,7 74,97 285
106 77,8 369
68,1 78,7 392
109 88,8 308
40,3 80,72 290
77,9 118,03271
42,9 78,11 308
80,2 109,3 279
28
101,9 202
60,2 120,2 210
27,5 95,37 197
58,8 122,1 205
52,4 139,3 143
0,18
0,41
0,37
0,47
0,42
0,26
0,21
0,16
0,31
0,31
0,58
0,67
0,65
0,82
0,45
0,72
0,74
1,1
1,1
0,8
0,72
1,60
1,68
1,58
1,53
1,49
1,43
1,26
0,95
1,22
0,99
1,46
3,30
5,33
4,75
4,80
5,57
4,6
2,88
2,83
2,50
2,52
7,70
5,72
7,39
8,15
6,28
8,31
8,36
11,50
12,22
12,58
12,14
11,89
13,07
15,98
14,66
17,43
16,69
14,20
18,94
12,58
16,35
21,07
28
61
90
90
119,0
119,0
119
90
119
90
119
324
182,0
314,6
453,0
181,5
314,6
452,3
314,6
453,0
314,6
452,3
314,6
452,3
314,6
452,3
314,6
452,3
314,6
452,3
314,6
452,3
511
0,40
0,32
0,65
0,45
0,33
0,35
0,37
0,39
0,35
0,18
36
22,9
76
46,8
81,6
280
134
204
81,0
125
OLDER DLS SUBWOOFERS
DLS 5508
36
DLS 5508A
44
DLS 5310/5510
33
DLS 5310A
49
DLS 5310B
35
DLS 5512
28
DLS 5512A
43
DLS 5612
27
DLS 5612A
47
DLS 5615
49
26,52
18,79
20,06
20,56
18,23
21,13
10,6
11,26
12,85
23,98
25,03
25,36
23,60
55,55
40,45
71,73
43,98
20,78
32,05
16,82
18,68
73,33
3,0
2,58
0,52
1,9
2,58
0,43
2,7
3,2
1,65
1,73
0,45
0,20
-
0,5
2
3
3,5
3
3
3,5
3
3
3
3
4,25
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
14
40,8
8,51
92
3
39,1
6,81
98
2
59,1
94,1
11,1
21,4
96
100
3,8
3,5
Data can be changed without prior notice. On some models some data are missing.
4
93
93
91
92,5
92
87,4
90
87,6
87,6
90
89
90
89
90
91,5
87,2
88,3
89,5
86,7
89,8
90,3
92
93
89
91
89
92
90
89
91
91
89
91
87
90
90
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER DATA
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS GENESIS AMPLIFIERS, series 3.
GENESIS
Stereo 60
Stereo 100
Dual Mono
Continuous power output watts RMS, 20 Hz - 20 kHz, 0,1% distortion
Four Channel
Nom. power in 4Ω
Typ. power in 4 Ω
Nom. power in 2 Ω
Typ. power in 2 Ω
Nom. power, 4 Ω bridge
Typ. power 4Ω bridge
S / N ratio, A-weighted
Damping factor
Input impedance
Input sensitivity
Filter high-pass
Filter low-pass
Fan output terminal
* Switchable in/out
Current draw:
Idle
Typical
Maximum
Dimensions (mm)
Weight
2 x 30 Watt
2 x 55 Watt
2 x 60 Watt
2 x 85 Watt
1 x 120 Watt
1 x 170 Watt
>100 dB
>200
>10 k
0,3 - 5V
20-200 Hz
Fixed 80 Hz*
No
2 x 50 Watt
2 x 95 Watt
2 x 100 Watt
2 x 145 Watt
1 x 200 watt
1 x 290 Watt
>100 db
>200
>10k
0,3 - 5V
20-200 Hz
50-200 Hz*
Yes
2 x 100 Watt
2 x 150 Watt
2 x 200 Watt
2 x 250 Watt
1 x 400 watt
1 x 500 Watt
>100 dB
>200
>10k
0,3 - 5V
20-200 Hz
50-200 Hz*
Yes
4 x 50 Watt
4 x 95 Watt
4 x 100 Watt
4 x 145 Watt
2 x 200 Watt
2 x 290 Watt
>100 dB
>200
>10k
0,3 - 5 V
20-200 Hz (K1 - 4)*
50-200 Hz (K1 - 4)*
Yes
1,0 A
5A
23 A
150x210x62
1,6 kg
1,6 A
7A
37 A
200x210x62
2,1 kg
2,5 A
12 A
58 A
300x210x62
3,2 kg
2,0 A
10 A
75 A
360x210x62
3,75 kg
GENESIS
Monoblock
Five Channel
RMS output power per channel at 14,4 volt, 20 Hz - 20 kHz, < 0,1% distortion, (Monoblock at 0.01%)
Nom. power in 4Ω
250 Watt
4 x 40 Watt Sub channel: 140 Watt
Typ. power in 4 Ω
400 Watt
4 x 55 Watt Sub channel: 155 Watt
Nom. power in 2 Ω
500 Watt
4 x 60 Watt Sub channel: 200 watt
Typ. power in 2 Ω
750 Watt
4 x 80 Watt Sub channel: 260 Watt
Nom. power in 1 Ω
1000 Watt
Sub channel: 300 Watt
Typ. power in 1 Ω
1200 Watt
Sub channel: 360 Watt
Bridge mode 4Ω nom.
2 x 150 Watt
Bridge mode 4Ω typical
2 x 160 Watt
Damping factor
>500
>200
S / N ratio, A-weighted
>100 dB
>100 dB
Input sensitivity
0,3 - 5V
0,3 - 5V
Input impedance
>10 k
>10 k
Filter high-pass
Nej
80-400Hz + 15-40 Hz*
* Switchable in/out
Filter low-pass
50-125 Hz
400Hz-40k + 50-125 Hz*
Fan output terminal
Yes
Yes
Current draw:
Idle
3,0 A
3,0 A
Typical
30 A
12 A
Maximum
170 A
80 A
Dimensions (mm)
450x210x62
450x210x62
Weight
5,0 kg
4,75 kg
Recommended main fuse for amplifiers:
Amplifier
Fuse
Fuse holder
Stereo 60
25 A
FH1
Stereo 100
40 A
FH1
Dual Mono
50 A
FH1
Four Channel
60 A
FH1
Five Channel
60 A
FH1
Monoblock
125 - 150 A
FH2
Recommended cable size for the DC-feed:
Cable length:
<1,5 m 1,5 - 5 m > 5 m
Stereo 60
6 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
Stereo 100
10 mm2 16 mm2 21 mm2
Dual Mono
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Four Channel
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Five Channel
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Monoblock
33 mm2 33 mm2 42 mm2
Max fuse value for different cable sizes:
6 mm2 = 9AWG
25A
10 mm2 = 7AWG
40 A
16 mm2 = 5AWG
60 A
21 mm2 = 4AWG
100 A
33 mm2 = 2AWG
140 A
42 mm2 = 1 AWG
200 A
5
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER DATA
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS GENESIS AMPLIFIERS, series 2
AMPLIFIERS IN CLASS AB:
GENESIS
B-40
SM-60
SM-100
Continuous power output watts RMS, 20 Hz - 20 kHz, 0,1%
Nom. power in 4Ω
2 x 20 W
2 x 30 W
2 x 50 W
Typical power in 4 Ω
2 x 30 W
2 x 45 W
2 x 75 W
Nom. power in 2 Ω
2 x 40 W
2 x 60 W
2 x 80 W
Typical power in 2 Ω
2 x 50 W
2 x 80 W
2 x 110 W
Bridge mode 4Ω nom.
60 Watt
120 Watt
160 Watt
Bridge mode 4Ω typical 90 Watt
150 Watt
240 Watt
DM-200
distortion
2 x 100 W
2 x 130 W
2 x 150 W
2 x 200 W
300 Watt
425 Watt
Q-200X
4 x 50 W
4 x 70 W
4 x 90 W
4 x 120 W
2 x 180 W
2 x 240 W
S / N ratio, better than
Channel separation
Input variable
100 dB
60 dB
0,2 - 3V
100 dB
70 dB
0,2 - 3V
100 db
70 dB
0,2 - 3V
100 dB
70 dB
0,2 - 3V
100 dB (A-weigthed)
60 dB
0,2 - 3V
Power consumption:
idle
4Ω nom. power
2Ω nom. power
Dimensions (mm)
0,4 A
8A
16A
0,5A
13A
24A
0,8A
19A
35A
1,2A
45A
65A
1,3A
45A
65A
100x190x62 125x177x62 165x192x62 260x192x62 320x192x62
AMPLIFIERS IN CLASS "A":
GENESIS
SA-30
SA-50
DA-100
Q-100X
P-300X*
Continuous power output watts RMS, 20 Hz - 20 kH, 0,1% distortion
Nom. power in 4Ω
2 x 15 W
2 x 25 W
2 x 50 W
4 x 25 W
4x40 W + 1 x 100 W
Typical power in 4 Ω
2 x 25 W
2 x 45 W
2 x 85 W
4 x 45 W
4 x 53 W + 1 x 130 W
Nom. power in 2 Ω
2 x 30 W
2 x 50 W
2 x 100 W 4 x 50 W
4 x 60 W + 1 x 200 W
Typical power in 2 Ω
2 x 45 W
2 x 75 W
2 x 140 W 4 x 75 W
4 x 78 W + 1 x 220 W
Typical power in 1 W
1 x 300 W
Bridge mode 4Ω nom.
60 Watt
100 Watt
200 Watt
2 x 100 Watt 2 x 100 W
Bridge mode 4Ω typical 100 Watt
160 Watt
300 Watt
2 x 160 Watt 2 x 130 W
S / N ratio, better than
100 dB
100 dB
100 db
100 dB
105 dB
Channel separation
70 dB
70 dB
70 dB
70 dB
70 dB
Input variable
0,2 - 3V
0,2 - 3V
0,2 - 3V
0,2 - 3V
0,2 - 2V
* P300X subchannel works in class AB
Power consumption:
idle
1,3 A
1,7A
3,3A
3,4A
3,8A
4Ω nom. power
8A
12A
22A
24A
2Ω nom. power
16A
23A
33A
46A
87A
Dimensions (mm)
125x177x62 165x192x62 260x192x62 320x192x62 450x192x62
BUILT-IN FILTERS
Q-100x, Q-200x and P-300X are equipped with
built-in 12 dB variable electronic crossovers.
Low-pass variable 60 - 150 Hz
High-pass variable 80 - 200 Hz
P-300X: K1-2: HP 80-200 Hz / 2,4 kHz - 6 kHz
K3-4: HP 80 - 200 Hz + LP 3 kHz - 40 kHz
K5: HP 15 - 40 Hz + LP 50 - 125 Hz
The high-pass filters on channel 1-2 and 3-4 can
be switched in-out.
