Plymouth Breeze 1995-2000 User manual

Plymouth Breeze 1995-2000 User manual
Chrysler
Cirrus
Dodge Stratus
Plymouth
Breeze
Automotive
Repair
Manual
by Marc M Scribner
and John H Haynes
Member of the Guild of Motoring Writers
Models covered:
Chrysler Cirrus, Dodge Stratus and Plymouth Breeze
1995 through 2000
(10C 1 - 25015)
Haynes'
IMTS H
ASSOCIATION MEMBER
Accm
Haynes Publishing Group
Sparkford Nr Yeovil
Somerset BA22 7JJ England
Haynes North America, Inc
861 Lawrence Drive
Newbury Park
California 91320 USA
ABODE
FGHIJ
KLMN
About this manual
Its purpose
The purpose of this manual is to help
you get the best value from your vehicle. It
can do so in several ways. It can help you
decide what work must be done, even if you
choose to have it done by a dealer service
department or a repair shop; it provides information and procedures for routine maintenance and servicing; and it offers diagnostic
and repair procedures to follow when trouble
occurs.
We hope you use the manual to tackle
the work yourself. For many simpler jobs,
doing it yourself may be quicker than arranging an appointment to get the vehicle into a
shop and making the trips to leave it and pick
it up. More importantly, a lot of money can be
saved by avoiding the expense the shop
must pass on to you to cover its labor and
overhead costs. An added benefit is the
sense of satisfaction and accomplishment
that you feel after doing the job yourself.
Using the manual
The manual is divided into Chapters.
Each Chapter is divided into numbered Sections, which are headed in bold type between
horizontal lines. Each Section consists of
consecutively numbered paragraphs.
At the beginning of each numbered Section you will be referred to any illustrations
which apply to the procedures in that Section. The reference numbers used in illustration captions pinpoint the pertinent Section
and the Step within that Section. That is,
illustration 3.2 means the illustration refers to
Section 3 and Step (or paragraph) 2 within
that Section.
Procedures, once described in the text,
are not normally repeated. When it's necessary to refer to another Chapter, the reference will be given as Chapter and Section
number. Cross references given without use
of the word "Chapter" apply to Sections
and/or paragraphs in the same Chapter. For
example, "see Section 8" means in the same
Chapter.
References to the left or right side of the
vehicle assume you are sitting in the driver's
seat, facing forward.
Even though we have prepared this
manual with extreme care, neither the publi sher nor the author can accept responsibility
for any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.
NOTE
A Note provides information necessary to properly complete a procedure or information which will
make the procedure easier to understand.
CAUTION
A Caution provides a special procedure or special steps which must be taken while completing the
procedure where the Caution is found. Not heeding a Caution can result in damage to the assembly
being worked on.
WARNING
A Warning provides a special procedure or special steps which must be taken while completing the
procedure where the Warning is found. Not heeding a Warning can result in personal injury.
Introduction to the Chrysler Cirrus,
Dodge Stratus and Plymouth Breeze
The Chrysler Cirrus, Dodge Stratus and
Plymouth Breeze models are four-door sedan
type body styles. They feature transversely
mounted engines which were offered in three
displacements; a 2.0 liter in-line four-cylinder
engine with a Single Overhead-Camshaft
(SOHC), a 2.4 liter in-line four-cylinder engine
with a Dual Overhead-Camshaft (DOHC) and
the 60-degree V6 six-cylinder engine with
Single Overhead-Camshafts (SONG) (one
over each cylinder head).
All models are equipped with an electronically controlled multi-port electronic fuel
injection system.
The engine transmits power to the front
wheels through either a five-speed manual
transaxle or a four-speed automatic transaxle
via independent driveaxles.
All models feature an all steel unibody
design and independent front and rear suspension. The front suspension incorporates a
shock absorber/coil spring assembly with
upper and lower control arms, while the rear
suspension utilizes a shock absorber/coil
spring assembly and upper control arm
in combination with a trailing arm and
lateral links.
The standard power rack and pinion
steering unit is mounted behind the engine
on the front suspension crossmember. An
electronically controlled variable-assist
speed-proportional power steering was available as an option, which provided maximum
power steering at low vehicle speeds.
All models are equipped with power
assisted front disc and rear drum brakes with
an Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) available as
an option.
0-6
Vehicle identification numbers
Modifications are a continuing and
unpublicized process in vehicle manufacturing. Since spare parts manuals and lists are
compiled on a numerical basis, the individual
vehicle numbers are essential to correctly
identify the component required.
Vehicle Identification Number
(VIN)
isThis very important identification number
located on a plate attached to the
dashboard insi d e the windshield on the
driver's side of the vehicle (see illustration).
The VIN also appears on the Vehicle Certifi -
cate of Title and Registration. It contains
information such as where and when the
vehicle was manufactured, the model year
and the body style.
VIN engine and model year
codes
Two particularly important pieces of
information found in the VIN are the engine
code and the model year code. Counting
from the left, the engine code letter designation is the 8th digit and the model year code
designation is the 10th digit.
The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is stamped into a metal
plate fastened to the dashboard on the driver's side - it's visible
through the windshield
On the models covered by this manual the
engine codes are:
C............................2.0L 4-cyl SOHC
H ............................ 2.5L V6 SOHC
X............................ 2.4L 4-cyl DOHC
On the models covered by this manual the
model year codes are:
S........................... 1995
T........................... 1996
V........................... 1997
W.......................... 1998
X........................... 1999
Y...........................2000
The Body Code Plate is mounted to the right hand shock tower in
the engine compartment
Vehicle identification numbers
0-7
On 2.0L four-cylinder engines, the engine identification number is
stamped on the left rear of the engine block (behind the
starter motor)
The Vehicle Safety Certification label is affixed to the rear edge of
the driver's door
• OIL
FILTER
2.4L four-cylinder engine identification number locations
Body Code Plate
On V6 engines, the engine identification number is located on the
rear of the engine block just below the cylinder head
identification numbers can be found stamped
on a machined pad on the left rear of the
engine block. 2.5L V6 engine identification is
located on the rear of the engine block just
below the cylinder head (see illustrations).
The Body Code Plate is a stamped metal
plate attached to the driver's side shock
tower in the engine compartment (see illustration). It contains more specific information
about the manufacturing of the vehicle such
as the paint code, trim code and vehicle
order number, as well as the VIN.
numbers
Vehicle Safety Certification
label
The transaxle identification information
can be found on a bar code label located on
the front of the transaxle (see illustration).
The Vehicle Safety Certification label is
attached to the driver's side door end (see
illustration). The label contains the name of
the manufacturer, the month and year of production, the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
(GVWR), the Gross Axle Weight Rating
(GAWR) and the certification statement.
Engine identification numbers
The 2.0L and 2.4L four-cylinder engine
ENGINE
SERIAL NUMBER
AND VIN NUMBER
Transaxle identification
Vehicle Emissions Control
Information (VECI) label
The emissions control information label
is found under the hood, normally on the
radiator support or the bottom side of the
hood. This label contains information on the
emissions control equipment installed on the
vehicle, as well as tune-up specifications (see
Chapter 6 for more information).
0-8
Buying parts
Replacement parts are available from
many sources, which generally fall into one of
two categories - authorized dealer parts
departments and independent retail auto
parts stores. Our advice concerning these
parts is as follows:
Retail auto parts stores: Good auto
parts stores will stock frequently needed
components which wear out relatively fast,
such as clutch components, exhaust systems, brake parts, tune-up parts, etc. These
stores often supply new or reconditioned
parts on an exchange basis, which can save
a considerable amount of money. Discount
auto parts stores are often very good places
to buy materials and parts needed for general
vehicle maintenance such as oil, grease, filters, spark plugs, belts, touch-up paint,
bulbs, etc. They also usually sell tools and
general accessories, have convenient hours,
charge lower prices and can often be found
not far from home.
Authorized dealer parts department:
This is the best source for parts which are
unique to the vehicle and not generally available elsewhere (such as major engine parts,
transmission parts, trim pieces, etc.).
Warranty information: If the vehicle is
still covered under warranty, be sure that any
replacement parts purchased - regardless of
the source - do not invalidate the warranty!
To be sure of obtaining the correct
parts, have engine and chassis numbers
available and, if possible, take the old parts
along for positive identification.
Maintenance techniques,
tools and working facilities
Maintenance techniques
There are a number of techniques
involved in maintenance and repair that will
be referred to throughout this manual. Application of these techniques will enable the
home mechanic to be more efficient, better
organized and capable of performing the various tasks properly, which will ensure that the
repair job is thorough and complete.
Most automotive machine shops can perform
this task, as well as other repair procedures,
such as the repair of threaded holes that
have been stripped out.
Flat washers and lockwashers, when
removed from an assembly, should always
be replaced exactly as removed. Replace any
damaged washers with new ones. Never use
a lockwasher on any soft metal surface (such
as aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic.
Fasteners
Fasteners are nuts, bolts, studs and
screws used to hold two or more parts
together. There are a few things to keep in
mind when working with fasteners. Almost all
of them use a locking device of some type,
either a lockwasher, locknut, locking tab or
thread adhesive. All threaded fasteners
should be clean and straight, with undamaged threads and undamaged corners on the
hex head where the wrench fits. Develop the
habit of replacing all damaged nuts and bolts
with new ones. Special locknuts with nylon or
fiber inserts can only be used once. If they
are removed, they lose their locking ability
and must be replaced with new ones.
Rusted nuts and bolts should be treated
with a penetrating fluid to ease removal and
prevent breakage. Some mechanics use turpentine in a spout-type oil can, which works
quite well. After applying the rust penetrant,
let it work for a few minutes before trying to
loosen the nut or bolt. Badly rusted fasteners
may have to be chiseled or sawed off or
removed with a special nut breaker, available
at tool stores.
If a bolt or stud breaks off in an assembly, it can be drilled and removed with a special tool commonly available for this purpose.
Grade 1 or 2
Grade 5
Grade 8
Bolt strength marking (standard/SAE/USS; bottom - metric)
Grade
Identification
Hex Nut
Grade 5
3 Dots
Hex Nut
Grade 8
Class
10.9
Class
9.8
Class
8.8
6 Dots
Standard hex nut
strength markings
Metric hex nut
strength markings
Metric stud strength markings
0-9
Maintenance techniques, tools and working facilities
Fastener sizes
For a number of reasons, automobile
manufacturers are making wider and wider
use of metric fasteners. Therefore, it is important to be able to tell the difference between
standard (sometimes called U.S. or SAE) and
metric hardware, since they cannot be interchanged.
All bolts, whether standard or metric, are
sized according to diameter, thread pitch and
length. For example, a standard 1/2 - 13 x 1
bolt is 1/2 inch in diameter, has 13 threads per
inch and is 1 inch long. An M12 - 1.75 x 25
metric bolt is 12 mm in diameter, has a thread
pitch of 1.75 mm (the distance between
threads) and is 25 mm long. The two bolts are
nearly identical, and easily confused, but they
are not interchangeable.
In addition to the differences in diameter, thread pitch and length, metric and standard bolts can also be distinguished by
examining the bolt heads. To begin with, the
distance across the flats on a standard bolt
head is measured in inches, while the same
dimension on a metric bolt is sized in millimeters (the same is true for nuts). As a result, a
standard wrench should not be used on a
metric bolt and a metric wrench should not
be used on a standard bolt. Also, most standard bolts have slashes radiating out from
the center of the head to denote the grade or
strength of the bolt, which is an indication of
the amount of torque that can be applied to
it. The greater the number of slashes, the
greater the strength of the bolt. Grades 0
through 5 are commonly used on automobiles. Metric bolts have a property class
(grade) number, rather than a slash, molded
into their heads to indicate bolt strength. In
this case, the higher the number, the stronger
the bolt. Property class numbers 8.8, 9.8 and
10.9 are commonly used on automobiles.
Strength markings can also be used to
distinguish standard hex nuts from metric
hex nuts. Many standard nuts have dots
stamped into one side, while metric nuts are
marked with a number. The greater the number of dots, or the higher the number, the
greater the strength of the nut.
Metric studs are also marked on their
ends according to property class (grade).
Larger studs are numbered (the same as
metric bolts), while smaller studs carry a geometric code to denote grade.
It should be noted that many fasteners,
especially Grades 0 through 2, have no distinguishing marks on them. When such is the
case, the only way to determine whether it is
standard or metric is to measure the thread
pitch or compare it to a known fastener of the
same size.
Standard fasteners are often referred to
as SAE, as opposed to metric. However, it
should be noted that SAE technically refers to
a non-metric fine thread fastener only.
Coarse thread non-metric fasteners are
referred to as USS sizes.
Since fasteners of the same size (both
standard and metric) may have different
Metric thread sizes
M-6 ...............................................................
M-8 ...............................................................
M-10.............................................................
M-12.............................................................
M-14 .............................................................
Ft-lbs
6to9
14to21
28to40
50 to 71
80 to 140
Nm
9to12
19to28
38to54
68 to 96
109 to 154
5to8
12 to 18
22 to 33
25 to 35
7to10
17 to 24
30 to 44
34 to 47
6to9
12to18
14 to 20
22 to 32
27 to 38
40 to 55
40 to 60
55 to 80
9to12
17to24
19 to 27
30 to 43
37 to 51
55 to 74
55 to 81
75 to 108
Pipe thread sizes
1 /8 ................................................................
1 /4................................................................
3/8................................................................
1 /2 ................................................................
U.S. thread sizes
1/4-20.........................................................
5/16 - 18 .......................................................
5/16 - 24 .......................................................
3/8 - 16 .........................................................
3/8 - 24 .........................................................
7/16 - 14 .......................................................
7/16-20 .......................................................
1 /2 - 13 .........................................................
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Standard (SAE and USS) bolt
dimensions/grade marks
G
Grade marks (bolt strength)
L
T
Length (in inches)
Thread pitch (number of threads per
inch)
Nominal diameter (in inches)
D
strength ratings, be sure to reinstall any bolts,
studs or nuts removed from your vehicle in
their original locations. Also, when replacing
a fastener with a new one, make sure that the
new one has a strength rating equal to or
greater than the original.
Tightening sequences and
procedures
Most threaded fasteners should be
tightened to a specific torque value (torque is
the twisting force applied to a threaded component such as a nut or bolt). Overtightening
the fastener can weaken it and cause it to
break, while undertightening can cause it to
eventually come loose. Bolts, screws and
studs, depending on the material they are
Metric bolt dimensions/grade marks
P
L
T
D
Property class (bolt strength)
Length (in millimeters)
Thread pitch (distance between
threads in millimeters)
Diameter
made of and their thread diameters, have
specific torque values, many of which are
noted in the Specifications at the beginning
of each Chapter. Be sure to follow the torque
recommendations closely. For fasteners not
assigned a specific torque, a general torque
value chart is presented here as a guide.
These torque values are for dry (unlubricated)
fasteners threaded into steel or cast iron (not
aluminum). As was previously mentioned, the
size and grade of a fastener determine the
amount of torque that can safely be applied
to it. The figures listed here are approximate
for Grade 2 and Grade 3 fasteners. Higher
grades can tolerate higher torque values.
Fasteners laid out in a pattern, such as
cylinder head bolts, oil pan bolts, differential
cover bolts, etc., must be loosened or tight-
0-10
Maintenance techniques, tools and working facilities
Micrometer set
ened in sequence to avoid warping the component. This sequence will normally be
shown in the appropriate Chapter. If a specific pattern is not given, the following procedures can be used to prevent warping.
Initially, the bolts or nuts should be
assembled finger-tight only. Next, they
should be tightened one full turn each, in a
criss-cross or diagonal pattern. After each
one has been tightened one full turn, return to
the first one and tighten them all one-half
turn, following the same pattern. Finally,
tighten each of them one-quarter turn at a
ti me until each fastener has been tightened to
the proper torque. To loosen and remove the
fasteners, the procedure would be reversed.
Component disassembly
Component disassembly should be
done with care and purpose to help ensure
that the parts go back together properly.
Always keep track of the sequence in which
parts are removed. Make note of special
characteristics or marks on parts that can be
installed more than one way, such as a
grooved thrust washer on a shaft. It is a good
idea to lay the disassembled parts out on a
clean surface in the order that they were
removed. It may also be helpful to make
sketches or take instant photos of components before removal.
When removing fasteners from a component, keep track of their locations. Someti mes threading a bolt back in a part, or
putting the washers and nut back on a stud,
can prevent mix-ups later. If nuts and bolts
cannot be returned to their original locations,
they should be kept in a compartmented box
or a series of small boxes. A cupcake or muffin tin is ideal for this purpose, since each
cavity can hold the bolts and nuts from a particular area (i.e. oil pan bolts, valve cover
bolts, engine mount bolts, etc.). A pan of this
type is especially helpful when working on
assemblies with very small parts, such as the
carburetor, alternator, valve train or interior
dash and trim pieces. The cavities can be
marked with paint or tape to identify the contents.
Whenever wiring looms, harnesses or
connectors are separated, it is a good idea to
Dial indicator set
identify the two halves with numbered pieces
of masking tape so they can be easily reconnected.
Gasket sealing surfaces
Throughout any vehicle, gaskets are
used to seal the mating surfaces between
two parts and keep lubricants, fluids, vacuum
or pressure contained in an assembly.
Many times these gaskets are coated
with a liquid or paste-type gasket sealing
compound before assembly. Age, heat and
pressure can sometimes cause the two parts
to stick together so tightly that they are very
difficult to separate. Often, the assembly can
be loosened by striking it with a soft-face
hammer near the mating surfaces. A regular
hammer can be used if a block of wood is
placed between the hammer and the part. Do
not hammer on cast parts or parts that could
be easily damaged. With any particularly
stubborn part, always recheck to make sure
that every fastener has been removed.
Avoid using a screwdriver or bar to pry
apart an assembly, as they can easily mar the
gasket sealing surfaces of the parts, which
must remain smooth. If prying is absolutely
necessary, use an old broom handle, but
keep in mind that extra clean up will be necessary if the wood splinters.
After the parts are separated, the old
gasket must be carefully scraped off and the
gasket surfaces cleaned. Stubborn gasket
material can be soaked with rust penetrant or
treated with a special chemical to soften it so
it can be easily scraped off. A scraper can be
fashioned from a piece of copper tubing by
flattening and sharpening one end. Copper is
recommended because it is usually softer
than the surfaces to be scraped, which
reduces the chance of gouging the part.
Some gaskets can be removed with a wire
brush, but regardless of the method used,
the mating surfaces must be left clean and
smooth. If for some reason the gasket surface is gouged, then a gasket sealer thick
enough to fill scratches will have to be used
during reassembly of the components. For
most applications, a non-drying (or semi-drying) gasket sealer should be used.
Hose removal tips
Warning: If the vehicle is equipped with air
conditioning, do not disconnect any of the
A/C hoses without first having the system
depressurized by a dealer service department
or a service station.
Hose removal precautions closely parallel gasket removal precautions. Avoid
scratching or gouging the surface that the
hose mates against or the connection may
leak. This is especially true for radiator hoses.
Because of various chemical reactions, the
rubber in hoses can bond itself to the metal
spigot that the hose fits over. To remove a
hose, first loosen the hose clamps that
secure it to the spigot. Then, with slip-joint
pliers, grab the hose at the clamp and rotate
it around the spigot. Work it back and forth
until it is completely free, then pull it off. Silicone or other lubricants will ease removal if
they can be applied between the hose and
the outside of the spigot. Apply the same
lubricant to the inside of the hose and the
outside of the spigot to simplify installation.
As a last resort (and if the hose is to be
replaced with a new one anyway), the rubber
can be slit with a knife and the hose peeled
from the spigot. If this must be done, be
careful that the metal connection is not damaged.
If a hose clamp is broken or damaged,
do not reuse it. Wire-type clamps usually
weaken with age, so it is a good idea to
replace them with screw-type clamps whenever a hose is removed.
Tools
A selection of good tools is a basic
requirement for anyone who plans to maintain and repair his or her own vehicle. For the
owner who has few tools, the initial investment might seem high, but when compared
to the spiraling costs of professional auto
maintenance and repair, it is a wise one.
To help the owner decide which tools
are needed to perform the tasks detailed in
this manual, the following tool lists are
offered: Maintenance and minor repair,
Repair/overhaul and Special.
The newcomer to practical mechanics
0-11
Maintenance techniques, tools and working facilities
Dial caliper
Hand-operated vacuum pump
Timing light
Compression gauge with spark plug
hole adapter
Damper/steering wheel puller
General purpose puller
Hydraulic lifter removal tool
Valve spring compressor
Valve spring compressor
Ridge reamer
Piston ring groove cleaning tool
Ring removal/installation tool
Maintenance techniques, tools and working facilities
0-12
Ring compressor
Cylinder hone
Brake hold-down spring tool
Brake cylinder hone
Clutch plate alignment tool
Tap and die set
should start off with the maintenance and
minor repair tool kit, which is adequate for
the simpler jobs performed on a vehicle.
Then, as confidence and experience grow,
the owner can tackle more difficult tasks,
buying additional tools as they are needed.
Eventually the basic kit will be expanded into
the repair and overhaul tool set. Over a period
of time, the experienced do-it-yourselfer will
assemble a tool set complete enough for
most repair and overhaul procedures and will
add tools from the special category when it is
felt that the expense is justified by the frequency of use.
Phillips screwdriver (No. 2 x 6 inch)
Combination pliers - 6 inch
Hacksaw and assortment of blades
Tire pressure gauge
Grease gun
Oil can
Fine emery cloth
Wire brush
Battery post and cable cleaning tool
Oil filter wrench
Funnel (medium size)
Safety goggles
Jackstands (2)
Drain pan
Note: If basic tune-ups are going to be part of
routine maintenance, it will be necessary to
purchase a good quality stroboscopic timing
light and combination tachometer/dwell
meter. Although they are included in the list
of special tools, it is mentioned here because
they are absolutely necessary for tuning most
vehicles properly.
it has the capacity of accepting a very wide
range of large sockets. Ideally, however, the
mechanic should have a 3/8-inch drive set
and a 1/2-inch drive set.
Socket set(s)
Reversible ratchet
Extension - 10 inch
Universal joint
Torque wrench (same size drive as
sockets)
Ball peen hammer - 8 ounce
Soft-face hammer (plastic/rubber)
Standard screwdriver (1/4-inch x 6 inch)
Standard screwdriver (stubby 5/16-inch)
Phillips screwdriver (No. 3 x 8 inch)
Phillips screwdriver (stubby - No. 2)
Pliers - vise grip
Pliers - lineman's
Pliers - needle nose
Pliers - snap-ring (internal and external)
Cold chisel - 1/2-inch
Scribe
Scraper (made from flattened copper
tubing)
Centerpunch
Pin punches (1/16, 1/8, 3/16-inch)
Steel rule/straightedge - 12 inch
Allen wrench set (1/8 to 3/8-inch or
4mmto10mm)
A selection of files
Wire brush (large)
Jackstands (second set)
Jack (scissor or hydraulic type)
Maintenance and minor repair
tool kit
The tools in this list should be considered the minimum required for performance
of routine maintenance, servicing and minor
repair work. We recommend the purchase of
combination wrenches (box-end and openend combined in one wrench). While more
expensive than open end wrenches, they
offer the advantages of both types of wrench.
Combination wrench set (1/4-inch to
1 inch or 6 mm to 19 mm)
Adjustable wrench, 8 inch
Spark plug wrench with rubber insert
Spark plug gap adjusting tool
Feeler gauge set
Brake bleeder wrench
Standard screwdriver (5/16-inch x
6 inch)
Repair and overhaul tool set
These tools are essential for anyone
who plans to perform major repairs and are in
addition to those in the maintenance and
minor repair tool kit. Included is a comprehensive set of sockets which, though expensive, are invaluable because of their versatility, especially when various extensions and
drives are available. We recommend the 1/2inch drive over the 3/8-inch drive. Although
the larger drive is bulky and more expensive,
Maintenance techniques, tools and working facilities
Note: Another tool which is often useful is an
electric drill with a chuck capacity of 3/8-inch
and a set of good quality drill bits.
Special tools
The tools in this list include those which
are not used regularly, are expensive to buy,
or which need to be used in accordance with
their manufacturer's instructions. Unless
these tools will be used frequently, it is not
very economical to purchase many of them.
A consideration would be to split the cost
and use between yourself and a friend or
friends. In addition, most of these tools can
be obtained from a tool rental shop on a temporary basis.
This list primarily contains only those
tools and instruments widely available to the
public, and not those special tools produced
by the vehicle manufacturer for distribution to
dealer service departments. Occasionally,
references to the manufacturer's special
tools are included in the text of this manual.
Generally, an alternative method of doing the
job without the special tool is offered. However, sometimes there is no alternative to
their use. Where this is the case, and the tool
cannot be purchased or borrowed, the work
should be turned over to the dealer service
department or an automotive repair shop.
Valve spring compressor
Piston ring groove cleaning tool
Piston ring compressor
Piston ring installation tool
Cylinder compression gauge
Cylinder ridge reamer
Cylinder surfacing hone
Cylinder bore gauge
Micrometers and/or dial calipers
Hydraulic lifter removal tool
Balljoint separator
Universal-type puller
I mpact screwdriver
Dial indicator set
Stroboscopic timing light (inductive
pick-up)
Hand operated vacuum/pressure pump
Tachometer/dwell meter
Universal electrical multimeter
Cable hoist
Brake spring removal and installation
tools
Floor jack
Buying tools
For the do-it-yourselfer who is just starting to get involved in vehicle maintenance
and repair, there are a number of options
available when purchasing tools. If maintenance and minor repair is the extent of the
work to be done, the purchase of individual
tools is satisfactory. If, on the other hand,
extensive work is planned, it would be a good
idea to purchase a modest tool set from one
of the large retail chain stores. A set can usually be bought at a substantial savings over
the individual tool prices, and they often
come with a tool box. As additional tools are
needed, add-on sets, individual tools and a
larger tool box can be purchased to expand
the tool selection. Building a tool set gradually allows the cost of the tools to be spread
over a longer period of time and gives the
mechanic the freedom to choose only those
tools that will actually be used.
Tool stores will often be the only source
of some of the special tools that are needed,
but regardless of where tools are bought, try
to avoid cheap ones, especially when buying
screwdrivers and sockets, because they
won't last very long. The expense involved in
replacing cheap tools will eventually be
greater than the initial cost of quality tools.
Care and maintenance of tools
Good tools are expensive, so it makes
sense to treat them with respect. Keep them
clean and in usable condition and store them
properly when not in use. Always wipe off any
dirt, grease or metal chips before putting
them away. Never leave tools lying around in
the work area. Upon completion of a job,
always check closely under the hood for tools
that may have been left there so they won't
get lost during a test drive.
Some tools, such as screwdrivers, pliers, wrenches and sockets, can be hung on a
panel mounted on the garage or workshop
wall, while others should be kept in a tool box
or tray. Measuring instruments, gauges,
meters, etc. must be carefully stored where
they cannot be damaged by weather or
impact from other tools.
When tools are used with care and
stored properly, they will last a very long
ti me. Even with the best of care, though,
tools will wear out if used frequently. When a
tool is damaged or worn out, replace it. Subsequent jobs will be safer and more enjoyable
if you do.
How to repair damaged
threads
Sometimes, the internal threads of a nut
or bolt hole can become stripped, usually
from overtightening. Stripping threads is an
all-too-common occurrence, especially when
working with aluminum parts, because aluminum is so soft that it easily strips out.
Usually, external or internal threads are
only partially stripped. After they've been
cleaned up with a tap or die, they'll still work.
Sometimes, however, threads are badly damaged. When this happens, you've got three
choices:
1) Drill and tap the hole to the next suitable
oversize and install a larger diameter
bolt, screw or stud.
2) Drill and tap the hole to accept a
threaded plug, then drill and tap the plug
to the original screw size. You can also
buy a plug already threaded to the original size. Then you simply drill a hole to
the specified size, then run the threaded
plug into the hole with a bolt and jam
0-13
nut. Once the plug is fully seated,
remove the jam nut and bolt.
3) The third method uses a patented
thread repair kit like Heli-Coil or Slimsert.
These easy-to-use kits are designed to
repair damaged threads in straightthrough holes and blind holes. Both are
available as kits which can handle a variety of sizes and thread patterns. Drill the
hole, then tap it with the special
included tap. Install the Heli-Coil and the
hole is back to its original diameter and
thread pitch.
Regardless of which method you use,
be sure to proceed calmly and carefully. A little impatience or carelessness during one of
these relatively simple procedures can ruin
your whole day's work and cost you a bundle
if you wreck an expensive part.
Working facilities
Not to be overlooked when discussing
tools is the workshop. If anything more than
routine maintenance is to be carried out,
some sort of suitable work area is essential.
It is understood, and appreciated, that
many home mechanics do not have a good
workshop or garage available, and end up
removing an engine or doing major repairs
outside. It is recommended, however, that
the overhaul or repair be completed under
the cover of a roof.
A clean, flat workbench or table of comfortable working height is an absolute necessity. The workbench should be equipped with
a vise that has a jaw opening of at least four
inches.
As mentioned previously, some clean,
dry storage space is also required for tools,
as well as the lubricants, fluids, cleaning solvents, etc. which soon become necessary.
Sometimes waste oil and fluids, drained
from the engine or cooling system during nor mal maintenance or repairs, present a disposal problem. To avoid pouring them on the
ground or into a sewage system, pour the
used fluids into large containers, seal them
with caps and take them to an authorized
disposal site or recycling center. Plastic jugs,
such as old antifreeze containers, are ideal
for this purpose.
Always keep a supply of old newspapers and clean rags available. Old towels are
excellent for mopping up spills. Many
mechanics use rolls of paper towels for most
work because they are readily available and
disposable. To help keep the area under the
vehicle clean, a large cardboard box can be
cut open and flattened to protect the garage
or shop floor.
Whenever working over a painted surface, such as when leaning over a fender to
service something under the hood, always
cover it with an old blanket or bedspread to
protect the finish. Vinyl covered pads, made
especially for this purpose, are available at
auto parts stores.
0-14
Booster battery (jump) starting
Observe these precautions when using a booster battery to start
a vehicle:
a) Before connecting the booster battery, make sure the ignition
switch is in the OFF position.
b) Turn off the lights, heater and other electrical loads.
c) Your eyes should be shielded. Safety goggles are a good idea.
d) Make sure the booster battery is the same voltage as the dead
one in the vehicle.
e) The two vehicles MUST NOT TOUCH each other!
f) Make sure the transaxle is in Neutral (manual) or Park (automatic).
g) If the booster battery is not a maintenance-free type, remove the
vent caps and lay a cloth over the vent holes.
The battery on these vehicles is located inside the wheel well of
the left front fender. Due to the lack of accessibility, remote battery
connections are provided inside the engine compartment for jumpstarting and easy battery disconnection (see illustration).
Connect the red colored jumper cable to the positive (+) terminal
of booster battery and the other end to the positive (+) remote terminal
inside the engine compartment. Then connect one end of the black
colored jumper cable to the negative (-) terminal of the booster battery
and other end of the cable to the negative (-) remote terminal.
Start the engine using the booster battery, then, with the engine
running at idle speed, disconnect the jumper cables in the reverse
order of connection.
The remote battery terminals (arrows) are located in the engine
compartment and well marked - when connecting jumper cables
connect the cable to the positive terminal first,
then the negative terminal
0-15
Jacking and towing
Jacking
Warning: The jack supplied with the vehicle
should only be used for changing a tire or
placing jackstands under the frame. Never
work under the vehicle or start the engine
while this jack is being used as the only
means of support.
The vehicle should be on level ground.
Place the shift lever in Park, if you have an
automatic, or Reverse if you have a manual
transaxle. Block the wheel diagonally opposite the wheel being changed. Set the parking
brake.
Remove the spare tire and jack from
stowage. Remove the wheel cover and trim
ring (if so equipped) with the tapered end of
the lug nut wrench by inserting and twisting
the handle and then prying against the back
of the wheel cover. Loosen the wheel lug nuts
about 1/4-to-1/2 turn each.
Place the scissors-type jack under the
side of the vehicle and adjust the jack height
until it fits in the notch in the vertical rocker
panel flange nearest the wheel to be
changed. There is a front and rear jacking
point on each side of the vehicle (see illustration).
Turn the jack handle clockwise until the
tire clears the ground. Remove the lug nuts
and pull the wheel off. Replace it with the
spare.
Install the lug nuts with the beveled
edges facing in. Tighten them snugly. Don't
attempt to tighten them completely until the
vehicle is lowered or it could slip off the jack.
Turn the jack handle counterclockwise to
lower the vehicle. Remove the jack and
tighten the lug nuts in a diagonal pattern.
Install the cover (and trim ring, if used)
and be sure it's snapped into place all the
way around.
Stow the tire, jack and wrench. Unblock
the wheels.
Towing
As a general rule, the vehicle should be
towed with the front (drive) wheels off the
ground. If they can't be raised, place them on
a dolly. The ignition key must be in the ACC
position, since the steering lock mechanism
isn't strong enough to hold the front wheels
straight while towing.
Vehicles equipped with an automatic
transaxle can be towed from the front only
with all four wheels on the ground, provided
that speeds don't exceed 25 mph and the
distance is not over 15 miles. Before towing,
check the transmission fluid level (see Chapter 1). If the level is below the HOT line on the
dipstick, add fluid or use a towing dolly.
Caution: Never tow a vehicle with an automatic transaxle from the rear with the front
wheels on the ground.
When towing a vehicle equipped with a
manual transaxle with all four wheels on the
ground, be sure to place the shift lever in
The jack fits over the rocker panel flange
(there are two jacking points on each side
of the vehicle, indicated by a notch in the
rocker panel flange)
Neutral and release the parking brake.
Equipment specifically designed for
towing should be used. It should be attached
to the main structural members of the vehicle, not the bumpers, brackets or suspension.
Safety is a major consideration when
towing and all applicable state and local laws
must be obeyed. A safety chain system must
be used at all times.
0-16
Automotive chemicals and lubricants
A number of automotive chemicals and
lubricants are available for use during vehicle
maintenance and repair. They include a wide
variety of products ranging from cleaning solvents and degreasers to lubricants and protective sprays for rubber, plastic and vinyl.
Cleaners
Carburetor cleaner and choke cleaner
is a strong solvent for gum, varnish and carbon. Most carburetor cleaners leave a drytype lubricant film which will not harden or
gum up. Because of this film it is not recommended for use on electrical components.
Brake system cleaner is used to
remove grease and brake fluid from the brake
system, where clean surfaces are absolutely
necessary. It leaves no residue and often
eliminates brake squeal caused by contaminants.
Electrical cleaner removes oxidation,
corrosion and carbon deposits from electrical
contacts, restoring full current flow. It can also
be used to clean spark plugs, carburetor jets,
voltage regulators and other parts where an
oil-free surface is desired.
Demoisturants remove water and moisture from electrical components such as alternators, voltage regulators, electrical connectors and fuse blocks. They are non-conductive, non-corrosive and non-flammable.
Degreasers are heavy-duty solvents
used to remove grease from the outside of the
engine and from chassis components. They
can be sprayed or brushed on and, depending on the type, are rinsed off either with water
or solvent.
Lubricants
Motor oil is the lubricant formulated for
use in engines. It normally contains a wide
variety of additives to prevent corrosion and
reduce foaming and wear. Motor oil comes in
various weights (viscosity ratings) from 0 to
50. The recommended weight of the oil
depends on the season, temperature and the
demands on the engine. Light oil is used in
cold climates and under light load conditions.
Heavy oil is used in hot climates and where
high loads are encountered. Multi-viscosity
oils are designed to have characteristics of
both light and heavy oils and are available in
a number of weights from 5W-20 to 20W-50.
Gear oil is designed to be used in differentials, manual transmissions and other
areas where high-temperature lubrication is
required.
Chassis and wheel bearing grease is a
heavy grease used where increased loads
and friction are encountered, such as for
wheel bearings, balljoints, tie-rod ends and
universal joints.
High-temperature wheel bearing
grease is designed to withstand the extreme
temperatures encountered by wheel bearings
in disc brake equipped vehicles. It usually
contains molybdenum disulfide (moly), which
is a dry-type lubricant.
White grease is a heavy grease for
metal-to-metal applications where water is a
problem. White grease stays soft under both
low and high temperatures (usually from -100
to +190-degrees F), and will not wash off or
dilute in the presence of water.
Assembly lube is a special extreme
pressure lubricant, usually containing moly,
used to lubricate high-load parts (such as
main and rod bearings and cam lobes) for initial start-up of a new engine. The assembly
tube lubricates the parts without being
squeezed out or washed away until the
engine oiling system begins to function.
Silicone lubricants are used to protect
rubber, plastic, vinyl and nylon parts.
Graphite lubricants are used where oils
cannot be used due to contamination problems, such as in locks. The dry graphite will
lubricate metal parts while remaining uncontaminated by dirt, water, oil or acids. It is
electrically conductive and will not foul electrical contacts in locks such as the ignition
switch.
Maly penetrants loosen and lubricate
frozen, rusted and corroded fasteners and
prevent future rusting or freezing.
Heat-sink grease is a special electrically non-conductive grease that is used for
mounting electronic ignition modules where it
is essential that heat is transferred away from
the module.
Sealants
RTV sealant is one of the most widely
used gasket compounds. Made from silicone, RTV is air curing, it seals, bonds,
waterproofs, fills surface irregularities,
remains flexible, doesn't shrink, is relatively
easy to remove, and is used as a supplementary sealer with almost all low and medium
temperature gaskets.
Anaerobic sealant is much like RTV in
that it can be used either to seal gaskets or to
form gaskets by itself. It remains flexible, is
solvent resistant and fills surface imperfections. The difference between an anaerobic
sealant and an RTV-type sealant is in the curing. RTV cures when exposed to air, while an
anaerobic sealant cures only in the absence
of air. This means that an anaerobic sealant
cures only after the assembly of parts, sealing them together.
Thread and pipe sealant is used for
sealing hydraulic and pneumatic fittings and
vacuum lines. It is usually made from a Teflon
compound, and comes in a spray, a paint-on
li quid and as a wrap-around tape.
Chemicals
Anti-seize compound prevents seizing,
galling, cold welding, rust and corrosion in
fasteners. High-temperature ant-seize, usually made with copper and graphite lubricants, is used for exhaust system and
exhaust manifold bolts.
Anaerobic locking compounds are
used to keep fasteners from vibrating or
working loose and cure only after installation,
in the absence of air. Medium strength locking compound is used for small nuts, bolts
and screws that may be removed later. Highstrength locking compound is for large nuts,
bolts and studs which aren't removed on a
regular basis.
Oil additives range from viscosity index
improvers to chemical treatments that claim
to reduce internal engine friction. It should be
noted that most oil manufacturers caution
against using additives with their oils.
Gas additives perform several functions, depending on their chemical makeup.
They usually contain solvents that help dissolve gum and varnish that build up on carburetor, fuel injection and intake parts. They
also serve to break down carbon deposits
that form on the inside surfaces of the combustion chambers. Some additives contain
upper cylinder lubricants for valves and piston rings, and others contain chemicals to
remove condensation from the gas tank.
Miscellaneous
Brake fluid is specially formulated
hydraulic fluid that can withstand the heat
and pressure encountered in brake systems.
Care must be taken so this fluid does not
come in contact with painted surfaces or
plastics. An opened container should always
be resealed to prevent contamination by
water or dirt.
Weatherstrip adhesive is used to bond
weatherstripping around doors, windows and
trunk lids. It is sometimes used to attach trim
pieces.
Undercoating is a petroleum-based,
tar-like substance that is designed to protect
metal surfaces on the underside of the vehicle from corrosion. It also acts as a sounddeadening agent by insulating the bottom of
the vehicle.
Waxes and polishes are used to help
protect painted and plated surfaces from the
weather. Different types of paint may require
the use of different types of wax and polish.
Some polishes utilize a chemical or abrasive
cleaner to help remove the top layer of oxidized (dull) paint on older vehicles. In recent
years many non-wax polishes that contain a
wide variety of chemicals such as polymers
and silicones have been introduced. These
non-wax polishes are usually easier to apply
and last longer than conventional waxes and
polishes.
Conversion factors
Length (distance)
Inches (in)
Feet (ft)
Miles
X 25.4
X 0.305
X 1.609
= Millimetres (mm)
= Metres (m)
= Kilometres (km)
X
X
X
0.0394
3.281
0.621
= Inches (in)
= Feet (ft)
= Miles
X 16.387
X 0.568
X 1.137
X 1.201
X 0.946
X 4.546
X 1.201
X 3.785
= Cubic centimetres (cc; cm 3 )
= Litres (I)
= Litres (I)
= US quarts (US qt)
= Litres (I)
= Litres (I)
= US gallons (US gal)
= Litres (I)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0.061
1.76
0.88
0.833
1.057
0.22
0.833
0.264
= Cubic inches (cu in; in 3)
= Imperial pints (Imp pt)
= Imperial quarts (Imp qt)
= Imperial quarts (Imp qt)
= US quarts (US qt)
= Imperial gallons (Imp gal)
= Imperial gallons (Imp gal)
= US gallons (US gal)
Volume (capacity)
Cubic inches (cu in; in 3 )
I mperial pints (Imp pt)
I mperial quarts (Imp qt)
I mperial quarts (Imp qt)
US quarts (US qt)
I mperial gallons (Imp gal)
I mperial gallons (Imp gal)
US gallons (US gal)
Mass (weight)
Ounces (oz)
Pounds (lb)
X
X
28.35 = Grams (g)
0.454 = Kilograms (kg)
X
X
0.035
2.205
= Ounces (oz)
= Pounds (lb)
X
X
X
0.278 = Newtons (N)
4.448 = Newtons (N)
= Kilograms-force (kgf; kg)
0.1
X
X
X
3.6
0.225
9.81
= Ounces-force (ozf; oz)
= Pounds-force (Ibf; Ib)
= Newtons (N)
0.070 = Kilograms-force per square
centimetre (kgf/cm 2 ; kg/cm 2 )
X 0.068 = Atmospheres (atm)
X
1 4.223
X
1 4.696
X
0.069
= Bars
X
1 4.5
X
6.895
= Kilopascals (kPa)
X
0.145
X
0.01
= Kilograms-force per square
centimetre (kgf/cm 2 ; kg/cm 2 )
X
98.1
= Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
= Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
= Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
= Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in2 )
= Kilopascals (kPa)
X
1.152
X
0.868
X
0.113
= Kilograms-force centimetre
(kgf cm; kg cm)
= Newton metres (Nm)
X
8.85
X
0.083
= Pounds-force feet (Ibf ft; lb ft)
X
12
X
0.138
X
7.233
X
X
1.356
0.102
= Kilograms-force metres
(kgf m; kg m)
= Newton metres (Nm)
= Kilograms-force metres
(kgf m; kg m)
= Pounds-force inches
(Ibf in; lb in)
= Pounds-force inches
(Ibf in; lb in)
= Pounds-force inches
(Ibf in; lb in)
= Pounds-force feet (Ibf ft; lb ft)
X
X
0.738
9.804
= Pounds-force feet (Ibf ft; lb ft)
= Newton metres (Nm)
X
X
3.377
25.4
= Kilopascals (kPa)
= Millimeters mercury (mm Hg)
X
X
0.2961
0.0394
= Inches mercury
= Inches mercury
X
745.7
= Watts (W)
X
0.0013
= Horsepower (hp)
X
1.609
= Kilometres per hour (km/hr; kph) X
0.621
= Miles per hour (miles/hr; mph)
X
X
2.825
2.352
= Miles per gallon, Imperial (mpg)
= Miles per gallon, US (mpg)
Force
Ounces-force (ozf; oz)
Pounds-force (Ibf; Ib)
Newtons (N)
Pressure
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
Pounds-force per square inch.
(psi; lbf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
Pounds-force per square inch
(psi; Ibf/in 2 ; lb/in 2 )
Kilopascals (kPa)
Torque (moment of force)
Pounds-force inches
(Ibf in; lb in)
Pounds-force inches
(Ibf in; lb in)
Pounds-force inches
(Ibf in; lb in)
Pounds-force feet (Ibf ft; lb ft)
Pounds-force feet (Ibf ft; lb ft)
Newton metres (Nm)
X
Vacuum
Inches mercury (in. Hg)
Inches mercury (in. Hg)
Power
Horsepower (hp)
Velocity (speed)
Miles per hour (miles/hr; mph)
Fuel consumption*
Miles per gallon, Imperial (mpg)
Miles per gallon, US (mpg)
Temperature
Degrees Fahrenheit
X 0.354 = Kilometres per litre (km/I)
X 0.425 = Kilometres per litre (km/I)
= (°C x 1.8) + 32
Degrees Celsius (Degrees Centigrade; °C)
It is common practice to convert from miles per gallon (Mpg) to litres/100 kilometres (l/100km),
where mpg (Imperial) x l/100 km = 282 and mpg (US) x l/100 km = 235
= (°F - 32) x 0.56
0-18
Safety first!
Regardless of how enthusiastic you
may be about getting on with the job at
hand, take the time to ensure that your
safety is not jeopardized. A moment's lack of
attention can result in an accident, as can
failure to observe certain simple safety precautions. The possibility of an accident will
always exist, and the following points should
not be considered a comprehensive list of all
dangers. Rather, they are intended to make
you aware of the risks and to encourage a
safety conscious approach to all work you
carry out on your vehicle.
Essential DOs and DON'Ts
DON'T rely on a jack when working under the
vehicle. Always use approved jackstands to
support the weight of the vehicle and place
them under the recommended lift or support
points.
DON'T attempt to loosen extremely tight fasteners (i.e. wheel lug nuts) while the vehicle is
on a jack - it may fall.
DON'T start the engine without first making
sure that the transmission is in Neutral (or
Park where applicable) and the parking brake
is set.
DON'T remove the radiator cap from a hot
cooling system - let it cool or cover it with a
cloth and release the pressure gradually.
DON'T attempt to drain the engine oil until
you are sure it has cooled to the point that it
will not burn you.
DON'T touch any part of the engine or exhaust system until it has cooled sufficiently to
avoid burns.
DON'T siphon toxic liquids such as gasoline,
antifreeze and brake fluid by mouth, or allow
them to remain on your skin.
DON'T inhale brake lining dust - it is potentially hazardous (see Asbestos below).
DON'T allow spilled oil or grease to remain
on the floor - wipe it up before someone slips
on it.
DON'T use loose fitting wrenches or other
tools which may slip and cause injury.
DON'T push on wrenches when loosening or
tightening nuts or bolts. Always try to pull the
wrench toward you. If the situation calls for
pushing the wrench away, push with an open
hand to avoid scraped knuckles if the wrench
should slip.
DON'T attempt to lift a heavy component
alone - get someone to help you.
DON'T rush or take unsafe shortcuts to finish
a job.
DON'T allow children or animals in or around
the vehicle while you are working on it.
DO wear eye protection when using power
tools such as a drill, sander, bench grinder,
etc. and when working under a vehicle.
DO keep loose clothing and long hair well out
of the way of moving parts.
DO make sure that any hoist used has a safe
working load rating adequate for the job.
DO get someone to check on you periodically
when working alone on a vehicle.
DO carry out work in a logical sequence and
make sure that everything is correctly assembled and tightened.
DO keep chemicals and fluids tightly capped
and out of the reach of children and pets.
DO remember that your vehicle's safety
affects that of yourself and others. If in doubt
on any point, get professional advice.
carefully. Never use materials from unmarked
containers.
Never run the engine in an enclosed
space, such as a garage. Exhaust fumes contain carbon monoxide, which is extremely
poisonous. If you need to run the engine,
always do so in the open air, or at least have
the rear of the vehicle outside the work area.
If you are fortunate enough to have the
use of an inspection pit, never drain or pour
gasoline and never run the engine while the
vehicle is over the pit. The fumes, being
heavier than air, will concentrate in the pit
with possibly lethal results.
Asbestos
Never create a spark or allow a bare
light bulb near a battery. They normally give
off a certain amount of hydrogen gas, which
is highly explosive.
Always disconnect the battery ground (-)
cable at the battery before working on the
fuel or electrical systems.
If possible, loosen the filler caps or
cover when charging the battery from an
external source (this does not apply to sealed
or maintenance-free batteries). Do not
charge at an excessive rate or the battery
may burst.
Take care when adding water to a non
maintenance-free battery and when carrying
a battery. The electrolyte, even when diluted,
is very corrosive and should not be allowed
to contact clothing or skin.
Always wear eye protection when cleaning the battery to prevent the caustic
deposits from entering your eyes.
Certain friction, insulating, sealing, and
other products - such as brake linings, brake
bands, clutch linings, torque converters, gaskets, etc. - may contain asbestos. Extreme
care must be taken to avoid inhalation of dust
from such products, since it is hazardous to
health. If in doubt, assume that they do contain asbestos.
Fire
Remember at all times that gasoline is
highly flammable. Never smoke or have any
kind of open flame around when working on a
vehicle. But the risk does not end there. A
spark caused by an electrical short circuit, by
two metal surfaces contacting each other, or
even by static electricity built up in your body
under certain conditions, can ignite gasoline
vapors, which in a confined space are highly
explosive. Do not, under any circumstances,
use gasoline for cleaning parts. Use an
approved safety solvent.
Always disconnect the battery ground (-)
cable at the battery before working on any
part of the fuel system or electrical system.
Never risk spilling fuel on a hot engine or
exhaust component. It is strongly recommended that a fire extinguisher suitable for
use on fuel and electrical fires be kept handy
in the garage or workshop at all times. Never
try to extinguish a fuel or electrical fire with
water.
Fumes
Certain fumes are highly toxic and can
quickly cause unconsciousness and even
death if inhaled to any extent. Gasoline vapor
falls into this category, as do the vapors from
some cleaning solvents. Any draining or
pouring of such volatile fluids should be done
in a well ventilated area.
When using cleaning fluids and solvents, read the instructions on the container
The battery
Household current
When using an electric power tool,
inspection light, etc., which operates on
household current, always make sure that the
tool is correctly connected to its plug and
that, where necessary, it is properly
grounded. Do not use such items in damp
conditions and, again, do not create a spark
or apply excessive heat in the vicinity of fuel
or fuel vapor.
Secondary ignition system
voltage
A severe electric shock can result from
touching certain parts of the ignition system
(such as the spark plug wires) when the
engine is running or being cranked, particularly if components are damp or the insulation
is defective. In the case of an electronic ignition system, the secondary system voltage is
much higher and could prove fatal.
0-19
Troubleshooting
Contents
Symptom
Section
Engine
Engine backfires ............................................................................. 19
Engine diesels (continues to run) after switching off ..................... 18
Engine hard to start when cold ...................................................... 3
Engine hard to start when hot........................................................ 4
Engine lacks power........................................................................ 14
Engine lopes while idling or idles erratically .................................. 8
Engine misses at idle speed ........................................................... 9
Engine misses throughout driving speed range.............................10
Engine rotates but will not start ..................................................... 2
Engine runs with oil pressure light on ............................................ 17
Engine stalls................................................................................... 13
Engine starts but stops immediately .............................................. 6
Engine stumbles on acceleration ................................................... 11
Engine surges while holding accelerator steady ............................ 12
Engine will not rotate when attempting to start ............................. 1
Oil puddle under engine ................................................................. 7
Pinging or knocking engine sounds during
acceleration or uphill .................................................................
16
Starter motor noisy or excessively rough in engagement .............
5
Engine electrical system
Alternator light fails to come on when key is turned on .................
Alternator light fails to go out .........................................................
Battery will not hold a charge........................................................
19
20
21
Fuel and emissions systems
CHECK ENGINE light remains on or is flashing .............................
Excessive fuel consumption ...........................................................
Fuel leakage and/or fuel odor ........................................................
22
23
24
Cooling system
Coolant loss ...................................................................................
External coolant leakage ................................................................
Internal coolant leakage .................................................................
Overcooling ....................................................................................
Overheating....................................................................................
Poor coolant circulation.................................................................
29
27
28
26
25
30
Clutch
Clutch pedal stays on floor ............................................................
Clutch slips (engine speed increases with no increase
in vehicle speed ........................................................................
Grabbing (chattering) as clutch is engaged ...................................
High pedal effort ............................................................................
Noise in clutch area .......................................................................
Pedal travels to floor - no pressure
or very little resistance..............................................................
Transaxle rattling (clicking) .............................................................
Unable to select gears ...................................................................
37
33
34
38
36
31
35
32
Manual transaxle
Clicking noise in turns....................................................................
Clunk on acceleration or deceleration ...........................................
Knocking noise at low speeds .......................................................
42
41
39
Symptom
Section
Leaks lubricant .....................................................................................48
Hard to shift......................................................................................... 49
Noise most pronounced when turning .................................................40
Noisy in all gears ..................................................................................46
Noisy in neutral with engine running....................................................44
Noisy in one particular gear ................................................................. 45
Slips out of gear ..................................................................... :............ 47
Vibration ...............................................................................................43
Automatic transaxle
Engine will start in gears other than Park or Neutral ............................54
Fluid leakage........................................................................................50
General shift mechanism problems..................................................... 52
Transaxle fluid brown or has burned smell .......................................... 51
Transaxle slips, shifts roughly, is noisy or has no drive
in forward or reverse gears .............................................................55
Transaxle will not downshift with accelerator pedal
pressed to the floor ........................................................................ 53
Driveaxles
Clicking noise in turns.......................................................................... 56
Shudder or vibration during acceleration .............................................57
Vibration at highway speeds ................................................................58
Brakes
Brake pedal feels spongy when depressed ......................................... 66
Brake pedal travels to the floor with little resistance ........................... 67
Brake roughness or chatter (pedal pulsates) ....................................... 61
Dragging brakes...................................................................................64
Excessive brake pedal travel ............................................................... 63
Excessive pedal effort required to stop vehicle ...................................62
Grabbing or uneven braking action ..................................................... 65
Noise (high-pitched squeal when the brakes are applied) ...................60
Parking brake does not hold ................................................................68
Vehicle pulls to one side during braking ..............................................59
Suspension and steering systems
Abnormal or excessive tire wear..........................................................70
Abnormal noise at the front end .......................................................... 75
Cupped tires ........................................................................................ 80
Erratic steering when braking .............................................................. 77
Excessive pitching and/or rolling around corners or
during braking .................................................................................78
Excessive play or looseness in steering system .................................. 84
Excessive tire wear on inside edge ......................................................82
Excessive tire wear on outside edge ................................................... 81
Hard steering ........................................................................................73
Poor returnability of steering to center................................................ 74
Rattling or clicking noise in steering gear ............................................85
Shimmy, shake or vibration ..................................................................72
Suspension bottoms............................................................................79
Tire tread worn in one place ................................................................ 83
Vehicle pulls to one side ...................................................................... 69
Wander or poor steering stability ......................................................... 76
Wheel makes a thumping noise ........................................................... 71
Troubleshooting
0-20
This section provides an easy reference
guide to the more common problems which
may occur during the operation of your vehicle. These problems and their possible
causes are grouped under headings denoting
various components or systems, such as
Engine, Cooling system, etc. They also refer
you to the chapter and/or section which
deals with the problem.
Remember that successful troubleshooting is not a mysterious art practiced
only by professional mechanics. It is simply
the result of the right knowledge combined
with an intelligent, systematic approach to
the problem. Always work by a process of
elimination, starting with the simplest solution
and working through to the most complex and never overlook the obvious. Anyone can
run the gas tank dry or leave the lights on
overnight, so don't assume that you are
exempt from such oversights.
Finally, always establish a clear idea of
why a problem has occurred and take steps
to ensure that it doesn't happen again. If the
electrical system fails because of a poor connection, check the other connections in the
system to make sure that they don't fail as
well. If a particular fuse continues to blow,
find out why - don't just replace one fuse
after another. Remember, failure of a small
component can often be indicative of potential failure or incorrect functioning of a more
important component or system.
Engine
1
Engine will not rotate when
attempting to start
Battery terminal connections loose or
1
corroded (Chapters 1 and 5).
2
Battery discharged or faulty (Chapter 1).
Automatic transaxle not completely
3
engaged in Park (Chapter 7B) or clutch pedal
not completely depressed (Chapter 8).
Broken, loose or disconnected wiring in
4
the starting circuit (Chapters 5 and 12).
5
Starter motor pinion jammed in flywheel
ring gear (Chapter 5).
6
Starter solenoid faulty (Chapter 5).
7
Starter motor faulty (Chapter 5).
8
Ignition switch faulty (Chapter 12).
9
Starter pinion or flywheel teeth worn or
broken (Chapter 5).
10 Defective fusible link (see Chapter 12).
2
Engine rotates but will not start
1
Fuel tank empty.
2
Battery discharged (engine rotates slowly) (Chapter 5).
3
Battery terminal connections loose or
corroded (Chapters 1 and 5).
Leaking fuel injector(s), faulty fuel pump,
4
pressure regulator, etc. (Chapter 4).
5
Broken or stripped timing belt (Chapter 2).
6
Ignition components damp or damaged
(Chapter 5).
7
Worn, faulty or incorrectly gapped spark
plugs (Chapter 1).
Broken, loose or disconnected wiring in
8
the starting circuit (Chapter 5).
9
Broken, loose or disconnected wires at
the ignition coil(s) or faulty coil(s) (Chapter 5).
10 Defective crankshaft sensor, camshaft
sensor or PCM (see Chapter 6).
3
Engine hard to start when cold
1
Battery discharged or low (Chapter 1).
2
Malfunctioning fuel system (Chapter 4).
3
Faulty coolant temperature sensor or
intake air temperature sensor (Chapter 6).
4
Fuel injector(s) leaking (Chapter 4).
5
Faulty ignition system (Chapter 5).
6
Defective MAP sensor (see Chapter 6).
4
Engine hard to start when hot
1
Air filter clogged (Chapter 1).
Fuel not reaching the fuel injection sys2
tem (Chapter 4).
3
Corroded battery connections, especially ground (Chapters 1 and 5).
4
Faulty coolant temperature sensor or
intake air temperature sensor (Chapter 6).
5
Starter motor noisy or
excessively rough in engagement
Pinion or flywheel gear teeth worn or
broken (Chapter 5).
2
Starter motor mounting bolts loose or
missing (Chapter 5).
1
6
Engine starts but stops
i mmediately
1
Loose or faulty electrical connections at
ignition coil (Chapter 5).
2
Insufficient fuel reaching the fuel injector(s) (Chapters 4).
3
Vacuum leak at the gasket between the
intake manifold/plenum and throttle body
(Chapter 4).
4
Fault in the engine control system
(Chapter 6).
5
Intake air leaks, broken vacuum lines
(see Chapter 4).
Oil puddle under engine
1
Oil pan gasket and/or oil pan drain bolt
washer leaking (Chapter 2).
2
Oil pressure sending unit leaking (Chapter 2C).
3
Oil filter or adapter block leaking (Chapter 1).
4
Valve cover(s) leaking (Chapter 2).
5
Engine oil seals leaking (Chapter 2).
8
Engine lopes while idling or idles
erratically
1
Vacuum leakage (Chapters 2 and 4).
Leaking EGR valve or EGR vacuum lines
2
(Chapter 6).
3
Air filter clogged (Chapter 1).
Fuel pump not delivering sufficient fuel
4
to the fuel injection system (Chapter 4).
5
Leaking head gasket (Chapter 2).
Timing belt and/or pulleys worn (Chap6
ter 2).
7
Camshaft lobes worn (Chapter 2).
9
Engine misses at idle speed
1
Spark plugs worn or not gapped properly (Chapter 1).
2
Faulty spark plug wires (Chapter 1).
3
Vacuum leaks (Chapters 2 and 4).
4
Faulty ignition coil(s) (Chapter 5).
5
Uneven or low compression (Chapter 2).
6
Faulty fuel injector(s) (Chapter 4).
10 Engine misses throughout driving
speed range
1
Fuel filter clogged and/or impurities in
the fuel system (Chapter 4).
2
Low fuel output at the fuel injector(s)
(Chapter 4).
3
Faulty or incorrectly gapped spark plugs
(Chapter 1).
Defective spark plug wires (Chapters 1
4
or 5).
5
Faulty emission system components
(Chapter 6).
6
Low or uneven cylinder compression
pressures (Chapter 2).
7
Burned valves (Chapter 2).
Weak or faulty ignition system (Chap8
ter 5).
Vacuum leak in fuel injection system,
9
throttle body, intake manifold or vacuum
hoses (Chapter 4).
11
Engine stumbles on acceleration
1
Spark plugs fouled (Chapter 1).
2
Problem with fuel injection system
(Chapter 4).
3
Fuel filter clogged (Chapter 4).
4
Fault in the engine control system
(Chapter 6).
5
Intake manifold air leak (Chapters 2
and 4).
6
EGR system malfunction (Chapter 6).
Troubleshooting
12
Engine surges while holding
accelerator steady
1
Intake air leak (Chapter 4).
Fuel pump or fuel pressure regulator
2
faulty (Chapter 4).
3
Problem with fuel injection system
(Chapter 4).
4
Problem with the emissions control system (Chapter 6).
13
Engine stalls
1
Idle speed incorrect (Chapter 1).
2
Fuel filter clogged and/or water and
impurities in the fuel system (Chapter 4).
3
Ignition components damp or damaged
(Chapter 5).
4
Faulty emissions system components
(Chapter 6).
5
Faulty or incorrectly gapped spark plugs
(Chapter 1).
6
Faulty spark plug wires (Chapter 1).
7
Vacuum leak in the fuel injection system,
intake manifold or vacuum hoses (Chapters 2
and 4).
14 Engine lacks power
1
Worn camshaft lobes (Chapter 2).
Burned valves or incorrect valve timing
2
(Chapter 2).
3
Faulty spark plug wires or faulty coil(s)
(Chapters 1 and 5).
4
Faulty or incorrectly gapped spark plugs
(Chapter 1).
Problem with the fuel injection system
5
(Chapter 4).
6
Plugged air filter (Chapter 1).
Brakes binding (Chapter 9).
7
Automatic transaxle fluid level incorrect
8
(Chapter 1).
Clutch slipping (Chapter 8).
9
10 Fuel filter clogged and/or impurities in
the fuel system (Chapter 4).
11
Emission control system not functioning
properly (Chapter 6).
12 Low or uneven cylinder compression
pressures (Chapter 2).
13 Restricted exhaust system or catalytic
converter (Chapter 4).
15 Engine backfires
1
Emission control system not functioning
properly (Chapter 6).
2
Faulty spark plug wires or coil(s) (Chapter 5).
3
Problem with the fuel injection system
(Chapter 4).
4
Vacuum leak at fuel injector(s), intake
manifold or vacuum hoses (Chapters 2
and 4).
Burned valves or incorrect valve timing
5
(Chapter 2).
16 Pinging or knocking engine
sounds during acceleration or
uphill
1
Incorrect grade of fuel.
2
Problem with the engine control system
(Chapter 6).
3
Fuel injection system faulty (Chapter 4).
4
Improper or damaged spark plugs or
wires (Chapter 1).
EGR valve not functioning (Chapter 6).
5
6
Vacuum leak (Chapters 2 and 4).
17
Engine runs with oil pressure
light on
1'
Low oil level (Chapter 1).
2
Idle rpm below specification (Chapter 1).
3
Short in wiring circuit (Chapter 12).
4
Faulty oil pressure sender (Chapter 2C).
5
Worn engine bearings and/or oil pump
(Chapter 2).
18 Engine diesels (continues to run)
after switching off
1
Idle speed too high (Chapter 1).
2
Excessive engine operating temperature
(Chapter 3).
3
Excessive carbon deposits on valves
and pistons (see Chapter 2).
Engine electrical system
19
Alternator light fails to come on
when key is turned on
1
Warning light bulb defective (Chapter 12).
2
Fault in the printed circuit, dash wiring
or bulb holder (Chapter 12).
20 Alternator light fails to go out
1
Faulty alternator or charging circuit
(Chapter 5).
2
Alternator drivebelt defective or out of
adjustment (Chapter 1).
3
Alternator voltage regulator fault (Chapter 5).
21
Battery will not hold a charge
1
Alternator drivebelt defective or not
adjusted properly (slipping) (Chapter 1).
2
Battery electrolyte level low (not applicable on maintenance-free batteries) (Chapter 1).
3
Battery terminals loose or corroded
(Chapters 1 and 5).
0-21
Alternator not charging properly (Chap4
ter 5).
5
Loose, broken or faulty wiring in the
charging circuit (Chapter 5).
Short in vehicle wiring (Chapter 12).
6
7
Internally defective battery (Chapters 1
and 5).
Fuel and emissions systems
22
CHECK ENGINE light remains on
or is flashing
1
Light remains on:
a) Fuel filler cap (gas cap) is not seated or
tightened properly.
b) On-Board Diagnostic (OBD-ll) computer
has detected an emissions or fuel injection component fault (Chapter 6).
2
Light is flashing:
If the CHECK ENGINE light is flashing,
severe catalytic converter damage has
occurred and engine power loss will
soon result. Take the vehicle to your
nearest dealer service department or
other qualified shop for immediate
repair.
23 Excessive fuel consumption
1
Dirty or clogged air filter element (Chapter 1).
2
Emissions system not functioning properly (Chapter 6).
3
Fuel injection system not functioning
properly (Chapter 4).
4
Low tire pressure or incorrect tire size
(Chapter 1).
5
Dragging brakes (Chapter 9).
24 Fuel leakage and/or fuel odor
1
Leaking fuel feed or return line (Chapters 1 and 4).
2
Fuel tank overfilled.
3
Evaporative canister filter clogged
(Chapters 1 and 6).
4
Problem with fuel injection system
(Chapter 4).
Cooling system
25
Overheating
1
Insufficient coolant in system (Chapter 1).
2
Water pump defective (Chapter 3).
3
Radiator core blocked or grille restricted
(Chapter 3).
4
Thermostat faulty (Chapter 3).
5
Electric cooling fan inoperative or
blades broken (Chapter 3).
Troubleshooting
0-22
Radiator cap not maintaining proper
6
pressure (Chapter 3).
26 Overcooling
Faulty thermostat (Chapter 3).
1
2
Inaccurate temperature gauge sending
unit (Chapter 3).
27 External coolant leakage
Deteriorated/damaged hoses; loose
1
clamps (Chapters 1 and 3).
Water pump defective (Chapter 3).
2
Leakage from radiator core or coolant
3
reservoir (Chapter 3).
Engine drain or water jacket core plugs
4
leaking (Chapter 2).
28 Internal coolant leakage
Leaking cylinder head gasket (Chap1
ter 2).
2
Cracked cylinder bore or cylinder head
(Chapter 2).
29 Coolant loss
Too much coolant in system (Chapter 1).
1
2
Coolant boiling away because of overheating (Chapter 3).
Internal or extemal leakage (Chapter 3).
3
4
Faulty pressure cap (Chapter 3).
30 Poor coolant circulation
Inoperative water pump (Chapter 3).
1
Restriction in cooling system (Chap2
ters 1 and 3).
Thermostat sticking (Chapter 3).
3
Clutch
31
Pedal travels to floor - no pressure
or very little resistance
33 Clutch slips (engine speed
increases with no increase in
vehicle speed)
1
Clutch plate worn (Chapter 8).
Clutch plate is oil soaked by leaking rear
2
main seal (Chapter 8).
3
Clutch plate not seated (Chapter 8).
Warped pressure plate or flywheel
4
(Chapter 8).
5
Weak clutch diaphragm springs (Chapter 8).
Clutch plate overheated. Allow to cool.
6
7
Faulty clutch self-adjusting mechanism
(Chapter 8).
34 Grabbing (chattering) as clutch is
engaged
Oil on clutch plate lining, burned or
1
glazed facings (Chapter 8).
2
Worn or loose engine or transaxle
mounts (Chapters 2 and 7).
Worn splines on clutch plate hub (Chap3
ter 8).
4
Warped pressure plate (Chapter 8).
Burned or smeared resin on pressure
5
plate (Chapter 8).
35 Transaxle rattling (clicking)
1
2
Release fork loose (Chapter 8).
Low engine idle speed (Chapter 1).
36
Noise in clutch area
1
Faulty throw-out bearing (Chapter 8).
37
Clutch pedal stays on floor
1
Broken release bearing or fork (Chap ter 8).
2
Broken or disconnected clutch cable
(Chapter 8).
38 High pedal effort
Broken or disconnected clutch cable
1
(Chapter 8).
2
Broken release bearing or fork (Chapter 8).
1
2
32 Unable to select gears
Manual transaxle
1
Faulty transaxle (Chapter 7).
Faulty clutch disc or pressure plate
2
(Chapter 8).
Faulty release lever or release bearing
3
(Chapter 8).
4
Faulty shift lever assembly or rods
(Chapter 8).
39 Knocking noise at low speeds
Binding clutch cable (Chapter 8).
Pressure plate faulty (Chapter 8).
Worn driveaxle constant velocity (CV)
1
joints (Chapter 8).
Worn side gear shaft counterbore in dif2
ferential case (Chapter 7A).*
40 Noise most pronounced when
turning
1
Differential gear noise (Chapter 7A).*
41
Clunk on acceleration or
deceleration
1
Loose engine or transaxle mounts
(Chapters 2 and 7A).
Worn differential pinion shaft in case.*
2
Worn side gear shaft counterbore in dif3
ferential case (Chapter 7A).*
Worn or damaged driveaxle inboard CV
4
joints (Chapter 8).
42 Clicking noise in turns
Worn or damaged outboard CV joint
1
(Chapter 8).
43 Vibration
1
Rough wheel bearing (Chapters 1
and 10).
Damaged driveaxle (Chapter 8).
2
Out of round tires (Chapter 1).
3
4
Tire out of balance (Chapters 1 and 10).
Worn CV joint (Chapter 8).
5
44 Noisy in Neutral with engine
running
1
Damaged input gear bearing (Chapter 7A).*
Damaged clutch release bearing (Chap2
ter 8).
45 Noisy in one particular gear
Damaged or worn constant mesh gears
1
(Chapter 7A).*
2
Damaged or worn synchronizers (Chapter 7A).*
Bent reverse fork (Chapter 7A).*
3
4
Damaged fourth speed gear or output
gear (Chapter 7A).*
Worn or damaged reverse idler gear or
5
idler bushing (Chapter 7A).*
46
Noisy in all gears
Insufficient lubricant (Chapters 1 and 7A).
1
2
Damaged or worn bearings (Chap ter 7A).*
3
Worn or damaged input gear shaft
and/or output gear shaft (Chapter 7A).*
Troubleshooting
b) Dipstick tube (Chapters 1 and 7).
c) Transaxle oil cooler lines (Chapter 7).
d) Speed sensor (Chapter 7).
e) Driveaxle oil seals (Chapter 7).
47 Slips out of gear
1
Worn or improperly adjusted linkage
(Chapter 7A).
2
Transaxle loose on engine (Chapter 7A).
3
Shift linkage does not work freely, binds
(Chapter 7A).
4
Input gear bearing retainer broken or
loose (Chapter 7A).*
Dirt between clutch cover and engine
5
housing (Chapter 7A).
6
Worn shift fork (Chapter 7A).*
48 Leaks lubricant
1
Driveshaft seals worn (Chapter 7A).
2
Excessive amount of lubricant in
transaxle (Chapters 1 and 7A).
3
Loose or broken input gear shaft bearing retainer (Chapter 7A).*
4
Input gear bearing retainer 0-ring and/or
li p seal damaged (Chapter 7A).*
5
Vehicle speed sensor 0-ring leaking
(Chapter 7A).
0-23
Driveaxles
56
Clicking noise in turns
1
51
Transaxle fluid brown or has a
burned smell
1
Transaxle fluid overheated - change
fluid and filter (Chapter 1).
52 General shift mechanism
problems
1
Chapter 7, Part B, deals with checking
and adjusting the shift linkage on automatic
transaxles. Common problems which may be
attributed to poorly adjusted linkage are:
a) Engine starting in gears other than Park
or Neutral.
b) Indicator on shifter pointing to a gear
other than the one actually being used.
c) Vehicle moves when in Park.
2
Refer to Chapter 7B for the shift linkage
adjustment procedure.
Worn or damaged outboard CV joint
(Chapter 8).
57
Shudder or vibration during
acceleration
1
Excessive toe-in (Chapter 10).
2
Incorrect spring heights (Chapter 10).
3
Worn or damaged inboard or outboard
CV joints (Chapter 8).
4
Sticking inboard CV joint assembly
(Chapter 8).
58 Vibration at highway speeds
1
Out of balance front wheels and/or tires
(Chapters 1 and 10).
2
Out of round front tires (Chapters 1
and 10).
3
Worn CV joint(s) (Chapter 8).
49 Hard to shift
1
Shift linkage loose or worn (Chapter 7A).
2
Crossover cable out of adjustment.
*Although the corrective action necessary to
remedy the symptoms described is beyond
the scope of this manual, the above information should be helpful in isolating the cause of
the condition so that the owner can communicate clearly with a professional mechanic.
Automatic transaxle
Note: Due to the complexity of the automatic
transaxle, it is difficult for the home mechanic
to properly diagnose and service this component. For problems other than the following,
the vehicle should be taken to a dealer service department or other qualified transmission shop.
50 Fluid leakage
1
Automatic transaxle fluid is a deep red
color. Fluid leaks should not be confused
with engine oil, which can easily be blown
onto the transaxle by air flow.
To pinpoint a leak, first remove all built2
up dirt and grime from the transaxle housing
with degreasing agents and/or steam cleaning. Then drive the vehicle at low speeds so
air flow will not blow the leak far from its
source. Raise the vehicle and determine
where the leak is coming from. Common
areas of leakage are:
a) Pan (Chapters 1 and 7)
53 Transaxle will not downshift with
accelerator pedal pressed to the
floor
Brakes
1
The transaxle is electronically controlled. This type of problem - which is
caused by a malfunction in the Transmission
Control Module (TCM), a sensor or solenoid,
or the circuit itself - is beyond the scope of
this manual. Have the problem diagnosed by
a dealer service department or other qualified
automatic transmission shop.
Note: Before assuming that a brake problem
exists, make sure that:
a) The tires are in good condition and
properly inflated (Chapter 1).
b) The front end alignment is correct
(Chapter 10).
c) The vehicle is not loaded with weight in
an unequal manner.
54
Engine will start in gears other
than Park or Neutral
59
Vehicle pulls to one side during
braking
1
1
Neutral start switch out of adjustment or
malfunctioning (Chapter 7B).
55 Transaxle slips, shifts roughly, is
noisy or has no drive in forward
or reverse gears
1
There are many probable causes for the
above problems, but the home mechanic
should be concerned with only one possibility
- fluid level. Before taking the vehicle to a
repair shop, check the level and condition of
the fluid and/or filter as described in Chapter 1. Correct the fluid level as necessary or
change the fluid and filter if needed. If the
problem persists, have a professional diagnose the cause.
Incorrect tire pressures (Chapter 1).
2
Front end out of alignment (have the
front end aligned).
Front tire sizes or tread types not
3
matched to one another.
4
Restricted brake lines or hoses (Chapter 9).
5
Malfunctioning/leaking brake cylinder or
caliper assembly (Chapter 9).
Loose suspension parts (Chapter 10).
6
7
Loose calipers (Chapter 9).
Excessive wear of brake shoe or pad
8
material or disc/drum on one side.
60 Noise (high-pitched squeal when
the brakes are applied)
1
Front disc brake pads worn out. The
noise comes from the wear sensor rubbing
0-24
Troubleshooting
against the disc (does not apply to all vehicles). Replace pads with new ones immediately (Chapter 9).
66 Brake pedal feels spongy when
depressed
61
1
Air in hydraulic lines (Chapter 9).
2
Master cylinder mounting bolts loose
(Chapter 9).
3
Master cylinder defective (Chapter 9).
Brake roughness or chatter
(pedal pulsates)
1
Excessive lateral runout (Chapter 9).
2
Uneven pad wear (Chapter 9).
3
Defective disc (Chapter 9).
4
If the vehicle is equipped with an antilock brake system (ABS), brake pedal pulsation and associated noises are normal when
severe braking is required.
62 Excessive brake pedal effort
required to stop vehicle
1
Malfunctioning power brake booster
(Chapter 9).
2
Partial system failure (Chapter 9).
3
Excessively worn pads or shoes (Chapter 9).
4
Piston in caliper or wheel cylinder stuck
or sluggish (Chapter 9).
5
Brake pads or shoes contaminated with
oil or grease (Chapter 9).
6
Brake disc grooved and/or glazed
(Chapter 1).
7
New pads or shoes installed and not yet
seated. It will take a while for the new material to seat against the disc or drum.
63 Excessive brake pedal travel
1
Partial brake system failure (Chapter 9).
2
Insufficient fluid in master cylinder
(Chapters 1 and 9).
3
Air trapped in system (Chapters 1 and 9).
64 Dragging brakes
1
Incorrect adjustment of brake light
switch (Chapter 9).
2
Master cylinder pistons not returning
correctly (Chapter 9).
3
Restricted brakes lines or hoses (Chapters 1 and 9).
4
Incorrect parking brake adjustment
(Chapter 9).
65 Grabbing or uneven braking
action
1
Malfunction of proportioning valve
(Chapter 9).
2
Malfunction of power brake booster unit
(Chapter 9).
Binding brake pedal mechanism (Chap3
ter 9).
71
Wheel makes a thumping noise
1
2
Blister or bump on tire (Chapter 10).
Faulty shock absorber(s) (Chapter 10).
72 Shimmy, shake or vibration
1
Little or no fluid in the master cylinder
reservoir caused by leaking caliper piston(s)
(Chapter 9).
2
Loose, damaged or disconnected brake
li nes (Chapter 9).
1
Tire or wheel out-of-balance or out-ofround (Chapter 10).
2
Loose or worn wheel bearings (Chapters 1, 8 and 10).
3
Worn tie-rod ends (Chapter 10).
4
Worn lower balljoints (Chapters 1
and 10).
5
Excessive wheel runout (Chapter 10).
6
Blister or bump on tire (Chapter 10).
68 Parking brake does not hold
73 Hard steering
1
Parking brake cables improperly
adjusted (Chapters 1 and 9).
1
Lack of lubrication at balljoints, tie-rod
ends and rack and pinion assembly ,(Chapter 10).
2
Low power steering fluid level (Chapter 1).
3
Faulty power steering pump (Chapter 10).
4
Front wheel alignment out-of-specifications (Chapter 10).
5
Low tire pressure(s) (Chapters 1 and 10).
67 Brake pedal travels to the floor
with little resistance
Suspension and steering systems
Note: Before attempting to diagnose suspension and steering system problems, perform
the following preliminary checks:
a) Tires for wrong pressure and uneven
wear.
b) Steering universal joints from the column to the rack and pinion for loose
connectors or wear.
c) Front and rear suspension and the rack
and pinion assembly for loose or damaged parts.
d) Out-of-round or out-of-balance tires,
bent rims and loose and/or rough wheel
bearings.
69 Vehicle pulls to one side
1
Mismatched or uneven tires (Chapter 10).
2
Broken or sagging coil springs (Chapter 10).
3
Wheel alignment out-of-specification
(Chapter 10).
4
Front brake dragging (Chapter 9).
74 Poor returnability of steering to
center
1
Lack of lubrication at balljoints and tierod ends (Chapter 10).
2
Binding in balljoints (Chapter 10).
3
Binding in steering column (Chapter 10).
4
Lack of lubricant in steering gear
assembly (Chapter 10).
5
Front wheel alignment out-of-specifications (Chapter 10).
75 Abnormal noise at the front end
1
Lack of lubrication at balljoints and tierod ends (Chapters 1 and 10).
2
Damaged strut mounting (Chapter 10).
3
Worn control arm bushings or tie-rod
ends (Chapter 10).
4
Loose stabilizer bar (Chapter 10).
5
Loose wheel nuts (Chapters 1 and 10).
6
Loose suspension bolts (Chapter 10)
70 Abnormal or excessive tire wear
1
Wheel alignment out-of-specification
(Chapter 10).
2
Sagging or broken coil springs (Chapter 10).
3
Tire out-of-balance (Chapter 10).
4
Worn shock absorber (Chapter 10).
5
Overloaded vehicle.
6
Tires not rotated regularly.
76 Wander or poor steering stability
1
Mismatched or unevenly worn tires
(Chapter 10).
2
Lack of lubrication at balljoints and tierod ends (Chapters 1 and 10).
3
Bad shock absorber(s) (Chapter 10).
4
Loose stabilizer bar (Chapter 10).
Troubleshooting
5
Broken or sagging coil springs (Chapter 10).
Wheels out of alignment (Chapter 10).
6
77 Erratic steering when braking
3
Incorrect, broken or sagging coil springs
(Chapter 10).
0-25
2
Front end alignment incorrect (toe-out).
Have professionally aligned.
3
Loose or damaged steering components (Chapter 10).
80 Cupped tires
1
Front wheel or rear wheel alignment outof-specifications (Chapter 10).
2
Worn shock absorbers (Chapter 10).
3
Wheel bearings worn (Chapter 10).
4
Excessive tire or wheel runout (Chapter 10).
5
Worn balljoints (Chapter 10).