REC. CABLE SIZES FOR THE DC-FEED
Cable length:
<1,5 m 1,5 - 5 m > 5 m
B-40/SA-30/50
6 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
SM-60/SM-100
6 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
DA-100/DM-200 10 mm2 16 mm2 21 mm2
Q-100X
10 mm2 16 mm2 21 mm2
Q-200X
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Mono-250/P-300X 16 mm2 21 mm2
33 mm2
6
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - DLS AMPLIFIER SPECIFICATIONS
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONES OF DLS AMPLIFIERS
MODEL
DS 100/Reference 100
DQ 200/Reference 200
Number of channels
2
Mode
AB
RMS output power at 13,5 VDC, 20 Hz - 20 kHz, max 0,1% THD:
4 ohm nominal power
2 x 50 Watts
4 ohm max effekt
2 x 65 Watts
2 ohm max effekt
2 x 100 Watts
Bryggkoppling 4 ohm
220 Watts
4
AB
THD
S/N ratio, A-weighted
Damping factor
Input impedance
Input sensitivity
Filter highpass
Filter lowpass
* Can be switched in/out
Filter slope
Fuses
Max power cable area power:
Max speaker cable area
Protection circuits
< 0,1%
> 100 dB
> 200
15 kohm
0,3 - 5,5 volt
15 - 200 Hz
50 - 200 Hz*
< 0,1%
> 100 dB
> 200
15 kohm
0,3 - 5,5 volt
15 - 200 Hz
50 - 200 Hz*
12 dB/octave
25 A x 2
16 mm2
6 mm2
Current and thermal
12 dB/octave
25 A x 2
16 mm2
6 mm 2
Current and thermal
0,7 A
37 A
26 mA
1,0 A
55 A
26 mA
290 mm
65 mm
240 mm
4 kg
400 mm
65 mm
240 mm
5,4 kg
Power consumption:
Idle
Max consumption
Remote
Dimensions:
Width
Heigth
Depth
Weigth
Recommended cable size for the DC-feed.
Cable length:
< 1,5 m
1,5 - 5 m
>5m
Amplifier:
DS 100
10 mm2
16 mm2
21 mm2
2
2
DQ 200
16 mm
21 mm
33 mm2
Recommended main fuse:
Amplifier
Fuse
Fuse holder
DS 100
AGU 40 A FH1/FH1B
DQ 200
AGU 60 A FH1/FH1B
7
4 x 50 Watts
4 x 60 Watts
4 x 80 Watts
2 x 180 Watts
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - PASSIVE X-OVER FILTERS
CROSSOVER FILTERS
CROSSOVER EXAMPLES:
The ideal speaker element that can reproduce all
frequencies from lowest bass to highest treble is not
yet invented. Instead we have to use two or more
speakers where each speaker is adapted to a part of
the frequency range.
To make this work the input signal to each speaker
element must contain only the frequencies it´s designed for. For this purpose we need crossover filters.
(without conjugate compensation)
3-WAY SYSTEM:
12 dB filter slope
+
ACTIVE CROSSOVERS
Crossovers can be ACTIVE or PASSIVE. An active
filter is connected before the amplifier line input. You
need one amplifier for each speaker pair which will
become rather expensive.
But the advantages are that it´s possible to mix
speakers with different impedance or sensitivity and
still be able to balance the system.
Most 4, 5 and 6-channel amplifiers are equipped with
built-in active crossovers that can be adjusted in
frequency and switched in-out.
GENESIS Q-100X, Q-200X and P-300X are
equipped with these features. All GENESIS series 3
amplifiers are equipped with built-in active crossovers
-
PASSIVE CROSSOVERS
Passive crossover consists of coils and capacitors,
and sometimes resistors for impedance adaption. A
passive filter is connected between the amplifier and
the speaker and is of LC-type, (coil and capacitor).
A coil stops the higher frequencies while the low passes through, a capacitor works in the opposite way.
By changing the component values, different crossover frequencies are obtained. The coils must be of
high quality with a large wire area to avoid losses
and distortion. Air coils without iron core are the best
but they can be rather big for high values. For high
values we often use coils with an iron core. The best
capacitors are of polyester type. For large
capacitance values bipolar electrolytic capacitors are
used.
Resistors are used in a filter for impedance adaption. Read the part about conjugate compensation.
A passive filter steals more power than an active.
CROSSOVER FREQUENCIES:
In a two-way system with separate tweeter a crossover frequency from 3 - 8 kHz is normal.
In a three-way system it´s normal to split the sub at 200400 Hz and the tweeter at 3 - 8 kHz.
In a four-way system the x-over frequencies can be
as follows. To the subwoofer 80-130 Hz, mid-bass 400600 Hz and the tweeter 3 - 8 kHz.
This is a just a recommendation. Depending upon the
speaker data and where the different elements are
mounted in the car, other x-over frequencies could be
better.
123
123
123
10 mH123
300 µF
5,6 µF
12
12
12
10 mH 12
300 µF
Sub-bass
0-95 Hz
12
0,1812
12
mH
Mid-range
95 Hz - 5 kHz
Tweeter
5 kHz -
4-WAY SYSTEM:
12 dB filter slope
+
Sub-bass
0-95 Hz
5,6 µF
12
12
12
12
0,18 mH
50 µF
12
12
121,75 mH
12
12
12
12
12
1,75 mH
123
123
123
123
10 mH
300 µF
-
50 µF
300 µF
123
123
10 mH123
123
Mid-bass
Mid-range Tweeter
95 - 520 Hz 520 - 5 kHz 5 kHz -
The systems above are shown without impedance
compensation. Read below about conjugate links.
PHASE SHIFT IN CROSSOVER FILTERS
All passive crossovers will phase shift the signal.
A 6 dB filter shifts 90 degrees and a 12 dB 180
degrees. Because of this you should always try to
phase reverse the tweeter in a system to see what
phase is creating the best sound. In a 3-way system
it´s normal to phase reverse the tweeter. All tweeters
used in a system must have the same polarity
(phase). Also subwoofers with a 12 dB crossover
should you try to phase reverse. If the subwoofer
cone is moving but you don´t achieve any good bass
you can try to phase reverse. If two subwoofers are
connected with different polarity (phase), the sound
from each speaker will kill the sound from the other,
resulting in a poor bass reproduction.
CONJUGATE COMPENSATION:
Conjugate compensation is a way to equal the speaker load over the whole frequency range. A 4 ohm
speaker can have an impedance peak up to 25 times
the normal at the resonant frequency (Fs). To make
the calculated crossover filter to match, you can
connect a conjugate link in parallel with the speaker.
It´s normally made of a capacitor and a resistor. If
you cant calculate the exact component values for
the conjugate link you can use a 33 µF capacitor in
series with a 3,9 ohm resistor to most 4", 5,25" and
6,5" speakers.
8
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - PASSIVE X-OVER FILTERS
PASSIVE 6 dB LOW-PASS
PASSIVE 6 dB HIGH-PASS
A 6 dB x-over filter has a 6 dB slope / octave. The
output from an amplifier is only a quarter after falling
with 6 dB. A 6dB filter is also called 1:st order filter.
A common use for a 6 dB low-pass filter is for a
subwoofer to stop frequencies over, as for example,
100 Hz.
A 6 dB low-pass filter consists of a coil. The x-over
frequency is decided by the inductance value
measured in the unit Henry (H) and parts of a Henry.
For speakers we normally use coils with the unit mH.
1 H = 1000 mH.
A 6 dB high-pass x-over filter consists of a capacitor.
The crossover frequency varies with the capacitor
value that is measured in the unit Farad and parts of
Farad. Normally we use µF values for speakers.,
1 F = 1000 000 µF
Capacitor values from approx. 10 µF and up are
normally of bipolar electrolytic type. For lower values
we often use polyester capacitors. A capacitor as in
the drawing below let the high frequencies pass and
stops the lower.
1:st order 6 dB low-pass filter:
123456
123456 L
+
123456
1:st order 6 dB high-pass filter:
Treble
Bass
-
C
+
-
CALCULATION FORMULA:
CALCULATION FORMULA:
L (mH) = 160 x Z
Fc
C (µF) = 160000
Fc x Z
Z = speaker impedance in Ω
Fc = x-over frequency in Hz
L= Coil inductance in mH
When connecting coils in series the values are
added.
Use this formula when connecting in parallel:
1
1 + 1 + 1
=
L
L
L
L
Z = speaker impedance in Ω
Fc = x-over frequency in Hz
C = Capacitor value in µF
When connecting capacitors in parallel the values
are added. Use this formula when connecting in
series.
1 = 1 + 1 + 1
C
C C
C
Inductance values for different x-over frequencies:
Speaker impedance
X-over fq. 2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
Hz
L (mH)
L (mH)
L (mH)
65
5
10
20
80
4
8
16
100
3,2
6,4
12,8
130
2,5
5
10
200
1,6
3,2
6,4
360
0,9
1,75
3,5
500
0,65
1,3
2,6
800
0,4
0,8
1,6
1000
0,32
0,64
1,28
Capacitor values for different x-over frequencies:
Speaker impedance
X-over fq. 2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
Hz
C (µF)
C (µF)
C (µF)
80
1000
500
250
100
800
400
200
130
600
300
150
200
400
200
100
500
160
80
40
800
100
50
25
1000
80
40
20
2000
40
20
10
5000
16
8
4
X-over frequencies at given values:
X-over frequencies at given values:
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
10 mH
32 Hz
64 Hz
128 Hz
6,3 mH
50 Hz
101 Hz
203 Hz
1,75 mH
183 Hz
365 Hz
730 Hz
2Ω
4Ω
8Ω
9
300 µF
266 Hz
133 Hz
67 Hz
200 µF
400 Hz
200 Hz
100 Hz
150 µF
533 Hz
266 Hz
133 Hz
50 µF
1,6 kHz
800 Hz
400 Hz
6,8 µF
11,7 kHz
5,85 kHz
2,92 kHz
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - PASSIVE X-OVER FILTERS
PASSIVE 12 dB LOW-PASS
PASSIVE 12 dB HIGH-PASS
A 12 dB x-over filter has a 12 dB slope / octave.
A 12 dB filter is a combination of a coil and a
capacitor. It is also called 2:nd order filter. 12 dB
low-pass filters are often used for subwoofers in order to stop frequencies over the x-over frequency,
for example 100 Hz. A combination of a low- and
high-pass filter is called a band-pass filter.
The difference between the passive 12 dB high-pass
x-over filter and the low-pass filter is that the coil and
capacitor change place. For a certain x-over
frequency the component values are the same for
both high- and low-pass filters. A high-pass filter let
high frequencies pass, and stops the lower.
2:nd order 12 dB low-pass filter:
2:nd order 12 dB high-pass filter:
123456
123456
L
C
C
123
123
123L
123
CALCULATION FORMULA:
CALCULATION FORMULA:
L (mH) = 225 x Z
Fc
L (mH) = 225 x Z
Fc
C (µF) = 112500
Fc x Z
C (µF) = 112500
Fc x Z
Z = speaker impedance in Ω
Fc = x-over frequency in Hz
L = coil inductance in mH
C = capacitor capacitance in µF
Z = speaker impedance in Ω
Fc = x-over frequency in Hz
L = coil inductance in mH
C = capacitor capacitance in µF
When connecting coils in series the values are added.
Use this formula when connecting in parallel:
1
1 + 1 + 1
=
L
L
L
L
When connecting capacitors in parallel the values are
added. Use this formula when connecting in series.