83 Tire tread worn in one place
78 Excessive pitching and/or rolling
around corners or during braking
81
84 Excessive play or looseness in
steering system
1
Loose stabilizer bar (Chapter 10).
2 • Worn shock absorbers or mountings
(Chapter 10).
Broken or sagging coil springs (Chap3
ter 10).
4
Overloaded vehicle.
1
Inflation pressures incorrect (Chapter 1).
2
Excessive speed during turns.
3
Front end alignment incorrect (excessive
toe-in). Have professionally aligned.
4
Suspension arm bent or twisted (Chapter 10).
79 Suspension bottoms
82 Excessive tire wear on inside
edge
1
Wheel bearings worn (Chapter 10).
2
Broken or sagging coil springs (Chapter 10).
3
Leaking wheel cylinder or caliper (Chapter 10).
4
Warped rotors or drums (Chapter 10).
1
2
Overloaded vehicle.
Worn shock absorbers (Chapter 10).
1
Excessive tire wear on outside
edge
Inflation pressures incorrect (Chapter 1).
1
Tires out-of-balance.
2
Damaged or buckled wheel. Inspect and
replace if necessary.
3
Defective tire (Chapter 1).
1
Wheel bearing(s) worn (Chapter 10).
2
Tie-rod end loose (Chapter 10).
3
Steering gear loose (Chapter 10).
4
Worn or loose steering intermediate
shaft (Chapter 10).
85 Rattling or clicking noise in
steering gear
1
2
Steering gear loose (Chapter 10).
Steering gear defective.
0-26
Troubleshooting
Notes
1-1
Chapter 1
Tune-up and routine maintenance
Contents
Section
Air filter replacement ......................................................................
22
Automatic transaxle fluid and filter change ....................................
23
Automatic transaxle fluid level check .............................................
6
Battery check, maintenance and charging ....................................
9
Brake system check .......................................................................
18
Chassis lubrication .........................................................................
21
Cooling system check ....................................................................
10
Cooling system servicing (draining, flushing and refilling) .............
25
Driveaxle boot check .....................................................................
17
Drivebelt check, adjustment and replacement ..............................
20
Engine oil and filter change ............................................................
8
Evaporative emissions control system check ................................
26
Exhaust system check ...................................................................
15
Fluid level checks ...........................................................................
4
Fuel filter replacement ....................................................................
30
Fuel system hoses and connections check...................................
19
Section
Introduction ....................................................................................
2
Maintenance schedule ...................................................................
1
Manual transaxle lubricant change ................................................
24
Manual transaxle lubricant level check ..........................................
16
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) valve check
and replacement.......................................................................
28
Power steering fluid level check ....................................................
7
Spark plug check and replacement ...............................................
27
Spark plug wires, distributor cap and rotor - check
and replacement .......................................................................
29
Steering and suspension check .....................................................
14
Tire and tire pressure checks .........................................................
5
Tire rotation ....................................................................................
13
Tune-up general information ..........................................................
3
Underhood hose check and replacement ......................................
11
Wiper blade inspection and replacement ......................................
12
Specifications
Recommended lubricants and fluids
Engine oil
Type............................................................................................................ API Certified, SG, SG/CD, SH, or SH/CD multi-grade
and fuel efficient oil
Viscosity ..................................................................................................... See accompanying chart
Manual transaxle lubricant ............................................................................... Mopar manual transaxle fluid type MS 9417 or equivalent
Automatic transaxle fluid ..................................................................................Mopar automatic transaxle fluid ATF type 7176 or equivalent
HOT
WEATHER
Engine oil viscosity chart - For
best fuel economy and cold
starting, select the lowest SAE
viscosity grade for the
expected temperature range
LOOK FOR
ONE OF
THESE LABELS
ME 5W-30
COLD
WEATHER
1-a3
HAYNES
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
1-2
Recommended lubricants and fluids
Power steering fluid .................................................................................
Brake fluid ................................................................................................
Engine coolant .........................................................................................
Parking brake mechanism grease ...........................................................
Chassis lubrication grease ......................................................................
Hood, door and trunk hinge lubricant .....................................................
Hood latch, door hinge and check spring grease ...................................
Key lock cylinder lubricant ......................................................................
Door latch striker lubricant ......................................................................
Mopar power steering fluid or equivalent
DOT 3 brake fluid
50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze and water
White lithium-based grease NLGI no. 2
NLGI no. 2 LB grease
Engine oil
NLGI no. 2 multi-purpose grease
Graphite spray
Mopar Door Ease no. 3744859 or equivalent .
Capacities*
Engine oil (including filter)
V6 and 2.0L four-cylinder engines.....................................................
2.4L four-cylinder engine ...................................................................
Fuel tank..................................................................................................
Automatic transaxle
Dry fill (including torque converter) ....................................................
Drain and refill ....................................................................................
Manual transaxle .....................................................................................
Cooling system
2.0L four-cylinder engine ...................................................................
2.4L four-cylinder engine....................................................................
V6 engine...........................................................................................
All capacities approximate. Add as necessary to bring to appropriate level.
4.5 quarts
5.0 quarts
16 gallons
9.1 quarts
4.0 quarts
2.2 quarts
8.5 quarts
9.0 quarts
10.5 quarts
Brakes
Disc brake pad wear limit ........................................................................
Drum brake shoe wear limit .............................................. :.....................
1/8 inch
1/16 inch
Ignition system
Spark plug type
2.0L four-cylinder engine ...................................................................
2.4L four-cylinder engine...................................................................
V6 engine...........................................................................................
Spark plug gap
2.0L four-cylinder engine ...................................................................
2.4L four-cylinder engine...................................................................
V6.......................................................................................................
Spark plug wire resistance
Four-cylinder engines
Wire numbers 1 and 4 ..................................................................
Wire numbers 2 and 3...................................................................
V6 engine
Minimum .......................................................................................
Maximum......................................................................................
Firing order
Four-cylinder engines .........................................................................
V6 engine...........................................................................................
FRONT
OF
VEHICLE
0000
125015-1-SPECS. HAYNES'
Four-cylinder engine cylinder numbering and
coil terminal locations
Champion RCY9C or equivalent
Champion RC12YC5 or equivalent
Champion RC10PYP4 or equivalent
0.033 to 0.038 inch
0.048 to 0.053 inch
0.038 to 0.043 inch
3,500 to 4,900 ohms
2,950 to 4,100 ohms
250 ohms per inch (3,000 ohms per foot)
560 ohms per inch (6,700 ohms per foot)
1-3-4-2
1-2-3-4-5-6
V6 engine cylinder
numbering and
distributor cap
terminal locations
1,
01
4
FRONT
OF
VEHICLE
FIRING ORDER
1-2-3-4-5-6
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
Torque specifications
Automatic transaxle oil pan bolts ............................................................
Engine oil pan drain plug .........................................................................
Manual transaxle drain plug ....................................................................
Spark plugs..............................................................................................
Wheel lug nuts.........................................................................................
1-3
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
165 in-lbs
25
22
20
80 to 110
1
Typical engine compartment layout (V6 engine shown)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Power steering fluid reservoir
Brake fluid reservoir
Transmission fluid dipstick
Battery negative remote terminal
Air filter housing
Battery positive remote terminal
Power Distribution Center (PDC) - fuses and relays
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Upper radiator hose
Engine coolant pressure/filler cap
Spark plug boot
Engine oil filler cap
Engine oil dipstick
Windshield washer reservoir
Engine coolant reservoir
1-4
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
Typical engine
compartment
underside
components (V6
engine shown)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Air conditioning
compressor
Engine oil drain
plug
Engine oil filter
Exhaust
crossover pipe
Starter motor
Automatic
transaxle fluid pan
Driveaxle inner
CV joint boot
Front suspension
crossmember
Battery location
(inside fenderwell)
Driveaxle outer
CV joint boot
Front brake
caliper
Front stabilizer
bar
Catalytic
converter
Shock absorber
lower mount
Front suspension
lower control arm
Typical rear
underside
components
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Rear suspension
upper control arm
Rear stabilizer bar
Lateral links
Fuel tank drain
plug
Fuel tank
retaining straps
Rear suspension
crossmember
Muffler
Coil/shock
absorber
assembly
Trailing arm
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
1
1-5
Chrysler Cirrus, Dodge Stratus, and
Plymouth Breeze maintenance schedule
The following maintenance intervals are based on the assumption
that the vehicle owner will be doing the maintenance or service work,
as opposed to having a dealer service department do the work.
Although the time/mileage intervals are loosely based on factory recommendations, most have been shortened to ensure, for example, that
such items as lubricants and fluids are checked/changed at intervals
that promote maximum engine/driveline service life. Also, subject to
the preference of the individual owner interested in keeping his or her
vehicle in peak condition at all times, and with the vehicle's ultimate
resale in mind, many of the maintenance procedures may be performed more often than recommended in the following schedule. We
encourage such owner initiative.
When the vehicle is new it should be serviced initially by a factory
authorized dealer service department to protect the factory warranty.
In many cases the initial maintenance check is done at no cost to the
owner (check with your dealer service department for more information).
Every 250 miles or weekly, whichever comes first
Check the engine oil level; add oil as necessary (see Section 4)
Check the engine coolant level; add coolant as necessary
(see Section 4)
Check the windshield washer fluid level (see Section 4)
Check the brake fluid level (see Section 4)
Check the tires and tire pressures (see Section 5)
Check the automatic transaxle fluid level (see Section 6)
Check the power steering fluid level (see Section 7)
Check the operation of all lights
Check the horn operation
Every 7500 miles or 6 months,
whichever comes first
Change the engine oil and filter (see Section 8)*
Check and clean the battery and terminals (see Section 9)
Check the manual transaxle fluid level (see Section 16)
Check the cooling system hoses and connections for leaks
and damage (see Section 10)
Check the condition of all vacuum hoses and connections
(see Section 11)
Check the wiper blade condition (see Section 12)
Rotate the tires (see Section 13)
Check for free play in the steering linkage and ball joints
(see Section 14)
Check the CV joints and front suspension components
(see Section 14)
Check the driveaxle boots (see Section 17)
Check the exhaust pipes and hangers (see Section 15)
Inspect brake hoses (see Section 11)
Every 15,000 miles or 12 months,
whichever comes first
All items listed above, plus:
Check the brake system (see Section 18)
Check the fuel system hoses and connections for leaks and
damage (see Section 19)
Check the drivebelts and adjust if necessary (see Section 20)
Every 30,000 miles or 24 months,
whichever comes first
All items listed above, plus:
Lubricate the front and rear suspension and steering ball joints
(see Section 21)*
Replace the air filter element (see Section 22)*
Change the automatic transaxle fluid and filter
(see Section 23)*
Change the manual transaxle lubricant (see Section 24)*
Check the fuel evaporative emission system hoses
(see Section 26)
Replace the spark plugs (four-cylinder engines)
(see Section 27)
Check the spark plug wires (see Section 29)
Drain and replace the engine coolant (see Section 25)
Every 60,000 miles or 48 months,
whichever comes first
All items listed above, plus:
Check and replace, if necessary, the PCV valve
(see Section 28)*
Replace drivebelts (see Section 20)
Replace spark plug wires (four-cylinder engines)
(see Section 29)
Every 100,000 miles or 84 months,
whichever comes first
Replace the spark plugs (V6 engine) (see Section 27)*
Replace the spark plug wires, distributor cap and rotor
(V6 engine) (see Section 29)*
Replace the timing belt (see Chapter 2)
*This item is affected by "severe" operating conditions as
described below. If the vehicle in question is operated under
"severe" conditions, perform all maintenance procedures marked
with an asterisk (*) at the intervals specified by the mileage
headings below.
Consider the conditions "severe" if most driving is done .. .
In dusty areas
Towing a trailer
Idling for extended periods and/or low-speed operation
When outside temperatures remain below freezing and most
trips are less than four miles
In heavy city traffic where outside temperatures regularly reach
90-degrees F or higher
1
1-6
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
Maintenance schedule (continued)
Every 3000 miles
Every 30,000 miles
Change the engine oil and filter (see Section 8)
Check and replace, if necessary, the PCV valve (see
Section 28)
Every 15,000 miles
Check and replace, if necessary, the air filter element (see
Section 22)
Change the automatic transaxle fluid and filter (see Section 23)
Change the manual transaxle lubricant (see Section 24)
Lubricate the front and rear suspension and steering ball joints
(see Section 21)
2
Introduction
This Chapter is designed to help the
home mechanic maintain the Chrysler Cirrus,
Dodge Stratus and Plymouth Breeze models
with the goals of maximum performance,
economy, safety and reliability in mind.
Included is a master maintenance
schedule, followed by procedures dealing
specifically with each item on the schedule.
Visual checks, adjustments, component
replacement and other helpful items are
included. Refer to the accompanying illustrations of the engine compartment and the
underside of the vehicle for the locations of
various components.
Adhering to the mileage/time maintenance schedule and following the step-bystep procedures, which is simply a preventive
maintenance program, will result in maximum
reliability and vehicle service life. Keep in
mind that it's a comprehensive program maintaining some items but not others at the
specified intervals will not produce the same
results.
As you service the vehicle, you'll discover that many of the procedures can - and
should - be grouped together because of the
nature of the particular procedure you're performing or because of the close proximity of
two otherwise unrelated components to one
another.
For example, if the vehicle is raised, you
should inspect the exhaust, suspension,
steering and fuel systems while you're under
the vehicle. When you're rotating the tires, it
makes good sense to check the brakes,
since the wheels are already removed.
Finally, let's suppose you have to borrow or
rent a torque wrench. Even if you only need it
to tighten the spark plugs, you might as well
check the torque of as many critical fasteners
as time allows.
The first step in this maintenance program is to prepare yourself before the actual
work begins. Read through all the procedures
you're planning to do, then gather up all the
parts and tools needed. If it looks like you
might run into problems during a particular
Every 75,000 miles
Replace the spark plugs (V6 engine) (see Section 27)
Replace the spark plug wires (V6 engine) (see Section 29)
job, seek advice from a mechanic or an experienced do-it-yourselfer.
3
Clean, inspect and test the battery
(see Section 9)
Replace the spark plugs (see
Section 27)
Inspect the spark plug wires (see
Section 29)
Check and adjust the drivebelts (see
Section 20)
Check the air filter (see Section 22)
Check the PCV valve (see Section 28)
Check all underhood hoses (see
Section 11)
Service the cooling system (see
Section 25)
Tune-up general information
The term "tune-up" is used in this manual to represent a combination of individual
operations rather than one specific procedure.
If, from the time the vehicle is new, the
routine maintenance schedule is followed
closely and frequent checks are made of fluid
levels and high wear items, as suggested
throughout this manual, the engine will be
kept in relatively good running condition and
the need for additional work will be minimized.
More likely than not, however, there will
be times when the engine is running poorly
due to lack of regular maintenance. This is
even more likely if a used vehicle, which hasn't received regular and frequent maintenance checks, is purchased. In such cases,
an engine tune-up will be needed outside of
the regular routine maintenance intervals.
The first step in any tune-up or diagnostic procedure to help correct a poor running
engine is a cylinder compression check. A
compression check (see Chapter 2, Part C)
will help determine the condition of internal
engine components and should be used as a
guide for tune-up and repair procedures. For
instance, if a compression check indicates
serious internal engine wear, a conventional
tune-up will not improve the performance of
the engine and would be a waste of time and
money. Because of its importance, the compression check should be done by someone
with the right equipment and the knowledge
to use it properly.
The following procedures are those
most often needed to bring a generally poor
running engine back into a proper state of
tune:
Minor tune-up
Check all engine related fluids
(see Section 4)
Major tune-up
All items listed under Minor tune-up plus .. .
Replace the air filter (see Section 22)
Check the fuel system (see Section 19)
Check the charging system (see
Chapter 5)
4
Fluid level checks (every 250
miles or weekly)
Note: The following are fluid level checks to
be done on a 250 mile or weekly basis. Additional fluid level checks can be found in specific maintenance procedures which follow.
Regardless of the intervals, develop the habit
of checking under the vehicle periodically for
evidence of fluid leaks.
1
Fluids are an essential part of the lubrication, cooling, brake and window washer
systems. Because the fluids gradually
become depleted and/or contaminated during normal operation of the vehicle, they must
be replenished periodically. See Recommended lubricants and fluids at the beginning
of this Chapter before adding fluid to any of
the following components. Note: The vehicle
must be on level ground when fluid levels are
checked.
Engine oil
Refer to illustrations 4.2a, 4.2b, 4.4 and 4.5
2
The engine oil level is checked with a
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
4.2a The engine oil dipstick is located at
the front left (passenger's) side of the
engine (four-cylinder engine shown)
dipstick which is located on the side of the
engine facing the front of the vehicle (see
illustrations). The dipstick extends through a
tube and into the oil pan at the bottom of the
engine.
3
The oil level should be checked before
the vehicle has been driven, or about 15 minutes after the engine has been shut off. If the
oil is checked immediately after driving the
vehicle, some of the oil will remain in the
upper engine components, resulting in an
inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
4
Pull the dipstick out of the tube and
wipe all the oil off the end with a clean rag or
paper towel. Insert the clean dipstick all the
way back into the tube, then pull it out again.
Note the oil level at the end of the dipstick.
Add oil as necessary to bring the oil level to
the second notch in the dipstick (see illustration).
5
Oil is added to the engine after removing
a cap located on the valve cover (see illustration). The cap will be marked "Engine oil".
Use a funnel to reduce spills as the oil is
added.
6
Don't allow the level to drop below the
lower notch on the dipstick or engine damage may occur. On the other hand, don't
overfill the engine by adding too much oil - it
may result in oil aeration and loss of oil pressure and also could result in oil fouled spark
plugs, oil leaks or seal failures.
Checking the oil level is an important
7
preventive maintenance step. A consistently
low oil level indicates oil leakage through
damaged seals, defective gaskets or past
worn rings or valve guides. If the oil looks
milky in color or has water droplets in it, the
block or head may be cracked and leaking
coolant is entering the crankcase. The engine
should be checked immediately. The condition of the oil should also be checked. Each
ti me you check the oil level, slide your thumb
and index finger up the dipstick before wiping
off the oil. If you see small dirt or metal particles clinging to the dipstick, the oil should be
changed (see Section 8).
4.2b Engine oil dipstick location V6 engine
4.5 Turn the oil filler cap
counterclockwise to remove it
(four-cylinder engine shown)
Engine coolant
Refer to illustrations 4.9 and 4.10
Warning: Do not allow coolant (antifreeze) to
come in contact with your skin or painted surfaces of the vehicle. Flush contaminated
areas immediately with plenty of water. Don't
store new coolant or leave old coolant lying
around where it's accessible to children or
pets - they're attracted by its sweet smell.
Ingestion of even a small amount of coolant
can be fatal! Wipe up garage floor and drip
pan spills immediately. Keep antifreeze containers covered and repair cooling system
leaks as soon as they are noticed. Check with
local authorities about the disposal of used
antifreeze. Many communities have collection
centers which will see that antifreeze is disposed of properly.
8
All vehicles covered by this manual are
equipped with a pressurized coolant recovery
system. A coolant reservoir (expansion tank)
is attached to the engine compartment firewall on the right (passenger's) side is connected by a hose to the engine coolant system filler neck. As the engine warms up, the
system pressure increases causing some
1-7
4.4 The oil level should be between the
notches on the dipstick - if it isn't, add
enough oil to bring the level up to or near
the upper notch (do not overfill)
4.9 With the engine COLD, remove the
engine coolant pressure cap - the coolant
level should be up to the pressure cap
seat inside the filler neck
coolant to escape through a valve in the radiator cap and travel through the hose and into
the coolant reservoir. As the engine cools, the
coolant in the reservoir is automatically
drawn back into the cooling system via the
vacuum created by the contracting coolant.
This recovery type system maintains the
maximum amount of coolant available at all
ti mes.
9
Warning: Never remove the pressure
cap on the filler neck to add coolant while the
engine is warm! If the cap feels even slightly
warm, wrap a towel or rag around the cap
and open it very slowly. With the engine cold,
remove the coolant system filler cap (see
illustration). The coolant level should be up
to the pressure cap seat inside the filler neck.
If it is low, add a mixture of high-quality
antifreeze/coolant and water in the ratio
specified on the antifreeze container or in this
Chapter's Specification Section to bring it up
to the correct level.
10 The coolant level in the recovery tank
should be checked while the engine is at normal operating temperature. Simply note the
fluid level in the reservoir - it should be at or
1
1-8
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
4.10 Engine coolant (1) and windshield
washer (2) reservoirs
close to the FULL HOT mark when the engine
is at normal operating temperature (see illustration).
11
If only a small amount of coolant is
required to bring the system up to the proper
level, ordinary tap water may be used. However, to maintain the proper antifreeze/water
mixture in the system, a blend of high-quality
antifreeze/coolant and water in the ratio
specified on the antifreeze container or in this
Chapter's Specification Section should be
added.
12 As the coolant level is checked, note the
condition of the coolant as well. It should be
relatively clean and the color of new
antifreeze. If it's brown or rust colored, the
system should be drained, flushed and
refilled (see Section 25).
13 If the coolant level drops consistently,
there is a leak in the system. Check the radiator, hoses, filler cap, drain plugs and water
pump (see Section 25). If no leaks are noted,
have the filler cap and coolant system pressure tested by your dealer service department or other qualified service station.
Windshield washer fluid
14 The fluid for the windshield washer system is stored in a plastic reservoir. The reservoir level should be maintained about one
inch below the filler cap. The reservoir is
accessible after opening the hood and is
located on the right (passenger's) side of the
engine compartment next to the coolant
recovery tank (see illustration 4.10).
15 In milder climates, plain water can be
used in the reservoir, but it should be kept no
more than two-thirds full to allow for expansion if the water freezes. In colder climates,
use windshield washer system antifreeze,
available at any auto parts store, to lower the
freezing point of the fluid. Mix the antifreeze
with water in accordance with the manufacturer's directions on the container. Caution:
DO NOT use cooling system antifreeze - it will
damage the vehicle's paint. To help prevent
icing in cold weather, warm the windshield
with the defroster before using the washer.
4.17 The brake fluid level, indicated on
the translucent white plastic brake fluid
reservoir, should be kept at the FULL
mark (arrow)
Brake fluid
Refer to illustration 4.17
16 The brake fluid reservoir is located on
top of the brake master cylinder on the
driver's side of the engine compartment near
the firewall.
17 The brake fluid level should be maintained at the FULL mark on the reservoir (see
illustration).
18 If additional fluid is necessary to bring
the level up, use a rag to clean all dirt off the
top of the reservoir. If any foreign matter
enters the reservoir when the cap is removed,
blockage in the brake system lines can occur.
Also, make sure all painted surfaces around
the master cylinder are covered, since brake
fluid will ruin paint. Carefully pour new, clean
brake fluid obtained from a sealed container
into the master cylinder. Be careful not to
spill the fluid on painted surfaces. Be sure the
specified fluid is used; mixing different types
of brake fluid can cause damage to the system. See Recommended lubricants and fluids
at the beginning of this Chapter or your
owner's manual.
19 At this time the fluid and the master
cylinder should be inspected for contamination. Normally the brake hydraulic system
won't need periodic draining and refilling, but
if rust deposits, dirt particles or water
droplets are observed in the fluid, the system
should be dismantled, cleaned and refilled
with fresh fluid. Over time brake fluid will
absorb moisture from the air. The moisture in
the fluid then produces rust in the system
and lowers the fluid boiling point increasing
the possibility of premature brake failure.
Normal brake fluid is clear in color. If the
brake fluid is dark brown in color or is over
three years old, its a good idea to flush the
system and refill it with new fluid.
20 Reinstall the brake fluid reservoir cap.
21 The brake fluid in the master cylinder
will drop slightly as the brake shoes and pads
at each wheel wear down during normal
operation. If the master cylinder requires
5.2 Use a tire tread depth indicator to
monitor tire wear - they are available at
auto parts stores or service stations and
are relatively inexpensive
repeated replenishing to maintain the correct
level, there is a leak in the brake system
which should be corrected immediately.
Check all brake lines and connections, along
with the wheel cylinders and vacuum booster
(see Section 18 and Chapter 9 for more information).
22 If you discover that the reservoir is
empty or nearly empty, the brake system
should be thoroughly inspected, refilled and
then bled (see Chapter 9).
5
Tire and tire pressure checks
(every 250 miles or weekly)
Refer to illustrations 5.2, 5.3, 5.4a, 5.4b and
5.8
1
Periodic inspection of the tires may
spare you the inconvenience of being
stranded with a flat tire. It can also provide
you with vital information regarding possible
problems in the steering and suspension systems before major damage occurs.
2
The original tires on this vehicle are
equipped with 1/2-inch wide bands that will
appear when tread depth reaches 1/16-inch,
but they don't appear until the tires are worn
out. Tread wear can be monitored with a simple, inexpensive device known as a tread
depth indicator (see illustration).
3
Note any abnormal tread wear (see
illustration). Tread pattern irregularities such
as cupping, flat spots and more wear on one
side than the other are indications of front
end alignment and/or balance problems. If
any of these conditions are noted, take the
vehicle to a tire shop or service station to correct the problem.
4
Look closely for cuts, punctures and
embedded nails or tacks. Sometimes a tire
will hold air pressure for a short time or leak
down very slowly after a nail has embedded
itself in the tread. If a slow leak persists,
check the valve stem core to make sure it's
tight (see illustration). Examine the tread for
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
1-9
CUPPING
Cupping may be caused by:
• Underinflation and/or mechanical
irregularities such as out-of-balance
condition of wheel and/or tire,
and bent or damaged wheel.
UNDERINFLATION
Loose or worn steering tie-rod
or steering idler arm.
*Loose, damaged or worn front
suspension parts,
INCORRECT TOE-1N
OR EXTREME CAMBER
OVERINFLATION
5.4a If a tire loses air on a steady basis,
check the valve core first to make sure it's
snug (special inexpensive wrenches are
commonly available at auto parts stores)
FEATHERING DUE
TO MISALIGNMENT
5.3 This chart will help you determine the condition of the tires, the probable cause(s) of
abnormal wear and the corrective action necessary
an object that may have embedded itself in
the tire or for a "plug" that may have begun to
leak (radial tire punctures are repaired with a
plug that's installed in a puncture). If a puncture is suspected, it can be easily verified by
spraying a solution of soapy water onto the
puncture area (see illustration). The soapy
solution will bubble if there's a leak. Unless
the puncture is unusually large, a tire shop or
service station can usually repair the tire.
5
Carefully inspect the inner sidewall of
each tire for evidence of brake fluid leakage.
If you see any, inspect the brakes immediately.
Correct air pressure adds miles to the
6
life span of the tires, improves mileage and
enhances overall ride quality. Tire pressure
cannot be accurately estimated by looking at
a tire, especially if it's a radial. A tire pressure
gauge is essential. Keep an accurate gauge
in the vehicle. The pressure gauges attached
to the nozzles of air hoses at gas stations are
often inaccurate.
7
Always check tire pressure when the
tires are cold. Cold, in this case, means the
vehicle has not been driven over a mile in the
three hours preceding a tire pressure check.
A pressure rise of four to eight pounds is not
uncommon once the tires are warm.
8
Unscrew the valve cap protruding from
the wheel or hubcap and push the gauge
firmly onto the valve stem (see illustration).
Compare the reading on the gauge to the
recommended tire pressure shown on the
placard on the driver's side door pillar. Be
sure to reinstall the valve cap to keep dirt and
moisture out of the valve stem mechanism.
Check all four tires and, if necessary, add
enough air to bring them up to the recommended pressure.
9
Don't forget to keep the spare tire
inflated to the specified pressure (refer to
your owner's manual or the tire sidewall).
Note that the pressure recommended for the
compact spare is higher than for the tires on
the vehicle.
5.4b If the valve core is tight, raise the
corner of the vehicle with the low tire and
spray a soapy water solution onto the
tread as the tire is turned slowly - leaks
will cause small bubbles to appear
Automatic transaxle - fluid level
check (every 250 miles or weekly)
Refer to illustration 6.4
1
The fluid inside the transaxle should be
at normal operating temperature to get an
accurate reading on the dipstick. This is done
by driving the vehicle for several miles, making frequent starts and stops to allow the
5.8 To extend the life of the tires, check
the air pressure at least once a week with
an accurate gauge (don't forget
the spare!)
1
1-10
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
6.4 Check the fluid with the transaxle at normal operating
temperature - the level should be kept in the HOT range, between
the two upper holes (arrows)
transaxle to shift through all gears.
2
Park the vehicle on a level surface and
apply the parking brake. With the engine running, apply the brakes and place the gear
selector lever momentarily in Reverse, then
Drive and repeat the sequence again ending
with the gear selector in the Park position.
3
With the engine still running, locate the
transaxle fluid dipstick near the brake fluid
reservoir. The dipstick has a "T" handle and
is identified as "TRANS FLUID". Remove the
dipstick and wipe the fluid from the end with
a clean rag.
4
Insert the dipstick back into the
transaxle until the cap seats completely.
Remove the dipstick again and note the fluid
level on the end. The level should be in the
area marked Hot (between the two upper
holes in the dipstick) (see illustration). If the
fluid isn't hot (temperature approximately
100-degrees F), the level should be in the
area marked Warm (between the two lower
holes).
5
If the fluid level is at or below the ADD
mark on the dipstick, add just enough of the
specified fluid (see Recommended lubricants
and fluids at the beginning of this Chapter) to
raise the level to within the marks indicated
for the appropriate temperature. Fluid should
be slowly added into the dipstick tube, using
a funnel to prevent spills.
6
DO NOT overfill the transaxle. Never
allow the fluid level to go above the upper
hole on the dipstick - it could cause internal
transaxle damage. The best way to prevent
overfilling is to add fluid a little at a time, driving the vehicle and checking the level
between additions.
7
Use only transaxle fluid specified by the
manufacturer. This information can be found
in the Recommended lubricants and fluids
Section at the beginning of this Chapter or in
your owner's manual.
8
The condition of the fluid should also be
checked along with the level. If it's a dark
reddish-brown color, or if it smells burned, it
should be changed. If you're in doubt about
the condition of the fluid, purchase some new
fluid and compare the two for color and odor.
7
7.2 The power steering reservoir is located on the right
(passenger's) side rear of the engine compartment
(2.5L engine shown)
Power steering fluid level check
(every 250 miles or weekly)
Refer to illustrations 7.2 and 7.5
Unlike manual steering, the power steer1
ing system relies on hydraulic fluid which
may, over a period of time require replenishing.
2
The fluid reservoir for the power steering
pump is located at the rear of the engine
compartment on the right (passenger's) side
(see illustration).
3
The power steering fluid level can be
checked with the engine either hot or cold.
4
With the engine off, use a rag to clean
the reservoir cap and the area around the
cap. This will help prevent foreign material
from falling into the reservoir when the cap is
removed.
5
Turn and pull out the reservoir cap,
which has a dipstick attached to it. Wipe the
fluid at the bottom of the dipstick with a clean
rag. Reinstall the cap to get a fluid level reading. Remove the cap again and note the fluid
level. It should be at the appropriate mark on
the dipstick in relation to the engine temperature (see illustration).
6
If additional fluid is required, pour the
specified type fluid (see Recommended lubricants and fluids at the beginning of this
Chapter or your owner's manual) directly into
the reservoir using a funnel to prevent spills.
DO NOT use automatic transmission fluid!
7
If the reservoir requires frequent topping
up, all power steering hoses, hose connections, the power steering pump and the
steering gear should be carefully examined
for leaks.
8
Engine oil and filter change
(every 7500 miles or 6 months)
Refer to illustrations 8.3, 8.8, 8.13 and 8.18
1
Frequent oil changes are the most
important preventive maintenance procedures that can be performed by the home
7.5 The power steering fluid dipstick on
most models is marked on both sides for
checking the fluid level (the arrow is
pointing to the COLD level mark)
mechanic. When engine oil ages, it gets
diluted and contaminated, which ultimately
leads to premature engine wear.
2
Although some sources recommend oil
filter changes every other oil change, a new
filter should be installed every time the oil is
changed.
Gather together all necessary tools and
3
materials before beginning this procedure
(see illustration). Note: To avoid rounding
off the corners of the drain plug, use a boxend type wrench or socket. In addition, you
should have plenty of clean rags and newspapers handy to mop up any spills.
4
Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands. Warning:
Never work under a vehicle that is supported
only by a jack!
5
If this is your first oil change on the vehicle, familiarize yourself with the locations of
the oil drain plug and the oil filter. Since the
engine and exhaust components will be
warm during the actual work, it's a good idea
to figure out any potential problems beforehand.
6
Allow the engine to warm up to normal
operating temperature. If oil or tools are
needed, use the warm-up time to gather
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
8.8 To avoid rounding off the corners, use
the correct size box-end wrench or a
socket to remove the engine oil drain plug
8.3 These tools are required when
changing the engine oil and filter
2
3
4
5
6
Drain pan - It should be fairly shallow in
depth, but wide to prevent spills and
capable of holding at least 5 quarts
Rubber gloves - When removing the
drain plug and filter, you will get oil on
your hands (the gloves will prevent
burns)
Breaker bar - Sometimes the oil drain
plug is tight, and a long breaker bar is
needed to loosen it
Socket - To be used with the breaker
bar or a ratchet (must be the correct
size to fit the drain plug - six-point
preferred)
Filter wrench - This is a metal bandtype wrench, which requires clearance
around the filter to be effective
Filter wrench - This type fits on the
bottom of the filter and can be turned
with a ratchet or breaker bar (different
size wrenches are available for different
types of filters)
everything necessary for the job. The correct
type of oil to buy for your application can be
found in the Recommended lubricants and
fluids Section at the beginning of this Chapter
or your owner's manual.
7
Move all necessary tools, rags and
newspapers under the vehicle. Place a drain
pan capable of holding at least 5 quarts
under the drain plug. Keep in mind that the oil
will initially flow from the engine with some
force, so position the pan accordingly.
Being careful not to touch any of the hot
8
exhaust components, use the breaker bar
and socket or box-end wrench to remove the
drain plug (see illustration). Depending on
how hot the oil is, you may want to wear
gloves while unscrewing the plug the final
few turns.
9
Allow the oil to drain into the pan. It may
be necessary to move the pan further under
the engine as the oil flow reduces to a trickle.
10 After all the oil has completely drained,
clean the plug thoroughly with a rag. Small
8.18 Lubricate the oil filter gasket with
clean engine oil before installing the filter
on the engine
metal particles may cling to it and would
immediately contaminate the new oil.
11 Clean the area around the drain plug
opening and reinstall the plug. Tighten it to
the torque given in this Chapter's Specifications.
12 Next, carefully move the drain pan into
position under the oil filter.
13 Now use the filter wrench to loosen the
oil filter in a counterclockwise direction (see
illustration).
14 Sometimes the oil filter is on so tight it
cannot be loosened, or it's positioned in an
area inaccessible with a conventional filter
wrench. Other type of tools, which fit over the
end of the filter and turned with a ratchet or
breaker bar, are available and may be better
suited for removing the filter. If the filter is
extremely tight, position the filter wrench near
the threaded end of the filter, close to the
engine.
15 Completely unscrew the old filter. Be
careful, it's full of oil. Empty the old oil inside
the filter into the drain pan. Note: To make
removing a vertically installed filter a little less
messy, a paper or plastic cup placed over the
8.13 Removing the oil filter
(V6 engine shown)
filter will catch the oil that will drain as it is
unscrewed.
16 Compare the old filter with the new one
to make sure they're identical.
17 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt
and sludge from the area where the oil filter
seals on the engine. Check the old filter to
make sure the rubber gasket isn't stuck to
the engine mounting surface.
18 Apply a light coat of clean engine oil to
the rubber gasket on the new oil filter (see
illustration).
19 Install the new filter on the engine handtight plus 1/4 turn more. Do not overtighten.
20 Remove all tools and materials from
under the vehicle, being careful not to spill
the oil in the drain pan. Lower the vehicle.
21 Working inside the engine compartment, locate and remove the oil filler cap
from the engine valve cover (see illustration 4.5).
22 Using a funnel to prevent spills, pour the
specified type and amount of new oil required
(see Specification Section in the beginning of
this Chapter) into the engine. Wait a few minutes to allow the oil to drain down to the pan,
then check the level on the dipstick (see Section 4 if necessary). If the oil level is at or
above the first notch on the dipstick, start the
engine and allow the new oil to circulate.
23 Run the engine for only about a minute,
then shut it off. Immediately look under the
vehicle and check for leaks at the oil pan
drain plug and around the oil filter. If either
one is leaking, tighten it with a bit more force.
24 With the new oil circulated and the filter
now completely full, wait about ten minutes
for the oil to drain back down into the pan
then recheck the oil level on the dipstick. If
necessary, add enough oil to bring the level
to the second notch on the dipstick. DO NOT
overfill!
25 During the first few trips after an oil
change, make it a point to check for leaks
and keep a close watch on the oil level.
26 The old oil drained from the engine cannot be reused in its present state and should
be disposed of properly. Oil reclamation centers, auto repair shops and gas stations will
1
1-12
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
9.6a Use a side terminal battery brush
(available at most auto parts stores) to
clean up the terminal contact area
9.1 Tools and materials required for
battery maintenance. Note: Items 4 through
7 do not apply to "side" post batteries.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
goggles - When
Face safety
removing corrosion with a brush, the
acidic particles can easily fly up into
your eyes
Baking soda - A solution of baking
soda and water can be used to
neutralize corrosion
Petroleum jelly - A layer of this on the
battery posts will help prevent corrosion
Battery post/cable cleaner - This wire
brush cleaning tool will remove all
traces of corrosion from the battery
posts and cable clamps
Treated felt washers - Placing one of
these on each post, directly under the
cable clamps, will help prevent
corrosion
Puller - Sometimes the cable clamps
are very difficult to pull off the posts,
even after the nut/bolt has been
completely loosened. This tool pulls the
clamp straight up and off the post
without damage
Battery post/cable cleaner - Here is
another cleaning tool which is a slightly
different version of Number 4 above, but
it does the same thing
Rubber gloves - Another safety item to
consider when servicing the battery;
remember that's acid inside the battery!
normally accept used oil. After the oil has
cooled, it should be drained into sealable
containers (plastic bottles with screw-on tops
are preferred) for transport to a disposal site.
9
Battery - check, maintenance
and charging (every 7,500 miles
or 6 months)
Warning: Certain precautions must be followed when checking and servicing the battery. Hydrogen gas, which is highly explosive,
is produced by the battery. Keep lighted
tobacco, open flames, bare light bulbs or
other possible sources of ignition away from
the battery. Furthermore, the electrolyte
inside the battery is sulfuric acid which is
highly corrosive and can burn your skin and
cause severe injury to your eyes. Always wear
eye protection! It will also destroy clothing
and ruin painted surfaces.
Servicing
Refer to illustrations 9.1, 9.6a and 9.6b
1
A routine preventive maintenance program for the battery in your vehicle is the only
way to ensure quick and reliable starts. But
before performing any battery maintenance,
make sure that you have the proper equipment necessary to work safely around the
battery (see illustration).
2
Before servicing the battery, always turn
the engine and all accessories off and disconnect the cable from the negative terminal
of the battery.
3
The battery on these vehicles is located
inside the wheel well of the left front fender.
4
Remove the battery from the vehicle
(see Chapter 5).
5
Inspect the external condition of the
battery. Check the battery case for cracks or
other damage.
6
Clean the battery terminals and cable
connections thoroughly with a wire brush or a
terminal cleaner and a solution of warm water
and baking soda (see illustrations). Wash
the terminals and the top of the battery case
with the same solution but make sure that the
solution doesn't get into the battery. When
cleaning the cables, terminals and battery
top, wear safety goggles and rubber gloves
to prevent any solution from coming in contact with your eyes or hands. Wear old
clothes too - even diluted, sulfuric acid
splashed onto clothes will burn holes in them.
Thoroughly wash all cleaned areas with plain
water.
7
Inspect the battery carrier. If it's dirty or
covered with corrosion, clean it with the
same solution of warm water and baking
9.6b The side terminal battery brush
includes a special ring-type portion used
to clean the battery cable sealing recess
around the terminal
soda and rinse it with clean water.
8
If the battery is a maintenance-type, it
has removable cell caps which allow you to
add water (use distilled water only) to the battery when the electrolyte level gets low.
9
If you are not sure what type of battery
you have (some maintenance-types have
recessed cell caps that resemble maintenance-free batteries), one simple way to confirm your type of battery is to look for a builtin hydrometer. Most maintenance-free batteries have built-in hydrometers that indicate
the state of charge by the color displayed in
the hydrometer window since measuring the
specific gravity of the electrolyte is not possible. Also check for cut-outs near the cell
caps - if the caps can be removed, cut-outs
are usually provided to assist with prying off
the caps.
10 If your battery is a maintenance-type,
remove the cell caps and check the level of
the electrolyte. It should be up the split-ring
inside the battery. If the level is low, add distilled water (distilled water is mineral-free, tap
water contains minerals that will shorten the
life of your battery) to bring the electrolyte up
to the proper level.
11 Next, check the entire length of each
battery cable for cracks, worn insulation and
frayed conductors. Replace the cable(s) if
necessary.
12 Install the battery (see Chapter 5).
Charging
Warning: The battery produces hydrogen
gas, which is highly explosive. Never create a
spark, smoke or light a match around the battery. Always charge the battery in a ventilated
area.
13 The battery on these vehicles is located
inside the wheel well of the left front fender.
14 Remove the battery from the vehicle
(see Chapter 5).
15 On maintenance-type batteries, remove
the cell caps. Make sure the electrolyte level
is OK before beginning to charge the battery.
Cover the holes with a clean cloth to prevent
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
Check for a soft area indicating
the hose has deteriorated inside.
Overtightening the clamp on a
hardened hose will damage the
hose and cause a leak.
Check each hose for swelling and
oil-soaked ends. Cracks and breaks
can be located by squeezing the hose.
10.4a Hoses, like drivebelts, have a habit
of failing at the worst possible time - to
prevent the inconvenience of a blown
radiator or heater hose, inspect them
carefully as shown here
spattering electrolyte.
16 On batteries with the terminals located
on the side, install bolts (with the appropriate
thread size and pitch) in the terminals so the
charger can be attached.
17 Connect the battery charger leads to the
battery posts (positive to positive, negative to
negative), then plug in the charger. Make sure
it is set at 12 volts if it has a selector switch. If
the battery charger does not have a built-in
ti mer, its a good idea to use one in case you
forget - you won't over charge the battery.
18 If you're using a charger with a rate
higher than two amps, check the battery regularly during charging to make sure it doesn't
overheat. If you're using a trickle charger, you
can safely let the battery charge overnight
after you've checked it regularly for the first
couple of hours.
19 If the battery has removable cell caps,
10.4b Squeeze the hoses to locate cracks
or breaks that may cause leaks
measure the specific gravity with a hydrometer every hour during the last few hours of the
charging cycle. Hydrometers are available
inexpensively from auto parts stores - follow
the instructions that come with the hydrometer. Consider the battery charged when
there's no change in the specific gravity reading for two hours and the electrolyte in the
cells is outgassing (bubbling) freely. The specific gravity reading from each cell should be
very close to the others. If not, the battery
probably has a bad cell(s).
20 Most batteries with sealed tops have
built-in hydrometers on the top that indicate
the state of charge by the color displayed in
the hydrometer window. Normally, a brightcolored hydrometer indicates a full charge
and a dark hydrometer indicates the battery
still needs charging. Check the battery manufacturer's instructions to be sure you know
what the colors mean. Note: It may be necessary to jiggle the battery to bring the test indicator fluid into view.
21
If the battery has a sealed top and does
not have a built-in hydrometer, you can hook
up a voltmeter across the battery terminals to
check the charge. A fully charged battery
should read approximately 12.6 volts or
higher.
22 Further information on the battery and
jump starting can be found in Chapter 5 and
at the front of this manual, respectively.
10
Cooling system - check (every
7,500 miles or 6 months)
Refer to illustrations 10.4a and 10.4b
Warning: The electric cooling fan(s) on these
models can activate at any time the ignition
switch is in the ON position. Make sure the
ignition is OFF when working in the vicinity of
the fan(s).
1
Many major engine failures can be
attributed to a faulty cooling system. If the
vehicle is equipped with an automatic
transaxle, a transmission fluid cooler is incorporated inside the radiator side tank.
1-13
2
The cooling system should be checked
with the engine cold. Do this before the vehicle is driven for the day or after it has been
shut off for three or four hours and the upper
radiator hose feels cool to the touch.
3
Remove the coolant system pressure
cap (see illustration 4.9) and thoroughly
clean the cap with water. Also clean the filler
neck. All traces of corrosion and gum should
be removed.
4
Carefully check the upper and lower
radiator hoses along with the smaller diameter heater hoses. Inspect the entire length of
each hose, replacing any that are cracked,
swollen or deteriorated (see illustration).
Cracks may become more apparent when a
hose is squeezed (see illustration).
5
Also check that all hose connections are
tight. If the vehicle came equipped with
spring-type hose clamps which loose their
tension over time, replace them with the
more reliable screw-type clamps when new
hoses are installed. A leak in the cooling system will usually show up as white or rust-colored deposits on the areas adjoining the leak.
Use compressed air, water or a soft
6
brush to remove bugs, leaves, and other
debris from the front of the radiator or air
conditioning condenser. Be careful not to
damage the delicate cooling fins, or cut yourself on them.
Finally, have the cap and system pres7
sure tested. If you do not have a pressure
tester available, most gas stations and repair
shops will do this for a minimal charge.
11
Underhood hose - check and
replacement (every 7,500 miles or
6 months)
Warning: Replacement of air conditioning
hoses must be left to a dealer service department or air conditioning shop equipped to
depressurize the system safely. Never remove
air conditioning components or hoses until
the system has been depressurized.
General
High temperatures under the hood can
1
cause the deterioration of the rubber and
plastic hoses used for engine, accessory and
emission systems operation. Periodic inspection should be made for cracks, loose
clamps, material hardening and leaks.
Information specific to the cooling sys2
tem hoses can be found in Section 10.
Some hoses use clamps to secure the
3
hoses to fittings. Where clamps are used,
check to be sure they haven't lost their tension, allowing the hose to leak. Where clamps
are not used, make sure the hose hasn't
expanded and/or hardened where it slips
over the fitting, allowing it to leak.
Vacuum hoses
4
It's quite common for vacuum hoses,
especially those in the emissions system, to
be color coded or identified by colored
1
1-14
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
12.3 Lift the cover and check the mounting nut for tightness
stripes molded into the hose. Various systems require hoses with different wall thickness, collapse resistance and temperature
resistance. When replacing hoses, make sure
the new ones are made of the same material
as the original.
5
Often the only effective way to check a
hose is to remove it completely from the vehicle. Where more than one hose is removed,
be sure to label the hoses and their attaching
points to insure proper reattachment.
6
When checking vacuum hoses, be sure
to include any plastic T-fittings in the check.
Check the fittings for cracks and the hose
where it fits over the fitting for enlargement,
which could cause leakage.
A small piece of vacuum hose (1/4-inch
7
inside diameter) can be used as a stethoscope to detect vacuum leaks. Hold one end
of the hose to your ear and probe around
vacuum hoses and fittings, listening for the
"hissing" sound characteristic of a vacuum
leak. Warning: When probing with the vacuum hose stethoscope, be careful not to
allow your body or the hose to come into
contact with moving engine components
such as the drivebelt, cooling fan, etc.
Fuel hose
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system. Don't smoke or
allow open flames or bare light bulbs near the
work area, and don't work in a garage where
a natural gas-type appliance (such as a water
heater or clothes dryer) with a pilot light is
present. If you spill any fuel on your skin, rinse
it off immediately with soap and water. When
you perform any kind of work on the fuel system, wear safety glasses and have a Class B
type fire extinguisher on hand. Before working on any part of the fuel system, relieve the
fuel system pressure (see Chapter 4).
8
Check all rubber fuel hoses for damage
and deterioration. Check especially for
cracks in areas where the hose bends and
just before clamping points, such as where a
hose attaches to the fuel injection system.
9
High quality fuel line, specifically
designed for fuel injection systems, should
be used for fuel line replacement. Warning:
12.5a Depress the release lever and .. .
Never use vacuum line, clear plastic tubing or
water hose for fuel lines.
Brake hoses
10 The hoses used to connect the brake
calipers or wheel cylinders to the metal lines
are subject to extreme working conditions.
They must endure high hydraulic pressures,
heat and still maintain flexibility. The brake
hoses typically can be inspected without
removing the wheels. Carefully examine each
hose for leakage, cracks, bulging, delamination and damage. If any damage is found, the
hose must be replaced immediately (see
Chapter 9).
Fuel and brake system metal
lines
11 Sections of metal line are often used for
fuel line between the fuel tank and fuel injection system. Check carefully to be sure the
li ne has not been bent and crimped and that
cracks have not started in the line.
12 If a section of metal fuel line must be
replaced, only seamless steel tubing should
be used, since copper and aluminum tubing
do not have the strength necessary to withstand normal engine operating vibration.
13 Check the metal brake lines where they
enter the master cylinder and brake proportioning or ABS unit (if equipped) for cracks in
the lines or loose fittings. Any sign of brake
fluid leakage calls for an immediate thorough
inspection of the brake system.
12 Windshield wiper blade inspection and replacement
(every 7,500 miles or 6 months)
Refer to illustrations 12.3, 12.5a and 12.5b
1
The windshield wiper blade elements
should be checked periodically for cracks
and deterioration.
2
Road film can build up on the wiper
blades and affect their efficiency, so they
should be washed regularly with a mild detergent solution.
The action of the wiping mechanism can
3
12.5b ... slide the wiper element down
out of the hook in the end of the arm
loosen the wiper arm retaining nuts, so they
should be checked and tightened at the
same time the wiper blades are checked (see
illustration).
4
Lift the wiper blade assembly away from
the windshield.
5
Press the release lever and slide the
blade assembly out of the hook in the end of
the wiper arm (see illustrations). Carefully
rest the wiper arm on the windshield.
6
The rubber element is secured to the
blade assembly at one end of the blade element channel. Compress the locking feature
on the element so it clears the tangs on the
blade assembly channel claw and then slide
the element out of the frame.
7
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure the rubber element and blade
assembly are securely attached.
13 Tire rotation (every 7,500 miles or
6 months)
Refer to illustration 13.2
The tires should be rotated at the speci1
fied intervals and whenever uneven wear is
noticed. Since the vehicle will be raised and
the tires removed, this is a good time to
check the brakes also (see Section 18).
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
LF
RF
LR
RR
RADIAL TIRE ROTATION
HAYNES
13.2 The recommended tire rotation
pattern for these models
2
Radial tires must be rotated in a specific
pattern (see illustration).
See the information in Jacking and tow3
ing at the front of this manual for the proper
procedures to follow when raising the vehicle
and changing a tire; however, if the brakes
are to be checked, don't apply the parking
brake as stated. Make sure the tires are
blocked to prevent the vehicle from rolling.
Note: Prior to raising the vehicle, loosen all
lug nuts a quarter turn.
Preferably, the entire vehicle should be
4
raised at the same time. This can be done on
a hoist or by jacking up each corner of the
vehicle and lowering it onto jackstands.
Always use jackstands and make sure the
vehicle is safely supported. Warning: Never
work under a vehicle that is supported only by
a jack!
5
After the tire rotation, check and adjust
the tire pressures as necessary and tighten
the wheel lug nuts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
14
Steering and suspension - check
(every 7,500 miles or 6 months)
Refer to illustrations 14.5 and 14.10
1
Whenever the vehicle is raised for service it is a good idea to visually check the
suspension and steering components for
wear and damage.
Indications of wear and damage include
2
excessive play in the steering wheel before
the front wheels react, excessive lean around
corners, body movement over rough roads or
binding at some point as the steering wheel is
turned.
3
Before the vehicle is raised for inspection, test the shock absorbers by pushing
down to rock the vehicle at each corner. If it
does not come back to a level position within
one or two bounces, the shocks are worn
and should be replaced (see Chapter 10). As
you perform this procedure, check for
14.5 Checking the 1-AJ steering rack tie-rod
boot for damage
squeaks and unusual noises from the suspension components. Check the shock
absorbers for fluid leakage.
4
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Warning: Never work under a
vehicle that is supported only by a jack!
5
Working under the vehicle, check for
loose bolts, cracked, broken or disconnected
parts and deteriorated rubber bushings on all
suspension and steering components
(shocks, springs, control arms, etc.). Look for
grease or fluid leaking from around the steering gear input shaft and tie-rod boots (see
illustration). Check the power steering
hoses, cooler and connections for leaks.
6
Have an assistant turn the steering
wheel from side-to-side and check the steering components for free movement, chafing
,and binding. If the wheels don't respond
closely to the movement of the steering
wheel, determine where the slack is located.
7
Check the tie-rod ends and ball joints
for wear. They are designed not to have any
free play. Using a pry bar or other method,
attempt to create movement (up/down and
side-to-side) in the tie-rod ends and ball
joints. If any movement is seen or felt, a worn
balljoint is indicated. To service the tie-rod
ends and ball joints see Chapter 10.
Next, have an assistant grasp the tire at
8
the sides and pivot the tire in an in-and-out
motion (left-to-right) while you are touching
the tie-rod end. If any looseness is felt, suspect a loose tie-rod stud nut, worn out tie-rod
stud or a widened hole in the steering
knuckle boss. If the latter problem exists, the
steering knuckle should be renewed along
with the tie-rod (see Chapter 10).
9
Check the rear suspension ball joints for
wear as described in Step 7. Inspect the trailing arms and lateral links for damage, looseness or worn bushings. If replacement is necessary, see Chapter 10.
10 Check each wheel bearing for excessive
free play by grasping the wheel at the top and
bottom, then pivot the wheel on the spindle
(see illustration). The free play should be
minimal, zero (no play) to approximately 1/16
inch. Next, spin the wheel and listen for a
1-15
14.10 Checking the wheel bearing freeplay
grinding noise or roughness in the bearings.
Don't mistake light brake drag for a wheel
bearing problem. Note: The wheel bearings,
front and rear, are integral with the wheel
hubs. They are "lubricated for life" and are not
serviceable. If the hub/wheel bearing assembly has excessive play or they feel rough or
noisy, replace them (see Chapter 10).
15
Exhaust system - check (every
7,500 or 6 months)
Refer to illustration 15.3
Note: Perform the following procedure with
the engine cold.
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
1
on jackstands. Warning: Never work under a
vehicle that is supported only by a jack!
2
With the engine cold (at least three
hours after the vehicle has been driven),
check the complete exhaust system from its
starting point at the engine to the end of the
tailpipe.
Check the pipes and connections for
3
signs of leakage and/or corrosion indicating a
potential failure. Make sure that all brackets
and hangers are in good condition and tight
(see illustration).
15.3 Check the exhaust system
connections, clamps, mounting bolts,
brackets and hangers for damage (arrows)
1
1-16
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
16.4 Pry the rubber plug from the oil fill
hole on the side of the transaxle housing
4
At the same time, inspect the underside
of the body for holes, corrosion and open
seams which may allow exhaust gases to
enter the passenger compartment. Seal all
body openings with silicone sealant or body
putty.
5
Rattles and other noises can often be
traced to the exhaust system, especially the
mounts and hangers. Try to move the pipes,
muffler and catalytic converter. If the components can come into contact with the body,
secure the exhaust system with new mounts.
6
This is also an ideal time to check the
running condition of the engine by inspecting
the very end of the tailpipe. The exhaust
deposits here are an indication of the
engine's state-of-tune. If the pipe is black
and sooty or coated with white deposits, the
engine may be in need of a tune-up (including
a thorough fuel injection system inspection).
16
Manual transaxle - lubricant level
check (every 7500 miles or 6
months)
Refer to illustration 16.4
1
Manual transaxles do not have a fluid
dipstick. The lubricant level is checked by
removing a rubber plug from the side of the
transaxle case. The lubricant level should be
checked with the engine cold and the vehicle
level.
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands in a level position. Warning:
Never work under a vehicle that is supported
only by a jack!
Locate the rubber plug on the left
3
(driver's) side of the transaxle differential near
the driveaxle shaft. Use a rag to clean it and
the surrounding area. It may be necessary to
remove the left inner fenderwell cover for
access to the plug. Place a drain pan under
the transaxle.
4
Using pliers or a large screwdriver,
remove the plug (see illustration). If oil
begins to run out, let it find its own level (presuming the vehicle is relatively level). If oil
17.3 Check each driveaxle inner and
outer boot for cracks and/or
leaking grease
does not run out, insert your finger to feel the
lubricant level. It should be within 3/16 of the
bottom of the plug hole.
5
If the transaxle requires additional lubricant, use a funnel with a rubber tube or a
syringe to pour or squeeze the recommended
lubricant into the plug hole to restore the
level. If you overfill it, let the fluid run out until
it is level with the plug hole. Caution: Use
only the specified transaxle lubricant - see
Recommended lubricants and fluids at the
beginning of this Chapter or your owner's
manual. Note: Most auto parts stores sell
pumps that screw into the oil containers
which make this job much easier and less
messy.
6
Push the plug securely back into the
transaxle and lower the vehicle. Test drive it
and check for leaks.
17
Driveaxle boot - check (every
7,500 miles or 6 months)
Refer to illustration 17.3
1
If the driveaxle boots are damaged, letting grease out and water in, serious not to
mention costly damage can occur to the CV
joints. The boots should be inspected very
carefully at the recommended intervals or
anytime the vehicle is raised.
2
Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands. Warning:
Never work under a vehicle that is supported
only by a jack!
3
Place the transaxle in Neutral. While
rotating the wheels, inspect the four driveaxle
boots (two on each driveaxle) very carefully
for cracks, tears, holes, deteriorated rubber
and loose or missing clamps (see illustration). If the boots are dirty, wipe them clean
before beginning the inspection.
4
If damage or deterioration is evident,
replace the boots and check the CV joints for
damage (see Chapter 8).
5
Place the transaxle in Park or in-gear as
applicable and lower the vehicle.
18.5 Measure the thickness of the brake
pad from the metal backing to the brake
disc - note the inner pad generally wears
faster than the outer pad so measure both
of them
18
Brake system - check (every
15,000 miles or 12 months)
Warning: Dust created by the brake system
may contain asbestos, which is harmful to
your health. Never blow it out with compressed air and don't inhale any of it. An
approved filtering mask should be worn when
working on brakes. Do not, under any circumstances, use petroleum-based solvents to
clean brake parts. Use brake system cleaner
only!
1
The brakes should be inspected every
ti me the wheels are removed or whenever a
defect is suspected. Indications of a potential
brake system problem include the vehicle
pulling to one side when the brake pedal is
depressed, noises coming from the brakes
when they are applied, excessive brake pedal
travel, a pulsating pedal and leakage of fluid,
usually seen on the inside of the tire or wheel.
Note: It is normal for a vehicle equipped with
an Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) to exhibit
brake pedal pulsation's during severe braking
conditions.
Disc brakes
Refer to illustrations 18.5
2
Disc brakes can be visually checked
without removing any parts except the
wheels. Remove the hub caps (if applicable)
and loosen the front wheel lug nuts a quarter
turn each.
3
Raise the front of the vehicle and place it
securely on jackstands. Warning: Never work
under a vehicle that is supported only by a
jack!
4
Remove the front wheels. Now visible is
the disc brake caliper which contains the
pads. There is an outer brake pad and an
inner pad. Both must be checked for wear.
Note: Usually the inner pad wears faster than
the outer pad.
5
Measure the pad thickness at each end
of the caliper (see illustration) and through
the inspection hole in the caliper body. Compare the measurement with the limit given in
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
18.14 If the lining is bonded to the brake shoe, measure the lining
thickness from the outer surface to the metal shoe, as shown
here: if the lining is riveted to the shoe, measure from the lining
outer surface to the rivet head
this Chapter's Specifications, if any brake
pad thickness is less than specified, then all
brake pads must be replaced (see Chapter 9).
6
If you're in doubt as to the exact pad
thickness or quality, remove them for measurement and further inspection (see Chapter 9).
Before installing the wheels, check the
7
brake hoses for leakage and damage (cracks,
leaks, chafed areas, etc.). Replace the hoses
or fittings as necessary (see Chapter 9).
8
Check the disc for score marks, wear
and burned spots. If any of these conditions
exist, the disc should be removed for servicing or replacement (see Chapter 9).
9
Install the front wheels, lower the vehicle
and tighten the wheel lug nuts to the torque
given in this Chapter's Specifications.
Drum brakes
Refer to illustrations 18.14 and 18.17
10 Remove the hub caps (if applicable) and
loosen the wheel lug nuts a quarter turn each.
11
Raise the rear of the vehicle and support
it securely on jackstands. Warning: Never
work under a vehicle that is supported only by
a jack! Block the front wheels to prevent the
vehicle from rolling, however, do not apply
the parking brake or it will lock the drums in
place. Remove the rear wheels.
12 Remove the brake drum as described in
Chapter 9.
13 With the drum removed, carefully clean
off any accumulations of dirt and dust using
brake system cleaner. Warning: DO NOT
blow the dust out with compressed air and
don't inhale any of it (it may contain asbestos,
which is harmful to your health).
14 Measure the thickness of the lining
material on both leading and trailing brake
shoes (see illustration). Compare the measurement with the limit given in this Chapter's
Specifications, if any brake shoe thickness is
less than specified, then all brake shoes must
be replaced (see Chapter 9).
15 Inspect the brake shoes for uneven wear
patterns, cracks, glazing and delamination
and replace if necessary. If the shoes have
been saturated with brake fluid, oil or grease,
1-17
18.17 Pry the boot away from the cylinder and check
for fluid leakage
this also necessitates replacement (see
Chapter 9).
16 Make sure all the brake assembly
springs are connected and in good condition.
17 Check the brake wheel cylinder for signs
of fluid leakage. Carefully pry back the rubber
dust boots on the wheel cylinder (see illustration). Any leakage here is an indication
that the wheel cylinders must be overhauled
immediately (see Chapter 9). Also, check all
hoses and connections for signs of leakage.
18 Wipe the inside of the drum with a clean
rag and denatured alcohol or brake cleaner.
Again, be careful not to breathe the dangerous asbestos dust.
19 Inspect the inside of the drum for
cracks, score marks, deep scratches and
"hard spots" which will appear as small discolored areas. If imperfections cannot be
removed with fine emery cloth, the drum
must be taken to an automotive machine
shop for resurfacing.
20 Repeat the procedure for the remaining
wheel.
21
Install the wheels, lower the vehicle and
tighten the wheel lug nuts to the torque given
in this Chapter's Specifications.
Parking brake
22 The easiest, and perhaps most obvious,
method of periodically checking the operation
of the parking brake assembly is to park the
vehicle on a steep hill with the parking brake
set and the transmission in Neutral. If the
parking brake cannot prevent the vehicle from
rolling, it needs adjustment (see Chapter 9).
heater or clothes dryer) with a pilot light is
present. If you spill any fuel on your skin, rinse
it off immediately with soap and water. When
you perform any kind of work on the fuel system, wear safety glasses and have a Class B
type fire extinguisher on hand.
1
If the smell of gasoline is noticed while
driving, or after the vehicle has been parked
in the sun, the fuel system and evaporative
emissions system (see Section 26) should be
thoroughly inspected immediately.
The fuel system is under pressure even
2
when the engine is off. Consequently, the fuel
system must be depressurized before servicing the system (see Chapter 4). Even after
depressurization, if any fuel lines are disconnected for servicing, be prepared to catch
some fuel as it spills out. Plug all disconnected fuel lines immediately to prevent the
tank from emptying itself.
3
Remove the gas tank filler cap and
check for damage, corrosion and a proper
sealing imprint on the gasket. Replace the
cap with a new one if necessary.
4
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Warning: Never work under a
vehicle that is supported only by a jack!
5
Inspect the gas tank and filler neck for
punctures, cracks and other damage. The
hose connection between the filler neck and
the tank is especially critical (see illustra-
19 Fuel system hoses and
connections - check (every
15,000 miles or 12 months)
Refer to illustration 19.5
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system. Don't smoke or
allow open flames or bare light bulbs near the
work area, and don't work in a garage where
a natural gas-type appliance (such as a water
19.5 Fuel filler neck-to-tank hose (arrow)
1
1-18
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
Cracks Running Across
"V" Portions of Belt
UNACCEPTABLE
20.2 A drivebelt routing diagram is mounted under the hood
Cracks Running Parallel
to "V" Portions of Belt
BELT
DEFLECTION
20.3 Here are some of the more common problems associated
with drivebelts (check the belts very carefully to prevent an
untimely breakdown)
MAKE SURE RULER IS
PERPENDICULAR TO STRAIGHT EDGE
LOCK NUT
20.4 Measuring drivebelt deflection with a straightedge and ruler
tion). Sometimes the filler neck hose will leak
due to loose clamps or deteriorated rubber;
problems a home mechanic can usually rectify.
Carefully inspect all rubber hoses and
6
metal lines leading to-and-from the fuel tank.
Check for loose connections, deteriorated
hoses, crimped lines and damage of any
kind. Follow the lines up to the front of the
vehicle, carefully inspecting them all the way.
Repair or replace damaged sections as necessary (see Chapter 4).
20 Drivebelt - check, adjustment
and replacement (every 15,000
miles or 12 months)
Warning: The electric cooling fan(s) on these
models can activate at any time the ignition
switch is in the ON position. Make sure the
ignition is OFF when working in the vicinity of
the fan(s).
Check
Refer to illustrations 20.2, 20.3 and 20.4
The drivebelts located at the front of the
1
engine, play an important role in the opera -
SUPPORT
BRACKET
20.5 Loosen the alternator
pivot bolt and locking nut and
turn the adjusting bolt to
achieve the proper belt tension
(four-cylinder engines)
tion of the vehicle and its components. Due
to their function and material makeup, the
belts are prone to failure after a period of time
and should be inspected and adjusted periodically to prevent major damage.
2
The number of belts used depends on
the engine accessories. All engines equipped
with power steering and/or air conditioning
are equipped with two drivebelts (see illustration). One drivebelt drives the alternator
and air conditioning compressor while the
other belt drives the power steering pump.
With the engine off, open the hood and
3
locate the drivebelts at the front of the
engine. Using a flashlight, check each belt for
separation of the adhesive rubber on both
sides of the core, core separation from the
belt side, a severed core, separation of the
ribs from the adhesive rubber, cracking or
separation of the ribs, and torn or worn ribs
or cracks in the inner ridges of the ribs (see
illustration). Also check for fraying and glazing, which gives the belt a shiny appearance.
Both sides of the belt should be inspected,
which means you will have to twist the belt to
check the underside. Use your fingers to feel
the belt where you can't see it. If any of the
above conditions are evident, replace the
belt(s). Note: On V6 engines, a better drivebelt inspection can be made by removing the
Chapter 1
Tune-up and routine maintenance
1-19
Power steering drivebelt
20.12a Power steering pump pivot bolt
(upper arrow) and front locking bolt (lower
arrow) as viewed from under the vehicle
(V6 engine shown)
accessory drivebelt splash shield located
inside the right hand fender well (see Adjustment Section below for removal procedures).
4
The tension of each belt is checked by
pushing on it at a distance halfway between
the pulleys. Apply about 10 pounds of force
with your thumb and see how much the belt
moves down (deflects). Measure the deflection with a ruler (see illustration). The belt
should deflect about 1/4-inch if the distance
between pulleys is between 7 and 11 inches
and around 1/2-inch if the distance is bet ween 12 and 16 inches.
Adjustment
Alternator and air conditioning
compressor drivebelt
Four-cylinder engines
Refer to illustration 20.5
5
Loosen the alternator locking nut and
pivot bolt (see illustration). Both must be
20.12b Power steering rear locking bolt
(arrow) as viewed from under the vehicle
(V6 engine shown)
loosened slightly to move the component.
After the bolt and nut have been loos6
ened, turn the adjuster bolt as necessary to
move the component away from the engine
(to tighten the belt) or toward the engine (to
loosen the belt) to achieve the correct drivebelt tension (see Step 4). Tighten the pivot
bolt and locking nut securely.
V6 engine
Refer to illustrations 20.8 and 20.9
Raise the front of the vehicle and sup7
port it securely on jackstands. Remove the
right front wheel. Warning: Never work under
a vehicle that is only supported by a jack!
8
Remove the screw and push-in fasteners securing the accessory drivebelt splash
shield to the fender and frame rail, respectively (see illustration).
Loosen the idler pulley lock bolt then
9
turn the adjuster bolt (see illustration) as
required to achieve the correct drivebelt tension (see Step 4). Tighten the idler pulley lock
bolt securely after adjustment.
Refer to illustrations 20.12a and 20.12b
10 Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands. Warning:
Never work under a vehicle that is supported
only by a jack!
11 Remove the accessory drivebelt splash
shield (see illustration 20.8).
12 Working under the vehicle, loosen the
power steering pump pivot and locking bolts
(front and rear) (see illustrations). The power
steering pump should now be free to move.
13 The power steering pump is equipped
with a square hole designed to accept a 1/2inch square drive breaker bar to assist with
adjusting the drivebelt tension.
14 Position the power steering pump as
required to achieve the correct drivebelt tension (see Step 4). Tighten the pivot and locking bolts securely.
15 Install the accessory drivebelt splash
shield and lower the vehicle.
Replacement
Refer to illustration 20.18
16 To replace a drivebelt, follow the above
procedures for drivebelt adjustment except
loosen the adjustment enough to allow you to
slip the drivebelt off the crankshaft pulley and
remove it. If you are replacing the alternator
and A/C compressor drivebelt, you must
remove the power steering drivebelt first
because of the way they are arranged on the
crankshaft pulley. Because both drivebelts
tend to wear out equally, its a good idea to
replace both belts at the same time. As they
are removed, identify each belt as to it's
appropriate drive function (PS or ALT-A/C) so
the replacement belts can be installed in their
proper positions.
17 Take the old drivebelts with you when
you go to the auto parts store in order to
make a direct comparison for length, width
and design.
18 Install the new drivebelts. Make sure
they are routed correctly and properly seated
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
1-20
WRONG
WRONG
20.18 When installing the V-ribbed
drivebelt, make sure it is centered on
each pulley - it must not overlap
either edge
in each pulley (see illustration).
19 Adjust the respective drivebelts as
described earlier in this Section. After the
drivebelts have been in service for approximately ten (10) hours, check the drivebelt
tension again and adjust if necessary as new
drivebelts tend to stretch after initial installation.
21
Chassis lubrication (every 30,000
miles or 24 months)
Refer to illustrations 21.1 and 21.5
1
A grease gun and a cartridge filled with
the proper grease (see Recommended lubricants and fluids), graphite spray and an oil
can filled with engine oil will be required to
lubricate the chassis components (see illustration).
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Warning: Never work under a
vehicle that is supported only by a jack!
3
Before beginning, force a little grease
out of the nozzle to remove any dirt from the
end of the gun. Wipe the nozzle clean with a
rag.
Armed with the grease gun and plenty of
4
clean rags, begin lubricating the components. Note: The tie-rod ends and front suspension lower control arm ball joints are not
serviceable.
5
Wipe the grease fitting clean and push
the nozzle firmly over it. Operate the lever on
the grease gun to force grease into the fitting
until it oozes out of the joint between the two
components (see illustration). If grease
escapes around the grease gun nozzle, the
fitting is clogged or the nozzle is not completely seated on the fitting. Reattach the gun
nozzle to the fitting and try again. If necessary, replace the fitting with a new one.
6
Lubricate the sliding contact and pivot
points of the parking brake cable along with
the cable guides and levers. This can be
done by smearing some of the chassis
grease onto the cable and related parts with
your fingers. Be careful of frayed wires!
Lower the vehicle to the ground.
7
8
Open the hood and smear a little chassis grease on the hood latch mechanism and
21.1 Materials required for chassis and
body lubrication
1
2
3
4
Engine oil - Light engine oil in a can like
this can be used for door and hood
hinges
Graphite spray - Used to lubricate lock
cylinders
Grease - Grease, in a variety of types
and weights, is available for use in a
grease gun. Check the Specifications
for your requirements
Grease gun - A common grease gun,
shown here with a detachable hose and
nozzle, is needed for chassis lubrication.
After use, clean it thoroughly
striker. Have an assistant pull the hood
release lever from inside the vehicle as you
lubricate the cable at the latch.
9
Lubricate all the hinges (door, hood,
trunk, etc.) with the recommended lubricant
(see Recommended lubricants and fluids at
the beginning of this Chapter) to keep them in
proper working order.
10 The key lock cylinders can be lubricated
with spray-type graphite or silicone lubricant
which is available at auto parts stores.
11 Lubricate the door weather-stripping
with silicone spray. This will reduce chafing
and retard wear.
22.2 To remove the air cleaner top cover,
release the 2 latches (arrows), lift the
cover and disengage it from the locking
lugs on the opposite side
21.5 Greasing the front suspension upper
control arm ball joint
12 Some components should not be lubricated for the following reasons. Some are
permanently lubricated, some lubricants will
cause component failure or the lubricants will
be detrimental to the components operating
characteristics. Do not lubricate the following: air pump, generator bearings, drivebelts,
drivebelt idler pulley, front wheel bearings,
rubber bushings, starter motor bearings, suspension strut bearings, throttle control cable,
throttle linkage ball bearings and water pump
bearings.
22 Air filter - replacement (every
30,000 miles or 24 months)
Refer to illustrations 22.2 and 22.3
1
The air filter element is located in a
housing on the driver's side of the engine
compartment.
2
Unclip the 2 latches securing the top
cover of the air cleaner housing (see illustration). Lift the latching side of the cover and
disengage it from the locking lugs on the
opposite side.
3
Position the cover out of the way and
22.3 With the cover positioned out of the
way, remove the air filter element from
the housing
1-21
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
23.4 To drain the transaxle fluid, first loosen the bolts, then
remove all the bolts except for 2 on the high side and 2 on the low
side - after breaking the pan seal, remove the 2 bolts on the lower
side and let the pan hang down to drain further
remove the air filter element (see illustration).
4
Inspect the inside of the air cleaner
housing, top and bottom, for dirt, debris or
damage. If necessary, clean the inside of the
housing with a rag or shop vacuum as applicable. If the air cleaner housing is damaged
and requires replacement, refer to Chapter 4.
5
Place the new filter element in position
(metal screen up), install the top cover and
secure it with the retaining latches.
23 Automatic transaxle - fluid and
filter change (every 30,000 miles
or 24 months)
Refer to illustrations 23.4, 23.5a and 23.5b
The automatic transaxle fluid and filter
1
should be changed and the magnet cleaned
at the recommended intervals.
Raise the front of the vehicle and sup2
port it securely on jackstands. Warning:
Never work under a vehicle that is supported
only by a jack! Extract the two push-in fasteners and remove the transaxle splash shield.
3
Since the transaxle drain pan does not
have a drain plug, this procedure can get a
bit messy, so you should have plenty of clean
rags and newspapers handy to mop up any
spills that may occur. If the drain pan you're
using isn't very large in diameter, place it on a
piece of plastic such as a trash bag to catch
any splashing oil.
4
Position a container capable of holding
at least 5 quarts under the transaxle oil pan.
Loosen only the pan bolts. Remove the bolts
on each side of the pan leaving two bolts
loosely in place on the upper and lower sides
of the pan (see illustration). Tap the corners
of the pan using a soft-faced mallet to break
the seal and allow the fluid to drain into the
container (the remaining bolts will prevent the
pan from completely separating from the
transaxle). Remove the 2 bolts from the lower
side of the pan and let it hang down to drain
23.5a Remove the transaxle fluid filter .. .
further. After the pan has finished draining,
remove the remaining bolts and detach the
pan.
5
Remove the filter and 0-ring seal (see
illustrations).
6
Carefully remove all traces of old sealant
from the pan, transaxle body (be careful not
to nick or gouge the sealing surfaces) and the
bolts.
7
Clean the pan and the magnet located
inside the pan with a clean, lint-free cloth
moistened with solvent. Don't forget to place
the magnet back in its proper location at the
bottom of the pan.
Fit the new filter, with a new 0-ring
8
installed, in place on the transaxle valve
body.
9
Apply a 1/8-inch bead of Mopar RTV
sealant (or equivalent) to the pan sealing surface (stay on the inboard side of the bolt
holes) and to the underside of each bolt
head.
10 Position the pan on the transaxle and
install the bolts. Tighten them to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications following a criss-cross pattern. Work up to the final
torque in three or four steps. Allow the RTV
sealant time to dry according to the manufacturer's instructions.
11 Install the transaxle splash shield and
secure it with the two push-in fasteners.
12 Lower the vehicle and add four quarts of
the specified fluid (see Recommended lubricants and fluids at the beginning of this
Chapter) to the transaxle (see Section 6 if
necessary). Start the engine and allow it to
idle for at least two minutes while checking
for leakage around the pan.
13 With the engine running and the brakes
applied, move the shift lever through each of
the gear positions and ending in Park. Check
the fluid level on the dipstick. The level
should be just up to the ADD mark. If necessary, add more fluid (a little at a time) until the
level is just at the ADD mark (be careful not to
overfill it).
23.5b ... and 0-ring seal
14 Drive the vehicle until it reaches normal
operating temperature. Recheck the fluid
level and add as necessary until the fluid
reaches the HOT range on the dipstick (see
Section 6).
15 The old oil cannot be reused in its present state and should be disposed of properly. Oil reclamation centers, auto repair
shops and gas stations will normally accept
used oil. It should be placed into sealable
containers (plastic bottles with screw-on tops
are preferred) for transport to a disposal site.
24
Manual transaxle - lubricant
change (every 30,000 or 24
months)
Refer to illustrations 24.2a and 24.2b
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
1
on jackstands in a level position. Warning:
Never work under a vehicle that is supported
only by a jack!
Using a box-end wrench or socket to
2
prevent rounding off the plug wrenching flats,
1-22
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
24.2a To avoid rounding off the corners,
use the correct size box-end wrench or a
socket to remove the manual transaxle oil
drain plug .. .
remove the drain plug. Drain the fluid into a
suitable container capable of holding at least
4 quarts (see illustrations).
After the fluid has completely drained,
3
install the drain plug and tighten it to the
torque given in this Chapter's Specifications.
4
Fill the transaxle with the recommended
lubricant (see Section 16).
5
The old oil cannot be reused in its present state and should be disposed of properly. Oil reclamation centers, auto repair
shops and gas stations will normally accept
used oil. It should be placed into sealable
containers (plastic bottles with screw-on tops
are preferred) for transport to a disposal site.
25 Cooling system - servicing
(draining, flushing and refilling)
(every 30,000 miles or 24 months)
Warning 1: Do not allow coolant (antifreeze)
to come in contact with your skin or painted
surfaces of the vehicle. Flush contaminated
areas immediately with plenty of water. Do
not store new coolant or leave old coolant
lying around where it's accessible to children
or pets - they're attracted by its sweet smell.
Ingestion of even a small amount of coolant
can be fatal! Wipe up garage floor and drip
pan spills immediately. Keep antifreeze containers covered and repair cooling system
leaks as soon as they're noticed. Check with
local authorities about the disposal of used
antifreeze. Many communities have collection
centers which will see that antifreeze is disposed of properly.
Warning 2: The electric cooling fan(s) on
these models can activate at any time the
ignition switch is in the ON position. Make
sure the ignition is OFF when working in the
vicinity of the fan(s).
1
Periodically, the cooling system should
be drained, flushed and refilled to replenish
the coolant (antifreeze) mixture and prevent
formation of rust and corrosion, which can
24.2b . . . and drain the fluid
impair the performance of the cooling system
and cause engine damage. When the cooling
system is serviced, all hoses and the radiator
cap should be checked and replaced, if necessary.
25.5 The drain fitting (arrow) is located at
the bottom of the radiator on the right
hand side (radiator removed for clarity)
Draining
Refer to illustration 25.5
2
At the same time the cooling system is
serviced, all hoses and the radiator (pressure)
cap should be inspected, tested and
replaced if faulty (see Section 10).
3
With the engine cold, remove the pressure cap and set the heater control to maximum heat.
4
Move a large container capable of holding at least 10 quarts under the radiator drain
fitting to catch the coolant mixture as it's
drained.
Open the drain fitting located at the bot5
tom of the radiator (see illustration). On
vehicles equipped with the V6 engine, the
drain fitting cannot be reached by hand. To
open the drain fitting, use a universal joint
and socket attached to a long extension.
Allow the coolant to completely drain out.
Flushing
Refer to illustration 25.11
6
Remove the thermostat housing and the
thermostat (see Chapter 3).
7
Disconnect the lower hose from the
radiator (see Chapter 3 if necessary).
8
Place a garden hose in the upper radiator hose (to flush radiator) and then the thermostat opening in the engine block (to flush
engine block and heater core). Flush the system until the water runs clear out of the radiator and lower radiator hose respectively.
9
In severe cases of contamination or
clogging of the radiator, remove it (see Chapter 3) and reverse flush it. This involves inserting the hose in the bottom radiator outlet to
allow the clean water to run against the normal flow, draining out through the top. A radiator repair shop should be consulted if further
cleaning or repair is necessary.
10 When the coolant is regularly drained
and the system refilled with the correct
25.11 To remove the coolant reservoir,
disconnect the hose (A) and remove the 2
mounting bolts (arrows)
coolant mixture there should be no need to
employ chemical cleaners or descalers.
11 Disconnect the coolant reservoir hose,
remove the reservoir from the vehicle and
flush it with clean water (see illustration).
Inspect it for damage and replace if necessary.
Refilling
12 Install the thermostat, the thermostat
housing and connect the radiator hose (see
Chapter 3).
13 Connect the lower radiator hose (see
Chapter 3 if necessary).
14 Install the coolant reservoir, reconnect
the hose and close the radiator drain fitting.
15 Add the correct mixture of high-quality
antifreeze/coolant and water in the ratio
specified on the antifreeze container or in this
Chapter's Specifications through the filler
neck until it reaches the pressure cap seat.
16 Add the same coolant mixture to the
reservoir until it the level is between the FULL
and ADD marks.
17 Run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached and with the engine
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
1-23
27.2 Tools required for changing
spark plugs
1
2
3
4
5
Spark plug socket - This will have
special padding inside to protect the
spark plug's porcelain insulator
Torque wrench - Although not
mandatory, using this tool is the best
way to ensure the plugs are tightened
properly
Ratchet - Standard hand tool to fit the
spark plug socket
Extension - Depending on model and
accessories, you may need special
extensions and universal joints to reach
one or more of the plugs
Spark plug gap gauge - This gauge for
checking the gap comes in a variety of
styles. Make sure the gap for your
engine is included
idling, add coolant up to the correct level.
Install the pressure cap.
18 Always refill the system with the specified mixture of coolant and water. See Chapter 3 for more information on antifreeze mixtures.
19 Keep a close watch on the coolant level
and the various cooling system hoses during
the first few miles of driving and check for
any coolant leaks. Tighten the hose clamps
and add more coolant mixture as necessary.
27.5a Spark plug manufacturers
recommend using a wire-type gauge
when checking the gap - if the wire does
not slide between the electrodes with a
slight drag, adjustment is required
27.5b To change the gap, bend the side
electrode only, as indicated by the arrows,
and be very careful not to crack or chip
the porcelain insulator surrounding the
center electrode
3
The most common symptom of a fault in
the evaporative emissions system is a strong
fuel odor in the engine compartment or raw
fuel leaking from the canister. These indications are usually more prevalent in hot temperatures. All systems except for those
installed on 1995 models are pressurized by
a Leak Detection Pump (LDP). If normal system pressure cannot be achieved by the
LDP, which indicates a leak, the PCM will
store the appropriate fault code and illuminate the CHECK ENGINE light on the instrument panel. The most common cause of system pressure loss is a loose or poor sealing
gas cap.
4
For more information and replacement
procedures see Chapter 6.
plugs beforehand, adjust them to the proper
gap and then replace each plug one at a
ti me. When buying the new spark plugs, be
sure to obtain the correct plug for your specific engine. This information can be found in
the Specification Section at the front of this
Chapter, in your owner's manual or on the
Vehicle Emissions Control Information (VECI)
label located under the hood. If differences
exist between the sources, purchase the
spark plug type specified on the VECI label
as it was printed for your specific engine.
4
Allow the engine to cool completely
before attempting to remove any of the
plugs. During this cooling off ti me, each of
the new spark plugs can be inspected for
defects and the gaps can be checked.
5
The gap is checked by inserting the
proper thickness gauge between the electrodes at the tip of the plug (see illustration).
The gap between the electrodes should be as
specified on the VECI label in the engine
compartment or as listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. The wire should touch each of
the electrodes. If the gap is incorrect, use the
adjuster on the thickness , gauge body to
bend the curved side electrode slightly until
the proper gap is obtained (see illustration).
Also, at this time check for cracks in the
spark plug body (if any are found, the plug
must not be used). If the side electrode is not
exactly over the center one, use the adjuster
to align the two.
6
Cover the fender to prevent damage to
the paint, fender covers are available from
auto parts stores but an old blanket will work
just fine.
27 Spark plugs - check and
replacement (see Maintenance
schedule for intervals)
26 Evaporative emissions control
system - check (every 30,000
miles or 24 months)
All models
1
The function of the evaporative emissions control system is to prevent fuel vapors
from escaping the fuel system and being
released into the atmosphere. Vapors from
the fuel tank are temporarily stored in a charcoal canister. The Powertrain Control Module
(PCM) monitors the system and allows the
vapors to be drawn into the intake manifold
when the engine reaches normal operating
temperature.
2
The charcoal canister on 1995 through
1997 models is mounted to a bracket behind
the right front bumper fascia adjacent to the
windshield washer reservoir. On 1998 models, it's located on top of the fuel tank. The
canisters are maintenance-free and should
last the life of the vehicle.
1
The spark plugs are located in the cylinder head.
2
In most cases the tools necessary for
spark plug replacement include a spark plug
socket which fits onto a ratchet (this special
socket is padded inside to protect the porcelain insulators on the new plugs and hold
them in place), various extensions and a
feeler gauge to check and adjust the spark
plug gap (see illustration). A special plug
wire removal tool is available for separating
the wire boot from the spark plug, but it isn't
absolutely necessary. Since these engines
are equipped with an aluminum cylinder
head(s), a torque wrench should be used
when tightening the spark plugs.
3
The best approach when replacing the
spark plugs is to purchase the new spark
Refer to illustrations 27.2, 27.5a and 27.5b
Four-cylinder engines
Refer to illustrations 27.7a and 27.7b
7
Note: Due to the short length of the
spark plug wire, always disconnect the spark
plug wire from the ignition coil pack first. Disconnect the spark plug wire from any retaining clips. With the engine cool, disconnect
1
1-24
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
27.7a Pull on the spark plug wire boot and twist it back-and-forth
while pulling it from the ignition coil pack
27.7b Use a twisting motion to free the boot and then pull it from
the valve cover
27.15 A length of 3/8-inch ID rubber hose
will save time and prevent damaged
threads when installing the spark plugs
27.12 Use a ratchet and extension to
remove the spark plugs
one of the spark plug wires from the ignition
coil pack (see illustration). Pull only on the
boot at the end of the wire; don't pull on the
wire. Using a twisting motion, loosen the
boot/wire at the valve cover, then withdraw
the boot/wire from the valve cover (see illustration).
V6 engine
Note: On V6 models, the manufacturer recommends replacing the spark plugs, spark
plug wires, distributor cap and rotor at the
same time. Refer to Section 29 for spark plug
wire, distributor cap and rotor replacement.
Remove the upper intake manifold (see
8
Chapter 2B).
To prevent dirt or other foreign debris
9
from entering the engine, place clean rags
into the openings in the lower intake manifold.
10 Detach any clips securing the spark plug
wires. Using a twisting motion, loosen the
boot/wire at the valve cover, then withdraw
the boot/wire from the valve cover (see illustration 27.7b).
27.14 Apply a thin coat of anti-seize
compound to the spark plug threads - DO
NOT get any on the electrodes!
All models
Refer to illustrations 27.12, 27.14 and 27.15
11 If compressed air is available, use it to
blow any dirt or foreign material away from
the spark plug area. Warning: Use proper
eye protection! A common bicycle pump will
also work. The idea here is to eliminate the
possibility of material falling into the cylinder
through the spark plug hole as the spark plug
is removed.
12 Place the spark plug socket over the
plug and remove it from the engine by turning
it in a counterclockwise direction (see illustration).
13 Compare the spark plug with the chart
on the inside back cover of this manual to get
an indication of the overall running condition
of the engine.
14 It's a good idea to lightly coat the
threads of the spark plugs with an anti-seize
compound (see illustration) to insure that
the spark plugs do not seize in the aluminum
cylinder head. Be careful not to get any of the
anti-seize compound on the plug electrodes!
15 It's often difficult to insert spark plugs
into their holes without cross-threading them.
To avoid this possibility, fit a piece of 3/8inch ID rubber hose over the end of the spark
plug (see illustration). The flexible hose acts
as a universal joint to help align the plug with
the plug hole. Should the plug begin to crossthread, the hose will slip on the spark plug,
preventing thread damage. Install the spark
plug and tighten it to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
16 Attach the plug wire to the new spark
plug, again using a twisting motion on the
boot until it is firmly seated on the end of the
spark plug. On four-cylinder engines, attach
the other end to the ignition coil pack. Attach
the spark plug wire to any retaining clips to
secure the wires in their proper location on
the valve cover.
17 Follow the above procedure for the
remaining spark plugs, replacing them one at
a time to prevent mixing up the spark plug
wires.
18 On V6 models, replace the spark plug
wires, distributor cap and rotor (see Section
29). Remove the rags from the lower intake
manifold and install the upper intake manifold
(see Chapter 2B).
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
28.2a The PCV valve (arrow) is located in a hose leading from the
valve cover to the intake manifold (four-cylinder engines)
28 Positive Crankcase Ventilation
(PCV) valve - check and
replacement (every 60,000 miles
or 48 months)
Refer to illustrations 28.2a and 28.2b
1
The PCV valve controls the amount of
crankcase vapors allowed to enter the intake
manifold. Inside the PCV valve is a spring
loaded valve that opens in relation to intake
manifold vacuum, which allows crankcase
vapors to be drawn from the valve cover
back into the engine combustion chamber.
2
The PCV valve on four-cylinder engines
is located in the rubber hose connected to
the intake manifold plenum and the valve
cover (see illustration). On V6 models, its
located in the front of the left-bank valve
cover (see illustration).
3
To check the operation of the PCV
valve, disconnect the valve from the valve
cover or hose that leads to the valve cover,
depending on your particular application.
Start the engine. A hissing sound should
4
be heard coming from the PCV valve. Place
your finger over the valve opening - there
should be vacuum present. If there's no vacuum at the valve, check for a plugged hose,
plenum port or valve. Replace any plugged or
deteriorated hoses.
5
Check the spring-loaded valve located
inside for freedom of movement by using a
small screwdriver or equivalent to push the
valve off its seat and see it returns to the fully
seated position. If the valve is sluggish or the
inside of the valve is contaminated with gum
and carbon deposits, the valve must be
replaced.
To replace the valve, disconnect it from
6
the intake manifold hose and valve cover or
valve cover hose as applicable.
When purchasing a replacement PCV
7
valve, make sure it's for your particular vehicle and engine size. Compare the old valve
with the new one to make sure they're the
same.
1-25
28.2b Removing the PCV valve from the valve cover (V6 engine)
8
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure the new PCV valve is installed with
the closed end (plunger seat) towards the
valve cover.
29 Spark plug wires, distributor cap
and rotor - check and
replacement (see Maintenance
schedule for intervals)
Note: Distributor cap and rotor replacement
applies to V6 engines only.
All models
The spark plug wires should be checked
1
at the recommended intervals or whenever
new spark plugs are installed.
Begin this procedure by making a visual
2
check of the spark plug wires while the
engine is running. In a darkened garage
(make sure there is adequate ventilation) or at
night while using a flashlight, start the en g ine
and observe each plug wire. Be careful not to
come into contact with any moving engine
parts. If possible, use an insulated or nonconductive object to wiggle each wire. If
there is a break in the wire, you will see arcing or a small blue spark coming from the
damaged area. Secondary ignition voltage
increases with engine speed and sometimes
a damaged wire will not produce an arc at
idle speed. Have an assistant press the
accelerator pedal to raise the engine speed
to approximately 2000 rpm. Check the spark
plug wires for arcing as stated previously. If
arcing is noticed, replace all spark plug wires.
Four-cylinder engines
3
Perform the following checks with the
engine OFF. The wires should be inspected
one at a time to prevent mixing up the order
which is essential for proper engine operation. Note: Due to the short length of the
spark plug wire, always disconnect the spark
plug wire from the ignition coil pack first.
4
With the engine cool, disconnect the
spark plug wire from the ignition coil pack.
Pull only on the boot at the end of the wire;
don't pull on the wire itself. Use a twisting
motion to free the boot/wire from the coil.
Disconnect the same spark plug wire from
the spark plug, using the same twisting
method while pulling on the boot. Disconnect
the spark plug wire from any retaining clips
as necessary and remove it from the engine.
Check inside the boot for corrosion,
5
which will look like a white, crusty powder
(don't mistake the white dielectric grease
used on some plug wire boots for corrosion
protection).
6
Now push the wire and boot back onto
the end of the spark plug. It should be a tight
fit on the plug end. If not, remove the wire
and use a pair of pliers to carefully crimp the
metal connector inside the wire boot until the
fit is snug.
Now push the wire and boot back into
7
the end of the ignition coil terminal. It should
be a tight fit in the terminal. If not, remove the
wire and use a pair of pliers to carefully crimp
the metal connector inside the wire boot until
the fit is snug.
8
Now, using a cloth, clean each wire
along its entire length. Remove all built-up
dirt and grease. As this is done, inspect for
burned areas, cracks and any other form of
damage. Bend the wires in several places to
ensure that the conductive material inside
hasn't hardened. Repeat the procedure for
the remaining wires.
9
If new spark plug wires are required,
purchase a complete set for your particular
engine. The terminals and rubber boots
should already be installed on the wires.
Replace the wires one at a time to avoid mixing up the firing order and make sure the terminals are securely seated on the coil pack
and the spark plugs.
10 Attach the plug wire to the new spark
plug and to the ignition coil pack using a
twisting motion on the boot until it is firmly
seated. Attach the spark plug wire to any
retaining clips to keep the wires in their
proper location on the valve cover.
1-26
Chapter 1 Tune-up and routine maintenance
V6 engine
Refer to illustration 29.15
Note: On V6 engines, the manufacturer recommends replacing the spark plugs, spark
plug wires, distributor cap and rotor at the
same time.
11 Remove the upper intake manifold (see
Chapter 2B).
12 To prevent dirt or other foreign debris
from entering the engine, place duct tape
over the openings of the lower intake manifold.
13 Remove the EGR tube from the EGR
valve (see Chapter 6 if necessary).
14 Disconnect one spark plug wire from the
distributor cap. Pull only on the boot at the
end of the wire; don't pull on the wire itself.
Use a twisting motion to free the boot/wire
from the distributor. Install the removed wire
into the new distributor cap in the exact same
location. Repeat this procedure until all spark
plug wires are installed in the new cap.
15 Loosen the 2 screws and remove the old
distributor cap (see illustration). Remove the
rotor.
16 Install the new rotor and distributor cap
(with spark plug wires attached).
17 Replace the spark plugs as described in
Section 27, except do not reattach the spark
plug wires to the retaining clips.
18 Replace the spark plug wires one at a
ti me to avoid mixing up the firing order and
make sure the terminals are securely seated
on the distributor cap and the spark plugs.
Install the plug wires using a twisting motion
29.15 Distributor cap
retaining screw locations
(V6 engines only)
on the boot until it is firmly seated. Attach the
spark plug wire to any retaining clips as
required.
19 Using a new gasket, install the EGR
tube onto the EGR valve (see Chapter 6).
Tighten the bolts to the torque given in the
Specification Section of Chapter 6.
20 Remove the duct tape from the lower
intake manifold.
21
Install the upper intake manifold (see
Chapter 2B).
30 Fuel filter - replacement
The manufacturer does not suggest
1
periodic fuel filter replacement on JA series
models. See Chapter 4 if the fuel filter
requires replacement due to a fuel restriction
or fuel contamination problem.
Chapter 2 Part A
Four-cylinder engines
Contents
Section
Balance shafts (2.4L engine) .......................................... See Chapter 2C
Camshafts - removal, inspection and installation ................................ 10
Camshaft oil seal - replacement ............................................................8
CHECK ENGINE light ....................................................... See Chapter 6
Crankshaft front oil seal - replacement ................................................. 7
Cylinder head - removal and installation ..............................................12
Engine mounts - check and replacement ............................................ 17
Exhaust manifold - removal and installation..........................................5
Driveplate - removal and installation ....................................................15
General information ................................................................................1
Intake manifold - removal, inspection and installation .......................... 4
Section
Oil pan - removal and installation ........................................................ 13
Oil pump - removal, inspection and installation ...................................14
Rear main oil seal - replacement ......................................................... 16
Repair operations possible with the engine in the vehicle.................... 2
Rocker arm and hydraulic valve lash adjuster - removal,
inspection and installation ................................................................9
Timing belt - removal, inspection and installation ................................. 6
Top dead center (TDC) for number one piston .............. See Chapter 2C
Valve cover - removal and installation................................................... 3
Valve springs, retainers and seals - replacement ................................11
Specifications
General
Bore .........................................................................................................
Stroke
2.0L....................................................................................................
2.4L....................................................................................................
Compression ratio
2.0L ....................................................................................................
2.4L....................................................................................................
Compression pressure ............................................................................
Displacement
2.0L....................................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
Firing order..............................................................................................
Oil pressure
At idle speed......................................................................................
At 3000 rpm .......................................................................................
3.445 inches
3.268 inches
3.976 inches
9.8:1
9.4:1
170 to 225 psi
Front
Of
Vehicle
122 cubic inches
148 cubic inches
1-3-4-2
4 psi (minimum)
25 to 80 psi
Cylinder numbering and coil
terminal locations
2A-2
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
Camshaft
Bearing journal diameter
2.0L
No. 1.............................................................................................
No. 2 .............................................................................................
No. 3.............................................................................................
No. 4.............................................................................................
No. 5 .............................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
Bearing bore diameter
2.0L
No. 1..............................................................................................
No. 2.............................................................................................
No. 3.............................................................................................
No. 4.............................................................................................
No. 5.............................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
Bearing clearance ...................................................................................
Endplay
2.0L .................................................................................................
2.4L .................................................................................................
Lobe lift
2.0L
Intake ............................................................................................
Exhaust.........................................................................................
2.4L
Intake ............................................................................................
Exhaust .........................................................................................
1.619 to 1.6199 inches
1.634 to 1.635 inches
1.650 to 1.651 inches
1.666 to 1.668 inches
1.682 to 1.6829 inches
1.021 to 1.022 inches
1.622 to 1.6228 inches
1.637 to 1.638 inches
1.653 to 1.654 inches
1.669 to 1.670 inches
1.685 to 1.6858 inches
1.024 to 1.025 inches
0.0027 to 0.003 inch
0.0059 inch
0.002 to 0.006 inch
0.307 inch
0.277 inch
0.324 inch
0.256 inch
Cylinder head
Head gasket surface warpage limit .........................................................
Exhaust manifold mounting surface warpage limit .................................
0.004 inch maximum
0.006 inch maximum (per foot)
Intake and exhaust manifolds
Warpage limit ..........................................................................................
0.006 inch maximum (per foot)
Rocker arm shaft assemblies (2.0L engine only)
Rocker arm shaft diameter ......................................................................
Rocker arm inside diameter ....................................................................
Rocker arm-to-shaft clearance ...............................................................
Rocker arm shaft retainer width
Intake.................................................................................................
Exhaust
No. 1 and No. 5............................................................................
No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4..................................................................
0.786 to 0.7867 inch
0.787 to 0.788 inch
0.0006 to 0.0021 inch
1.12 inches
1.14 inches
1.59 inches
Oil pump
Cover warpage limit ................................................................................
Inner rotor thickness
2.0L....................................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
Outer rotor thickness
2.0L ....................................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
Outer rotor diameter ................................................................................
Rotor-to-pump cover clearance ..............................................................
Outer rotor-to-housing clearance............................................................
Inner rotor-to-outer rotor lobe clearance ................................................
Pressure relief spring free length .............................................................
0.301 inch (minimum)
0.370 inch (minimum)
3.148 inch (minimum)
0.004 inch
0.015 inch (maximum)
0.008 inch (maximum)
2.39 inches (approximate)
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Camshaft bearing cap bolts
M6 bolts .............................................................................................
M8 bolts .............................................................................................
Camshaft position sensor bolts
2.0L....................................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
0.003 inch
0.301 inch (minimum)
0.370 inch (minimum)
105 in-lbs
250 in-lbs
85 in-lbs
20
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
2A-3
Torque specifications (continued)
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Camshaft sprocket/pulley bolt
2.0L.............................................................................................................85
2.4L .............................................................................................................75
Crankshaft damper bolt................................................................................... 100 to 105
Cylinder head bolts
Step 1 .....................................................................................................25
Step 2 ....................................................................................................50
Step 3....................................................................................................50
Step 4 ....................................................................................................Tighten an additional 1/4 turn (90-degrees)
Engine mounting bracket bolts ........................................................................30 to 45
Exhaust manifold-to-cylinder head bolts .........................................................200 in-lbs
Exhaust manifold-to-exhaust pipe bolts ..........................................................20
Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts .................................................................. 105 in-lbs
Front engine mount strut and structural collar bolts (1998 2.4L engine only) (see illustration 13.16)
Bolts 1 through 3 ........................................................................................ 75
Bolts 4 through 8 ........................................................................................ 45
Driveplate-to-crankshaft bolts ......................................................................... 70
Intake manifold bolts
2.0L (plastic manifold) .................................................................................105 in-lbs
2.4L (aluminum manifold) ........................................................................... 200 in-lbs
Oil filter adapter fastener ..................................................................................60
Oil pan bolts .....................................................................................................105 in-lbs
Oil part-to-transaxle structural collar bolts (1997 2.4L and 1998 2.0L engines only)
Step 1 (collar-to-oil pan bolts) .................................................................... 30 in-lbs
Step 2 (collar-to-transaxle bolts) ................................................................ 80
Step 3 (collar-to-oil pan bolts) .................................................................... 40
Oil pump
Attaching bolts ............................................................................................250 in-lbs
Cover screws ..............................................................................................105 in-lbs
Pick-up tube bolt........................................................................................ 250 in-lbs
Relief valve cap bolt................................................................................... 30
Rocker arm shaft bolts (2.0L) ...........................................................................250 in-lbs
Thermostat housing bolts ................................................................................ 200 in-lbs
Timing belt
Cover bolts
2.0L........................................................................................................105 in-lbs
2.4L
Outer-to-inner attaching bolts ......................................................... 40 in-lbs
Inner cover-to-head/oil pump bolts ................................................. 105 in-lbs
Tensioner bolts
Mechanical type ......................................................................................... 250 in-lbs
Hydraulic type
Tensioner pulley assembly plate bolts ..................................................23
Tensioner unit bolts ...............................................................................23
Tensioner pulley bolt .............................................................................30
Timing belt idler pulley bolt (2.4L)....................................................................45
Valve cover bolts .............................................................................................. 105 in-lbs
Water pump mounting bolt.............................................................................. 105 in-lbs
*Refer to Part C for additional torque specifications
2A
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
2A-4
3.6a Remove the valve cover mounting bolts .. .
1
General information
This Part of Chapter 2 is devoted to invehicle engine repair procedures on models
equipped with 2.0 liter and 2.4 liter four-cylinder engines. Information concerning engine
removal and installation and engine block
and cylinder head overhaul can be found in
Part C of this Chapter.
The following repair procedures are
based on the assumption that the engine is
installed in the vehicle. If the engine has been
removed from the vehicle and mounted on a
stand, many of the steps outlined in this Part
of Chapter 2 will not apply.
The Specification Section included in
this Part of Chapter 2 apply only to the procedures contained in this Part. Part C of Chapter 2 contains the Specification Section necessary for cylinder head and engine block
rebuilding.
There are two four-cylinder engines
installed in the models covered in this manual; the 2.0L Single Overhead Camshaft
(SOHC) engine and the 2.4L Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC) engine. The main difference between the 2.0 liter and 2.4 liter
engines, besides the obvious engine displacement, is the incorporation of two balance shafts installed below the crankshaft of
the 2.4L engine. For service information on
the balance shafts refer to Part C of this
Chapter.
improve access to the engine 'as repairs are
performed (refer to Chapter 11 if necessary).
Cover the fenders to prevent damage to the
paint. Special pads are available, but an old
bedspread or blanket will also work.
If vacuum, exhaust, oil or coolant leaks
develop, indicating a need for gasket or seal
replacement, the repairs can generally be
made with the engine in the vehicle. The
intake and exhaust manifold gaskets, oil pan
gasket, camshaft and crankshaft oil seals
and cylinder head gasket are all accessible
with the engine in place.
Exterior engine components, such as
the intake and exhaust manifolds, the oil pan,
the oil pump, the water pump, the starter
motor, the alternator, the distributor and the
fuel system components can be removed for
repair with the engine in place.
Since the camshaft(s) and cylinder head
can be removed without pulling the engine,
valve component servicing can also be
accomplished with the engine in the vehicle.
Replacement of the timing belt and sprockets
is also possible with the engine in the vehicle.
In extreme cases caused by a lack of
necessary equipment, repair or replacement
of piston rings, pistons, connecting rods and
rod bearings is possible with the engine in the
vehicle. However, this practice is not recommended because of the cleaning and preparation work that must be done to the components involved.
3
2
Repair operations possible with
the engine in the vehicle
Many major repair operations can be
accomplished without removing the engine
from the vehicle.
Clean the engine compartment and the
exterior of the engine with some type of
degreaser before any work is done. It will
make the job easier and help keep dirt out of
the internal areas of the engine.
Depending on the components involved,
it may be helpful to remove the hood to
L
3.6b ... and lift the cover and gasket off the cylinder head
5
Clearly label and then disconnect any
emission hoses and electrical cables which
connect to or cross over the valve cover.
6
Remove the valve cover bolts and lift the
cover off (see illustrations). If the cover
sticks to the cylinder head, tap on it with a
soft-face hammer or place a wood block
against the cover and tap on the wood with a
hammer. Caution: If you have to pry between
the valve cover and the cylinder head, be
extremely careful not to gouge or nick the
gasket surfaces of either part. A leak could
develop after reassembly.
7
Remove the valve cover gasket, 1/2
round seal (2.4L engines) and spark plug tube
seals. Thoroughly clean the valve cover and
remove all traces of old gasket material. Gasket removal solvents are available from auto
parts stores and may prove helpful. After
cleaning the surfaces, degrease them with a
rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
Installation
Refer to illustrations 3.8 and 3.9
8
Install the new spark plug tube seals
(see illustration).
9
Install a new gasket on the cover,
using RTV sealant to hold it in place (see
illustration).
Valve cover - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 3.6a and 3.6b
Disconnect the negative battery cable
1
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Remove the ignition coil pack from the
valve cover (see Chapter 5).
Remove the spark plug wires (see Chap3
ter 1).
4
On 2.4L engines, disconnect the ground
strap from the valve cover.
3.8 Install new spark plug tube seals
and make sure they are properly
seated in the cover
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
3.9 Apply a light coat of RTV sealant onto the cover sealing
surfaces and install the new gasket (arrow)
10 On 2.4L engines, install the half-round
seal, apply anaerobic RTV sealant to the
camshaft cap corners and at the top edges of
the half-round seal.
11
Place the cover on the engine and install
the cover bolts. Tighten the valve cover bolts
in three steps to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications using a criss-cross
pattern, starting in the middle of the cover
and working outwards.
12 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. When installation is complete, start the engine and check for oil leaks.
Spark plug tube replacement
(2.0L engine only)
Refer to illustration 3.16
13 Remove the valve cover (see above).
14 Grasp spark plug tube with locking pliers, carefully twist back and forth and remove
the tube from cylinder head.
15 Clean the locking agent from the tube
end and the receptacle in cylinder head with
solvent and dry.
4.4a Disconnect the PCV valve hose
from the intake manifold fitting
(2.0L engine shown)
3.16 After applying a small amount of Loctite No. 271 (or
equivalent) to the lower end of the tube(s) (arrows), install
it and carefully tap the tube into place until its fully seated
in the cylinder head (2.0L engine only)
16 Apply approximately 1/8 inch wide strip
of Loctite sealer No. 271, or equivalent,
around the lower end of the tube and install
the tube into the cylinder head. Carefully tap
the tube into the receptacle with a soft face
mallet or wood block. Tap the tube in until it
is fully seated in the cylinder head (see illustration).
17 Allow the Loctite to cure according to
the manufacturer's instructions.
18 Install the valve cover (see above).
4
2A-5
Intake manifold - removal,
inspection and installation
Warning: Allow the engine to cool completely
before beginning this procedure.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 4.4a, 4.4b, 4.8, 4.11a
and 4.1lb
1
Relieve the fuel system pressure (see
Chapter 4).
4.4b Disconnect the power brake booster
vacuum hose from the intake manifold
(2.0L engine shown)
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
4
Clearly label and disconnect all vacuum
hoses, wires, brackets and emission hoses
which run to the fuel injection system, throttle
body and intake manifold (see illustrations).
5
Remove the fuel rail and injector assembly (see Chapter 4).
6
Remove the throttle body (see Chapter 4).
7
Remove the transaxle-to-throttle body
support bracket fasteners and loosen (only)
the fastener on the transaxle side. Be sure to
disconnect any electrical connections that
are fastened to the support bracket before
trying to move the parts out of the way.
8
Remove the EGR tube (see illustration).
9
On 2.0L engines, remove the water inlet
tube support-to-intake manifold fastener.
10 On 2.4L engines, remove the intake
manifold support bracket located on the
driver's side of the manifold.
4.8 Remove the mounting bolts from the
EGR tube (arrows) at the intake manifold
and EGR valve (shown) and remove
the tube
2A
2A-6
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
4.11a Remove the intake manifold mounting bolts in a
criss-cross pattern .. .
11 Unbolt the intake manifold and remove it
from the engine (see illustrations). If it
sticks, lightly tap the manifold with a softface hammer or carefully pry it from the head.
Caution: On 2.4L engines, do not pry
between gasket sealing surfaces or tap on
any fuel injector boss. On 2.0L engines, the
intake manifold is made of plastic. Although
it's pretty strong, it's not very impact resistant
so use caution when tapping on it.
Inspection
Refer to illustration 4.13
12 On 2.4L engines, remove intake manifold gasket by carefully scraping all traces of
gasket material from both the cylinder head
and the intake manifold. Caution: The cylinder head and intake manifold are made of aluminum and are easily nicked or gouged. Don't
damage the gasket surfaces or a leak may
result after the work is complete. Gasket
removal solvents are available from auto parts
stores and may prove helpful.
13 On 2.0L engines, remove the 0-ring seal
gaskets on the intake and throttle body ports
(see illustration). Caution: The intake manifold is made of plastic and can be easily dam -
4.l lb . . . then remove the intake manifold from the cylinder head
aged, don't scrape too hard when removing
any dirt or residue. Examine the intake manifold for evidence of cracks and other damage. Replace if any are found.
14 Using a straightedge and feeler gauge,
check the intake manifold mating surface for
warpage. Check the intake manifold surface
on the cylinder head also. If the warpage on
any surface exceeds the limits listed in this
Chapter's Specifications, the intake manifold
and/or cylinder head must be replaced or
resurfaced by an automotive machine shop.
Installation
Refer to illustrations 4.15a and 4.15b
Note: On 2.0L engines whenever the intake
manifold is removed, the manufacturer recommends using new bolts and washers for
installation.
15 Install the intake manifold, using a new
gasket or 0-rings as applicable. Tighten the
bolts in three stages, in the sequence shown
(see illustrations), to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
16 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
4.13 On 2.0L engines, remove the 0-ring seal gaskets (arrows) on
the throttle body and intake ports
5
Exhaust manifold - removal,
inspection and installation
Warning: Allow the engine to cool completely
before beginning this procedure.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Set the parking brake and block the rear
2
wheels. Raise the front of the vehicle and
support it securely on jackstands.
Working under the vehicle, apply pene3
trating oil to the exhaust pipe-to-manifold
fasteners to make removal easier. Remove
the fasteners securing the exhaust pipe to the
exhaust manifold and separate them (see
illustration). Remove the seal ring (2.0L) or
gasket (2.4L) as applicable.
4
Disconnect the wiring harness from the
upstream oxygen sensor (see illustration).
5
Remove the bolts that secure the heat
shield to the exhaust manifold and remove
the heat shield (see illustration).
4.15a Intake manifold bolt tightening sequence (2.0L engine)
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
4.15b Intake manifold bolt tightening sequence (2.4L engine)
5.4 Follow the harness from the upstream
oxygen sensor (arrow) and disconnect
it at the connector
6
Remove the exhaust manifold mounting
bolts and remove the exhaust manifold (see
illustration). Note: The exhaust pipe may have
to be removed from the vehicle to facilitate
manifold removal (see Chapter 4 if necessary).
Inspection
Using a wire brush, clean the exhaust
7
manifold bolts, replacing any that exhibit
thread damage.
5.3 Using a box wrench on the nuts and a socket on the bolt,
remove the shoulder bolts, springs and nuts securing
the exhaust pipe to the exhaust manifold
8
Using a scraper, remove all traces of
gasket material from the exhaust flange mating surfaces and inspect them for wear and
cracks. Caution: When removing gasket
material, be very careful not to scratch or
gouge the sealing surface. Any damage to the
surface may a leak after reassembly. Gasket
removal solvents are available from auto parts
stores and may prove helpful.
9
Using a straightedge and feeler gauge,
check the exhaust manifold-to-cylinder head
mating surface for warpage. Check the surface on the cylinder head also. If the warpage
exceeds the limits listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, the exhaust manifold and/or
cylinder head must be replaced or resurfaced
by an automotive machine shop.
Installation
10 Apply Loctite No. 271 to the mounting
bolt threads prior to installation.
11 Install the new gasket (use no sealant),
manifold and bolts. Tighten the bolts in three
stages, working from the center out, to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
12 The remaining installation steps are the
5.5 Remove the exhaust manifold heat shield mounting bolts
(arrows) and remove the heat shield
2A-7
reverse of removal. Install a new gasket or
seal ring (as applicable) between the exhaust
manifold and exhaust pipe.
13 Run the engine and check for exhaust
leaks.
6
Timing belt - removal, inspection
and installation
Caution: If the timing belt failed with the
engine operating, damage to the valves may
have occurred. Perform an engine compression check after belt replacement to determine if any valve damage is present.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 6.4, 6.5, 6.8a, 6.8b, 6.9a,
6.9b, 6.11 and 6.12
Caution: Do not turn the crankshaft or
camshaft(s) after the timing belt has been
removed, as this will damage the valves from
contact with the pistons. Do not try to turn
the crankshaft with the camshaft(s) sprocket
bolt(s) and do not rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise.
5.6 Remove the exhaust manifold mounting bolts (arrows) and
separate the exhaust manifold from the cylinder head
2A
2A-8
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
1
Position the number one piston at Top
Dead Center (see Chapter 2C).
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Remove the drivebelts (see Chapter 1).
3
4
Loosen the large bolt in the center of the
crankshaft damper pulley. It might be very
tight, to break it loose insert a large screwdriver or bar through the opening in the pulley
to keep the pulley stationary and loosen the
bolt with a socket and breaker bar (see illustration).
5
Install a 3-jaw puller onto the damper
pulley and remove the pulley from the
crankshaft (see illustration). Use the proper
insert to keep the puller from damaging the
crankshaft bolt threads. If the pulley is difficult to remove, tap the center bolt of the
puller with a brass mallet to break it loose.
Caution: Do not use a puller that has jaws
which grip the outer diameter of the damper
as the damper and hub may separate. Use
only the type shown in the illustration.
After removing the crankshaft pulley,
6
reinstall the crankshaft bolt using an appropriate spacer (this will enable you to turn the
crankshaft later).
7
Remove the right (passenger side)
engine mount and the mounting bracket from
the engine (see Section 17). Note: Make sure
the engine is supported with a floor jack
placed under the oil pan. Place a wood block
on the jack head to prevent the floor jack from
denting or damaging the oil pan.
8
Remove the timing belt outer cover(s)
(see illustrations).
9
Make sure the camshaft sprocket(s) and
crankshaft timing marks align before remov -
6.4 Insert a large screwdriver or bar
through the opening in the crankshaft
pulley and wedge it against the engine
block, then loosen the bolt with a
socket and breaker bar
ing the timing belt (see illustrations). If necessary, align the timing marks by rotating the
crankshaft - clockwise only! Note: If you plan
to reuse the timing belt, paint an arrow on it
to indicate the direction of rotation (clockwise).
10 Two different types of timing belt tensioners were incorporated on these engines,
hydraulic and mechanical. The hydraulic
tensioner is easily recognizable by the sealed
hydraulic unit which maintains constant pressure on the timing belt tensioner pulley. The
mechanical type has a built-in spring inside
the pulley which supplies clockwise tension
to the belt.
11 On engines equipped with a hydraulic
tensioner, loosen, then remove the timing
- INDICATES RETAINING
CLIP LOCATION
6.5 Install a 3-jaw puller onto the damper
pulley, position the center post of the
puller on the crankshaft end (use the
proper insert to keep from damaging the
crankshaft threads), and remove the
pulley from the crankshaft
belt tensioner mounting bolts (see illustration) and remove the tensioner. Note: The
tensioner piston will extend when the assembly is removed.
12 On engines equipped with a mechanical
tensioner, insert an 8 mm (2.0L engine)
or 6 mm (2.4L engine) Allen wrench in the
hexagon fitting in the tensioner pulley. Insert
the long end of a 3 mm Allen wrench (or 1/8
inch drill bit) into the small hole on the pulley.
While applying light pressure to the Allen
wrench or drill bit, rotate the tensioner pulley
counterclockwise until the Allen wrench or
drill bit slides into the locking hole (see illustration).
UPPER TIMING BOLT
COVER FASTENERS
1
LOWER TIMING
BELT COVER
FASTENERS
6.8a Remove the two lower bolts and upper clip retaining the
ti ming belt outer cover to the engine (2.0L SOHC engine)
6.8b Timing belt outer cover fastener locations (2.4L engine)
2A-9
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
CAMSHAFT TIMING-MARKS
TRAILING
EDGE OF
SPROCKET
TOOTH
CRANKSHAFT TDCMARKS
2A
6.9a Before removing the timing belt, make sure the camshaft
sprocket and crankshaft timing marks align with their respective
marks - rotate the engine (clockwise only as viewed from the
crankshaft end) as required to align both sets of timing
marks (2.0L engine timing marks)
13 Carefully slip the timing belt off the
sprockets and set it aside. If you plan to
reuse the timing belt, store it in a plastic bag do not allow the belt to come in contact with
any type of oil or water as this will greatly
shorten belt life.
14 If it's necessary to remove the camshaft
sprocket(s), and/or timing belt rear cover (for
camshaft seal replacement, see Section 8).
6.9b 2.4L engine timing marks - The crankshaft sprocket timing
mark is on the trailing edge of the sprocket tooth
Inspection
Refer to illustration 6.18
15 Inspect the crankshaft front oil seal for
leaks and replace it if necessary (see Section 7)..
16 Inspect the water pump for evidence of
leakage (usually indicated by a trail of wet or
dried coolant). Check the pulley for excessive
radial play and bearing roughness. Replace if
necessary (see Chapter 3).
17 Rotate the tensioner pulley and idler pulley (2.4L engines) by hand and move them
side-to-side to detect bearing roughness and
excess play. Visually inspect all timing belt
sprockets for any signs of damage or wear.
Replace parts as necessary.
18 Inspect the timing belt for cracks, separation, wear, missing teeth and oil contamination (see illustration). Replace the belt if it's
ALLEN
WRENCH
6.11 Loosen, then remove the timing belt hydraulic tensioner
mounting bolts (arrows) and remove the tensioner
(2.0L engine shown)
6.12 To relieve the timing belt tension on mechanical type
tensioners, place the appropriate size Allen wrench in the pulley
and apply torque in a counterclockwise direction until the
retaining pin holes align and insert a 3mm Allen wrench or
1/8 inch drill bit to hold the pulley in place
2A-10
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
in questionable condition or the engine
mileage is close to that referenced in the
Maintenance Schedule (see Chapter 1).
19 If equipped, check the hydraulic tensioner for leaks or any other obvious damage,
replace if necessary.
Installation
2.0L engine
Refer to illustrations 6.21a, 6.2 lb and 6.21c
20 Confirm that the camshaft sprocket timing marks are aligned (see illustration 6.9a).
Reposition as required.
21 Position the crankshaft timing belt
sprocket as follows (see illustrations):
a) Initially align the TDC mark on the
sprocket with the arrow on the oil pump
housing.
b) Then back it off counterclockwise 3
teeth BTDC.
c) Rotate the crankshaft sprocket clockwise to 1/2-tooth before the arrow mark
on the oil pump housing.
22 Install the timing belt as follows; first
place the belt onto the crankshaft sprocket,
maintaining tension on the belt, wrap it
around the water pump sprocket, camshaft
sprocket and the tensioner pulley.
23 To take the slack out of the timing belt,
rotate the crankshaft timing sprocket clockwise to align the timing marks (TDC), make
sure the camshaft sprocket timing marks
remain aligned.
2.4L engine
Refer to illustration 6.25
24 Confirm that the timing marks on the
camshaft sprockets are aligned (see illustration 6.9b).
25 Rotate the exhaust camshaft sprocket
clockwise so the timing mark is 1/2 tooth
below the intake camshaft timing mark as
shown (see illustration).
26 Next, align the crankshaft sprocket timing mark with the arrow mark on the oil pump
housing (see illustration 6.9b).
6.18 Carefully inspect the timing belt bending it backwards will often make
wear or damage more apparent
27 Install the timing belt as follows; first
place the belt onto the crankshaft sprocket,
maintaining tension on the belt, wrap it
around the water pump sprocket, idler pulley,
camshaft sprockets and the tensioner pulley.
To take up the belt slack, rotate the exhaust
camshaft counterclockwise until the timing
marks on both sprockets align.
6.21a On 2.0L engines, use a box-end
wrench or socket to rotate the crankshaft
ti ming sprocket until the TDC mark on the
sprocket is aligned with the arrow on the
oil pump housing (arrow) .. .
Engines with a mechanical
tensioner
28 On engines equipped with a mechanical
tensioner, pull the retaining pin from the tensioner pulley.
29 Using the bolt in the center of the
crankshaft sprocket, turn the crankshaft
clockwise two complete revolutions. Caution: If you feel resistance while turning the
crankshaft - STOP, the valves may be hitting
the pistons from incorrect valve timing. Stop
and re-check the valve timing. Note: The
camshaft and crankshaft sprocket marks will
align every two revolutions of the crankshaft.
30 Recheck the alignment of the timing
marks (see illustrations 6.9a and 6.9b). If
the marks do not align properly, loosen the
tensioner, slip the belt off the camshaft
6.21b . . . then back it off
counterclockwise 3 teeth BTDC (arrows)
sprocket, realign the marks, reinstall the belt,
and check the alignment again.
31 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Tighten the crankshaft
pulley bolt to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications. Start the engine and
road test the vehicle.
CAMSHAFT
SPROCKET EXHAUST
6.21c Rotate the crankshaft timing sprocket clockwise
to 1/2-tooth BTDC (arrows)
CAMSHAFT
SPROCKET INTAKE
6.25 Before installing the timing belt, rotate the exhaust
camshaft sprocket clockwise so the timing mark is 1/2 tooth
below the timing mark on the intake camshaft sprocket
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
6.32a The hydraulic tensioner piston (arrow) must be compressed
into the tensioner housing prior to installation
Engines with a hydraulic tensioner
Refer to illustrations 6.32a, 6.32b and 6.34
32 On engines equipped with a hydraulic
tensioner, the piston must be compressed
into the tensioner housing prior to installation.
Place the tensioner in a vise with the pin
holes facing up. Slowly compress the tensioner, then install a 5/64-inch Allen wrench
or drill bit through the body to retain the piston in this position (see illustrations).
Remove the tensioner from the vise.
33 Install the tensioner assembly - except
don't tighten the bolts at this time.
34 Have an assistant place a torque
wrench on the center bolt of the tensioner
pulley and apply 250 in-lbs of torque in a
clockwise direction. With the torque applied
to the tensioner pulley, move the tensioner up
against the tensioner pulley bracket and
tighten the tensioner bolts to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications (see illustration). Remove the torque wrench.
35 Pull the Allen wrench or drill bit from the
2A-11
6.32b Place the tensioner in a vise with the hole (arrow) facing up.
Compress the piston with the vise and insert a 5/64 inch Allen
wrench or drill bit through the hole to keep the piston
retracted for installation
tensioner. The timing belt tension is correct
when the pin can be withdrawn and reinserted easily. Verify that the timing marks on
the camshaft sprocket(s) and crankshaft
sprocket are still aligned at TDC.
36 Using the bolt in the center of the
crankshaft sprocket, turn the crankshaft
clockwise two complete revolutions. Caution: If you feel resistance while turning the
crankshaft - STOP, the valves may be hitting
the pistons from incorrect valve timing. Stop
and re-check the valve timing. Note: The
camshaft and crankshaft sprocket marks will
align every two revolutions of the crankshaft.
Recheck the alignment of the timing marks
(see illustrations 6.9a and 6.9b). If the
marks do not align properly, loosen the tensioner, slip the belt off the camshaft
sprocket(s), realign the marks, reinstall the
belt, and check the alignment again.
37 After crankshaft rotation, recheck the
ti ming belt tension by inserting the retaining
pin (5/64-inch Allen wrench or drill bit) back
into the tensioner. If the retaining pin cannot
be inserted and withdrawn freely, readjust the
ti ming belt tension and repeat Steps 34
through 37.
38 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Tighten the crankshaft
pulley bolt to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
39 Start the engine and road test the vehicle.
7
Crankshaft front oil seal replacement
Refer to illustrations 7.2, 7.3, 7.5 and 7.6
Caution: Do not rotate the camshaft(s) or
crankshaft when the timing belt is removed or
damage to the engine may occur.
1
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
2
Remove the crankshaft timing belt
sprocket from the crankshaft with a bolt-type
gear puller (see illustration). Remove the
Woodruff key from the crankshaft keyway.
LOCKING PIN
INSTALLED
INTO THE
TENSIONER
6.34 Using a torque wrench on the tensioner pulley bolt, apply 250
inch-lbs of torque as shown, move the hydraulic tensioner up
against the tensioner pulley bracket and tighten the tensioner
mounting bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications
7.2 Attach a bolt-type gear puller to the crankshaft sprocket and
remove the sprocket from the crankshaft
2A
2A-12
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
7.3 Using a screwdriver, very carefully pry
the front crankshaft seal from it's bore
7.5 Lubricate the new front crankshaft
seal with engine oil and using a hammer
and socket, drive the seal into the bore
until it's flush with the oil pump housing
7.6 Position the crankshaft sprocket with
the word FRONT (arrow) facing out and
install it onto the crankshaft
8.4a Remove the hydraulic tensioner
pulley/plate assembly mounting
bolts (arrows) .. .
8.4b . . . and then remove the pulley and
bracket assembly (2.0L engine)
8.7 Remove the rear timing belt cover
3
Wrap the tip of a small screwdriver with
tape. Working from below the right inner
fender, use the screwdriver to carefully pry
the seal out of its bore (see illustration).
Take care to prevent damaging the oil pump
assembly, the crankshaft and the seal bore.
4
Thoroughly clean and inspect the seal
bore and sealing surface on the crankshaft.
Minor imperfections can be removed with
emery cloth. If there is a groove worn in the
crankshaft sealing surface (from contact with
the seal), installing a new seal will probably
not stop the leak.
5
Lubricate the new seal with engine oil
and using a hammer and the appropriate size
socket, drive the seal into the bore until it's
flush with the oil pump housing. (see illustration).
6
Install the Woodruff key and the
crankshaft timing belt sprocket with the word
FRONT facing out onto the crankshaft (see
illustration).
7
The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Tighten the crankshaft
pulley bolt to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
8
Start the engine and check for oil leaks.
8
8.8 Carefully pry the camshaft seal out of
the bore - DO NOT nick or scratch the
camshaft or seal bore
Camshaft oil seal - replacement
Refer to illustrations 8.4a, 8.4b, 8.7, 8.8,
8.10a, 8.10b and 8.12
Caution: Do not rotate the camshaft(s) or
crankshaft when the timing belt is removed or
damage to the engine may occur.
1
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
2
Rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise
until the crankshaft sprocket is three teeth
BTDC (see illustration 6.21b). This will prevent engine damage if the camshaft sprocket
is inadvertently rotated during sprocket bolt
removal.
3
While holding the camshaft sprocket,
remove the camshaft sprocket bolt. Then,
using two large screwdrivers, lever the
sprocket off the camshaft. Note: To hold the
camshaft/sprocket while loosening the bolt, a
strap-type damper/pulley holder tool is recommended and is available at most auto
parts stores. If the strap wrench is unavailable, remove the valve cover to access the
wrenching flats on the camshaft (2.4L
engines only).
4
On 2.0L engines, remove the 2 bolts
securing the tensioner pulley bracket to the
engine block and remove the pulley and
bracket assembly (see illustrations). Do not
attempt to loosen the center bolt on the pulley or the pulley pivot bolt, remove the pulley
and bracket together.
On 2.4L engines, remove the idler pul5
ley.
6
On 2.0L engines equipped with a
hydraulic timing belt tensioner, remove the
tensioner pulley.
7
Remove the bolts securing the rear
cover to the engine block and cylinder head.
Remove the rear cover (see illustration).
Carefully pry out the camshaft oil seal
8
using a small screwdriver (see illustration).
Don't scratch the bore or damage the
camshaft in the process (if the camshaft is
damaged, the new seal will end up leaking).
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
8.10a Using a hammer and socket, gently
tap the new seal into place with the
spring side facing inward
9
of
Clean the bore and coat the outer edge
the new seal with engine oil or multi-purpose grease. Also lubricate the seal lip.
10 Using a socket with an outside diameter
slightly smaller than the outside diameter of
the seal and a hammer (see illustration),
carefully drive the new seal into the cylinder
head until it's flush with the face of the cylinder head. If a socket isn't available, a short
section of pipe will also work. Note: If engine
location makes it difficult to use a hammer to
install the camshaft seal, fabricate a seal
installation tool from a piece of pipe cut to the
appropriate length, a bolt and a large washer
(see illustration). Place the section of pipe
over the seal and thread the bolt into the
camshaft. The seal can now be pressed into
the bore by tightening the bolt.
11
Install the rear timing belt cover, tensioner pulley/bracket, idler pulley and tensioner pulley as applicable.
12 Install the camshaft sprocket, aligning
the pin in the camshaft with the hole in the
sprocket (see illustration). Use an appropriate tool to hold the camshaft sprocket while
tightening the sprocket bolt to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
13 Reinstall the timing belt (see Section 6).
14 Run the engine and check for oil leaks.
8.10b If space is limited and you can't use
a hammer and socket to install the seal, a
seal installer can be made from a section
of pipe (of appropriate diameter), a bolt
and washer. Place the pipe over the
seal and press it into place by
tightening the bolt
9
Rocker arm and hydraulic valve
lash adjuster - removal,
inspection and installation
Removal
2.0L engine
Refer to illustration 9.6
1
Position the number one piston at Top
Dead Center (see Chapter 2C).
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Remove the valve cover (see Section 3).
4
Prior to removing the rocker arm shafts,
mark the front shaft (intake manifold side) as
the intake rocker arm shaft and the rear shaft
(exhaust manifold side) as the exhaust. Caution: Do not interchange the rocker arms onto
a different shaft as this could lead to premature wear.
5
Loosen the rocker arm shaft bolts 1/4 -
2A-13
8.12 When installing a camshaft sprocket,
make sure the pin in the camshaft is
aligned with the hole in the
sprocket (arrows)
turn at a time each, until the valve spring
pressure is relieved, in the reverse order of
the tightening sequence (see illustration
9.20). Completely loosen the bolts, but do
not remove them, since leaving them in place
will prevent the assembly from falling apart
when it is lifted off the cylinder head.
6
Lift the rocker arms and shaft assemblies from the cylinder head and set them on
the workbench (see illustration). Note: The
hydraulic valve lash adjusters may become
dislodged from the rocker arms during shaft
removal. If required, secure the adjusters in
place using electrical tape.
7
Disassemble the rocker arm shaft components. Caution: Before disassembly, mark
the rocker arm shafts, rocker arms, shaft
retainers and plastic shaft spacers (intake
only) so all the parts can be reassembled in
their original locations. To keep the rocker
arms and related parts in order, it's a good
idea to remove them and put them onto two
lengths of wire (such as unbent coat hangers)
in the same order as they're removed, marking each wire (which simulates the rocker
shaft) as to which end would be the front of
the engine.
o
9.6 Intake and exhaust rocker arms and shaft assemblies
(2.0L engine)
—
9.9 On 2.4L engines, once the camshafts have been removed, the
rocker arms and hydraulic valve lash adjusters (located below the
rocker arm can be removed) - be sure to keep the rocker arms
and lash adjusters in order so they can be returned
to their original locations
2A
2A-14
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
2.4L engine
Refer to illustration 9.9
8
Remove both camshafts (see Section 10).
9
Once the camshafts have been
removed, the rocker arms (a.k.a. cam followers) can be lifted off (see illustration). Caution: Each rocker arm and valve lash adjuster
must be placed back in it's original location,
so mark them or place them in a marked container (such as an egg carton or cupcake tray)
so they won't get mixed up.
10 Remove the rocker arms and hydraulic
valve lash adjusters from the cylinder head.
Inspection
2.0L engine
Refer to illustration 9.11
Note: The valve lash adjuster is an integral
part of each rocker arm and cannot be
replaced separately.
11 Visually check the rocker arms for wear
(see illustration). Replace them if evidence
of wear or damage is found.
12 Inspect each lash adjuster carefully for
signs of wear and damage, particularly on the
surface that contacts the valve tip. Since the
lash adjusters frequently become clogged,
we recommend replacing the rocker arm/lash
adjuster assembly if you're concerned about
their condition or if the engine is exhibiting
valve "tapping" noises.
13 Check all the rocker shaft components.
Look for worn or scored shafts, etc. and
replace any parts found to be damaged or
worn excessively.
2.4L engine
Refer to illustration 9.14
14 Visually check the rocker arm tip, roller
and lash adjuster pocket for wear (see illustration). Replace them if evidence of wear or
damage is found.
15 Inspect each adjuster carefully for signs
of wear and damage, particularly on the ball
tip that contacts the rocker arm. Since the
lash adjusters frequently become clogged,
we recommend replacing them if you're concerned about their condition or if the engine
is exhibiting valve "tapping" noises.
Installation
2.0L engine
Refer to illustrations 9.18, 9.19 and 9.20
16 Prior to installation, the lash adjusters
must be partially full of engine oil - indicated
by little or no plunger action when the
adjuster is depressed. If there's excessive
plunger travel, place the rocker arm assembly
into clean engine oil and pump the plunger
until the plunger travel is eliminated. Note: If
the plunger still travels within the rocker arm
when full of oil it's defective and the rocker
arm assembly must be replaced.
9.11 2.0L engine rocker arm/valve lash
adjuster assembly (intake rocker
arm shown)
1
2
3
Hydraulic valve lash adjuster
Rocker shaft bore
Roller
17 When assembling the rocker arms on
the shaft assembly, make sure they're reinstalled in their original locations.
18 On the intake rocker arm shaft, make
sure the plastic spacers are installed on the
shaft in the correct locations (see illustration).
19 Install the rocker arm assemblies with
the notch in each rocker arm shaft located at
the timing belt end of the engine and facing
UP (see illustration).
TIP
9.14 2.4L engine rocker arm
4
9.19 Both rocker arm shafts must be installed with the notches
(arrows) facing UP and at the timing belt end of the engine
9.18 Intake rocker arm plastic spacer locations (arrows)
(2.0L engine)
9.20 Rocker arm shaft bolt tightening sequence (2.0L engine)
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
2A-15
REMOVE OUTSIDE BEARING CAPS FIRST
10.7 2.4L engine camshaft bearing cap location numbers - they
must be reinstalled in their original locations
20 Tighten the rocker arm bolts in
sequence shown (see illustration) using 3
steps to reach the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
21 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Run the engine and
check for oil leaks and proper operation.
22 When re-starting the engine after replacing the rocker arm/lash adjusters, the
adjusters will normally make "tapping"
noises. After warm-up, slowly raise the speed
of the engine from idle to 3,000 rpm and back
to idle over a one minute period. If the
adjuster(s) do not become silent, replace the
defective rocker arm/lash adjuster assembly.
2.4L engine
23 Prior to installation, the lash adjusters
must be partially full of engine oil - indicated
by little or no plunger action when the
adjuster is depressed. If there's excessive
plunger travel, place the rocker arm assembly
into clean engine oil and pump the plunger
until the plunger travel is eliminated. Note: If
the plunger still travels within the rocker arm
when full of oil it's defective and the rocker
arm assembly must be replaced.
10.8 Remove the outside bearing caps first, then loosen the
remaining bearing cap bolts in the sequence shown 1/4 turn at a
ti me until they can be unscrewed by hand (2.4L engine)
24 Install the hydraulic lash adjusters and
rocker arms back in their proper locations on
the cylinder head.
25 Install the camshafts (see Section 10).
26 When re-starting the engine after replacing the rocker arm/lash adjusters, the
adjusters will normally make "tapping"
noises. After warm-up, slowly raise the speed
of the engine from idle to 3,000 rpm and back
to idle over a one minute period. If the
adjuster(s) do not become silent, replace the
defective lash adjuster assembly.
10
Camshaft(s) - removal,
inspection and installation
Removal
2.0L engine
Note: The camshaft cannot be removed with
the cylinder head installed in the vehicle.
1
Remove the cylinder head (see Section 12).
2
Remove the camshaft position sensor
(see Chapter 6).
3
Carefully withdraw the camshaft from
the opening in the rear of the cylinder head.
Caution: Don't damage the camshaft lobes
or bearing journals during removal and installation through the opening in the cylinder
head.
4
Remove the camshaft front seal from
the cylinder head.
2.4L engine
10.12 Measure the camshaft bearing
journal diameters with a micrometer and
compare the measurements to the
dimensions given in this Chapter's
Specifications
Refer to illustrations 10.7 and 10.8
5
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
6
Remove the camshaft sprockets and the
rear timing belt cover (see section 8).
7
The camshaft bearing caps are identified with their numbered location in the cylinder head (see illustration).
8
Remove the outside bearing caps at
each end of the camshafts first. Remove the
remaining camshaft bearing caps, loosening
the bolts a little at a time to prevent distorting
the camshaft(s) by loosening the caps in the
sequence shown (see illustration). Once the
bearing caps have all been loosened enough
for removal, they may still be difficult to
remove. Using the bearing cap bolts for extra
leverage, move the cap back and forth to
loosen the cap from the cylinder head. If they
are still difficult to remove you can tap them
gently with a soft face mallet so they can be
lifted off. Caution: Store them in order so
they can be returned to their original locations, with the same side facing forward.
9
Carefully lift the camshafts out of the
cylinder head. Mark the camshafts INTAKE
and EXHAUST, they cannot be mixed-up.
10 Remove the front seal from each
camshaft. Note: Now is a good time to
inspect the rocker arms and lash adjusters
(see Section 9).
Inspection
Refer to illustration 10.12
11 Thoroughly clean the camshaft(s) and
the gasket surface. Visually inspect the
camshaft for wear and/or damage to the lobe
surfaces, bearing journals and seal contact
surfaces. Visually inspect the camshaft bearing surfaces in the cylinder head and bearing
caps (2.4L engines) for scoring and other
damage.
12 Measure the camshaft bearing journal
diameters (see illustration). Measure the
inside diameter of the camshaft bearing surfaces in the cylinder head, using a telescoping gauge (on 2.4L engines, temporarily
install the bearing caps). Subtract the journal
measurement from the bearing measurement
to obtain the camshaft bearing oil clearance.
Compare this clearance with the value listed
in this Chapter's Specifications. Replace
worn components as required.
13 Replace the camshaft if it fails any of the
above inspections. Note: If the lobes are
worn, replace the rocker arms and lash
adjusters along with the camshaft. Cylinder
head replacement may be necessary if the
camshaft bearing surfaces in the head are
damaged or excessively worn.
14 Clean and inspect the cylinder head as
described in Part C of this Chapter.
2A
2A-16
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
10.18 Measure the camshaft endplay with a dial indicator
positioned on the sprocket end of the camshaft as shown
Camshaft endplay measurement
Refer to illustration 10.18
15 Lubricate the camshaft(s) and cylinder
head bearing journals with clean engine oil.
16 On 2.0L engines, carefully insert the
camshaft into the cylinder head and install
the camshaft position sensor. Tighten the
bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
17 On 2.4L engines, place the camshaft in
it's respective place in the cylinder head.
Note: Do not install the rocker arms for this
check. Install the rear bearing cap and tighten
the bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
18 Install a dial indicator set up on the
cylinder head and place the indicator tip on
the camshaft at the sprocket end (see illustration).
19 Using a screwdriver, carefully pry the
camshaft fully to the rear (toward the
camshaft position sensor) until it stops. Zero
the dial indicator and pry the camshaft fully to
the front (toward the dial indicator end). The
amount of indicator travel is the camshaft
endplay. Compare the endplay measurement
with the tolerance given in this Chapter's
Specification Section. If the endplay is exces -
10.20 Prior to installing the camshaft, lubricate the bearing
journals, thrust surfaces and lobes with assembly
lube or clean engine oil
sive, check the camshaft and cylinder head
bearing journals for wear and replace as necessary.
Installation
2.0L engine
Refer to illustration 10.20
20 Very carefully clean the camshaft and
bearing journals. Liberally coat the journals,
lobes and thrust portions of the camshaft
with assembly lube or clean engine oil (see
illustration).
21 Carefully install the camshaft in the
cylinder head.
22 Install a new camshaft oil seal (see Section 8).
23 Install the camshaft position sensor (see
Chapter 6).
24 Install the cylinder head (see Section 12).
25 Install the rocker arm shaft assembly
(see Section 9).
2.4L engine
Refer to illustrations 10.29 and 10.30
26 If removed, install the valve lash
adjusters and rocker arms (see Section 9).
27 Clean the camshaft and bearing journals
and caps. Liberally coat the journals, lobes
and thrust portions of the camshaft with
assembly lube or engine oil (see illustration
10.20).
28 Carefully install the camshafts in the
cylinder head in their correct location. Temporarily install the camshaft sprockets and
rotate the camshafts so their timing marks
align (see illustration 6.9b). Make sure the
crankshaft is positioned with the crankshaft
sprocket timing mark at three teeth BTDC
(see illustration 6.21b). Caution: If the pistons are at TDC when tightening the camshaft
bearing caps, damage to the engine may
occur.
29 Install the bearing caps, except for the
No. 1 and No. 6 (left side) end caps (see
illustration 10.7). Tighten the bolts in 3 progressive steps in the sequence shown to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications
(see illustration).
30 Apply a small bead of anaerobic sealant
(approximately 1/8 inch) to the No. 1 and No.
6 (left side) bearing caps (see illustration).
Install the bearing caps and tighten the bolts
to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
31 Install new camshaft oil seals (see Section 8).
FRONT CAM CAP (#1L/1R)
1.0 mm (0.039 in.)
DIAMETER BEAD OF
MOPAR GASKET MAKER
10.29 Tighten the camshaft bearing caps progressing in 3 equal
steps in the sequence shown until the torque value given in this
Chapter's Specifications has been reached (2.4L engine)
10.30 Apply a small bead of anaerobic sealant to the No. 1 and
left side No. 6 bearing caps as shown
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
11.4 This is what the air hose adapter that
threads into the spark plug hole looks
li ke - they're usually available from
auto parts stores
11.7 Use needle-nose pliers (shown) or a
small magnet to remove the valve keepers
- be careful not to drop them down into
the engine!
32 Install the timing belt, covers and related
components (see Section 6).
33 Run the engine while checking for oil
leaks.
damage or injury when the crankshaft moves.
7
Stuff clean shop rags into the cylinder
head holes above and below the valves to
prevent parts and tools from falling into the
engine, then use a valve spring compressor
to compress the spring. Remove the keepers
with small needle-nose pliers or a magnet
(see illustration).
8
Remove the spring retainer and valve
spring, then remove the valve guide
seal/spring seat assembly (see illustration).
Caution: If air pressure fails to hold the valve
in the closed position during this operation,
the valve face and/or seat is probably damaged. If so, the cylinder head will have to be
removed for additional repair operations.
9
Wrap a rubber band or tape around the
top of the valve stem so the valve won't fall
into the combustion chamber, then release
the air pressure.
10 Inspect the valve stem for damage.
Rotate the valve in the guide and check the
end for eccentric movement, which would
indicate that the valve is bent and needs to
be replaced.
11 Move the valve up-and-down in the
guide and make sure it doesn't bind. If the
valve stem binds, either the valve is bent or
the guide is damaged. In either case, the
11
Valve springs, retainers and seals
- replacement
Refer to illustrations 11.4, 11.7, 11.8, 11.13
and 11.15
Note: Broken valve springs and defective
valve stem seals can be replaced without
removing the cylinder heads. Two special
tools and a compressed air source are normally required to perform this operation, so
read through this Section carefully and rent or
buy the tools before attempting the job.
1
Remove the valve cover (see Section 3).
2
Remove the spark plug from the cylinder
which has the defective component. If all of
the valve stem seals are being replaced, all of
the spark plugs should be removed.
Turn the crankshaft until the piston in
3
the affected cylinder is at top dead center on
the compression stroke (refer to Chapter 2C).
If you're replacing all of the valve stem seals,
begin with cylinder number one and work on
the valves for one cylinder at a time. Move
from cylinder-to-cylinder following the firing
order sequence (see this Chapter's Specifications).
4
Thread an adapter into the spark plug
hole (see illustration) and connect an air
hose from a compressed air source to it.
Most auto parts stores can supply the air
hose adapter. Note: Many cylinder compression gauges utilize a screw-in fitting that may
work with your air hose quick-disconnect fitting. On 2.0L engines, the spark plug tubes
may need to be removed to facilitate adapter
installation.
5
Remove the rocker arms (see Section 9).
6
Apply compressed air to the cylinder.
Warning: The piston may be forced down by
compressed air, causing the crankshaft to
turn suddenly. If the wrench used when positioning the number one piston at TDC is still
attached to the crankshaft bolt, it could cause
11.13 Gently tap the new seal into place
with a hammer and a deep socket
2A-17
11.8 Remove the valve guide seal/spring
seat assembly with a pair of pliers
head will have to be removed for repair.
12 Pull up on the valve stem to close the
valve, reapply air pressure to the cylinder to
retain the valve in the closed position, then
remove the tape or rubber band from the
valve stem.
13 Lubricate the valve stem with engine oil
and install a new valve guide seal/spring seat
assembly. Tap into place with deep socket
(see illustration).
14 Install the spring in position over the
valve.
15 Install the valve spring retainer. Compress the valve spring and carefully position
the keepers in the groove. Apply a small dab
of grease to the inside of each keeper to hold
it in place if necessary (see illustration).
16 Remove the pressure from the spring
tool and make sure the keepers are seated.
17 Disconnect the air hose and remove the
adapter from the spark plug hole.
18 If applicable, install the spark plug tubes
(2.0L engines only, see Section 3).
19 Install the rocker arms (see Section 9).
20 Install the spark plug(s) and connect the
wire(s).
21
Install the valve cover (see Section 3).
22 Start and run the engine, then check for
oil leaks and unusual sounds coming from
the valve cover area.
11.15 Apply a small dab of grease to each
keeper before installation to hold it in
place on the valve stem until the
spring is released
2A
2A-18
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
12.4 Cover the intake ports with duct tape (arrow) to
keep out debris before removing the cylinder head
(2.0L engine shown)
12
Cylinder head - removal and
installation
Caution: Allow the engine to cool completely
before beginning this procedure.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 12.4, 12.15a, 12.15b and
12.16
1
Position the number one piston at Top
Dead Center (see Chapter 2C).
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Drain the cooling system and remove
the spark plugs (see Chapter 1).
4
Remove the intake manifold (see Section 4). Cover the intake ports on the manifold
and cylinder head with duct tape to keep out
foreign debris and contamination (see illustration).
12.15a Carefully lift the cylinder head straight up and place the
head on wood blocks to prevent damage to the sealing surfaces
(2.0L engine shown)
5
Remove the bolts securing the power
steering reservoir and hoses to the cylinder
head and position them out of the way (see
Chapter 10 if necessary).
Remove the exhaust manifold (see Sec6
tion 5). Note: The exhaust manifold is easier
to remove after the cylinder head is removed,
if possible leave it attached.
7
Disconnect the upper radiator hose from
the thermostat housing (see Chapter 3 if necessary).
8
Disconnect the electrical connector from
the camshaft position sensor (see Chapter 5).
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
9
10 Remove camshaft sprocket(s) and rear
ti ming belt cover (see Section 8).
11 On 2.0L engines, remove rocker arm
shaft assemblies (see Section 9).
12 On 2.4L engines, remove the camshafts,
rocker arms and valve lash adjusters (see
Section 9).
13 Remove the EGR valve from the cylinder
12.15b If the head is stuck to the engine block, dislodge it by
placing a wood block against the head casting and tapping
the wood with a hammer or by prying the head with a
prybar placed carefully on a casting protrusion
head (see Chapter 6).
14 Loosen the cylinder head bolts, 1/4-turn
at a time, in the reverse order of the tightening sequence (see illustrations 12.21a or
12.21b) until they can be removed by hand.
Note: Mark the locations of the different
length bolts so they can be reinstalled in their
original locations.
15 Carefully lift the cylinder head (see illustration) straight up and place the head on
wood blocks to prevent damage to the sealing surfaces. If the head sticks to the engine
block, dislodge it by placing a wood block
against the head casting and tapping the
wood with a hammer or by prying the head
with a prybar placed carefully on a casting
protrusion (see illustration). Note: Cylinder
head disassembly and inspection procedures
are covered in Chapter 2, Part C. It's also a
good idea to have the head checked for
warpage, even if you're just replacing the
gasket.
12.16 Place a precision straightedge along the cylinder head bolt
thread profile as shown, if any part of the bolt threads are not
on the straightedge, the bolt must be replaced
2A-19
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
12.21a Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence - 2.0L engine
16 Remove all traces of old gasket material
from the block and head. Caution: The cylinder head is aluminum, be very careful not to
gouge the sealing surfaces. Special gasket
removal solvents that soften gaskets and
make removal much easier are available at
auto parts stores. When working on the
block, place clean shop rags into the cylinders to help keep out debris. Use a vacuum
to remove any contamination from the
engine. Use a tap of the correct size to chase
the threads in the engine block. Clean and
inspect all threaded fasteners for damage.
Inspect the cylinder head bolt threads for
"necking," where the diameter of threads narrow due to bolt stretching (see illustration).
If any cylinder head bolt exhibits damage or
necking, it must be replaced. Note: If further
disassembly of the cylinder head is required,
refer to Part C of this Chapter.
17 Refer to Part C of this Chapter for cleaning and inspection of the cylinder head.
12.21b Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence - 2.4L engine
Installation
Refer to illustrations 12.21a and 12.21b
18 On 2.0L engines, install the camshaft if
removed (see Section 10).
19 Place a new gasket and the cylinder
head in position on the engine block.
20 Apply clean engine oil to the cylinder
head bolt threads and install them back in
their original locations (noted in Step 14).
21 Tighten the cylinder head bolts in the
sequence shown (see illustrations) progressing in 3 stages to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications. After the third
pass, tighten the bolts in the proper
sequence, an additional 90-degrees (1/4-turn)
more. Note: A torque wrench is not required
for the 1/4-turn procedure. Before performing
the final pass, mark the bolts in relation to
the cylinder head and place another mark
90-degrees clockwise from the starting mark.
22 Install the rocker arms and hydraulic
valve lash adjusters (see Section 9).
23 On 2.4L engines, install the rear timing
belt cover, camshafts and camshaft sprockets (see Section 10).
24 ON 2.0L engines, install the rear timing
belt cover and camshaft sprocket (see Section 10).
25 Install the timing belt (see Section 6).
After installation, slowly rotate the crankshaft
by hand clockwise through two complete
revolutions. Recheck the camshaft timing
marks.
26 Reinstall the remaining components in
the reverse order of removal.
27 Be sure to refill the cooling system and
check all fluid levels (see Chapter 1 if necessary).
28 Start the engine and run it until normal
operating temperature is reached. Check for
leaks and proper operation.
13
Oil pan - removal and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 13.7, 13.10a, 13.10b,
13.11a and 13.11b
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
3
Remove the accessory drivebelt splash
shield (see Chapter 1).
4
Drain the engine oil (see Chapter 1).
5
Remove the transmission support
bracket.
6
Remove the front engine mount and
strut (see Section 17). Note: On 2.4L engines,
it may be necessary to remove the engine
support module, if equipped.
7
If equipped, remove the transaxle-to-oil
pan structural collar (see illustration).
8
On 2.0L engines, remove the transaxle
inspection cover.
9
On 2.0L engines, equipped with air conditioning, remove the oil filter and adapter.
2A
2A-20
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
13.10a If the oil pan is stuck to the block, tap it with a
soft faced mallet to break it loose
10 Using a criss-cross pattern, loosen and
remove the mounting bolts, then lower the oil
pan from the vehicle. Note: On models
equipped with an engine support module (see
Section 17), separate the oil pan from the
engine block enough to facilitate oil pump
pickup tube removal. If the pan is stuck, tap it
with a soft-face hammer (see illustrations)
or place a wood block against the pan and
tap the wood block with a hammer. Caution:
If you're wedging something between the oil
pan and the engine block to separate the two,
be extremely careful not to gouge or nick the
gasket surface of either part; an oil leak could
result.
Remove the oil pump pick-up tube and
11
screen assembly (see illustration). Remove
the 0-ring seal from the oil pick-up tube and
discard (see illustration). Thoroughly clean
the tube and screen. On vehicles equipped
with an engine support module, the oil pan
can now be removed from the engine.
12 Thoroughly clean the sealing surfaces
on the oil pan and block. Use a scraper to
remove all traces of old gasket material. Gasket removal solvents are available at auto
parts stores and may prove helpful. Check
the oil pan sealing surface for distortion.
13.10b Remove the oil pan from the block - be careful not to spill
any residual oil that may be inside
13.11a Unscrew the bolt (arrow) and
remove the oil pump pick-up tube
assembly - clean both the tube and
screen thoroughly and inspect
for damage or foreign debris
Straighten or replace as necessary. After
cleaning and straightening (if necessary),
wipe the gasket surfaces of the pan and
block clean with a rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
13.14 Apply a 1/8-inch bead of RTV sealant to the cylinder blockto-oil pump assembly joint on the oil pan flange
13.l lb Removing the 0-ring seal from the
oil pump pick-up tube
Installation
Refer to illustrations 13.14 and 13.16
13 Install a new 0-ring onto the oil pick-up
tube and install it onto the oil pump housing.
Tighten the bolt to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
14 Apply a 1/8-inch bead of RTV sealant at
the cylinder block-to-oil pump assembly joint
13.16 Front engine mount strut and structural collar bolt
identification - 1998 2.4L engine
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
14.5a Remove the oil pump assembly mounting bolts (arrows)
and separate the assembly from the engine block
(2.0L engine shown)
at the oil pan flange (see illustration). Install
a new oil pan gasket.
15 Place the oil pan into position and
install the bolts finger tight. Working
fside-to rom the center out, tighten the bolts to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
16 When installing the front engine mount
strut and collar on 1998 2.4L engines, install
all bolts hand tight, then tighten the bolts in
the order shown to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications (see illustration).
17 On 1997 2.4L and 1998 and later 2.0L
engines, install the oil pan-to-transaxle structural collar and tighten the bolts in three
steps to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
18 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
19 Refill the crankcase with the proper
14.6a Exploded view of
oil pump components
(2.0L engine shown, 2.4L
similar - except oil filter
adapter is part of oil
pump housing)
14.5b If the pump will not come off by hand, tap it gently with a
soft-faced hammer or pry gently on a casting protrusion
quantity and grade of oil (see Recommended
lubricants and fluids Section in Chapter 1).
20 Run the engine and check for leaks.
Road test the vehicle and check for leaks
again.
14
2A-21
Oil pump - removal, inspection
and installation
Note: The oil pump pressure relief valve can
be serviced without removing the oil pan and
oil pick-up tube.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 14.5a, 14.5b, 14.6a,
14.6b, 14.6c, 14.6d, 14.8 and 14.9
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Remove the oil pan and pick-up tube
2
assembly (see Section 13).
3
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6)
and crankshaft sprocket (see Section 7).
On 2.4L engines, remove the oil filter.
4
5
Remove the bolts and detach the oil
pump assembly from the engine (see illustration). Caution: If the pump doesn't come off
by hand, tap it gently with a soft-faced hammer or pry on a casting boss (see illustration).
Unscrew the mounting screws and
6
remove the rotor assembly cover from the oil
pump housing. Withdraw the inner and outer
rotors from the body (see illustrations).
Caution: Be very careful with these components. Close tolerances are critical in creating
the correct oil pressure. Any nicks or other
damage will require replacement of the complete pump assembly.
2A
2A-22
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
14.6c . . . and lift off the rotor cover
14.6b Remove the rotor cover mounting screws (arrows) .. .
Using a hammer and brass drift, care7
fully remove the crankshaft front seal from
the oil pump housing and discard it.
Remove the 0-ring seal from the oil
8
pump housing discharge port and discard it
(see illustration).
Disassemble the relief valve assembly,
9
taking note of the way the relief valve piston
is installed. Unscrew the cap bolt and remove
the bolt, washer, spring and relief valve (see
illustration).
Inspection
Refer to illustrations 14.12a, 14.12b, 14.12c,
14.12d and 14.12e
10 Clean all components including the
block surfaces and oil pan with solvent, then
inspect all surfaces for excessive wear and/or
damage.
11
Inspect the oil pressure relief valve piston sliding surface and valve spring for damage. If either the spring or the valve is damaged, they must be replaced as a set.
Measure the relief valve spring free length
14.6d Exploded view of
oil pump assembly
A Rotor cover
B
Outer rotor
C Inner rotor
Oil pump body
D
14.8 Remove the discharge port 0-ring
seal from the oil pump body - apply clean
engine oil to the new seal at installation
14.9 Remove the oil pressure relief valve
cap bolt from the oil pump body and
withdraw the spring and the
relief valve piston
14.12a Measure the outer rotor thickness
at 4 locations equally spaced
14.12b Measure the inner rotor thickness
at 4 locations equally spaced
2A-23
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
14.12c Measure the outer rotor's outer diameter at 4 locations
equally spaced
14.12d Use a flat feeler gauge to measure the outer rotor-to-oil
pump body clearance at 4 locations equally spaced
2A
and compare it with the dimension given in
this Chapter's Specifications. Replace the
spring if its out of tolerance by more than 1/8
of an inch.
12 Check the oil pump rotor dimensions
and clearances with a micrometer or vernier
calipers and a feeler gauge (see illustrations) and compare the results to the tolerances given in this Chapter's Specifications.
Replace both rotors if any dimension is out of
tolerance.
Installation
Refer to illustration 14.16
13 Lubricate the relief valve piston, piston
bore and spring with clean engine oil. Install
the relief valve piston into the bore with the
grooved end going in first followed by the
spring and cap bolt. Tighten the cap bolt to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
Note: If the relief valve piston is installed incorrectly, serious engine damage could occur.
14 Lubricate the oil pump rotor recess in
the housing and the inner and outer rotors
with clean engine oil and install both rotors in
the body. If the inner rotor has a chamfer,
install it so the chamfer is facing the rotor
cover. Next, fill the rotor cavity with clean
engine oil and install the cover. Tighten the
cover screws to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
15 Install a new 0-ring in the oil discharge
passage.
16 Apply anaerobic sealant to the oil pump
body sealing surface (see illustration), and
position the pump assembly on the block
aligning the inner rotor and crankshaft drive
flats. Tighten the oil pump attaching bolts to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
17 Install the new crankshaft front seal into
the oil pump housing (see Section 7).
18 Install the crankshaft sprocket (see Section 7) and timing belt (see Section 6).
14.12e With the rotors installed, place a precision straightedge
across the rotor cover surface and measure the clearance
between the rotors and the rotor cover surface at 4 locations
equally spaced
19 Install the oil pump pick-up tube assembly and oil pan (see Section 13).
20 Install a new oil filter (see Chapter 1).
Lower the vehicle.
21 Fill the crankcase with the proper quantity and grade of oil (see Recommended lubricants and fluids Section in Chapter 1).
22 Connect the negative battery cable to
the ground stud on the left shock tower.
23 After the sealant has cured per the manufacturer's directions, start the engine and
check for leaks.
15
Driveplate - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 15.5 and 15.6
1
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
14.16 Apply a bead of anaerobic sealant to the oil pump housing
sealing surface as shown
2A-24
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
15.5 Match-mark the position of the driveplate and backing plate
to the crankshaft and using an appropriate
tool to hold the driveplate, remove the bolts
2
Remove the transaxle assembly (see
Chapter 7).
3
On vehicles equipped with a manual
transaxle, now is a good time to
check/replace the modular clutch assembly
(see Chapter 8).
4
To ensure correct alignment during reinstallation, match-mark the driveplate and
backing plate to the crankshaft so they can
be reassembled in the same position.
5
Remove the bolts that secure the flywheel or driveplate to the crankshaft (see
illustration). A special tool is available a most
auto parts stores to hold the driveplate while
loosening the bolts, if the tool is not available
wedge a screwdriver in the starter ring gear
teeth to jam the driveplate.