1
1 + 1 + 1
=
C
C C
C
COMPONENT VALUES FOR 12 dB PASSIVE CROSSOVERS
X-over freq.
in Hz
2Ω
C (µ
µF)
L (mH)
4Ω
C (µ
µ F)
L (mH)
Ω
8Ω
C (µ
µ F)
L (mH)
62,5
95
140
190
375
520
800
3500
5000
900
600
400
300
150
108
70
16
11
7,2
5
3,2
2,35
1,2
0,87
0,56
0,12
0,09
450
300
200
150
75
54
35
8
5,6
14,4
10
6,4
4,7
2,4
1,75
1,12
0,25
0,18
225
150
100
75
38
27
18
4
2,8
28,8
20
12,8
9,5
4,8
3,5
2,25
0,5
0,36
The same component values are used for both highand low-pass filters, but they change place.
Use coils with low resistance, air coils are the best.
Coils with iron core must be able to handle high
current or the iron core magnetic saturation becomes
to high causing distortion.
Capacitors must be of bipolar type, 50 - 100 Volt.
IMPORTANT WHEN CONNECTING FILTER !
When connecting a 12 dB low-pass x-over to a
subwoofer it´s suitable to solder the capacitor directly
on the sub terminals between + and -.
If the sub is disconnected without disconnecting the
capacitor at the same time the amplifier can be
damaged.
A 12 dB filter connected without a speaker will
overload the amplier (if it´s turned on) and damage
the output circuits.
10
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - THE CABLES
THE CABLES - AN IMPORTANT LINK
SKIN-EFFECT AND INDUCTANCE
No chain is stronger than it´s weakest link !
It´s not unusual that people buy expensive amplifiers
and speakers but forget the wiring. DLS have high
quality cables for both amateurs and professional
users.
Cables made of oxygen free copper (OFC).
Cables made of oxygen free copper will not oxidize
as normal copper do. The oxidation increases the
DC-resistance and as a result of this the voltage drop
in the cable. All DLS cables use oxygen free copper.
In a conductor the higher frequencies moves on the
surface, while lower frequencies moves in the center of the cable. To make the active resistance
( impedance and inductance) as low as possible for
each frequency some cables use different strand
sizes for different frequencies. Higher frequencies
prefer a cable with very thin strands while the lower
frequencies will find the lowest active resistance in a
thicker strand. To minimize the cable resistance
further the cable can be designed with a combination
of copper and silver plated strands.
One of the advantages with DLS speaker- and signal cables are the low inductance. Opposite an
ordinary DC-resistance the inductance is linear. It
means that higher frequencies will be more supressed than the lower which can create a distored and
false sound reproduction. Inductance will occour
when an AC-current flows in an electromagnetic field.
These fields are causing eddy currents superposed
the normal current leading to an increase of
resistance. They also make the current flow to
decrease towards the center of the conductor (skineffect). A low inductance is to prefer. This is achieved
by using raw materials with high purity. A low
inductance will also be achieved by twisting the
strands in the conductor. When the current to the
speaker passes through the speaker coil, which is
an inductance, it creates eddy currents that goes back
to the amplifier called counter- Electro Motive Force
(EMF). The EMF is also reduced by a correct cable
construction with twisted strands.
DLS POWER CABLES.
As we have said before the DC-feed to the amplifier
is of great importance. The amplifier must in all
occasions have enough current, otherwise both the
dynamics and good sound will be lost.
DLS power cables of oxygen free copper are made
of a lot of small cores to make it soft and flexible with
lowest DC-resistance. Use the table below to choose
the correct DC-feed.
Cable length:
<1,5 m 1,5 - 5 m > 5 m
DLS DS 100
10 mm2 16 mm2 21 mm2
DLS DQ 200
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Stereo 60
6 mm2 10 mm2 16 mm2
Stereo 100
10 mm2 16 mm2 21 mm2
Dual Mono
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Four Channel
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Five Channel
16 mm2 21 mm2 33 mm2
Monoblock
33 mm2 33 mm2 42 mm2
In many installations the current capacity is improved
with extra batteries (OPTIMA) with low inner
resistance or large 1 Farad capacitors, DLS Power
Caps. If you don´t want to spend money on extra
batteries at least you shouldn´t save money on the
DC-feed.
DLS SPEAKER CABLES.
Also the speaker feed must be of high quality. Use
cables with an area of at least 1,5 mm2.DLS speaker
cables are soft and flexible with a construction that
minimizes the loss over the whole frequency range.
DLS SC 4x1 and SC 4x1,5 are special speaker
cables with four leads. They are twisted and has a
powerful insulation protecting them from mechanical
agitation.
The four leads are connected in pairs as they have
different strand sizes using the skin effect to minimize
the resistance on all frequencies.
The capacitance, inductance and EMF are reduced
by the twisted cores in the cable.
Two of the four leads have a strand size of 0,1 mm2,
and the two others have 0,2 mm2.
DLS SC 2x1,5, SC 2x2,5 and SC 2x4 are the standard two-lead speaker cables made of oxygen free
copper. They have twisted strands and are soft and
flexible for easy installations.
DLS speaker cable design gives the following
advantages:
❑ Maximum reduction of the EMF which causes
phase shift resulting in bad sound quality.
❑ Lowest possible damping resistance on all
frequencies by using the skin effect.
❑ Lowest possible power loss.
SIGNAL CABLES:
The signal cables must be of good quality as well as
the speaker cables.
The construction of the cable must have the best
possible reduction of inductance and capacitance
together with a low damping over the whole frequency
range.
The shielding is also important to avoid interference
noise from the electric system of the car.
DLS SL2PRO and SL5PRO are triple shielded but
without a remote wire. A remote wire included with
the signal cable may induce interference. These
cables are also quasi-balanced for maximum
performance.
Also use RCA phono connectors of highest quality
with good shielding and gold plated for minimum
contact resistance.
11
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
THE CABLES
As we have said before the cables are very important.
In the table on page 5 you find recommended areas
for the DC-feed for different amplifiers. The ground
wire must have the same area as the +-wire. Connect
the ground wire as close as possible to the amplifier.
Connect all units in the system to the same ground
point to avoid interference.
Use high quality speaker cables with an area of at
least 1,5 mm2 to the side systems and 2,5 mm2 to
the subwoofers, (or more).
Signal cables must have good shielding,
otherwise they can pick up interference noise.
Avoid to place the power cables on the same side of
the car as the signal cables. Also try to avoid the
cars own cable mats to come close to the signal
cables.
Any extra cable must be laid out in zig-zag style and
definitely not coiled.
Don´t let the cables pass sharp edges that can hurt
the cable insulation causing short circuits or other
problems.
Main fuse
Battery
Wiring diagram with 3 amplifiers,
main fuse and a fuse block with
a fuse for each unit.
Amplifier
Fuse block
Amplifier
THE AMPLIFIER
An extra amplifier should be installed in a place where
it can be satisfactory cooled. Many amplifiers get very
hot and need a good cooling.
In some installations you might need one or two
external cooling fans.
First check if there are any cable mats or fuel pipes
behind the place where you plan to mount the
amplifier. Alternatively use an extra particle board or
the bass box when you mount the amplifier and you
will have a better ground insulation. To avoid
interference noise this can be to prefer.
Install the amplifier far away from your radio aerial.
Sometimes the amplifiers DC/DC-converter generates high frequency interference.
THE DC-FEED
To avoid damage to the amplifier or the electric system of the car the DC-feed installation must be made
with care. A main fuse should be installed close to
the battery. The fuse value depends on what kind of
amplifier / amplifiers you use, but a fuse value of 40
- 60 A is normal.
Use either glass fuses or automatic circuit breakers.
If the amplifiers are installed in the back of the car
it´s normal to install a separate fuse block from which
you distribute the power to the separate units. Each
unit will then be separately fuse protected. See the
drawing below.
Amplifier
THE HEAD UNIT
The heart in a car stereo installation is the car stereo, often called head unit. Today it´s normally a tuner
with an external CD-changer or built-in CD-player.
The well-known brands are the best choice if you
want a high quality product.
One important detail is to buy a head unit with RCA
pre-outs which makes it easier when you want to do
a more sophisticated installation than standard. The
head unit is normally installed in the dash-boards original fitting, just make sure it´s fastened properly. If
possible use heavier DC-feeds than the originals used
in the car. If you use the internal amplifier to feed
any speaker pair this is important. The ground wire
must have the same area as the +-feed.
If you have interference noise from the alternator or
ignition its´often the ground connection that is wrong.
Try different places for the ground connection, the
best is close to a unit (the amplifier).
The main fuse holders use either a glass fuse of
AGU-type (max 80A), or ANL-fuses with values up
to 250 Amps. There are fuse blocks for 2, 3 or 4
AGU fuses.
Automatic circuit breakers is another good alternative
as main fuse. They also have a test button with which
you easily can switch off the power to all units.
The ground wires from all units can easily be
connected together with a power block type PB1.
For best function with lowest possible DC-resistance
in all connection points, all the above products are
gold plated with 24 K gold. Besides of a good function
it´s also gives a good impression.
EXTRA BATTERY
In many exclusive installations, and most competition
cars, extra batteries are installed. Sometimes also
extra alternators for improved charging, or extra
capacitors of 0,5 or 1 Farad value.
The purpose of this is to make sure that the amplifiers
always gets enough current even at very high
volumes, otherwise the sound will be destroyed at
high volumes.
For a normal listener the ordinary car battery is
sufficient. Just make sure you have DC-feeds that´s
big enough. But if you plan to compete or just want
to get the most out of your equipment it´s always
right to install an extra battery or extra capacitors
that works as a current reservoir.
These extra batterys are of a special type with low
internal resistance that can handle large current flows.
12
DLS SOUND HANBOOK - INSTALLATION
SPEAKER INSTALLATION
An important part of the installation is of course the
speakers.
How they are installed varies from car to car and
depends upon the possibilities in each type.
The factory pre-made installation holes are not always
ideal for other types of speakers than original. We
will give you some hints of what to think of when
installing speakers.
ORIGINAL INSTALLATION
The easiest way to install a speaker in a car is to use
the factory pre-made holes. If you use car specific
speakers, the installation job becomes very easy. But
the problem is that these type of speakers are usually
not of the highest quality and will not satisfy a
demanding listener.
The high quality speakers often have large magnets
making it necessary to first measure the space and
sometimes make changes in the door or dash-board
to make them fit. Especially the depth is important to
check so that the side windows goes clear from the
magnet.
Some car models requires special adaptors or
distances to make the speaker fit when you use other
speakers than the original.
If possible use some kind of baffle on the back of the
door panel. Make sure the baffle is fastened properly
and fasten the speaker in the baffle. This is easy to
make and will normally result in a better sound than
without baffle.
A speaker installation high up on the door-side is to
recommend, but if the pre-made hole is at the bottom part of the door it´s difficult to change.
A 2/3-way system should be installed with the
elements close to each other to achieve the best
sound image. An alternative is to install the bass
element in the door and the tweeter on the dashboard.