6
Remove the driveplate from the
crankshaft (see illustration).
7
Clean the driveplate to remove any
15.6 Remove the driveplate from the crankshaft
grease and oil. Inspect it for cracks, distortion
and missing or excessively worn ring gear
teeth. Replace if necessary.
8
Clean and inspect the mating surfaces
of the driveplate and the crankshaft.
If the crankshaft rear main seal is leak9
ing, replace it before reinstalling the driveplate (see Section 16).
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
12 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of the removal.
Installation
1
The one-piece rear main oil seal is
pressed into a bore machined into the rear
main bearing cap and engine block.
2
Remove the transaxle, modular clutch
assembly (if equipped) and driveplate (see
Section 15).
3
Note: Observe that the oil seal is
installed flush with the outer surface of the
block. Pry out the old seal with a 3/16-inch
flat blade screwdriver (see illustration). Caution: To prevent an oil leak, be very careful
10 Position the driveplate and backing
plate against the crankshaft. Align the previously applied match marks. Before installing
the bolts, apply thread locking compound to
the threads.
11 Hold the driveplate with the special
holding tool, or wedge a screwdriver in the
starter ring gear teeth to keep the driveplate
from turning. Tighten the bolts to the torque
16.3 Using a 3/16 inch flat blade screwdriver, very carefully pry
the crankshaft rear main seal out of it's bore - DO NOT nick or
scratch the sealing surfaces on the crankshaft or seal bore
16 Rear main oil seal - replacement
Refer to illustrations 16.3 and 16.5
16.5 Position the new seal with the words THIS SIDE OUT facing
away from the rear of the engine. Install this seal DRY! DO NOT
lubricate! Gently and evenly drive the seal into the cylinder block
until it is FLUSH with the outer surface of the block. DO NOT drive
it past flush or there will be an oil leak - the seal must be FLUSH!
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
TRANSMISSION
SUPPORT
ASSEMBLY
LEFT
FRAME
RAIL
TRANSMISSION
2A-25
RIGHT ENGINE
SUPPORT
ASSEMBLY
FRAME
RAIL
GROUND
CABLE
TRANSMISSION
BRACKET
17.9a Typical left engine mount (passenger's side)
17.9b Typical right engine mount (driver's side)
2A
not to scratch or otherwise damage the
crankshaft sealing surface or the seal bore in
the engine block.
Clean the crankshaft and seal bore in
4
the block thoroughly and de-grease the areas
by wiping them with a rag soaked in lacquer
thinner or acetone. DO NOT lubricate the lip
or outer diameter of the new seal - it must be
installed as it comes from the manufacturer DRY.
Position the new seal onto the
5
crankshaft. Note: When installing the new
seal, if so marked, the words THIS SIDE OUT
on the seal must face out, toward the rear of
the engine. Using an appropriate size driver
and pilot tool, drive the seal into the cylinder
block until it is flush with the outer surface of
the block. If the seal is driven in past flush,
there will be an oil leak. Check that the seal is
flush (see illustration).
6
The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
17
Engine mounts - check and
replacement
1
Engine mounts seldom require attention, but broken or deteriorated mounts
should be replaced immediately or the added
strain placed on the driveline components
may cause damage or accelerated wear.
Check
2
During the check, the engine must be
raised slightly to remove the weight from the
mounts.
3
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands, then position a jack under the
engine oil pan. Place a large wood block
between the jack head and the oil pan to prevent oil pan damage, then carefully raise the
engine just enough to take the weight off the
mounts. Warning: DO NOT place any part of
your body under the engine when it's sup -
17.9c Typical front engine mount
ported only by a jack!
4
Check the mounts to see if the rubber is
cracked, hardened or separated from the
metal backing. Sometimes the rubber will
split right down the center.
Check for relative movement between
5
the mount plates and the engine or frame
(use a large screwdriver or pry bar to attempt
to move the mounts). If movement is noted,
lower the engine and tighten the mount fasteners.
Rubber preservative may be applied to
6
the mounts to help slow deterioration.
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 17.9a, 17.9b, 17.9c,
17.9d, 17.9e and 17.9f
Raise the front of the vehicle and sup7
port it securely on jackstands.
Place a floor jack under the engine (with
8
a wood block between the jack head and oil
pan) and raise the engine slightly to relieve
Chapter 2 Part A Four-cylinder engines
2A-26
LOWER RADIATOR
SUPPORT
SUPPORT BRACKET
(SOME MODELS)
FRONT
ENGINE MOUNT
DAMPER WEIGHT
(SOME MODELS)
REAR STRUT
BRACKET
ENGINE
SUPPORT MODULE
REAR
ENGINE MOUNT
17.9d Typical engine support module (front and rear
lower mounts - 1995 through 1997 models)
17.9e Typical 2.0L rear engine mount
17.9f Typical 2.4L rear engine mount
the weight from the mounts. Note: On 1995 to
1997 models, the front engine mount (engine
support module) is attached to the lower radiator support. When removing the engine support module, the radiator and air conditioning
condenser (if equipped) must be supported.
9
Remove the fasteners and detach the
mount from the frame and engine (see illustrations). Caution: Do not disconnect more
than one mount at a time, except during
engine/transaxle removal.
10 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Use thread locking compound on the mounting bolts and be sure to tighten them
securely.
Chapter 2 Part B
V6 engine
Contents
Section
Camshafts - removal, inspection and installation ................................10
Camshaft oil seal - replacement ............................................................8
CHECK ENGINE light ........................................................See Chapter 6
Crankshaft front oil seal - replacement ..................................................7
Cylinder head - removal and installation ..............................................12
Engine mounts - check and replacement ............................................ 17
Exhaust manifold - removal and installation .......................................... 5
Driveplate - removal and installation ....................................................15
General information................................................................................1
Intake manifold ...................................................................................... 4
Section
Oil pan - removal and installation ........................................................ 13
Oil pump - removal, inspection and installation ...................................14
Rear main oil seal - replacement ......................................................... 16
Repair operations possible with the engine in the vehicle .....................2
Rocker arm and hydraulic valve lash adjuster
assembly - removal, inspection and installation .............................. 9
Timing belt - removal, inspection and installation ................................. 6
Top dead center (TDC) for number one piston .............. See Chapter 2C
Valve cover - removal and installation ................................................... 3
Valve springs, retainers and seals - replacement ................................ 11
2B
Specifications
General
Bore .........................................................................................................
Stroke......................................................................................................
Displacement ...........................................................................................
Firing order..............................................................................................
Compression ratio ...................................................................................
Compression pressure ............................................................................
Oil pressure
At idle speed ......................................................................................
At 3000 rpm........................................................................................
3.29 inches
2.992 inches
152 cubic inches (2.5 liters)
1-2-3-4-5-6
9.4:1
178 psi @ 250 rpm
6 psi (minimum)
35 to 75 psi
Camshaft
Endplay
Standard .............................................................................................
Service limit ........................................................................................
0.004 to 0.008 inch
0.0016 inch
Cylinder head
Cylinder head gasket surface warpage limit...........................................
0.008 inch
Intake and exhaust manifolds
Intake manifold warpage limit .................................................................
Exhaust manifold warpage limit ..............................................................
0.008 inch
0.012 inch
5
3
1
Cylinder numbering
and spark plug wire
terminal locations
FRONT OF VEHICLE
2B-2
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
Oil pump
Inner rotor-to-outer rotor lobe clearance .........................................................0.003 to 0.007 inch
Outer rotor-to-housing clearance
Standard .....................................................................................................0.004 to 0.007 inch
Service limit ................................................................................................ 0.0138 inch
Rotor-to-cover clearance (end clearance)....................................................... 0.0015 to 0.0035 inch
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Camshaft sprocket bolt ....................................................................................65
Camshaft thrust case bolts.............................................................................. 108 in-lbs
Crankshaft damper/pulley bolt .........................................................................134
Crankshaft rear main seal retainer bolts .......................................................... 97 in-lbs
Cylinder head bolts..........................................................................................80
EGR tube bolts .................................................................................................95 in-lbs
Engine mounting bracket bolts ........................................................................ 33
Exhaust manifold-to-cylinder head nuts..........................................................33
Exhaust manifold-to-exhaust pipe nuts ........................................................... 21
Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts ..................................................................115 in-lbs
Driveplate-to-crankshaft bolts ......................................................................... 70
Intake manifold
Upper intake manifold bolts ........................................................................160 in-lbs
Lower intake manifold bolts........................................................................185 in-lbs
Oil filter adapter bolts.......................................................................................17
Oil pan bolts ..................................................................................................... 53 in-lbs
Oil pump
Attaching bolts
M8 bolts .................................................................................................10
M10 bolts .............................................................................................. 30
Cover bolts ................................................................................................. 88 in-lbs
Pick-up tube bolts...................................................................................... 168 in-lbs
Relief valve cap bolt ................................................................................... 30
Rocker arm shaft bolts .....................................................................................23
Thermostat housing bolts................................................................................ 168 in-lbs
Timing belt
Cover bolts..................................................................................................105 in-lbs
Tensioner arm assembly bolt ..................................................................... 33
Tensioner pulley bolt .................................................................................. 35
Valve cover bolts ..............................................................................................88 in-lbs
Water pump mounting bolt.............................................................................. 17
"Refer to Part C for additional torque specifications
1
General information
This Part of Chapter 2 is devoted to invehicle engine repair procedures. Information
concerning engine removal and installation
and engine block and cylinder head overhaul
can be found in Part C of this Chapter.
The following repair procedures are
based on the assumption that the engine is
installed in the vehicle. If the engine has been
removed from the vehicle and mounted on a
stand, many of the steps outlined in this Part
of Chapter 2 will not apply.
The Specifications included in this Part
of Chapter 2 apply only to the procedures
contained in this Part. Part C of Chapter 2
contains the Specifications necessary for
cylinder head and engine block rebuilding.
2
Repair operations possible with
the engine in the vehicle
Many major repair operations can be
accomplished without removing the engine
from the vehicle.
Clean the engine compartment and the
exterior of the engine with some type of
degreaser before any work is performed. It
will make the job easier and help keep dirt
out of the internal areas of the engine.
Depending on the components involved,
it may be helpful to remove the hood to
improve access to the engine as repairs are
performed (refer to Chapter 11 if necessary).
Cover the fenders to prevent damage to the
paint. Special pads are available, but an old
bedspread or blanket will also work.
If vacuum, exhaust, oil or coolant leaks
develop, indicating a need for gasket or seal
replacement, the repairs can generally be
made with the engine in the vehicle. The
intake and exhaust manifold gaskets, oil pan
gasket, camshaft and crankshaft oil seals
and cylinder head gasket are all accessible
with the engine in place.
Exterior engine components, such as
the intake and exhaust manifolds, the oil pan,
the oil pump, the water pump, the starter
motor, the alternator, the distributor and the
fuel system components can be removed for
repair with the engine in place.
Since the camshafts and cylinder head
can be removed without pulling the engine,
valve component servicing can also be
accomplished with the engine in the vehicle.
Replacement of the timing belt and sprockets
is also possible with the engine in the vehicle.
In extreme cases caused by a lack of
necessary equipment, repair or replacement
of piston rings, pistons, connecting rods and
rod bearings is possible with the engine in the
vehicle. However, this practice is not recommended because of the cleaning and preparation work that must be done to the components involved.
3
Valve cover - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 3.6 and 3.7
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
3.6 Valve cover mounting bolts (arrows)
3
If removing the rear valve cover (near
the firewall), remove the upper intake manifold (see Section 4).
4
Clearly label then remove the spark plug
wires from the valve cover (see Chapter 1 if
necessary).
5
Clearly label and then disconnect any
emission hoses and electrical cables which
connect to or cross over the valve cover.
6
Remove the valve cover bolts and lift off
the cover (see illustration). If the cover
sticks to the cylinder head, tap on it with a
soft-face hammer or place a wood block
against the cover and tap on the wood with a
hammer. Caution: If you have to pry between
the valve cover and the cylinder head, be
extremely careful not to gouge or nick the
gasket surfaces of either part. A leak could
develop after reassembly.
7
Remove the spark plug tube seals. Even
if they look OK, they should be replaced (see
illustration).
8
Thoroughly clean the valve cover and
remove all traces of old gasket material. Gasket removal solvents are available from auto
parts stores and may prove helpful. After
3.7 Remove and replace the seal from each spark plug tube
cleaning the surfaces, degrease them with a
rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
Installation
9
Install the new spark plug seals onto the
tubes.
10 Install a new gasket on the cover, using
anaerobic RTV sealant to hold it in place.
11 Tighten the valve cover bolts in 3 steps
to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications using a criss-cross pattern starting in
the middle of the cover and working outwards.
12 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. When complete, run the
engine and check for oil leaks.
Spark plug tube replacement
13 Remove the applicable valve cover (see
above).
14 Grasp spark plug tube with locking pliers, carefully twist back and forth and remove
the tube from cylinder head.
15 Clean the locking agent from the tube
and the recess in cylinder head with solvent,
and dry thoroughly.
4.3a Disconnect the throttle position sensor connector
2B-3
16 Apply a small amount of Loctite No.
271, or equivalent, around the lower end of
the tube and install the tube into the cylinder
head. Carefully tap the tube into the recess
with a wood block and mallet until it is fully
seated in the cylinder head.
4
Intake manifold - removal and
installation
Upper intake manifold
Removal
Refer to illustrations 4.3a, 4.3b, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7a
and 4.7b
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Remove the air filter inlet duct from the
throttle body (see Chapter 4 if necessary).
3
Clearly label and disconnect all hoses,
wires, brackets and emission lines which
attach to the intake manifold (see illustrations).
4
Disconnect the accelerator cable and
4.3b Disconnect the purge vacuum hose from the throttle
body fitting
2B
2B-4
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
LOWER INTAKE
MANIFOLD
GASKETS
GASKETS
NUT
4.5 Exploded view of V6 engine intake and exhaust system components
cruise control cable (if applicable) from the
throttle body (see Chapter 4 if necessary).
Remove the bolts securing the upper
5
intake manifold to the right and left side support brackets (see illustration).
Remove the EGR tube (see illustration).
6
7
Loosen the upper intake manifold bolts
in a criss-cross pattern 1/4 turn at a time until
they can be removed by hand. Remove the
upper intake manifold from the engine (see
illustrations). If it sticks, tap the manifold
with a soft-face hammer or carefully pry it
4.6 Remove the EGR tube
from the lower intake manifold. Caution: Do
not pry between gasket sealing surfaces.
8
To minimize the chance of gasket debris
or other contamination from getting into the
engine, place clean rags into the lower intake
manifold passages.
9
Remove all traces of gasket material
from both the upper and lower intake manifold by carefully scraping them using a suitable gasket scraper. Caution: The intake
manifold components are made of aluminum
and are easily nicked or gouged. Do not dam -
age the gasket surfaces or a leak may result
after the work is complete. Gasket removal
solvents are available from auto parts stores
and may prove helpful.
10 Using a precision straightedge and
feeler gauge, check the upper and lower
intake manifold mating surfaces for warpage
(see illustration 4.22). If the warpage on any
surface exceeds the limits listed in this Chapter's Specifications, the discrepant intake
manifold must be replaced or resurfaced by
an automotive machine shop.
4.7a Starting in the center and working outwards, remove the
upper intake manifold mounting bolts in a criss-cross pattern .. .
2B-5
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
4.7b ... then remove the manifold from the engine
Installation
11 Remove the rags from the lower intake
manifold. Use a shop vacuum to remove any
contamination that may be present.
12 Install the upper intake manifold, using a
new gasket. Tighten the bolts in 3 stages,
working from the center out, to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
13 Install the EGR tube using new gaskets.
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
14 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
Lower intake manifold
Removal
Refer to illustration 4.22
15 Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Chapter 4).
16 Remove the upper intake manifold (see
above).
17 Remove the fuel rail and injector assembly (see Chapter 4).
18 Loosen the intake manifold nuts in the
reverse order of the tightening sequence (see
illustration 4.24), 1/4 turn at a time until they
can be removed by hand. Remove the washers.
19 Remove the lower intake manifold from
the engine. If it sticks, tap the manifold with a
soft-face hammer or carefully pry it from the
heads. Caution: Do not pry between gasket
4.22 Check the lower intake manifold gasket surface for warpage
sealing surfaces.
20 To minimize the chance of gasket debris
or other contamination from getting into the
engine, place clean rags into the cylinder
head intake passages.
21 Remove all traces of gasket material from
the upper and lower intake manifold and cylinder heads by carefully scraping them using a
suitable gasket scraper. Caution: The intake
manifold components and cylinder heads are
made of aluminum and are easily nicked or
gouged. Do not damage the gasket surfaces or
a leak may result after the work is complete.
Gasket removal solvents are available from
auto parts stores and may prove helpful.
22 Using a precision straightedge and
feeler gauge, check the upper and lower
intake manifold gasket surfaces for warpage
(see illustration). Check the gasket surface
on the cylinder head also. If the warpage on
any surface exceeds the limits listed in this
Chapter's Specifications, the discrepant
component must be replaced or resurfaced
by an automotive machine shop.
stages, in the sequence shown (see illustration) to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
25 Install the fuel rail (see Chapter 4).
26 Install the upper intake manifold, using a
new gasket. Tighten the bolts in three stages,
working from the center out, to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
27 Install the EGR tube using new gaskets.
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
28 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
Installation
Refer to illustrations 5.3, 5.8 and 5.9
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
3
Remove the exhaust manifold heat
shield(s) (see illustration). Before attempting
Refer to illustration 4.24
23 Remove the rags from the cylinder head
intake passages. Use a shop vacuum to
remove any contamination that may be present.
24 Install the lower intake manifold, using a
new gaskets. Tighten the nuts in three
4.24 Lower intake manifold nut tightening sequence
5
Exhaust manifold - removal and
installation
Warning: Allow the engine to cool completely
before beginning this procedure.
Note: This procedure can be used to remove
one or both of the exhaust manifolds as
required.
Removal
5.3 Exhaust manifold heat shield bolts (arrows) (front exhaust
manifold shown) - the upper alternator bracket must be removed
to extract the upper left heat shield bolt
2B
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
2B-6
5.8 Exhaust manifold-to-exhaust system joint (upper arrow) and
cross-over pipe (lower arrow)
to remove the rear manifold heat shield, disconnect the oxygen sensor wiring harness at
the connector. In order to remove the front
manifold heat shield, the alternator upper
bracket must be removed.
4
To make removal easier, apply penetrating oil to the exhaust manifold and manifoldto-pipe fasteners.
Working under the vehicle, remove the
5
exhaust manifold cross-over pipe.
6
Disconnect the oxygen sensor wiring
harness at the connector.
7
If you are removing the rear exhaust
manifold (near the firewall), remove the power
steering pump bracket (see Chapter 10).
8
If you are removing the rear exhaust
manifold (near the firewall), detach the
exhaust system from the manifold (see illustration). Note: It may be necessary to
remove, or partially remove, the exhaust system to facilitate rear manifold removal (see
Chapter 4 if necessary).
9
Unscrew the mounting nuts, remove the
exhaust manifold and gasket (see illustration).
10 Using a wire brush, clean the exhaust
manifold studs, replacing any that show
thread damage.
11 Using a scraper, remove all traces of
gasket material from the exhaust manifold,
cylinder head, and exhaust pipe mating surfaces and inspect them for wear and cracks.
Caution: When removing gasket material
from any surface, especially aluminum, be
very careful not to scratch or gouge the gasket surface. Any damage to the surface may a
leak after reassembly. Gasket removal solvents are available from auto parts stores and
may prove helpful.
12 Using a precision straightedge and
feeler gauge, check the exhaust manifold
gasket surfaces for warpage. Check the surface on the cylinder head also. If the warpage
on any surface exceeds the limits listed in
this Chapter's Specifications, the exhaust
manifold and/or cylinder head must be
replaced or resurfaced by an automotive
machine shop.
Installation
13 Install the new exhaust gasket(s) onto
5.9 Exhaust manifold mounting nuts (arrows) (front manifold
shown, heat shield removed)
6.4a To keep the crankshaft from turning,
insert a large screwdriver or bar through
the opening in the damper/pulley and
wedge it against the engine block, then
loosen the bolt with a socket and
breaker bar
the cylinder head.
14 Apply Loctite No. 271 to the exhaust
manifold mounting stud threads.
15 Install the manifold, washers and nuts.
Tighten the nuts in three stages, working
from the center out, to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
16 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Install a new gasket(s)
between the exhaust manifold and exhaust
pipe(s). Tighten the nuts to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
17 Run the engine and check for exhaust
leaks.
6
Timing belt - removal, inspection
and installation
Caution: If the timing belt failed with the
engine operating, damage to the valves may
have occurred. Perform an engine compression check after belt replacement to determine if any valve damage is present.
6.4b Remove the damper/pulley from
the crankshaft
Removal
Refer to illustrations 6.4a, 6.4b, 6.6, 6.7,
6.11a, 6.11b, 6.12 and 6.13
Caution: Do not turn the crankshaft or
camshafts after the timing belt has been
removed, as this will damage the valves from
contact with the pistons. Do not try to turn
the crankshaft with the camshaft sprocket
bolt(s) and do not rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise as viewed from the timing belt
end of the engine.
Note: In order to perform this procedure, a
special tool is required to properly tension the
timing belt. The manufacturers tool number is
"MD 998767" and may be available from a
dealership parts department or directly from
Miller Special Tools (phone no. 800-8015420).
1
Position the number one piston at Top
Dead Center (see Chapter 2C).
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Remove the drivebelts (see Chapter 1).
4
Loosen the large bolt in the center of the
crankshaft damper/pulley. It might be very
tight, to break it loose insert a large screwdriver or bar through the opening in the pulley
to keep the crankshaft stationary, then
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
2B-7
L.
6.7 Remove the bolts (arrows) that attach the timing belt lower
cover to the engine
6.6 Timing belt cover bolt locations
RIGHT CAM
SPROCKET
ALIGN TIMING
MARKS
LEFT CAM
SPROCKET
6.11a Verify that the camshaft sprocket timing marks are aligned
with their respective marks on the rear timing belt covers
loosen the bolt with a socket and breaker
bar. Remove the bolt, washer and damper/pulley from the crankshaft (see illustrations).
5
After removing the crankshaft pulley,
reinstall the crankshaft bolt using an appropriate spacer (this will enable you to turn the
crankshaft later).
Remove the upper-left timing belt cover
6
(see illustration).
7
Remove the lower timing belt cover (see
illustration).
8
Detach the power steering pump
bracket from the engine (see Chapter 10 if
necessary).
9
Remove the upper-right timing belt
cover (see illustration 6.6).
10 Remove the right (passenger side)
engine mount and the mounting bracket from
the engine (see Section 17). Note: Make sure
the engine is supported with a floor jack
placed under the oil pan. Place a wood block
on the jack head to prevent the floor jack from
denting or damaging the oil pan.
11 Make sure the timing marks on the
crankshaft sprocket and camshaft sprockets
align with their respective marks before
removing the timing belt (see illustrations).
2B
6.11b Crankshaft timing belt sprocket and oil pump housing
timing marks (arrows)
6.12 Paint an arrow on the timing belt in
the direction of rotation (clockwise) so it
may be reinstalled in the same direction
12 If you plan to reuse the timing belt, paint
an arrow on it to indicate the direction of
rotation (clockwise) (see illustration).
13 Loosen the timing belt tensioner mounting bolts and then remove the tensioner (see
illustration). Note: The tensioner piston will
6.13 Timing belt tensioner mounting
bolts (arrows)
extend when the assembly is removed.
14 Carefully slip the timing belt off the
sprockets and set it aside. If you plan to
reuse the timing belt, place it in a plastic bag
- do not allow the belt to come in contact
with any type of oil or water as this will greatly
shorten belt life.
2B-8
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
6.18 Carefully inspect the timing belt for damage or wear bending it backwards will often make defects more apparent
6.24 Using a vise (lined with soft-jaws), compress the timing belt
tensioner piston until the holes in the housing and piston align.
Then place a small Allen wrench (arrow) or drill bit, through the
holes to keep the piston in position for installation
6.22 Binder clips (arrows) can be used to retain the timing belt in
position on the camshaft sprockets during installation
6.25 Using special tool MD 998767 attached to a torque wrench,
apply 39 in-lbs of torque (in a counterclockwise direction) to the
tensioner pulley, then move the tensioner unit up against the
tensioner pulley bracket and tighten the tensioner mounting bolts
to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications
Inspection
Installation
Refer to illustration 6.18
15 With the timing belt covers removed,
now is a good time to inspect the front
crankshaft and camshaft seals for leakage. If
leakage is evident, replace the them (see
Section 7 and 8, respectively).
16 Inspect the water pump for evidence of
leakage (usually indicated by a trail of wet or
dried coolant). Check the pulley for excessive
radial play and bearing roughness. Replace if
necessary (see Chapter 3).
17 Rotate the tensioner pulley and idler pulley by hand and move them side-to-side to
detect bearing roughness and/or excessive
play. Visually inspect all timing belt sprockets
for any signs of damage or wear. Replace as
necessary.
18 Inspect the timing belt for cracks, separation, wear, missing teeth and oil contamination (see illustration). Replace the belt if it's
in questionable condition or the engine
mileage is close to that referenced in the
Maintenance Schedule (see Chapter 1).
19 Check the timing belt tensioner unit for
leaks or any other obvious damage, replace if
necessary.
Refer to illustrations 6.22, 6.24, 6.25 and 6.27
20 Confirm that the timing marks on both
camshaft sprockets are aligned with their
respective marks on the rear timing belt covers (see illustration 6.11a). Reposition the
camshafts if required. Caution: if it is necessary to rotate the camshafts to align the timing marks, first rotate the crankshaft slightly
counterclockwise (three notches on the
sprocket) to ensure the valves do not contact
the pistons.
21
Position the crankshaft sprocket with
the timing marks aligned (see illustration
6.11b).
22 Install the timing belt as follows; first
place the belt onto the right camshaft
sprocket (the one towards the rear of the
vehicle) and clamp it to the sprocket, while
maintaining tension on the belt, wrap it under
the water pump pulley and place it onto the
left sprocket camshaft sprocket. Secure the
timing belt to the left camshaft sprocket (see
illustration). Continue to wrap the timing belt
over the idler pulley, around the crankshaft
sprocket and finishing with the tensioner pulley. Remove the clamps from the camshaft
sprockets.
23 Make sure the timing belt is tight
between the left camshaft sprocket and the
crankshaft sprocket, all the slack is at the
tensioner pulley and all the timing marks are
aligned.
24 Before installation, the timing belt tensioner piston must be compressed into the
tensioner housing. Place the tensioner in a
vise so the surface with the pin hole is facing
up. Slowly compress the tensioner using the
vise, then install an appropriate size Allen
wrench or drill bit through the body and into
the piston to retain the piston in this position
(see illustration). Remove the tensioner from
the vise.
25 Using the special tool "MD 998767"
engaged in the tensioner pulley, have an
assistant apply 39 in-lbs of torque in a counterclockwise direction (see illustration).
26 With the torque applied to the tensioner
pulley, install the tensioner assembly. Move
the tensioner up against the tensioner pulley
bracket and tighten the mounting bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
Remove the torque wrench and special tool
from the tensioner pulley.
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
6.27 If the timing belt tension is set
correctly, the tensioner piston retaining
pin (arrow) (an Allen wrench in this case)
can be removed and installed easily
7.2 After removing the timing belt
sprocket, remove the Woodruff key
(arrow) from the crankshaft
27 Remove the Allen wrench or drill bit
retaining the piston from the tensioner. The
ti ming belt tension is correct when the tensioner piston retaining pin (Allen wrench or
drill bit) can be withdrawn and reinserted easil y (see illustration). Verify that the timing
marks on the camshaft sprockets and
crankshaft sprocket are still aligned with their
-respective ti ming marks (see illustrations
6.11a and 6.11b).
28 Using the bolt in the center of the
crankshaft sprocket, slowly turn the
crankshaft clockwise two complete revolutions. Caution: If you feel strong resistance
while turning the crankshaft - STOP, the
valves may be hitting the pistons from incorrect valve timing. Stop and re-check the valve
timing. Note: The camshafts and crankshaft
sprocket marks will align every two revolutions of the crankshaft. Recheck the alignment of the timing marks (see illustrations
6.11a and 6.11b). If the marks do not align
properly, remove the timing belt tensioner,
slip the belt off the camshaft sprockets,
realign the marks, reinstall the belt and tensioner, then check the alignment again.
29 After crankshaft rotation, recheck the
ti ming belt tension by inserting the tensioner
piston retaining pin (Allen wrench or drill bit)
back into the tensioner. If the retaining pin
cannot be inserted and withdrawn freely,
readjust the timing belt tension and repeat
Steps 24 through 29.
30 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Tighten the crankshaft
damper/pulley bolt to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
1
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
2
Remove the crankshaft timing belt
sprocket using a gear puller. Remove the
Woodruff key from the crankshaft keyway
(see illustration).
3
Wrap the tip of a small screwdriver with
vinyl tape. Carefully use the screwdriver to
pry the seal out of its bore (see illustration).
Take care to prevent damaging the oil pump
assembly, the crankshaft and the seal bore.
4
Thoroughly clean and inspect the seal
bore and sealing surface on the crankshaft.
Minor imperfections can be removed with
fine emery cloth. If there is a groove worn in
the crankshaft sealing surface (from contact
with the seal), installing a new seal will probably not stop the leak.
5
Lubricate the new seal with engine oil
and using a hammer and the appropriate size
socket, drive the seal into the bore until it's
flush with the oil pump housing (see illustration).
Install the Woodruff key into the slot in
6
the crankshaft. Place the crankshaft timing
belt sprocket onto the crankshaft with the
ti ming belt retaining lip facing inward (toward
the engine).
7
The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Tighten the crankshaft
pulley bolt to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
8
Start the engine and check for oil leaks.
7
Crankshaft front oil seal replacement
Refer to illustrations 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5
Caution: Do not rotate the camshafts or
crankshaft when the timing belt is removed or
damage to the engine may occur.
8
2B-9
7.3 Using a hooked tool or screwdriver,
carefully pry the crankshaft front seal out
of its bore - DO NOT nick or scratch the
crankshaft or seal bore
2B
7.5 Lubricate the new seal with clean
engine oil and drive it into place using a
hammer and socket
Camshaft oil seal - replacement
Refer to illustrations 8.3, 8.4, 8.6a and 8.6b
Caution: Do not rotate the camshafts or
crankshaft when the timing belt is removed or
damage to the engine may occur.
1
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
2
Rotate the crankshaft counterclockwise
until the crankshaft sprocket is three notches
BTDC. This will prevent engine damage if the
camshaft sprocket is inadvertently rotated
during removal.
3
While keeping the camshaft from rotat -
8.3 To hold the camshaft while removing
the sprocket bolt, use an old piece of
ti ming belt wrapped around the sprocket
and a chain wrench as shown
ing, remove the camshaft sprocket bolt. Then
using two large screwdrivers, lever the
sprocket off the camshaft. Note: A strap-type
damper/pulley holder tool is available at most
auto parts stores and is recommended for
2B-10
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
8.4 Using a hooked tool or screwdriver,
carefully pry the camshaft seal out of the
bore - DO NOT nick or scratch the
camshaft or seal bore
8.6a Using a hammer and the appropriate
size socket, drive the camshaft seal into
the bore until it is flush with the
cylinder head
this procedure, however, if you are not going
to reuse the old timing belt, you can wrap a
piece of it around the sprocket and use a
chain wrench to hold the sprocket in place as
shown (see illustration).
4
Carefully pry out the camshaft oil seal
using a small hooked tool or screwdriver (see
illustration). Don't scratch the bore or damage the camshaft in the process (if the
camshaft is damaged, the new seal will end
up leaking).
5
Clean the bore and coat the outer edge
of the new seal with engine oil or multi-purpose grease. Also lubricate the seal lip.
6
Using a socket with an outside diameter
slightly smaller than the outside diameter of
the seal and a hammer (see illustration),
carefully drive the new seal into the cylinder
head until it's flush with the face of the cylinder head. If a socket isn't available, a short
section of pipe will also work. Note: If engine
location makes it difficult to use a hammer to
install the camshaft seal, fabricate a seal
installation tool from a piece of pipe cut to the
appropriate length, a bolt and a large washer
(see illustration). Place the section of pipe
over the seal and thread the bolt into the
camshaft. The seal can now be pressed into
the bore by tightening the bolt.
7
Install the camshaft sprocket, aligning
the pin in the camshaft with the hole in the
sprocket. Using an appropriate tool to hold
the camshaft sprocket, tighten the camshaft
sprocket bolt to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
8
Install the timing belt (see Section 6).
9
Run the engine and check for oil leaks.
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Position the number one piston at Top
Dead Center (see Chapter 2C).
3
Remove the valve cover(s) as required
(see Section 3).
4
Prior to removing the rocker arm shafts,
identify each rocker arm and shaft as to its
proper location (cylinder number and intake
or exhaust). Caution: Do not interchange the
rocker arms onto a different shaft or shaft
assemblies onto a different location as this
could lead to premature wear.
5
Loosen the rocker arm shaft bolts 1/4turn at a time, until they can be loosened by
hand, in the reverse order of the tightening
sequence (see illustration 9.17). Completely
loosen the bolts, but do not remove them,
leaving them in place will prevent the assembly from falling apart when it is lifted off the
cylinder head.
6
Lift the rocker arms and shaft assemblies from the cylinder head and set them on
the workbench. Note: The hydraulic valve
lash adjusters may become dislodged from
the rocker arms during shaft removal. If
required, secure the adjusters in place with
vinyl tape.
7
Disassemble the rocker arm shaft components paying close attention to their positions. Note: To keep the rocker arms and
related parts in order, it's a good idea to
remove them and put them onto two lengths
of wire (such as unbent coat hangers) in the
same order as they're removed, marking each
wire (which simulates the rocker shaft) as to
which end would be the front of the engine.
9
Rocker arm and hydraulic valve
lash adjuster assembly removal, inspection and
installation
Removal
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
8.6b If the space is too confined to use a
hammer to drive the seal in place,
fabricate a tool using a bolt, washer and
section of pipe. Place the section of pipe
over the seal and thread the bolt into the
camshaft to press the seal into the bore
signs of wear and damage, particularly on the
surface that contacts the valve tip. Use a
small diameter wire to check the oil holes for
restrictions.
10 Since the lash adjusters frequently
become clogged, we recommend replacing
the rocker arm/lash adjuster assembly if you're
concerned about their condition or if the
engine is exhibiting valve "tapping" noises.
11 Inspect all rocker arm shaft components. Look for cracks, worn or scored surfaces or other damage. Replace any parts
found to be damaged or worn excessively.
Installation
Refer to illustrations 9.14 and 9.17
12 Prior to installation, the lash adjusters
must be partially full of engine oil - indicated
by little or no plunger action when the
adjuster is depressed. If there's excessive
plunger travel, place the rocker arm assembly
into clean engine oil and pump the plunger
until the plunger travel is eliminated. Note: If
the plunger still travels within the rocker arm
when full of oil it's defective and the rocker
arm assembly must be replaced.
13 Install the rocker arms (and springs intake shafts only) onto the shafts, making
sure they are reinstalled in their original locations.
Inspection
Refer to illustration 9.8
Note: The valve lash adjuster is an integral
part of each rocker arm and cannot be
replaced separately. If defective, both must
be replaced.
Visually check the rocker arms for
8
excessive wear or damage (see illustration).
Replace them if evidence of wear or damage
is found.
9
Inspect each lash adjuster carefully for
9.8 Visually inspect the hydraulic lash
adjuster and roller (arrows) for damage
and excessive play - check the rocker arm
shaft bore for score marks or
excessive wear
2B-11
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
9.14 The intake rocker arm shaft springs (arrows) must be
installed as shown
14 On the intake rocker arm shafts, make
sure that the springs are installed on the shaft
in the correct locations (see illustration).
15 On the right (rear) cylinder head, install
the rocker arm assemblies with the flat at the
end of each rocker arm shaft located at the
ti ming belt end of the engine and positioned
toward their respective valves.
16 On the left (front) cylinder head, install
the rocker arm assemblies with the flat at the
end of each rocker arm shaft located at the
transaxle end of the engine and positioned
toward their respective valves.
17 Tighten the rocker arm shaft bolts in
sequence shown (see illustration) in three
steps to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
18 The remaining installation steps are the
r
everse of removal. Run the engine and
check for oil leaks and proper operation.
19 When re-starting the engine after replacing the rocker arm/lash adjusters, the
adjusters will normally make "tapping" noises
due to air in the lubrication system. To bleed
air from the lash adjusters, start the engine
and allow it to reach operating temperature,
slowly raise the speed of the engine from idle
to 3,000 rpm and back to idle over a one
minute period. If, after several attempts, the
adjuster(s) do not become silent, replace the
defective rocker arm/lash adjuster assembly.
10
9.17 Rocker arm shaft bolt TIGHTENING sequence
Camshafts - removal, inspection
and installation
Note: The camshaft(s) cannot be removed
with the cylinder head(s) installed on the
engine.
Removal
Refer to illustration 10.5
1
Remove the rocker arm shaft assemblies (see Section 9).
2
If you are removing the camshaft in the
right (rear) cylinder head, remove the distributor (see Chapter 5).
3
Remove the cylinder head (see Section 12).
4
On the right cylinder head, carefully
withdraw the camshaft from the distributor
opening in the rear of the cylinder head. Caution: Do not damage the camshaft lobes or
bearing journals during removal. Note: If you
are removing both camshafts, identify each
one as it is removed from the cylinder head
so that it may be installed back in it's original
location.
5
On the left (front) cylinder head, remove
the thrust case from the rear of the cylinder
head and withdraw the camshaft (see illustration). Caution: Do not damage the camshaft
lobes or bearing journals during removal.
10.5 On the left (front) cylinder head, remove the thrust cover and
carefully withdraw the camshaft
6
Remove the camshaft seal(s) from the
cylinder head(s) (see Section 8 if necessary).
Inspection
Refer to illustration 10.10
7
Using a suitable scraper, remove all
traces of gasket material from all gasket surfaces. Caution: When removing gasket material from any surface, especially aluminum, be
very careful not to scratch or gouge the gasket surface. Any damage to the surface may a
leak after reassembly. Gasket removal solvents are available from auto parts stores and
may prove helpful.
8
Thoroughly clean the camshaft(s) with a
rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
Visually inspect the camshaft(s) for wear
and/or damage to the lobe surfaces, bearing
journals and seal contact surfaces. Visually
inspect the camshaft bearing surfaces in the
cylinder head(s) for scoring and other damage. Cylinder head replacement may be necessary if the camshaft bearing surfaces in the
head are damaged or excessively worn.
9
Replace any component that fails the
above inspections.
10 Using a micrometer, check the camshaft
lobes for excessive wear by measuring the
center of the lobe (the area the rocker arm
roller rides on) and comparing it with the
edges of the lobes (the area the rocker arm
10.10 Check the camshaft lobes for wear with a micrometer
2B
2B-12
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
10.13 Measure the camshaft endplay with a dial indicator
positioned on the sprocket end of the camshaft as shown
11.5 This is what the air hose adapter that threads into the spark
plug hole looks like - they're readily available from
auto parts stores
roller does not ride on) (see illustration). If
any wear is indicated, check the corresponding rocker arm, replace the camshaft and
rocker arms if necessary.
Camshaft endplay measurement
Refer to illustration 10.13
11 Lubricate the camshaft(s) and cylinder
head bearing journals with clean engine oil.
12 Carefully insert the camshaft into the
cylinder head and install the thrust case or distributor as applicable. Tighten the bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
13 Install a dial indicator set up on the
cylinder head and place the indicator tip on
the camshaft at the sprocket end (see illustration).
14 Using a screwdriver, carefully pry the
camshaft to the rear of the cylinder head until
it stops. Zero the dial indicator and pry the
camshaft forward. The amount of indicator
travel is the camshaft endplay. Compare the
endplay measurement with the tolerance
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications. If the
endplay is excessive, check the camshaft
and cylinder head thrust bearing surfaces for
wear and replace components as necessary.
Installation
Refer to illustration 10.15
15 Very carefully clean the camshaft and
10.15 Prior to installing the camshaft, lubricate the bearing
journals, thrust surfaces and lobes with engine assembly lube or
clean engine oil
11.7 Use a small magnet (shown) or needle-nose pliers to remove
the valve spring keepers - be careful not to drop them down into
the engine!
bearing journals. Liberally coat the bearing
journals, lobes and thrust bearing surfaces of
the camshaft with engine assembly lube or
engine oil (see illustration).
16 Carefully insert the camshaft into the
cylinder head. On the left side cylinder head,
install the thrust case, using a new 0-ring,
and tighten the bolts to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
17 Install a new camshaft oil seal in the
cylinder head (see Section 8).
18 Inspect the cylinder head bolts and
install the cylinder head(s) (see Section 12).
Torque the cylinder head bolts as described
in Section 12.
19 If removed, install the distributor using a
new 0-ring (see Chapter 5). Tighten the
mounting nuts to the torque listed in the
Chapter 5 Specifications.
20 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. Start the engine and
check for leaks and proper operation.
11
Valve springs, retainers and seals
- replacement
Refer to illustrations 11.5, 11.7, 11.8, 11.13
and 11.15
Note: Broken valve springs and defective
valve stem seals can be replaced without
removing the cylinder heads. Two special
tools and a compressed air source are normally required to perform this operation, so
read through this Section carefully and rent or
buy the tools before beginning the job.
1
Remove the appropriate valve cover
(see Section 3).
2
Remove the rocker arm assemblies (see
Section 9).
3
Remove the spark plugs from that head
(see Chapter 1 if necessary).
4
Turn the crankshaft until the piston in
the affected cylinder is at Top Dead Center
on the compression stroke (refer to Chapter 2C). If you're replacing all of the valve
stem seals, begin with cylinder number one
and work on the valves for one cylinder at a
ti me. Move from cylinder-to-cylinder following the firing order sequence (see this Chapter's Specifications).
5
Thread an adapter into the spark plug
hole (see illustration) and connect an air
hose from a compressed air source to it.
Most auto parts stores can supply the air
hose adapter. Note: Many cylinder compression gauges utilize a screw-in fitting that may
work with your air hose quick-disconnect fitting.
6
Apply compressed air to the cylinder.
Warning: The piston may be forced down by
11.8 Cut-away view of the valve seal and
spring components
compressed air, causing the crankshaft to
turn suddenly. If the wrench used when positioning the number one piston at TDC is still
attached to the crankshaft pulley bolt, it could
cause damage or injury when the crankshaft
moves.
7
Stuff clean shop rags into the cylinder
head holes above and below the valves to
prevent parts and tools from falling into the
engine, then use a valve spring compressor
tool to compress the spring. Remove the
keepers with small, needle-nose pliers or a
magnet (see illustration).
Remove the spring retainer and valve
8
spring. Next, using pliers remove the valve
guide seal and then lift off spring seat (see
illustration). Caution: If air pressure fails to
hold the valve in the closed position during
this operation, the valve face and/or seat is
probably damaged. If so, the cylinder head
will have to be removed for additional repair
operations.
Wrap a rubber band or tape around the
9
top of the valve stem so the valve won't fall
into the combustion chamber, then release
the air pressure.
10 Inspect the valve stem for damage.
Rotate the valve in the guide and check the
end for eccentric movement, which would
indicate that the valve is bent.
11
Move the valve up-and-down in the
guide and make sure it doesn't bind. If the
valve stem binds, either the valve is bent or
the guide is damaged. In either case, the
head will have to be removed for repair.
12 Pull up on the valve stem to close the
valve, reapply air pressure to the cylinder to
retain the valve in the closed position, then
remove the tape or rubber band from the
valve stem.
13 Install the valve spring seat. Lubricate
the valve stem with clean engine oil and
place the new valve guide seal. Tap it into
place with deep socket (see illustration).
14 Install the spring in position over the
valve.
15 Install the valve spring retainer. Compress the valve spring and carefully position
the keepers in the groove. Apply a small dab
of grease to the inside of each keeper to hold
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
2B-13
11.13 Gently tap the new seal onto the
valve guide with a hammer and
deep socket
11.15 Apply a small dab of grease to each
keeper before installation to hold it in
place on the valve stem until the spring
is released
it in place if necessary (see illustration).
16 Remove the pressure from the spring
tool and make sure the keepers are seated.
17 Disconnect the air hose and remove the
adapter from the spark plug hole. Repeat the
procedure for any other defective valves.
18 Install the rocker arm assemblies (see
Section 9).
19 Install the spark plug and connect the
wire(s).
20 Install the valve cover (see Section 3).
21 Start and run the engine, then check for
oil leaks and unusual sounds coming from
the valve cover area.
12
Cylinder head - removal and
installation
Caution: Allow the engine to cool completely
before beginning this procedure.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 12.11, 12.18, 12.19a and
12.19b
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Position the number one piston at Top
2
Dead Center (see Chapter 2C).
3
Remove the upper and lower intake
manifolds (see Section 4).
4
Drain the cooling system, remove the
spark plugs and spark plug wires (see Chapter 1). Note: Leave the plug wires attached to
the distributor cap.
If you are removing the right (rear) cylin5
der head, remove the distributor (see Chapter 5).
Remove the thermostat housing from
6
the rear of the cylinder heads (see Chapter 3).
7
Remove rocker arm shaft assemblies
(see Section 9).
8
If you are removing the right (rear) cylinder head, remove the bolts securing the
power steering reservoir and hoses to the
cylinder head and position them out of the
way (see Chapter 10).
Disconnect the power steering pump
9
bracket from the engine (see Chapter 10).
10 Remove the exhaust manifold(s) (see
Section 5).
11 If you are removing the left (front) cylinder head, remove the EGR solenoid/transducer assembly and EGR valve from the rear
of the cylinder head (see illustration).
12 Remove the timing belt (see Section 6).
13 Remove camshaft sprocket(s) (see Section 8).
14 Clearly label and disconnect any hoses,
li nes, brackets or electrical connections that
may interfere with cylinder head removal.
15 Loosen the cylinder head bolts, 1/4-turn
at a time, in the reverse order of the tightening sequence (see illustration 12.24) until
they can be removed by hand.
16 Carefully lift the cylinder head straight
up and place it on wood blocks to prevent
damage to the sealing surfaces. If the head
sticks to the engine block, dislodge it by
placing a wood block against the head cast-
12.11 EGR solenoid/transducer assembly
(upper arrow) and EGR valve (lower arrow)
- remove the EGR solenoid/transducer
and engine lifting bracket as an assembly
2B
2B-14
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
STRETCHED
BOLT
UNSTRETCHED BOLT
12.18 Place a precision straightedge along the cylinder head bolt
thread profile as shown, if any part of the bolt threads are not on
the straightedge, the bolt is stretched and must be replaced
12.19a Checking the cylinder head-to-engine block gasket
surface for warpage
12.19b Checking the engine block head gasket surface
for warpage
12.22 When installing the head gasket onto the block, make sure
all passages in the block align with the holes in the gasket
ing and tapping the wood with a hammer or
by prying the head with a prybar placed carefully on a casting protrusion. Note: If further
disassembly of the cylinder head is required,
refer to Part C of this Chapter.
17 Remove all traces of old gasket material
from the block and head. Special gasket
removal solvents that soften gaskets and
make removal much easier are available at
auto parts stores. Caution: The cylinder head
is aluminum, be very careful not to gouge the
sealing surfaces. When working on the block,
place clean shop rags into the cylinders to
help keep out debris. Use a vacuum to
remove any contamination from the engine.
Use a tap of the correct size to chase the
threads in the engine block. Clean and
inspect all threaded fasteners for damage.
18 Inspect the cylinder head bolt threads
for "necking," where the diameter of threads
narrow due to bolt stretching (see illustration). If any cylinder head bolt exhibits damage or necking, it must be replaced.
19 Using a precision straightedge and
feeler gauge, check all gasket surfaces for
warpage (see illustrations). If the warpage
on any surface exceeds the limits listed in
this Chapter's Specifications, the discrepant
component must be replaced or resurfaced
by an automotive machine shop.
20 Refer to Part C of this Chapter for cleaning and inspection of the cylinder head.
12.23 Install the head bolt washers
as shown
Installation
Refer to illustrations 12.22, 12.23 and 12.24
21 Install the camshaft(s) if removed (see
Section 10).
22 Place a new gasket on the engine block
(see illustration). Use no sealer unless indicated by the gasket manufacturer. Note any
directions printed on the gasket such as
"Front" or "This side up." Place the cylinder
head(s) in position on the engine block.
23 Install the washers onto the cylinder
head bolts as shown (see illustration). Apply
clean engine oil to the cylinder head bolt
threads and install them into the cylinder
head.
24 Tighten the cylinder head bolts in the
sequence shown (see illustration) progress-
12.24 Cylinder head bolt
TIGHTENING sequence
ing in three stages to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
25 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
26 Refill the cooling system and check all
fluid levels (see Chapter 1 if necessary).
27 Start the engine and let it run until normal operating temperature is reached. Check
for leaks and proper operation.
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
13.5 Engine oil dipstick tube mounting
bolt (arrow) - exhaust manifold heat shield
removed for clarity
13.10 If the pan is stuck, tap it with a softface hammer or place a wood block
against the pan and tap the wood block
with a hammer to jar it loose
2B-15
13.11a Lower the front of the oil pan to
access the oil pump pick-up tube and
remove the mounting bolts .. .
2B
13.11 b . . . then remove the oil pump pick up tube from
the pump body
13
13.12 With the oil pump pick up tube removed, the oil pan can
then be withdrawn over the engine support module (arrow)
Oil pan - removal and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 13.5, 13.10, 13.11a,
13.11b, 13.12, 13.13a and 13.13b
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
3
Remove the accessory drivebelt splash
shield (see Chapter 1).
4
Drain the engine oil (see Chapter 1).
5
Remove the dipstick tube (see illustration).
6
Remove the starter motor (see Chapter 5).
7
Remove the engine-to-transmission
support brackets.
Remove the exhaust manifold cross8
over pipe (see Section 5).
9
Remove the transaxle inspection cover.
10 Remove the mounting bolts and separate the oil pan from the engine block enough
to facilitate oil pump pickup tube removal. If
the pan is stuck, tap it with a soft-face hammer (see illustration) or place a wood block
13.13a Thoroughly clean the oil pan and
engine block gasket surfaces with a
scraper to remove all traces of old
gasket material
against the pan and tap the wood block with
a hammer. Caution: If you're wedging something between the oil pan and the engine
block to separate them, be extremely careful
not to gouge or nick the gasket surface of
either part; an oil leak could result.
11 Remove the oil pump pickup tube and
13.13b Remove the old gasket from the
oil pump pick up tube
screen assembly (see illustrations).
12 Remove the oil pan from the vehicle
(see illustration).
13 Thoroughly clean all gasket sealing surfaces. Use a scraper to remove all traces of
old gasket material (see illustrations). Gasket removal solvents are available at auto
parts stores and may prove helpful. Check
the oil pan sealing surface for distortion.
2B-16
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
block clean with a rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
Installation
13.14 Apply a 1/8-inch bead of RTV
sealant to the oil pan sealing surface as
shown - stay on the inside of the
bolt holes
Straighten or replace as necessary. After
cleaning and straightening (if necessary),
wipe the gasket surfaces of the pan and
Refer to illustration 13.14
14 Apply a 1/8-inch bead of RTV sealant to
the oil pan as shown (see illustration). Also
apply a light coating of RTV sealant to the
underside of the oil pan bolt heads.
15 Place the oil pan into position under the
engine block and install the oil pump pick-up
tube. Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
16 Place the oil pan against the engine
block and install the bolts. Working from the
center and proceeding outward in a crisscross pattern, tighten the oil pan bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
17 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
18 Lower the vehicle and fill the crankcase
with the proper quantity and grade of engine
oil (see Recommended lubricants and fluids
at the beginning of Chapter 1) and run the
engine, checking for leaks. Road test the
vehicle and check for leaks again.
14.7 Remove the oil pump assembly mounting bolts (arrows) and
detach it from the engine - bolt (A) also secures the air
conditioning compressor bracket (if equipped)
14.9 Remove the rotor cover mounting screws (arrows)
14 Oil pump - removal, inspection
and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 14.7, 14.8, 14.9 and
14.10
Disconnect the negative battery cable
1
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
3
Remove the drivebelts (see Chapter 1).
4
Remove the timing belt (see Section 6)
and crankshaft sprocket and Woodruff key
(see Section 7).
5
Remove the oil pan (see Section 13).
6
If equipped, remove the air conditioning
compressor bracket from the engine and
position it out of the way.
7
Remove the bolts and detach the oil
pump assembly from the engine (see illustration). Caution: If the pump doesn't come
off by hand, tap it gently with a soft-faced
hammer or pry on a casting boss.
8
Remove the oil filter passage 0-ring
14.8 The oil filter passage 0-ring seals (arrows) may remained
attached to the engine block
14.10 The alignment mark has worn off the inner rotor on this oil
pump; in this case we'll use a permanent marker to match-mark
the rotors for reinstallation - oil pressure relief cap bolt (A)
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
14.16a Install the rotors into the oil pump
body with the match marks aligned
seals and discard them. They may stick to
the engine block as shown (see illustration)
or remain in the oil pump housing.
9
Remove the oil pump rotor cover (see
illustration).
10 New rotors are manufactured with
arrows on them which are aligned at installation. If both arrows are not clearly visible (see
illustration), use a permanent marker to
match-mark the rotors so they can be
installed back in their original position.
Remove the inner and outer rotor from the
body. Caution: Be very careful with these
components. Close tolerances are critical in
creating the correct oil pressure. Any nicks or
other damage will require replacement of the
complete pump assembly.
11 Using a hammer and drift, carefully and
evenly drive the crankshaft front seal from the
oil pump housing and discard it.
12 Disassemble the oil pressure relief valve
assembly, taking note of the way the relief
valve piston is installed. Unscrew the cap bolt
and remove the bolt, washer, spring and
relief valve (see illustration 14.10).
13 Thoroughly clean all gasket sealing surfaces. Use a scraper to remove all traces of
old gasket material. Gasket removal solvents
14.16b Use a feeler gauge to measure the
inner rotor-to-outer rotor lobe clearance
are available at auto parts stores and may
prove helpful. Check the oil pan sealing surface for distortion. Straighten or replace as
necessary. After removing the residual gasket
material, wipe the gasket surfaces of the oil
pan and block clean with a rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
Inspection
Refer to illustrations 14.16a, 14.16b, 14.16c,
and 14.16d
14 Clean all oil pump components with solvent and inspect them for excessive wear
and/or damage. Replace as required. Note: if
either rotor is damaged, they must be
replaced as a set.
15 Inspect the oil pressure relief valve piston sliding surface and valve spring for damage. Note: If either the spring or the valve is
damaged, they must be replaced as a set.
16 Install the rotors into the pump housing
with the match-marks aligned (see illustration). Check the oil pump rotor clearances
using a precision straightedge and feeler
gauges (see illustrations). Compare the
results to the tolerances listed in this Chapter's Specifications. Replace both rotors if
any clearance is out of tolerance.
14.16d Place a precision straightedge over the rotors and
measure the clearance between the rotors and the straightedge
to determine the rotor-to-cover clearance
2B-17
14.16c Measuring the outer rotor-topump body clearance
Installation
Refer to illustration 14.19
17 Lubricate the relief valve piston, piston
bore and spring with clean engine oil. Install
the relief valve piston into the bore maintaining original orientation followed by the spring
and cap bolt. Tighten the cap bolt to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
Note: If the relief valve piston is installed
incorrectly, serious engine damage could
occur.
18 Lubricate the oil pump rotor recess in
the housing and the inner and outer rotors
with clean engine oil. Install the rotors into the
pump housing with the match-marks aligned
(see illustration 14.16a). Next, fill the rotor
cavity with clean engine oil and install the
cover. Tighten the cover screws to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
19 Install new 0-ring seals in the oil pump
passages located on the pump body (see
illustration). If necessary, apply a light coating of grease on the 0-rings to hold them in
place.
20 Install the new crankshaft front seal into
the oil pump housing (see Section 7).
21 Apply a 1/8 inch bead of anaerobic
sealant to the oil pump body sealing surface,
14.19 Install new 0-ring seals on the oil filter passages (arrows)
2B
2B-18
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
15.5 Remove the flywheel/driveplate from the crankshaft
and position the pump assembly on the block
aligning the inner rotor and crankshaft drive
flats. Install the mounting bolts.
22 If equipped, install the air conditioning
bracket onto the engine (one bolt secures
both the air conditioning bracket and the oil
pump housing).
23 Tighten the oil pump attaching bolts
(see illustration 14.7) to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
24 Install the Woodruff key, crankshaft timing belt sprocket (see Section 7) and timing
belt (see Section 6).
25 Install the oil pan (see Section 13).
26 If applicable, install a new oil filter (see
Chapter 1).
27 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
28 Lower the vehicle and fill the crankcase
with the proper quantity and grade of oil (see
Recommended lubricants and fluids Section
in Chapter 1).
29 Connect the negative battery cable to
the ground stud.
30 After the sealant has cured per the manufacturer's directions, start the engine and
check for leaks.
15
Driveplate - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustration 15.5
1
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
2
Remove the transaxle assembly (see
Chapter 7).
3
To ensure correct alignment during reinstallation, match-mark the backing plate and
driveplate to the crankshaft before removal.
4
Remove the bolts securing the driveplate to the crankshaft. A tool is available a
most auto parts stores to hold the driveplate
while loosening the bolts, if the tool is not
available, wedge a screwdriver in the ring
gear teeth to jam the driveplate.
5
Remove the driveplate from the crankshaft (see illustration).
6
Clean the driveplate to remove any
16.3 Carefully pry the crankshaft seal out of the bore - DO NOT
nick or scratch the crankshaft or seal bore
grease and oil. Inspect it for cracks, distortion
and missing or excessively worn ring gear
teeth. Replace if necessary.
7
Clean and inspect the mating surfaces
of the driveplate and the crankshaft. Check
the crankshaft rear main seal for leakage; if
leakage is evident replace it before reinstalling the driveplate (see Section 16).
Installation
8
Position the driveplate and backing
plate against the crankshaft. Align the previously applied match marks. Before installing
the bolts, apply thread locking compound to
the threads.
9
Hold the driveplate with the special
holding tool, or wedge a screwdriver in the
ring gear teeth to keep the driveplate from
turning as you tighten the bolts to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
10 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
16
Rear main oil seal - replacement
Refer to illustrations 16.3, 16.6 and 16.12
1
The crankshaft rear main oil seal is
pressed into a retainer and bolted to the rear
of the engine block.
2
Remove the driveplate (see Section 15).
The crankshaft rear main oil seal can be
3
renewed without removing the oil pan or seal
retainer. However, this method is NOT recommended because the lip of the seal is quite
stiff and it's possible to cock the seal in the
retainer bore or damage it during installation.
If you want to take the chance, carefully and
evenly pry out the old seal using a 3/16 flat
blade screwdriver - do not to damage the
crankshaft sealing surface (see illustration).
Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the
crankshaft seal journal and the lip of the new
seal then carefully tap the new seal into place
using a hammer and socket. The seal lip is
stiff, so carefully work it onto the seal journal
of the crankshaft with a smooth object like the
rounded end of a socket extension as you tap
the seal into place (see illustration 16.12).
Don't force it or you may damage the seal.
16.6 With the seal retainer supported on
wood blocks, use a hammer and drift to
drive the seal out of the retainer
The following method is recommended
4
and requires removal of the oil pan (see Section 13).
Remove the mounting bolts from the
5
crankshaft rear seal retainer and separate the
retainer from the engine block.
Using a hammer and drift, carefully drive
6
the old seal out of the retainer and discard it
(see illustration).
7
Thoroughly clean all gasket sealing surfaces. Use a scraper to remove all traces of
old gasket material. Gasket removal solvents
are available at auto parts stores and may
prove helpful. Check the oil pan sealing surface for distortion. Straighten or replace as
necessary. After removing the residual gasket
material, wipe the gasket surfaces clean
using a rag soaked in lacquer thinner or acetone.
8
Thoroughly clean and inspect the seal
bore and sealing surface on the crankshaft.
Minor imperfections can be removed with
fine emery cloth. If there is a groove worn in
the crankshaft sealing surface (from contact
with the seal), installing a new seal will probably not stop the leak.
9
Install the new seal into the retainer
using a socket (or block of wood) and a hammer. Drive it in until it's flush with the retainer.
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
16.12 Using a rounded object like a socket extension, carefully
work the seal onto the crankshaft
10 Apply a 1/8 inch bead of RTV sealant to
the retainer gasket sealing surface.
11 Lubricate the lip of the new seal and the
crankshaft sealing surface with a light coat of
clean engine oil.
12 Place the seal retainer in position on the
engine block and install the mounting bolts.
The seal lip is stiff, so carefully work it onto
the seal journal of the crankshaft with a
smooth object like the rounded end of a
socket extension as you tap the seal into
place (see illustration). Don't force it or you
may damage the seal. Tighten the bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
13 Install the oil pan (see Section 13).
14 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
17
Engine mounts - check and
replacement
1
Engine mounts seldom require attention, but broken or deteriorated mounts
should be replaced immediately or the added
strain placed on the driveline components
may cause damage or wear.
Check
2
During the check, the engine must be
17.9a Front engine mount (arrow) - exhaust manifold
removed for clarity
raised slightly to relieve the weight from the
mounts.
3
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands, then position a jack under the
engine oil pan. Place a large wood block
between the jack head and the oil pan to prevent oil pan damage, then carefully raise the
engine just enough to take the weight off the
mounts. Warning: DO NOT place any part of
your body under the engine when it's supported only by a jack!
4
Inspect the mounts to see if the rubber
is cracked, hardened or separated from the
metal backing. Sometimes the rubber will
split right down the center.
5
Check for relative movement between
the mount plates and the engine or frame
(use a large screwdriver or pry bar to attempt
to move the mounts). If movement is noted,
lower the engine and tighten the mount fasteners.
6
Rubber preservative may be applied to
the mounts to slow deterioration.
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 17.9a, 17.9b, 17.9c
17.9d and 17.9e
7
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1). Raise the vehicle
17.9c Engine support module (arrow) - connects front and rear
engine mounts (1995 through 1997 models)
2B-19
2B
17.9b Rear engine mount - exhaust crossover pipe removed for clarity
and support it securely on jackstands.
8
Place a floor jack under the engine (with
a wood block between the jack head and oil
pan) and raise the engine slightly to relieve
the weight from the mount to be replaced.
Note: On 1995 through 1997 models, the
lower front engine mount (engine support
module) is attached to the lower radiator support. When removing the engine support
module, the radiator and air conditioning condenser (if equipped) must be supported.
9
Remove the fasteners and detach the
17.9d Right-side engine mount (arrow)
2B-20
Chapter 2 Part B V6 engine
mount from the frame and engine (see illustrations). Caution: Do not disconnect more
than one mount at a time, except during
engine/transaxle removal.
10 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Use thread locking compound on the mount
bolts and be sure to tighten them securely.
TRANSMISSION
SUPPORT
ASSEMBLY
17.9e Transaxle
support assembly
and brackets
TRANSMISSION
TRANSMISSION
BRACKET
LEFT
FRAME
RAIL
GROUND
CABLE
Chapter 2 Part C
General engine overhaul procedures
Contents
Section
Balance shafts (2.4L four-cylinder engines only) - removal,
inspection and installation .............................................................. 15
Crankshaft inspection.......................................................................... 21
Crankshaft installation and main bearing oil
clearance check ............................................................................. 25
Crankshaft removal .............................................................................. 16
Compression check ...............................................................................4
Cylinder head - cleaning and inspection ..............................................11
Cylinder head - disassembly ................................................................10
Cylinder head - reassembly................................................................. 13
Cylinder honing .................................................................................... 19
Engine block - cleaning ........................................................................17
Engine block - inspection .....................................................................18
Engine overhaul - disassembly sequence ............................................. 9
Engine overhaul - general information ................................................... 2
Engine overhaul - reassembly sequence .............................................23
Section
Engine rebuilding alternatives ................................................................8
Engine - removal and installation ...........................................................7
Engine removal - methods and precautions ..........................................6
General information ................................................................................1
Initial start-up and break-in after overhaul ...........................................27
Main and connecting rod bearings - inspection .................................. 22
Piston rings - installation ......................................................................24
Pistons and connecting rods - inspection ........................................... 20
Pistons and connecting rods - installation and
rod bearing oil clearance check ..................................................... 26
Pistons and connecting rods - removal ...............................................14
Rear main oil seal - installation.......................................See Chapter 2B
Top Dead Center (TDC) for number one piston - locating .....................3
Vacuum gauge diagnostic checks .........................................................5
Valves - servicing ................................................................................. 12
Specifications
Four-cylinder engines
General
Bore.........................................................................................................
Stroke
2.0L ....................................................................................................
2.4L....................................................................................................
Displacement
2.0L ....................................................................................................
2.4L....................................................................................................
Compression ratio
2.0L ....................................................................................................
2.4L....................................................................................................
Compression pressure ............................................................................
Firing order ..............................................................................................
Oil pressure
At idle speed ......................................................................................
At 3000 rpm ........................................................................................
Cylinder head warpage
Head gasket surface ..........................................................................
Intake/exhaust manifold mounting surfaces ......................................
3.4446 to 3.4452 inches
3.268 inches
3.976 inches
122 cubic inches
148 cubic inches
9.8:1
9.4:1
170 to 225 psi
1-3-4-2
4 psi (minimum)
25 to 80 psi
0.004 inch maximum
0.006 inch maximum
Valves and related components
Face angle
2.0L....................................................................................................
2.4L ....................................................................................................
Seat angle ................................................................................................
Valve margin width
2.0L
Intake............................................................................................
Exhaust .........................................................................................
2.4L
Intake ............................................................................................
Exhaust.........................................................................................
45 to 45-1/2 degrees
44-1/2 to 45 degrees
45 degrees
0.0452 to 0.0582 inch
0.058 to 0.071 inch
0.050 to 0.063 inch
0.038 to 0.051 inch
2C
2C-2
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
Four-cylinder engines (continued)
Valves and related components
Valve spring
Out of square limit...................................................................................... 1/16 inch
Free length (approximate)
2.0L ........................................................................................................1.747 inches
2.4L .................................................................................. ....................1.905 inches
Installed height
2.0L ........................................................................................................1.580 inches
2.4L ........................................................................................................1.496 inches
Valve stem diameter
Intake ..........................................................................................................0.234 to 0.235 inch
Exhaust .......................................................................................................0.233 to 0.234 inch
Valve stem-to-guide clearance
Intake .......................................................................................................... 0.0018 to 0.0025 inch
Exhaust .......................................................................................................0.0029 to 0.0037 inch
Valve stem tip-to-spring seat surface height (valve installed - 2.0L only)
1995 and 1996
Intake .....................................................................................................1.891 inches
Exhaust..................................................................................................1.889 inches
1997 on
Intake .....................................................................................................1.77 to 1.81 inches
Exhaust..................................................................................................1.71 to 1.75 inches
Crankshaft and connecting rods
Crankshaft connecting rod journal
Diameter
2.0L ........................................................................................................1.8894 to 1.8900 inches
2.4L........................................................................................................1.967 to 1.9685 inches
Taper and Out-of-round limit ......................................................................0.0001 inch (maximum)
Connecting rod bearing oil clearance .............................................................. 0.001 to 0.0025 inch
Connecting rod endplay (side clearance) .........................................................0.005 to 0.015 inch
Crankshaft main bearing journal
Diameter
2.0L....................................................................................................... 2.0469 to 2.0475 inches
2.4L....................................................................................................... 2.3610 to 2.3625 inches
Taper and out-of-round limits .....................................................................0.0001 inch
Crankshaft main bearing oil clearance .............................................................0.008 to 0.0024 inch
Crankshaft end play ......................................................................................... 0.0035 to 0.0094 inch
Engine block
Cylinder bore diameter .................................................................................... 3.4446 to 3.4452 inches
Cylinder taper and out-of-round limits .............................................................0.002 inch
Pistons and piston rings
Piston diameter (nominal)' ............................................................................... 3.4434 to 3.4441 inches
Piston-to-bore clearance*
2.0L
1995 .......................................................................................................0.0002 to 0.0015 inch
1996 on................................................................................................. 0.0004 to 0.0017 inch
2.4L ............................................................................................................. 0.0009 to 0.0022 inch
Piston ring side clearance
2.0L
Both compression rings ........................................................................ 0.0010 to 0.0026 inch
Oil ring (pack).........................................................................................0.0002 to 0.0070 inch
2.4L
Both compression rings ........................................................................0.0011 to 0.0031 inch
Oil ring (pack)........................................................................................ 0.0004 to 0.0070 inch
Piston ring end gap
2.0L
Number 1 (top) compression ring ..........................................................0.009 to 0.020 inch
Number 2 compression ring ..................................................................0.019 to 0.031 inch
Oil control ring (side rails)......................................................................0.009 to 0.026 inch
2.4L
Number 1 (top) compression ring..........................................................0.0098 to 0.020 inch
Number 2 compression ring ..................................................................0.009 to 0.018 inch
Oil control ring (side rails) ......................................................................0.0098 to 0.025 inch
"Measured 11/16-inch up from the bottom of the piston skirt on 2.0L engines and 9/16-inch up from the bottom of the piston skirt on
2.4L
engines.
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-3
Torque specifications**
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Balance shaft carrier-to-engine bolts.............................................................. 40
Balance shaft chain tensioner and guide fasteners .........................................105 in-lbs
Balance shaft gear cover stud (double-ended) ................................................105 in-lbs
Balance shaft rear cover bolts......................................................................... 105 in-lbs
Balance shaft sprocket bolts ........................................................................... 250 in-lbs
Main bearing cap assembly bolts
2.0L
Main cap bolts (Ml 1) .............................................................................60
Bedplate bolts (M8)............................................................................... 22
2.4L
Main cap bolts (M11)
Step 1 ............................................................................................... 30
Step 2 .............................................................................................. Tighten an additional 90-degrees (1/4 turn)
Bedplate bolts (M8) ............................................................................... 250 in-lbs
Connecting rod cap bolts
Step 1..........................................................................................................20
Step 2 ......................................................................................................... Tighten an additional 90-degrees (1/4 turn)
"Note: Refer to Chapter 2 Part A for additional torque specifications.
V6 engine
General
Bore..................................................................................................................3.29 inches
Stroke...............................................................................................................2.992 inches
Displacement ................................................................................................... 152 cubic inches (2.5 liters)
Firing order .......................................................................................................1-2-3-4-5-6
Compression ratio ............................................................................................9.4:1
Compression pressure..................................................................................... 178 psi @ 250 rpm
Oil pressure
At idle speed ............................................................................................... 6 psi (minimum)
At 3000 rpm................................................................................................ 35 to 75 psi
Valves and related components
Face angle........................................................................................................45 to 45-1/2 degrees
Seat angle ........................................................................................................ 44 to 44-1/2 degrees
Valve margin width
Intake
Standard ................................................................................................0.039 inch
Service limit ...........................................................................................0.019 inch
Exhaust
Standard ................................................................................................0.047 inch
Service limit ........................................................................................... 0.028 inch
Valve stem diameter ........................................................................................ 0.236 inch
Valve stem-to-guide clearance
Intake
Standard................................................................................................0.0008 to 0.0020 inch
Service limit ........................................................................................... 0.004 inch
Exhaust
Standard................................................................................................ 0.0016 to 0.0028 inch
Service limit ........................................................................................... 0.006 inch
Valve spring
Free length (approximate) ...........................................................................2.01 inches
Service limit ........................................................................................... 1.97 inches
Installed height ............................................................................................1.74 inches
Crankshaft and connecting rods
crankshaft connecting rod journal
Diameter..................................................................................................... 1.968 to 1.969 inches
Out-of-round limit ....................................................................................... 0.001 inch (maximum)
Taper limit................................................................................................... 0.0002 inch (maximum)
Connecting rod bearing oil clearance
1995 through 1997..................................................................................... 0.0008 to 0.0028 inch
1998 on ....................................................................................................... 0.0006 to 0.0018 inch
connecting rod endplay (side clearance)
Standard..................................................................................................... 0.004 to 0.010 inch
Service limit ................................................................................................ 0.016 inch
2C
2C-4
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
V6 engine (continued)
Crankshaft and connecting rods
Crankshaft main bearing journal
Diameter .....................................................................................................2.361 to 2.362 inches
taper and out-of-round limits ......................................................................0.0001 inch
Crankshaft end play
Standard .....................................................................................................0.002 to 0.010 inch
Service limit ................................................................................................ 0.012 inch
Crankshaft main bearing oil clearance
Standard .....................................................................................................0.0008 to 0.0016 inch
Service limit ................................................................................................ 0.0039 inch
Engine block
Cylinder bore diameter .................................................................................... 3.29 inches
Flatness of top surface .................................................................................... 0.002 inch
Service limit ................................................................................................ 0.004 inch
Pistons and piston rings
Piston diameter (nominal)* ............................................................................... 3.29 inches
Piston-to-bore clearance................................................................................. 0.0008 to 0.0016 inch
Piston ring side clearance
Number 1 (top) compression ring
Standard................................................................................................0.0012 to 0.0028 inch
Service limit ...........................................................................................0.004 inch
Number 2 compression ring
Standard................................................................................................0.0007 to 0.0024 inch
Service limit ........................................................................................... 0.004 inch
Oil control ring .............................................................................................Loose fit
Piston ring end gap
Number 1 (top) compression ring
Standard ................................................................................................0.010 to 0.016 inch
Service limit ...........................................................................................0.031 inch
Number 2 compression ring
Standard................................................................................................0.016 to 0.022 inch
Service limit ...........................................................................................0.031 inch
Oil control ring (side rails)
Standard ................................................................................................0.006 to 0.019 inch
Service limit ...........................................................................................0.039 inch
*Measured 0.080 inch up from the bottom of the piston skirt.
Torque specifications**
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Main bearing cap bolts .................................................................................... 69
Connecting rod cap nuts................................................................................. 38
**Note: Refer to Part B of this Chapter for additional torque specifications.
1
General information
Included in this portion of Chapter 2 are
the general overhaul procedures for the cylinder head and internal engine components.
The information ranges from advice concerning preparation for an overhaul and the purchase of replacement parts to detailed, stepby-step procedures covering removal and
installation of internal engine components
and the inspection of parts.
The following Sections have been written
based on the assumption that the engine has
been removed from the vehicle. For information concerning in-vehicle engine repair, as
well as removal and installation of the external
components necessary for the overhaul, see
the applicable Part of this Chapter. For information on determining models and engine
numbers, refer to the Vehicle Identification
Numbers at the beginning of this manual.
The Specifications included in this Part
are only those necessary for the inspection
and overhaul procedures which follow. Refer
to Part A or B for additional Specifications as
applicable.
2
Engine overhaul - general
information
Refer to illustration 2.4
It's not always easy to determine when, or
if, an engine should be completely overhauled,
as a number of factors must be considered.
High mileage is not necessarily an indication that an overhaul is needed, while low
mileage doesn't preclude the need for an
overhaul. Frequency of servicing is probably
the most important consideration. An engine
that's had regular and frequent oil and filter
changes, as well as other required maintenance, will most likely give many thousands
of miles of reliable service. Conversely, a
neglected engine may require an overhaul
very early in its life.
Excessive oil consumption is an indica-
tion that piston rings, valve seals andlor valve
guides are in need of attention. Make sure
that oil leaks aren't responsible before deciding that the rings andlor guides are bad. Perform a compression check to determine the
extent of the work required (see Section 4).
Check the oil pressure with a gauge
installed in place of the oil pressure sending
unit, located above the oil filter (see illustration), and compare the pressure to the pressure listed in this Chapter's Specifications. If
it's extremely low, the bearings andlor oil
pump are probably worn out.
Loss of power, rough running, knocking
or metallic engine noises, excessive valve
train noise and high fuel consumption rates
may also point to the need for an overhaul,
especially if they're all present at the same
ti me. If a complete tune-up doesn't remedy
the situation, major mechanical work is the
only solution.
An engine overhaul involves restoring
the internal parts to the specifications of a
new engine. During an overhaul, the piston
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
automotive machine shop. Since the block's
condition will be the major factor to consider
when determining whether to overhaul the
original engine or buy a rebuilt one, never
purchase parts or have machine work done
on other components until the block has been
thoroughly inspected. As a general rule, time
is the primary cost of an overhaul, so it doesn't pay to install worn or sub-standard parts.
As a final note, to ensure maximum life
and minimum trouble from a rebuilt engine,
everything must be assembled with care in a
spotlessly clean environment.
3
2.4 The engine oil pressure sending unit
is located above the oil filter (V6 engine
shown, four-cylinder engine similar)
rings are replaced and the cylinder walls are
reconditioned (rebored andlor honed). If a rebore is done by an automotive machine shop,
new oversize pistons will also be installed.
The main bearings, connecting rod bearings
and camshaft bearings are generally replaced
with new ones and, if necessary, the
crankshaft may be reground to restore the
journals. Generally, the valves are serviced as
well, since they're usually in less-than-perfect
condition at this point. While the engine is
being overhauled, other components, such
as the distributor, starter and alternator, can
be rebuilt as well. The end result should be a
li ke-new engine that will give many trouble
free miles. Note: Critical cooling system components such as the hoses, drivebelts, thermostat and water pump MUST be replaced
with new parts when an engine is overhauled.
The radiator should be checked carefully to
ensure that it isn't clogged or leaking (see
Chapter 3). Also, we don't recommend overhauling the oil pump - always install a new
one when an engine is rebuilt.
Before beginning the engine overhaul,
read through the entire procedure to familiarize yourself with the scope and requirements
of the job. Overhauling an engine isn't difficult, but it is time consuming. Plan on the
vehicle being tied up for a minimum of two
weeks, especially if parts must be taken to an
automotive machine shop for repair or reconditioning. Check on availability of parts and
make sure that any necessary special tools
and equipment are obtained in advance.
Most work can be done with typical hand
tools, although a number of precision measuring tools are required for inspecting parts
to determine if they must be replaced. Often
an automotive machine shop will handle the
inspection of parts and offer advice concerning reconditioning and replacement. Note:
Always wait until the engine has been completely disassembled and all components,
especially the engine block, have been
inspected before deciding what service and
repair operations must be performed by an
Top Dead Center (TDC) for
number one piston - locating
Note: The crankshaft timing marks on these
engines aren't visible until after the timing belt
cover(s) have been removed.
1
Top Dead Center (TDC) is the highest
point in the cylinder that each piston reaches
as it travels up-and-down when the
crankshaft rotates. Each piston reaches TDC
on the compression stroke and again on the
exhaust stroke, but TDC generally refers to
the piston position on the compression
stroke. The cast-in timing mark on the
crankshaft timing belt sprocket installed on
the front of the crankshaft is referenced to
the number 1 piston. When the mark on the
crankshaft timing belt sprocket is aligned
with the cast-in timing mark on the oil pump
housing and the timing marks on the
camshaft sprockets align with their respective marks (see Section 6 of the appropriate
Part of this Chapter), the number 1 piston is
at TDC on the compression stroke.
In order to bring any piston to TDC, the
2
crankshaft must be rotated manually. When
looking at the front of the engine (drivebelt
end), normal crankshaft rotation is clockwise.
DO NOT rotate the engine counterclockwise
as the crankshaft timing belt sprocket may
jump a tooth, requiring timing belt removal.
The preferred method is to turn the
3
crankshaft with a large socket and breaker bar
attached to the crankshaft damperlpulley bolt
that is threaded into the front of the crankshaft.
4
Remove all (accessible) spark plugs as
this will make it easier to rotate the engine by
hand (see Chapter 1 if necessary). Note: On
V6 engines, the spark plugs for cylinders 1, 3
and 5 are located under the upper intake
manifold and not easily accessible. Unless
they are required to be removed, depending
on what procedure you are performing, leave
them installed.
Disconnect the battery cable from the
5
remote negative battery terminal.
6
Remove the accessory drivebelt splash
shield (see Chapter 1) to gain access to the
crankshaft damperlpulley bolt.
Four-cylinder engines
Refer to illustration 3.9
Install a compression gauge (screw-in
7
type with a hose) in the number 1 cylinder
2C-5
spark plug hole. Place the gauge dial where
you can see it while turning the crankshaft
damperlpulley bolt. Note: On 4 cylinder
engines the number 1 cylinder is located at
the front (drivebelt end) of the engine.
Rotate the crankshaft clockwise until you
8
see compression building up on the gauge indicating you are on the compression stroke.
On 2.0L engines, remove the access
9
hole plug on the timing belt cover (see illustration). Slowly turn the crankshaft until the
camshaft sprocket timing mark is visible
through the access hole. Using a flashlight,
look inside the access hole to locate the
camshaft timing mark on the timing belt rear
cover. Slowly rotate the crankshaft clockwise
as required until the timing mark on the
camshaft sprocket aligns with the arrow on
the timing belt rear cover. The crankshaft is
now located at number 1 piston TDC on the
compression stroke. Note: If you turn the
crankshaft too far, it will be necessary to
rotate the crankshaft clockwise 1-3/4 turns to
approach the compression stroke again.