A door or dashboard installation is actually an "openair" installation since there is no limiting box.
ORIGINAL MOUNTING:
ADVANTAGES:
- Fast, easy and simple
DISADVANTAGES:
- The speakers have no baffle = rattle.
- Bad power handling capacity.
- Bad sound image.
- No box to the speaker element.
Exemple of a door installation with new baffles.
NEW DOOR BAFFLES
If you want to improve your door installation you
should build a new door-side. This must be adapted
to the door side and is normally made of MDF or
particle board. The baffle is covered with cloth or
vinyl matching the car interior. Some car sound
builders changes the whole door-side to a new one.
The speaker element is directed to obtain the best
sound image. They are also fastened properly to
avoid rattle.
They are normally mounted with a sealed speaker
box behind the elements. The volumes needed for a
4" or 5,25" element are only a few liters.
BAFFLE MOUNTING:
ADVANTAGES:
- The speakers are mounted in real baffles.
- A box construction that improves the sound
quality with less rattling.
- Higher power handling capacity.
- Better sound image (front stage).
DISADVANTAGES:
- More work and more expensive mounting.
- The cars original door sides are affected.
- The installation requires a lot of knowledge to
make the installation to look professional.
13
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - INSTALLATION
KICK-PANELS
Another installation alternative giving a good sound
image is the kick-panel. It´s placed down on the floor
in front of the door on both sides. It can contain the
whole system with bass, midrange and tweeter or a
bass and midrange with the tweeter installed on the
dashboard. The best places for the speakers must
be tested out in the respective car.
Kick-panels are normally made of MDF or particle
board and are build as sealed boxes or as membrane
boxes where the element is allowed to breath through
a membrane of foam rubber or similar.
Kick-panels are very popular in competition cars.
MOUNTING IN KICK-PANELS:
ADVANTAGES:
- Stable mounting without rattling.
- Superb sound image.
- Higher power handling capacity.
- Less affection on the cars interior.
DISADVANTAGES:
- More mounting work.
- Possibilites to damage the speaker if kicking on
them with the feets.
Kick-panel
HIGH MOUNTED KICK-PANELS:
In some cars the kick-panel can be mounted invisible
up under the dashboard. Can create a good sound
image despite the strange mounting.
DASHBOARD MOUNTING
A mounting of the midrange and tweeter up on the
dashboard will result in an improved sound image. It
will be moved up on the dashboard. Some cars that
have suitable original dashboard mounting holes can
be used.
The tweeters should be mounted on the dashboard
or on the door poles. The woofer elements should
be mounted in a door-side or in a kick-panel. Suitable
for DLS U-35/U-36 or R36/RC36.
REAR FILL
A well mounted front system is the most important in
a sound system. In some cases we also use rear
mounted speakers used as "rear fill". Rear fill
speakers will improve the front stage image by adding
a weak sound from the rear filling up the sound stage
and giving it a deep. As Rear fill speakers we can
use midrange elements in combination with a passive
or active bandpass filter, mounted in the rear. A
suitable frequency response can be from 500 - 6000
Hz. The level must be dampened easiest made with
a series resistor of 10 - 20 ohms in series with the +
lead. The rear fill speaker can also be connected in
multimode. In this case you use only one element
working as a center channel speaker.
CENTER CHANNEL SPEAKER
A center channel speaker can be used to improve
the sound image in installations where the speaker
mounting makes it difficult to achieve a correct sound
image.
On a DLS or GENESIS amplifier you connect the
center channel speaker in bridge mode between left
and right channel and then you obtain the sum signal of both channels.
It can be mounted on the middle of the dashboard.
DLS / GENESIS
In this example the
signal is
dampened with a
20 ohm resistor.
The level can then
be adjusted with
the variable
resistor. The
component values
can need to be
changed
sometimes.
The frequency
response in this
example is
between 550 6000 Hz. The
component values
can be changed if
you want another
frequency
response.
R-
L+
0-20Ω
15W
20Ω
15W
4,7 µF
1234
1234
1234
0,15
1234
1234
1234mH
123456
123456
123456
50 µF
1,75
mH
Center channel speaker 4 ohm
14
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - INSTALLATION
MULTIMODE CONNECTION
This is an example of a typical multimode connetion
with a front system and a subwoofer. 12 dB passive
high- and low-pass filters are used in combination
with the original filters used for the front system.
All speakers have an impedance of 4 ohms.
The 10 mH coils
can be spared.
Change to 200
µF capacitors
instead of 300 µF.
FRONT SYSTEM, LEFT CHANNEL
SUBWOOFER INSTALLATION
An "open air" subwoofer installation in the hat-rack
or towards the back seat calls for the same baffles
of particle board or MDF-board as described above.
But the best result is normally achieved using a
separate bass box of some type. Later in this book
we will describe different types of boxes and give
advices of how to build a box.
You will also find suitable box sizes for all DLS
subwoofers.
GENESIS series 3 amplifiers are 2 Ω stable, the minimum amplifier load is 2 ohms.
STEREO
DLS / GENESIS
AMPLIFIER
L+ L-
R- R+
123300 µF
123
123
12
123
12
123
12312
300 µ123
F
123
12
123
12
123
12123
123
10 mH
12
12
12
12
Tweeters
with filter
10 mH
12
10 mH 12
12
300 µF
123
123
123
123
Tweeters
with filter
SUBWOOFER
This connection can be used with all DLS and
GENESIS amplifiers.
15
FRONT SYSTEM RIGHT CHANNEL
In many installations you must use passive filters to
the different speakers in your system. Later in this
book there are some wiring examples where passive
filters are used.
All DLS and GENESIS (except for MONO 250) can
be used in multimode operation. Multimode means
that you from one amplifier can take three different
signals, left channel, right channel and the sum of
right and left channel.
To the sum signal you can connect one or more
subwoofers through a passive low-pass crossover.
You can also connect a center-channel speaker in
multimode. (See example on page 18).
The stereo connected speakers can be either a 2/3way system or coaxial speakers. To this speakers
you must use passive high-pass filters that limits the
frequency response.
The advantages of multimode operation is that a
single amplifier can be used for all speakers in the
car. It´s easy to install, it needs less space and it´s
cheaper. The disadvantages is that you need passive
crossovers and it´s difficult to adjust the sound
balance between the front system and the subwoofer.
The load capacity of the amplifier limits the number
of speakers that you can use in the system.
LP-filter
The traditional hat-rack mounting with a system or
6x9" speakers requires some installation work to
create a good sound.
A new hat-rack made of particle board (22 mm) or
MDF-board (19 mm) must be produced. The original
hat-racks are normally not sufficient to use.
If you furthermore want the speakers to have a high
power handling capacity you need to make some
kind of speaker box (normally of sealed type) on the
back of the hat-rack, limiting the cone movement.
If you have a bass box in your trunk it´s necessary to
have a box for the hat-rack speakers. If not, the low
bass from the sub will have an influence on the speaker cones and destroy the sound.
DLS / GENESIS IN MULTIMODE
LP-filter
HAT-RACK MOUNTING
The best sound stage for front seat listeners is
achieved with door- or kick-panel mounting. In
competition cars the front system combined with rear
subwoofers are often the only speakers. Sometimes
they are combined with a pair of small 4" or 5,25"
speakers in the back used as "rear fill". These rear
fill speakers are connected with x-overs giving a
reproduction from 1-2 kHz and up. Tweeters are
normally not used in combination with rear fill.
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 2.
System with a front system and a
multimode connected subwoofer.
AMPLIFIER WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 1.
Basic wiring with one or two speaker
pairs.
Rear coaxial speakers
Amplifier
Amplifier
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
Tweeter
with 123
filter
123
Tweeter
123
with
filter
123
LP-filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
Filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
L-
R- R+
Highpass filter
200 µF
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
µF
200
1234
Tweeter
1234
with
filter
1234
Tweeter
1234
with
filter
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
The
components
inside the
frames must
be added to
the system.
1234
1234
1234
300 µF
123
123
12310 mH
123
Lowpass filter
Subwoofer
Suitable for:
Passive filters:
Suitable for:
Speaker
impedance:
All DLS and GENESIS models.
Passive filters:
Not needed except for the filters
coming with the speaker kits.
Advantages:
One amplifier can run both front
and rear speaker systems.
You can´t balance the sound
levels between front/rear
speakers. (It´s possible to use
fixed resisors in series with the
speakers to adjust the levels.)
2 ohms
Amplifier load:
L+
LP-filter
R- R+
LP-filter
Front DLS 2-way system
Car stereo
L+ L-
Disadvantages:
This system is similar to that on page 12. But here
we use a 6 dB filter (200 µF capacitor) to the front
system. With only one system and a subwoofer it´s
sufficient with a 6 dB filter. All speakers must have
an impedance of 4 ohms.
Car stereo
LP-filter
Front DLS 2-way system
This example with one or two 4 ohm systems can be
used with all DLS and GENESIS amplifier models.
The amplifier load is 2 ohms when connected in
parallel. Use 2/3-way systems or coaxial speakers.
All speakers must have an impedance of 4 ohms.
4 ohm
All DLS and GENESIS models.
To the sub: 12 dB low-pass filter
with 300 µF capacitor + 10 mH
coil giving 95 Hz x-over.
To the front system: 6 dB high-pass filter with 150 200 µF capacitor giving 180 Hz x-over. The original
filters in the systems must also be used.
Capacitors must be of bipolar type.
The coil must have low resistance, 0,5 - 0,7 Ω.
Advantages:
One amplifier can be used for
the whole system.
Disadvantages: You can´t adjust the sound level
to the subwoofer.
Alternatives:
If you use two subs they must be of
8 ohms impedance connected in
parallel to obtain a 4 ohm amplifier
load.
Amplifier load:
2 ohms
NOTE! In multimode operation the connected
subwoofers must never form an impedance
lower than 4 ohms.
16
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 3.
System with a front and a rear system,
and a multimode connected sub.
Example 4.
System with a 4-channel amplifier,
front and rear system and subwoofer.
This system can be used together with most GENESIS 2-channel amplifiers if 12 dB highpass crossovers are used to both front and rear systems and
subwoofer. Both front and rear speakers are 2-way
systems. The impedance of the subwoofer is 4 ohms.
In this example a front and a rear system are
connected in parallel on FRONT. Two or three
subwoofers are connected to REAR. The amplifiers
built-in filters are used. Suitable for Q-100X, Q-200X,
Four Channel and DLS DQ-200.
Car stereo
Car stereo
Amplifier
4-channel amplifier
Rear / sub
Front
123
123
12
12123
123
123
123
Lp-filter
Lp-filter
200 µF
6,3 mH
6,3 mH
123
123
123
123
123
12
12
12
12
Tweeter
with filter
Tweeter
with filter
12
12 200 µF
12
1212
12
12
1212
12
123
123
123
12
12123
123
123
123
Lp-filter
200 µF
6,3 mH
12
12
12
12
12
Tweeter
with filter
The
components
inside the
frames must
be added to
the system.
6,3 mH
123
123
123
123
10 mH
300 µF
123
123
123
123
123
Tweeter
with filter
L+
Front 2-way system
12
12
1212
12
12
12
12
200 µF
R-
Tweeters
with filter
4Ω
Rear 2-way system
R- R+
L+ L-
Lp-filter
Rear DLS 2-way system
Front DLS 2-way system
Passive 12 dB
highpass x-over
The mono bridge mode
connected sub should
have an impedance of 4
ohms.
Tweeters
with filter
The passive filters are
not shown, but must
naturally be used.
Passive 12 dB
lowpass x-over
Subwoofer
Suitable for: DLS and GENESIS 2-channel
amplifiers.
Speaker impedance: 4 ohms for all.
Passive filters:
To the sub: 12 dB lowpassfilter with 300 µF
capacitor + 10 mH coil giving 95 Hz x-over freq.
To front/rear systems: 12 dB highpass filter with
capacitor 200 µF and 6,3 mH coil giving 140 Hz xover frequency. The systems original filters must
also be used.
Alternatives: If you use 2 subs they must be of 8
ohm impedance connected in parallel to 4 ohm.
Advantages: One amplifier for the whole system.
Disadvantages: You can´t vary the sound front/rear
or the level to the subwoofer.
Amplifier load: 2 ohm
Suitable for: GENESIS and DLS 4-channel
amplifiers
Filter:
No passive filters needed. The
amplifiers built-in filters are used.
Built-in filters: Adjust the built-in filters of the
amplifiers according to the owners manual.
The speaker systems own filters are also used.
Alternatives:
One or two systems can be
connected in parallel to the FRONT output.
Mid-basses can be connected to the speaker output
of the car stereo through a 12 dB low-pass filter with
550 Hz crossover. C = 50 µF, L = 1,75 mH.
NOTE! The subwoofers must never form an
impedance lower than 4 ohms.
NOTE! The subwoofers must never form an
impedance lower than 4 ohms.
Amplifier load in the
example above:
17
FRONT: 2 ohms
REAR: 2 ohms
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 5:
System with separate amplifiers for front and rear system with fader.
Separate amplifier for the subwoofers.
This system with three amplifiers and a filter box gives you many possibilities to adjust and balance the
sound in your car so that every speaker plays at the wanted level. This is an advantage compared to
multimode connected systems. It´s also possible to use mid-bass speakers with a passive crossover.
Car
stereo
Fader
Front system
amplifier
Active
filter
2-channel
amplifier
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
LP-filter
LP-filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Rear system
amplifier
123
123
123
123
123
Tweeters
with filter
2-channel
amplifier
2-channel
amplifier
L+
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
1,75 mH
1,75 mH
1234
1234
LP-filter
Mid bass
123
123
123
123
123
123
50 µF
R-
LP-filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Subwoofer
amplifier
Tweeters
with filter
4Ω
The mono bridge mode
connected sub should
have an impedance of 4
ohms.
50 µF
Mid bass speakers with
12 dB low-pass filter.
X-over freq. 550 Hz
Suitable for: All DLS and GENESIS 2-channel amplifiers can be used in this example.
To DLS and GENESIS series 3 you can use the internal crossovers instead of the separate active filter.
The mid-bass speakers can be connected to either the front or the rear system.
Active filter: You can use DLS 2W1 to split the signal.
Amplifier load: front system 4 ohm
rear system with mid-subs: 2 ohm
NOTE! The subwoofers must never form an impedance lower than 4 ohms.
18
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 6:
System with separate amplifiers, one for the front system and one for the
subwoofers. The rear system is fed directly from the car stereo.
Car stereo
/ CD
Tweeter
with filter
Front system
amplifier
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Tweeter
with filter
200 µF
200 µF
LP-filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
LP-filter
Rear system
In this system the built-in amplifier of the car stereo is used for the front system through a 6 dB highpassfilter with 200 Hz x-over. An active filter splits the signal between the rear and the sub amplifiers.
Active
filter
2-channel
amplifier
2-channel
amplifier
123
123
123
123
123
R-
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
LP-filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
LP-filter
front system
L+
Sub
amplifier
Tweeters
with filter
4Ω
The mono bridge mode
connected sub should
have an impedance of 4
ohms.
Suitable for: All DLS and GENESIS 2-channel amplifiers can be used in this example.
To DLS and GENESIS series 3 amplifiers you can use the internal filters instead of the Active filter.
Passive filters: To the rear system a 6 dB x-over (200 µF capacitor) with 200 Hz x-over frequency, 300
µF gives a x-over of 130 Hz, 150 µF gives 266 Hz.
Active filter: Use an active filter box to split the signal between front and sub system.
Disadvantages: There will be a great difference in sound quality between the rear system without
external amplifier, and the front system using a separate amplifier.
Amplifier load: Rear system: 4 ohms.
NOTE! The subwoofers must never form an impedance lower than 4 ohms.
19
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - AMPLIFIER WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 7:
System with a 4-channel amplifier, front and rear system, subwoofers and a
center channel speaker.
In this system you can use DLS DQ/Ref 200, GENESIS Q-100X, Q-200X, Compact Four or Four Channel.
All these amplifiers have built-in electronic crossovers.
A center-channel speaker is connected i multimode. The center-channel level can be adjusted with a
variable resistor.
Car stereo
4-channel amplifiers
Tweeters
with filter
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
L- R-
R+
L+
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Lp-filter
Lp-filter
Front system
L+
123
123
123
123
L- R-
R+
4Ω
4Ω
123
123
123
123
8Ω
0,15 mH
123
123
123
123
123
4,7 µ F
R = 0-20 Ω
The mono bridge mode
connected sub should
have an impedance of 4
ohms.
1,75 mH
12
12-
12
50 µ F 12
+
Center channel
speaker
Suitable for: All DLS and GENESIS 4-channel amplifiers.
Passive x-overs: A center channel speaker is connected in bridge mode. To adjust the level you need a
variable resistor with 15 watts power handing capacity. A band-pass filter allows the speaker to reproduce
frequencies between 550 to 6000 Hz.
Active filters: The built-in filters are used.
Amplifier load: FRONT: 1,3 ohms
REAR: 2 ohms in the example above.
NOTE! The subwoofers must never form an impedance lower than 4 ohms.
20
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - GENESIS WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 9:
System with P-300X, 5-channel amplifier with a front 2-way system
with active crossover and a subwoofer.
A single line input is
often enough in this
application.
Tweeters
L+
Ch1
If you want to
balance the
front/rear level
you must add
a line-in to the
sub input on
channel 5.
In
P-300X
In
Ch2
Ch3
LR+
Channel 1 & 2 = Tweeters with active high-pass filter
Channel 3 & 4 = Midrange with high- and low-pass filter
Channel 5
= Subwoofer with low-pass filter
No passive crossovers are needed. The built-in active
filters are used to all speakers.
R-
Midrange/bass
L+
LR+
Ch4
R+
In
Ch5
Subwoofer
/ woofers
-
Example 10:
System with P-300X, front system, "rear fill", and a subwoofer.
With two line inputs it is
possible to adjust the
balance between front and rear
speaker systems.
1234
1234
12345678
12345678
LP-filter
12345678
1234567
1234567
LP-filter
1234567
L+
In
Ch1
L-
Ch2
R-
In
P-300X
R+
In
L+
Ch3
L-
Ch4
R-
Ch5
+
-
R+
Front 2-way In this example the
system
speakers own passive
incl. filter
filters are used to the
front
system
in
combination with the
built-in highpass filters
on channel 1-2.
On channel 3-4 är "rear
fill" speakers are
"rear fill"
connected.
the
speakers
amplifiers built-in filters
are used.
The sub also uses the
built-in filters.
1234
1234
Subwoofer using the builtin filters of the amplifier.
Example 11:
System with P-300X. Front system connected in bridge mode to ch. 1 4.
subwoofer
to ch 5.
Connect
the inputs in
parallell with Y-adaptors
In
P-300X
In
Ch1
L+
L-
Ch2
R+
R-
12345
12345 1234567
1234567
1234567
LP-filter
1234567
1234567 1234
1234
1234567
LP-filter 1234
L+
Ch3
LR+
Ch4
R+
In
Ch5
-
Subwoofer using the
amplifiers built-in filters
21
Front system connected in
bridge mode to channel 1 - 4.
The speakers own filters are
used in combination with the
built-in filters in the amplifier.
(Adjust the ch 3-4 lowpass
filter to 40 kHz x-over freq.)
Subwoofer is using the ch 5
built-in filters.
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - GENESIS WIRING EXAMPLES
Example 9:
System with GENESIS Five Channel, 5 channel amplifier with a front 3-way
system with active x-over. (Not for P-300X).
All other wiring examples can be found in the owners manual for Five Channel.
The diagram shows the connection of a 3-way system, DLS U36 or similar, where tweeter and midrange
speakers are connected to ch 1-2, midbasses to ch 3-4, and subwoofers to ch 5 (not shown). Passive
crossover is used between tweeter and midrange.
-
1/L
SPEAKERS
+
- 2/R
-
+
3/L
_
_
+
FILTER
_
SPEAKERS
+
- 4/R
+
- This is suitable for 3-way speaker systems
like DLS R-36, RC-36, U35 or U-36.
The passive crossover box must be used for
tweeter and midrange.
NOTE! When using DLS U35 / U36 in this
way, the 33 µ F capacitor inside the filter
must be cut off at one end.
+
+
_
FILTER
+
MID-BASS
TWEETER
Filter Ch 1-2
MIDRANGE
BUTTON OUT !
Filter Ch 3-4
LEVEL HP filt HPx20
80-400 Hz
Volt
Hz
1,6-8 kHz
LP filt HP filt LEVEL
kHz
Hz
Volt
180
6
3
BUTTON IN!
40
80
2
400 4
LP filt LP filt HP filt LEVEL
kHz Hz
Volts
3-40 kHz
0,3-4 kHz
2
1
0,3
4
INPUT CONNECTORS
4(R)
3(L)
2(R)
1(L)
In this example ch 1-2 plays
from 400 Hz and up.
Ch 3-4 plays between
100 - 400 Hz.
180
1
0,3
80
400
LEVEL HP filt HP
Volt
Hz
x20
LINE OUT FROM CAR STEREO.
AUTOMATIC INTERNAL TRANSFER TO CH 3-4 & 5.
22
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - SPEAKER BOXES
WHY DO WE NEED SPEAKER BOXES?
VENTED BOXES
A Hi-Fi speaker for home use is always mounted in
a box to reproduce the best possible sound.
Traditional mounting in cars are in a door side or in
the hat rack, this is a simple baffle mounting. You
can of course achieve a better sound in your car by
using suitable speaker boxes.
In a correct adapted box the sound is improved and
the power handling capacity increases.
If you have a subwoofer in your trunk and a pair of
"open air"- mounted speakers in the hat-rack the air
pumping from the sub will effect the hat-rack speakers
and make the cones move a little ruining the sound
from them. This is one of many good reasons to use
boxes also in your car.
Normally we use boxes for the subwoofer but also
the rest of the speakers sounds better mounted in a
suitable box.
We will now describe the different types of boxes
normally used in a car.