10 On 2.4L engines, remove the timing belt
upper cover (see Chapter 2A, Section 6).
Rotate the crankshaft clockwise until the
camshaft sprocket timing marks are aligned
(see illustration 6.9b in Chapter 2 Part A).
The crankshaft is now located at number 1
piston TDC on the compression stroke. Note:
If you turn the crankshaft too far, it will be
necessary to rotate the crankshaft clockwise
approximately 1-3/4 turns to approach the
compression stroke again.
11 After the number 1 piston has been positioned at TDC on the compression stroke,
TDC for the remaining pistons can be located
by turning the crankshaft exactly 180 degrees
(1/2 turn) from that position, following the
spark plug firing order; i.e. the first 180 degree
rotation from number 1 piston TDC will bring
the number 3 cylinder piston to TDC on it's
compression stroke, another 180 degree rotation will bring the number 4 cylinder piston to
TDC on it's compression stroke, etc.
3.9 2.0L four-cylinder models have an
access hole in the front timing belt cover
so you can see the camshaft timing marks
without removing the cover
2C
2C-6
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
V6 engine
Note: This method assumes that the upper
intake manifold is installed, making the number 1 spark plug inaccessible.
12 Install a compression gauge (screw-in
type with a hose) in the number 6 cylinder
spark plug hole. Place the gauge dial where
you can see it while turning the crankshaft
damperlpulley bolt. Note: The number six
cylinder is located at the rear (transaxle end)
of the left cylinder bank (refer to the Specifications in Chapter 1, if necessary).
13 Rotate the crankshaft clockwise until you
see compression building up on the gauge indicating you are on the compression stroke.
14 Remove the upper left timing belt cover
(see illustration 6.6 in Chapter 2 Part B).
Note: If the number 6 piston is near TDC, the
camshaft timing mark should be approximately 60 degrees counterclockwise of the
timing mark on the valve cover.
15 Rotate the crankshaft clockwise until the
ti ming mark on the left camshaft sprocket
li nes up with the timing mark on the valve
cover (see illustration 6.11a in Chapter 2
Part B). The crankshaft is now located at
number 1 piston TDC on the compression
stroke. Note: If you turn the crankshaft too far,
it will be necessary to rotate the crankshaft
clockwise approximately 1-3/4 turns to
approach the compression stroke again.
16 After the number 1 piston has been positioned at TDC on the compression stroke,
TDC for the remaining pistons can be located
by turning the crankshaft exactly 120 degrees
from that position, following the spark plug firing order; i.e. the first 120 degree rotation
from number 1 piston TDC will bring the number 2 cylinder piston to TDC on it's compression stroke, another 120 degree rotation will
bring the number 3 cylinder piston to TDC on
it's compression stroke, etc.
4
Compression check
Note: On V6 engines it is necessary to
remove the upper intake manifold to access
the right bank of spark plugs, refer to Part B
of this Chapter.
1
A compression check will tell you the
mechanical condition of the upper end (pistons, rings, valves, head gasket) of your
engine. Specifically, it can tell you if the compression is low due to leakage caused by
worn piston rings, defective valves and seats
or a blown head gasket. Note: The engine
must be at normal operating temperature and
the -battery must be fully charged for this
check to be accurate.
2
Begin by cleaning the area around the
spark plugs before you remove them (compressed air should be used, if available, otherwise a small brush or even a bicycle tire
pump will work). The idea is to prevent dirt
from getting into the cylinders as the compression check is being performed.
Remove all of the spark plugs from the
3
engine (Chapter 1).
Block the throttle wide open.
4
Disable the ignition by disconnecting the
5
primary (low voltage) wire electrical connector from the ignition coil pack (four-cylinder
engines) or the disconnecting the 2 pin connector from the distributor (V6 engine) (see
Chapter 5).
Install the compression gauge in the
6
number one spark plug hole.
7
Crank the engine over at least seven
compression strokes and watch the gauge.
The compression should build up quickly in a
healthy engine. Low compression on the first
stroke, followed by gradually increasing pressure on successive strokes, indicates worn
piston rings. A low compression reading on
the first stroke, which doesn't build up during
successive strokes, indicates leaking valves
or a blown head gasket (a cracked head
could also be the cause). Deposits on the
undersides of the valve heads can also cause
low compression. Record the highest gauge
reading obtained.
Repeat the procedure for the remaining
8
cylinders and compare the results to the
Specifications in this Chapter.
Add some engine oil (about three squirts
9
from a plunger-type oil can) to each cylinder,
through the spark plug hole, and repeat the
test recording the results.
10 If the compression increases after the oil
is added, the piston rings are definitely worn.
If the compression doesn't increase significantly, the leakage is occurring at the valves
or head gasket. Leakage past the valves may
be caused by burned valve seat(s), andlor
faces or warped, cracked or bent valve(s).
11 If two adjacent cylinders have equally
low compression, there's a strong possibility
that the head gasket between them is blown.
The appearance of coolant in the combustion
chambers or the crankcase would verify this
condition.
12 If one cylinder is 20 percent lower than
the others, and the engine has a slightly
rough idle, a worn exhaust lobe on the
camshaft could be the cause.
13 If the compression is unusually high, the
combustion chambers are probably coated
with carbon deposits. If that's the case, the
cylinder head should be removed and decarbonized.
14 If compression is way down or varies
greatly between cylinders, it would be a good
idea to have a leak-down test performed by
an automotive repair shop. This test will pinpoint exactly where the leakage is occurring
and determine how severe it is.
5
Vacuum gauge diagnostic
checks
Refer to illustration 5.6
1
A vacuum gauge provides valuable
information about what is going on in the
engine at a low-cost. You can check for worn
rings or cylinder walls, leaking head or intake
manifold gaskets, restricted exhaust, stuck or
burned valves, weak valve springs, improper
ignition or valve timing and ignition problems.
2
Unfortunately, vacuum gauge readings
are easy to misinterpret, so they should be
used in conjunction with other tests to confirm the diagnosis.
3
Both the absolute readings and the rate
of needle movement are important for accurate interpretation. Most gauges measure
vacuum in inches of mercury (in-Hg). The following references to vacuum assume the
diagnosis is being performed at sea level. As
elevation increases (or atmospheric pressure
decreases), the reading will decrease. For
every 1,000 foot increase in elevation above
approximately 2000 feet, the gauge readings
will decrease about one inch of mercury.
Connect the vacuum gauge directly to
4
intake manifold vacuum, not to ported (throttle-body) vacuum. Be sure no hoses are left
disconnected during the test or false readings will result.
5
Before you begin the test, allow the
engine to warm up completely. Block the
wheels and set the parking brake. With the
transmission in neutral (or Park, on automatics), start the engine and allow it to run at
normal idle speed. Warning: Carefully
inspect the fan blades for cracks or damage
before starting the engine. Keep your hands
and the vacuum tester clear of the fan and do
not stand in front of the vehicle or in line with
the fans when the engine is running.
Read the vacuum gauge; an average,
6
healthy engine should normally produce
about 17 to 22 inches of vacuum with a fairly
steady needle. Refer to the following vacuum
gauge readings and what they indicate about
the engines condition (see illustration).
A low steady reading usually indicates a
7
leaking gasket between the intake manifold
and throttle body, a leaky vacuum hose, late
ignition timing or incorrect camshaft timing.
Check ignition timing with a timing light and
eliminate all other possible causes, utilizing
the tests provided in this Chapter before you
remove the timing belt cover to check the
ti ming marks.
If the reading is 3 to 8 inches below nor8
mal and it fluctuates at that low reading, suspect an intake manifold gasket leak at an
intake port or a faulty injector.
9
If the needle has regular drops of about 2
to 4 inches at a steady rate the valves are
probably leaking. Perform a compression or
leak-down test to confirm this.
10 An irregular drop or down-flick of the
needle can be caused by a sticking valve or
an ignition misfire. Perform a compression or
leak-down test. Check the condition of the
spark plugs and compare them to the chart
on the back cover of this manual.
11 A rapid vibration of about 4 in-Hg vibration at idle combined with exhaust smoke
indicates worn valve guides. Perform a leakdown test to confirm this. If the rapid vibration occurs with an increase in engine speed,
check for a leaking intake manifold gasket or
head gasket, weak valve springs, burned
valves or ignition misfire.
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
Low , steady reading
Low, fluctuating needle
Irregular drops
Regular drops
Rapid vibration
5.6 Typical vacuum gauge diagnostic readings
12 A slight fluctuation, say 1 inch up-anddown, may mean ignition problems. Check all
the usual tune-up items and, if necessary, run
the engine on an ignition system analyzer.
13 If there is a large fluctuation, perform a
compression or leak-down test to look for a
weak or dead cylinder or a blown head gasket.
14 If the needle moves slowly through a
wide range, check for a clogged PCV system,
inoperative or clogged fuel injectors), throttle
body or intake manifold gasket or vacuum
hose leaks.
15 Check for a slow return after revving the
engine by quickly snapping the throttle open
until the engine reaches about 2,500 rpm and
let it shut. Normally the reading should drop
to near zero, rise above normal idle reading
(about 5 in-Hg over) and then return to the
previous idle reading. If the vacuum returns
slowly and doesn't peak when the throttle is
snapped shut, the rings may be worn. If there
is a long delay, look for a restricted exhaust
system (often the muffler or catalytic converter). An easy way to check this is to temporarily disconnect the exhaust ahead of the
suspected part and repeat the test.
6
Engine removal - methods and
precautions
If you've decided that an engine must be
removed for overhaul or major repair work,
several preliminary steps should be taken.
Locating a suitable place to work is
extremely important. Adequate work space,
along with storage space for the vehicle, will
be needed. If a shop or garage isn't available,
at the very least a flat, level, clean work surface made of concrete or asphalt is required.
Cleaning the engine compartment and
engine before beginning the removal procedure will help keep tools clean and organized.
An engine hoist or A-frame will also be
necessary. Make sure the equipment is rated
in excess of the combined weight of the
engine and accessories. Safety is of primary
importance, considering the potential hazards
involved in lifting the engine out of the vehicle.
If the engine is being removed by a
novice, a helper should be available. Advice
and aid from someone more experienced
would also be helpful. There are many
instances when one person cannot simultaneously perform all of the operations required
when lifting the engine out of the vehicle.
Plan the operation ahead of time.
Arrange for, or obtain all of the tools and
equipment you'll need prior to beginning the
job. Some of the equipment necessary to perform engine removal and installation safely
and with relative ease are (in addition to an
engine hoist) a heavy duty floor jack, complete
sets of wrenches and sockets as described in
the front of this manual, wooden blocks and
plenty of rags and cleaning solvent for mopping up spilled oil, coolant and gasoline. If the
hoist must be rented, make sure that you
2C-7
arrange for it in advance and perform all of the
operations possible without it beforehand.
This will save you time and money.
Plan for the vehicle to be out of use for
quite a while. A machine shop will be
required to perform some of the work which
the do-it-yourselfer can't accomplish without
special equipment. These shops often have a
busy schedule, so it would be a good idea to
consult them before removing the engine in
order to accurately estimate the amount of
ti me required to rebuild or repair components
that may need work.
Always be extremely careful when removing and installing the engine. Serious injury can
result from careless actions. Plan ahead, take
your time and a job of this nature, although
major, can be accomplished successfully.
7
Engine - removal and installation
Note 1: Read through the entire Section
before beginning this procedure. The engine
and transaxle are removed from the vehicle as
an assembly and separated once outside of
the vehicle.
Note 2: The engineltransaxle assembly is
designed to be removed from the underside
of the vehicle. This manual assumes that the
do-it-yourselfer is performing the job at home
and is removing the engine without the use of
a vehicle lift.
Warning: These models have airbags. Always
disable the airbag system and wait 2 minutes
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the airbags, which could cause personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Removal
Refer to illustration 7.10
1
If the vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, have the system discharged by a
dealer service department or automotive air
conditioning service facility.
2
Place protective covers on the front
fenders and cowl. Special fender covers are
available, but an old bedspread or blanket
will also work.
3
Remove the hood (see Chapter 11).
4
Perform the fuel system pressure relief
procedure (see Chapter 4).
5
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
6
Chapter 4).
7
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Drain the cooling system,
engine oil and transaxle fluid (see Chapter 1).
8
Remove the engine cooling fans, radiator and air conditioning condenser unit Of
equipped) (see Chapter 3).
9
Remove the front bumper fascia and
reinforcement bar (see Chapter 11).
10 Carefully label, then disconnect all vacuum lines, coolant and emissions hoses, wire
2C
2C-8
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
7.10 Label both ends of each wire or
vacuum connection before
separating them
harness connectors and brackets connected
to the engine. Masking tape and felt-tip pens
work well for marking items (see illustration).
If necessary, take instant photos or sketch
the locations to ensure correct location at
installation.
11 Detach the Powertrain Control Module
(PCM), Power Distribution Center (PDC) and
Transmission Control Module (TCM) (if
equipped) from their mountings and position
them out of the way. Caution: The PCM and
TCM are Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) sensitive electronic devices, meaning a static discharge from your body could possibly damage internal electrical components. Make
sure to properly ground yourself and the control modules before handling them. Avoid
touching the electrical terminals unless abso lutely necessary.
12 Disconnect the fuel line from the fuel
injection system (see Chapter 4). Cap the fittings to prevent leakage and contamination.
13 Detach the accelerator cable and cruise
control cable (if equipped) (see Chapter 4).
14 If equipped, remove the oil pan-totransaxle structural collar (see Chapter 2A).
15 On manual transaxle equipped models,
detach the shift cables (see Chapter 7A) and
the clutch release cable (see Chapter 8).
16 On automatic transaxle equipped vehicles, detach the shift control cable and oil
cooler lines from the transaxle (see Chapter 7B). After removing the oil cooler lines,
plug the ends to prevent leakage and contamination.
17 Clearly label and disconnect all electrical connections and ground straps (where
applicable) from the transaxle.
18 Remove the driveaxles from the
transaxle (see Chapter 8). Stuff clean rags
into the transaxle openings to prevent leakage and contamination.
19 Remove the bellhousing lower cover,
match-mark the torque converter or modular
clutch assembly (as applicable) to the driveplate and remove the four bolts (refer to the
appropriate Part of Chapter 7).
20 Disconnect the exhaust system from the
exhaust manifold (see Chapter 4).
21 On V6 models, remove the cross-over
tube connecting the exhaust manifolds (see
Chapter 2B).
22 Remove the drivebelts (see Chapter 1).
23 If equipped, remove the air conditioning
compressor (see Chapter 3).
24 Detach the power steering pump, reservoir and the power steering lines (mounted to
the rear cylinder head) from the brackets
without disconnecting the hoses and position
them out of the way.
25 Remove the through-bolt from the rear
engine mount (refer to the appropriate Part of
Chapter 2).
26 Disconnect the ground straps from the
engine.
27 Lower the vehicle.
28 Attach a chain or an engine lifting fixture
to the engine lifting brackets (or to bolts
which are securely mounted in the cast iron
block or accessory mounting bracket) and
attach the hoist. Take up the slack until there
is tension on the chain to support the
engineltransaxle assembly. Warning: Attaching the engine lifting chain to a bolt or stud
located in an aluminum component (such as
the cylinder head) may not provide the necessary strength to support the weight of the
engineltransaxle assembly during removal.
29 Support the transaxle with a floor jack.
Place a block of wood on the jack pad to protect the transaxle. Warning: Do not place any
part of your body under the engineltransaxle
when it's supported only by a hoist or other
lifting device.
30 Remove the mount through-bolts on all
of the engine or transaxle mounts (refer to the
appropriate Part of Chapter 2).
31 Confirm that all of the cables, hoses,
wires and other items are disconnected from
the engineltransaxle.
32 Carefully push the transaxle down, or
adjust the engine lifting fixture to position the
engine slightly higher than the transaxle,
while lifting the engine up to clear obstructions.
33 Lift the engine and transaxle high
enough to clear the front of the vehicle and
slowly move the hoist away.
34 Lower the hoist and set the transaxle on
blocks - leave the hoist hooked to the engine.
35 With the transaxle securely supported,
remove the transaxle-to-engine bolts and
separate the engine from the transaxle (refer
to Chapter 7 if necessary).
36 Remove the driveplate (refer to the
appropriate Part of Chapter 2) and then
remove the engine rear plate. Mount the
engine on an engine stand.
Installation
37 Before installing the engine assembly,
inspect the engineltransaxle mounts. If
they're worn or damaged, replace them.
38 On manual transaxle equipped models,
inspect the modular clutch assembly (see
Chapter 8) and apply a very small amount of
high temperature grease to the transaxle
input shaft splines.
39 On automatic transaxle equipped vehicles, inspect the torque converter/input shaft
seal.
40 Carefully mate the transaxle to the
engine following the procedure outlined in
Chapter 7. Caution: Do not use the bolts to
force the engine and transaxle into alignment.
It may crack or damage major components.
41 Install the transaxle-to-engine bolts and
tighten them to the torque listed in the Specifications of Chapter 7.
42 Attach the hoist to the engine and carefully lower the engineltransaxle assembly into
the vehicle.
43 Install the engineltransaxle mount bolts
and tighten them securely.
44 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
45 After lowering the vehicle, add coolant,
engine oil, power steering and transmission
fluid/lubricant as needed (see Chapter 1).
46 Run the engine and check for proper
operation and leaks. Shut off the engine and
recheck the fluid levels. Note: If the engine
has just been rebuilt, see Section 27 for
break-in procedures.
8
Engine rebuilding alternatives
The do-it-yourselfer is faced with a number of options when performing an engine
overhaul. The decision to replace the engine
block, piston/connecting rod assemblies and
crankshaft depends on a number of factors,
with the number one consideration being the
condition of the block. Other considerations
are cost, access to machine shop facilities,
parts availability, time required to complete
the project and the extent of prior mechanical
experience on the part of the do-it-yourselfer.
Some of the rebuilding alternatives
include:
Individual parts - If the inspection procedures reveal that the engine block and
most engine components are in reusable
condition, purchasing individual parts may be
the most economical alternative. The block,
crankshaft and piston/connecting rod assemblies should all be inspected carefully. Even if
the block shows little wear, the cylinder bores
should be surface honed.
Short block - A short block' consists of
an engine block with a crankshaft and piston/connecting rod assemblies already
installed. All new bearings are incorporated
and all clearances will be correct. The existing camshaft, valve train components, cylinder head(s) and external parts can be bolted
to the short block with little or no machine
shop work necessary.
Long block - A long block consists of a
short block plus an oil pump, oil pan, cylinder
head, rocker arm cover, camshaft(s) and
valve train components, timing sprockets and
ti ming covers. All components are installed
with new bearings, seals and gaskets incorporated throughout. The installation of manifolds and external parts is all that's necessary.
Give careful thought to which alternative
is best for you and discuss the situation with
2C-9
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
local automotive machine shops, auto parts
dealers and experienced rebuilders before
ordering or purchasing replacement parts.
9
PISTON AND
CONNECTING ROD
ASSEMBLY
SEAL
CONNECTING
ROD BEARINGS
Engine overhaul - disassembly
sequence
Refer to illustrations 9.5a, 9.5b and 9.5c
1
It's much easier to disassemble and
work on the engine if it's mounted on a
portable engine stand. A stand can often be
rented quite cheaply from an equipment
rental yard. Before the engine is mounted on
a stand, the driveplate must be removed from
the engine.
2
If a stand isn't available, it's possible to
disassemble the engine with it blocked up on
the floor. Be extra careful not to tip or drop
the engine when working without a stand.
3
If you're going to obtain a rebuilt engine,
all external components must be removed
from the old engine first, to be transferred to
the replacement engine, just as they will if
you're doing a complete engine overhaul
yourself. These include but are not limited
too:
Air conditioning compressor and
brackets
Alternator and brackets
Coil pack or distributor, spark plug wires
and spark plugs
Driveplate
Electronic engine control components
Emissions control components
Engine mounts
Fuel injection components
Intake and exhaust manifolds
Oil filter (and adapter if equipped)
Power steering pump and brackets
Thermostat cover, thermostat and
housing
Water pump
Note: When removing the external components from the engine, pay close attention to
details that may be helpful or important during installation. Note the installed position of
gaskets, seals, spacers, pins, brackets, washers, bolts and other small items.
4
If you're obtaining a short block, which
consists of the engine block, crankshaft, pistons and connecting rods all assembled, then
the cylinder head, oil pan and oil pump will
have to be removed as well. See Engine
rebuilding alternatives for additional information regarding the different possibilities to be
considered.
5
If you're planning a complete overhaul,
the engine must be disassembled and the
internal components removed in the general
following order (see illustrations):
Intake and exhaust manifolds
Valve cover
Rocker arms and shafts (SOHC engine)
Timing belt covers
Timing belt and sprockets
Camshaft(s)
Rocker arms and hydraulic lash
adjusters (DOHC engines)
OIL PASSAGE
0-RING
SEAL
NIPPLE
UPPER
BEARING
(GROOVED)
OIL FILTER
ADAPTER
9.5a Engine block components - 2.0L four-cylinder
2C
9.5b Engine block components - 2.4L four-cylinder
2C-10
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
Water pump
Cylinder head(s)
Oil pan and oil pickup tube
Oil pump
Balance shaft carrier (2.4L four-cylinder
engine)
Piston/connecting rod assemblies
Crankshaft
Before beginning the disassembly and
6
overhaul procedures, make sure the following
items are available. Also, refer to Engine
overhaul - reassembly sequence for a li st of
tools and materials needed for engine
reassembly.
Common hand tools
Small cardboard boxes or plastic bags
for storing parts
Gasket scraper
Ridge reamer
Micrometers
Telescoping gauges
Dial indicator set
Valve spring compressor
Cylinder surfacing hone
Piston ring groove cleaning tool
Electric drill motor
Tap and die set
Wire brushes
Oil gallery brushes
Cleaning solvent
10
Cylinder head - disassembly
Refer to illustrations 10.2, 10.3, 10.4a, 10.4b
and 10.4c
Note: New and rebuilt cylinder heads are
commonly available for most engines at dealerships and auto parts stores. Due to the fact
that some specialized tools are necessary for
the disassembly and inspection procedures,
and replacement parts may not be readily
available, it may be more practical and economical for the home mechanic to purchase a
replacement head rather than taking the time
to disassemble, inspect and recondition the
original.
9.5c Engine block components - V6 engine
1
Cylinder head disassembly involves
removal of the intake and exhaust valves and
related components. If they're still in place,
remove the rocker arm shafts and camshaft,
on the SOHC engine (refer to the appropriate
Part of Chapter 2) or the bearing caps,
camshafts, rocker arms and lash adjusters,
on the DOHC engine (see Chapter 2A). Label
10.2 A small plastic bag with an appropriate label can be used to
store the valvetrain components so they don't get mixed up
the parts or store them separately so they
can be reinstalled in their original locations.
2
Before the valves are removed, arrange
to label and store them, along with their
related components, so they can be kept
separate and reinstalled in the same valve
guides they are removed from (see illustration).
10.3 After compressing the valve spring, use a magnet (shown) or
needle-nose pliers to extract the valve keepers - a valve spring
compressor adapter, such as the one shown, will be needed to
compress the valve spring on this type of cylinder head
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
10.4a Remove the valve from the
cylinder head .. .
3
Compress the springs on the first valve
with a spring compressor and remove the
keepers (see illustration). Carefully release
the valve spring compressor and remove the
retainer and the spring.
4
Pull the valve out of the head, then
remove the valve stem seal with pliers and
withdraw spring seat from the guide (see
illustrations). Note: On the four-cylinder
engines the valve stem seal and spring seat
are an assembly. If the valve binds in the
guide (won't pull through), push it back into
the head and deburr the area around the
keeper groove and step tip with a fine file or
whetstone (see illustration).
5
Repeat the procedure for the remaining
valves. Remember to keep all the parts for
each valve together so they can be reinstalled in the same locations.
Once the valves and related compo6
nents have been removed and stored in an
organized manner, the head should be thoroughly cleaned and inspected. If a complete
engine overhaul is being performed, finish the
engine disassembly procedures before
beginning the cylinder head cleaning and
inspection process.
10.4b . . . then use pliers to remove the
valve stem seal from the valve guide
11
Cylinder head - cleaning and
inspection
1
Thorough cleaning of the cylinder head
and related valvetrain components, followed
by a detailed inspection, will enable you to
decide how much valve service work must be
performed during the engine overhaul. Note:
If the engine was severely overheated, the
cylinder head is probably warped.
Cleaning
2
Scrape all traces of old gasket material
and sealing compound off the head gasket,
intake manifold and exhaust manifold sealing
surfaces. Caution: The cylinder head is aluminum, be very careful not to gouge the sealing surfaces. Special gasket removal solvents
that soften gaskets and make removal much
easier are available at auto parts stores.
3
Remove all built-up scale from the
coolant passages.
4
Run a stiff wire brush through the various holes to remove deposits that may have
formed in them.
5
Run an appropriate size tap into each of
10.4c If the valve stem won't pass through the guide, chances are
its because of a burr or raised material on the end of the valve
stem. Use a fine file or whetstone to deburr the valve
stem as required
2C-11
the threaded holes to remove corrosion and
thread sealant that may be present. If compressed air is available, use it to clear the
holes of debris produced by this operation.
Warning: Wear eye protection when using
compressed air!
Clean the cylinder head with solvent and
6
dry it thoroughly. Compressed air will speed
the drying process and ensure that all holes
and recessed areas are clean. Note: Decarbonizing chemicals are available and may
prove very useful when cleaning cylinder
heads and valve train components. They are
very caustic and should be used with caution.
Be sure to follow the instructions on the container.
7
Clean the rocker arms hydraulic lash
adjusters, spacers and shafts with solvent.
Note: The lash adjusters and rocker arms on
SOHC engines are precision assemblies, be
careful not to mix-up parts when cleaning. Dry
all parts thoroughly (don't mix them up during
the cleaning process). Compressed air will
speed the drying process and can be used to
clean out the oil passages. Warning: Wear
eye protection when using compressed air!
Clean all the valve springs, spring seats,
8
keepers and retainers with solvent and dry
them thoroughly. Clean the components one
valve at a time to avoid mixing up the parts.
9
Scrape off any heavy deposits that may
have formed on the valves, then use a motorized wire brush to remove deposits from the
valve heads and stems. Warning: Wear eye
protection when using a motorized wire
brush! Again, make sure the valves don't get
mixed up.
Inspection
Note: Be sure to perform all of the following
inspection procedures before concluding that
machine shop work is required. Make a list of
the items that need attention.
Cylinder head
Refer to illustrations 11.10, 11.11 and 11.13
10 Inspect the head very carefully for
cracks, evidence of coolant leakage and
11.10 Inspect the cylinder head internal passages for cracks or
other defects
2C
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-12
11.11 Measure the cylinder head gasket surface(s) flatness and
compare to the limits listed in this Chapter's Specifications
11.13 Checking valve stem-to-guide clearance - remember to
divide the measurement by 2 to obtain the correct dimension
VALVE STEM TIP
11.16 Measure the valve margin of
each valve
11.15 Carefully inspect the areas
indicated for wear or damage
other damage (see illustration). If cracks are
found, check with an automotive machine
shop concerning repair. If repair isn't possible, a new cylinder head must be obtained.
11 Using a straightedge and feeler gauge,
check the head gasket mating surface (see
illustration). Check the intake and exhaust
manifold surfaces on the cylinder head also.
If the warpage on any of the surfaces
exceeds the limits listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, they can be resurfaced at an
automotive machine shop.
12 Examine the valve seats in each of the
combustion chambers. If they're pitted,
cracked or burned, the head will require valve
service that's beyond the scope of the home
mechanic.
13 Check the valve stem-to-guide clearance, using a clamping dial indicator base
attached securely to the head, by measuring
the lateral movement of the valve stem inside
the valve guide (see illustration). The valve
must be in the guide and approximately 1/16inch off the seat. The total valve stem movement indicated by the gauge needle must be
divided by two to obtain the actual clearance.
14 After this is done, if there's still some
11.17 Measuring the valve spring
free length
doubt regarding the condition of the valve
guides they should be checked by an automotive machine shop (the cost should be
minimal).
Valves
Refer to illustrations 11.15 and 11.16
15 Carefully inspect each valve face for
uneven wear, deformation, cracks, pits and
burned areas (see illustration). Check the
valve stem for scuffing and galling and the
neck for cracks. Rotate the valve and check
for any obvious indication that it's bent. Look
for pits and excessive wear on the end of the
stem. The presence of any of these conditions indicates the need for valve service by
an automotive machine shop.
16 Measure the margin width on each valve
(see illustration). Any valve with a margin
narrower than listed in this Chapter's Specifications will have to be replaced.
Valve components
Refer to illustrations 11.17 and 11.18
17 Check each valve spring for wear (on
the ends) and pits. Measure the free length
(see illustration) and compare it to the value
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications. Any
springs that are shorter than specified have
sagged and should not be reused. The ten -
11.18 Check each valve spring
for squareness
sion of all springs should be checked with a
special fixture before deciding that they're
suitable for use in a rebuilt engine (take the
springs to an automotive machine shop for
this check).
18 Stand each spring on a flat surface and
check it for squareness (see illustration). If
any of the springs are distorted or sagged,
replace all of them with new parts.
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
13.4a On four-cylinder models, the valve seal and spring seat are
an assembly
2C-13
13.4b Install the valve stem seal using an appropriate size socket
and hammer
19 Check the spring retainers and keepers
for obvious wear and cracks. Any questionable parts should be replaced with new ones,
as extensive damage will occur if they fail
during engine operation.
Rocker arm components
20 Refer to the appropriate Part of Chapter
2 for the rocker arm and hydraulic lash
adjusters inspection procedures.
21 Any damaged or excessively worn parts
must be replaced with new ones.
22 If the inspection process indicates that
the valve components are in generally poor
condition and worn beyond the limits specified, which is usually the case in an engine
that's being overhauled, reassemble the
valves in the cylinder head and refer to Section 12 for valve servicing recommendations.
12 Valves - servicing
1
Because of the complex nature of the
job and the special tools and equipment
needed, servicing of the valves, the valve
seats and the valve guides, commonly known
as a valve job, should be performed by an
experienced professional.
2
The home mechanic can remove and
disassemble the head, do the initial cleaning
and inspection, then reassemble and deliver
it to a dealer service department or an automotive machine shop for the actual service
work. Doing the inspection will enable you to
see what condition the head and valvetrain
components are in and will ensure that you
know what work and new parts are required
when dealing with an automotive machine
shop.
3
The dealer service department, or automotive machine shop, will remove the valves
and springs, recondition or replace the valves
and valve seats, recondition the valve guides,
check and replace the valve springs, spring
retainers and keepers (as necessary), replace
the valve seals with new ones, reassemble
the valve components and make sure the
installed spring height is correct. The cylinder
head gasket surface will also be resurfaced if
2C
13.6a Install the spring over the valve
guide and onto the seat .. .
13.6b . . . and place the retainer onto
the spring
it's warped.
4
After the valve job has been performed
by a professional, the head will be in like-new
condition. When the head is returned, be sure
to clean it again before installing it on the
engine to remove any metal particles and
abrasive grit that may still be present from
the valve service or head resurfacing operations (which happens frequently). Use compressed air, if available, to blow out all the oil
holes and passages.
illustration 13.9 Dimension "A"). If the
dimension is greater than the tolerance listed
in this Chapter's Specifications, grind the
valve stem as required to achieve the correct
dimension.
4
Install the spring seats and new valve
stem seals (V6 engines) or the new valve
seal/spring seat assembly (four-cylinder
engines) onto each of the valve guides (see
illustration). Note: On V6 engines, install the
silver colored valve stem seals onto the intake
valve guides and the black colored valve stem
seals onto the exhaust valve guides. Using a
hammer and a deep socket or seal installation tool, gently tap each valve stem
seal/spring seat assembly into place until it's
completely seated on the guide (see illustration). Don't twist or cock the seals during
installation or they won't seal properly on the
valve stems.
Beginning at one end of the head, apply
5
moly-based grease or clean engine oil to the
valve stem and install the first valve.
6
Install spring over the valve guide and
set the spring and retainer in place (see illustrations). Note: On V6 engines, install the
valve springs with the enameled end up.
7
Compress the spring with a valve spring
compressor and carefully install the keepers
in the upper groove, then slowly release the
13
Cylinder head - reassembly
Refer to illustrations 13.4a, 13.4b, 13.6a,
13.6b, 13.7 and 13.9
1
Regardless of whether or not the head
was sent to an automotive repair shop for
valve servicing, make sure it's clean before
beginning reassembly.
2
If the head was sent out for valve servicing, the valves and related components will
already be in place. Begin the reassembly
procedure with Step 8.
3
If the valve faces or seats have been
ground on a 2.0L four-cylinder engine, measure the valve stem tip-to-spring seat surface
height (without spring or seat installed) (see
2C-14
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
13.9 Valve stem tip-to-spring
seat surface (Dimension "A" 2.0L four-cylinder engines
only) and installed spring
height (Dimension "B" all engines)
13.7 Apply a small dab of grease to each
keeper as shown here - it will hold them in
place on the valve stem as the spring
is released
compressor and make sure the keepers seat
properly. Apply a small dab of grease to each
keeper to hold it in place if necessary (see
illustration).
8
Repeat the procedure for the remaining
valves. Be sure to return the components to
their original locations - don't mix them up!
9
Measure the installed valve spring
height (Dimension "B") with a vernier or dial
caliper (see illustration). If the head was sent
out for service work, the installed height
should be correct, but don't automatically
assume that it is. If the height is greater than
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications, shims
can be added under the spring seat to correct it. Caution: Do not shim the springs to
the point where the installed height is less
than specified.
10 Refer to the appropriate Part of this
Chapter for the procedure to install the
camshaft(s) and rocker arms.
14 Pistons and connecting rods removal
14.1 Before you try to remove the pistons,
use a ridge reamer to remove the raised
material (ridge) from the top of
the cylinders
Refer to illustrations 14.1, 14.3 14.4 and 14.6
Note: Prior to removing the piston/connecting rod assemblies, remove the cylinder head
and oil pan by referring to the appropriate
Part of this Chapter.
1
Use your fingernail to feel if a ridge has
formed at the upper limit of ring travel (about
1/4-inch down from the top of each cylinder).
If carbon deposits or cylinder wear have produced ridges, they must be completely
removed with a special tool (see illustration).
14.3 Checking the connecting rod endplay (side clearance)
Follow the manufacturer's instructions provided with the tool. Failure to remove the
ridges before attempting to remove the piston/connecting rod assemblies may result in
piston breakage.
2
After the cylinder ridges have been
removed, turn the engine so the crankshaft is
facing up.
3
Before the main bearing cap assembly
and connecting rods are removed, check the
connecting rod endplay with feeler gauges.
Slide them between the first connecting rod
and the crankshaft throw until the play is
removed (see illustration). The endplay is
equal to the thickness of the feeler gauge(s).
If the endplay exceeds the service limit, new
connecting rods will be required. If new rods
(or a new crankshaft) are installed, the endplay may fall under the minimum listed in this
Chapter's Specifications (if it does, the rods
will have to be machined to restore it - consult an automotive machine shop for advice if
necessary). Repeat the procedure for the
remaining connecting rods.
4
Check the connecting rods and caps for
identification marks (see illustration). If they
aren't plainly marked, use a small centerpunch to make the appropriate number of
indentations on each rod and cap (1, 2, 3,
etc., depending on the cylinder they're associated with).
5
Loosen each of the connecting rod cap
nuts or bolts 1/2-turn at a time until they can
14.4 If the connecting rods and caps are not identified, use a
center punch or numbered impression stamps to mark the caps
to the rods by cylinder number (No. 4 connecting rod shown)
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-15
14.6 On V6 engines, place a section of plastic or rubber hose over
the connecting rod studs to prevent damaging the crankshaft
journals during piston/rod removal
be removed by hand. Remove the number
one connecting rod cap and bearing insert.
Don't drop the bearing insert out of the cap.
If you are removing the rods from a V6
6
engine, slip a short length of plastic or rubber
hose over each connecting rod stud to protect the crankshaft journal and cylinder wall
as the rod is removed (see illustration).
7
Remove the bearing insert and push the
connecting rod/piston assembly out through
the top of the engine. Use a wooden or plastic
hammer handle to push on the upper bearing
surface in the connecting rod. If resistance is
felt, double-check to make sure that all of the
ridge was removed from the cylinder.
8
Repeat the procedure for the remaining
cylinders. Note: On four-cylinder engines,
new connecting rod bolts must be installed
when the engine is reassembled.
After removal, reassemble the connect9
ing rod caps and bearing inserts in their
respective connecting rods and install the
cap bolts finger tight. Leaving the old bearing
inserts in place until reassembly will help prevent the connecting rod bearing surfaces
from being accidentally nicked or gouged.
10 Don't separate the pistons from the
connecting rods (see Section 20 for additional information).
15
interconnected through two gears which
rotate them in opposite directions. These
gears are driven by a chain from the crankshaft and they are designed to rotate at a 2:1
ratio with the crankshaft (one turn of the
crankshaft equals two turns of the balance
shafts). This motion will counterbalance certain reciprocating masses within the engine.
2
Remove the chain cover, guide and tensioner from the engine block (see illustration).
3
While keeping the crankshaft from rotating, remove the balance shaft bolts. Caution:
If the rocker arm shaft assemblies have not
been removed, DO NOT rotate the crankshaft
as valve damage could occur. Note: A block
of wood placed tightly between the engine
block and the crankshaft counterbalance will
prevent crankshaft rotation.
4
Remove the balance shaft chain
sprocket, chain and crankshaft chain sprocket (see illustration). Use two prybars to work
the sprocket back and forth until it is free
from the crankshaft. Note: The carrier assembly may be removed from the main bearing
cap assembly at this time, if balance shaft
removal is not required.
5
Remove the special stud (double-ended)
2C
15.4 Balance shaft chain, crankshaft and
balance shaft sprockets assembly details
from the gear cover. Then remove the gear
cover and balance shaft drive and driven
gears (see illustration).
Balance shafts (2.4L four-cylinder
engine only) - removal,
inspection and installation
Note: This procedure assumes that the
engine has been removed from the vehicle
and the driveplate, timing belt, oil pan and oil
pump have also been removed (see Chapter
2, Part A).
Removal
Refer to illustrations 15.2, 15.4, 15.5 and 15.6
1
The balance shafts are installed in a carri er that is mounted to the main bearing cap
assembly on the lower part of the engine
block (see illustration 9.5b). The shafts are
15.5 Remove the double
ended stud and separate
the gear cover from the
balance shaft carrier
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-16
15.12 After gear installation,
the balance shaft keyways
should be parallel and facing
the crankshaft, and the gear
alignment marks should be
together as shown
Installation
15.6 Remove the rear cover from the
carrier and withdraw the balance shafts
6
Remove the rear cover from the carrier
and withdraw the balance shafts (see illustration).
7
Remove the bolts that retain the carrier
to the main bearing cap assembly, and separate the carrier from the engine.
Inspection
Clean all components with solvent and
8
dry thoroughly. Inspect all components for
damage and wear. Pay special attention to
the chain, sprocket and gear teeth and the
bearing surfaces of the carrier and balance
shafts. Replace defective parts as necessary.
LOWER NICKEL
PLATED LINK 8 LINKS
FROM UPPER LINK
Refer to illustrations 15.12 and 15.15
9
Install the balance shaft carrier onto the
main bearing cap assembly and tighten the
bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
10 Lubricate the balance shafts with clean
engine oil and insert them into the carrier.
11 Install the rear cover and tighten the
bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
12 Rotate the balance shafts until both
shaft keyways are parallel and facing toward
the crankshaft. Install the short hub drive
gear on the sprocket driven shaft and the
long hub gear on the gear driven shaft. After
installation, the timing marks (dots) should be
together and the keyways positioned as
shown (see illustration).
13 Install the gear cover and tighten the
double-ended stud to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
14 Install the sprocket onto the crankshaft
with the timing mark facing out, be careful
not to cock the sprocket as its being
installed.
15 Position the crankshaft so the timing
mark on the chain sprocket is aligned with
the parting line on the left side of the number 1 main bearing cap as shown (see illustration).
16 Place the chain onto the crankshaft
sprocket so that the nickel plated link of the
chain is located at the timing mark on the
crankshaft sprocket (see illustration 15.15).
17 Install the balance shaft sprocket into
the chain so that the timing mark on the
sprocket (yellow dot) mates with the nickel
plated link on the chain (8 links from the
upper nickel plated link) (see illustration
15.15).
18 Slide the balance shaft sprocket onto
the balance shaft. If the sprocket is difficult to
install on the balance shaft, it may be necessary to loosen the rear cover and push the
balance shaft slightly out of the carrier to
facilitate sprocket installation. Note: The timing mark on the balance shaft sprocket and
INSTALL CHAIN WITH
ALL KEYWAYS UP
15.15 The timing mark on the crankshaft sprocket, nickel plated
links, notch and the yellow dot on balance shaft sprocket must be
aligned for correct timing
15.20 With the shim in place, apply approximately 5.5 to 6.5 Ibs of
pressure to the chain tensioner and then tighten the bolt to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
16.1 Checking the crankshaft endplay using a dial indicator
the nickel plated link should align with the
notch on the side of the gear cover (see illustration 15.15).
19 Install the balance shaft bolts. While
keeping the crankshaft from rotating, tighten
the balance shaft bolts to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications. Note: A block
of wood placed tightly between the engine
block and the crankshaft counterbalance will
prevent crankshaft rotation.
Chain tensioning
Refer to illustration 15.20
20 Install the chain tensioner loosely. Place
a 0.039 x 2.75 inch shim (a feeler gauge cut
to the appropriate size can be used) between
the tensioner and the chain (see illustration).
Push the tensioner up against the chain.
Apply firm pressure (approximately 5.5 to 6.5
Ibs) directly behind the adjustment slot to
remove the slack.
21 With pressure applied, tighten the top
tensioner bolt first then the bottom pivot bolt.
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications. Remove the shim.
22 Place the chain guide onto the doubleended stud making sure the tab on the guide
fits into the slot on the gear cover. Tighten
the nut to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
23 Install the chain cover and tighten the
bolts securely.
2C-17
16.3 Checking the crankshaft endplay using feeler gauges at the
thrust bearing journal
sure the endplay. Mount a dial indicator with
the indicator in line with the crankshaft and
just touching the end of the crankshaft as
shown (see illustration).
2
Pry the crankshaft all the way to the rear
and zero the dial indicator. Next, pry the
crankshaft to the front as far as possible and
check the reading on the dial indicator. The
distance traveled is the endplay. If it's greater
than the tolerance listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, check the crankshaft thrust
surfaces for wear after its removed. If no
wear is evident, new main bearings should
correct the endplay.
3
If a dial indicator isn't available, feeler
gauges can be used. Gently pry the
crankshaft all the way to the front of the
engine. Slip feeler gauges between the
crankshaft and the front face of the thrust
bearing or washer to determine the clearance
(see illustration).
4
Loosen the main bearing cap assembly
bolts 1/4-turn at a time each, until they can
be removed by hand.
5
Gently tap the main bearing cap assembly with a soft-face hammer around the
perimeter of the assembly. Pull the main
bearing cap assembly straight up and off the
cylinder block. On 2.0L four-cylinder engines,
remove the oil filter passage 0-ring seal and
the three main bearing cap assembly locating
dowels. Try not to drop the bearing inserts if
they come out with the assembly.
6
Carefully lift the crankshaft out of the
engine. It may be a good idea to have an
assistant available, since the crankshaft is
quite heavy and awkward to handle. With the
bearing inserts in place inside the engine
block and main bearing caps, reinstall the
main bearing cap assembly onto engine
block and tighten the bolts finger tight. Make
sure you install the main bearing cap assembly on V6 models with the arrow facing the
front (timing belt end) of the engine.
17
Engine block - cleaning
Refer to illustrations 17.1a, 17.lb, 17.8 and
17.10
1
Remove the core plugs from the engine
block. To do this, knock one side of the plugs
into the block with a hammer and a punch,
then grasp them with large pliers and pull
them out (see illustrations).
16 Crankshaft - removal
Refer to illustrations 16.1 and 16.3
Note: The crankshaft can be removed only
after the engine has been removed from the
vehicle. It's assumed that the driveplate,
crankshaft pulley, timing belt, oil pan, oil
pump body, oil filter and piston/connecting
rod assemblies have already been removed.
On V6 engines, the rear main oil seal retainer
must be unbolted and separated from the
block before proceeding with crankshaft
removal.
1
Before the crankshaft is removed, mea -
17.1a Use a hammer and a large punch to
knock the core plugs sideways in
their bores .. .
17.lb . . . then pull the core plugs
out with pliers
2C
2C-18
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
new oil gallery plugs and thread them into the
holes in the block. Make sure they're tightened securely.
12 If the engine isn't going to be reassembled right away, cover it with a large plastic
trash bag to keep it clean.
18 Engine block - inspection
17.8 All bolt holes in the block,
particularly the main bearing cap and
head bolt holes, should be cleaned and
restored with the appropriate tap (be sure
to remove the debris from the holes after
this operation)
2
Using a gasket scraper, remove all
traces of gasket material from the engine
block. Be very careful not to nick or gouge
the gasket sealing surfaces.
Remove the main bearing cap assembly
3
and separate the bearing inserts from the
caps and the engine block. Note: The upper
bearings are equipped with the oil groove and
hole, the thrust bearing is in the No. 3 (center)
location. Tag the bearings, indicating which
cylinder they were removed from, then set
them aside.
4
Remove all of the threaded oil gallery
plugs from the block. The plugs are usually
very tight - they may have to be drilled out
and the holes retapped. Use new plugs when
the engine is reassembled.
If the engine is extremely dirty it should
5
be taken to an automotive machine shop for
cleaning.
After the block is returned, clean all oil
6
holes and oil galleries one more time.
Brushes specifically designed for this purpose are available at most auto parts stores.
Flush the passages with warm water until the
water runs clear, dry the block thoroughly
and wipe all machined surfaces with a light,
rust preventive oil. If you have access to
compressed air, use it to speed the drying
process and to blow out all the oil holes and
galleries. Warning: Wear eye protection
when using compressed air!
7
If the block isn't extremely dirty or
slugged up, you can do an adequate cleaning
job with hot soapy water and a stiff brush.
Take plenty of time and do a thorough job.
Regardless of the cleaning method used, be
sure to clean all oil holes and galleries very
thoroughly, dry the block completely and
coat all machined surfaces with light oil.
8
The threaded holes in the block must be
clean to ensure accurate torque readings
during reassembly. Run the proper size tap
into each of the holes to remove rust, corrosion, thread sealant or sludge and restore
17.10 A large 1/2 drive socket on an
extension can be used to drive the new
core plugs into the block
damaged threads (see illustration). If possible, use compressed air to clear the holes of
debris produced by this operation. Now is a
good time to clean the threads on the head
bolts and the main bearing cap bolts as well.
Reinstall the bearing inserts in their cor9
rect locations and place the main bearing cap
assembly onto the engine block. Tighten the
bolts finger tight.
10 After coating the sealing surfaces of the
new core plugs with Permatex No. 2 sealant
(or equivalent), install them in the engine
block (see illustration). Make sure they're
driven in straight and seated properly or leakage could result. Special tools are available
for this purpose, but a large socket, with an
outside diameter that will just slip into the
core plug, a 1/2-inch drive extension and a
hammer will work just as well.
11 Apply non-hardening sealant (such as
Permatex No. 2 or Teflon pipe sealant) to the
<—CENTERLINE
ENGINE--->
OF
18.4a Measure the diameter of each
cylinder at a right angle to the engine
centerline (A) and parallel to the engine
centerline (B) - the cylinder out-of-round
is the difference between (A) and (B); the
cylinder taper is the difference between
(A) and (B) at the top of the cylinder and
(A) and (B) at the bottom of the cylinder
Refer to illustrations 18.4a, 18.4b. 18.4c,
18.4d and 18.8
1
Before the block is inspected, it must be
cleaned as described in Section 17.
Visually check the block for cracks, rust
2
and corrosion. Look for stripped threads in
the threaded holes. It's also a good idea to
have the block checked for hidden cracks by
an automotive machine shop that has the
special equipment to do this type of work. If
defects are found, have the block repaired, if
possible, or replaced. Note: If the engine
block requires machining, be sure to send the
main bearing cap assembly along with the
block.
3
Check the cylinder bores for scuffing
and scoring.
Check the cylinders for taper and out4
of-round conditions as follows (see illustrations):
18.4b Measure the diameter of each
cylinder just under the wear ridge (A), at
the center (B) and the bottom (C)
18.4c The ability to "feel" when the
telescoping gauge is at the correct point
will be developed over time, so work
slowly and repeat the check until you're
satisfied that the measurement is accurate
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
18.4d To determine the diameter, the telescoping gauge is then
measured with a micrometer
a) Measure the diameter of each cylinder at
the top Oust under the ridge area), center
and bottom of the cylinder bore, parallel
to the crankshaft axis.
b) Next, measure each cylinder's diameter
at the same three locations perpendicular to the crankshaft axis.
c) The taper of each cylinder is the difference between the bore diameter at the
top of the cylinder and the diameter at
the bottom. The out-of-round specification is the difference between the parallel and perpendicular measurements.
Compare the results to the tolerance
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
5
Repeat the procedure for the remaining
cylinders.
6
If the cylinder walls are badly scuffed or
scored, or if they're out-of-round or tapered
beyond the li mits listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, have the engine block
rebored and honed at an automotive machine
shop. If a rebore is performed, oversize pistons and rings will be required.
7
If the cylinders are in reasonably good
condition and not worn to the outside of the
li mits, and if the piston-to-cylinder bore clearances are acceptable, then they don't have
to be rebored. Honing is all that's necessary
(see Section 19).
8
Using a precision straightedge and a
feeler gauge, check the block deck (the surface that mates with the cylinder head) for
distortion (see illustration). If it's distorted
beyond the tolerance listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, it can usually be resurfaced
by an automotive machine shop.
19
2C-19
18.8 Check the cylinder block head gasket surface for warpage
by placing a precision straightedge across the surface and trying
to slip a feeler gauge between the block and straightedge
machine shops will do it for a reasonable fee.
2
Before honing the cylinders, install the
main bearing cap assembly and tighten the
bolts to the torque li sted in this Chapter's
Specifications following the recommended
tightening sequence (see illustrations
25.13a, 25.13b and 25.13c). Make sure you
install the main bearing cap assembly on V6
models with the arrow facing the front (timing
belt end) of the engine.
3
Two types of cylinder hones are commonly available - the flex hone or "bottle
brush" type and the more traditional surfacing hone with spring-loaded stones. Both will
do the job, but for the less experienced
mechanic the "bottle brush" hone will probably be easier to use. You'll also need some
kerosene or honing oil, rags and an electric
drill motor. Proceed as follows:
a) Mount the hone in the drill motor, compress the stones and slip it into the first
cylinder (see illustration). Be sure to
wear safety goggles or a face shield!
b) Lubricate the cylinder with plenty of
honing oil, turn on the drill and move the
hone up-and-down in the cylinder at a
pace that will produce a fine crosshatch
pattern on the cylinder walls (see illus -
tration). Ideally, the crosshatch lines
should intersect at approximately a 60degree angle. Be sure to use plenty of
lubricant and don't take off any more
material than is absolutely necessary to
produce the desired finish. Note: Piston
ring manufacturers may specify a
smaller crosshatch angle than the traditional 60-degrees - read and follow any
instructions included with the new rings.
c) Don't withdraw the hone from the cylinder while it's running. Instead, shut off
the drill and continue moving the hone
up-and-down in the cylinder until it
comes to a complete stop, then compress the stones and withdraw the hone.
If you're using a "bottle brush" type
hone, stop the drill motor, then turn the
chuck in the normal direction of rotation
while withdrawing the hone from the
cylinder.
d) Wipe the oil out of the cylinder and
repeat the procedure for the remaining
cylinders.
Cylinder honing
Refer to illustrations 19.3a and 19.3b
Prior to engine reassembly, the cylinder
1
bores must be honed so the new piston rings
will seat correctly and provide the best possible combustion chamber seal. Note: If you
don't have the tools or don't want to tackle
the honing operation, most automotive
0-AC
HAYNES
19.3a A "bottle brush" type hone will
generally produce the best results in
most applications
19.3b The honing procedure should
produce a smooth crosshatch pattern
with the lines intersecting at
approximately 60 degree angles
2C
2C-20
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
20.2 Use a piston ring removal tool
(shown) to remove the rings from
the pistons
20.4a The piston ring grooves can be
cleaned using a special tool like
this one .. .
After the honing job is complete, cham4
fer the top edges of the cylinder bores with a
small file so the rings won't catch when the
pistons are installed. Be very careful not to
nick the cylinder walls with the end of the file.
5
The entire engine block must be washed
again very thoroughly with warm, soapy
water to remove all traces of the abrasive grit
produced during the honing operation. Note:
The bores can be considered clean when a
lint-free white cloth - dampened with clean
engine oil - used to wipe them out doesn't
pick up any more honing residue, which will
show up as gray areas on the cloth. Be sure
to run a brush through all oil holes and galleries and flush them with running water.
After rinsing, dry the block and apply a
6
coat of light rust preventive oil or Vaseline to
all machined surfaces. Wrap the block in a
plastic trash bag to keep it clean and set it
aside until reassembly.
remove carbon deposits from the ring
grooves. If a tool isn't available, a piece broken off the old ring will do the job. Be very
careful to remove only the carbon deposits don't remove any metal and do not nick or
scratch the sides of the ring grooves (see
illustrations).
Once the deposits have been removed,
5
clean the piston/rod assemblies with solvent
and dry them with compressed air (if available). Make sure the oil return holes in the
back sides of the ring grooves are free from
obstructions.
If the pistons and cylinder walls aren't
6
damaged or worn excessively, and if the
engine block is not rebored, new pistons
won't be necessary. Normal piston wear
appears as even, vertical wear on the piston
thrust surfaces and slight looseness of the
top ring in its groove. However, new piston
rings should always be installed when an
engine is rebuilt.
Carefully inspect each piston for cracks
7
around the skirt, at the pin bosses and at the
ring lands.
8
Look for scoring and scuffing on the
thrust faces of the skirt, holes in the piston
crown and burned areas at the edge of the
crown. If the skirt is scored or scuffed, the
engine may have been suffering from overheating and/or abnormal combustion, which
caused excessively high operating temperatures. The cooling and lubrication systems
should be checked thoroughly. A hole in the
piston crown is an indication that abnormal
combustion (pre-ignition) was occurring.
Burned areas at the edge of the piston crown
are usually evidence of spark knock (detonation). If any of the above problems exist, the
causes must be corrected or the damage will
occur again. The causes may include intake
air leaks, incorrect fuel/air mixture, incorrect
ignition timing and EGR system malfunctions.
9
Corrosion of the piston, in the form of
small pits, indicates that coolant is leaking
into the combustion chamber and/or the
crankcase. Again, the cause must be corrected or the problem may persist in the
20 Pistons and connecting rods inspection
Refer to illustrations 20.2, 20.4a, 20.4b, 20.10
and 20.11
1
Before the inspection process can be
carried out, the piston/connecting rod
assemblies must be cleaned and the original
piston rings removed from the pistons. Note:
Always use new piston rings when the engine
is reassembled.
2
Using a piston ring removal tool (see
illustration), carefully remove the rings from
the pistons. Be careful not to nick or gouge
the pistons in the process.
3
Scrape all traces of carbon from the top
of the piston. A hand-held wire brush or a
piece of fine emery cloth can be used once
the majority of the deposits have been
scraped away. Do not, under any circumstances, use a wire brush mounted in a drill
motor to remove deposits from the pistons.
The piston material is soft and may be
eroded away by the wire brush.
Use a piston ring groove cleaning tool to
4
20.4b . . . or a short piece of an old
compression ring
20.10 Checking the piston ring
side clearance
rebuilt engine.
10 Measure the piston ring side clearance
by laying a new piston ring in each ring
groove and slipping a feeler gauge in beside
it (see illustration). Check the clearance at
three or four locations around each groove.
Be sure to use the correct ring for each
groove - they are different. If the side clearance is greater than specified, new pistons
must be installed. If new pistons are installed,
repeat this step with the new pistons and
rings.
11 Check the piston-to-bore clearance by
measuring the cylinder bore (see Section 18)
and the piston diameter. Make sure the pistons and bores are correctly matched. Measure the piston across the skirt 11/16-inch
(2.0L four-cylinder), 9/16-inch (2.4L fourcylinder) or 0.080 inch (V6 engine) above the
bottom of the piston, at a 90-degree angle to
the piston pin (see illustration). Subtract the
piston diameter from the bore diameter to
obtain the piston-to-bore clearance. If it's
greater than the limit listed in this Chapter's
Specifications, the block must be rebored
and new pistons and rings installed.
12 Check the piston-to-rod clearance by
twisting the piston and rod in opposite directions. Any noticeable play indicates exces-
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
20.11 Measure the piston diameter 90
degrees from the piston pin and the
specified distance from the bottom of the
piston skirt
21.1 Using a fine file, break the edge on
the crankshaft journal oil passages so
sharp edges won't gouge or scratch the
new bearings
2C-21
21.2 Use a wire or stiff bristle brush to
clean the crankshaft oil passages - be
sure to flush them with solvent after
this operation
2C
21.4 An easy way to check the surface finish on the bearing
journals is to rub a penny over the bearing surface - if the copper
transfers to the crankshaft, the surface is too rough and must be
reground by an automotive machine shop
sive wear, which must be corrected. The piston/connecting rod assemblies should be
taken to an automotive machine shop to have
the pistons and rods resized and new pins
installed.
13 If the pistons must be removed from the
connecting rods for any reason, they should
be taken to an automotive machine shop for
disassembly. While at the automotive machine
shop, have the connecting rods checked for
bend and twist, since automotive machine
shops have special equipment specifically
used for this purpose. Note: Unless new pistons and/or connecting rods must be
installed, do not disassemble the pistons and
connecting rods.
14 Inspect the connecting rods for cracks
and other damage. Temporarily remove the
rod caps, lift out the old bearing inserts, wipe
the rod and cap bearing surfaces clean and
inspect them for nicks, gouges and
scratches. After checking the rods, replace
the old bearings, slip the caps into place and
tighten the nuts (or bolts as applicable) finger
tight. Note: If the engine is being rebuilt
21.7 Measure the diameter of each bearing journal at several
locations to determine if it's excessively worn or taper and out-ofround conditions exist
because of a connecting rod knock, always
install new rods.
21
Crankshaft - inspection
Refer to illustration 21.1, 21.2, 21.4 and 21.7
1
Remove all burrs from the crankshaft oil
holes with a stone, file or scraper (see illustration).
2
Clean the crankshaft with solvent and
dry it with compressed air (if available). Be
sure to clean the oil holes with a stiff brush
and flush them with solvent (see illustration).
Warning: If compressed air is used always
wear eye protection to prevent solvents or
debris from causing and injury to your eyes.
3
Check the main and connecting rod
bearing journals for uneven wear, scoring,
pits and cracks.
4
Rub a penny across each journal several
ti mes. If a journal picks up copper from the
penny, it's too rough and must be reground
(see illustration).
5
Remove all burrs from the crankshaft oil
holes with a stone, file or scraper,
Check the rest of the crankshaft for
6
cracks and other damage. It should be magnafluxed to reveal hidden cracks - an automotive machine shop will handle the procedure.
7
Using a micrometer, measure the diameter of the main bearing and connecting rod
journals and compare the results to the tolerances listed in this Chapter's Specifications
(see illustration). By measuring the diameter
at a number of points around each journal's
circumference, you'll be able to determine
whether or not the journal is out-of-round.
Take the measurement at each end of the
journal, near the crank throws, to determine if
the journal is tapered.
8
If the crankshaft journals are damaged,
tapered, out-of-round or worn beyond the
li mits listed in this Chapter's Specifications,
the crankshaft must be reground by an automotive machine shop. Be sure to obtain and
install the correct size bearing inserts if the
crankshaft is reconditioned.
9
Check the oil seal journals at each end
2C-22
holes in a bearing shell, will also oil starve a
bearing and destroy it. When lack of lubrication is the cause of bearing failure, the bearing material is wiped or extruded from the
steel backing of the bearing. Temperatures
may increase to the point where the steel
backing turns blue from overheating.
6
Driving habits can have a definite effect
on bearing life. Full throttle, low speed operation (lugging the engine) puts very high loads
on bearings, which tends to squeeze out the
oil film. These loads cause the bearings to
flex, which produces fine cracks in the bearing face (fatigue failure). Eventually the bearing material will loosen in pieces and tear
away from the steel backing. Short trip driving leads to corrosion of bearings because
insufficient engine heat is produced to drive
off the condensed water and corrosive
gases. These products collect in the engine
oil, forming acid and sludge. As the oil is carried to the engine bearings, the acid attacks
and corrodes the bearing material.
7
Incorrect bearing installation during
engine assembly will lead to bearing failure
as well. Tight fitting bearings leave insufficient bearing oil clearance and will result in oil
starvation. Dirt or foreign particles trapped
behind a bearing insert result in high spots on
the bearing which lead to failure.
EXCESSIVE WEAR
TAPERED JOURNAL
22.1 Typical bearing wear patterns and probable causes
of the crankshaft for wear and damage. If the
seal has worn a groove in the journal, or if it's
nicked or scratched, the new seal may leak
when the engine is reassembled . In some
cases, an automotive machine shop may be
able to repair the journal by pressing on a thin
sleeve. If repair isn't feasible, a new or different crankshaft must be installed.
10 Refer to Section 22 and examine the
main and rod bearing inserts.
22
Main and connecting rod
bearings - inspection
Refer to illustration 22.1
1
Even though the main and connecting
rod bearings should be replaced with new
ones during the engine overhaul, the old
bearings should be retained for close examination, as they may reveal valuable information about the condition of the engine (see
illustration).
2
Bearing failure occurs because of lack
of lubrication, the presence of dirt or other
foreign particles, overloading the engine and
corrosion. Regardless of the cause of bearing
failure, it must be corrected before the engine
is reassembled to prevent it from happening
again.
3
When examining the bearings, remove
them from the engine block, the main bearing
caps, the connecting rods and the rod caps
and lay them out on a clean surface in the
same general position as their location in the
engine. This will enable you to match any
bearing problems with the corresponding
crankshaft journal.
4
Dirt and other foreign particles get into
the engine in a variety of ways. It may be left
in the engine during assembly, or it may pass
through filters or the PCV system. It may get
into the oil, and from there into the bearings.
Metal chips from machining operations and
normal engine wear are often present. Abrasives are sometimes left in engine components after reconditioning, especially when
parts are not thoroughly cleaned using the
proper cleaning methods. Whatever the
source, these foreign objects often end up
embedded in the soft bearing material and
are easily recognized. Large particles will not
embed in the bearing and will score or gouge
the bearing and journal. The best prevention
for this cause of bearing failure is to clean all
parts thoroughly and keep everything spotlessly clean during engine assembly. Frequent and regular engine oil and filter
changes are also recommended.
5
Lack of lubrication (or lubrication breakdown) has a number of interrelated causes.
Excessive heat (which thins the oil), overloading (which squeezes the oil from the bearing
face) and oil leakage or throw off (from
excessive bearing clearances, worn oil pump
or high engine speeds) all contribute to lubrication breakdown. Blocked oil passages,
which usually are the result of misaligned oil
23 Engine overhaul - reassembly
sequence
1
Before beginning engine reassembly,
make sure you have all the necessary new
parts, gaskets and seals as well as the following items on hand:
Common hand tools
A 1/2-inch drive torque wrench
Piston ring installation tool
Piston ring compressor
Plastigage set
Feeler gauges
A fine-tooth file
New engine oil
Engine assembly lube or moly-base
grease
Gasket sealants (anaerobic and RTV
type)
Thread locking compound
2
In order to save time and avoid problems, engine reassembly should be performed in the following general order:
Piston rings installed on pistons
Crankshaft and main bearings
Piston/connecting rod assemblies
Rear main oil seal
Balance shaft carrier (2.4L four-cylinder)
Front case and oil pump assembly
Oil pan
Cylinder head(s) assembly
Water pump
Timing belt and sprockets
Timing belt cover(s)
Rocker arm cover(s)
Intake and exhaust manifolds
Driveplate
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
24.3 Install the piston ring into the
cylinder then push it down into position
using a piston so the ring will be square in
the cylinder
24
24.4 With the ring square in the cylinder,
measure the ring end gap with a
feeler gauge
2C-23
24.5 If the ring end gap is too small,
clamp a file in a vise as shown and file the
piston ring ends - be sure to remove all
raised material
Piston rings - installation
Refer to illustrations 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.9a,
24.9b, 24.11 and 24.12
1
Before installing the new piston rings,
the ring end gaps must be checked. It's
assumed that the piston ring side clearance
has been checked and verified correct (see
Section 20).
2
Lay out the piston/connecting rod
assemblies and the new ring sets so the ring
sets will be matched with the same piston
and cylinder during the end gap measurement and engine assembly.
Insert the top (number one) ring into the
3
first cylinder and square it up with the cylinder walls by pushing it in with the top of the
piston (see illustration). The ring should be
near the bottom of the cylinder, at the lower
limit of ring travel.
4
To measure the end gap, slip feeler
gauges between the ends of the ring until a
gauge equal to the gap width is found (see
illustration). The feeler gauge should slide
between the ring ends with a slight amount of
drag. Compare the measurement to the tolerance listed in this Chapter's Specifications. If
the gap is larger or smaller than specified,
double-check to make sure you have the correct rings before proceeding.
5
If the gap is too small, it must be
enlarged or the ring ends may come in contact with each other during engine operation,
which can cause serious damage to the
engine. The end gap can be increased by filing the ring ends very carefully with a fine file.
Mount the file in a vise equipped with soft
jaws, slip the ring over the file with the ends
contacting the file face and slowly move the
ring to remove material from the ends. When
performing this operation, file only by pushing the ring from the outside end of the file
towards the vise (see illustration).
6
Excess end gap isn't critical unless it's
greater than the limit listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. Again, double-check to make
sure you have the correct ring type and that
2C
24.9a Installing the spacer/expander in
the oil ring groove
you are referencing the correct section and
category of specifications.
7
Repeat the procedure for each ring that
will be installed in the first cylinder and for
each ring in the remaining cylinders. Remember to keep rings, pistons and cylinders
matched up.
8
Once the ring end gaps have been
checked/corrected, the rings can be installed
on the pistons.
9
The oil control ring (lowest one on the
piston) is usually installed first. It's composed
of three separate components. Slip the
spacer/expander into the groove (see illustration). If an anti-rotation tang is used, make
sure it's inserted into the drilled hole in the
ring groove. Next, install the upper side rail in
the same manner (see illustration). Don't use
a piston ring installation tool on the oil ring
side rails, as they may be damaged. Instead,
place one end of the side rail into the groove
between the spacer/expander and the ring
land, hold it firmly in place and slide a finger
around the piston while pushing the rail into
the groove. Finally, install the lower side rail.
10 After the three oil ring components have
been installed, check to make sure that both
the upper and lower side rails can be rotated
smoothly inside the ring grooves.
24.9b DO NOT use a piston ring
installation tool when installing the oil
control side rails
24.11 Piston ring assembly details
11 The number two (middle) ring is installed
next. It's usually stamped with a mark which
must face up, toward the top of the piston. Do
not mix up the top and middle rings, as they
have different cross-sections (see illustration). Note: Always follow the instructions
printed on the ring package or box - different
manufacturers may require different approaches.
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-24
LUBRICATION GROOVES
25.5a On four-cylinder engines,
install the upper bearings (with
grooves and holes) into the
engine block. Be sure to align
the oil holes and install the
thrust bearing in the center
bearing position (arrow)
OIL HOLES
24.12 Use a piston ring installation tool to
install the 2nd and top rings - be sure the
directional mark on the piston ring(s) is
facing toward the top of the piston
12 Use a piston ring installation tool and
make sure the identification mark is facing
the top of the piston, then slip the ring into
the middle groove on the piston (see illustration). Don't expand the ring any more than
necessary to slide it over the piston.
13 Install the number one (top) ring in the
same manner. Make sure the mark is facing
up. Be careful not to confuse the number one
and number two rings (see illustration
24.11).
14 Repeat the procedure for the remaining
pistons and rings.
25 Crankshaft installation and main
bearing oil clearance check
1
Crankshaft installation is the first step in
engine reassembly. It's assumed at this point
that the engine block and crankshaft have
UPPER
BEARINGS
25.5b Main bearing
installation details - fourcylinder engines
been cleaned, inspected and repaired or
reconditioned.
Position the engine block with the bot2
tom facing up.
3
Remove the mounting bolts and lift off
the main bearing cap assembly.
4
If they're still in place, remove the original bearing inserts from the block and the
main bearing cap assembly. Wipe the bearing
surfaces of the block and main bearing cap
assembly with a clean, lint-free cloth. They
must be kept spotlessly clean. This is critical
for determining the correct bearing oil clearance.
GROOVED
25.5c Crankshaft main bearing and thrust washer arrangement - V6 engine
Main bearing oil clearance
check
Refer to illustrations 25.5a, 25.5b, 25.5c,
25.11, 25.13a, 25.13b, 25.13c and 25.15
5
Without mixing them up, clean the back
sides of the new upper main bearing inserts
(with grooves and oil holes) and lay one in
each main bearing saddle in the block. Each
upper bearing has an oil groove and oil hole
in it. Caution: The oil holes in the block must
line up with the oil holes in the upper bearing
inserts. The thrust bearing insert or thrust
washers (V6 engine) must be installed in the
No. 3 bearing position (see illustrations). V6
engines have two two-piece thrust washers
which are installed on each side of the No. 3
bearing. Install the thrust washers with the
grooved side toward the crankshaft (plain
sides should be facing each other). Install the
thrust washers so that one set has a tab
located in the block and the other set's tab is
in the main bearing cap assembly. Clean the
back sides of the lower main bearing inserts
(without grooves) and lay them in the corresponding location in the main bearing cap
assembly. Make sure the tab on the bearing
insert fits into the recess in the block or main
bearing cap assembly. Caution: Do not hammer the bearing insert into place and don't
nick or gouge the bearing faces. DO NOT
apply any lubrication at this time.
6
Clean the faces of the bearing inserts in
the block and the crankshaft main bearing
journals with a clean, lint-free cloth.
7
Check or clean the oil holes in the
crankshaft, as any dirt here can go only one
way - straight through the new bearings.
8
Once you're certain the crankshaft is
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-25
* INDICATES DOWEL LOCATION
25.11 Place the Plastigage (arrow) onto the crankshaft bearing
journal as shown
clean, carefully lay it in position in the cylinder
block.
9
Before the crankshaft can be permanently installed, the main bearing oil clearance must be checked. Note: On four-cylinder engines, the crankshaft position sensor
must be removed prior to main bearing oil
clearance check (see Chapter 6 if necessary).
10 On 2.0L four-cylinder engines, make
sure the three locating dowels are in place on
the cylinder block. This is necessary for
proper alignment of the main bearing cap
assembly to the cylinder block and crankshaft.
11 Cut several pieces of the appropriate
size Plastigage (they must be slightly shorter
than the width of the main bearing journal)
and place one piece on each crankshaft main
bearing journal, parallel with the journal axis
as shown (see illustration).
12 Clean the faces of the bearing inserts in
the main bearing cap assembly. Hold the
bearing inserts in place and install the assembly onto the crankshaft and cylinder block.
25.13a Main bearing cap assembly bolt tightening sequence 2.0L four-cylinder engine
25.13b Main bearing cap
assembly bolt tightening
sequence - 2.4L fourcylinder engine
DO NOT disturb the Plastigage. Make sure
you install the main bearing cap assembly on
V6 models with the arrow facing the front
(ti ming belt end) of the engine.
13 Apply clean engine oil to all bolt threads
prior to installation, then install all bolts finger-tight. Tighten main bearing cap assembly
bolts in the sequence shown (see illustrations) progressing in three steps, to the
25.13c Main bearing cap assembly bolt tightening sequence - V6 engine
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
DO NOT rotate the crankshaft at any time
during this operation.
14 Remove the bolts in the reverse order of
the tightening sequence and carefully lift the
main bearing cap assembly straight up and
off the block. Do not disturb the Plastigage or
rotate the crankshaft. If the main bearing cap
assembly is difficult to remove, tap it gently
from side-to-side with a soft-face hammer to
loosen it.
15 Compare the width of the crushed Plastigage on each journal to the scale printed on
25.15 Use the scale on the Plastigage
package to determine the bearing oil
clearance - be sure to measure the widest
part of the Plastigage and use the correct
scale; it comes with both standard and
metric scales
2C
2C-26
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
the Plastigage envelope to determine the
main bearing oil clearance (see illustration).
Check the tolerance listed in this Chapter's
Specifications to make sure it's acceptable.
16 If the clearance is not as specified, the
bearing inserts may be the wrong size (which
means different ones will be required). Before
deciding if different inserts are needed, make
sure that no dirt or oil was between the bearing inserts and the cap assembly or block
when the clearance was measured. If the
Plastigage was wider at one end than the
other, the crankshaft journal may be tapered
(refer to Section 21). If the clearance still
exceeds the limit specified, the bearing
insert(s) will have to be replaced with an
undersize bearing insert(s). Caution: When
installing a new crankshaft always install a
standard bearing insert set.
17 Carefully scrape all traces of the Plastigage material off the main bearing journals
and/or the bearing insert faces. Be sure to
remove all residue from the oil holes. Use
your fingernail or the edge of a plastic card don't nick or scratch the bearing faces.
Final installation
Refer to illustration 25.21
18 Carefully lift the crankshaft out of the
cylinder block.
19 Clean the bearing insert faces in the
cylinder block, then apply a thin, uniform
layer of moly-base grease or engine assembly lube to each of the bearing surfaces. Be
sure to coat the thrust faces as well as the
journal face of the thrust bearing. Caution:
Be sure to install the thrust bearing inserts or
thrust washers (V6 engine) in the No. 3 journal
(see illustrations 25.5a, 25.5b and 25.5c).
20 On 2.0L four-cylinder engines, install a
new oil filter passage 0-ring seal and make
sure the three locating dowels are in place on
the cylinder block. The dowels are necessary
for proper alignment of the main bearing cap
assembly to the cylinder block and
crankshaft.
21 On four-cylinder engines, clean the main
bearing cap assembly-to-cylinder block mating surfaces. They must be free of any oil
residue. Apply a 1/16-inch bead of anaerobic
sealer (Mopar Torque Cure Gasket Maker, or
equivalent) to the cylinder block as shown
(see illustration). Caution: Use ONLY anaerobic sealant meeting the manufacturers specifications or engine damage may occur.
22 Make sure the crankshaft journals are
clean, then lay the crankshaft back in place in
the cylinder block.
23 Clean the bearing insert faces in the
main bearing cap assembly, then apply the
same lubricant to them. Caution: On fourcylinder engines, DO NOT get any lubricant
on the main bearing cap assembly-to-cylinder
block mating surfaces as it will inhibit the
sealing ability of the anaerobic sealant.
24 Hold the bearing inserts in place and
install the main bearing cap assembly onto
the crankshaft and cylinder block. On fourcylinder engines, push the assembly down
25.21 On four-cylinder
engines, apply a 1/16-inch
bead of anaerobic sealer
( Mopar Torque Cure Gasket
Maker, or equivalent) to the
engine block as shown
until it contacts the locating dowels.
25 Prior to installation, apply clean engine
oil to all bolt threads wiping off any excess,
then install all bolts finger-tight. On 2.0L fourcylinder engines, install baffle studs in positions 12, 13 and 16 (see illustration 25.13a).
26 On 2.0L four-cylinder engines, tighten
the main bearing cap assembly as follows
(see illustration 25.13a):
a) Tighten bolts 11, 17 and 20 until the
assembly contacts the engine block.
b) Tighten bolts 1 through 10 in the
sequence shown, in 3 steps to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
c) Tighten bolts 11 through 20 in the
sequence shown to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
27 On 2.4L four-cylinder engines, tighten
the main bearing cap assembly as follows
(see illustration 25.13b):
a) Tighten bolts 11, 17 and 20 until the
assembly contacts the engine block.
b) To ensure correct thrust bearing alignment, rotate the crankshaft until the No.
4 piston is at TDC.
c) Carefully pry the crankshaft all the way
towards the rear of the block and then
towards the front of the block.
d) Wedge an appropriate tool such as a
block of wood, between the engine
block and the crankshaft counterweight
to hold the crankshaft in the most forward position. DO NOT drive the wedge
between the main bearing cap assembly
and the crankshaft.
e) Tighten bolts 1 through 10 in the
sequence shown, in 3 steps to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications - except DO NOT tighten the bolts
the additional 1/4-turn.
f) Remove the wedge and tighten bolts 1
through 10 in the sequence shown, the
additional 1/4-turn.
g) Tighten bolts 11 through 20 in the
sequence shown to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
28 On V6 engines, tighten the main bearing
cap assembly bolts in the sequence shown
(see illustration 25.13c) progressing in three
steps, to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
29 After tightening the main bearing cap
assembly, tap the ends of the crankshaft forward and backward with a lead or brass
hammer to seat the main bearing and
crankshaft thrust surfaces.
30 Rotate the crankshaft a number of times
by hand to check for any obvious binding. It
should rotate with a running torque of 50 inlbs or less. If the running torque is too high,
correct the problem at this time.
31 Recheck the crankshaft endplay with a
feeler gauge or a dial indicator as described
in Section 16. The endplay should be correct
if the crankshaft thrust faces aren't worn or
damaged and new bearings have been
installed.
32 Refer to the appropriate Part of Chapter 2 and install the new rear main oil seal.
26 Pistons and connecting rods installation and rod bearing oil
clearance check
1
Before installing the piston/connecting
rod assemblies, the cylinder walls must be
perfectly clean, the top edge of each cylinder
bore must be chamfered, and the crankshaft
must be in place.
2
Remove the cap from the end of the
number one connecting rod (refer to the
marks made during removal). Remove the
original bearing inserts and wipe the bearing
surfaces of the connecting rod and cap with
a clean, lint-free cloth. They must be kept
spotlessly clean.
Connecting rod bearing oil
clearance check
Refer to illustrations 26.6, 26.11, 26.13 and
26.14 and 26.17
3
Clean the back side of the new upper
bearing insert, then lay it in place in the connecting rod. Make sure the tab on the bearing
fits into the recess in the rod. Don't hammer
the bearing insert into place and be very
careful not to nick or gouge the bearing face.
Don't lubricate the bearing at this time.
Clean the back side of the other bearing
4
insert and install it in the rod cap. Again,
make sure the tab on the bearing fits into the
recess in the cap, and don't apply any lubricant. It's critically important that the mating
surfaces of the bearing and connecting rod
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
2C-27
FRONT OF ENGINE
NO. 2
RING
GAP AND
SPACER
EXPANDER
GAP
26.6 Position the piston ring end gaps
as shown
are perfectly clean and oil free when they're
assembled.
5
On V6 engines, slip a short section of
plastic or rubber hose over the connecting
rod studs to avoid damaging the cylinder wall
or crankshaft journal (see illustration 14.6).
6
Position the piston ring gaps at 90degree intervals around the piston as shown
(see illustration).
7
Lubricate the piston and rings with clean
engine oil and attach a piston ring compressor to the piston. Leave the skirt protruding
about 1/4-inch to guide the piston into the
cylinder. The rings must be compressed until
they're flush with the piston.
8
Rotate the crankshaft until the number
one connecting rod journal is at BDC (bottom
dead center) and apply a liberal coat of
engine oil to the cylinder walls.
With the weight designation mark, or
9
arrow, on top of the piston facing the front
(ti ming belt end) of the engine, gently insert
the piston/connecting rod assembly into the
number one cylinder bore and rest the bottom edge of the ring compressor on the
engine block. Note: The connecting rod also
has a mark on it that must face the front (timing belt end) of the engine if it faces the
opposite direction, the piston and connecting
rod have been assembled improperly.
10 Tap the top edge of the ring compressor
to make sure it's contacting the block around
its entire circumference.
11
Gently tap on the top of the piston with
the end of a wooden or plastic hammer handle (see illustration) while guiding the end of
the connecting rod into place on the
crankshaft journal. The piston rings may try to
pop out of the ring compressor just before
entering the cylinder bore, so keep some
downward pressure on the ring compressor.
Work slowly, and if any resistance is felt as
the piston enters the cylinder, stop immediately. Find out what's hanging up and fix it
before proceeding. Do not, for any reason,
'force the piston into the cylinder - you might
break a ring and/or the piston.
12 Once the piston/connecting rod assembly is installed, the connecting rod bearing oil
26.11 Use a plastic or wooden hammer
handle to push the piston into the cylinder
26.13 Place Plastigage on each
connecting rod bearing journal parallel to
the crankshaft centerline
2C
26.14 Install the connecting rod cap
making sure the cap and rod identification
numbers match
clearance must be checked before the rod
cap is permanently installed.
13 Cut a piece of the appropriate size Plastigage slightly shorter than the width of the
connecting rod bearing and lay it in place on
the number one connecting rod journal, parallel with the journal axis (see illustration).
14 Clean the connecting rod cap bearing
face and install the rod cap. Make sure the
mating mark on the cap is on the same side
as the mark on the connecting rod (see illustration). Note: Check to make sure the identification mark on the connecting rod faces
toward the front (timing belt) end of the
engine.
15 Install the old rod bolts or nuts, at this
ti me, and tighten them to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications, working up to it
in three steps. Note: Use a thin-wall socket to
avoid erroneous torque readings that can
result if the socket is wedged between the
rod cap and the bolt or nut. If the socket
tends to wedge itself between the fastener
and the cap, lift up on it slightly until it no
longer contacts the cap. DO NOT rotate the
crankshaft at any time during this operation.
16 Remove the fasteners and detach the
rod cap, being very careful not to disturb the
Plastigage. Discard the cap bolts at this time
26.17 Use the scale on the Plastigage
package to determine the bearing oil
clearance - be sure to measure the widest
part of the Plastigage and use the correct
scale; it comes with both standard and
metric scales
as they cannot be reused. Note: On fourcylinder engines, new connecting rod bolts
must be installed.
17 Compare the width of the crushed Plastigage to the scale printed on the Plastigage
envelope to obtain the oil clearance (see
illustration). Compare it to the tolerance
listed in this Chapter's Specifications to
make sure the clearance is acceptable.
18 If the clearance is not as specified, the
bearing inserts may be the wrong size (which
means different ones will be required). Before
deciding that different inserts are needed,
make sure that no dirt or oil was between the
bearing inserts and the connecting rod or cap
when the clearance was measured. Also,
recheck the journal diameter. If the Plastigage was wider at one end than the other,
the journal may be tapered (refer to Section 21). If the clearance still exceeds the limit
specified, the bearing will have to be
replaced with an undersize bearing. Caution:
When installing a new crankshaft always use a
standard size bearing.
2C-28
Chapter 2 Part C General engine overhaul procedures
Final installation
19 Carefully scrape all traces of the Plastigage material off the rod journal and/or bearing face. Be very careful not to scratch the
bearing - use your fingernail or the edge of a
plastic card.
20 Make sure the bearing faces are perfectly clean, then apply a uniform layer of
clean moly-base grease or engine assembly
lube to both of them. You'll have to push the
piston into the cylinder to expose the face of
the bearing insert in the connecting rod.
21 Caution: On four-cylinder engines, new
connecting rod cap bolts must be installed at
this time. DO NOT reuse the old bolts as they
have stretched and cannot be reused. Slide
the connecting rod back into place on the
journal, install the rod cap, install new bolts
and tighten the bolts to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications. Again, work up
to the torque in three steps.
22 Repeat the entire procedure for the
remaining pistons/connecting rods.
23 The important points to remember are:
a) Keep the back sides of the bearing
inserts and the insides of the connecting
rods and caps perfectly clean when
assembling them.
b) Make sure you have the correct
piston/rod assembly for each cylinder.
c) The mark on the piston must face the
front (timing belt end) of the engine.
d) Lubricate the cylinder walls liberally with
clean oil.
e) Lubricate the bearing faces when
installing the rod caps after the oil clearance has been checked.
24 After all the piston/connecting rod
assemblies have been properly installed,
rotate the crankshaft a number of times by
hand to check for any obvious binding.
25 As a final step, the connecting rod endplay must be checked. Refer to Section 14
for this procedure.
26 Compare the measured endplay to the
tolerance listed in this Chapter's Specifications to make sure it's acceptable. If it was
correct before disassembly and the original
crankshaft and rods were reinstalled, it
should still be correct. If new rods or a new
crankshaft were installed, the endplay may
be inadequate. If so, the rods will have to be
removed and taken to an automotive
machine shop for resizing.
27 Initial start-up and break-in after
overhaul
Warning: Have a fire extinguisher handy
when starting the engine for the first time.
1
Once the engine has been installed in
the vehicle, double-check the engine oil and
coolant levels. Add transaxle fluid as needed.
2
With the spark plugs out of the engine
and the ignition system disabled (disconnect
the primary [low voltage] electrical connector
from the coil pack or distributor see Chapter 5), crank the engine until the oil pressure
li ght goes out. Caution: Do not crank the
engine for more than 15 seconds at a time, as
starter motor could over-heat and damage
could occur.
3
Install the spark plugs, hook up the plug
wires and restore the ignition system functions.
4
Start the engine. It may take a few
moments for the fuel system to build up pressure, but the engine should start without a
great deal of effort. Note: If backfiring occurs
through the throttle body, recheck the valve
timing and spark plug wire locations.
5
After the engine starts, it should be
allowed to warm up to normal operating temperature. Try to keep the engine speed at
approximately 2000 rpm. While the engine is
warming up, make a thorough check for fuel,
oil and coolant leaks. Check the automatic
transaxle fluid level (if so equipped).
6
Shut the engine off and recheck the
engine oil and coolant levels.
7
Drive the vehicle to an area with minimum traffic, accelerate from 30 to 50 mph,
then allow the vehicle to slow to 30 mph with
the throttle closed. Repeat the procedure 10
or 12 times. This will load the piston rings and
cause them to seat properly against the cylinder walls. Check again for oil and coolant
leaks.
8
Drive the vehicle gently for the first 500
miles (no sustained high speeds) and keep a
constant check on the oil level. It is not
unusual for an engine to use oil during the
break-in period.
9
At approximately 500 to 600 miles,
change the oil and filter.
10 For the next few hundred miles, drive
the vehicle normally. Do not pamper it or
abuse it.
11 After 2000 miles, change the oil and filter again and consider the engine broken in.
3-1
Chapter 3
Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems
Contents
Section
Air conditioning compressor - removal and installation .................
13
Air conditioning condenser - removal and installation ...................
15
Air conditioning evaporator and expansion valve 16
removal and installation ............................................................
Air conditioning receiver-drier - removal and installation ..............
14
Air conditioning and heating system - check
12
and maintenance ......................................................................
Antifreeze - general information .....................................................
2
Coolant level check ...........................................................See Chapter 1
Coolant temperature sending unit - check
and replacement...............................................................................8
Cooling system check .......................................................See Chapter 1
Cooling system servicing (draining, flushing
and refilling) ................................................................. See Chapter 1
Section
Drivebelt check, adjustment and replacement ................. See Chapter 1
Engine cooling fans and circuit - check and replacement .............
4
General information ........................................................................
1
Blower motor and circuit - check and replacement .......................
9
10
Heater core - replacement .............................................................
Heater/air conditioner control assembly - removal, check
and installation..........................................................................
11
Radiator and coolant reservoir - removal
5
and installation ..........................................................................
Thermostat - check and replacement ............................................
3
Underhood hose check and replacement ........................ See Chapter 1
Water pump - check .............................................................................. 6
Water pump - replacement .................................................................... 7
Specifications
General
3
Radiator cap pressure rating............................................................................14 to 18 psi
Thermostat rating (opening temperature) .........................................................195 degrees F
Cooling system capacity ..................................................................................See Chapter 1
Refrigerant capacity .........................................................................................28 ounces
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Thermostat housing bolts/nuts
Four-cylinder engines ................................................................................. 110 in-lbs
V6 engine .................................................................................................... 168 in-lbs
Water pump mounting bolts
Four-cylinder engines ................................................................................. 105 in-lbs
V6 engine .................................................................................................... 17
Torque specifications
1
General information
Engine cooling system
All vehicles covered by this manual
employ a pressurized engine cooling system
with thermostatically controlled coolant circulation. An impeller-type water pump mounted
on the front of the engine pumps coolant
through the engine. The pump mounts
directly on the engine block. The coolant
flows around the combustion chambers and
toward the rear of the engine. Cast-in coolant
passages direct coolant near the intake ports,
exhaust ports, and spark plug areas.
A wax pellet-type thermostat is located
in a housing near the front of the engine. During warm-up, the closed thermostat prevents
coolant from circulating through the radiator.
As the engine nears normal operating temperature, the thermostat opens and allows
hot coolant to travel through the radiator,
where it's cooled before returning to the
engine.
The cooling system is sealed by a pressure-type cap, which raises the boiling point
of the coolant and increases the cooling efficiency of the system. If the system pressure
exceeds the cap pressure relief value, the
excess pressure in the system forces the
spring-loaded valve inside the cap off its seat
and allows the coolant to escape through the
overflow tube into a coolant reservoir. When
the system cools the excess coolant is automatically drawn from the reservoir back into
the radiator.
The coolant reservoir does double duty
as both the point at which fresh coolant is
added to the cooling system to maintain the
proper fluid level and as a holding tank for
overheated coolant. This type of cooling system is known as a closed design because
coolant that escapes past the pressure cap is
saved and reused.
Heating system
The heating system consists of a blower
fan and heater core located in the heater
housing, with hoses connecting the heater
core to the engine cooling system. Hot engine
coolant is circulated through the heater core.
When the heater mode on the heater/air conditioning control panel on the instrument
panel is activated, a flap door opens to
expose the heater core to the passenger
compartment. A fan switch on the control
panel activates the blower motor, which
forces air through the core, heating the air.
Air conditioning system
The air conditioning system consists of
a condenser mounted in front of the radiator,
an evaporator mounted adjacent to the
heater core, a compressor mounted on the
engine, receiver/drier which contains a high
pressure relief valve and the plumbing connecting all of the above components.
A blower fan forces the warmer air of the
passenger compartment through the evaporator core, transferring the heat from the air to
the refrigerant (sort of a "radiator in reverse").
The liquid refrigerant boils off into low pressure vapor, taking the heat with it when it
leaves the evaporator.
3-2
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
THERMOSTAT HOUSING/
ENGINE OUTLET
CONNECTOR
3.10a Thermostat installation details - 2.0L four-cylinder engine
2
3.10b Thermostat installation details - 2.4L four-cylinder engine
Antifreeze - general information
Warning: Do not allow antifreeze to come in
contact with your skin or painted surfaces of
the vehicle. Rinse off spills immediately with
plenty of water. Antifreeze is highly toxic if
ingested. Never leave antifreeze lying around
in an open container or in puddles on the
floor; children and pets are attracted by it's
sweet smell and may drink it. Antifreeze is
also flammable, so don't store or use it near
open flames. Check with local authorities
about disposing of used antifreeze. Many
communities have collection centers which
will see that antifreeze is disposed of safely.
Never dump used anti-freeze on the ground
or into drains.
Note: Non-Toxic coolant is available at local
auto parts stores. Although the coolant is
non-toxic when fresh, proper disposal is still
required.
The cooling system should be filled with
a water/ethylene glycol based antifreeze
solution, which will prevent freezing down to
at least 20 degrees F, or lower if local climate
requires it. It also provides protection against
corrosion and increases the coolant boiling
point.
The cooling system should be drained,
flushed and refilled at the specified intervals
(see Chapter 1). Old or contaminated
antifreeze solutions are likely to cause damage and encourage the formation of rust and
scale in the system. Use distilled water with
the antifreeze.
Before adding antifreeze, check all hose
connections, because antifreeze tends to leak
through very minute openings. Engines don't
normally consume coolant, so if the level goes
down, find the cause and correct it.
The exact mixture of antifreeze-to-water
which you should use depends on the relative
weather conditions. The mixture should contain at least 50 percent antifreeze, but should
never contain more than 70 percent antifreeze. Consult the mixture ratio chart on the
antifreeze container before adding coolant.
Hydrometers are available at most auto parts
stores to test the coolant. Use antifreeze that
meets the vehicle manufacturer's specifications.
3.10c Thermostat
installation details V6 engine
3
Thermostat - check and
replacement
Warning: Do not remove the coolant tank
cap, drain the coolant or replace the thermostat until the engine has cooled completely.
Check
1
Before assuming the thermostat is to
blame for a cooling system problem, check
the coolant level, drivebelt tension (see
Chapter 1) and temperature gauge operation.
If the engine seems to be taking a long
2
ti me to warm up (based on heater output or
temperature gauge operation), the thermostat
is probably stuck open. Replace the thermostat with a new one.
3
If the engine runs hot, use your hand to
check the temperature of the upper radiator
hose. If the hose isn't hot, but the engine is,
the thermostat is probably stuck closed, preventing the coolant inside the engine from
escaping to the radiator. Replace the thermostat. Caution: Don't drive the vehicle without
a thermostat. The computer may stay in open
loop and emissions and fuel economy will
suffer.
If the upper radiator hose is hot, it
4
means that the coolant is flowing and the
thermostat is open. Consult the Troubleshooting Section at the front of this manual for cooling system diagnosis.
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 3.10a, 3.10b and 3.10c
5
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, section 1).
Drain the cooling system (see Chap6
ter 1). If the coolant is relatively new or in
good condition, save it and reuse it.
Follow the upper radiator hose to the
7
engine to locate the thermostat housing.
Loosen the hose clamp, then detach the
8
hose from the fitting. If it's stuck, grasp it
near the end with a pair of adjustable pliers
and twist it to break the seal, then pull it off. If
the hose is old or deteriorated, cut it off and
install a new one.
9
If the outer surface of the large fitting
that mates with the hose is deteriorated (corroded, pitted, etc.) it may be damaged further
by hose removal. If it is, the thermostat housing cover will have to be replaced.
10 Remove the fasteners and detach the
housing cover (see illustrations). If the cover
is stuck, tap it with a soft-face hammer to jar
it loose. Be prepared for some coolant to spill
as the gasket seal is broken.
Note how it's installed (which end is fac11
ing up), then remove the thermostat.
12 Remove all traces of old gasket material
and sealant from the housing and cover with
a gasket scraper.
13 Using a new 0-ring, install the thermostat on the housing, spring-end facing into the
engine block and the vent facing up. Install a
new gasket (if equipped) and place it on the
thermostat housing, lining up the bolt holes.
14 Install the cover and fasteners. Tighten
the fasteners to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
15 Reattach the hose to the fitting and
tighten the hose clamp securely.
16 Refill the cooling system (see Chapter 1).
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
4.1a The high-speed and low-speed fans are mounted in one
housing, with a harness connecting them to the
RFI module (arrow)
17 Start the engine and allow it to reach
normal operating temperature, then check for
leaks and proper thermostat operation (as
described in Steps 2 through 4). See Chapter 1 for cooling system air-bleeding procedure.
4
Engine cooling fans and circuit check and replacement
Warning: To avoid possible injury or damage,
DO NOT operate the engine with a damaged
fan. Do not attempt to repair fan blades replace a damaged fan with a new one.
Note: Always be sure to check for blown
fuses before attempting to diagnose an electrical circuit problem.
Check
Refer to illustrations 4.1a, 4. lb, 4.3, and 4.4
1
If the engine is overheating and the
cooling fan is not coming on, unplug the electrical connector at the motor and use fused
jumper wires to connect the fan directly to
the battery. If the fan still doesn't work,
replace the motor. test each motor separately. They are connected to an RFI module
(Radio Frequency Interference), with the lowspeed motor having a two-pin connector and
4.l b Disconnect the fan connector (arrow) and try operating the
fan with a fused battery-voltage jumper wire and a ground wire
a three-pin connector on the high-speed fan
(see illustrations).
2
If the motor is OK, but the cooling fan
doesn't come on when the engine gets hot,
the fault may be in the coolant temperature
sensor in the thermostat housing, the fan
relays, the engine control computer or the
wiring which connects the components.
3
The engine coolant temperature sensor
is located in the thermostat housing and
varies resistance with temperature to signal
the PCM (see illustration). A test for checking the sensor is found in Chapter 6.
4
Remove the fan relays (one low-speed
and one high-speed relay) from the Power
Distribution Center. Using an ohmmeter,
measure the resistance between terminals A
and C of the relay (see illustration), it should
read approximately 75 ohms. Check for continuity between terminals B and D, there
should be no continuity. Using fused jumper
wires, apply battery voltage (+) to terminal A
and ground (-) terminal C; the relay should
"click" and continuity should be indicated
between terminals B and D.
5
Carefully check all wiring and connections (wiring diagrams are included at the end
of Chapter 12). If no obvious problems are
found, further diagnosis should be done by a
dealer service department or repair shop with
the proper diagnostic equipment.
4.4 Cooling fan relay terminal guide - there should be continuity
between A and C, and no continuity between B and D unless
battery power is applied to A and ground applied to C
3-3
4.3 The coolant temperature sensor
(arrow) is located at the front of the
engine, next to the thermostat
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 4.7, 4.8a, 4.8b, 4.9 and
4.10
6
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1). Disconnect the
fan motor electrical connector (see illustration 4.1a).
7
Remove the upper radiator crossmember, either detaching the four bolts and laying
4.7 Remove the four bolts and the isolators on the upper radiator
crossmember (arrows) - if necessary, remove the bolts securing
the shroud and remove the shroud
3-4
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
4.8a Remove the fan shroud mounting bolts (arrows)
it aside, or also removing the two bolts to the
latch and removing the crossmember entirely
(see illustration).
8
Remove the fan shroud mounting bolts,
detach the clips at the top and bottom of the
shroud with a small screwdriver, detach the
wire harness clips from the shroud, then
carefully lift the fan assembly out of the
engine compartment (see illustrations).
Note: It is easier to remove the fan assembly
if the upper radiator hose is disconnected first
from the radiator.
9
To detach the fan blade from the motor,
remove the nut or retaining clip from the
motor shaft (see illustration). Remove the
fan blade from the motor.
10 To detach the motor from the shroud,
remove the retaining nuts or screws (see
illustration). Remove the motor from the
shroud.
11 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Note: When reinstalling the fan assembly,
make sure the rubber air shields around the
assembly are still in place - without them, the
cooling system may not work efficiently.
5
Radiator and coolant reservoir removal and installation
Warning: Wait until the engine is completely
cool before beginning this procedure.
Radiator
Removal
Refer to illustration 5.6
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Drain the cooling system (see Chapter 1). If the coolant is relatively new and in
good condition, save it and reuse it.
3
Remove the upper radiator crossmember and cooling fan assembly (see Section 4).
4
Disconnect the overflow hose from the
radiator filler neck.
5
Loosen the hose clamps, then detach
the upper and lower coolant hoses from the
radiator. If they're stuck, grasp each hose
4.8b Detach the wire harness from the shroud
4.9 The fan blade is retained to the motor
with either a nut or a clip (arrow)
4.10 To remove the fan motor from the
shroud, remove the three screws (arrows)
near the end with a pair of adjustable pliers
and twist it to break the seal, then pull it off be careful not to distort the radiator fittings! If
the hoses are old or deteriorated, cut them
off and install new ones.
6
Disconnect and plug the transmission
fluid cooler lines (see illustration).
7
Remove the two upper radiator-to-body
mounting bolts. At this point, if the vehicle is
equipped with air conditioning, there are two
ways to remove the radiator. If the condenser
is staying in the vehicle, remove the four condenser-to-radiator mounting screws (accessible through the lower openings in the front
of the body) and the one screw in the air conditioning line on the passenger side, and the
radiator can be pulled up. Note: Make sure
the rubber radiator insulators (they fit on the
bottom of the radiator and into sockets in the
body) remain in place in the body for proper
reinstallation of the radiator.
8
If the condenser is being removed (and
the air conditioning system has already been
evacuated of refrigerant), disconnect the
condenser lines (see Section 15) and remove
the radiator and condenser as a unit, separating the two components outside of the vehicle where the fasteners are easier to get at.
Warning: The air conditioning system is
under high pressure. Do not loosen any hose
fittings or remove any components until after
the system has been discharged by a dealer
service department or service station. Always
wear eye protection when disconnecting air
conditioning system fittings.
Carefully lift out the radiator. Don't spill
9
coolant on the vehicle or scratch the paint.
10 Check the radiator for leaks and damage. If it needs repair, have a radiator shop or
5.6 Detach the transmission cooler lines
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
the hoses to prevent leakage.
18 Remove the reservoir retaining bolt and
lift the reservoir out of the engine compartment (see illustration).
19 Installation is the reverse of removal.
While the reservoir is off the vehicle, it should
be cleaned with soapy water and a brush to
remove any deposits inside.
6
5.18 Remove the mounting bolt and
remove the coolant reservoir from the
vehicle for cleaning or replacement
dealer service department perform the work,
as special techniques are required.
11 Remove bugs and dirt from the radiator
with compressed air and a soft brush (don't
bend the cooling fins).
Installation
12 Inspect the radiator mounts for deterioration and ensure they are clean of dirt or
gravel when the radiator is installed.
13 Installation is the reverse of the removal
procedure. Make sure the radiator is properly
seated on the lower mounting insulators
before fastening the top brackets.
14 After installation, fill the cooling system
with the proper mixture of antifreeze and
water (see Chapter 1).
15 Start the engine and check for leaks.
Allow the engine to reach normal operating
temperature, indicated by the upper radiator
hose becoming hot. Recheck the coolant
level and add more if required.
16 If you're working on an automatic
transaxle equipped vehicle, check and add
fluid as needed.
Coolant reservoir
Refer to illustration 5.18
17 Detach the hoses at the reservoir. Plug
Water pump - check
1
A failure in the water pump can cause
serious engine damage due to overheating.
2
There are three ways to check the operation of the water pump while it's installed on
the engine. If the pump is defective, it should
be replaced with a new or rebuilt unit.
3
Water pumps are equipped with weep
or vent holes. If a failure occurs in the pump
seal, coolant will leak from the hole. In most
cases you'll need a flashlight to find the hole
on the water pump from underneath to check
for leaks. Note: Some small black staining
around the weep hole is normal. If the stain is
heavy brown or actual coolant is evident,
replace the pump.
4
If the water pump shaft bearings fail
there may be a howling sound at the front of
the engine while it's running. With the engine
off, shaft wear can be felt if the water pump
pulley is rocked up-and-down. Don't mistake
drivebelt slippage, which causes a squealing
sound, for water pump bearing failure.
5
A quick water pump performance check
is to put the heater on. If the pump is failing, it
won't be able to efficiently circulate hot water
all the way to the heater core as it should.
7
Water pump - replacement
Four-cylinder engines
Refer to illustration 7.12
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
7.12 Install a new 0-ring onto the water pump
3-5
on jackstands.
3
Remove the right inner splash shield
(see Chapter 11).
4
Remove the drivebelts (see Chapter 1).
5
Drain the cooling system (see Chapter 1).
6
Using a floorjack (with a wood block
placed between the jackhead and the oil pan
to prevent engine damage), support the
engine from underneath and remove the right
engine mount.
7
Remove the power steering pump
bracket bolts and move the power steering
pump and bracket aside. The power steering
li nes do not have to be disconnected.
8
Remove the right engine mount bracket
(see Chapter 2).
9
Remove the timing belt (see Chapter 2).
10 Remove the inner timing belt cover (see
Chapter 2).
11 Remove the bolts attaching the water
pump to the engine block and remove the
pump.
12 Install a new 0-ring in the water pump
body groove (see illustration).
13 Installation is the reversal of removal.
Tighten the mounting bolts to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's specifications.
14 Reinstall the pulleys and drive belts and
check for tension (see Chapter 1).
15 Refill the cooling system (see Chapter 1). Run the engine and check for leaks.
V6 engine
Refer to illustrations 7.18 and 7.21
16 Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1). Remove the drivebelts and drain the cooling system (see
Chapter 1).
17 Refer to Chapter 2, Part B and remove
the crankshaft damper/pulley, timing belt
covers and timing belt.
18 Remove the water pump mounting bolts
(see illustration).
19 Separate the pump from the water inlet
pipe and remove the pump.
20 Clean all the gasket and 0-ring surfaces
on the pump and the water pipe inlet tube.
21 Install a new 0-ring on the water inlet
7.18 Remove the water pump bolts (arrows) - V6 engine
3
3-6
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
out may be due to a grounded wire between
the light and the sending unit, a defective
sending unit or a faulty ignition switch. See
Chapter 6 for a diagnostic check of the
coolant temperature switch. Check the coolant to make sure it's the proper type. Note:
Plain water may have too low a boiling point
to activate the sending unit.
Replacement
7.21 Install a new 0-ring on the water
inlet pipe (arrow)
pipe (see illustration). Wet the 0-ring with
water to facilitate assembly.
22 Install a new gasket on the water pump
and install the inlet opening over the water
pipe. Press the water pipe into the pump
housing.
23 Install the water pump mounting bolts
and tighten the bolts to the torque listed in
this Chapter's specifications.
24 Install the timing belt (see Chapter 2B).
25 The remainder of installation is the
reverse of removal.
26 Refill the cooling system (see Chapter 1)
and operate the engine to check for leaks.
8
Coolant temperature sending
unit - check and replacement
Warning: Wait until the engine is completely
cool before beginning this procedure.
Check
1
The coolant temperature indicator system is composed of a light or temperature
gauge mounted in the dash and a coolant
temperature sending unit mounted on the
engine (see illustration 4.3). On the models
covered by this manual, there is only one
coolant temperature sensor, which functions
as indicator to both the PCM and the instrument panel.
2
If an overheating indication occurs,
check the coolant level in the system and
then make sure the wiring between the light
or gauge and the sending unit is secure and
all fuses are intact.
When the ignition switch is turned on
3
and the starter motor is turning, the indicator
li ght (if equipped) should be on (overheated
engine indication).
4
If the light is not on, the bulb may be
burned out, the ignition switch may be faulty
or the circuit may be open.
5
As soon as the engine starts, the light
should go out and remain out unless the
engine overheats. Failure of the light to go
Warning: Wait until the engine is completely
cool before beginning this procedure.
6
Disconnect the electrical connector
from the sensor.
7
Wrap the threads of the new sensor with
Teflon tape to prevent leaks.
8
Unscrew the sensor. Be prepared for
some coolant spillage (read the Warning in
Section 2).
9
Install the sensor and tighten it securely.
10 Connect the electrical connector.
11 Check the coolant level after the
replacement unit has been installed and top
up the system, if necessary (see Chapter 1).
Check now for proper operation of the gauge
and sending unit. Observe the system for
leaks after operation.
9
source of battery voltage. If the blower doesn't operate, it is faulty.
7
If voltage was not present at the blower
motor at all speeds, and the motor itself
tested OK, the problem is in the blower motor
resistor, the blower switch in the control
panel assembly or the related wiring. To
check the resistor, remove the two screws
and remove the resistor from the heater
housing. Using an ohmmeter, check for continuity across each of the resistor terminals
(see illustration). If an open circuit is indicated, replace the resistor assembly. To test
the blower switch, refer to Section 11,
remove the control panel assembly and
check for continuity through the switch in
each position. Refer to the wiring diagrams at
the end of Chapter 12 to determine the correct terminals for testing.
Replacement
Refer to illustration 9.11
8
Disconnect the battery negative cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
9
Detach the panel underneath the right
Blower motor and circuit - check
and replacement
Warning: These models are equipped with
airbags, always disable the airbag system
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the airbag, which could cause personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Check
Refer to illustrations 9.3 and 9.7
1
Check the fuse and all connections in
the circuit for looseness and corrosion. Make
sure the battery is fully charged.
2
Remove the lower right dash insulator
panel (below the glove box) for access to the
blower motor. Note: When reinstalling this
panel, be sure the left end fits properly into its
recess in the ducting.
3
Using suitable probes, backprobe the
blower motor electrical connector at the
resistor and connect the positive probe of the
voltmeter to the dark blue wire and the negative probe to the black wire (see illustration).
4
With the transmission in Park, the parking brake securely set, turn the ignition
switch On. It isn't necessary to start the vehicle.
5
Move the blower switch through each of
its positions and note the voltage readings.
Changes in voltage indicate that the motor
speeds will also vary as the switch is moved
to the different positions.
6
If there is voltage present, but the
blower motor does not operate, the blower
motor is probably faulty. Disconnect the
blower motor connector and hook one side to
a chassis ground and the other to a fused
9.3 Using suitable probes, backprobe the
blower harness plug (twisted pair of wires)
at the blower motor resistor block connect a voltmeter to the dark blue wire
(+) and black wire (-), voltage should vary
as the blower switch is moved through
each position
9.7 To test the blower resistor, check for
continuity at each of the
resistor terminals
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
9.11 Remove the screws retaining the blower motor to the
heater housing (arrow)
10.2 Disconnect the heater hoses at the firewall
10.6 Remove the heater core cover
10.7 Withdraw the heater core from the housing
3-7
3
end of the dash. It has four fasteners, all of
them facing up - two screws in front (side
toward the passenger seat) and two sheet
metal nuts on the backside (toward the
firewall).
10 Disconnect the wiring connector at the
blower motor resistor.
11 Remove the screws retaining the blower
motor to the heater housing (see illustration).
housing 12 Lower the blower motor from the
.
13 The fan is balanced with the blower
motor, and is available only as an assembly.
f the fan is damaged, both fan and blower
motor must be replaced.
14 Installation is the reverse of removal.
10
Heater core - replacement
Refer to illustrations 10.2, 10.6 and 10.7
Warning: These models are equipped with
airbags, always disable the airbag system
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
•o avoid the possibility of accidental
deploy-ment of the airbag, which could cause
personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Drain the cooling system (see Chapter 1)
and disconnect the negative battery cable
'from the ground stud on the left shock tower
see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Disconnect the heater hoses at the fire -
wall (see illustration). Note: On V6 models, it
may be necessary to remove the upper intake
manifold to access the heater hoses (see
Chapter 2B).
Refer to Chapter 11 and remove the
3
radio/air conditioning control panel bezel, the
instrument panel bezel and end covers and
the knee bolster.
4
Remove the center console from the
vehicle (see Chapter 11).
5
Remove two screws at the lower right
side support beam, the bolt for the instrument panel support at the A-pillar and
remove the right side instrument panel support strut.
6
Remove the heater core cover screws
and the cover (see illustration).
TRIM
BEZEL
7
Withdraw the heater core from the housing (see illustration).
8
If the heater core has been leaking,
clean the coolant from the heater/air conditioning housing. Note: If a significant amount
of coolant has leaked into the housing, it is
recommended that the complete heater/air
conditioning housing be removed from the
vehicle, disassembled and thoroughly
cleaned (see Section 16).
9
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to refill the cooling system (see Chapter 1).
11
Heater/air conditioner control
assembly - removal, check and
installation
Warning: These models are equipped with
airbags, always disable the airbag system
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the airbag, which could cause personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Removal
11.2 Remove the radio/control
module bezel
Refer to illustrations 11.2, 11.3 and 11.7
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Remove the trim bezel from the instrument panel (see illustration).
3-8
Chapter 3
Remove the three cluster hood screws
3
from the trim bezel opening (see illustration).
4
Pry up the cluster hood bezel a few
inches to expose the cubby bin screws.
Disconnect the wiring and remove the
5
cubby bin.
6
Remove the control module screws (see
illustration 11.3).
Lower the control module into the cubby
7
bin opening (see illustration) and disconnect
the wiring harness from the rear of the control
module.
8
Release the cable clips from the top of
the control module. Retain the clips for further use. Disconnect the temperature control
and the recirculation control cables.
Remove the control module.
9
Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
c) Pull the cable housing away from the
cable end to remove all freeplay and clip
the cable housing to the control module.
d) Verify the knob travels through its full
range.
Check
Refer to illustration 11.11
10 Remove the control module (see Steps
above).
11 Using an ohmmeter, measure the resistance between terminals 5 and 8 of the control module 8-way connector (see illustration). Turn the control module to each position and check the resistance as follows:
a) PANEL = 828 to 856 ohms
b) BI-LEVEL = 1280 to 1300 ohms
c) FLOOR = 2300 to 2358 ohms
d) MIX = 5200 to 5300 ohms
e) DEFROST = 99 to 100 K-ohms
12 If any resistance is not correct, replace
the control module.
13 If the resistance's are correct, check for
blown fuses, damaged wiring, bad connections, defective Body Control Module (BCM) or
bulkhead connector. Refer to the wiring dia grams at the end of Chapter 12, if necessary.
14 Further testing of the system can be
accomplished with the use of a special scan
tool; see a dealer or other qualified repair
shop.
Installation
15 Installation is the reverse of removal. If
necessary, adjust the cables as follows:
a) Attach the cable to the control module
lever.
b) Rotate the knob fully counterclockwise.
12 Air conditioning and heating
system - check and maintenance
Warning: The air conditioning system is
under high pressure. Do not loosen any hose
fittings or remove any components until after
the system has been discharged by a dealer
service department or air conditioning service
station. Always wear eye protection when disconnecting air conditioning system fittings.
1
The following maintenance checks
should be performed on a regular basis to
ensure the air conditioner continues to operate at peak efficiency.
a) Check the compressor drivebelt. If it's
worn or deteriorated, replace it (see
Chapter 1).
b) Check the drivebelt tension and, if necessary, adjust it (see Chapter 1).
c) Check the system hoses. Look for
cracks, bubbles, hard spots and deterioration. Inspect the hoses and all fittings
for oil bubbles and seepage. If there's
any evidence of wear, damage or leaks,
replace the hose(s).
d) Inspect the condenser fins for leaves,
bugs and other debris. Use a "fin comb"
or compressed air to clean the condenser.
e) Make sure the system has the correct
refrigerant charge.
f) Check the evaporator housing drain
tube for blockage.
It's a good idea to operate the system
2
for about 10 minutes at least once a month,
particularly during the winter. Long term nonuse can cause hardening, and subsequent
failure, of the seals.
Because of the complexity of the air con3
ditioning system and the special equipment
necessary to service it, in-depth troubleshooting and repairs are not included in this manual
(refer to the Haynes Automotive Heating and
Air Conditioning Repair Manual). However.
simple checks and component replacement
procedures are provided in this Chapter.
4
The most common cause of poor cooling is simply a low system refrigerant charge.
If a noticeable drop in cool air output occurs.
the following quick check will help you determine if the refrigerant level is low.
Checking the refrigerant
charge
Warm the engine up to normal operating
5
temperature.
6
Place the air conditioning temperature
selector at the coldest setting and the blower
at the highest setting. Open the doors (to
make sure the air conditioning system does
not cycle off as soon as it cools the passenger compartment).
With the compressor engaged - the
7
clutch will make an audible click and the center of the clutch will rotate - note the temperature of the compressor inlet and discharge
li nes. If the compressor discharge line feels
warm and the compressor inlet pipe feels
cool, the system is properly charged.
8
Place a thermometer in the dashboard
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
12.12 Cans of R-134A refrigerant are
available in auto parts stores that can be
added to your system with a simple
recharging kit
vent nearest the evaporator and operate the
system until the indicated temperature is
around 40 to 45 degrees F. If the ambient
(outside) air temperature is very high, say 110
degrees F, the duct air temperature may be
as high as 60 degrees F, but generally the air
conditioning is 30-50 degrees F cooler than
the ambient air. Note: Humidity of the ambient air also affects the cooling capacity of the
system. Higher ambient humidity lowers the
effectiveness of the air conditioning system.
Adding refrigerant
Refer to illustration 12.12
9
Buy an automotive charging kit at an
auto parts store. A charging kit includes a 14ounce can of refrigerant, a tap valve and a
short section of hose that can be attached
between the tap valve and the system low
side service valve. Because one can of refrigerant may not be sufficient to bring the system charge up to the proper level, it's a good
idea to buy an additional can. Make sure that
one of the cans contains red refrigerant dye.
13.3 Unplug the electrical connector
(arrow) from the compressor clutch
If the system is leaking, the red dye will leak
out with the refrigerant and help you pinpoint
the location of the leak. Caution: There are
two types of refrigerant used in automotive
systems; R-12 - which has been widely used
on earlier models and the more environmentally-friendly R-134a used in all models covered by this manual. These two refrigerants
(and their appropriate refrigerant oils) are not
compatible and must never be mixed or components will be damaged. Use only R-134a
refrigerant in the models covered by this
manual.
10 Hook up the charging kit by following
the manufacturer's instructions. Warning:
DO NOT hook the charging kit hose to the
system high side! The fittings on the charging
kit are designed to fit only on the low side of
the system.
Back off the valve handle on the charg11
ing kit and screw the kit onto the refrigerant
can, making sure first that the 0-ring or rubber seal inside the threaded portion of the kit
is in place. Warning: Wear protective eyewear when dealing with pressurized refrigerant cans.
12 Remove the dust cap from the low-side
charging connection and attach the quickconnect fitting on the kit hose (see illustration).
13 Warm up the engine and turn on the air
conditioner. Keep the charging kit hose away
from the fan and other moving parts. Note:
The charging process requires the compressor to be running.
14 Turn the valve handle on the kit until the
stem pierces the can, then back the handle
out to release the refrigerant. You should be
able to hear the rush of gas. Add refrigerant to
the low side of the system until both the
receiver-drier surface and the evaporator inlet
pipe feel about the same temperature. Allow
stabilization time between each addition.
15 If you have an accurate thermometer,
you can place it in the center air conditioning
duct inside the vehicle and keep track of the
"conditioned" air temperature. A charged
system that is working properly should cool
13.5 Remove the retaining bolts, detach
and plug the refrigerant lines at
the compressor
3-9
down to approximately 40 degrees F. If the
ambient (outside) air temperature is very high,
say 110 degrees F, the duct air temperature
may be as high as 60 degrees F, but generally the air conditioning is 30 to 40 degrees F
cooler than the ambient air.
16 When the can is empty, turn the valve
handle to the closed position and release the
connection from the low-side port. Replace
the dust cap. Warning: Never add more than
two cans of refrigerant to the system.
17 Remove the charging kit from the can
and store the kit for future use with the piercing valve in the UP position, to prevent inadvertently piercing the can on the next use.
13 Air conditioning compressor removal and installation
Warning: The air conditioning system is
under high pressure. DO NOT disassemble
any part of the system (hoses, compressor,
line fittings, etc.) until after the system has
been evacuated and the refrigerant recovered
by a dealer service department or air conditioning service station.
Note: The filter-drier/receiver-drier (see Section 14) should be replaced whenever the
compressor is replaced.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 13.3, 13.5 and 13.6
1
Have the system discharged (see the
Warning at the beginning of this Section).
Disconnect the negative battery cable
2
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Unplug the electrical connector from the
3
compressor clutch (see illustration).
4
Remove the drivebelt (see Chapter 1).
Disconnect the refrigerant lines from the
5
compressor (see illustration). Plug the open
fittings to prevent entry of dirt and moisture.
Unbolt the compressor from the mount6
ing bracket (see illustration) and lift it out of
the vehicle.
13.6 To detach the compressor from its
mounting bracket, remove these
bolts (arrows)
3
3-10
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
14.4 Using a back-up wrench to prevent
damage to the fittings, disconnect the
refrigerant lines (arrows) from the
receiver-drier
Installation
7
If a new compressor is being installed,
pour out the oil from the old compressor into
a graduated container and add that amount
of new refrigerant oil to the new compressor.
Also follow any directions included with the
new compressor.
The clutch may have to be transferred
8
from the original to the new compressor.
9
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Replace all 0-rings with new ones specifically made for use with R-134a refrigerant
and lubricate them with R-134a-compatible
refrigerant oil.
10 Have the system evacuated, recharged
and leak tested by the shop that discharged
it.
14 Air conditioning receiver-drier removal and installation
Warning: The air conditioning system is
under high pressure. DO NOT disassemble
any part of the system (hose, compressor,
line fittings, etc.) until after the system has
been evacuated and the refrigerant recovered
by a dealer service department or air conditioning service station.
Caution: Replacement filter-drier/receiverdrier units are so effective at absorbing moisture that they can quickly saturate upon exposure to the atmosphere. When installing a
new unit, have all tools and supplies ready for
quick reassembly to avoid having the system
open any longer than necessary.
Removal
Refer to illustration 14.4
1
The receiver-drier acts as a reservoir for
the system refrigerant. It's located on the
right side of the engine compartment, next to
the radiator and condenser.
2
Have the system discharged (see the
Warning at the beginning of this Section).
3
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
15.4 Remove the upper radiator
support crossmember
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
4
Disconnect the refrigerant lines from the
receiver-drier (see illustration). Use a backup wrench to prevent twisting the tubing
where it joins the condenser.
5
Plug the open fittings to prevent entry of
dirt and moisture.
Remove the bracket bolt at the base of
6
the receiver/drier. Spread the aluminum
clamp and remove the receiver/drier.
Installation
7
Installation is the reverse of removal. If a
new receiver-drier is being installed add one
ounce of refrigerant oil to it before installation.
8
Take the vehicle back to the shop that
discharged it. Have the system evacuated,
recharged and leak tested.
15
Air conditioning condenser removal and installation
Warning: The air conditioning system is
under high pressure. Do not loosen any hose
fittings or remove any components until after
the system has been discharged by a dealer
service department or air conditioning service
station. Always wear eye protection when disconnecting air conditioning system components.
Note: The receiver-drier should be replaced
whenever the condenser is replaced (see
section 14).
Removal
Refer to illustrations 15.4 and 15.5
1
Have the system discharged (see the
Warning at the beginning of this Section).
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Remove the radiator grille (see Chapter 11).
4
Remove the upper radiator support
crossmember (see illustration).
5
Using the appropriate quick-connect
15.5 Using the appropriate quick-connect
coupling tool, disconnect the air
conditioner condenser lines (A) from the
condenser and remove the
mounting bolts (B)
coupling tools (available at auto parts stores),
disconnect and cap the air conditioning lines
at the condenser (see illustration).
6
Remove the radiator fan module mounts.
7
Remove the condenser line support
bracket.
8
Remove the condenser mounting bolts
(see illustration 15.5).
9
Remove the condenser from the vehicle.
Installation
10 Installation is the reverse of removal. If a
new condenser is being installed add one
ounce of refrigerant oil to it before installation.
11 Take the vehicle back to the shop that
discharged it. Have the system evacuated,
recharged and leak tested.
16
Air conditioning evaporator and
expansion valve - removal and
installation
Warning 1: These models are equipped with
airbags, always disable the airbag system
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the airbag, which could cause personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Warning 2: The air conditioning system is
under high pressure. Do not loosen any hose
fittings or remove any components until after
the system has been discharged by a dealer
service department or air conditioning service
station. Always wear eye protection when disconnecting air conditioning system components.
Note: Evaporator removal on these models is
a difficult undertaking for the home mechanic.
It can be done, but it requires discharging the
air conditioning system, disconnecting the
passenger airbag system and a great many
wiring connectors under the dash and removing the complete instrument panel assembly.
3-11
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
16.3 Disconnect and cap the refrigerant
li nes from the expansion valve
16.15 Remove the evaporator probe from
the evaporator core
16.17 Remove the clips retaining the two
housing sections
EVAPORATOR
HOUSING
3
HEATER
DISTRIBUTION
HOUSING
16.18a Pull the two sections apart .. .
The air conditioning evaporator is contained
in a two-piece housing which must be
removed from under the dash and separated
into two halves.
Expansion valve
Note: The expansion valve can be replaced
without removing the evaporator from the
vehicle or removed along with the evaporator.
Removal
Refer to illustration 16.3
Have the system discharged (see the
1
Warning at the beginning of this Section).
Disconnect the negative battery cable
2
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Remove the security clips from expan3
sion valve refrigerant line quick-connect fittings. Using the appropriate quick-connect
coupling tools (available at auto parts stores),
disconnect and cap the air conditioning lines
at the expansion valve (see illustration).
4
Remove the retaining bolts and separate
the expansion valve from the evaporator.
16.18b . . . and separate the heater housing from the
evaporator housing
Installation
5
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Install new 0-ring seals on the expansion
valve and lubricate them with R-134a-compatible refrigerant oil prior to installation.
6
Take the vehicle back to the shop that
discharged it. Have the system evacuated,
recharged and leak tested.
Evaporator
Removal
Refer to illustrations 16.15, 16.17, 16.18a,
16.18b and 16.20
7
Have the system discharged (see the
Warning at the beginning of this Section).
8
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
9
Drain the cooling system. Disconnect
the heater hoses from the heater core at the
firewall (see Section 10). Cap the heater core
fittings to prevent spilling coolant on the interior when the housing is removed.
10 Disconnect and cap the refrigerant lines
from the expansion valve (see above).
11 Refer to Chapter 11 and remove the
complete instrument, panel assembly.
12 Remove the center air distribution ducts
from the heater/air conditioning housing.
13 Disconnect any wiring harness connectors attached to the housing.
14 Remove the bolts securing the heater/air conditioning housing to the bulkhead
and carefully remove the housing from the
vehicle.
15 Using a screwdriver, pry the locking tab
off the evaporator probe. Twist the evaporator probe access cover 1/4-turn clockwise
and remove the cover. Carefully withdraw the
evaporator probe from the evaporator core
(see illustration).
16 Remove the recirculating door inlet
cover.
17 Remove the clips retaining the housing
sections together (see illustration).
18 Separate the evaporator housing from
the heater/distribution housing (see illustrations).
19 Remove the seal around the evaporator
3-12
Chapter 3 Cooling, heating and air conditioning system
tube inlet.
20 Remove the evaporator housing upper
cover (see illustration).
21 Withdraw the evaporator core from the
housing.
EVAPORATOR
HOUSING
COVER
Installation
Note: When installing a new evaporator,
always use a new gasket on the expansion
valve (see illustration) and reinstall the temperature sensor from the old core into the
new core before installation.
22 Installation is the reverse of removal. If a
new evaporator is being installed, add one
ounce of new, R-134a-compatible refrigerant
oil into it prior to installation.
23 Take the vehicle back to the shop that
discharged it. Have the system evacuated,
recharged and leak tested.
16.20 Remove the
evaporator housing
upper cover
Chapter 4
Fuel and exhaust systems
Contents
Section
Accelerator cable - replacement ..........................................................10
Air cleaner assembly - removal and installation ................................... 9
Air filter - replacement ...................................................... See Chapter 1
CHECK ENGINE light........................................................See Chapter 6
Exhaust system servicing - general information .................................. 18
Fuel filter - removal and installation ..................................................... 15
Fuel injection system - general check ................................................. 12
Fuel injection system - general information ......................................... 11
Fuel level sending unit - check and replacement .................................. 8
Fuel pressure regulator and fuel inlet strainer - replacement .............. 14
Fuel pressure relief procedure ............................................................... 2
Fuel pump module - removal and installation........................................7
Fuel pump/fuel pressure regulator - check............................................3
Fuel rail and injectors - check, removal and installation ......................16
Fuel tank - removal and installation ....................................................... 5
Fuel tank cleaning and repair - general information .............................. 6
General information ................................................................................1
Idle Air Control (IAC) motor - check and replacement ......................... 17
Quick-connect fittings and fuel lines - disassembly, assembly
and replacement...............................................................................4
Throttle body - check, removal and installation ...................................13
4
Specifications
General
Fuel pressure................................................................................................... 47 to 51 psi
Fuel injector resistance (approximate) ............................................................. 12 to 15 ohms @ 68-degrees F
Fuel level sending unit resistance (approximate)
Full position.................................................................................................50 ohms (minimum)
Empty position ............................................................................................ 1040 to 1060 ohms
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Fuel rail mounting bolts
Four-cylinder engines.................................................................................200 in-lbs
V6 engine .................................................................................................... 106 in-lbs
Fuel tank drain plug ......................................................................................... 32 in-lbs
Fuel tank strap bolts........................................................................................ 44
Idle Air Control motor-to-throttle body screws ................................................25 in-lbs
Throttle body mounting bolts
Four-cylinder engines ................................................................................. 200 in-lbs
V6 engine ....................................................................................................250 in-lbs
1
General information
The vehicles covered by this manual are
equipped with a sequential Multi-Port Fuel
Injection (MPFI) system. This system uses
ti med impulses to sequentially inject the fuel
directly into the intake ports of each cylinder.
The injectors are controlled by the Powertrain
Control Module (PCM). The PCM monitors
various engine parameters and delivers the
exact amount of fuel, in the correct
sequence, to the intake ports. It also controls
the engine idle speed via the idle air control
motor which is mounted to the throttle body.
All models are equipped with an electric
fuel pump which is located inside the fuel
tank. It is necessary to remove the fuel tank
to gain access to the fuel pump. The fuel level
sending unit is an integral component of the
fuel pump and it must be removed from the
fuel tank in the same manner. These vehicles
are equipped with a "returnless" fuel system.
In this system the fuel pressure regulator is
part of the fuel pump/fuel level sending unit
and also located inside the fuel tank. Regulated fuel is sent to the fuel rail and excess
fuel is bled off directly into the fuel tank.
The exhaust system consists of the
exhaust manifold(s), a catalytic converter, an
exhaust pipe and a muffler. Each of these
components is replaceable. For further information regarding the catalytic converter, refer
to Chapter 6.
4-2
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
2.3 The fuel pump module electrical connector is located in the
trunk, under the mat near the base of the left shock tower
2
Fuel pressure relief procedure
Refer to illustration 2.3
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system. Don't smoke or
allow open flames or bare light bulbs near the
work area, and don't work in a garage where
a natural gas-type appliance (such as a water
heater or a clothes dryer) with a pilot light is
present. Since gasoline is carcinogenic, wear
latex gloves when there's a possibility of
being exposed to fuel, and if you spill any on
your skin, rinse it off immediately with soap
and water. Mop up any spills immediately and
do not store fuel-soaked rags where they
could ignite. The fuel system is under constant pressure, so, if any fuel lines are to be
disconnected, the pressure must be relieved
first. When you perform any kind of work on
the fuel system, wear safety glasses and have
a Class B type fire extinguisher on hand.
1
Remove the fuel filler cap to relieve the
fuel tank pressure.
2
Working inside the trunk, fold back the
trunk mat near the base of the left shock
tower.
3
Locate the fuel pump electrical connector and disconnect it from the wiring harness
(see illustration).
4
Next, start the engine and allow it to run
until it stops. This should only take a few seconds. Crank the engine again, to ensure the
fuel pressure is completely relieved. Before
working on any part of the fuel system, disconnect the negative battery cable from the
ground stud on the left shock tower (see
Chapter 5, Section 1).
5
Even after the fuel pressure has been
relieved, always lay a shop towel over any
fuel connection that is to be separated to
absorb the residual fuel that will leak out.
6
When you are finished working on the
fuel system, reconnect fuel pump electrical
connector to the wiring harness. Turn the
ignition key to the ON position a few times to
pressurize the system and check the serviced
3.4 On four-cylinder engines, connect a fuel pressure gauge to
the fuel rail at the test port
area for leaks.
7
Install the fuel filler cap and tighten it
securely. Note: If the fuel filler cap seal allows
the fuel tank pressure to escape because of a
damaged seal or it has not been tightened
sufficiently, the CHECK ENGINE light will illuminate on the instrument panel.
3
Fuel pump/fuel pressure
regulator - check
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Note 1: These vehicles are equipped with a
"returnless" fuel system in which the fuel
pressure regulator is part of the fuel pump
module and located inside the fuel tank.
Note 2: The fuel pump will operate as long as
the engine is cranking or running and the
PCM is receiving ignition reference pulses
from the electronic ignition system. If there
are no reference pulses, the fuel pump will
shut off after approximately 1 second.
Note 3: To perform the fuel pressure check,
you will need to obtain a fuel pressure gauge
and adapter set (fuel line fittings). On V6
engines, the fuel supply line is not equipped
with a fuel pressure test port (Schrader valve
fitting). A special fuel pressure test adapter
(factory tool No. 6539 or equivalent) must be
installed between the fuel supply line and the
fuel rail.
Preliminary check
Note: On all models, the fuel pump is located
inside the fuel tank (see Section 7).
1
If you suspect insufficient fuel delivery,
first inspect all fuel lines to ensure that the
problem is not simply a leak in a line.
2
Set the parking brake and remove the
fuel filler cap. Have an assistant turn the ignition switch to the ON position while you listen
at the fuel filler neck opening. You should
hear a "whirring" sound, lasting for a couple
of seconds. Start the engine. The whirring
sound should now be continuous (although
harder to hear with the engine running). If
there is no sound, either the fuel pump fuses,
fuel pump, fuel pump relay, automatic shutdown (ASD) relay or related circuits are
defective (proceed to Step 15).
System pressure check
Refer to illustrations 3.4 and 3.5
3
Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
4
On four-cylinder engines, remove the
cap from the fuel pressure test port (Schrader
valve fitting) on the fuel rail and attach a fuel
pressure gauge (see illustration).
5
On V6 engines, the fuel supply line is not
equipped with a fuel pressure test port
(Schrader valve fitting). A special fuel pressure test adapter (factory tool No. 6539 or
equivalent) must be installed between the fuel
supply line and the fuel rail. Disconnect the
fuel supply line from the fuel rail (see Section 4) and install the fuel pressure test
adapter between the supply line and the fuel
rail (see illustration). Attach a fuel pressure
gauge to the test adapter fitting.
6
Start the engine and observe the pressure reading on the gauge. Compare it with
the pressure listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
7
If the fuel pressure is higher than specified, check for a kinked or restricted fuel line
between the fuel filter and fuel pump module.
If the line is OK, replace the fuel pressure regulator (see Section 14).
8
If the fuel pressure is lower than specified, replace the fuel filter (see Section 15)
and perform the pressure check again. If it's
still low, remove the fuel pump module (see
Section 7) and inspect the fuel inlet strainer
for obstructions. If it's clogged, replace the
strainer. If the strainer is OK, replace the fuel
pump.
9
If there is no fuel pressure, check the
fuel pump, ASD and fuel pump relays as outli ned below.
10 Next, verify that the system holds pressure. Note the fuel pressure with the engine
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
4-3
HAYNES
125015-4-3.17
3.17 Fuel pump module electrical connector (body harness side)
3.5 On V6 engines, a special fuel pressure test adapter must be
installed between the fuel supply line and the fuel rail
running, then turn off the engine and observe
the reading on the fuel pressure gauge. The
fuel pressure should remain constant for a
minimum of one minute. A drop of more than
5 psi in one minute indicates an unacceptable leak in the system. If the pressure drop
is unacceptable, first visually inspect the system for obvious leaks, especially at the quick
connect fittings.
11
If there aren't any obvious leaks, the fuel
is escaping either from one or more of the
fuel injectors or the fuel pressure regulator.
12 On four-cylinder engines, to perform the
following check it is necessary to install the
special fuel pressure test adapter (factory
tool No. 6539 or equivalent) between the fuel
rail and the fuel supply line. Perform the fuel
relief procedure (see Section 2) and install the
adapter and gauge set-up.
13 To determine where the fuel system is
leaking, pressurize the fuel system. With the
engine OFF, isolate the fuel injectors by
pinching off the rubber hose on the special
fuel pressure test adapter (factory tool No.
6539 or equivalent) between the fuel pressure
gauge and the fuel supply line. Observe the
1
2
3
4
reading on the fuel pressure gauge. If the fuel
pressure bleeds down there is a leak at one
or more of the injectors. Refer to Section 16
for further testing and replacement procedures.
14 If the pressure remains constant, the
fuel injectors are OK and the fuel pressure
regulator must be replaced (see Section 14).
After the pressure tests are complete, perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see
Section 2), remove the fuel pressure gauge
and adapter (if used) and assemble the
quick-connect fittings (see Section 4).
Component checks
Note: The fuel pressure regulator check is part
of the system pressure check (see above).
Fuel pump
Refer to illustration 3.17
15 If you cannot hear the fuel pump operate when energized (refer to preliminary
check above), use a test light or voltmeter to
verify the pump is receiving battery voltage.
16 Working inside the trunk, fold back the
trunk mat near the base of the left shock
3.20a The Automatic Shutdown relay (arrow) is located in the
Power Distribution Center under the square cover
Fuel pump (positive feed)
Fuel level sending unit (signal)
Fuel pump (ground)
Fuel level sending unit (ground)
tower. Locate the fuel pump 4-pin electrical
connector and disconnect it (see illustration 2.3).
17 Connect a test light or voltmeter to the
fuel pump positive feed and ground terminals
of the electrical connector (see illustration).
18 Have an assistant crank the engine battery voltage should be present at the electrical connector. If voltage is present, replace
the fuel pump. If voltage is not present, check
the ASD and fuel pump relays (see below).
ASD and fuel pump relays
Refer to illustrations 3.20a, 3.20b, 3.21a,
3.21b, 3.23, 3.24 and 3.25
Note: The Automatic Shutdown (ASD) relay
and the fuel pump relay must both be tested
to insure proper fuel pump operation. Testing
procedures for the ASD relay and the fuel
pump relay are identical.
19 To access the relay box where the ASD
relay is located, remove air cleaner assembly
(see Section 9).
20 To test a relay, first remove it from its
location in the engine compartment Power
Distribution Center (PDC) (see illustrations).
3.20b The fuel pump relay (arrow) is located in the Power
Distribution Center under the rectangular cover
4
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
4-4
TERMINAL LEGEND
NUMBER
30
85
86
87
87A
I DENTIFICATION
COMMON FEED
COIL GROUND
COIL BATTERY
NORMALLY OPEN
NORMALLY CLOSED
NUMBER
30
85
86
87
87A
3.21a ASD and fuel pump relay terminal identification
(rectangle type)
TERMINAL LEGEND
IDENTIFICATION
COMMON FEED
COIL GROUND
COIL BATTERY
NORMALLY OPEN
NORMALLY CLOSED
3.21b ASD and fuel pump relay terminal identification
(square type)
inspected for leaks, kinks and dents anytime
the vehicle is raised for service.
If evidence of dirt is found in the fuel
3
system or fuel filter during service, the
affected line should be disconnected and
blown out. Check the fuel inlet strainer on the
fuel pump module for blockage or contamination (see Section 14).
21 Verify that there is battery voltage at the
terminal in the PDC that corresponds with
terminal 30 of the relay (see illustrations).
This terminal should have voltage present at
all times. Now check the terminal in the PDC
that corresponds with terminal 86 on the
relay - it should have voltage present only
with the ignition key in the ON position.
22 If there is no voltage, check the fuel
pump fuses in cavities 8 and 10 in the PDC. If
voltage is not present at the fuse, check the
wiring and connectors to the PDC for a short,
broken wire or a bad connection.
23 Next, check relay operation by connecting the probes of an ohmmeter to terminals
86 and 85 and measure the resistance. There
should be approximately 75 ohms resistance
(see illustration).
24 Now connect the ohmmeter probes to
terminals 30 and 87A and check for continuity. Continuity should be present (see illustration).
25 Check for continuity between terminals
30 and 87 (see illustration). There should be
no continuity.
26 Next, with the ohmmeter still connected
to relay terminals 87 and 30, use jumper
wires to connect the relay to the battery.
Connect the battery positive terminal to relay
terminal 86 and the battery negative terminal
to relay terminal 85. Continuity should exist
between terminals 87 and 30 when terminals
86 and 85 are energized. If continuity is not
present, replace the relay.
Always perform the fuel pressure relief
1
procedure (see Section 2) before servicing
fuel lines or fittings.
The fuel supply and vapor lines extend
2
from the fuel tank to the engine compartment.
The lines are constructed of steel, plastic and
rubber. They are secured to the underbody
with clips and brackets. These lines should be
4
Chrysler uses three different types of
quick-connect fittings to join various fuel
li nes and components. The first type uses a
single-tab retainer, the second type a twotab retainer and the third type incorporates a
plastic retainer ring (usually black in color)
which connects/disconnects much like a
common compressed air hose fitting. Some
are equipped with safety latch clips. The fittings are equipped with non-serviceable 0ring seals located in the female part of the fitting. In the event the fitting or tubing
becomes damaged or develops a leak,
replace the entire fuel line/quick-connect fitting as an assembly. Always use original
equipment parts, or parts that meet or
exceed the original equipment standards.
3.23 Measure the resistance between
terminals 86 and 85 - it should be
approximately 75 ohms
3.24 Measure the resistance between
terminals 30 and 87A - continuity
should be present
3.25 Check for continuity between
terminals 30 and 87 - there
should be no continuity
4
Quick-connect fittings and fuel
li nes - disassembly, assembly
and replacement
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
General information
Quick-connect fittings
4-5'
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
WINDOW
4.5a Cross-sectional view of a two-tab quick-connect
fuel line fitting
TAB (2)
4.5b When properly assembled, the tab ear and shoulder on
the male fitting should be visible in the window
Single and two-tab retainer fittings
Disassembly
Refer to illustrations 4.5a, 4.5b, 4.9a and 4.9b
These quick-connect fittings have one or
5
2 windows (depending on type) located in the
side(s) of the female fitting. When the male fitting is inserted into the female, the tab(s) on
the male engage in the window(s) and lock the
fitting together (see illustrations).
6
Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
7
Remove all fasteners, brackets or clips
securing the lines as applicable.
Clean the area around the fitting to
8
remove dirt and foreign debris.
9
Depress the retaining tab(s) on the
quick-connect fitting and pull it apart (see
illustrations). Note: The retaining tabs and
shoulder should remain on the metal fuel line
after separation.
Assembly
10 Clean the male part of the fitting and
li ghtly lubricate it with clean engine oil.
11 Position the retaining tab ears on the
tube so they align with the windows in the
female fitting and push them together. You
should hear the fitting snap into place as the
retaining tab ears lock into the windows.
12 Verify the fitting is properly fastened by
trying to pull the lines apart.
13 Secure the fuel line using any clips or
brackets as applicable.
14 Pressurize the system and check for
leaks.
4.9a Depress the plastic tabs on
the male fitting .. .
Plastic retainer ring fittings
Disassembly
Refer to illustration 4.18
15 Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
16 Remove all fasteners, brackets or clips
securing the lines as applicable.
17 Clean the area around the fitting to
remove dirt and foreign debris.
18 Grasp the male line and push it in
(towards the fitting). While applying pressure
on the male line, press the plastic retainer ring
into the female fitting and then pull the male
li ne from the female fitting (see illustration).
Note: The plastic retainer ring must be pushed
4.9b ... and separate the fitting - to
assemble it, lubricate the male end with a
small amount of clean engine oil, then push
the fitting together until it locks into place tug on it to ensure the connection is secure
into the female fitting squarely! If it gets
cocked, the fitting will be difficult to separate. If
necessary, use an open-end wrench applied to
the plastic retainer to assist in evenly pressing
it into the female fitting. The plastic retainer
ring should remain attached to the female fitting after separation.
Assembly
19 Clean the male part of the fitting and
li ghtly lubricate it with clean engine oil.
20 Insert the male end into the female and
push them together (see illustration 4.18).
You should hear the retainer ring snap into
I NSTALLATION
PLASTIC
RETAINER
4.18 Plastic retainer ring type quick-connect fitting removal and installation
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
4-6
FUEL PUMP
MODULE
5.9 Fuel pump module fuel line fittings
5.6 Fuel tank drain plug (arrow)
place as it locks the fitting together. Make
sure the retainer ring is fully extended after
assembly.
21 Verify the fitting is properly fastened by
trying to pull the lines apart.
22 Secure the fuel line using any clips or
brackets as applicable.
23 Pressurize the system and check for
leaks.
Fuel lines - replacement
Steel tubing
24 If replacement of a metal line is required,
disassemble the applicable quick-connect fittings as described above and remove the line
from the vehicle. If the quick-connect fitting is
damaged or leaks, replace the affected section of fuel line/quick-connect fittings as an
assembly.
25 If the quick-connect fittings are acceptable, a new piece of steel tubing may be
spliced-in to replace a damaged section by
flaring the tubing ends and joining them with a
union. Use tubing that meets or exceeds original equipment standards. Do not use copper
or aluminum tubing to replace steel tubing.
These materials cannot withstand normal
vehicle vibration. Do not use a rubber hose to
replace a damaged section of steel tubing!
26 When installing the replacement section
into the line, assemble the quick-connect fittings first, then tighten the unions. Warning:
Metal lines must never be allowed to rub
against other components or each other. A
minimum of 1/4-inch clearance must be
maintained to prevent contact unless it is
properly secured.
27 After replacing the line or section, pressurize the system and check for leaks.
Plastic lines
28 If replacement of a plastic line is
required, disassemble the applicable quickconnect fittings as described above and
remove the line from the vehicle. The plastic
li nes used on these vehicles are not serviceable. If replacement is required, the affected
section of fuel line/quick-connect fittings
must be replaced as an assembly.
29 Install the new line onto the vehicle and
assemble the quick-connect fittings as applicable (see above). Secure the line to the vehicle as required. Warning: Plastic lines must
never be allowed to rub against other components or each other. A minimum of 1/4-inch
clearance must be maintained to prevent
contact unless it is properly secured. Do not
route plastic fuel lines within four inches of
any part of the exhaust system or within ten
inches of the catalytic converter.
30 After replacing the line, pressurize the
system and check for leaks.
Rubber hoses
Warning: Fuel-injected vehicles use specially
constructed hoses. Only use hoses marked
EFM/EFI. Replace with only original equipment hoses, or hoses that meet or exceed
original equipment standards. Others may
have a lower fatigue threshold.
31 Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
32 Loosen the clamps securing the hose
and remove it from the vehicle.
33 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Warning: Do not route rubber fuel hoses
within four inches of any part of the exhaust
system or within ten inches of the catalytic
converter. Rubber hoses must never be
allowed to rub against other components or
each other. A minimum of 1/4-inch clearance
must be maintained to prevent contact with
other components unless it is properly
secured.
34 After replacing the hose, pressurize the
system and check for leaks.
5
Fuel tank - removal and
installation
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Removal
Refer to illustrations 5.6 and 5.9
1
Remove the fuel tank filler cap to relieve
fuel tank pressure.
Perform the fuel pressure relief proce2
dure (see Section 2).
3
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
4
Working inside the trunk, fold back the
trunk mat near the base of the left shock
tower. Locate the fuel pump wiring harness 4-pin connector and disconnect it from
the wiring harness (see illustration 2.3). Follow the fuel pump wiring to the grommet at
the base of the rear seat. Push the grommet
through the floorpan and feed the wiring
and 4-pin connector through the hole.
5
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
Position an approved gasoline container
6
under the fuel tank drain plug. If necessary,
use a funnel to prevent spilling fuel. Warning:
The fuel tank capacity is 16 gallons. Unless
the fuel tank is almost empty, be prepared to
collect a significant amount of fuel. Do not
leave the fuel tank draining operation unattended. Be prepared to replace the drain plug
in case the fuel tank capacity exceeds the
container capacity. Remove the drain plug
(see illustration) and allow the fuel to exit the
fuel tank.
7
After the fuel has finished draining,
replace the drain plug and tighten it to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
Warning: There will be approximately 1 to 2
gallons of fuel remaining inside the tank.
Loosen the clamp and detach the filler
8
neck hose from the fuel tank. Warning: There
may be fuel inside the filler neck and hose,
protect yourself accordingly.
9
Disconnect the quick-connect fuel line
fittings (see Section 4 if necessary) from the
fuel pump module (see illustration).
10 At the rear of the fuel tank, detach the
vapor hose from the rollover valve.
11 Support the fuel tank with a floor jack.
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
4-7
FUEL LEVEL
SENSOR
7.6a Fuel pump module - component identification
Place a piece of wood between the jack head
and the fuel tank to protect the tank.
12 Remove the fuel tank strap bolts and
straps.
13 On 1998 models, slightly lower the fuel
tank and detach the EVAP canister purge
li ne. Remove the hoses from the EVAP canister (see Chapter 6 if necessary) and disconnect the electrical connector from the Leak
Detection Pump (LDP). Note: Before disconnecting any lines or hoses, clearly label the
hose and fitting so they can be reinstalled in
their proper locations.
14 Slightly lower the fuel tank and then
slide it forward to allow the filler neck to clear
the rear suspension crossmember. Remove
the tank from the vehicle.
Installation
15 Installation is the reverse of removal.
However, before installing the fuel tank, tie a
length of string or wire to the fuel pump module wiring harness and route it through the
hole in the trunk floorpan. Once the fuel tank
is securely in position, pull the string to
access the wiring harness.
16 Tighten the fuel tank strap bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
6
Fuel tank cleaning and repair general information
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system. (See the Warning
in Section 2).
1
The fuel tank on these vehicles is made
of plastic and is not repairable.
2
If the fuel tank is removed from the vehicle, do not place it in an area where sparks or
open flames could ignite the fuel vapors
escaping from the tank. Be especially careful
inside a garage where a natural gas-type
appliance is located, because the pilot light
could cause an explosion.
7
7.6b When removing the fuel pump module from the fuel tank,
slightly angle the module to avoid damaging the fuel
level sending unit float arm
Fuel pump module - removal and
installation
Warning 1: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Warning 2: The fuel reservoir in the fuel
pump module does not empty when the fuel
tank is drained. This fuel will drain out when
the fuel pump module is removed from the
fuel tank - protect yourself accordingly.
Caution: Be sure to change the fuel pump
module 0-ring seal whenever the assembly is
removed for service.
Note: The fuel pump module consists of the
following components; fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator, fuel inlet strainer and fuel level
sending unit.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 7.6a and 7.6b
1
Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
2
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
3
Remove the fuel tank from the vehicle
(see Section 5).
4
Clean the top of the fuel tank around the
fuel pump module to remove any dirt or
debris.
5
Using a large pair of pliers, remove the
fuel pump module ring nut. Caution: Do not
apply too much pressure on the ring nut during removal or damage may result.
6
Remove the fuel pump module from the
tank (see illustrations). Angle the assembly
slightly to avoid damaging the fuel level sending unit float arm. Remove and discard the 0ring seal.
7
The electric fuel pump is not serviceable. In the event of failure, the complete
assembly must be replaced. The only serviceable parts on the fuel pump module are
the fuel inlet strainer, fuel pressure regulator
and the fuel level sending unit.
8
For service procedures on the fuel pressure regulator and inlet strainer refer to Section 14.
9
For service procedures on the fuel level
sending unit refer to Section 8.
Installation
10 Clean sealing area on the fuel tank.
Obtain the new fuel pump module 0-ring
seal. Lightly lubricate the 0-ring seal with
clean engine oil and install it on the fuel tank
opening.
11 Carefully insert the fuel pump module
into the fuel tank. Align the tab on the fuel
pump module with the notch in the fuel tank.
12 While holding the fuel pump module in
place, install the ring nut, tightening it
securely. Caution: Over-tightening the ring
nut may result in a leak.
13 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
8
Fuel level sending unit - check
and replacement
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Note: The fuel pump module consists of the
following components; fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator, fuel inlet strainer and fuel level
sending unit.
Check
Refer to illustrations 8.3, 8.9 and 8.10
In-vehicle
1
Begin this procedure with the fuel tank
completely full.
2
Working inside the trunk, fold back the
trunk mat near the base of the left shock
tower. Locate the fuel pump wiring harness
4-pin connector and disconnect it from the
wiring harness (see illustration 2.3).
4
4-8
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
FUEL PUMP
GROUND
LEVEL SENSOR
GROUND
FUEL PUMP
VOLTAGE SUPPLY
8.3 Fuel pump module electrical connector (fuel pump side)
terminal identification
1
2
3
4
Fuel level sending unit (ground)
Fuel pump (ground)
Fuel level sending unit (signal)
Fuel pump (positive feed)
8.9 Measuring the resistance of the fuel level sending unit with
the float arm in the FULL position
8.10 Measuring the resistance of the fuel level sending unit with
the float arm in the EMPTY position
3
Connect the probes of an ohmmeter to
the fuel level sending unit terminals of the fuel
pump module electrical connector and measure the resistance (see illustration). Compare the measured resistance to the value
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications. If the
resistance is less than specified, replace the
fuel level sending unit.
4
Next, drive the vehicle until the fuel tank
is nearly empty or drain the fuel tank via the
drain plug into a container approved to hold
gasoline (see Section 5).
5
With the fuel tank empty, check the
resistance again (see illustration 8.3). Compare the measured resistance to the value
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications. If the
resistance is out of tolerance, replace the fuel
level sending unit.
Removed from vehicle
6
A more thorough check of the fuel level
sending unit can be performed with the sending unit removed from the vehicle.
7
Remove the fuel pump module (see
Section 7).
8
Connect the probes of an ohmmeter to
the fuel level sending unit terminals of the fuel
8.13 Disconnect the electrical connector from the base of the fuel
pump module flange
pump module electrical connector (see illustration 8.3).
9
First, check the resistance of the sending unit with the float arm in the FULL position (see illustration). Compare the measured resistance to the value listed in this
Chapter's Specifications. If the resistance is
less than specified, replace the fuel level
sending unit.
10 Next, while observing the ohmmeter,
slowly lower the float arm to the EMPTY position. The ohmmeter should register a smooth
change in resistance value from the FULL to
EMPTY position (see illustration). Compare
the measured resistance to the value listed in
this Chapter's Specifications. If the resistance is out of tolerance or the ohmmeter
exhibited fluctuation during the transition
from FULL to EMPTY, replace the fuel level
sending unit.
13 Disconnect the fuel level sensor/fuel
pump electrical connector from the base of
the fuel pump module flange (see illustration).
14 Use needle-nose pliers to remove the
blue locking wedge (see illustration).
15 Use a small screwdriver or needle-nose
pliers to lift the connector locking finger away
from the fuel level sending unit wire terminals
and then withdraw them from the module
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 8.13, 8.14, 8.15 and 8.17
11 Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
12 Remove the fuel pump module (see
Section 7).
8.14 Use needle-nose pliers and carefully
remove the blue locking wedge
4-9
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
8.15 Use a small screwdriver, or needlenose pliers, and lift the locking fingers
away from the terminals, then carefully
remove the terminals from the connector
8.17 Using a screwdriver, pry the sensor
down slightly to disengage the
locking feature
LEVEL SENSOR
GROUND
FUEL PUMP SUPPLY
20 Install the wire terminals into the module
connector in their proper locations (see illustration).
21 Install the blue locking wedge into the
module connector.
22 Verify the wire terminals are properly
installed in the module connector by gently
pulling on the wires.
23 Connect the fuel level sensor/fuel pump
electrical connector to the base of the fuel
pump module flange.
24 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
8.20 Terminal guide
for the fuel pump/fuel
level sending unit
(where it connects to
the base of the fuel
pump module flange)
LEVEL SENSOR
SIGNAL
electrical connector (see illustration).
16 If necessary, use factory tool No.
C-4334 or equivalent to remove the fuel level
sending unit terminals from the module connector.
17 To remove the sending unit, insert a
screwdriver between the module fuel reservoir
and the top of the level sensor as shown and
pry the sensor down slightly (see illustration).
18 While guiding the sensor wires through
8.19 Place the wires into the groove on
the backside of the sending unit, then
while guiding the wires, slide the sending
unit up the channel until it snaps into
place - tug on it to ensure it's
locked into place
the module fuel reservoir opening, slide the
sensor out of the channel.
Installation
Refer to illustrations 8.19 and 8.20
19 Place the wires into the guide groove on
the back side of the sending unit, route them
through the module fuel reservoir and then
slide the sensor up the channel until it snaps
into place (see illustration).
9
Air cleaner assembly - removal
and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 9.1a, 9.1b, 9.2, 9.4a and
9.4b
1
On the 2.0L four-cylinder engine and the
V6 engine, remove the air inlet resonator-tomanifold bolts (see illustrations).
MOUNTING BOLTS
9.1a Air inlet resonator-to-manifold bolts
(2.0L four-cylinder engine only)
9.1b Removing the air inlet resonator bolt (V6 engine)
4
4-10
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
9.2 Four-cylinder engines - air inlet resonator clamp
at the throttle body
2
On four-cylinder engines, loosen the
clamp and detach the air inlet resonator from
the throttle body (see illustration).
3
On four-cylinder engines, loosen the air
duct clamp at the air cleaner housing and
remove the air ducting with air inlet resonator
attached.
4
On V6 engines, loosen the air duct
clamps at the air cleaner housing and throttle
body (see illustrations) then remove the air
ducting with air inlet resonator attached.
Installation
5
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Air filter housing
Removal
Refer to illustration 9.8
6
Loosen the air duct clamp and detach it
from the air cleaner top cover (see illustration 9.4a).
7
Remove the air filter top cover and filter
element (see Chapter 1 if necessary).
Remove the three bolts securing the air
8
filter lower housing to the inner fender panel
(see illustration).
Detach the air inlet duct at the front of
9
9.4b Loosening the air duct clamp at
the throttle body (V6 engine)
9.4a Loosening the air duct clamp at the air filter housing
(V6 engine shown, others similar)
the housing and remove it from the engine
compartment.
Installation
10 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure the lower housing is free of dirt
and contamination prior to installation.
10 Accelerator cable - replacement
vehicle, use pliers to compress the cable
retainer clips, then push the cable retainer
out of the accelerator pedal arm. Next, slide
the cable out of the slot in the accelerator
pedal arm (see illustration).
7
Push the cable through the firewall into
the engine compartment and remove it from
the vehicle.
8
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Refer to illustrations 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5
11
and 10.6
On four-cylinder engines, remove the air
1
cleaner assembly (see Section 9).
2
Rotate the throttle valve cam to the full
throttle position and disconnect the accelerator cable from the slot in the throttle valve
cam (see illustration).
3
On four-cylinder engines, compress the
cable retaining tabs and push the accelerator
cable out of the bracket (see illustration).
4
On V6 engines, compress the cable
retaining tab and slide the cable out of the
side of the bracket (see illustration).
5
Disconnect the accelerator cable from
the bracket on the firewall (see illustration).
6
At the accelerator pedal arm inside the
Fuel injection system - general
information
The sequential Multi-Port Fuel Injection
( MPFI) system consists of three sub-systems:
air intake, engine control and fuel delivery.
The MPFI system is controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) which uses the
information from various sensors to determine the proper air/fuel ratio under all operating conditions.
The fuel injection system, emissions and
engine control systems work together to provide maximum performance, fuel economy
and the lowest exhaust emissions. For complete information on the emissions and
engine control system, refer to Chapter 6.
9.8 Remove the three bolts then remove
the air filter lower housing from
the fender panel
10.2 Disconnecting the accelerator cable
from the throttle lever at the throttle body
(V6 engine shown)
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
10.3 On four-cylinder engines, after detaching the cable from the
throttle lever, compress the tab on the cable outer housing
and push it through the bracket
Air intake system
The air intake system consists of the air
filter, the air ducts, air inlet resonator, the
throttle body, the idle control system and the
intake manifold.
The engine idle speed is controlled by
the PCM via the Idle Air Control (IAC) motor.
The IAC motor regulates the flow of air
allowed to by-pass the throttle valve in the
throttle body thereby increasing engine
speed. The PCM uses information from various sensors to determine the correct amount
of airflow required to maintain the proper
engine speed during engine warm-up and
when a load is placed on the engine, such as
engaging the air conditioning compressor,
10.4 On V6 engines, compress the retaining tab on the cable
housing and slide the cable from the bracket
low speed steering or when an automatic
transaxle is placed in gear.
Engine control system
For information on the engine control
system, refer to Chapter 6.
Fuel delivery system
The fuel delivery system consists of the
following components: an electric fuel pump,
a fuel pressure regulator, an in-line fuel filter,
the fuel rail, the fuel injectors, various metal
and plastic lines, the Automatic Shutdown
(ASD) relay and the fuel pump relay.
The fuel pump and fuel pressure regulator are located inside the fuel tank. Fuel is
10.5 Accelerator cable bracket at firewall (V6 engine shown,
typical routing for all models)
4-11
drawn through the fuel inlet strainer into the
pump, pumped past the fuel pressure regulator, then through the fuel filter and delivered
to the injectors.
The fuel pressure regulator maintains a
constant fuel pressure to the injectors.
Excess fuel is released back into the fuel tank
through the fuel pressure regulator. This system is called a "returnless" system.
The fuel rail supplies the regulated fuel
to each electronically controlled fuel injector.
The injectors are solenoid types consisting of
a solenoid, plunger, needle valve and housing. When the PCM sends a voltage signal to
the fuel injector, the needle valve raises off its
seat and lets metered fuel enter the intake
10.6 Use pliers to compress the cable retainer tabs and push the
cable retainer from the accelerator pedal arm, then remove the
cable through the slot in the pedal arm and remove the
cable from inside the engine compartment
4
4-12
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
manifold. The injection quantity is determined
by the length of time which current is supplied to the injector.
The Automatic Shutdown (ASD) and the
fuel pump relays are located in the Power
Distribution Center, which is located in the
engine compartment on the left (driver's)
side. The ASD relay connects battery voltage
to the fuel injectors and the ignition coil while
the fuel pump relay connects battery voltage
only to the fuel pump. If the PCM senses
there is NO signal from the camshaft or
crankshaft sensors while the ignition key is
RUN or cranking, the PCM will de-energize
both relays in approximately one second.
12 Fuel injection system - general
check
Refer to illustration 12.6
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system) see the Warning
in Section 2).
Note: The following procedure is based on
the assumption that the fuel pump/pressure
is acceptable (see Section 3).
1
Visually check all electrical connectors
that are related to the system. Check ground
wire connections on the intake manifold and
engine for tightness. Loose connectors and
poor grounds can cause many problems that
resemble more serious component malfunctions.
2
Check to see that the battery is fully
charged, as the PCM and information sensors depend on proper battery voltage in
order to operate correctly.
3
Check the air filter element - a dirty or
partially blocked filter will severely impede
performance and economy (see Chapter 1).