A speaker in a vented box has higher efficiency (3
dB) and higher power handling capacity than in a
sealed box. In a vented box the sound from the speaker and the port work together creating a higher sound
level. The sound from the port must come out in the
same phase as from the speaker otherwise the sound
result is real bad.
The size of the box are decided by the speaker data
just as in the sealed box. Also the car type and music type have an influence on the box size.
Often the size of the car decides the practical size of
the box. A smaller box has a higher resonant
frequency than the larger one. The size of the box
should not be so large that the speaker plays below
it´s own free air resonance (Fs), then it looses in
power handling capacity.
The port in a vented box should be mounted on the
same side of the box as the speaker. But sometimes
this is impossible. The port opening inside the box
must have a free area behind the port, to the wall
behind, of at least the port diameter. There must also
be a free area in front of the port. A large sub needs
a larger port to avoid whistling sounds. Use ports
with conical openings to avoid this. The port must
also be fastened properly to avoid rattle.
As port material 3" or 4" PVC tubes are normally
used. In a correct tuned box you should be able to
feel the air pumping out from the port. At high volumes
the air can blow out a burning match, if not the box
and port are mismatched.
SPEAKER BOXES, GENERAL
Build your boxes in a stable and air-tight material.
The best is MDF-board, 19 mm, or particle board,
22 mm. Larger boxes must have braces inside to
avoid resonance. The box must be completely airtight. Use sealing compound in all joints, also in the
hole for the cable. The size of the box are decided
by the speaker data, but also the car type and music
have an influence on the box size. Deep bass
demands larger boxes than disco music.
SEALED BOXES
Sealed boxes are easy to build. The size is not critical,
but it can´t be too small. The speaker data such as
Fs, Qts, Vas and X-max decides the size of the box.
Large speakers need larger boxes. Two speakers
need a box of the double size etc. The box must be
completely air-tight. Sealed boxes are normally used
for door-panels or kick-panels. Most 4", 5,25" and
6,5" speakers can be used in sealed boxes.
A sealed box should be filled with acoustic wool up
to 75 - 100%.
A sealed box has a lower efficiency than vented boxes
but they can handle high power and are easy to build.
A subwoofer in a sealed box creates a tight bass
suitable for the audiophiles listening to classical music, jazz and soft rock.
DLS subwoofers can be used in vented boxes
as well as in sealed boxes.
If you use a 30-40 Hz subsonic highpass filter on the
line input of your amplifier you will achieve a tight
and well-defined bass in your bass-box. ( All GENESIS series 3 amplifiers as well as the DLS amplifiers
have a built-in subsonic filter.)
The port does not have to be fully inside the box as
long as the area and length are correct. for example
you can mount the port through a hat-rack. In a small
box this can have an effect on the box tuning since
the volume changes, avoid such small boxes.
Suitable port diameters for different speaker sizes:
8"
4 - 8 cm
10"
6 - 10 cm
12"
8 - 15 cm
15"
10 - 15 cm
Sometimes you need two or more ports in a box.
You can convert from one to two or more ports as
long as the total port area is the same.
All DLS subwoofers works well in vented boxes.
PORT LENGTH CALCULATION
The following formula can be used:
d2
L(cm) =17914 x
Fc2 x Vb
L = port length in cm
d = inner diameter of port in cm
Vb = net volume of the box in liter
Fc = Box resonant frequency in Hz
23
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK SPEAKER BOXES
SPEAKER CONSTRUCTION
BANDPASS BOXES
In all bandpass boxes the speakers are hidden
inside the box, all sound is coming out through the
ports. There are different types of bandpass boxes
and they have in common that they are a bit more
difficult to build.
suspension
speaker cone
chassie
voice coil
magnet
BOX DESCRIPTION
Mechanical orders for speaker boxes:
1:th order
Speaker in free air. Not in practical use, the
speaker is acoustically shortened.
2:nd order
Speaker mounted on a baffle, normally called
"open air".
This is not a box, just a way of mounting the speaker. For
example in a hat-rack or behind the rear seat. Can create a good
sound with the correct speaker parameters. The speaker should
have a low resonant frequency.
3:rd order
Speaker mounted in a sealed box.
A sealed box is easy to build and calculate. It also has a high
power handling capacity. On the other hand it has low efficiency
and the box must be rather big to create a deep bass. With a
rather small box and a 20-40 Hz subsonic filter you will get a box
suitable for hard rock with a fast attack in the bass.
4:th order
Speaker mounted in a vented box, often called
bass reflex box.
A vented box has a higher efficiency and a higher power handling
capacity than the sealed box - but only if it´s correctly calculated
with a suitable speaker element. Suitable for all kinds of music.
The power handling capacity below the F-3db point is rather
weak. It is important that the ports are correctly tuned, they must
not be too small, then whistling sounds can occcour. With a
wrong port the sound from the ports comes out phase reversed
and causes a blurred sound.
5:th order
Speaker mounted in a sealed box, playing into
a vented box.
This type of box can play one octave only, but it has a high power
capacity and gives a 3-5 dB raise at it´s tuned frequency. Suitable
for disco and hard-rock music. Difficult to build and calculate and
you can´t have speaker cloth in front of the ports.
6:th order
Speaker mounted in a vented box where both
the speaker and the port is playing into another
ported box.
This box is also difficult to calculate and build. Plays 2 octaves
and gives a natural cut-off for higher frequencis with 12 dB/oct.
which reduces the audible distortion. It has a high efficiency and
power handling capacity. Low F-3dB and a top at the tuned
frquencies. Small ports gives a whistling sound and you can´t
have speaker cloth in front of the port. Build as isobaric it creates
a powerful and distinct deep bass.
24
dust cap
spider
pole plates
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - SPEAKER BOXES
7:th order bandpass box
Speaker mounted in a vented box playing into
another vented box. All ports going out.
What is valid for 6:th order boxes is also valid for 7:th order
boxes. The difference is that this box gives a 6 - 10 dB peak at
the tuned frequencies.
8:th order bandpass box
Speaker mounted in a vented box playing into
another vented box with all ports playing into a
third vented box.
This type of box becomes rather large but the port openings can
be covered with cloth. It has like the 6:th and 7:th order boxes
high efficiency and power handling capacity. It also gives a 6 - 10
dB peak at the tuned frequencies.
3-chamber bandpass boxes
Both 5:th order boxes and 7:th order boxes can
be built as 3-chamber boxes with two speakers
playing into a ported chamber.The picture shows
a 5:th order 3-chamber box. In a 7:th order 3chamber box all chambers have ports.
ISOBARIC BOXES
Two speakers mounted on the same axis and
operating in the same phase and direction (push
and pull).
All box types can be built isobaric giving the following advantages
and disadvantages.
Advantages:
Reduced box volume with the same F-3 dB
Higher efficiency
Lower distortion
4:th order isobaric box
Disadvantages: Difficult to build and calculate
The speaker specifications changes (Qts and
Vas)
Isobaric-connection:
Isobaric speakers are connected with the inner sub
in phase with the outer, but phase reversed as in the
drawing below.
If both are in boxes the one in the smallest box should
be phase reversed.
+
7:th order isobaric bandpass box
-
+
Speakers
in parallel
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
Speakers
in series
-
-
Use DLS BP-75 and BP-110 conical
ports to avoid noice from the ports.
25
SPEAKER LOADS
Most car audio speakers have a 4 ohm impedance.
DLS amplifiers can be loaded down to 2 ohm on each
stereo channel.
In mono bridge mode operation the speaker load must
never be less than 4 ohm. If you are using more than
one driver they must be connected in a way so the
impedance still is 4 ohm when connected to the
amplifier. When you run the amplifier in mono bridge
mode it sees a 4 ohm load as 2 ohm. On page 4 you
find different speaker wiring examples.
Don´t forget that the output power from a multimode
connected amplifier is more than double the normal
power. The speakers must be able to handle this
power.
SPEAKER CONNECTION
Always use high quality speaker cables such as DLS
SC 2x1,5, SC 2x2,5 or SC 2x4. Subwoofer connection
requires 2 x 4 mm2 cable.
Connect the speaker + (marked with + or a red dot)
to the amplifier + terminal, and the speaker - to the
amplifier -.
When fitting the cables to the amplifier terminals,
remove only 10 mm of the insulation. Twist the wire
strand together and insert the wire after loosening
the terminal screw. Do not over tighten as this can
cut the cable strands.
If you want an extra high class speaker cable choose
any of the DLS SCP, SCK, SC 4x1 or SC 4x1,5
cables.
SPEAKER POLARITY CHECK.
Two speakers in parallel
+
+
+
All speakers in a car audio system should be
connected in phase (the same polarity). All speaker
cones must move in the same direction. Out of phase
speakers will cause a lack of bass, and a poor stereo
soundstage.
2 ohm
-
Only for stereo mode, not bridge mode.
Two speakers in series.
+
+
+
-
-
8 ohm
-
We don´t recommend this connection.
Checking polarity:
Hold the - connection of the speaker wire to the - terminal of a 1,5 Volt flashlight battery. Tap the + wire on
to the + terminal of the battery, and observe the
movement of the cone. The cone should move
outwards when the wire touches the battery, and
inwards when the battery is removed. If it is the other
way around, the speaker has been connected
backwards and it must be removed and connected
correctly.
If your system also has a subwoofer connected
through a passive 6 or 12 dB crossover, try to connect
this with various polarity and judge what sounds best.
The phase shift in passive crossovers sometimes
makes it necessary to change polarity.
+
Four speakers in series/parallel to 4 ohm.
+
+
+
4 ohm
Each
speaker
is 4 ohm
+
-
+
-
-
-
-
Batteri
1,5 Volt
+
-
NOTE! You cant test tweeters in this way.
DLS Z-MATCH
Three speakers in parallel
+
+
+
-
-
1,3 ohm
+
Each
speaker
is 4
ohm
-
Only for Five Channel monokanal & Monoblock
If you have problems to match your speaker
impedance to your amplifier we recommend the use
of an impedance matching transformer.
DLS ZM1 is such a product. It´s a transformer with
different taps. By connecting it in different ways you
will get different impedance ratios.
For example it´s possible to connect four 4 ohm subs
in series to 16 ohms, and still get a 4 ohm load on the
amplifier.
26
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE
Installing car sound can sometimes cause
problems. If you are not satisfied with the sound
you could have made something wrong.
Some typical problems are described below with
hints for solving them.
1. Problem: Poor bass reproduction
despite of a correctly designed bass
box.
- Start with phase reversing the subwoofer to see if
this helps.
- If you are using more than one subwoofer make
sure they are connected in the same phase
(polarity), if not most bass sound disappears.
(The speaker cones are moving but will not create
bass sound).
- If the bass reproduction is improved when
opening the doors of your car the box is too large,
The F-3dB point is too low. Make the box smaller.
- Standing waves can "kill" some frequencies. Try
to change place for the box. You can also try to
make the bass port shorter, this will increase the
box resonant frequency.
In some cases the area under the dashboard can
work as a wave trap killing some low frequencies.
Try to fill this area and tighten it.
3. Problem: "Rumble" bass sound.
- The box tuning is too low, make the F-3dB higher
with a smaller box.
- Connect a subsonic high-pass filter, 30 - 50 Hz, in
series with the amplifier input.