4
Check the air intake ducts for cracks or
loose connections. Also check the condition
of all vacuum hoses connected to the intake
manifold. Make sure they fit tightly on the
vacuum ports and are free from cracks or
other defects.
5
Remove the air intake duct (V6 engine)
or air inlet resonator (four-cylinder engines)
from the throttle body and inspect for dirt,
carbon or other residue build-up around the
throttle valve and Idle Air Control by-pass
port. If the throttle body is dirty, clean it with
a spray-type carburetor cleaner and a toothbrush or clean rag. Note: If the throttle body
cannot be cleaned properly while installed on
the vehicle, remove it (see Section 13).
6
With the engine running, place an automotive stethoscope against each injector,
one at a time, and listen for a clicking sound,
indicating operation (see illustration). If you
don't have a stethoscope, place the tip of a
screwdriver against the injector and listen
through the handle. Note: On V6 engines, the
air inlet resonator must be removed to access
the left bank of fuel injectors. The right bank
of fuel injectors CANNOT be checked using
this procedure, as they are covered by the
upper intake manifold.
12.6 Use a stethoscope to determine if
the injectors are working properly - they
should make a steady clicking sound
that rises and falls with engine speed
changes (V6 engine shown)
13.7 Disconnect the canister purge
control vacuum hose from the throttle
body (V6 engine shown, others similar)
Removal
1
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9).
2
Verify the accelerator cable, cruise control cable (if equipped) and throttle valve
operate smoothly without binding or sticking.
Inspect the throttle bore, throttle valve,
3
IAC by-pass port and canister purge vacuum
port for carbon deposits. If carbon build-up is
present, remove the throttle body from the
vehicle (see below) and remove the IAC
motor (see Section 17). Clean the throttle
body and IAC motor pintle with a spray-type
carburetor cleaner and a toothbrush.
4
If the throttle valve does not operate
freely after cleaning, replace the throttle
body.
Refer to illustrations 13.7, 13.10a, 13.10b and
13.11
Warning: Wait until the engine is completely
cool before beginning this procedure.
5
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower.
6
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9).
7
Disconnect the canister purge vacuum
hose from the throttle body (see illustration).
8
Detach the accelerator cable and cruise
control cable (if equipped), from the throttle
valve lever (see Section 10).
9
On four-cylinder engines, remove the
accelerator and cruise control cable bracket
and position the bracket (with cable) out of
the way.
10 Disconnect the TPS and IAC sensor
connectors from the throttle body, remove
the mounting bolts and then withdraw the
throttle body and gasket from the manifold
(see illustrations).
11 The throttle body 0-ring seal on 2.0L
four-cylinder engines is reusable (see illustration). Remove it from the manifold and
13.10a Four-cylinder engine IAC,
TPS and throttle body bolts
13.10b V6 engine IAC, TPS and throttle
body bolts
7
Individual component checks can be
found in their appropriate Sections.
13 Throttle body - check, removal
and installation
Check
1
2
3
Idle Air Control motor
Throttle Position Sensor
Throttle body bolts
1
2
3
Throttle Position Sensor
Idle Air Control motor
Throttle body bolts
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
4®13
inspect it for hardness and cracks. If visual
inspection does not reveal any defects, the
0-ring seal may be reused.
12 On all other models, remove all traces of
gasket material from the throttle body and
manifold.
13 If necessary, clean the throttle body as
outlined in Step 3.
Installation
14 Install the throttle body with a new gasket (2.0L four-cylinder engines may reuse the
0-ring seal) onto the intake manifold.
15 Tighten the throttle body mounting bolts
to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
16 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. After installation, check to
see that the throttle body operates freely.
13.11 On 2.0L four-cylinder engines, the
throttle body 0-ring gasket (arrow)
is reusable
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Note: The fuel pump module consists of the
following components; fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator, fuel inlet strainer and fuel level
sending unit.
card the old 0-ring seals.
4
Apply a light coat of clean engine oil to
the new 0-ring seals and install them in the
receptacle in the fuel pump module (see
illustration). Ensure they are properly seated.
Install the new pressure regulator into
5
the fuel pump module.
6
Install the regulator retainer and fold the
retainer tangs over the tabs on the fuel pump
module. Make sure the retainer is securely
attached.
Install the fuel pump module (see Sec7
tion 7).
Fuel pressure regulator
Fuel inlet strainer
Replacement
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 14.3a, 14.3b and 14.4
1
Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
Remove the fuel pump module (see
2
Section 7).
3
Spread the tabs on the pressure regulator retainer and remove the retainer, then
carefully pry the pressure regulator out of the
fuel pump module housing (see illustrations). Ensure that both upper and lower
0-ring seals come out with the regulator. Dis -
Refer to illustration 14.10
Perform the fuel pressure relief proce8
dure (see Section 2).
9
Remove the fuel pump module (see
Section 7).
10 Using a flat-blade screwdriver, pry the
tangs on the fuel inlet strainer away from the
tabs on the fuel pump reservoir and remove
the strainer and 0-ring seal (see illustration).
11 Before installing the new 0-ring seal,
apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the
14 Fuel pressure regulator and fuel
inlet strainer - replacement
14.3a Spread the four tabs and remove
the retainer
4
14.3b Using a screwdriver, carefully pry
the fuel pressure regulator out of
the fuel pump module
0-ring seal and install it in onto the fuel pump
reservoir.
12 Install the fuel inlet strainer onto the fuel
pump reservoir and make sure it is securely
locked in place.
13 Install the fuel pump module (see Section 7).
LOWER 0-RING
14.4 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil to the new 0-ring
seals and install them into the fuel pump module
14.10 To remove the inlet strainer, use a screwdriver to pry the
retaining tabs away from the fuel pump module
and then detach the strainer
4-14
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
15 Fuel filter - removal and
installation
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Removal
Refer to illustration. 15.1
1
The in-line fuel filter mounts to the frame
above the rear of the fuel tank, near the filler
neck (see illustration).
2
Remove the fuel tank filler cap to relieve
fuel tank pressure.
3
Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
4
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
5
Working inside the trunk, fold back the
trunk mat near the base of the left shock
tower. Locate the fuel pump wiring harness
4-pin connector and disconnect it from the
wiring harness (see illustration 2.3). Follow
the fuel pump wiring to the grommet at the
base of the rear seat. Tie a length of string to
the fuel pump wiring harness and secure the
other end somewhere in the trunk (this will
allow you to easily retrieve the wiring harness). Push the grommet through the floorpan and feed the wiring and 4 pin connector
through the hole.
6
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
7
Position an approved gasoline container
under the fuel tank drain plug. If necessary,
use a funnel to prevent spilling fuel. Warning:
The fuel tank capacity is 16 gallons. Unless
the fuel tank is almost empty, be prepared to
collect a significant amount of fuel. Do not
leave the fuel tank draining operation unattended. Be prepared to replace the drain plug
in case the fuel tank capacity exceeds the
container capacity. Remove the drain plug
(see illustration 5.6) and drain the fuel into
the container.
8
After the fuel has finished draining, reinstall the drain plug and tighten it to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
9
Support the fuel tank with a floor jack.
Place a piece of wood between the jack head
and the fuel tank to protect the tank.
10 Remove the driver's side fuel tank strap
(the long strap).
11
Loosen, but do not remove, the passenger side fuel tank strap so the fuel tank filler
neck just touches the rear suspension crossmember. Caution: Do not let the weight of
the fuel tank rest on the filler neck! Support it
with the jack at all times.
12 Label and disconnect the quick-connect
fuel line fittings (see Section 4 if necessary)
connecting the fuel filter to the fuel system.
13 Detach the fuel filter from its mounting
and remove it from the vehicle.
Installation
14 Installation is the reverse of removal.
15.1 The fuel filter (arrow) is tucked up
behind the fuel tank and mounted to
the frame above the rear
suspension crossmember
15 Assemble the fuel line quick-connect fittings as described in Section 4. Verify the fittings are securely assembled by trying to pull
them apart. Note: The fuel filter larger line fitting attaches to the fuel pump module "supply" port and the smaller fitting attaches to
the "return" port.
16 Tighten the fuel tank strap bolts to the
torque given in this Chapter's Specifications.
17 Pressurize the system and check for
leaks.
16 Fuel rail and injectors - check,
removal and installation
Warning: Gasoline is extremely flammable,
so take extra precautions when you work on
any part of the fuel system (see the Warning
in Section 2).
Fuel injector operation check
Refer to illustrations 16.6 and 16.7
1
Start the engine and allow it warm up to
normal operating temperature.
2
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9).
3
If the vehicle is not equipped with a
tachometer, connect one to the engine in
accordance with the tool manufacturer's
instructions.
4
Make sure all test equipment is positioned away from the drivebelts and cooling
fans, then start the engine. With the engine
idling, detach each fuel injector electrical
connector one-at-a-time, and note the rpm
change on the tachometer, then reconnect
the injector. Note: On V6 engines, this test
can only be applied to the left bank of fuel
injectors and only after removing the air inlet
resonator (see Section 9). If the rpm change
is approximately the same for each cylinder,
the injectors are operating correctly. If disconnecting a particular injector fails to
16.6 Measure the resistance of each
injector. It should be approximately
12 ohms
change the engine rpm, proceed to the next
Step. If the fuel injectors are operating properly, check the ignition system (see Chapter 5), condition of the spark plugs and wires
(see Chapter 1) and, if necessary, perform a
compression check (see Chapter 2C) to
determine the cause of the dead cylinder.
5
On V6 engines, remove the upper intake
manifold (see Chapter 2B).
6
Disconnect the injector electrical connectors and using an ohmmeter, measure the
resistance of each injector (see illustration).
Compare the measured resistance to the
value given this Chapter's Specifications. If
the resistance is not within specifications,
replace the injector.
7
If the resistance is as specified, connect
a special injector harness test light (commonly known as a "noid light" which is available at most auto parts stores) to the injector
electrical connector (see illustration). If the
li ght flashes, the injector is receiving voltage.
If there is no voltage, check the ASD relay
operation (see Section 3). If the ASD relay is
OK, check the injector wiring circuit for a
short, a break in the wire or a bad connection
(see Chapter 12 if necessary).
With the electrical connector removed
8
from the injector, use a fused jumper wire to
connect one terminal of the injector to the
positive remote terminal of the battery near
the Power Distribution Center (PDC). Attach
another jumper wire to the other terminal on
the fuel injector. Make sure the jumper wires
are properly insulated from each other! Using
the grounded jumper wire, quickly connect
and disconnect it to a solid ground on the
engine. Note: Do not subject the fuel injector
to battery voltage any longer than necessary.
Each time the injector is energized and deenergized, the injector should make an audible "clicking" sound. If no sound is heard.
replace the injector. Repeat the test for each
injector.
9
If the fuel injectors are operating properly, install all removed components in the
reverse order of removal.
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
16.7 Install a "noid" light (available at most auto part stores) into
each injector electrical connector and confirm that it illuminates
when the engine is cranking or running
Fuel injector leak check
Warning: Wear eye protection during this
check.
Note: After identifying that a fuel injector is
leaking (see Section 3), use the following procedure to determine which one (or more) of
the fuel injectors is defective.
10 Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2).
11 Remove the fuel rail and injector assembly from the intake manifold as described
below, however, do not disconnect the fuel
supply line or the fuel injectors from the fuel
rail.
12 With the fuel rail resting on the intake
manifold (injectors nozzles exposed), place
some clean shop rags under the fuel injectors
to catch the fuel that will leak out of the
defective injectors ).
13 Attach the fuel pump module electrical
connector to the wiring harness and the battery negative cable to the remote battery terminal.
14 Turn the ignition key to the ON position
16.21a Disconnecting the fuel supply line quick-connect fitting at
the fuel rail (four-cylinder engine shown)
(engine OFF) several times to pressurize the
fuel system. Warning: Do not crank the
engine over. With the system under pressure,
inspect each injector for fuel leaking out of
the nozzle. Label the faulty injectors ).
15 Next, relieve the fuel pressure via a
faulty fuel injector by using a small Phillips
head screwdriver (or equivalent) to push the
injector pintle off its seat to release the fuel
pressure through the injector nozzle. Wrap a
dry shop rag around the faulty injector to
catch the fuel as it escapes.
16 Once the fuel pressure has been
relieved, detach the fuel supply line quickconnect fitting from the fuel rail (see Section
4 if necessary) and replace the faulty fuel
injector(s) (see below).
Removal
Refer to illustrations 16.21a, 16.21b, 16.24a,
16.24b, 16.25a, 16.25b, 16.25c, 16.26a,
16.26b and 16.26c
17 Perform the fuel pressure relief proce dure (see Section 2).
16.21b Disconnecting the fuel supply line quick-connect fitting at
the fuel rail (V6 engine shown)
4-15
18 Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
19 Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9).
20 On V6 engines, remove the upper intake
manifold (see Chapter 2B).
21 Detach the fuel supply line quick-connector fitting (see Section 4 if necessary) from
the fuel rail (see illustrations).
22 Disconnect the wiring harness electrical
connectors from the fuel injectors. Clearly
label and remove any vacuum hoses or electrical wiring that will interfere with the fuel rail
removal.
23 Clean the injector-to-manifold area
using compressed air (a can of compressedgas duster like those used to blow out electrical components will work just as well) or
spray-type carburetor cleaner to remove any
dirt or debris from around the injectors.
24 Remove the fuel rail mounting bolts (see
illustrations).
25 Remove the fuel rail assembly (with the
fuel injectors attached) from the engine (see
16.24a Fuel rail mounting bolts (arrows) (four-cylinder engines)
4
4-16
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
16.24b Fuel rail mounting bolts (arrows) (V6 engine)
16.25a Removing the fuel rail/injectors (four-cylinder engines)
16.25b Removing the fuel rail/injectors (V6 engine)
16.25c On V6 engines, these plastic spacers must be installed
between the fuel rail and the lower intake manifold
illustrations). Note: On V6 engines, there are
spacers located between the fuel rail and the
lower intake manifold, if they become dislodged, make sure you reinstall them (see
illustration).
26 Remove the retaining clips and withdraw the injectors from the fuel rail (see illustrations). Remove the 0-ring seals and discard them (see illustration). Note: Whether
you're replacing an injector or a bad 0-ring
seal, it's standard practice to replace all 0ring seals at this time.
27 On V6 engines, clean and inspect the
upper-to-lower manifold gasket surfaces (see
Chapter 2B).
16.26a Using a screwdriver or pliers,
remove the injector retaining clip securing
the injector to the fuel rail .. .
16.26b ... then withdraw the injector
from the fuel rail
16.26c Remove the old 0-ring seals from
the fuel injector and discard them
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
Installation
28 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil
to the new 0-ring seals and carefully install
them onto the injectors.
29 Insert each injector into its corresponding bore in the fuel rail. Position the electrical
terminals appropriately and secure the fuel
injectors to the fuel rail with the retaining
clips.
30 On V6 engines, make sure the fuel rail
spacers are installed (see illustration 16.25c).
31 Apply a light coating of clean engine oil
to the injector-to-manifold 0-ring seals and
install the injector/fuel rail assembly onto the
intake manifold. Make sure the injectors are
fully seated, then tighten the fuel rail mounting bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
32 Connect the fuel supply line quick-connect fitting to the fuel rail (see Section 4).
33 Attach the fuel pump module electrical
connector to the wiring harness and the battery negative cable to the ground stud on the
left shock tower.
34 Turn the ignition key to the ON position
(engine OFF) several times to pressurize the
fuel system. Inspect the fuel rail and injectors
for leaks. If leakage is evident, perform the
fuel pressure relief procedure (see Section 2)
and rectify the problem. Warning: On V6
engines, before performing the fuel relief procedure, disconnect the spark plug wires from
the spark plugs and make sure all loose
objects or rags have been removed from
inside or around the lower intake manifold
ports.
35 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal. On V6 engines, make
sure to install a new upper intake manifold
gasket and tighten the upper intake manifold
bolts to the torque listed in the Chapter 2B
Specifications.
17 Idle Air Control (IAC) motor check and replacement
General description
The engine idle speed is controlled by
the PCM via the Idle Air Control motor. The
IAC motor regulates the flow of air allowed to
by-pass the throttle valve in the throttle body
thereby increasing engine speed. The PCM
uses information from various sensors to
determine the correct amount of airflow
required to maintain the proper engine speed
during engine warm-up and when a load is
placed on the engine, such as engaging the
air conditioning compressor, low speed
steering or when an automatic transaxle is
placed in gear.
Check
1
Run the engine until it reaches normal
operating temperature, then shut off the
engine.
2
Locate a vacuum fitting on the intake
manifold. Remove the hose from the fitting
and attach a vacuum gauge in its place. Position the vacuum gauge so you can see it from
inside the vehicle.
3
If the vehicle is not equipped with a
tachometer, connect one to the engine per
the manufacturer's instructions and place it
so you can see the meter from inside the
vehicle.
4
Inside the vehicle, start the engine and
note the reading on the vacuum gauge and
the engine speed on the tachometer.
5
If the vehicle is equipped with an automatic transaxle, apply the brakes and place
the transaxle in DRIVE. If the vehicle is
equipped with air conditioning, turn it on. If
the vehicle does not have either of the previously mentioned options, turn the steering
wheel all the way to the left and hold it in
there. Observe the reading on the vacuum
gauge. It should drop slightly as the IAC
motor opens the throttle by-pass airway. The
engine speed should drop momentarily and
then rise to the previously noted rpm. If the
vacuum reading remains the same and the
engine speed drops, turn off the engine and
proceed to the next step.
6
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9) and inspect the by-pass airway for
obstructions or carbon build-up, clean if necessary.
7
If the by-pass airway appears to be
clear, remove the IAC motor from the throttle
body (see below).
8
Next, turn the ignition key to the ON
position (engine OFF). Note: Perform this
check when the engine is completely COLD.
9
While observing the IAC pintle, attach
the electrical connector to the IAC motor. The
IAC pintle should retract. If it doesn't, use a
voltmeter or a test light to verify voltage is
present at the RED wire terminal in the female
connector. If voltage is present, replace the
IAC motor. If no voltage is present, check for
a blown fuse. If a fuse was blown, replace it
and see if it blows again. If it does, check the
circuit for a short (see Chapter 12).
4-17
18.1 Inspect the exhaust system
mounting brackets, clamps and
rubber hangers for damage
or improper installation
mounting screws. Tighten the screws to the
torque given in this Chapter's Specifications.
Note: The ignition key may be turned OFF
after the IAC motor is installed on the throttle
body.
16 Install the throttle body (see Section 13).
Tighten the throttle body bolts to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
17 Install the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9).
4
18 Exhaust system servicing general information
10 Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Section 9).
11 Remove the throttle body (see Section 13).
12 Remove the IAC motor from the throttle
body (see illustrations 13.10a and 13.10b).
Make sure the 0-ring seal is removed with
the IAC motor, if not, retrieve it from the throttle body orifice.
Refer to illustration 18.1
Warning: Inspection and repair of exhaust
system components should be done only
after enough time has elapsed after driving
the vehicle to allow the system components
to cool completely. Also, when working under
the vehicle, make sure it is securely supported on jackstands.
1
The exhaust system consists of the
exhaust manifold, the catalytic converter, the
resonator, exhaust pipe, muffler and all
brackets, hangers and clamps. The exhaust
system is attached to the body with mounting
brackets and rubber hangers (see illustration). If any of the parts are improperly
installed, excessive noise and vibration will
be transmitted to the body.
Installation
Muffler and pipes
13 If the new IAC motor pintle is protruding
more than 1 inch, it must be retracted before
it can be installed. If this is the case, turn the
ignition key to the ON position (engine OFF).
Note: Perform this procedure when the
engine is completely COLD.
14 Attach the electrical connector to the
IAC motor, the pintle will retract.
15 With the pintle retracted and the 0-ring
seal in place, carefully install the IAC motor
into the throttle body and secure it with the
2
Conduct regular inspections of the
exhaust system to keep it safe and quiet.
Look for any damaged or bent parts, open
seams, holes, loose connections, excessive
corrosion or other defects which could allow
exhaust fumes to enter the vehicle. Also
check the catalytic converter when you
inspect the exhaust system (see following).
Deteriorated exhaust system components
should not be repaired; they should be
replaced with new parts.
Removal
4-18
3
Before trying to disassemble any
exhaust components, spray the fasteners
with a penetrating oil to help ease removal. If
the exhaust system components are
extremely corroded or rusted together, welding equipment will probably be required to
remove them. The convenient way to accomplish this is to have a muffler repair shop
remove the corroded sections with a cutting
torch. If, however, you want to save money
by doing it yourself (and you don't have a
welding outfit with a cutting torch), simply cut
off the old components with a hacksaw. If
you have compressed air, special pneumatic
cutting chisels can also be used. If you
decide to tackle the job at home, be sure to
wear safety goggles to protect your eyes
from metal chips and work gloves to protect
your hands.
4
Here are some simple guidelines to fol -
Chapter 4 Fuel and exhaust systems
low when repairing the exhaust system:
a) Work from the back to the front when
removing exhaust system components.
b) Apply penetrating oil to the exhaust system component fasteners to make them
easier to remove.
c) Use new gaskets, hangers and clamps
when installing exhaust systems components.
d) Apply anti-seize compound to the
threads of all exhaust system fasteners
at reassembly.
e) Be sure to allow sufficient clearance
between newly installed parts and all
points on the underbody to avoid overheating the floor pan and possibly damaging the interior carpet and insulation.
Pay particularly close attention to the
catalytic converter and heat shield.
Catalytic converter
Warning: The converter gets extremely hot
during operation, and can remain very hot for
hours after the engine has been turned off.
Make sure it has cooled down before you
touch it.
Note: See Chapter 6 for more information on
the catalytic converter.
5
Periodically inspect the heat shield for
cracks, dents and loose or missing fasteners.
6
Remove the heat shield and inspect the
converter for cracks or other damage.
7
If the converter must be replaced,
detach the exhaust system from the exhaust
manifold. Loosen the rear band clamp at the
resonator and separate the converter from
the exhaust system.
8
Installation is the reverse of removal. Be
sure to use new gaskets and tighten the fasteners securely.
Chapter 5
Engine electrical systems
Contents
Section
Alternator - removal and installation .................................................... 11
Battery cables - check and replacement...............................................3
Battery check, maintenance and charging ....................... See Chapter 1
Battery - emergency jump starting ........................................................ 2
Battery - removal and installation .......................................................... 4
Charging system - check ..................................................................... 10
Charging system - general information and precautions .......................9
CHECK ENGINE light ....................................................... See Chapter 6
Distributor (V6 engine only) - removal and installation ...........................8
Drivebelt check, adjustment and replacement ................. See Chapter 1
Section
General information, precautions and battery disconnection ................ 1
Ignition coil - check and replacement ....................................................7
Ignition system - check..........................................................................6
Ignition system - general information .................................................... 5
Spark plug replacement ....................................................See Chapter 1
Spark plug wire check ...................................................... See Chapter 1
Starter motor - in-vehicle check .......................................................... 13
Starter motor - removal and installation ...............................................14
Starting system - general information and precautions.......................12
5
Specifications
General
Battery voltage........................................................................................
Engine firing order
Four-cylinder engines ........................................................................
V6 engine...........................................................................................
ignition timing ..........................................................................................
12 volts (approximate)
1-3-4-2
1-2-3-4-5-6
Not adjustable
Ignition system
ignition coil resistance (approximate, at 70 to 80-degrees F)
Four-cylinder engines
Primary resistance ........................................................................
Secondary resistance ...................................................................
V6 engine
Primary resistance ........................................................................
Secondary resistance...................................................................
Spark plug wire resistance (approximate)
Four-cylinder engines
Wires 1 and 4 ................................................................................
Wires 2 and 3 ................................................................................
V6 engine
Minimum.......................................................................................
Maximum ......................................................................................
0.51 to 0.61 ohms
11,000 to 13,500 ohms
0.6 to 0.8 ohms
12,000 to 18,000 ohms
3,500 to 4,900 ohms
2,950 to 4,100 ohms
250 ohms per inch (3,000 ohms per foot)
560 ohms per inch (6,700 ohms per foot)
Torque specifications
Distributor hold-down nuts ......................................................................
Starter motor mounting bolts ..................................................................
108 in-lbs
40 ft-lbs
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
5-2
1
General information, precautions
and battery disconnection
General information
The engine electrical systems include all
ignition, charging and starting components.
Because of their engine-related functions,
these components are discussed separately
from body electrical devices such as the
lights, the instruments, etc. (which are
included in Chapter 12).
Precautions
Always observe the following precautions
when working on the electrical system:
(a) Be extremely careful when servicing
engine electrical components. They are
easily damaged if checked, connected
or handled improperly.
(b) Never leave the ignition switched on for
long periods of time when the engine is
not running.
(c) Don't disconnect the battery cables
while the engine is running.
(d) Maintain correct polarity when connecting battery cables from another vehicle
during jump starting - see the "Booster
battery Gump) starting" section at the
front of this manual.
(e) Always disconnect the negative cable
first, and reconnect it last, or the battery
may be shorted by the tool being used
to loosen the cable clamps.
It's also a good idea to review the
safety-related information regarding the
engine electrical systems located in the
"Safety first!" section at the front of this manual, before beginning any operation included
in this Chapter.
Battery disconnection
Refer to illustrations 1.4a and 1.4b
The battery on these vehicles is located
behind the left fender, in front of the left front
wheel. Since the battery terminals cannot be
easily accessed, the manufacturer has provided a remote ground terminal on the left
shock tower and also a remote positive terminal for jump starting purposes. To disconnect the battery for service procedures
requiring power to be cut from the vehicle,
remove the nut and detach the negative
cable from the ground stud on the strut
tower, then press the hole in the side of the
cable insulator over the stud (see illustrations). This will isolate the cable end and prevent it from accidentally coming into contact
with ground.
Several systems on the vehicle require
battery power to be available at all times,
either to ensure their continued operation
(such as the clock) or to maintain control unit
memories (such as that in the engine management system's Powertrain Control Module [PCM]) which would be wiped out if the
battery were to be disconnected. Therefore,
whenever the battery is to be disconnected,
1.4a To disconnect battery power from
the vehicle, remove the nut from the
ground stud on the left strut
tower (arrow) .. .
first note the following to ensure that there
are no unforeseen consequences of this
action:
(a) First, on any vehicle with central locking,
it is a wise precaution to remove the key
from the ignition and to keep it with you,
so that it does not get locked in if the
central locking should engage accidentally when the battery is reconnected!
(b) The engine management system's PCM
will lose the information stored in its
memory when the battery is disconnected. This includes idling and operating values, and any fault codes detected
(see Chapter 6). Whenever the battery is
disconnected, the information relating to
idle speed control and other operating
values will have to be re-programmed
into the unit's memory. The PCM does
this by itself, but until then, there may be
surging, hesitation, erratic idle and a
generally inferior level of performance.
To allow the PCM to relearn these values, start the engine and run it as close
to idle speed as possible until it reaches
its normal operating temperature, then
run it for approximately two minutes at
1200 rpm. Next, drive the vehicle as far
as necessary - approximately 5 miles of
varied driving conditions is usually sufficient - to complete the relearning process.
Devices known as "memory-savers" can
be used to avoid some of the above problems. Precise details vary according to the
device used. Typically, it is plugged into the
cigarette lighter, and is connected by its own
wires to a spare battery; the vehicle's own
battery is then disconnected from the electrical system, leaving the "memory-saver" to
pass sufficient current to maintain audio unit
security codes and PCM memory values, and
also to run permanently live circuits such as
the clock, all the while isolating the battery in
the event of a short-circuit occurring while
1.4b . . . then detach the cable and push
the hole in the cable insulator over
the stud
work is carried out.
Warning: Some of these devices allow a considerable amount of current to pass, which
can mean that many of the vehicle's systems
are still operational when the main battery is
disconnected. If a "memory-saver" is used,
ensure that the circuit concerned is actually
"dead" before carrying out any work on it!
2
Battery - emergency jump
starting
Refer to the Booster battery Gump) starting procedure at the front of this manual.
3
Battery cables - check and
replacement
1
Periodically inspect the entire length of
each battery cable for damage, cracked or
burned insulation and corrosion. Poor battery
cable connections can cause starting problems and decreased engine performance.
2
Check the cable-to-terminal connections at the ends of the cables for cracks,
loose wire strands and corrosion. The presence of white, fluffy deposits under the insulation at the cable terminal connection at the
battery is a sign that the cable is corroded
and should be replaced. Check the terminals
for distortion, missing mounting bolts and
corrosion.
3
When removing the cables, always disconnect the negative cable first and hook it
up last or the battery may be shorted by the
tool used to loosen the cables. Even if only
the positive cable is being replaced, be sure
to disconnect the negative cable from the
ground terminal on the left shock tower first!
4
Disconnect the old cables from the battery (see Section 4), then trace each of them
to their remote terminals and detach them.
Note the routing of each cable to ensure correct installation.
5
Check the cables that connect the
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
4.4 Always disconnect the negative
battery cable first and attach it last!
4.3 Removing the battery cover/splash
shield from the left front wheel well
5-3
4.5a Removing the battery strap and
hold-down bracket bolt
5
4.5b Removing the battery strap upper nut
starter solenoid and ground terminals to the
remote terminals. If they require replacement,
note the routing of each cable to ensure correct installation and detach them.
6
If you are replacing a cable, take it along
with you when purchasing a new one. It is
vitally important that you replace it with an
identical part. Cables have characteristics
that make them easy to identify: positive
cables are usually red and larger in crosssection; ground cables are usually black and
smaller in cross-section.
Clean all connections with a wire brush
7
to remove rust, oxidation and corrosion.
Apply a light coat of petroleum jelly or grease
to all fastener threads to prevent future corrosion.
Attach the cable to it's proper connec8
tion and tighten the mounting fastener
securely. Apply a light coat of petroleum jelly
or grease to the connection to seal it and help
prevent future corrosion.
9
Before connecting a new cable to the
battery, make sure that it reaches the battery
without having to be stretched.
10 Connect the positive cable first, followed by the negative cable.
4
4.7 Position the cables out of the way and slide the battery out of
the fenderwell - be careful, it's heavy!
Battery - removal and installation
Refer to illustrations 4.3, 4.4, 4.5a, 4.5b and
4.7
Warning: Certain precautions must be followed when checking and servicing the battery. Hydrogen gas, which is highly explosive,
is produced by the battery. Keep lighted
tobacco, open flames, bare light bulbs or
other possible sources of ignition away from
the battery. Furthermore, the electrolyte
inside the battery is sulfuric acid which is
highly corrosive and can burn your skin and
cause severe injury to your eyes. Always wear
eye protection! It will also destroy clothing
and ruin painted surfaces.
Note: The battery on these vehicles is located
inside the fenderwell of the left front fender
and can be removed without removing the
wheel. However, removing the wheel makes
the job much easier.
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Section 1).
2
Loosen the left front wheel lug nuts,
raise the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands. Remove the wheel.
3
Remove the battery cover/splash shield
from the wheel well by turning the four plastic
fasteners 1/4-turn counterclockwise (see
illustration).
4
Using a box-end wrench, disconnect
the negative cable from the battery first, then
the positive cable (see illustration).
5
Remove the bolt and nut securing the
battery strap and hold-down bracket, then
remove the them (see illustrations).
6
Vehicles manufactured with the cold
weather package option (Alaska, Canada and
northern USA) are equipped with a battery
blanket heater. If equipped, disconnect the
blanket heater electrical connector.
7
Remove the battery from the vehicle
(see illustration). Be careful - it's heavy.
Note: Battery handling tools are available at
most auto parts stores for a reasonable price.
They make it easier to remove and carry the
battery.
8
If equipped, remove the battery blanket
heater from around the battery.
9
While the battery is removed, inspect
the tray, strap, hold-down bracket and
related fasteners for corrosion or damage.
10 If corrosion is evident on the battery
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
5-4
6.4b Distributor
terminal identification
1
2
3
Camshaft position
sensor terminals
Coil primary
terminals
Coil secondary
terminal (hi-tension
tower)
6.4a Distributor cap and rotor - V6 engine only
1
2
Coil terminal
Rotor button
3
Rotor
6.6 Using a calibrated ignition tester to visually verify spark is
reaching the spark plugs - If the engine starts during this check,
do not let it run more than 1 minute or damage to the catalytic
converter may occur
tray, unscrew the mounting bolts and remove
it. Use baking soda/water solution to clean
corroded parts to prevent further oxidation.
Repaint parts as necessary using rust resistant paint.
11 Clean and service the battery and
cables (see Chapter 1).
12 If you are replacing the battery, make
sure you purchase one that is identical to
yours, with the same dimensions, amperage
rating, cold cranking amps rating, etc. Make
sure it is fully charged prior to installation in
the vehicle.
13 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure you install the negative cable last.
14 After connecting the cables to the battery, apply a light coating of petroleum jelly or
grease to the connections to help prevent
corrosion.
15 Tighten the wheel lug nuts to the torque
given in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
5
Ignition system - general
information
All models are equipped with an electronic ignition system. The ignition system
consists of the ignition switch, the battery,
the coil, the primary (low voltage) and secondary (high voltage) wiring circuits, the igni-
6.9 On four-cylinder engines, connect a test light between the
coil electrical connector center terminal and one of the outer
terminals. Crank the engine. The test light should blink on-and-off
tion wires and spark plugs, the camshaft
position sensor, the crankshaft position sensor and the Powertrain Control Module
(PCM). The PCM controls the ignition timing
and spark advance characteristics for the
engine. The ignition timing is not adjustable.
The crankshaft sensor and camshaft
sensor generate voltage pulses that are sent
to the PCM. The PCM then determines the
crankshaft position, injector sequence and
ignition timing. The PCM supplies battery
voltage to the ignition coil through the Automatic Shutdown Relay (ASD). The PCM also
controls the ground circuit for the coil.
If the PCM does not receive a signal
from the crankshaft or camshaft position sensors, the PCM signals the ASD relay and fuel
pump relay to shut down the ignition and fuel
delivery systems respectively. Refer to Chapter 6 for testing and replacement procedures
for the crankshaft and camshaft sensors.
On four-cylinder engines, the secondary
ignition system is controlled by energizing the
coil drivers in the proper firing order. On V6
engines, a conventional type distributor with
a rotor is used to send the ignition voltage to
the proper cylinder in the firing order. On V6
engines, the ignition coil and camshaft position sensor are part of the distributor, which
is located on the rear of the engine on the
right side (rear) cylinder head and driven by
the camshaft (see Section 8).
Ignition system - check
Refer to illustrations 6.4a, 6.4b, 6.6 and 6.9
Warning: Because of the very high voltage
generated by the ignition system (approximately 40,000 volts), extreme care should be
taken whenever an operation is performed
involving ignition components. This not only
includes the coil and spark plug wires, but
related items connected to the system as
well, such as the electrical connectors,
tachometer and any test equipment.
With the ignition switch turned to the
1
"ON" position, a glowing instrument panel
"Battery" light or "Oil Pressure" light is a
basic check for battery voltage supply to the
ignition system and PCM.
2
First, check all ignition wiring connections for tightness, cuts, corrosion or any
other signs of a bad connection.
3
Check the condition of the spark plug
wires (see Chapter 1). Using an ohmmeter.
measure the resistance of each spark plug
wire and compare the measured value to the
resistance value listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. A bad spark plug wire or poor
connection at the spark plug or coil (fourcylinder engines) or distributor cap (V6
engine) could also result in a misfire.
4
On V6 engines, remove the distributo r
cap and rotor (see Steps 7 thru 10 in Sec-
Chapter 5
Engine electrical systems
7.4 Test each coil's primary resistance by connecting one probe
of the ohmmeter to the center terminal and the other probe to
each end terminal. The primary resistance of each coil should be
within specifications
tion 7). Inspect the cap and rotor for moisture, cracks, erosion, carbon tracks, worn
rotor button or other damage (see illustration). Remove one spark plug wire at a time
from the cap (so they don't get mixed up) and
check the terminals inside the cap for corrosion, which will appear as a white crusty
powder (slight corrosion can be removed
with a screwdriver or round wire brush). On
the distributor cap, use an ohmmeter to measure the resistance between the rotor button
and the coil terminal. The resistance should
be approximately 5,000 ohms. On the distributor, inspect the coil hi-tension tower for
cracks, carbon tracks or corrosion (see illustration). If the coil is found to be defective,
the entire distributor must be replaced. If the
cap or rotor is defective and the ignition components (including spark plugs) have been in
service for more than 60,000 miles, the manufacturer recommends replacing all ignition
components at the same time.
If the engine turns over but won't start,
5
disconnect the number 1 spark plug wire
(four-cylinder engines) or the number 2 spark
plug wire (V6 engines) (see Chapter 1 if necessary) and install a calibrated ignition tester
(available at most auto parts stores). Make
sure the tester is designed for Chrysler electronic ignition systems if a universal tester is
not available.
6
Connect the clip of the tester to a bolt or
metal bracket located on the engine (see illustration). Note: If an ignition tester is not available, a good spark plug with the gap set to the
maximum tolerance can also be used. Ground
the threaded portion of the spark plug to the
engine. Crank the engine while observing the
ignition tester - if bright blue, well defined
sparks occur, sufficient voltage is reaching the
spark plug to fire it. Caution: If the engine
starts, do not run the engine for longer than
one minute during this test - the raw fuel
escaping from the cylinder being tested may
cause damage to the catalytic converter.
7
On four-cylinder engines, perform this
check at the number 2 spark plug location
also. This will check the other ignition coil
7.5 Checking the secondary resistance of coil "1" - repeat the
test for coil "2". The secondary resistance of each coil should be
within specifications
inside the coil pack. Note: It is not necessary
to perform this check at another location on
V6 engines because that system uses a single
coil.
8
If spark is present, the coil is firing, however, the spark plugs themselves may be
fouled or damaged, so remove and check
them (see Chapter 1) or install new ones.
9
If no spark or intermittent sparks occur,
disconnect the coil electrical connector (see
illustration) and connect a test light to the
center terminal of the coil electrical connector
and one of the outer terminals on four-cylinder engines or across both harness terminals
on V6 engines (see illustration 6.4b).
10 With the test light placed where you can
see it from the driver's seat, crank the engine
and watch the test light. It should flash
on-and-off while the engine is cranking. If the
test light does not blink, check the wiring harness for damage or a short. If the wiring is
OK, check the operation of the Automatic
Shutdown (ASD) relay (see Chapter 4). If necessary, check the operation of the camshaft
and crankshaft position sensors (see Chapter
6). If the ASD relay and cam/crank sensors
check out OK, have the PCM diagnosed by a
dealer service department or other qualified
repair shop.
11 If voltage is present (light blinks), check
the ignition coil (see Section 7) and replace it
if necessary.
12 If these checks do not identify the problem, further diagnosis should be performed
by a dealer service department or other qualified repair shop.
7
5-5
Ignition coil - check and
replacement
Check
Four-cylinder engines
Refer to illustrations 7.4 and 7.5
1
Located inside the coil pack are two
individual ignition coils. Coil "1" supplies volt -
age for cylinders 1 and 4, while coil "2" supplies voltage for cylinders 2 and 3.
2
Clearly label the spark plug wires and
detach them from the coil pack.
3
Disconnect the primary wiring electrical
connector from the coil pack.
4
Measure the each coil primary resistance; connect an ohmmeter between the
center terminal (B+) and one of the outer terminals and note the resistance (see illustration). Repeat the check with the probe connected to the other outer terminal. Compare
the measured resistances with the coil primary resistance value listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. Replace the coil if the primary
resistance is out of tolerance.
5
Next, measure the secondary resistance
of each coil; connect an ohmmeter between
spark plug wire terminals 1 and 4 and note
the resistance (see illustration). Repeat the
check on terminals 2 and 3. Compare the
measured resistances with the secondary
resistance value listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. Replace the coil if the secondary resistance is out of tolerance.
6
Install the spark plug wires in their
proper locations and connect the primary
wiring electrical connector.
V6 engine
7
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
Remove the EGR tube (see Chapter 6).
8
9
Label each spark plug wire to it's location in the distributor cap and then disconnect them.
10 Loosen the 2 screws and remove the
distributor cap.
11 Disconnect the primary wiring electrical
connector (two-pin) from the distributor (see
illustration 6.4b).
12 Measure the coil primary resistance;
connect an ohmmeter across the terminals of
the two-pin connector on the distributor and
note the resistance. Compare the measured
resistance with the coil primary resistance
value listed in this Chapter's Specifications. If
the coil primary resistance is out of tolerance,
5
5-6
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
SPARK
PLUG
CABLES
7.17 After disconnecting the wiring harness electrical connector,
remove the coil pack mounting nuts and lift the coil from the
valve cover
the entire distributor must be replaced - the
coil is not serviceable.
13 Measure the coil secondary resistance;
using an ohmmeter, measure the resistance
between the coil hi-tension tower terminal
and each terminal of the two-pin connector.
Compare the measured resistances with the
secondary resistance value listed in this
Chapter's Specifications. If the coil secondary resistance is out of tolerance, the
entire distributor must be replaced - the coil
is not serviceable.
14 Install the distributor cap and related
components in the reverse order of removal.
Replacement
Four-cylinder engines
Refer to illustration 7.17
15 Label the spark plug wires and detach
them from the coil pack.
16 Disconnect the primary wiring electrical
connector from the coil pack.
17 Remove the coil pack mounting nuts
(see illustration) and lift the coil pack from
the mounting bracket on the valve cover.
18 Installation is the reverse of removal.
V6
engine
19 The ignition coil on V6 engines is not
serviceable. If the coil is defective, replace
the distributor assembly (see Section 8).
8
Distributor (V6 engine only) removal and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 8.5 and 8.8
Disconnect the negative battery cable
1
from the ground stud on the left shock tower.
2
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
3
Remove the EGR tube (see Chapter 6).
4
Clean the area around and then remove
the transaxle fluid dipstick tube. To prevent
foreign debris from entering the transaxle,
cover the dipstick hole in the transaxle with
DISTRIBUTOR
CONNECTORS
8.5 Distributor
electrical connections
duct tape or equivalent.
5
Disconnect the electrical connectors
from the distributor (see illustration).
6
Label each spark plug wire to it's location in the distributor cap and then disconnect them.
7
Remove the spark plug wire routing
bracket from the distributor.
Loosen the two screws and remove the
8
distributor cap (see illustration).
9
Using a felt tip pen and/or a piece of
tape, match-mark the rotor tip to the distributor body.
10 Remove the two nuts and washers
securing the distributor and withdraw it from
the cylinder head.
Installation
11
Inspect the distributor 0-ring seal for
hardness, cracks, swelling or other damage
and replace it if necessary.
12 Install the rotor onto the distributor
shaft.
13 Apply a light coat of clean engine oil to
the distributor 0-ring seal and carefully insert
the distributor into the cylinder head with the
rotor aligned with the previously applied
match-mark. Make sure the distributor is fully
seated in the cylinder head and secure with
the two nuts and washers. Tighten the distributor hold-down nuts to the torque given in
this Chapter's Specifications.
14 If engine was rotated while the distributor was removed, proceed as follows:
a) Rotate the engine to Top Dead Center
for number 1 piston (see Chapter 2C).
b) Using an ohmmeter, perform a continuity test on the distributor cap to identify
the location of the number 1 terminal
inside the cap and mark it's location on
the outside of the cap.
c) Place the cap onto the distributor and
place another mark on the distributor
body in line with the number 1 terminal
mark on the cap. Remove the cap.
d) Perform Steps 11 thru 13. After installa tion, use the distributor cap to make
'sure the rotor is pointed at the number 1
terminal.
8.8 Distributor cap mounting screws
15 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal with the following additions:
a) Check and replace if necessary, the
transaxle dipstick tube 0-ring seal.
Apply a light coat of clean transaxle fluid
to the seal before installation.
b) Use new gaskets on the EGR tube and
tighten the bolts to the torque listed in
the Specification Section of Chapter 6.
9
Charging system - general
information and precautions
The charging system includes the alternator, a charge indicator light, the battery, the
Powertrain Control Module (PCM), the ASD
relay, a fusible link and the wiring between all
the components. The charging system supplies electrical power to maintain the battery
at its full charge capacity. The alternator is
driven by a drivebelt on the front of the
engine.
The Electronic Voltage Regulator (EVR)
within the PCM varies the battery charge rate
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
in accordance with driving conditions.
Depending on electric load, vehicle speed,
engine coolant temperature, battery temperature sensor, accessories (air conditioning
system, radio, cruise control etc.) and the
intake air temperature, the PCM will adjust
the amount of voltage generated, creating
less load on the engine.
The purpose of the voltage regulator is
to limit the alternator's voltage to a preset
value. This prevents power surges, circuit
overloads, etc., during peak voltage output.
Since the EVR is contained within the PCM,
the PCM must be replaced in the event of
EVR failure.
Four-cylinder models are equipped with
a Nippondenso type alternator and V6 models use a Mitsubishi (MELCO) alternator. Both
types have a rating of 90 amperes. The alternator is not serviceable and therefore must
be replaced as a unit in the event of failure.
The charging system doesn't ordinarily
require periodic maintenance. However, the
drivebelt, battery, wires and connections
should be inspected at the intervals outlined
in Chapter 1.
The dashboard warning light should illuminate when the ignition key is turned to ON,
but it should go off immediately after the
engine is started. If it remains on, there is a
malfunction in the charging system which
must be diagnosed (see Section 10).
Be very careful when making electrical
circuit connections to a vehicle equipped
with an alternator and note the following:
a) When reconnecting wires to the alternator from the battery, be sure to note the
polarity.
b) Never start the engine with a battery
charger connected.
c) Before using arc welding equipment to
repair any part of the vehicle, disconnect
the wiring from the alternator and the
cables from the battery.
d) Always disconnect both battery cables
before using a battery charger.
e) The alternator is turned by an engine
drivebelt which could cause serious
injury if your hands, hair or clothes
become entangled in it with the engine
running.
f) Because the alternator is connected
directly to the battery, it could arc or
cause a fire if overloaded or shorted out.
g) Wrap a plastic bag over the alternator
and secure it with rubber bands before
steam cleaning the engine.
10
5-7
b) Check the alternator wiring connections;
make sure they are clean and tight.
c) Check the battery voltage. If its less than
12 volts, charge the battery (see Chapter 1).
d) Check the drivebelt condition and tension (see Chapter 1).
e) Check the alternator mounting bolts for
tightness.
f) Run the engine and check the alternator
for abnormal noise.
2
Check the battery temperature sensor.
Remove the front bumper (see Chapter 11).
Locate the battery temperature sensor on the
driver's side of the front bumper bar (see
illustration). Disconnect the electrical connector from the sensor. Using an ohmmeter,
measure the resistance between the sensor
electrical terminals. With the air temperature
at approximately 75 to 80-degrees F, the
Charging system - check
Refer to illustrations 10.1 and 10.2
Note: These vehicles are equipped with an
On Board Diagnostic (OBD-ll) system that is
useful for detecting charging system problems. Refer to Chapter 6 for the trouble code
extracting procedures.
1
If a malfunction occurs in the charging
circuit (see illustration), do not immediately
assume that the alternator is causing the
problem. First check the following items:
a) The battery cables where they connect
to the battery and at the remote terminals. Make sure the connections are
clean and tight (see Section 3).
10.2 Battery temperature sensor (arrow) front bumper removed
5
5-8
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
11.8a Alternator mounting details
- 2.0L four-cylinder engine
11.6 Alternator electrical connections four-cylinder engines
resistance should be 9,000 to 11,000 ohms. If
the resistance is out of tolerance, replace the
sensor.
3
Using a voltmeter, check the battery
voltage with the engine off. It should be
approximately 12 volts.
4
Start the engine and check the battery
voltage again. If the system is operating
properly, the voltage should increase to a
value between 13 to 15 volts.
5
If the indicated voltage reading is less or
more than the specified charging voltage,
have the PCM diagnosed at a dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop.
The voltage regulator on these models is
contained within the PCM and it cannot be
removed or serviced in any way.
Due to the special equipment necessary
6
to test the PCM and alternator, it is recommended that if a fault is suspected, the vehicle be taken to a dealer service department
or other qualified repair shop with the proper
equipment. Because of this, the home
mechanic should limit maintenance to checking connections and the inspection and
replacement of the alternator itself. As a general rule, when the battery is in good condition and all electrical connections are clean
and tight, if the charging voltage is low, the
alternator is faulty. If the charging voltage is
high, the voltage regulator is the problem.
11
Alternator - removal and
installation
General information
If you are replacing the alternator, take
1
the old one with you when purchasing a
replacement unit. Make sure the new/rebuilt
unit looks identical to the old alternator. Look
at the terminals - they should be the same in
number, size and location as the terminals on
the old alternator. Finally, look at the identification numbers - they will be stamped into
the housing or printed on a tag attached to
the housing. Make sure the numbers are the
11.8b Alternator
mounting details - 2.4L
four-cylinder engine
same on both the old and new alternators.
2
Many new/rebuilt alternators do not
have a pulley installed, so you may have to
switch the pulley from the old unit to the
new/rebuilt one. When buying an alternator,
find out the shop's policy regarding pulleys;
some shops will perform this service free of
charge.
Four-cylinder engines
Removal
Refer to illustrations 11.6, 11.8a and 11.8b
3
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Section 1).
4
On 1995 to 1997 models with 2.4L
engines equipped with anti-lock brakes, disconnect the electrical connector and remove
the two lower plate mounting bolts securing
the Controller Anti-lock Brakes (CAB) and
withdraw it from the vehicle (see Chapter 9).
5
On 2.4L engines, remove the engine
coolant reservoir (see Chapter 3).
6
Disconnect the electrical connector and
B+ cable from the alternator (see illustration).
7
Loosen the drivebelt adjustment bolts
and nut, then detach the alternator drivebelt
(see Chapter 1).
8
Remove the pivot bolt and spacer (see
illustrations).
9
While supporting the alternator, remove
the T-bolt, adjustment nut and bolt, then separate the alternator from the bracket. Maneuver it toward the passenger side of the vehicle and remove it from the engine compartment. Note: On 2.4L engines equipped with
air conditioning, slide the alternator under the
air conditioning lines.
Installation
10 Installation is the reverse of removal.
11 After the alternator is installed, adjust
the drivebelt tension (see Chapter 1).
12 Check the charging voltage to verify
proper operation of the alternator (see Section 10).
V6 engine
Removal
Refer to illustrations 11.14, 11.16 and 11.18
13 Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Section 1).
14 Disconnect the electrical connector and
B+ cable from the alternator (see illustration).
11.14 Alternator electrical connections
(arrows) - V6 engine
5-9
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
11.16 Alternator mounting bolts (arrows) - V6 engine
11.18 Alternator upper bracket mounting bolts (arrows) V6 engine
15 Remove the drivebelt from the alternator
(see Chapter 1).
16 Loosen the upper and lower mounting
bolts (see illustration).
17 Remove the lower mounting bolt and
spacer - be careful not to drop the spacer or
nut.
18 While supporting the alternator, remove
the two bolts securing the alternator upper
bracket to the cylinder head (see illustration)
and then remove the bracket and the alternator.
19 Remove the upper mounting bolt and
separate the bracket from the alternator.
Installation
20 Installation is the reverse of removal.
21 After the alternator is installed, adjust
the drivebelt tension (see Chapter 1).
22 Check the charging voltage to verify
proper operation of the alternator (see Section 10).
12
Starting system - general
information and precautions
Refer to illustration 12.2
1
The starter motor assemblies used on
2.0L four-cylinder and V6 engines use a planetary gear reduction system. The starter
12.2 Typical starter system diagram
motor assembly on 2.4L four-cylinder
engines uses an offset gear reduction system. The starter motor/solenoid for all models
is not serviceable and is sold strictly as a
complete assembly.
2
The starting system consists of the battery, the starter motor, the starter solenoid,
the starter relay, clutch start switch (manual
transaxles), PARK/NEUTRAL switch (automatic transaxles), ignition switch and the
wires that connect the components (see
illustration). The solenoid is located on the
starter motor which is located on the side of
the engine mounted to the transaxle bellhousing towards the front of the vehicle.
When the ignition key is turned to the
3
Start position, the starter solenoid is actuated
through the starter control circuit which
includes a starter relay located in the Power
Distribution Center. The starter solenoid then
connects the battery to the starter. The battery supplies the electrical energy to the
starter motor, which does the actual work of
cranking the engine.
4
Always observe the following precautions when working on the starting system:
a) Excessive cranking of the starter motor
can overheat it and cause serious damage. Never operate the starter motor for
more than 15 seconds at a time without
pausing for at least two minutes to allow
it to cool.
b) The starter is connected directly to the
battery and could arc or cause a fire if
mishandled, overloaded or shorted out.
c) Always detach the negative battery
cable from the ground stud on the left
shock tower before working on the starting system.
13
Starter motor - in-vehicle check
Refer to illustration 13.7
1
Make sure the battery is fully charged
and all cable/connections - at the battery,
starter solenoid terminals and remote terminals - are clean and secure.
2
If the starter motor does not function at
all when the switch is operated, make sure
the shift lever is in Neutral or Park (automatic
transaxles) and check the operation of the
PARK/NEUTRAL switch (see Chapter 7B). On
vehicles equipped with manual transaxles,
check the operation of the clutch start switch
(see Chapter 8).
3
If the starter motor spins but the engine
is not cranking, the overrunning clutch in the
starter motor is slipping and the starter motor
must be replaced. Also, the ring gear on the
driveplate may be worn. Inspect it after
removing the starter.
4
If, when the switch is actuated, the
starter motor does not operate at all but the
5
5-10
13.7 The starter relay (arrow) is located in
the Power Distribution Center inside the
engine compartment
Chapter 5 Engine electrical systems
14.4 Starter motor electrical connections
and mounting details - four-cylinder engine
the ground stud on the left shock tower (see
Section 1).
2
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
3
On vehicles equipped with automatic
transaxles, remove the Transmission Control
Module (TCM) from its mounting and position
it out of the way (see Chapter 7B). Note: DO
NOT disconnect the electrical connector from
TCM.
4
Remove the starter motor upper mounting bolt (see illustration).
5
Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
6
Clearly label, then disconnect the wires
from the terminals on the starter motor
solenoid.
7
While supporting the starter motor,
remove the lower mounting bolt and withdraw the starter motor from the vehicle.
Installation
Installation is the reverse of removal.
8
Tighten the starter motor mounting bolts to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
PUSH ON
SOLENOID
CONNECTOR
V6 engine
Removal
14.12 Starter motor electrical connections
and mounting details - V6 engine
solenoid clicks, the problem lies with either
the battery, the main solenoid contacts or the
starter motor itself (or possibly the engine
may be seized).
5
If the solenoid plunger cannot be heard
when the switch is actuated, the battery may
be faulty, the fusible link may be burned (the
circuit is open), the starter relay may be faulty
or the solenoid itself is defective.
6
To check the solenoid, connect a
remote starter switch between the positive
remote battery terminal and the ignition
switch wire terminal (the small terminal) on
the solenoid. If the starter motor operates
when the remote switch is activated, the
solenoid is OK and the problem is elsewhere
in the circuit.
7
Locate the starter relay in the Power
Distribution Center (PDC) (see illustration).
Remove the relay and perform the identical
tests as for the Automatic Shutdown Relay
(ASD) and the fuel pump relay in Chapter 4,
Section 3. Replace the relay if it does not
function as described.
8
If the starter motor still does not operate, remove the starter/solenoid assembly for
replacement as a complete unit (see Section 14).
9
If the starter motor cranks the engine at
an abnormally slow speed, first make sure
that the battery is fully charged and that all
electrical connections are clean and tight. If
the engine is partially seized, or has the
wrong viscosity oil in it, it will crank slowly.
10 If the engine starts, run the engine until
normal operating temperature is achieved,
then turn off the engine. Remove the fuel
pump relay to keep the engine from starting
(see Chapter 4 if necessary).
11 Connect a voltmeter positive lead to the
positive remote battery terminal and the negative lead to the negative remote battery terminal.
12 Crank the engine and take the voltmeter
reading as soon as a steady figure is indicated. Do not allow the starter motor to turn
for more than 15 seconds at a time. A reading
of 9 volts or more, with the starter motor turning at normal cranking speed, is normal. If the
reading is 9 volts or more but the cranking
speed is slow, the motor, solenoid contacts
or circuit connections are faulty. If the reading is less than 9 volts and the cranking
speed is slow, the starter motor is probably
bad.
Refer to illustrations 14.12 and 14.13
9
Detach the negative battery cable from
the ground stud on the left shock tower (see
Section 1).
10 Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
11 Remove the oil filter (see Chapter 1 if
necessary).
12 Disconnect the wires from the terminals
on the starter motor solenoid (see illustration).
13 While supporting the starter motor,
remove the three bolts securing it to the
transaxle bellhousing (see illustration) and
remove the starter motor from the vehicle.
Installation
14 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the starter motor mounting bolts to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
14 Starter motor - removal and
installation
Four-cylinder engines
Removal
Refer to illustration 14.4
1
Detach the negative battery cable from
14.13 Starter motor mounting bolts
(arrows) as viewed from under the vehicle
- V6 engine
Chapter 6
Emissions and engine control systems
Contents
Section
Catalytic converter system - description,
check and replacement ....................................................................8
CHECK ENGINE light .............................................................................2
Evaporative emission control system (EVAP) - description,
check and component replacement.................................................7
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system - description,
check and component replacement.................................................6
General information ................................................................................1
Idle Air Control (IAC) motor - check and replacement .... See Chapter 4
Section
Information sensors and output actuators - description,
check and replacement .................................................................... 3
On board diagnosis (OBD-II) system - description and
trouble code access......................................................................... 2
Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system - check
and replacement ..........................................................See Chapter 1
Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system - general
description........................................................................................5
Powertrain Control Module (PCM) - check and replacement ................4
Specifications
Torque specifications
Camshaft sensor (four-cylinder engines)
Sensor bolts.......................................................................................
Target magnet bolt .............................................................................
Crankshaft sensor retaining bolt .............................................................
Engine Coolant Temperature sensor
2.0L four-cylinder engine ...................................................................
2.4L four-cylinder and V6 engines .....................................................
EGR tube bolts ........................................................................................
EGR valve-to-cylinder head bolts ............................................................
Intake Air Temperature sensor
2.0L four-cylinder engine (1995 only) .................................................
2.4L four-cylinder and V6 engines .....................................................
Intake Air Temperature/Manifold Absolute Pressure
sensor (four-cylinder engines)
Plastic intake manifold .......................................................................
Aluminum intake manifold ..................................................................
Knock sensor ..........................................................................................
Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor bolts (V6 engine) .............................
Oxygen sensor........................................................................................
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
105 in-lbs
40 in-lbs
105 in-lbs
60 in-lbs
20
95 in-lbs
200 in-lbs
60 in-lbs
100 in-lbs
20 in-lbs
30 in-lbs
90 in-lbs
30 in-lbs
20
6
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
6-2
1.5 The Vehicle
Emission Control
Information (VECI)
label is located in the
engine compartment
on the upper radiator
support and contains
information on engine
type, tune-up
specifications, type of
emissions control
devices used on your
vehicle and a vacuum
diagram
1
General information
Refer to illustration 1.5
1
To prevent pollution of the atmosphere
from incompletely burned and evaporating
fuel gases and to maintain good driveability
and fuel economy, a number of emission
control systems are incorporated. The major
systems incorporated on the vehicles with
which this manual is concerned include the:
Evaporative Emission Control (EVAP)
system
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system
Oxygen sensor (02) system
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV)
system
Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
(computer) and information sensors
Catalytic converter
2
The Sections in this Chapter include
general descriptions, checking procedures
within the scope of the home mechanic and
component replacement procedures (when
possible) for each of the systems listed
above.
3
Before assuming an emissions control
system is malfunctioning, check the fuel and
ignition systems carefully. The diagnosis of
some emission control devices requires specialized tools, equipment and training. If
checking and servicing become too difficult
or if a procedure is beyond your ability, consult a dealer service department or other
qualified service facility. Remember, the most
frequent cause of emissions problems is simply a loose or broken vacuum hose or wire,
so always check the hose and electrical connections that interconnect the components
within each system first.
4
This doesn't mean, however, that emission control systems are particularly difficult
to maintain and repair. You can quickly and
easily perform many checks and do most of
the regular maintenance at home with common tune-up and hand tools. Note: Because
of a Federally mandated extended warranty
which covers the emission control system
components, check with your dealer about
warranty coverage before working on any
emissions-related systems. Once the war -
ranty has expired, you may wish to perform
some of the component checks and/or
replacement procedures in this Chapter to
save money.
5
Pay close attention to any special precautions outlined in this Chapter. A Vehicle
Emissions Control Information (VECI) label is
located in the engine compartment (see
illustration). This label contains important
emissions specifications and adjustment
information. When servicing the engine or
emissions systems, check the VECI label for
information on your particular vehicle.
2
2.1 Digital multi-meters can be used for
testing all types of circuits; because of
their high impedance, they are much more
accurate than analog type meters for
measuring low voltage computer circuits
On Board Diagnosis (OBD-II)
system - description and trouble
code access
Diagnostic tool information
Refer to illustrations 2.1 and 2.2
1
A digital multi-meter is necessary for
checking fuel injection and emission related
components (see illustration). A digital voltohmmeter is preferred over the older style
analog multi-meter for several reasons. The
analog multi-meter cannot display the volt,
ohms or amps measurement in hundredths
and thousandths increments. When working
with electronic circuits which are often very
low voltage, this accurate reading is most
important. Another good reason for the digital
multi-meter is the high impedance circuit.
The digital multi-meter is equipped with a
high resistance internal circuitry (10 million
ohms). Because a voltmeter is hooked up in
parallel with the circuit when testing, it is vital
that none of the voltage being measured
should be allowed to travel the parallel path
set up by the meter itself. This dilemma does
not show itself when measuring larger
amounts of voltage (9 to 12 volt circuits) but if
you are measuring a low voltage circuit such
as the oxygen sensor signal voltage, a fraction of a volt may be a significant amount
when diagnosing a problem.
2
Hand-held scanners are the most powerful and versatile tools for analyzing engine
management systems used on later model
vehicles (see illustration). Each brand scan
2.2 Scanners like the Actron ScanTool
and the AutoXray XP240 are powerful
diagnostic aids - programmed with
comprehensive diagnostic information,
they can tell you just about anything you
want to know about your electronic
engine management system
tool must be examined carefully to match the
year, make and model of the vehicle you are
working on. Often interchangeable cartridges
are available to access the particular manufacturer (Chrysler, Ford, GM, etc.). Some
manufacturers will even specify by continent
(Asia, Europe, USA, etc.).
OBD-ll system general
description
3
The OBD-ll system consists of an onboard computer, known as the Powertrain
Control Module (PCM) and information sensors which monitor various functions of the
engine and then relay the data to the PCM.
Based on the data received and the informa-
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
tion programmed into the computer's memthe PCM then generates output signals
to control various engine functions via control
relays, solenoids and other output actuators.
4
The PCM, located in the engine compartment and mounted to a bracket between
the air filter housing and the Power Distribution Center (PDC), is the "brain" of the OBD-ll
system. The PCM is specifically calibrated to
optimize the emissions, fuel economy and
driveability of the vehicle.
5
Because of a Federally mandated
extended warranty which covers the OBD-II
system components and because any
owner-induced damage to the PCM, the sensors and/or the control devices may void the
warranty, it is not recommended to attempt
diagnosis of, or replace the PCM at home
while the vehicle is under warranty. Take the
vehicle to your local dealer service department if the PCM or a system component malfunctions.
ory,
Information sensors
6
The following is a list of the OBD-II system information sensors. For complete information and service procedures, refer to Section 3 (unless otherwise specified).
Brake switch
Camshaft Position sensor
Crankshaft Position sensor
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor
Knock sensor
Leak Detection Pump (LDP) (see
Section 7)
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor
Oxygen sensors
PARK/NEUTRAL switch (see Chapter 7B)
Power steering pressure switch
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) (vehicles
equipped with manual transaxle only)
Output actuators
7
The following is a list of the OBD-II system output actuators. For complete information and service procedures, refer to the
Chapter or Section as specified.
Air conditioning clutch relay (see
Section 3)
Automatic Shutdown relay (ASD) (see
Chapter 4)
Canister purge control solenoid (see
Section 7)
EGR solenoid (see Section 6)
Fuel injectors (see Chapter 4)
Fuel pump relay (see Chapter 4)
Idle Air Control (IAC) motor (see
Chapter 4)
CHECK ENGINE light or
Malfunction Indicator Light
(MIL)
General description
8
The CHECK ENGINE light or Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL), is located in the
instrument panel and should illuminate for
2.11 The OBD-ll diagnostic connector
(arrow) is located under the left (driver's)
side of the instrument panel
three seconds as a bulb test each time the
engine is started. When the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) detects a fault in the emissions or engine control system it sets a trouble code in the PCM's memory. If the PCM
detects a fault related to vehicle emissions, it
ill uminates the CHECK ENGINE light which
means an emissions component or system is
in need of immediate service. In the event the
PCM detects an active engine misfire, the
CHECK ENGINE light will flash continuously.
If this occurs, turn off the engine as soon as
possible and diagnose/correct the problem
or severe catalytic converter damage may
occur.
9
The EVAP system (see Section 7),
except on 1995 models, is pressurized by a
Leak Detection Pump (LDP). If normal system
pressure cannot be achieved by the LDP,
which indicates a fuel vapor leak, the PCM
will store the appropriate fault code and illuminate the CHECK ENGINE light on the
instrument panel. The most common cause
of CHECK ENGINE light illumination is EVAP
system pressure loss due to a loose or poor
sealing fuel filler cap. Before accessing the
trouble codes and trying to determine the
faulty component, make sure your gas cap
seal is free from defects and is tightened
securely. Caution: Over-tightening the gas
cap may cause the fuel tank filler neck to
crack.
10 In addition to notifying the driver when
an emissions fault has occurred, the CHECK
ENGINE light can be used to display the
stored trouble codes from the PCM's memory (see below).
Trouble code access
Refer to illustration 2.11
Note: All models covered by this manual are
equipped with the OBD-ll system. Generic
trouble codes on 1997 and earlier models can
be accessed using the ignition key method,
but it is necessary to use a SCAN tool to read
and interpret manufacturer-specific trouble
codes (or any trouble codes on 1998 models).
Before outputting the trouble codes, thoroughly inspect ALL electrical connectors and
6-3
hoses. Make sure all electrical connections
are tight, clean and free of corrosion; make
sure all hoses are properly connected, fit
tightly and are in good condition (no cracks or
tears).
11 The self-diagnosis information contained
in the PCM (computer) can be accessed
either by the ignition key or by using a scan
tool. This tool is attached to the diagnostic
connector (see illustration) located under the
left (driver's) side of the instrument panel in
the passenger compartment and reads the
codes and parameters on the digital display
screen. The tool is expensive and most home
mechanics prefer to use the alternate
method. The drawback with the ignition key
method is that it does not access all the available codes for display. Most problems can be
solved or diagnosed quite easily and if the
information cannot be obtained readily, have
the vehicle's self-diagnosis system analyzed
by a dealer service department or other qualified repair shop.
12 To obtain the codes using the ignition
key method, first set the parking brake and
put the shift lever in Park. Raise the engine
speed to approximately 2,500 rpm and slowly
let the speed down to idle. Also, if equipped,
cycle the air conditioning system (on briefly,
then off). Next, on models equipped with an
automatic transaxle, apply the brakes and
select each position on the transmission
(Reverse, Drive, Low etc.), finally bring the
shifter back to Park and turn off the engine.
This will allow the computer to obtain any
fault codes that might be linked to any of the
sensors controlled by the transmission,
engine speed or air conditioning system.
13 To display the codes on the instrument
panel (CHECK ENGINE light or Malfunction
Indicator Light), with the engine NOT running,
turn the ignition key ON, OFF, ON, OFF and
finally ON (must be done within 5 seconds).
The codes will begin to flash. The light will
blink the number of the first digit then pause
and blink the number of the second digit. For
example: Code 23, air temperature sensor
circuit, would be indicated by two flashes,
pause, three flashes.
14 Certain criteria must be met for a fault
code to be entered into the PCM's memory.
The criteria might be a specific range of
engine rpm, engine temperature or input voltage to the PCM. It's possible that a fault code
for a particular monitored circuit may not be
entered into the memory despite a malfunction. This may happen because one of the
fault code criteria has not been met. For
example, the engine must be operating
between 750 and 2,000 rpm in order to monitor the MAP sensor circuit correctly. If the
engine speed is raised above 2,400 rpm, the
MAP sensor output circuit shorts to ground
and will not allow a fault code to be entered
into the memory. Then again, the exact
opposite could occur: A code is entered into
the memory that suggests a malfunction
within another component that is not monitored by the computer. For example, a fuel
pressure problem cannot register a fault
6
6-4
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
directly but instead, it will cause a rich or lean
fuel mixture problem. Consequently, this will
cause an oxygen sensor malfunction resulting in a stored code in the computer for the
oxygen sensor. Be aware of the interrelationship of the sensors and circuits and the overall relationship of the emissions control and
fuel injection systems. A trouble code does
not identify which component in a circuit is
faulty, therefore the code should be treated
as a symptom, not the direct cause of the
problem.
15 The accompanying table is a list of the
typical trouble codes which may be encoun -
tered while diagnosing the system. Also
included are simplified troubleshooting procedures. If the problem persists after these
checks have been made, more detailed service procedures will have to be performed by
a dealer service department or other qualified
repair shop.
Trouble codes - 1995 through 1997 models (using CHECK ENGINE light)
Note: Not all trouble codes apply to all models.
Code 11 ................. Intermittent loss of crankshaft and/or camshaft position sensor signals to PCM.
Code 12.................Problem with the battery connection. Direct battery input to PCM disconnected within the last 50 ignition key-on cycles.
Code 13** .............. Problem with the MAP sensor circuit.
Code 14** .............. MAP sensor voltage out of normal range.
Code 15** .............. A problem with the Vehicle Speed Sensor signal. No Vehicle Speed Sensor signal detected during road load conditions.
Code 16.................No input signal from knock sensor.
Code 17 .................Engine is cold too long. Engine coolant temperature remains below normal operating temperatures during initial operation
(check the thermostat).
Code 21** .............. Problem with oxygen sensor signal circuit. Sensor voltage to computer not fluctuating.
Code 22** .............. Engine coolant temperature sensor voltage out of normal range.
Code 23**.............. Intake air temperature sensor voltage out of normal range.
Code 24** .............. Throttle position sensor voltage high or low. Test the throttle position sensor.
Code 25**.............. Idle Air Control (IAC) valve circuits. A shorted condition is detected in one or more of the IAC valve circuits. Or a vacuum
leak is detected.
Code 27 ................. One of the injector control circuit output drivers does not respond properly to the control signal. Check the circuits.
Code 31** .............. EVAP system fault.
Code 32** .............. An open or shorted condition detected in the EGR solenoid circuit. Possible air/fuel ratio imbalance not detected
during diagnosis.
Code 33 .................Air conditioning clutch relay circuit. An open or shorted condition detected in the compressor clutch relay circuit.
Code 34 .................Open or shorted condition detected in the speed control vacuum or vent solenoid circuits.
Code 35 .................Open or shorted condition detected in the radiator fan high or low speed relay circuits.
Code 37** ..............Transaxle PARK/NEUTRAL switch failure.
Code 41 *** .............Problem with the charging system. An open or shorted condition detected in the alternator field control circuit.
Code 42.................Fuel pump relay or auto shutdown relay (ASD) control circuit indicates an open or shorted circuit condition.
Code 43** .............. Multiple cylinder misfire detected. Peak primary circuit current not achieved with the maximum dwell time.
Code 44** .............. Battery temperature sensor voltage circuit.
Code 45.................Transaxle fault present in transmission control module - automatic transaxles.
Code 46*** .............Charging system voltage too high. Computer indicates that the battery voltage is not properly regulated.
Code 47*** .............Charging system voltage too low. Battery voltage sensor input below target charging voltage during engine operation and
no significant change in voltage detected during active test of alternator output.
Code 51** .............. Oxygen sensor signal input indicates lean fuel/air ratio condition during engine operation.
Code 52** .............. Oxygen sensor signal input indicates rich fuel/air ratio condition during engine operation.
Code 53** .............. Internal PCM failure detected.
Code 54**.............. No camshaft position sensor signal from distributor. Problem with the distributor synchronization circuit.
Code 55.................Completion of fault code display on CHECK ENGINE light. This is the end of stored codes.
Code 61 ................. MAP sensor out of range.
Code 62 ................. Unsuccessful attempt to update EMR mileage in the controller EEPROM.
Code 63** .............. Controller failure. EEPROM write denied. Check the PCM.
Code 64** .............. Catalytic converter efficiency below required level.
Code 65** .............. Power steering switch failure or no release of brake switch detected.
Code 66 .................Transmission control module (TCM) or body control module (BCM) not sensed by PCM.
Code 71 ................. PCM output voltage low.
Code 72**..............Catalytic converter efficiency below required level.
Code 77.................Speed Control relay fault.
** These codes illuminate the CHECK ENGINE light on the instrument panel during engine operation once the trouble code has been recorded.
***These codes illuminate the charging system light (battery) on the instrument panel during engine operation once the trouble code has been
recorded.
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
6-5
Trouble codes - using scan tool
Note: These are "generic" trouble codes and pertain to all models covered by this manual.
Code
Probable cause
P0102 ..........................Mass Airflow (MAF) sensor circuit low input
P0103 ..........................Mass Airflow (MAF) sensor circuit high input
P0106 ..........................Barometric pressure out of range
P0107 ..........................Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor voltage too low
P0108 ..........................Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor voltage too high
P0112..........................Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor circuit low input
P0113..........................Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor circuit high input
P0117..........................Electronic Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor circuit low input
P0118..........................Electronic Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor circuit high input
P0121.......................... In range Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) fault
P0122......................... Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) circuit low input
P0123......................... Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) circuit high input
P0131.......................... Upstream heated 02 sensor circuit low voltage (Bank 1)
P0132..........................Upstream heated 02 sensor shorted to voltage
P0133..........................Upstream heated 02 sensor circuit slow response (Bank 1)
P0135..........................Upstream heated 02 sensor heater circuit fault (Bank 1)
P0136..........................Downstream heated 02 sensor fault (Bank 1)
P0138..........................Downstream heated 02 sensor shorted to voltage
P0140..........................Downstream heated 02 sensor - neither rich nor lean condition detected
P0141 .......................... Downstream heated 02 sensor heater circuit fault (Bank 1)
P0151 .......................... Upstream heated 02 sensor circuit low voltage (Bank 2)
P0153..........................Upstream heated 02 sensor circuit slow response (Bank 2)
P0155..........................Upstream heated 02 sensor heater circuit fault (Bank 2)
P0156..........................Downstream heated 02 sensor fault (Bank 2)
P0161 .......................... Downstream heated 02 sensor heater circuit fault (Bank 2)
P0171 ..........................System Adaptive fuel too lean (Bank 1)
P0172 ..........................System Adaptive fuel too rich (Bank 1)
P0174 ..........................System Adaptive fuel too lean (Bank 2)
P0172..........................System Adaptive fuel too rich (Bank 2)
P0191..........................Injector Pressure sensor system performance
P0192..........................Injector Pressure sensor circuit low input
P0193..........................Injector Pressure sensor circuit high input
P0201..........................Injector no. 1 output driver not responding properly
P0202..........................Injector no. 2 output driver not responding properly
P0203..........................Injector no. 3 output driver not responding properly
P0204..........................Injector no. 4 output driver not responding properly
P0205..........................Injector no. 5 output driver not responding properly
P0206..........................Injector no. 6 output driver not responding properly
P0300..........................Multiple cylinder misfiring detected
P0301 .......................... Cylinder no. 1 misfire detected
P0302..........................Cylinder no. 2 misfire detected
P0303 ..........................Cylinder no. 3 misfire detected
P0304 ..........................Cylinder no. 4 misfire detected
P0305..........................Cylinder no. 5 misfire detected
P0306..........................Cylinder no. 6 misfire detected
P0325..........................Knock sensor circuit fault
P0326..........................Knock sensor circuit performance
P0351 .......................... Ignition coil no. 1 primary circuit fault
P0352 ..........................Ignition coil no. 2 primary circuit fault
P0353 ..........................Ignition coil no. 3 primary circuit fault
P0354 ..........................Ignition coil no. 4 primary circuit fault
P0355 ..........................Ignition coil no. 5 primary circuit fault
6
6-6
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
Trouble codes - using scan tool (continued)
Note: These are "generic" trouble codes and pertain to all models covered by this manual.
Code
Probable cause
P0356..........................Ignition coil no. 6 primary circuit fault
P0400 ..........................EGR flow fault
P0401 .......................... EGR insufficient flow detected
P0402..........................EGR excessive flow detected
P0403..........................EGR transducer circuit open or shorted
P0420..........................Catalyst system efficiency below threshold (Bank 1)
P0421.......................... Catalyst system efficiency below threshold (Bank 1)
P0430..........................Catalyst system efficiency below threshold (Bank 2)
P0431.......................... Catalyst system efficiency below threshold (Bank 2)
P0442..........................EVAP small leak detected
P0443..........................EVAP VMV circuit fault
P0452..........................EVAP fuel tank pressure sensor low input
P0453..........................EVAP fuel tank pressure sensor high input
P0455..........................Leak in EVAP system detected
P0462..........................Fuel level sending unit - low voltage indicated
P0463..........................Fuel level sending unit - high voltage indicated
P0460..........................Fuel level sending unit - no movement detected
P0500......................... VSS fault
P0505..........................IAC valve system fault
P0600..........................PCM internal fault
P0601 .......................... PCM internal fault
P0603..........................PCM Keep Alive Memory test error
P0605..........................PCM Read Only Memory test error
P0622......................... Alternator field circuit open or shorted
P0645......................... A/C clutch relay circuit open or shorted
P0700......................... Automatic transmission fault detected
P0703..........................Brake switch stuck open or closed
3
Information sensors and output
actuators - description, check
and replacement
Note 1: All models covered by this manual
are equipped with the OBD-ll system. The
engine codes on 1997 and earlier models can
be accessed using the ignition key, but it is
necessary to use a special factory SCAN tool
(DRB-1l) to read and interpret all the various
levels of diagnostic information (or any trouble codes on 1998 and later models). Have
the vehicle diagnosed by a dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop if
the following component checking procedures fail to identify and correct a problem.
Note 2: After performing checking procedures on any of the OBD-ll components, be
sure to clear the PCM of all trouble codes by
disconnecting the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal for at least ten seconds.
Air conditioning clutch relay
General description
If the vehicle is equipped with air condi1
tioning, the PCM controls the application of
the air conditioning compressor clutch. The
PCM uses the air conditioning clutch relay to
delay clutch engagement when the air conditioning is turned ON to allow the IAC motor to
adjust the engine idle speed to compensate
for the additional load. The PCM will also disengage the A/C compressor clutch if the
refrigerant pressure is too high or too low, the
engine coolant temperature is too hot, when
the throttle is placed in the wide-open position or the PCM senses a part-throttle launch
condition.
Check and replacement
Refer to illustration 3.3
First check for battery voltage to the air
2
conditioning clutch with the engine running
and the air conditioning turned ON. Detach
the electrical connector from the air conditioning compressor and using a test light or a
voltmeter check for battery voltage at the
connector dark blue/black wire.
3
If voltage is not present at the connector, check for voltage to the air conditioning
compressor clutch relay, which is located
under the rectangular cover of the Power Distribution Center (PDC). Remove the relay
from the PDC. With the engine running and
the air conditioning ON, check for battery
voltage to terminals 39 and 19 (see illustration). If voltage is present, replace the relay. If
voltage is not present at the connector, refer
to Chapter 3 for more information on trou -
3.3 Terminal guide for the air conditioning
compressor clutch relay socket
bleshooting the air conditioning system. In
most cases, if the air conditioning system
does not operate, a problem exists with the
air conditioning pressure switches or controls
and not the PCM.
4
To replace the air conditioning clutch
relay, remove the cover from the PDC and
pull the relay out of its socket. Installation is
the reverse of removal.
Brake switch
General description
5
When the brakes are applied, the brake
switch sends a signal to the PCM. After
receiving this input, the PCM maintains idle
speed to a scheduled rpm via the IAC motor.
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
3.7b Camshaft position sensor - 2.0L
DOHC and 2.4L engines
Check and replacement
Refer to Chapter 9 for service proce6
dures.
Camshaft position sensor
General description
Refer to illustrations 3.7a and 3.7b
7
On four-cylinder engines, the camshaft
position sensor, located at the rear of the
cylinder head (see illustrations), provides
cylinder identification to the PCM to synchronize the fuel system with the ignition system.
The synchronizing signal is generated from a
rotating target magnet attached to the rear of
the camshaft. The target magnet has four different poles arranged in a symmetrical pattern. As the target magnet rotates, the sensor
senses the changes in polarity and generates
pulses from high (5 volts) to low (0.30 volts).
These voltage pulses combined with the data
from the crankshaft sensor are processed by
the PCM which then determines fuel injection
synchronization. On 2.0L DOHC and 2.4L
four-cylinder engines, the sensor also acts as
a thrust plate to control camshaft endplay.