- Use vented or sealed boxes. Avoid band-pass
boxes, they are more difficult to build, and if
theyare incorrectly designed they create a rumble
bass sound.
4. Problem: Poor bass reproduction in
a system without separate subwoofer.
- Is normally caused by incorrect speaker phasing.
Make sure all woofer elements in the system are
connected with the same polarity (phasing). Both
front and rear speakers.
This is easiest made with the use of a 1,5 Volt
battery. Connect the battery + to the speaker +
cable, and the - to the speaker - cable. All spea
ker cones must move outwards when the battery
is connected.
5. Problem: Interference sound from
the alternator in systems with a
separate amplifier.
- Also check the signal cable. If yuor subwoofer is
connected in mono bridge mode and one of the
leads are broken in a signal cable the sound
becomes real bad.
- Is normally caused by incorrect grounding. Try to
connect all units to the same ground point. It
should be a place close to the amplifier where the
paint is removed from the metal surface.
- You must also have enough power, especially if
you have a small sealed enclosure the power
output should be at least 200 Watts RMS.
- Poor shielding on the signal cables, or a
defective cable.
2. Problem: The real "kick" lacks in the
bass sound.
- The box is not correctly build, or the box is not air
tight.
- The signal cable is placed close to the cars own
cable wiring inducing interference into the signal
cable.
- Any extra cable must not be laid in a ring, shorten
the cable or lay it in zig-zag instead.
- The sub amplifier does not get enough power, the
power cables are too small, the ground
connection bad, or some other things that is
causing voltage drop at high power outputs.
A cheap amplifier with unsufficient capacity in the
DC-converter can give the same result.
A good car battery with low inner resistance
(OPTIMA) or a Power Cap of 0,5 Farad or more
connected to the power lead will also improve the
bass reproduction.
27
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - SPEAKER BOXES
BASS BOXES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARS
1. SMALL CARS LIKE VW GOLF, OPEL KADETT, PEUGOT 205 AND SIMILAR
In this car type the bass box should be mounted with both speaker and port directed backwards.
Alternatively booth speaker and port can be directed upwards. This way of mounting is valid also for halfcombi car types.
2. SEDAN CARS LIKE VOLVO 240/740/940/850, SAAB 9000 AND SIMILAR
In this car type with the passanger compartment separated from the luggage compartment the bass box
should be mounted with booth speaker and port directed towards the rear seat. In some cars there is an
opening in the middle of the rear seat for loading skis etc. You can place the box behind this opening and
direct speaker or port through this opening. There must be some free space in front of the port, (between
the rear seat and the port opening)
Don´t put the port through the hat rack if the speaker is directed towards the rear seat, this will give a
poor sound. Alternatively you can mount both speakers and port in the hat rack with a box under it, but
this requires more changes of the car original interior.
3. LARGE CARS, STATION WAGONS LIKE VOLVO 245 / 745 AND SIMILAR.
In this type of cars the best sound is achieved with the bass box mounted behind the rear seat with booth
speaker and port directed backwards. Alternatively you can put the bass box on one side of the luggage
compartment.
28
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - SPEAKER BOXES
DLS-BOX COMPUTER PROGRAM
A speaker box can be calculated either by hand or
with the help of a computer program. DLS-BOX 2000
is a program that easily helps you design your own
box to your DLS speakers.
You choose speaker, box type, car-type and music
type and the program calculates the correct box
volume. The program is developed in cooperation with
Backes ljudbyggeri in Ekerö. "Dr. Backe" has many
years of box building experince and assures you that
if only the parameters are correct the program will
give you the best speaker box.
Read his box building advices below.
Most boxes should be damped inside with syntetic
(acoustic) wool (do not use any rockwool types).
Attach the damping material on the wall opposite from
the speaker and port. A sealed box should be filled
up to 70-100% with acoustic wool.
In a vented box the speaker and port should be
mounted on the same side, otherwise a fade-out of
some frequencies can occour. In most car-types,
except for SEDAN cars, the speaker and port should
be directed backwards for best result.
If you plan not to cover your box with felth cloth or
imitation leather you should also tighten behind the
speaker element before mounting it in the box. It must
be absolutely air-tigth.
If you build an isobaric-box use through screws with
nuts and washers to fasten the speakers. Also tighten
the screw holes with sealing compound. Be sure to
connect the isobaric speaker pair in the correct way.
You can´t use felt cloth or similar in front of the ports,
especially in band-pass boxes.
Good luck with your box project!
SOME ADVICES FROM DR. "BACKE"
When building a bass box the following are very
important:
The box must be very steady and completely airtight. Use 22 mm particle board or 19 mm MDFboard. The particle board has a self resonant
frequency of 14 Hz while the MDF has a resonant
frequency of approx. 400 Hz. Its important to stabilize
the box inside with some braces, especially the boxes
made of MDF could cause "PLONK"-sounds if it´s
not sufficiently braced.
If you are using a milling machine its better to use
MDF-board since particle board wears the cutter
edge. After cutting all pieces to the box you attach
glue in all joints and screws every 10 cm. Use more
screws if the edge cutting isn´t perfect.
The length of the screws should be a little more than
double the board thickness. Tighten all joints with
extra silicon sealing compound.
If you build a bandpass box let one side be removable
to make it easier to change speaker.
Use sealing strips in the joint. The length of the screws
should be 3 times the board thickness. Mount them
6 cm apart.
Use conical bass ports for best result. (DLS BP-75
or BP-110).
If the ports are too long for the box you can add a
bend to it. Either cut the tube and glue it together in
angle, or use factory made tube bends.
It´s easier to use the factory made ones. The total
length must be the same as for a straight tube. Make
the measure in the center of the tube.
The port opening inside the box must not be closer
to a box wall than the ports own diameter. Otherwise
it will have negative effects on the airflow.
BOX EXAMPLES
On the following pages you will find examples on
suitable boxes for DLS speakers and subwoofers.
If you follow the advices in this handbook we are
sure you achieve a good car sound.
Good luck !
If you have any questions you are always welcome
to call us on DLS in Sweden. We will do our best to
assist you.
Telephone: +46 31 84 00 60
Fax:
+46 31 84 40 21
E-mail:
info@dls.se
Download the DLS-BOX 2000 from our WEB-site
www.dls.se or www.audiophiles.nu
29
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOXES
BASS BOXES FOR OLDER SUBS
Some bass box examples for older DLS subwoofers
SPEAKER &
TYPE OF BOX:
CAR TYPE:
SEDAN/SMALL
STATION
WAGON
DLS 5508:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
23 liters
3" x 22 cm
26 liters
3" x 21 cm
DLS 5508A:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
20 liters
3" x 22 cm
23 liters
3" x 21 cm
DLS 5310 / 5510:
Music: Normal
Sealed box
35 liters
Vented box
35 liters
Port, vented box 3" x 14 cm
41 liters
39 liters
3" x 14 cm
DLS 5310A:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
37 liters
3" x 9 cm
43 liters
3" x 8 cm
DLS 5310B:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
39 liters
3" x 12 cm
45 liters
3" x 11 cm
DLS 5512A:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
68 liters
4" x 10 cm
78 liters
4" x 9 cm
DLS 5612:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
54 liters
4" x 13 cm
63 liters
4" x 12 cm
DLS 5615:
Music: Normal
Vented box
Port
81 liters
4" x 16 cm
93 liters
4" x 15 cm
SUBWOOFER ENCLOSURES
FOR NEW MODELS
On the following pages you will find suitable enclosure
volumes for all DLS subwoofers. You find actual
models as well as models no longer in production.
All vloumes and ports are calculated by the use of
DLS-box 2000. In all calculations are both the displacement for the speaker driver and the port included
in the given volume.You don´t have to add any volume
to the size given in the examples. The easiest way to
calculate the box volume is just to take the height x
width x depth in dm, and the result of this calculation
is the volume in liters. But it must be the inside
measures of the box.
The examples shown is for sealed and vented boxes
including one subwoofer. For other examples we
recommend the use of DLS-box 2000. It can be
downloaded free from our web-site www.dls.se.
If you have any older type of DLS subwoofer,
please contact us and we will help you calculate a
suitable box.
30
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOX EXAMPLES
W 108 / 108C
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hardrock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
18
23
20
21
23
20
26
20
Sedan
vol
liter
17
20
23
26
port
cm
23
21
20
19
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
19
22
21
21
25
20
28
19
Station
vol
liter
19
22
26
30
wagon
port
cm
22
20
20
18
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Small
car
vol
liter
17
20
23
Sedan
vol
liter
17
19
22
Combi
type
vol
liter
18
21
24
Station
wagon
vol
liter
19
22
26
W 110 / 110C
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
25
16
28
15
32
14
36
13
Sedan
vol
liter
24
28
32
36
port
cm
16
15
14
14
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
26
15
30
14
35
13
39
13
Station
vol
liter
28
32
37
42
wagon
port
cm
15
14
13
13
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Small
car
vol
liter
25
28
32
Sedan
vol
liter
25
28
32
Combi
type
vol
liter
26
30
35
Station
wagon
vol
liter
28
32
37
W 112 / 112C
Basreflexlåda
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
4” (110 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
37
25
41
24
47
23
52
21
Sedan
vol
liter
36
41
46
52
port
cm
25
24
22
22
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
39
24
44
24
50
22
56
21
Station
vol
liter
40
46
53
60
31
wagon
port
cm
24
23
22
20
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Small
car
vol
liter
36
40
46
Sedan
vol
liter
35
40
45
Combi
type
vol
liter
38
43
49
Station
wagon
vol
liter
40
45
52
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOX EXAMPLES
W 108B
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
16
25
19
24
21
23
24
22
Sedan
vol
liter
16
18
21
24
port
cm
26
24
23
21
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
17
25
20
23
23
22
26
21
Station
vol
liter
18
21
24
28
wagon
port
cm
25
23
22
21
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
16
18
Sedan
vol
liter
15
18
Combi
type
vol
liter
17
19
Station
wagon
vol
liter
17
20
W 110B
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
26
16
30
16
35
15
39
13
Sedan
vol
liter
26
30
34
38
port
cm
16
15
15
14
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
28
15
32
15
37
14
42
14
Station
vol
liter
29
34
40
45
wagon
port
cm
15
14
14
13
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
27
30
Sedan
vol
liter
26
30
Combi
type
vol
liter
28
32
Station
wagon
vol
liter
30
34
W 112B
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
4” (110 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
39
26
45
25
51
23
57
22
Sedan
vol
liter
39
44
50
56
port
cm
25
25
24
22
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
42
25
47
24
54
23
61
21
Station
vol
liter
44
50
57
65
wagon
port
cm
24
23
22
21
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
38
44
Sedan
vol
liter
38
43
Combi
type
vol
liter
41
43
Station
wagon
vol
liter
43
49
ULTIMATE UW10
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
20
22
22
20
26
20
29
19
Sedan
vol
liter
19
22
26
29
port
cm
23
21
21
19
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
21
22
24
20
28
20
31
19
Station
vol
liter
22
25
29
33
32
wagon
port
cm
22
20
19
19
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
19
22
Sedan
vol
liter
19
22
Combi
type
vol
liter
20
23
Station
wagon
vol
liter
21
45
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOX EXAMPLES
W 310
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
23
19
26
19
30
17
34
17
Sedan
vol
liter
22
25
29
33
port
cm
19
18
18
16
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
24
19
27
18
32
17
36
16
Station
vol
liter
25
29
34
38
wagon
port
cm
18
17
17
16
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
22
26
Sedan
vol
liter
22
25
Combi
type
vol
liter
24
27
Station
wagon
vol
liter
25
29
W 312
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
4” (110 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
36
29
41
27
47
27
52
25
Sedan
vol
liter
36
40
46
51
port
cm
29
28
26
25
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
38
28
43
27
50
26
56
24
Station
vol
liter
40
45
53
59
wagon
port
cm
28
26
25
24
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
35
39
Sedan
vol
liter
34
39
Combi
type
vol
liter
37
42
Station
wagon
vol
liter
39
44
W 310B
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
19
27
22
25
25
24
28
22
Sedan
vol
liter
19
21
25
28
port
cm
27
25
23
23
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
20
26
23
24
27
22
31
22
Station
vol
liter
21
24
28
33
wagon
port
cm
26
24
22
21
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
18
21
Sedan
vol
liter
18
21
Combi
type
vol
liter
19
22
Station
wagon
vol
liter
20
24
W 312B
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
4” (110 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
35
32
39
30
45
29
50
28
Sedan
vol
liter
34
39
44
49
port
cm
33
31
29
28
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
37
32
42
30
48
28
54
27
Station
vol
liter
38
44
50
57
33
wagon
port
cm
31
29
28
27
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
33
37
Sedan
vol
liter
33
37
Combi
type
vol
liter
35
40
Station
wagon
vol
liter
37
42
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOX EXAMPLES
W 510C
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
23
25
26
24
30
22
34
20
Sedan
vol
liter
22
26
30
34
port
cm
24
23
23
21
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
24
24
27
22
32
22
37
20
Station
vol
liter
25
29
34
39
wagon
port
cm
23
22
20
20
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
22
25
Sedan
vol
liter
22
25
Combi
type
vol
liter
23
27
Station
wagon
vol
liter
25
28
W 512C
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
4” (110 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
35
21
39
22
45
21
51
22
Sedan
vol
liter
34
39
45
50
port
cm
21
22
22
21
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
37
21
42
23
48
21
55
20
Station
vol
liter
39
44
51
58
wagon
port
cm
22
22
20
21
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
34
39
Sedan
vol
liter
34
38
Combi
type
vol
liter
36
41
Station
wagon
vol
liter
38
43
DLS X12
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
26
19
30
18
34
17
38
16
Sedan
vol
liter
26
29
34
38
port
cm
19
18
17
16
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
28
18
32
18
36
16
41
16
Station
vol
liter
29
33
38
44
wagon
port
cm
18
17
16
16
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
26
30
Sedan
vol
liter
26
29
A 4 ” port would be to prefer, but the port length is 30-40 cm, so we use a 3” port in the example above.
Below is examples with a 4" port.
DLS X12
Vented box
The port length in all examples is for a
4” (110 mm) outer diameter.
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
29
42
32
39
37
37
40
35
Sedan
vol
liter
29
32
36
40
port
cm
41
38
37
34
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
30
39
34
38
39
36
43
34
Station
vol
liter
31
35
41
46
34
wagon
port
cm
39
36
35
34
Combi
type
vol
liter
28
31
Station
wagon
vol
liter
29
33
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOX EXAMPLES
W 610
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
19
28
21
26
25
24
28
24
Sedan
vol
liter
19
21
25
28
port
cm
29
27
25
24
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
20
28
23
26
27
24
30
23
Station
vol
liter
21
24
28
32
wagon
port
cm
26
26
24
23
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
18
21
Sedan
vol
liter
18
21
Combi
type
vol
liter
19
22
Station
wagon
vol
liter
20
23
W 612
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
26
22
30
21
35
20
39
19
Sedan
vol
liter
26
29
34
38
port
cm
23
21
20
19
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
27
22
32
21
37
19
42
19
Station
vol
liter
29
33
39
45
wagon
port
cm
22
21
19
17
Car type:
Music type:
Hardrock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
26
29
Sedan
vol
liter
25
29
Combi
type
vol
liter
27
31
Station
wagon
vol
liter
28
33
A 4 ” port would be better, but the port length is 40-50 cm, so we use a 3” port in these examples.
W 710
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
19
28
22
28
25
26
28
25
Sedan
vol
liter
19
21
25
28
port
cm
29
27
26
24
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
20
28
23
27
27
25
31
24
Station
vol
liter
21
24
28
32
wagon
port
cm
28
26
25
23
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
18
21
Sedan
vol
liter
18
21
Combi
type
vol
liter
19
22
Station
wagon
vol
liter
20
23
W 712
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hardrock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
26
22
30
21
35
19
40
19
Sedan
vol
liter
26
30
34
39
port
cm
22
21
20
19
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
28
22
32
20
37
19
43
18
Station
vol
liter
29
34
40
45
wagon
port
cm
22
20
19
17
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Small
car
vol
liter
26
30
A 4 ” port would be better, but the port length is 40-50 cm, so we use a 3” port in these examples.
35
Sedan
vol
liter
26
29
Combi
type
vol
liter
27
32
Station
wagon
vol
liter
29
33
DLS SOUND HANDBOOK - BASS BOX EXAMPLES
MW 10
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
16
34
19
32
22
29
24
28
Sedan
vol
liter
16
18
21
24
port
cm
33
32
30
29
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
17
33
20
31
23
29
26
27
Station
vol
liter
18
21
24
28
wagon
port
cm
32
31
28
27
Biltyp:
Golf
Sedan
Musiktyp:
volym
liter
15
18
volym
liter
15
17
Hard rock
Disco
Halvkombi
volym
liter
16
19
Kombi
volym
liter
17
20
MW 12
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
24
22
28
22
32
20
37
18
Sedan
vol
liter
24
28
32
36
port
cm
22
21
20
19
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
26
22
30
20
35
20
39
18
Station
vol
liter
27
31
37
42
wagon
port
cm
21
20
18
18
Biltyp:
Golf
Sedan
Musiktyp:
volym
liter
24
28
volym
liter
24
27
Hard rock
Disco
Halvkombi
volym
liter
25
29
Kombi
volym
liter
27
31
A 4 ” port would be better, but the port length is 40-50 cm, so we use a 3” port in these examples.
MW 110
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
17
30
19
29
22
27
25
26
Sedan
vol
liter
17
19
22
25
port
cm
30
29
27
26
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
18
29
20
28
24
26
27
25
Station
vol
liter
19
21
25
29
wagon
port
cm
28
27
26
25
Biltyp:
Golf
Sedan
Musiktyp:
volym
liter
16
18
volym
liter
16
18
Hard rock
Disco
Halvkombi
volym
liter
17
20
Kombi
volym
liter
18
21
MW 112
Vented box
Sealed box
The port length in all examples is for a
3” (75 mm) outer diameter.
Suitable for hard rock and disco music
Car type:
Music type:
Hard rock
Disco
Normal
Deep bass
Small car
vol
port
liter
cm
24
23
28
22
32
21
36
20
Sedan
vol
liter
24
27
31
35
port
cm
23
31
21
19
Combi type
vol
port
liter
cm
25
22
29
22
34
20
39
19
Station
vol
liter
27
31
36
41
wagon
port
cm
22
20
20
18
Biltyp:
Golf
Sedan
Musiktyp:
volym
liter
24
27
volym
liter
23
27
Hard rock
Disco
A 4 ” port would be better, but the port length is 40-50 cm, so we use a 3” port in these examples.
36
Halvkombi
volym
liter
25
29
Kombi
volym
liter
26
30
SOME USEFUL TABLES
TABLE 1:
Shows the relation between power increase and
SPL measured 1 mtr in front of the speaker at
three different speaker sensitivities.
Input power (W)
1
2
3
Speaker sensitivity in dB
88
95
98
91 dB
98 dB
101 dB
4
5
10
95 dB
102 dB
105 dB
SPL in dB
15
20
100 dB
107 dB
110 dB
50
100
105 dB
112 dB
115 dB
200
500
1k
110 dB 115 dB
117 dB 122 dB
120 dB 125 dB
2k
5k
120 db 125 dB
127 dB
130 dB
A speaker with a sensitivity of 88 dB gives a SPL of 88 dB with an input of 1 Watt. If the input power is
increased to 2 Watts the SPL will be 91 dB etc. Duoble power will increase the SPL with 3 dB.
TABLE 2:
Shows how the inner resistance (impedance) of a coil changes in relation to the frequency.
Frequency in Hz
mH
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,5
1
2
3
5
10
20
25
50
75
100
120
200
400
800
1k
1,2k 2k
1,6
3,1
1,3
Resistance in ohm
1,3 1,5 2,5
1,5 1,9 2,3 3,8
1,3 2,5 3,1 3,8 6,3
1,3 2,5 5,0 6,3 7,5 12,6
1,2 1,5 2,5 5,0 10,0 12,6 15,1 25,1
1,4 1,9 2,3 3,8 7,5 15,1 18,8 22,6 37,7
1,6 2,4 3,1 3,8 6,3 12,6 25,1 31,4 37,7 62,8
3,1 4,7 6,3 7,5 12,6 25,1 50,2 62,8 75,4
6,3 9,4 12,6 15,1 25,1 50,2
4k
8k
10k
12k
1,3
2,5
5,0
7,5
12,6
25,1
50,2
62,8
2,5
5,0
10,0
15,1
25,1
50,2
100,0
3,1
6,3
12,6
18,8
31,4
62,8
3,8
7,5
15,1
22,6
37,7
75,4
For example a coil with 10 mH inductance, often used as lowpass filter for subwoofers, has an inner
resistance (impedance) of 1,6 ohms at 25 Hz increasing to 6,3 ohms at 100 Hz, and 62,8 ohms at 1 kHz.
TABLE 3:
Shows how the inner resistance (impedance) of a capacitor changes in relation to the frequency.
µF
0,22
0,33
0,47
0,68
1
2,2
3,3
4,7
6,8
10
22
33
47
68
100
150
220
330
12
10
8
6
4
3
2
1
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
120
80
60
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
60
40
28
19
13
6
4
3
72
48
34
23
16
7
5
4
2
90
60
42
29
20
9
6
6
3
2
120
80
56
39
27
12
8
8
4
3
120
85
58
40
18
12
11
6
4
60
40
28
20
13
9
6
4
60
42
39
19
13
9
6
80
56
39
27
18
12
8
113
78
53
24
16
17
8
5
2
Resistance in ohm
117
80
36
24
34
12
8
4
2
72
48
42
23
16
7
5
3
90
60
48
29
20
9
6
4
37
100
69
56
33
23
10
7
5
3
120
80
68
39
27
12
8
6
4
96
85
47
32
15
10
7
5
3
58
40
18
12
8
6
4
3
78
53
24
16
11
8
5
3
2
80
36
24
16
12
8
5
4
2
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