8
On V6 engines the camshaft position
sensor is located inside the distributor which
is located on the right side (rear) cylinder
head and driven by the camshaft. The
camshaft position sensor is a Hall Effect
device which detects a rotating ring (shutter)
mounted to the distributor shaft. When the
leading edge of the shutter enters the Hall
Effect device, the interruption of the magnetic
field causes a signal of approximately 5 volts
to be sent to the PCM. As the trailing edge of
the shutter leaves the device, the voltage signal is turned off. These voltage pulses combined with the data from the crankshaft sensor are processed by the PCM which then
determines fuel injection synchronization.
Check
Refer to illustration 3.9
Note: To backprobe an electrical connector,
use pins or paper clips inserted into the rear
of the connector (or wire) to facilitate meter
attachment. Be careful not to short the
probes during this process.
9
With the ignition key in the ON position
(engine OFF), check for supply voltage at the
ORANGE/WHITE wire (1995 to 1997 vehicles)
or the ORANGE wire (1998 and later vehicles)
at the camshaft position sensor connector
(four-cylinder engines) and the distributor
connector (V6 engines) (see illustration). The
supply voltage should be approximately 8
volts. If no voltage is present, check the circuit
for a broken wire or short (see Chapter 12). If
the circuit checks out OK, have the PCM
checked out by your local dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop.
10 Next, disconnect the spark plug wires
from the ignition coil (four-cylinder engines)
or the distributor cap (V6 engine) (see Chapter 1 if necessary). With the connector
attached to the sensor, use a voltmeter to
backprobe the tan/yellow signal wire (positive) and the black/light blue ground wire and
crank the engine. The voltmeter should fluctuate from approximately 0.3 to 5 volts for
four-cylinder engines and 0 to 5 volts for V6
engines. If supply voltage is detected but
there is no signal voltage, replace the
camshaft sensor. After testing, replace the
spark plug wires in their proper positions.
Replacement
Four-cylinder engines
11 Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
12 Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
13 On 2.0L SOHC engines, disconnect the
electrical connectors from the engine coolant
sensor and camshaft position sensor.
Remove the brake booster hose and electrical connectors from the holders on the end of
the valve cover.
14 Remove the bolts from the camshaft
sensor and withdraw the sensor from the rear
of the cylinder head.
15 If necessary, remove the target magnet
mounting screw and remove the magnet.
16 Installation is the reverse of removal. If
removed, align the locating pins on the backside of the target magnet with the locating
6-7
3.9 On V6 engines, the camshaft position
sensor is located inside the distributor.
The 6-pin electrical connector (arrow)
contains the sensor wires - the 2-pin
electrical connector is for the ignition
coil circuit
holes in the rear of the camshaft. Tighten the
fasteners to the torques listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
V6 engines
17 If the camshaft position sensor is determined to be defective, replace the distributor
assembly (see Chapter 5).
Crankshaft position sensor
General description
Refer to illustrations 3.18a and 3.18b
18 The PCM uses the crankshaft position
sensor to determine fuel injector sequence,
ignition ti ming and engine rpm. The
crankshaft position sensor is a Hall-Effect
device which uses cut-outs in the crankshaft
(four-cylinder engines) or slots is the driveplate (V6 engine) to send voltage pulses to
the PCM. The fuel injection and ignition systems will not operate if the PCM does not
receive a signal from the crankshaft position
sensor. On four-cylinder engines, the
crankshaft position sensor is located on the
side of the engine block between the main
bearing cap/bedplate and engine block near
the oil filter (see illustration). On V6 engines,
3.18a Crankshaft position sensor - fourcylinder engines
6
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
6-8
CRANKSHAFT
POSITION SENSOR
3.18b Crankshaft position sensor - V6 engine
3.33a On 2.0L four-cylinder engines, the Engine Coolant
Temperature (ECT) sensor (arrow) is located at the rear of the
cylinder head
the crankshaft position sensor is located on
the transaxle bellhousing and below the distributor (see illustration).
Check
Note 1: To perform this check on four-cylinder engines, it is necessary to raise the front
of the vehicle and place it securely on jackstands. On V6 engines, it will be necessary to
detach the speed control servo from the left
shock tower, if equipped.
Note 2: To backprobe an electrical connector, use pins or paper clips inserted into the
rear of the connector (or wire) to facilitate
meter attachment. Be careful not to short the
probes during this process.
19 Check the supply voltage to the
crankshaft sensor from the PCM. Locate the
crankshaft sensor electrical connector. With
the ignition key ON (engine OFF) backprobe
the orange/white wire (positive) using a voltmeter. There should be approximately 8.0
volts present. If no voltage is present, check
the circuit for a broken wire or short (see
Chapter 12). If the circuit checks out OK,
have the PCM checked out by your local
dealer service department or other qualified
repair shop.
20 Next, disconnect the spark plug wires
from the ignition coil (four-cylinder engines)
or the distributor cap (V6 engine) (see Chapter 1 if necessary). With the connector
attached to the sensor, use a voltmeter to
backprobe the gray/black signal wire (positive) and the black/light blue ground wire and
crank the engine. The voltmeter should fluctuate from approximately 0.3 to 5 volts. If
supply voltage is detected but there is no signal voltage, replace the crankshaft sensor.
After testing, replace the spark plug wires in
their proper positions.
Replacement
Four-cylinder engines
21 Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
22 Disconnect the crankshaft sensor wiring
harness connector.
23 Remove the mounting bolt and withdraw the crankshaft sensor from the engine
block.
ENGINE COOLANT
TEMPERATURE
SENDING UNIT
3.3313 On 2.4L four-cylinder engines, the
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor
is located at the front of the cylinder head
3.33c On V6 engines, the Engine Coolant
Temperature (ECT) sensor (arrow) is
located at the rear of the cylinder head
near the engine coolant filler neck
24 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the bolt to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications and lower the vehicle.
proper position and will rub off during operation).
31 If the sensor does not have an elongated hole, simply install the sensor and
tighten the mounting bolt to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
32 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
V6 engine
25 If equipped, detach the speed control
servo from the left shock tower and position
it out of the way.
26 Detach the crankshaft sensor wiring
harness connector from the heater tube
bracket and disconnect the electrical connector.
27 Remove the mounting bolt and withdraw the crankshaft sensor from the
transaxle bellhousing.
28 If the old sensor is to be re-installed,
remove the paper spacer from the sensor
face and install a new spacer. If installing a
new sensor, verify the paper spacer is
installed on the face.
29 Place the sensor in the bellhousing and
install the mounting bolt loosely.
30 If the crankshaft sensor mounting hole is
elongated, push the sensor down into the
bellhousing until contact is made with the
driveplate. Tighten the mounting bolt to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications
(the paper spacer locates the sensor in the
Engine Coolant Temperature
(ECT) sensor
General description
Refer to illustrations 3.33a, 3.33b and 3.33c
33 The ECT sensor is a thermistor (a resistor which varies the value of its resistance in
accordance with temperature changes) (see
illustrations). The change in the resistance
values will directly affect the voltage signal
from the coolant thermosensor. As the sensor temperature DECREASES, the resistance
values will INCREASE. As the sensor temperature INCREASES, the resistance values will
DECREASE.
Check
Note: On V6 engines it will be necessary to
remove the air cleaner assembly (see Chapter 4) before performing this test.
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
remove the sensor and perform the tests in a
pan of heated water where the water temperature can be controlled.
Replacement
3.37 If you're re-installing the old ECT
sensor, wrap the threads with Teflon tape
to prevent leakage
34 To check the ECT sensor, release the
locking tab and disconnect the electrical connector. Using an ohmmeter across the sensor
terminals, measure the resistance of the ECT
sensor with the engine cold (approximately
70-degrees F). The ECT resistance value
should be between 7,000 and 13,000 ohms.
Next, start the engine and allow it to reach
operating temperature (approximately 200degrees F), then turn off the engine. Measure
the ECT resistance again, the resistance
should be between 700 and 1,000 ohms.
Note: Since the coolant sensor is difficult to
access on some vehicles, it may be easier to
Refer to illustration 3.37
Warning: Wait until the engine is completely
cool before beginning this procedure.
35 Drain the cooling system until the
coolant level is below the sensor (see Chapter 1).
36 Release the locking tab and disconnect
the electrical connector, then carefully
unscrew the sensor. Caution: Handle the
coolant sensor with care. Damage to this sensor will affect the operation of the entire fuel
injection system.
37 If you are re-installing the old sensor,
clean the threads and then wrap them with
Teflon tape to prevent leakage and thread
corrosion (see illustration). Note: New ECT
sensors have sealant already applied to the
threads.
38 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the ECT sensor to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications. Refill the cooling system after installation (see Chapter 1).
Idle Air Control (IAC) motor
39 This output actuator controls the engine
idle speed. For service procedures on the
IAC motor, refer to Chapter 4. A failure in the
IAC motor circuit will set a code 25 in the
PCM memory.
6-9
Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
sensor
Note: 1995 models with 2.0L SOHC engines
came equipped with an IAT sensor and a
MAP sensor. On 1996 and later models, the
IAT sensor is combined with the MAP sensor
into a single unit.
General information
Refer to illustrations 3.40a, 3.40b and 3.40c
40 The Intake Air Temperature sensor is
located in the intake manifold (see illustrations). This sensor operates as a negative
temperature coefficient (NTC) device. As the
sensor temperature DECREASES, the resistance values will INCREASE. As the sensor
temperature INCREASES, the resistance values will DECREASE. Most cases, the appropriate solution to the problem will be either
repair of a wire or replacement of the sensor.
Check
Refer to illustration 3.41
Note: On 2.4L four-cylinder engines, the air
cleaner assembly must be removed (see
Chapter 4) before this check can be performed. Since the IAT sensor is difficult to
access on 2.4L models, it may be easier to
remove the sensor and perform the check on
a workbench and heat the sensor using a heat
gun or hair dryer.
41 To check the sensor, release the locking
tab and disconnect the electrical connector
6
3.40a On 1996
and later 2.0L
SOHC engines,
the IAT and MAP
sensors are
combined into
one unit
3.40b On 2.4L and 2.0L DOHC engines, the IAT sensor is
located on the intake manifold on the cylinder head side
3.40c On V6 engines, the MAP (A) and IAT (B) sensors are located
on the right (passenger) side of the upper intake manifold manifold removed for clarity
3.41 Disconnecting the electrical connector from the IAT sensor V6 engine shown
6-10
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
3.57 Typical MAP sensor electrical
connector - inset shows 1996 and later
2.0L engine MAP/IAT sensor connector
3.62a Upstream oxygen sensor (arrow) V6 engine (front exhaust manifold) shown
IAT sensor is combined with the MAP sensor
into a single unit.
General information
rear of the connector (or wire) to facilitate
meter attachment. Be careful not to short the
probes during this process.
48 Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
49 Disconnect the sensor electrical connector.
50 Using a voltmeter (switched to the
proper setting - see Note above), connect the
negative probe to ground, and the positive
probe to the knock sensor electrical connector black/light green wire. Turn the ignition
switch ON (engine off). The voltmeter should
indicate approximately 4 volts (dc) for 1995 to
1997 models and 600 mV (ac) for 1998 models. Turn OFF the ignition. If no voltage is
indicated, check for a blown fuse and examine the wires for obvious damage. If the circuit looks OK, have the PCM checked out at
your local dealer service department or other
qualified repair shop.
51
Install the sensor electrical connector
onto the sensor. Using a voltmeter, backprobe the knock sensor electrical terminals
(positive probe to black/light green wire).
Turn the ignition key ON (engine off).
52 While watching the voltmeter, lightly tap
the metal part of the sensor body with a
wrench. The voltmeter should start to jump
as the sensor is triggered. Turn OFF the ignition. If the voltage doesn't fluctuate, replace
the sensor.
Refer to illustration 3.47
47 Four-cylinder engines are equipped with
a knock sensor mounted on the side of the
engine block near the starter motor (see
illustration). The knock sensor is a piezoelectric crystal that oscillates with engine
vibration. When knock is detected, the PCM
retards the ignition timing until the knocking
stops.
53 Raise the front of the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
54 Disconnect the electrical connector and
unscrew the knock sensor from the engine
block.
55 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the knock sensor to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
3.47 Knock sensor (four-cylinder engines)
as viewed from under the vehicle
(see illustration). Using an ohmmeter across
the sensor terminals, measure the resistance
of the sensor at ambient temperature
(approximately 70-degrees F). The resistance
should be between 7,000 and 13,000 ohms.
Next, start the engine and allow it to reach
operating temperature (approximately 200degrees F). Measure the resistance again - it
should be between 700 and 1,000 ohms.
Replacement
42 On 1996 and later models with 2.0L
four-cylinder engines, refer to the MAP sensor removal procedure in this Section.
43 On 2.4L four-cylinder engines, remove
the air cleaner assembly (see Chapter 4). To
gain access to the IAT sensor, reach between
the intake manifold and the cylinder head
inserting your hand at the throttle body end.
Perform this operation when the engine temperature is cold to avoid burning yourself.
44 Release the locking tab and disconnect
the electrical connector from the sensor.
45 Unscrew and remove the sensor from
the intake manifold.
46 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the IAT sensor to the torque given in
this Chapter's Specifications.
Knock sensor - four-cylinder
engines
Check
Note 1: 1995 to 1997 models operate on
direct current (dc), 1998 and later models use
alternating current (ac).
Note 2: To backprobe an electrical connector, use pins or paper clips inserted into the
Replacement
Manifold Absolute Pressure
(MAP) sensor
Note: 1995 models with 2.0L SOHC engines
came equipped with an /AT sensor and a
MAP sensor. On 1996 and later models, the
General description
56 The MAP sensor monitors the intake
manifold pressure changes resulting from
changes in engine load and speed and converts the information into a voltage output.
The PCM uses the MAP sensor to control fuel
delivery and ignition timing. The PCM will
receive the information as a voltage signal
that will vary from approximately 1.5 to 2.1
volts at closed throttle (high vacuum) and 4.0
to 4.5 volts at wide open throttle (low vacuum). The MAP sensor is located on the
intake manifold (see illustrations 3.40a,
3.40b, and 3.40c).
Check
Refer to illustration 3.57
Note: To backprobe an electrical connector,
use pins or paper clips inserted into the rear
of the connector (or wire) to facilitate meter
attachment. Be careful not to let the probes
touch each other during this process.
57 First, check the MAP sensor supply voltage; disconnect the electrical connector and
turn the ignition key ON (engine OFF). Using a
voltmeter, check for voltage between the violet/white wire (positive) and the black/light
blue wire (sensor ground) at the sensor connector (see illustration). There should be
approximately 4 to 5 volts present. If no voltage is indicated, check for a blown fuse and
examine the wires for obvious damage. If the
circuit looks OK, have the PCM checked out
at your local dealer service department or
other qualified repair shop.
58 Next check the MAP sensor output voltage; reconnect the electrical connector to the
sensor and turn the ignition key ON (engine
OFF). Using a voltmeter, backprobe the
black/light blue wire (sensor ground) and the
dark green/red wire (MAP signal output positive) at the sensor connector. There
should be approximately 4 to 5 volts present.
If supply voltage is detected but there is no
signal voltage, replace the MAP sensor. Start
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
3.62b Downstream oxygen sensor (arrow)
the engine, the voltage should drop to
approximately 1.5 to 2.1 volts with the engine
idling. If the MAP sensor voltage readings are
incorrect, replace the MAP sensor.
Replacement
59 Disconnect the electrical connector
from the MAP sensor.
60 Remove the MAP sensor mounting bolts
and detach the sensor from the intake manifold.
Installation is the reverse of removal.
61
Tighten the sensor bolts to the torque given
in this Chapter's Specifications.
Oxygen sensor
General description
Refer to illustrations 3.62a and 3.62b
62 Four-cylinder engines are equipped with
t wo oxygen sensors, an upstream oxygen
sensor, which is located in the exhaust manifold and a downstream oxygen sensor, which
is located at the outlet pipe of the catalytic
converter (see illustrations). On V6 engines,
there are three oxygen sensors, two
upstream sensors - one located in each
exhaust manifold (front and rear) and one
located at the outlet pipe of the catalytic converter. The upstream oxygen sensor(s) act as
a rich/lean switch indicating the air/fuel mixture to the PCM which then adjusts the injector pulse width to obtain the ideal mixture
ratio of 14.7 parts of air to 1 part fuel. The
downstream oxygen sensor provides the
PCM with the same information as the
upstream sensor, but by comparing the data
from both sensors, the PCM can monitor catalytic converter efficiency. The oxygen content in the exhaust reacts with the oxygen
sensor to produce a voltage output which
varies from 0.1 volt (high oxygen, lean mixture) to 1.0 volts (low oxygen, rich mixture).
The sensors are equipped with a heating element that keeps the them at proper operating
temperature during all operating modes.
63 The oxygen sensor produces no voltage
when it is below its normal operating temperature of about 600 degrees F. During this initial period before warm-up, the PCM oper -
ates in the OPEN LOOP mode.
64 When there is a problem with the oxygen sensor or its circuit, the PCM operates in
the open loop mode - that is, it controls fuel
delivery in accordance with a programmed
default value instead of feedback information
from the oxygen sensors.
65 The proper operation of the oxygen sensors depends on four conditions:
a) Electrical - The low voltages generated
by the sensors depend upon good,
clean connections which should be
checked whenever a malfunction of the
sensor(s) is suspected or indicated.
b) Outside air supply - The sensors are
designed to allow air circulation to the
internal portion of the sensor. Whenever
the sensor is removed and installed or
replaced, make sure the air passages are
not restricted.
c) Proper operating temperature - The
PCM will not react to the sensor signal
until the sensor reaches approximately
600-degrees F. This factor must be
taken into consideration when evaluating
the performance of the sensor.
d) Unleaded fuel - The use of unleaded
fuel is essential for proper operation of
the sensors. Make sure the fuel you are
using is of this type.
66 In addition to observing the above conditions, special care must be taken whenever
the sensor(s) is serviced.
a) The oxygen sensors have a permanently
attached pigtail and electrical connector
which should not be removed from the
sensor. Damage or removal of the pigtail
or electrical connector can adversely
affect operation of the sensor(s) and
engine.
b) Grease, dirt and other contaminants
should be kept away from the electrical
connector and the louvered end of the
sensor(s).
c) Do not use cleaning solvents of any kind
on the oxygen sensors.
d) Do not drop or roughly handle the sensors.
6-11
circuit looks OK, check the ASD relay (see
Chapter 4) and if necessary, have the PCM
checked out at your local dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop.
69 Next, check the sensor heater resistance; using an ohmmeter, measure the
resistance between the two white wire terminals of the sensor electrical connector. The
resistance should be approximately 4 to 7
ohms. If the resistance is not as specified,
replace the sensor.
Replacement
Refer to illustration 3.71
Note: Because they are installed in the
exhaust manifold and catalytic converter,
which contracts when cool, the oxygen sensors may be very difficult to loosen when the
engine is cold. Rather than risk damage to the
sensor (assuming you are planning to reuse it
in another manifold or pipe), start and run the
engine for a minute or two, then shut it off. Be
careful not to burn yourself during the following procedure.
70 Raise the vehicle and place it securely
on jackstands.
71 Carefully disconnect the electrical connector from the sensor and unscrew the sensor from the exhaust manifold or catalytic
converter (see illustration).
72 If the sensor is to be re-installed, apply
an anti-seize compound to the threads to
facilitate future removal. The threads of new
sensors are already coated with this compound.
73 Install the sensor and tighten it to the
torque given in this Chapter's Specifications.
74 Reconnect the electrical connector of
the sensor lead to the engine wiring harness
and lower the vehicle.
PARK/NEUTRAL position
switch
75 Refer to Chapter 7 for the Park/Neutral
position switch service procedures. A failure
in the PARK/NEUTRAL sensor circuit will set
a code 37 in the PCM memory.
Check
67 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
68 Locate the oxygen sensor electrical
connector and disconnect it. Using a voltmeter, check for battery supply voltage; connect the positive probe to the dark
green/orange wire (or orange/dark green wire
depending on engine/year) and the black wire
at the connector terminal. Because the battery voltage is supplied to the sensor through
the ASD relay, voltage will only be supplied
for a very short time, approximately 4 seconds. Have an assistant turn the ignition key
to the ON position (engine OFF) several
ti mes while you observe the voltmeter. The
voltmeter should jump up to battery voltage
each time the ignition is turned ON. If no voltage is indicated, check for a blown fuse and
examine the wires for obvious damage. If the
3.71 Special sockets are available for
oxygen sensor removal; however, a
flare-nut wrench or crows foot works
just as well
6
6-12
Chapter 6
Emissions and engine control systems
Power steering pressure
switch
76 Turning the steering wheel increases the
power steering fluid pressure and the load
placed upon the engine by the power steering pump. The pressure switch will close
before the load causes an idle problem.
77 A pressure switch that will not open or
an open circuit from the PCM will cause the
ignition timing to retard at idle and this will
affect idle quality.
78 A pressure switch that will not close or
an open circuit may cause the engine to die
when the power steering system is used
heavily.
79 Any problems with the power steering
pressure switch or circuit should be diagnosed and repaired by a dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop.
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
General description
Refer to illustrations 3.80a and 3.80b
80 The Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) is
located on the end of the throttle shaft on the
throttle body (see illustrations). By monitoring the output voltage from the TPS, the PCM
can determine fuel delivery based on throttle
valve angle (driver demand). A broken or
loose TPS can cause intermittent bursts of
fuel from the injectors and an unstable idle
because the PCM senses the throttle is moving.
Check
Note: To backprobe an electrical connector,
use pins or paper clips inserted into the rear
of the connector (or wire) to facilitate meter
attachment. Be careful not to short the
probes during this process.
81 First, check the TPS supply voltage; disconnect the electrical connector and turn the
ignition key ON (engine OFF). Using a voltmeter, check for voltage between the violet/white wire (positive) and the black/light
blue wire (ground) at the sensor connector.
There should be approximately 5 volts pre -
3.80a The throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
(arrow) is mounted on the throttle body 2.0L four-cylinder engine shown,
2.4L similar
sent. If no voltage is indicated, check for a
blown fuse and examine the wires for obvious damage. If the circuit looks OK, have the
PCM checked out at your local dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop.
82 Next, connect the electrical connector
to the TPS. Using a voltmeter, backprobe the
orange/light blue wire (TPS signal - positive)
and the black/light blue wire (ground). Turn
the ignition key to the ON position (engine
OFF). With the throttle valve fully closed, the
voltmeter should indicate approximately 0.5
volts. Slowly open the throttle valve and
watch for a smooth increase in voltage as the
sensor travels from the closed to full position.
The voltage should increase to approximately
4 volts. If the readings are not as specified,
replace the TPS.
Replacement
Refer to illustration 3.85
83 Remove the throttle body from the
intake manifold (see Chapter 4).
84 Unscrew the mounting screws and
remove the TPS from the throttle body.
3.85 When installing the TPS onto the throttle body, make sure
the socket tangs are on the proper side of the throttle valve shaft
blade (arrows). When installed correctly, the TPS must be rotated
slightly clockwise to align the screw holes
3.80b Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
(arrow) - V6 engines
85 When installing the TPS, be sure to align
the socket locating tangs on the TPS with the
throttle shaft in the throttle body (see illustration). When the TPS is installed correctly,
it must be rotated slightly clockwise to align
the screw holes. After installing the screws,
the throttle valve should be fully closed. If it's
open, remove the TPS and reposition it on
the shaft tangs.
86 Tighten the TPS screws securely.
87 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) manual transaxles only
General description
Refer to illustration 3.88
88 The Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) is
located on the transaxle near the left engine
mount (see illustration). This sensor is a permanent magnetic variable reluctance sensor
that produces a pulsing voltage whenever
vehicle speed is over 3 mph. These pulses
are translated by the PCM to determine vehicle speed, distance traveled and, on models
equipped with cruise control, it governs the
speed control servo.
3.88 The Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) is located on the transaxle
near the left engine mount - manual transaxles only
6-13
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
Check
Note: To backprobe an electrical connector,
use pins or paper clips inserted into the rear
of the connector (or wire) to facilitate meter
attachment. Be careful not to short the
probes during this process.
89 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
90 First, check the VSS sensor supply voltage; place the transaxle in Neutral and turn
the ignition key ON (engine OFF). Using a
voltmeter, backprobe the orange/white wire
(1995 models) or orange wire (all other models) (positive) and ground the other probe to
the transaxle. There should be approximately
8 volts present. If no voltage is indicated,
check for a blown fuse and examine the wires
for obvious damage. If the circuit looks OK,
have the PCM checked out at your local
dealer service department or other qualified
repair shop.
91 Next check the VSS sensor output voltage; backprobe the black/light blue wire
(sensor ground) and the white/orange wire
(VSS signal output - positive) at the sensor
connector. The voltage should fluctuate
between 0 and 8 volts. If supply voltage is
detected but there is no signal voltage,
replace the VSS sensor.
Replacement
92 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
93 Clean the area around the VSS to prevent contaminating the transaxle.
94 Disconnect the electrical connector
from the VSS.
95 Remove the retaining bolt and lift the
VSS from the transaxle. Note: When removing the VSS make sure the drive gear comes
out along with the VSS. Should the drive gear
fall into the transaxle, retrieve it and install it
back onto the VSS.
96 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the VSS retaining bolt securely.
4
Powertrain Control Module
(PCM) - check and replacement
Caution: The PCM is an Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) sensitive electronic device,
meaning a static electricity discharge from
your body could possibly damage internal
electrical components. Make sure to properly
ground yourself and the PCM before handling
it. Avoid touching the electrical terminals of
the PCM unless absolutely necessary.
4.3 Disconnecting one of the two
Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
40-pin connectors
ment to verify its integrity. Therefore, if the
PCM is suspected to be faulty, the vehicle
should be taken to your local dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop for
testing or repair.
Replacement
Refer to illustrations 4.3 and 4.4
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
The PCM is mounted to a bracket
between the air filter housing and the Power
Distribution Center (PDC). Disconnect both
40-pin connectors from the PCM (see illustration).
4
Remove the PCM mounting screws (see
illustration) and withdraw it from the vehicle.
5
Installation is the reverse of removal.
5
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
(PCV) system - general
description
1
The Positive Crankcase Ventilation
(PCV) system reduces hydrocarbon exhaust
emissions by scavenging crankcase vapors.
This is accomplished by circulating fresh air
from the air cleaner through the crankcase,
where it mixes with blow-by gases and is
then re-routed through the PCV valve to the
intake manifold to be burned in the combus -
4.4 PCM mounting screws
tion process.
2
The main components of the PCV system are the PCV valve and the vacuum hoses
that connect it to the manifold.
3
To maintain idle quality, the PCV valve
restricts the flow when the intake manifold
vacuum is high. If abnormal operating conditions (such as piston ring problems) arise, the
system is designed to allow excessive
amounts of blow-by gases to flow back
through the crankcase vent tube into the air
cleaner to be consumed by normal combustion.
4
Check and replacement of the PCV
valve is performed in Chapter 1.
6
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
system - description, check and
component replacement
Note: If the EGR valve control solenoid
becomes disconnected or damaged, the
electrical signal will be lost and the EGR valve
will be open at all times during warm-up and
driving conditions. The symptoms will be
poor performance, rough idle and driveability
problems.
General description
Refer to illustrations 6.1a and 6.1b
1
The EGR system reduces oxides of
nitrogen (NOx) by recirculating exhaust gases
Check
Note: Because of a Federally mandated
extended warranty which covers the OBD-ll
system components and because any ownerinduced damage to the PCM, the sensors
and/or the control devices may void the warranty, it is not recommended to attempt diagnosis of, or replace the PCM at home while
the vehicle is under warranty.
The PCM requires special test equip 1
VALVE
6.1a Typical four-cylinder
engine EGR valve, tube and
solenoid/transducer
locations - 2.0L engine
shown, as viewed from rear
of engine
6
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
6-14
6.1b EGR system component location - V6 engine
1
Solenoid/transducer
2
EGR valve
from the exhaust ports through the EGR
valve and back into the intake manifold for
ingestion into the engine which lowers the
peak flame temperature during combustion
(see illustrations).
2
The EGR system consists of the EGR
valve, the EGR solenoid/transducer assembly, the Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
and various related sensors. The PCM uses
the solenoid to control vacuum to the transducer. The transducer is controlled by
exhaust system back-pressure which in turn
regulates the amount of vacuum applied to
the EGR valve. When exhaust system backpressure becomes high enough, it fully
closes a bleed valve in the transducer. Then
the PCM de-energizes the solenoid and
allows vacuum to flow through the transducer to operate the EGR valve. Turning the
solenoid ON-and-OFF provides the correct
amount of exhaust gas to be introduced into
the engine for combustion.
Check
EGR valve
Refer to illustration 6.5
3
Check the condition of all the EGR system hoses and tubes for leaks, cracks, kinks
or hardening of the rubber hoses. Make sure
all the hoses are intact before proceeding
with the EGR check.
4
Check the Vehicle Emission Control
Information (VECI) label (see Section 1) for
the correct EGR system hose routing.
Reroute the hoses if necessary.
Detach the vacuum hose from the top of
5
the EGR valve and attach a hand-operated
vacuum pump to the valve (see illustration).
Start the engine and warm it to its nor6
mal operating temperature.
Apply approximately 5 in-Hg of vacuum
7
to the EGR valve with the engine at idle
speed. The idle speed should drop considerably or even stall as vacuum is applied. This
indicates that the EGR system is operating
properly. If the engine speed does not
3
Tube
6.5 Checking the EGR valve (arrow) using a hand-operated
vacuum pump
change, this indicates a possible faulty EGR
valve, blocked or plugged EGR tube or passages in the intake and exhaust manifolds
that may be plugged with carbon build-up.
Turn off the engine.
8
Next, apply approximately 15 in-Hg of
vacuum to the EGR valve and see if the stem
on the EGR valve moves. If the valve opens
and closes (apply and release the vacuum
pressure as required) the EGR valve is operating correctly. The problem is either a
plugged EGR tube or plugged passageways
at the intake or exhaust manifold. Remove
the EGR valve and clean the passages as
required. Note: If the EGR valve is severely
plugged with carbon deposits, do not attempt
to scrape them out, replace it with a new one.
If the stem did not move, replace the EGR
valve.
9
Apply approximately 15 in-Hg of vacuum to the EGR valve and see if the vacuum
pressure holds steady for at least three minutes. If you are unable to pull a vacuum on
the EGR valve or the vacuum pressure doesn't remain constant, the diaphragm inside the
EGR valve is faulty and the EGR valve and
solenoid/transducer assembly must be
replaced.
Solenoid/transducer assembly
Refer to illustration 6.10
10 Disconnect the electrical connector
from the solenoid (see illustration). Detach
the
vacuum
hose
connecting
the
solenoid/transducer to the intake manifold
and attach a hand-held vacuum pump.
11 Attempt to apply approximately 15 inHg of vacuum to the solenoid. No vacuum
should be produced. If vacuum develops,
replace the EGR valve and solenoid/transducer assembly as a unit.
12 Next, connect one of the solenoid electrical terminals to the positive remote battery
terminal using a fused jumper wire. Using
another jumper wire, connect the other terminal to a good ground (this will energize the
6.10 EGR solenoid/transducer (arrow) V6 engine shown
solenoid - be careful not to short them
together). With battery voltage applied to the
solenoid, try to pull approximately 15 in-Hg of
vacuum on the solenoid. Vacuum should
develop and hold steady. If vacuum is not
produced or the pressure does not remain
constant, replace the EGR valve and
solenoid/transducer assembly as a unit. Reattach the vacuum hose and the electrical
connector.
13 Check the transducer diaphragm;
detach the back-pressure hose from the
transducer and attach a hand-operated vacuum pump. Apply approximately 10 in-Hg of
vacuum to the fitting. Vacuum should be produced and hold steady. If vacuum does not
develop or remain constant, replace the EGR
valve and solenoid/transducer assembly.
Replacement
Note: Because the EGR valve and solenoid/transducer are a calibrated unit, they
must be replaced as an assembly.
14 Disconnect the electrical connector and
vacuum hoses from the solenoid/transducer
assembly (see illustration 6.10).
Chapter
15 Remove the mounting bolts and withdraw the solenoid/transducer assembly from
it's mounting.
16 On V6 engines, remove the Transmission Control Module from it's mounting and
position it out of the way (see Chapter 7B if
necessary). Note: Do not disconnect the
electrical connector from the TCM.
17 Remove the EGR tube mounting bolts
from the EGR valve and intake manifold
flanges.
18 Remove the EGR valve mounting bolts
and then remove the EGR valve and tube.
19 Clean the gasket surfaces of the EGR
valve, tube and intake manifold. If the EGR
valve is to be re-installed, clean the gasket
surfaces and, if necessary, remove any carbon build-up that may be present. If carbon
build-up is excessive, replace the EGR valve
and solenoid/transducer assembly.
20 Loosely assemble the EGR valve and
tube, using new gaskets. Then hand tighten
the all the bolts. Next, tighten the tube bolts
to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications. Finish by tightening the EGR valve
bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
21 On V6 engines, place the TCM in it's
proper position and secure it with the mounting screws.
22 Install the solenoid/transducer and
tighten the mounting bolts.
23 Connect the vacuum hoses and electrical connector to the solenoid/transducer
assembly.
7
Evaporative emissions control
(EVAP) system - description,
check and component
replacement
General description
1
The function of the evaporative emissions control system is to prevent fuel vapors
from escaping the fuel system and being
released into the atmosphere. Vapors are
trapped inside the fuel tank until the pressure
overcomes the pressure-relief/rollover valve
and is then routed to a charcoal canister via
hoses for temporary storage. The Powertrain
Control Module (PCM) monitors the engine
operating parameters and then activates the
EVAP purge control solenoid according to a
programmed schedule which allows the fuel
vapors from the canister to be drawn into the
intake manifold and burned in the combustion process.
The charcoal canister on 1995 through
2
1997 models is mounted to a bracket behind
the right front bumper fascia adjacent to the
windshield washer reservoir. On 1998 and
later models, it's located on top of the fuel
tank. The canisters are maintenance-free and
should last the life of the vehicle.
The most common symptom of a fault in
3
the evaporative emissions system is a strong
fuel odor in the engine compartment or raw
6
Emissions and
engine control systems
fuel leaking from the canister. These indications are usually more prevalent during hot
temperatures. All systems except for those
installed on 1995 models are pressurized by
a Leak Detection Pump (LDP). The LDP on all
vehicles is located next to the charcoal canister. If normal system pressure cannot be
achieved by the LDP, which indicates a leak,
the PCM will store the appropriate fault code
and illuminate the CHECK ENGINE light on
the instrument panel. The most common
cause of system pressure loss is a loose or
poor sealing fuel filler cap. If the CHECK
ENGINE light is illuminated, check the fuel
filler cap first!
The fuel filler cap is equipped with a
4
t wo-way pressure-vacuum relief valve as a
safety device. If the pressure inside the tank
exceeds approximately 1.5 to 2 psi, the relief
valve vents the fuel vapors to the atmosphere. If the vacuum pressure inside the
tank becomes greater than approximately
0.14 psi, the relief valve allows fresh air to be
drawn into the tank.
5
All models are equipped with two
rollover valves, which are mounted on the top
of the fuel tank. The rollover valves are
designed to close the fuel vapor vent ports in
case the vehicle should flip upside down. The
rollover valves are not serviceable.
6
1998 and later models are equipped
with the Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery
(ORVR) system which incorporates a oneway check valve in the fuel tank filler neck
and a control valve on top of the fuel tank. On
models not equipped with ORVR, the fuel
vapor displaced by the incoming fuel is
allowed to vent to atmosphere during refueling. The ORVR system uses the control valve
to vent the displaced vapors to the charcoal
canister for storage. Vapor is absorbed in the
canister until the fuel flow stops, either following fuel shut-off or by having the fuel rise
high enough to raise the float located in the
control valve which closes the valve. This feature combined with the LDP, will not allow the
vehicle to be refueled with the engine running. If the vehicle will not accept fuel, cycle
the ignition key ON and OFF a few times to
allow the EVAP purge control solenoid to
vent the pressure inside the tank.
Check
Note: The evaporative control system, like all
emission control systems, is protected by a
Federally mandated extended warranty (5
years or 50,000 miles at the time this manual
was written). The EVAP system probably
won't fail during the service life of the vehicle;
however, if it does, the hoses, gas cap or
charcoal canister are usually to blame.
7
If the CHECK ENGINE light is illuminated, check the gas cap first. A loose or bad
sealing gas cap will cause the LDP to register
a leak in the system. Then check the system
hoses. A disconnected, damaged or missing
hose is the next most likely cause of a malfunctioning EVAP system. Refer to the Vacuum Hose Routing Diagram (located on the
6-15
7.12 On 1995 models, the EVAP system
charcoal canister (arrow) is located
behind the right front bumper fascia
(removed for clarity)
under side of the hood) to determine whether
the hoses are correctly routed and attached.
Repair any damaged hoses or replace any
missing hoses as necessary. Note: Be sure
to replace with approved fuel resistant hoses.
Finally, check the purge control solenoid and
LDP electrical connections and wires for corrosion and damage. Repair as necessary.
8
Because of the special equipment
required, further diagnosis of the EVAP system must be performed by your local dealer
service department or other qualified repair
shop.
Component replacement
Charcoal canister
1995 models
Refer to illustration 7.12
Remove the fuel filler cap to relieve the
9
pressure inside the fuel tank.
10 Loosen the right front wheel lug nuts.
Raise the vehicle and place it securely on
jackstands.
11
Remove the right front wheel inner and
lower splash shields.
12 Label and disconnect the vacuum
hoses, remove the nut and bolt securing the
canister to the support bracket and then
withdraw it from the vehicle (see illustration).
13 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Charcoal canister and Leak
Detection Pump
1996 and 1997 models
Refer to illustrations 7.17 and 7.19
14 Remove the fuel filler cap to relieve the
pressure inside the fuel tank.
15 Remove the right headlight assembly
(see Chapter 12).
16 Label and disconnect the hoses from
the LDP and charcoal canister.
17 Remove the three nuts securing the
6
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
6-16
EVAPORATIVE
CANISTER
NUTS
7.17 Remove the three nuts securing the canister to the LDP
bracket (1996 and 1997 models)
7.19 The LDP bracket on 1996 and 1997 models is secured at
these four locations
ORVR VALVE
7.23 1998 EVAP system components - as viewed from the top of
the fuel tank
7.32 On 1995 to 1997 models, the purge control solenoid is
located in the engine compartment on the driver's side
shock tower
canister to the LDP bracket (see illustration)
and let the canister rest on the lower front
fascia.
18 Disconnect the electrical connector
from the LDP.
19 Remove the four bolts securing the LDP
bracket to the vehicle (see illustration).
20 Remove the LDP (with bracket attached)
from the vehicle.
21
Remove the charcoal canister.
22 Installation is the reverse of removal.
canister to the bracket and remove it from the
fuel tank.
29 Remove the bracket and LDP, then
remove the LDP from the bracket.
30 Since they are accessible, check the
condition of all EVAP system hoses and electrical connections at this ti me and
repair/replace as necessary.
31 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the fuel tank strap bolts to the torque
li sted in the Chapter 4 Specifications.
1998 and later models
Refer to illustration 7.23
23 The charcoal canister and LDP on these
models mount to a bracket located on top of
the fuel tank (see illustration).
24 Remove the fuel filler cap to relieve the
pressure inside the fuel tank.
25 Perform the fuel pressure relief procedure (see Chapter 4).
26 Drain and remove the fuel tank (see
Chapter 4).
27 Label and disconnect the vapor hoses
connected to the canister.
28 Withdraw the push-pin securing the
Canister purge control solenoid
Refer to illustrations 7.32 and 7.33
Note: The EVAP purge control solenoid must
be installed with the solenoid electrical connector UP in order to operate properly.
32 On 1995 to 1997 models, the purge
control solenoid is mounted on the left
(driver's) side of the engine compartment on
the shock tower near the brake master cylinder (see illustration).
33 On 1998 and later models, the purge
control solenoid is mounted on the right (passenger) side of the engine compartment on
the fender panel near the windshield washer
7.33 On 1998 and later models, the purge
control solenoid (arrow) is located in the
engine compartment near the windshield
washer fluid reservoir
fluid reservoir (see illustration).
34 Remove the fuel filler cap to relieve the
pressure inside the fuel tank.
35 On 1995 to 1997 models, if equipped,
Chapter 6
remove the cruise control servo from it's
mounting and position it out of the way.
36 Label and disconnect the purge control
solenoid vacuum hoses and electrical connector.
37 Unscrew the mounting bolt and remove
the solenoid and bracket assembly.
38 Installation is the reverse of removal.
8
Catalytic converter system description, check and
replacement
Note: Because of a Federally mandated
extended warranty which covers emissions
related components such as the catalytic
converter, check with a dealer service department before replacing the converter at your
own expense.
General description
Refer to illustration 8.1
1
The catalytic converter (see illustration)
is an emission control device added to the
exhaust system to reduce pollutants from the
exhaust gas stream. There are two types of
converters. The conventional oxidation catalyst reduces the levels of hydrocarbon (HC)
and carbon monoxide (CO). The three-way
catalyst lowers the levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) as well as hydrocarbons (HC) and
Emissions and engine control systems
6-17
carbon monoxide (CO). Caution: Because
the two types of catalytic converters are
extremely similar looking, make sure you are
purchasing the correct part for your particular
vehicle.
Check
2
The test equipment for a catalytic converter is very expensive and highly sophisticated. If you suspect that the converter on
your vehicle is malfunctioning, take it to a
dealer or authorized emissions inspection
facility for diagnosis and repair.
3
Whenever the vehicle is raised for servicing of underbody components, check the
converter for leaks, corrosion, dents and
other damage. Check the welds/flange bolts
that attach the front and rear ends of the converter to the exhaust system. If damage is
discovered, the converter should be
replaced.
4
Although catalytic converters don't
often fail, they can become plugged. The
easiest way to check for a restricted converter is to use a vacuum gauge to diagnose
the effect of a blocked exhaust based on
intake vacuum.
a) Open the throttle until the engine speed
is about 2000 rpm.
b) Release the throttle quickly.
c) If there is no restriction, the gauge will
quickly drop to not more than 2 in-Hg or
more above its normal reading.
8.1 Catalytic converter (arrow)
d) If the gauge does not show 5 in-Hg or
more above its normal reading, or seems
to momentarily hover around its highest
reading for a moment before it returns,
the exhaust system, or the converter, is
plugged (or an exhaust pipe is bent or
dented, or the core inside the muffler
has shifted).
Replacement
5
Refer to the exhaust system removal
and installation Section in Chapter 4.
6-18
Chapter 6 Emissions and engine control systems
Notes
Chapter 7 Part A
Manual transaxle
Contents
Section
Back-up light switch - check and replacement ..................................... 4
Driveaxle oil seal replacement...............................................................5
General information ................................................................................ 1
Manual transaxle lubricant level check .............................See Chapter 1
Manual transaxle lubricant change...................................See Chapter 1
Section
Manual transaxle overhaul - general information ................................... 7
Manual transaxle - removal and installation .......................................... 6
Shift cables - removal, installation and adjustment...............................2
Shift lever assembly - removal and installation..................................... 3
Vehicle speed sensor - check and replacement ...............See Chapter 6
Specifications
General
Transaxle type
Fluid type and capacity...........................................................................
NV T350 (A-578)
See Chapter 1
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
18
70
105 in-lbs
70 in-lbs
67 in-lbs
40
250 in-lbs
Back-up light switch ................................................................................
Clutch housing-to-engine bolts ...............................................................
Clutch housing lower cover bolts ............................................................
Crossover cable adjusting bolt ................................................................
Drain plug................................................................................................
Lateral strut fasteners ..............................................................................
Shift cable bracket-to-transaxle bolts .....................................................
1
General information
The vehicles covered by this manual are
equipped with either the NV T350 (A-578) 5speed manual or the 41TE 4-speed automatic transaxle. Information on the manual
transaxle is included in this part of Chapter 7.
Service procedures for the automatic
transaxle are contained in Chapter 7, Part B.
Both the manual transaxle and the differential are housed in a compact, lightweight, two-piece aluminum alloy housing.
The Sections in this Chapter tell you
how to replace and adjust those parts of the
transaxle that can be serviced at home, as
well as how to remove and install the
transaxle itself. Because of the complexity of
the transaxle rotating machinery, the difficulty
of obtaining replacement parts and the special tools required to service those parts, we
don't recommend repairing the transaxle at
home. Before assuming that the transaxle is
faulty, read through the Troubleshooting Section at the beginning of this manual for steps
to help pin-point the problem. For service
and repairs outside the scope of this manual,
take the vehicle to a dealer service department or other qualified transmission repair
shop.
2
Shift cables - removal,
installation and adjustment
Warning: These vehicles are equipped with
air bags. Always disable the airbag system
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the airbag(s), which could cause personal injury (see Chapter 12).
7A
Removal
Refer to illustrations 2.5a, 2.5b, 2.6, 2.9a,
2.9b and 2.10
1
In the event of hard shifting, disconnect
both cables at the transaxle and operate the
shifter. If the shift lever moves smoothly
through all positions with the cables disconnected, the crossover cable should be
adjusted as described at the end of this Section. To remove and install the shift cables,
perform the following.
2
Raise the hood and place a blanket over
the left (driver's) fender to protect it.
3
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
4
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
2.5a To avoid damaging the cable
bushings, use two flat blade screwdrivers
to evenly pry the selector cable .. .
5
Using two flat blade screwdrivers, carefully pry the selector cable and crossover
cable from the select lever (see illustrations). Caution: To avoid damaging the cable
isolator bushings, pry up with equal force on
both sides of the shift cable end. Discard the
cable retaining clips.
7A-2
2.5b ... and the crossover cable from
their levers
Remove the cable retaining clips on the
6
transaxle and remove the cables from the
bracket (see illustration). Discard the retaining clips.
7
Working inside the vehicle, remove the
center console (see Chapter 11).
8
Raise the front of the vehicle and place it
Chapter 7 Part A Manual transaxle
2.6 Use pliers to remove the shift cable
retaining clips (arrow) securing the cables
to the bracket - the selector cable clip is
hidden behind the EGR valve in this view
securely on jackstands.
9
Remove the shifter cable grommet plate
and pry the grommet from the floorpan (see
illustrations).
10 Remove the cable retaining clips at the
shifter and detach the cables from the
bracket (see illustration). Discard the retaining clips.
11 Using two flat blade screwdrivers, carefully pry the selector cable and the crossover
cable from the shift lever assembly. Discard
the cable retaining clips. Caution: To avoid
damaging the cable isolator bushings, pry up
with equal force on both sides of the shift
cable end.
12 Detach both cables from the support
clips on the tunnel above the catalytic converter.
13 Remove the cable assembly from the
vehicle.
Installation
2.9b ... then remove the bolts from under
the vehicle and separate the
plate/grommet from the floorpan
Refer to illustrations 2.18 and 2.19
14 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Install new cable retaining clips at all locations and make sure they are properly seated
2.10 Use needle-nose pliers to remove the cable retaining clips
from the shift lever assembly brackets
2.9a Remove the shift cable floorpan
grommet mounting nuts from inside
the vehicle .. .
in the cable grooves.
15 Before installing the air cleaner assembly and center console, adjust the crossover
cable (see below).
Adjustment
Note: Only the crossover cable can be
adjusted. There is no adjustment for the
selector cable.
16 Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
17 Working inside the vehicle, remove the
center console (see Chapter 11).
18 Loosen the crossover cable adjusting
bolt located at the shifter end of the cable
(see illustration).
19 Working in the engine compartment,
position the crossover lever on the transaxle
so the hole in the crossover lever aligns with
the hole in the transaxle raised boss. Insert
a 1/4 inch drill bit through the crossover lever
and into the raised boss (see illustration).
Make sure the drill bit penetrates into the
transaxle hole at least 1/2 inch.
20 Place the gear shift lever in the neutral
position (allow the shifter to self-center in it's
proper location).
21 Without moving the gear shift lever from
2.18 Loosen the crossover cable adjusting bolt
7A-3
Chapter 7 Part A Manual transaxle
2.19 Align the hole in the crossover lever with the hole in the
transaxle raised boss. Insert a 1/4-inch drill bit (arrow) through
the lever and into the raised boss at least 1/2-inch
its neutral position, tighten the crossover
cable adjusting bolt to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
22 Remove the 1/4 inch drill bit securing
the crossover lever to the transaxle.
23 Shift the transaxle into all gear positions
to make sure the cable is functioning properly. Readjust if necessary.
24 Install the center console (see Chapter 11).
25 Install the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
3
Shift lever assembly - removal
and installation
Warning: These vehicles are equipped with
air bags. Always disable the airbag system
before working in the vicinity of the impact
sensors, steering column or instrument panel
to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the airbag(s), which could cause personal injury (see Chapter 12).
Removal
Refer to illustration 3.4
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
3
Disconnect the shift cables from the
shift lever assembly (see Section 2).
4
Remove the shift lever bracket nuts (see
illustration) and remove the shift lever
assembly.
Installation
5
Install the shift lever assembly and
tighten the nuts securely.
6
Attach the shift cables to the shift lever
assembly and adjust the crossover cable (see
Section 2).
7
Install the center console (see Chapter 11).
8
Attach the negative battery cable to the
ground stud on the left shock tower.
4
3A Remove all four of the shift lever assembly mounting nuts
(arrows) (only the two forward nuts are visible in this view), then
remove the shift lever assembly
Back-up light switch - check and
replacement
Check
Refer to illustration 4.1
1
The back-up light switch (see illustration) is located on top of the transaxle, near
the left (driver's side) front corner of the housing. However, access is gained from under
the vehicle.
2
Turn the ignition key to the ON position
and move the gear shift lever to the Reverse
position. The back-up lights should illuminate.
3
If the back-up lights don't come on, first
verify that each light bulb is in working condition. If the bulbs are OK, check the back-up
li ght fuse located in the fuse box at the end of
the instrument panel on the driver's side (see
Chapter 12).
If the fuse has blown, replace it. If it blows
again, look for a short in the back-up light circuit.
4
If the fuse is okay, raise the vehicle and
support it securely on jackstands. Turn the
ignition switch ON (engine off) and make sure
the gear shift lever is in reverse. Using a test
li ght or voltmeter, verify there is voltage present at the back-up light switch. If there's no
voltage to the switch, look for an open or
short in the power wire to the switch. Repair
as necessary.
5
If the back-up lights still don't illuminate,
unplug the electrical connector from the
back-up light switch and, using an ohmmeter, verify that there is continuity between the
switch terminals (with gear shift lever in
reverse), i.e. when the switch is closed. If
continuity is not detected, replace the backup light switch.
6
If there is continuity between the switch
terminals, (it opens and closes the circuit relative to the gear shift position), but the back-up
li ghts don't come on when the gear shift lever
is in the reverse position, check the wiring
between the switch and the back-up lights for
an open circuit and repair as necessary.
4.1 The back-up light switch is located on
top of the transaxle case, near the left
(driver's side) front corner
Replacement
7
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
8
Detach the electrical connector from the
back-up light switch and unscrew the switch
from the transaxle.
9
Wrap the threads of the replacement
switch with Teflon tape, or equivalent, install
the switch and tighten it to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
10 Attach the switch electrical connector
and lower the vehicle.
11 Check the operation of the back-up
li ghts to be sure the switch is working correctly.
5
Driveaxle oil seal replacement
Refer to illustrations 5.4 and 5.6
1
Oil leaks frequently occur at the
driveaxle seals. Replacing these seals is relatively easy, since you don't have to remove
the transaxle to access them.
2
The driveaxle oil seals are located in the
sides of the transaxle, where the splined
7A
7A-4
5.4 Using a large screwdriver or prybar,
carefully pry the oil seal out of the
transaxle (if you can't remove the oil seal
with a screwdriver or prybar, you may
need to obtain a special seal removal tool,
available at most auto parts stores, to do
the job)
inner ends of the driveaxles mate with the differential side gears. If you suspect that one of
these seals is leaking, raise the vehicle and
support it securely on jackstands. If a seal is
in fact leaking, you'll see a trail of wet lubricant on the side of the transaxle below the
seal.
3
Remove the driveaxle (see Chapter 8).
4
Using a large screwdriver or prybar,
carefully pry the oil seal out of the transaxle
(see illustration).
5
If you can't remove the oil seal with a
screwdriver or pry bar, you may need to
obtain a special seal removal tool (available
at most auto parts stores) to do the job.
Using a seal driver, large section of pipe
6
or a large deep socket as a drift, install the
new oil seal (see illustration). Drive it into the
bore squarely and make sure that it's completely seated. Lubricate the driveaxle oil
seal, tripod joint splines and sealing surface
with the appropriate transmission fluid (see
Chapter 1).
7
Install the driveaxle (see Chapter 8). Be
careful not to damage the lip of the new seal
during installation.
6
Manual transaxle - removal and
installation
Note 1: This procedure requires the removal
of all engine mounts except for the right side
engine mount. If the vehicle must be moved
after the transaxle has been removed, make
sure the engine is supported at all times and
the appropriate sized bolts and nuts are
installed in the front wheel hub/bearings (refer
to Chapter 8).
Note 2: There are four different gear ratios
available with this transaxle. If you are going
to replace this transaxle or obtain a rebuilt
unit, check the metal identification tag
Chapter 7 Part A Manual transaxle
5.6 Using a seal driver, large section of
pipe or a large deep socket as a drift,
drive the new seal squarely into the bore
and make sure that it's completely seated
6.9 Remove the upper clutch housing
fasteners (arrows)
mounted to the rear cover before purchasing
a new or rebuilt transaxle to ensure you're
getting the correct gear ratio for your particular application.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.16, 6.17,
6.18, 6.19, 6.28 and 6.31
1
Open the hood and place protective
covers on the front fenders and cowl. Special
fender covers are available, but an old bedspread or blankets will also work.
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
4
Disconnect the clutch cable from the
release lever (see Chapter 8).
5
Disconnect the shift cables from the
transaxle and detach the cable bracket (with
cables attached) from the transaxle (see Section 2). Position the cables out of the way.
6
Detach the accelerator cable and cruise
control cable (if equipped) from the throttle
6.8 Remove the intake manifold
support bracket
6.10 The Vehicle Speed Sensor is located
on the transaxle next to the rear
engine mount
lever (see Chapter 4 if necessary).
7
Detach the accelerator/cruise control
cable bracket from the throttle body (with
cables attached) and position it out of the
way.
8
Remove the intake manifold support
bracket (see illustration).
9
Remove the upper clutch housing bolts
(see illustration).
10 Disconnect the electrical connectors
from the vehicle speed sensor (see illustration) and back-up light switch (see illustration 4.1).
11
Loosen the driveaxle hub nuts (see
Chapter 8) and front wheel lug nuts. Raise the
vehicle and place it securely on jackstands.
Remove both front wheels.
12 Drain the transaxle fluid (see Chapter 1).
13 Remove the driveaxles (see Chapter 8).
14 Remove the starter motor (see Chapter 5).
15 Remove the splash shield/battery cover
from the left front wheel well (see Chapter 5).
Extract the push-in fasteners and remove the
transaxle splash shield.
16 On 1998 models, remove the oil pan-to-
Chapter 7 Part A Manual transaxle
6.17 Remove the lateral strut (lower
arrow) and clutch housing lower cover
(upper arrow) - all except 1998 models
6.16 Oil pan-to-transaxle structural collar
assembly details - 1998 models only
transaxle structural collar and transaxle
clutch housing lower cover (see illustration).
17 On all models except 1998, remove the
transaxle lateral strut and clutch housing
lower cover (see illustration).
18 If the modular clutch assembly is to be
reinstalled, match-mark the clutch assembly
to the driveplate (see illustration).
19 Remove the four modular clutch assembly-to-driveplate bolts (see illustration). To
gain access to each bolt, rotate the engine
clockwise (ONLY) as viewed from the drivebelt end of the engine using the crankshaft
damper/pulley bolt. Remove all four bolts and
discard them. Use a screwdriver placed in
the ring gear of the driveplate to keep the
crankshaft from turning during removal of the
bolts.
20 After removing the clutch module
mounting bolts, push the modular clutch
assembly into the transaxle clutch housing as
far as possible.
21
Remove any exhaust components
which will interfere with transaxle removal
(see Chapter 4).
22 Remove any remaining chassis or suspension components which will interfere with
transaxle removal. Caution: If the front suspension crossmember has to be repositioned
to facilitate transaxle removal, it must be
match-marked to the body and frame (see
Chapter 10) to maintain proper wheel alignment at reassembly.
23 Support the engine from above with a
hoist, or place a floor jack under the oil pan.
Place a wood block on the jack head to
spread the load on the oil pan.
24 Remove the left engine mounting
bracket from the transaxle (see Chapter 2A).
25 Remove the front engine mounting
bracket and strut (see Chapter 2A).
26 Remove the rear engine mounting
bracket (see Chapter 2A).
27 Remove the engine support module (1995
through 1997 models) or front and rear lower
engine mounts (1998 and later models) as
applicable (see Chapter 2A). Note: The engine
support module is attached to the lower radiator support. When removing the engine support
module, the radiator and air conditioning condenser (if equipped) must be supported.
6.28 Place a jack under the transaxle (transmission jack shown)
and secure the transaxle to the jack using chains or straps
7A-5
6.18 Match-mark the modular clutch
assembly to the driveplate
6.19 Rotate the engine clockwise using
the crankshaft damper/pulley bolt and
remove the four flywheel-to-clutch
assembly bolts
28 Support the transaxle with a transmission jack, if available, or use a floor jack (see
illustration). Secure the transaxle to the jack
using straps or chains so it doesn't fall off
during removal.
29 Remove the lower transaxle clutch
housing-to-engine bolts. Make sure all clutch
6.31 While removing the transaxle from the engine, make sure to
keep it level so the modular clutch assembly doesn't fall off the
transaxle input shaft
7A
7A-6
housing-to-engine bolts are removed.
30 Make a final check that all wires, hoses
and brackets have been disconnected from
the transaxle, then with the engine properly
supported, separate the transaxle from the
engine.
31 Carefully lower the transaxle and
remove it from under the vehicle (see illustration). Make sure you keep the transaxle
level as you maneuver it or the modular
clutch assembly may fall out. Note: Reinstalling the clutch housing lower cover after
the transaxle clears the flywheel will help hold
the clutch assembly in place.
32 Remove the modular clutch assembly
from the transaxle. Handle it carefully to
avoid contaminating the friction surfaces.
Inspect it for excessive wear or contamination (see Chapter 8). In most cases, because
of the time and labor involved in gaining
access to the clutch assembly, it should be
replaced whenever the transaxle is removed
or replaced unless its in new or near-perfect
condition.
33 Check the crankshaft rear main seal for
evidence of leakage. If replacement is necessary, refer to Chapter 2A.
Installation
34 Install the modular clutch assembly onto
the transaxle input shaft. Handle it carefully
to avoid contaminating the friction surfaces.
35 With the transaxle secured to the jack,
raise it into position and carefully slide it forward until the clutch housing seats against
the engine. Do not use excessive force to
install the transaxle - if it doesn't slide into
place easily, readjust the angle of the
transaxle and try again. Make sure you keep
the transaxle level as you maneuver it or the
modular clutch assembly may fall out. Do not
force it or use the clutch housing bolts to pull
it together. Make sure the dowel pins on the
engine are aligned with their respective holes
in the transaxle. If you are experiencing difficulty, solicit the aid of an assistant.
37 Install the clutch housing-to-engine
bolts with brackets and clamps where
required and tighten them to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
38 Install the engine support module (1995
through 1997 models) or front and rear lower
engine mounts (1998 and later models) as
applicable (see Chapter 2A).
39 Install the rear engine mounting bracket
to the transaxle and secure it to the engine
support module (1995 through 1997 models)
or rear lower engine mount (1998 and later
models) as applicable (see Chapter 2A).
Tighten the bracket-to-engine bolts (ONLY)
to the torque listed in the Specification Section of Chapter 2A. Leave the through-bolt
loose for now.
40 Install the front engine mounting bracket
and strut (see Chapter 2A). Secure the
bracket to the engine support module (1995
through 1997 models) or front lower engine
mount (1998 models) as applicable (see
Chapter 2A). Tighten the mounting bracket
Chapter 7 Part A Manual transaxle
and strut-to-engineltransaxle bolts (ONLY) to
the torque listed in the Specification Section
of Chapter 2A. Leave the through-bolt loose
for now.
41
Install the left engine mounting bracket
onto the transaxle and secure it to the support assembly on the frame rail (see Chapter 2A). Tighten the bolts to the torque listed
in the Specification Section of Chapter 2A.
42 Tighten the front and rear engine mount
through-bolts to the torque listed in the
Specification Section in Chapter 2A.
43 Remove the engine and transaxle support jacks.
44 If you're reinstalling the old modular
clutch assembly, align the driveplate-to-modular clutch assembly match-marks applied in
Step 18. Install four new driveplate-to-modular
clutch bolts. DO NOT install the old bolts - they
are one-time use only. To gain access to each
bolt hole, rotate the engine clockwise (ONLY)
as viewed from the drivebelt end of the engine
using the crankshaft damper/pulley bolt.
Tighten the driveplate-to-modular clutch
assembly bolts in a criss-cross pattern to the
torque listed in the Specification Section of
Chapter 8. Use a screwdriver placed in the ring
gear of the driveplate to keep the crankshaft
from turning during installation of the bolts.
45 Install the clutch housing lower cover.
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
46 On all models except 1998 and later,
install the lateral strut bracket (see illustration 6.17). Tighten the bolts to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
47 On 1998 models, install the oil pan-totransaxle structural collar. Tighten the bolts
to the torque listed in the Specification Section of Chapter 2A.
48 Attach the electrical connectors to the
vehicle speed sensor and back-up light
switch.
49 Install the transaxle splash shield and
secure it with the push-in fasteners. Install
the splash shield/battery cover into the left
front wheel well (see Chapter 5).
50 Install the starter motor (see Chapter 5).
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in the
Specification Section of Chapter 5.
51
Install any chassis or suspension components that were removed. Caution: If the
front suspension crossmember was repositioned to facilitate transaxle removal, it must
be aligned with the previously applied matchmarks on the body and frame (see Chapter 10) to maintain proper wheel alignment.
52 Install any exhaust components that
were removed (see Chapter 4).
53 Install the driveaxles, hub nuts and front
wheels (see Chapter 8).
54 Install the intake manifold support
bracket (see illustration 6.8).
55 Install the accelerator and cruise control
(if equipped) cable bracket onto the throttle
body and tighten the bolts securely.
56 Install the accelerator and cruise control
(if equipped) cable ends into the throttle
lever.
57 Install the shift cables and mounting
bracket onto the transaxle (see Section 2).
Tighten the shift cable bracket bolts to the to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
58 Attach the clutch cable onto the clutch
release lever and install the inspection cover
(see Chapter 8).
59 Attach the negative battery cable to the
ground stud on the left shock tower.
60 Adjust the shift crossover cable (see
Section 2).
61 Install the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
62 Fill the transaxle with the appropriate
fluid (see Chapter 1). Road test the vehicle
and check for proper transaxle operation and
fluid leaks. Shutoff the engine and recheck
the transaxle fluid level.
7
Manual transaxle overhaul general information
1
Overhauling a manual transaxle is a difficult job for the do-it-yourselfer. It involves the
disassembly and reassembly of many small
components. Numerous clearances must be
precisely measured and, if necessary,
changed with select fit spacers and snaprings. As a result, if transaxle problems arise,
it can be removed and installed by a competent do-it-yourselfer, but overhaul should be
left to a dealer service department or other
qualified transmission repair shop. Rebuilt
transaxles may be available - check with your
dealer parts department or local auto parts
stores. At any rate, the time and money
involved in an overhaul is almost sure to
exceed the cost of a rebuilt unit.
2
Nevertheless, it's not impossible for an
inexperienced mechanic to rebuild a transaxle if the special tools are available and the
job is done in a deliberate step-by-step manner so nothing is overlooked.
3
The tools necessary for an overhaul
include internal and external snap-ring pliers.
a bearing puller, a slide hammer, a set of pin
punches, a dial indicator and possibly a
hydraulic press. In addition, a large, sturdy
workbench and a vise or transaxle stand will
be required.
4
During disassembly of the transaxle,
make careful notes of how each piece comes
off, where it fits in relation to other pieces and
what holds it in place - actually noting how
they are installed when you remove the parts
will make it much easier to put it back
together. If necessary take photographs during disassembly. Note: The output shaft cannot be disassembled.
5
Before taking the transaxle apart for
repair, it will help if you have some idea what
area of the transaxle is malfunctioning. Certain problems can be closely tied to specific
areas in the transaxle, which can make component examination and replacement easier.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Section at the
beginning of this manual for information
regarding possible sources of trouble.
Chapter 7 Part B
Automatic transaxle
Contents
Section
Automatic transaxle - removal and installation ......................................9
Automatic transaxle fluid and filter change ...................... See Chapter 1
Automatic transaxle fluid level check ............................... See Chapter 1
Diagnosis - general ................................................................................ 2
Oil seal - replacement ............................................................................ 3
General information ................................................................................1
Park/Neutral/Back-up light switch - check and replacement ................6
Section
Shift cable - removal, installation and adjustment .................................4
Gearshift assembly - replacement .........................................................5
Shifter/ignition interlock system - description, check
and cable replacement ..................................................................... 7
Transaxle mount ................................................... See Chapter 2A or 2B
Transmission Control Module - removal and installation ...................... 8
Specifications
General
Transaxle type.........................................................................................
Fluid type and capacity ...........................................................................
41TE
See Chapter 1
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
105 in-lbs
105 in-lbs
55
25
70
Cooler line fittings ....................................................................................
Bellhousing lower cover bolts ..................................................................
Driveplate-to-torque converter bolts .......................................................
Park/Neutral/Back-up light switch ...........................................................
Transaxle bellhousing-to-engine bolts ....................................................
1
General information
The vehicles covered by this manual are
equipped with either the NV T350 (A-578) 5speed manual or the 41TE 4-speed automatic transaxle. Information on the automatic
transaxle is included in this part of Chapter 7.
Service procedures for the manual transaxle
are contained in Chapter 7, Part B.
The automatic transaxle and the differential are housed in a compact, lightweight,
two-piece aluminum alloy housing. Operation
of the transaxle is controlled electronically by
the Transmission Control Module (TCM)
which is the "brain" of the transaxle. The
TCM monitors engine and transaxle operating parameters through numerous sensors
and then generates output signals to various
relays and solenoids to regulate hydraulic
pressures, optimize driveability, provide efficient torque management and maintain maximum fuel economy. The TCM is part of the
On-Board Diagnostic system OBD-II. For
more information see Chapter 6. Note: If the
power has been interrupted (battery disconnected or has failed) the transaxle will shift
roughly for the first few gear progressions
while the TCM relearns the engine and
transaxle parameters.
The Sections in this Chapter instruct you
on how to replace and adjust those parts of
the transaxle that can be easily serviced at
home, as well as how to remove and install
the transaxle itself. Because of the complexity of the transaxle rotating machinery, electronic operating system and the special tools
required to diagnose and service it properly,
we don't recommend repairing the transaxle
at home. For service and repairs outside the
scope of this manual, take the vehicle to a
dealer service department or other qualified
transmission repair shop.
Some models came equipped with a
driver-interactive option called "Autostick."
This system allows the transaxle to be shifted
manually. When the shift lever is placed in the
Autostick position, the transaxle will remain in
whatever gear it was using before Autostick
was activated. Moving the shift lever to the
left (towards the driver) causes the transaxle
to downshift and moving it to the right
(towards the passenger seat) causes it to
upshift. The instrument cluster displays the
gear you have selected by illuminating a box
around the gear currently engaged. In the
Autostick mode the vehicle can be driven
away in 1st, 2nd or 3rd gear. The speed
(cruise) control system can be used while in
the Autostick mode as long as the shift lever
7B
7B-2
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
is in 3rd or 4th gear. However, when the shift
lever is moved to 2nd gear the speed control
system is disengaged. Shifting into Overdrive
cancels the Autostick mode and the TCM
resumes controlling transaxle operation.
2
Diagnosis - general
1
Automatic transaxle malfunctions may
be caused by five general conditions:
a) Poor engine performance
b) Improper adjustments
c) Hydraulic malfunctions
d) Mechanical malfunctions
e) Malfunctions in the computer or its signal network
Diagnosis of these problems should
2
always begin with a check of the easily
repaired items: fluid level and condition (see
Chapter 1), shift cable adjustment and shift
lever installation. Next, perform a road test to
determine if the problem has been corrected
or if more diagnosis is necessary. If the problem persists after the preliminary tests and
corrections are completed, additional diagnosis should be performed by a dealer service
department or other qualified transmission
repair shop. Refer to the Troubleshooting section at the front of this manual for information
on symptoms of transaxle problems.
Preliminary checks
Drive the vehicle to warm the transaxle
3
to normal operating temperature.
4
Check the fluid level as described in
Chapter 1:
a) If the fluid level is unusually low, add
enough fluid to bring the level within the
designated area of the dipstick, then
check for external leaks (see following).
b) If the fluid level is abnormally high, drain
off the excess, then check the drained
fluid for contamination by coolant. The
presence of engine coolant in the automatic transmission fluid indicates that a
failure has occurred in the internal radiator oil cooler walls that separate the
coolant from the transmission fluid (see
Chapter 3).
c) If the fluid is foaming, drain it and refill
the transaxle, then check for coolant in
the fluid, or a high fluid level.
5
Check the engine idle speed. Note: If
the engine is malfunctioning, do not proceed
with the preliminary checks until it has been
repaired and runs normally.
6
Check and adjust the shift cable, if necessary (see Section 4).
7
If hard shifting is experienced, inspect
the shift cable under the center console and
at the manual lever on the transaxle (see Section 4).
Fluid leak diagnosis
8
Most fluid leaks are easy to locate visually. Repair usually consists of replacing a
seal or gasket. If a leak is difficult to find, the
following procedure may help.
9
Identify the fluid. Make sure it's transmission fluid and not engine oil or brake fluid
(automatic transmission fluid is a deep red
color).
10 Try to pinpoint the source of the leak.
Drive the vehicle several miles, then park it
over a large sheet of cardboard. After a
minute or two, you should be able to locate
the leak by determining the source of the fluid
dripping onto the cardboard.
11
Make a careful visual inspection of the
suspected component and the area immediately around it. Pay particular attention to
gasket mating surfaces. A mirror is often
helpful for finding leaks in areas that are hard
to see.
12 If the leak still cannot be found, clean
the suspected area thoroughly with a
degreaser or solvent, then dry it thoroughly.
13 Drive the vehicle for several miles at normal operating temperature and varying
speeds. After driving the vehicle, visually
inspect the suspected component again.
14 Once the leak has been located, the
cause must be determined before it can be
properly repaired. If a gasket is replaced but
the sealing flange is bent, the new gasket will
not stop the leak. The bent flange must be
straightened.
15 Before attempting to repair a leak,
check to make sure that the following conditions are corrected or they may cause
another leak. Note: Some of the following
conditions cannot be fixed without highly
specialized tools and expertise. Such problems must be referred to a qualified transmission shop or a dealer service department.
Gasket leaks
16 Check the pan periodically. Make sure
the bolts are tight, no bolts are missing, the
gasket is in good condition and the pan is flat
(dents in the pan may indicate damage to the
valve body inside).
17 If the pan gasket is leaking, the fluid
level or the fluid pressure may be too high,
the vent may be plugged, the pan bolts may
be too tight, the pan sealing flange may be
warped, the sealing surface of the transaxle
housing may be damaged, the gasket may be
damaged or the transaxle casting may be
cracked or porous. If sealant instead of gasket material has been used to form a seal
between the pan and the transaxle housing, it
may be the wrong type of sealant.
Seal leaks
18 If a transaxle seal is leaking, the fluid
level or pressure may be too high, the vent
may be plugged, the seal bore may be damaged, the seal itself may be damaged or
improperly installed, the surface of the shaft
protruding through the seal may be damaged
or a loose bearing may be causing excessive
shaft movement.
19 Make sure the dipstick tube seal is in
good condition and the tube is properly
seated. Periodically check the area around
the sensors for leakage. If transmission fluid
is evident, check the seals for damage.
3.2 Oil pump seal removal tool
Case leaks
20 If the case itself appears to be leaking.
the casting is porous and will have to be
repaired or replaced.
21 Make sure the oil cooler hose fittings are
tight and in good condition.
Fluid comes out vent pipe or
fill tube
22 If this condition occurs the possible
causes are, the transaxle is overfilled, there is
coolant in the fluid, the case is porous, the
dipstick is incorrect, the vent is plugged or
the drain-back holes are plugged.
3
Oil
seal - replacement
Oil pump seal
Refer to illustrations 3.2 and 3.3
Note: The transaxle oil pump seal (front seal)
can be replaced without removing the oil
pump from the housing
1
To replace the oil pump seal the
transaxle and torque' converter must be
removed. Remove the transaxle from the
vehicle and withdraw the torque converter
from the bellhousing (see Section 9).
removal 2
If available, use the factory seal
into tool (# C-3981). Thread the seal remover
the seal, then while holding the outer part o'
the tool, tighten the center bolt to pull the
seal from its bore (see illustration). If the factory tool is not available, use a hook-type sea
removal tool or a screwdriver to carefully pry
the seal out. Be extremely careful not to damage the input shaft or the seal bore.
3
If available, use the factory installation
tools (# C-4193 installer and C-4171 handle
to install the oil pump seal (see illustration)
Apply a light coating of the appropriate transmission fluid (see Chapter 1) to the seal lip
and input shaft outer diameter. Place the sea
in the bore (lip side facing in), then using a
hammer drive the seal in squarely until it bottoms. If the factory tools are not available
hand start the seal into the bore evenly by
then using an appropriate sized section o'
pipe placed over the seal, drive it into place.
4
Carefully place the torque
converter onto the transaxle input shaft and install the
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
7B-3
3.3 Oil pump seal installation tool
3.8 Remove the right side driveaxle oil seal using a screwdriver
3.9 Installing the right side driveaxle oil seal using the factory tool
4.9 Transaxle shift cable end at manual shift lever (arrow "A") and
attaching bracket (arrow "B")
transaxle (see Section 9).
5
Check the transaxle fluid level (see
Chapter 1), test drive the vehicle and check
for leaks.
Driveaxle oil seal - right side
only
Refer to illustrations 3.8 and 3.9
Note: Replacing the left side driveaxle oil seal
requires the removal of the differential bearing retainer. This procedure is beyond the
scope of the home mechanic and therefore
not included in this manual. If the left side
driveaxle seal requires replacement, take the
vehicle to your local dealer service department or other qualified transmission repair
shop for service.
6
The right side driveaxle oil seal is
located in the outer part of the extension
housing which is bolted onto the right side of
the transaxle.
7
Remove the right driveaxle (see Chapter 8).
8
Using a screwdriver, pry the driveaxle oil
seal from its bore in the extension housing
(see illustration).
9
If available, use the factory installation
tools (# L-4520 installer and C-4171 handle)
to install the seal (see illustration). Apply a
li ght coating of the appropriate transmission
fluid (see Chapter 1) to the seal lip and place
the seal into the bore (lip side facing in), then
using a hammer drive the seal in squarely
until it bottoms. If the factory tools are not
available, start the seal into the bore evenly
by hand then using an appropriate sized section of pipe placed over the seal, drive it into
place.
10 Install the right driveaxle (see Chapter 8).
4
Shift cable - removal, installation
and adjustment
Warning: These vehicles are equipped with
air bags. Always disconnect the negative battery cable and wait two minutes before working in the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering column or instrument panel to avoid the
possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag(s), which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
Check
1
The easiest way to check the cable
adjustment is to check the operation of the
Park/Neutral/Back-up light switch. Apply the
brakes and try to start the vehicle in all gear
positions. The starter motor should only
engage when the gearshift is in the PARK or
NEUTRAL positions. If the engine starts in
any other gears than PARK or NEUTRAL,
adjust the shift cable as noted below and/or
check operation of the Park/Neutral/Back-up
li ght switch (see Section 6).
2
Verify that the NEUTRAL and DRIVE
detents are within the limits of the gearshift
gate stops. Adjust the shift cable as necessary, see below.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 4.9, 4.12 and 4.13
3
Raise the hood and place a blanket over
the left (driver's) fender to protect it.
4
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
5
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
6
Disconnect the positive cable from the
remote battery terminal.
7
Remove the Transmission Control Module (see Section 8).
8
Remove the Power Distribution Center
from its mounting and position it out of the
way.
9
Using two flat blade screwdrivers, carefully pry the shift cable from the manual lever
on the transaxle (see illustration). To avoid
damaging the cable isolator bushing, pry up
with equal force on both sides of the shift
cable end.
10 Remove the bolt securing the shift cable
bracket to the transaxle and detach the cable
from the transaxle (see illustration 4.9).
11 Working inside the vehicle, remove the
center console (see Chapter 11).
12 Using a flat blade screwdriver, carefully
pry the shift cable from the gearshift lever pin
7B
7B-4
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
4.12 Position the gearshift lever so the shift cable end is in the
access window and then pry the cable from the shift lever pin
(see illustration).
13 Using pliers, remove the shift cable
retaining clip (see illustration) and remove
the cable from the bracket.
14 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
15 Working under the vehicle, remove the
shift cable grommet from the floorpan.
16 Carefully remove the shift cable through
the floorpan opening while unfolding the
cable retainer clips.
17 Remove the shift cable assembly from
the vehicle.
Installation
Refer to illustration 4.28
18 Route the shift cable into the engine
compartment and through the opening in the
floorpan.
19 Install the shift cable into the floorpan
bracket at the gearshift lever assembly and
secure it with the retaining clip (see illustration 4.13).
20 Install the shift cable end onto the
gearshift lever pin. Make sure it snaps into
place.
21 Working in the engine compartment,
connect the shift cable end onto the manual
shift lever at the transaxle. Make sure it snaps
into place.
22 Place the shift cable bracket into position and tighten the bolt securely (see illus-
4.13 Use pliers to remove the shift cable retaining clip
tration 4.9).
23 Adjust the shift cable as described
below.
24 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
Adjustment
25 Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
26 Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
27 Place the gearshift lever in the PARK
position.
28 Loosen the gearshift cable adjusting nut
at the gearshift lever (see illustration).
29 Working in the engine compartment,
place the manual shift lever at the transaxle in
the PARK position. The PARK sprag must be
engaged when adjusting the cable. Rock the
vehicle back and forth to ensure PARK sprag
engagement. The vehicle should not be able
to move.
30 Tighten the shift cable adjusting nut
securely.
31 Check the shift lever for proper operation. It should operate smoothly without binding. Perform the cable check as noted above
(see Steps 1 and 2). Readjust if necessary.
32 Install the center console (see Chapter 11).
33 Attach the negative cable to the remote
battery terminal.
4.28 Shift cable adjusting nut (arrow)
5
Gearshift assembly replacement
Refer to illustration 5.6
Warning: These vehicles are equipped with
air bags. Always disconnect the negative battery cable and wait two minutes before working in the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering column or instrument panel to avoid the
possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag(s), which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
1
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
2
Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
3
Disconnect the shift cable from the
gearshift lever pin and floorpan bracket (see
Section 4).
Disconnect the shifter/ignition interlock
4
cable from the gearshift assembly (see Section 7).
5
On models equipped with Autostick,
detach the electrical connector from the base
of the gearshift assembly.
6
Remove the 4 attaching nuts and remove the gearshift assembly (see illustration).
Installation is the reverse of removal,
7
except adjust the shift cable (see Section 4)
prior to installing the center console.
5.6 Gearshift assembly mounting nuts (arrows)
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
position. Check the for continuity between
each of the outer terminals and the switch
body. No continuity should be present.
Replace the switch if it fails any of these
checks.
Install the transaxle splash shield and
7
secure it with the 2 push-in fasteners. Lower
the vehicle.
Replacement
Park/Neutral/Back-up
light switch (Black)
6.10 Removing the Park/Neutral/Back-up
light switch
6
Park/Neutral/Back-up light
switch - check and replacement
Check
1
The Park/Neutral/Back-up light switch
has a black colored insulator and is located
at the lower left hand side of the transaxle
near the oil pan. The switch inhibits starter
motor engagement unless the gearshift lever
is in the PARK or NEUTRAL position and
completes the back-up light circuit when the
gearshift lever is placed in REVERSE.
2
Prior to checking the switch, first make
sure the shift cable is adjusted properly (see
Section 4).
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
3
on jackstands. Extract the 2 push-in fasteners and remove the transaxle splash shield.
4
Disconnect the electrical connector
from the Park/Neutral/Back-up light switch.
Using an ohmmeter, check for continuity
5
between the center terminal of the switch and
the switch body. Continuity should only be
present with the gearshift lever in PARK and
NEUTRAL. If continuity is detected with the
gearshift lever in any other position, replace
the switch.
Next, check for continuity between the
6
t wo outer terminals. Continuity should only
exist with the gearshift lever in the Reverse
Refer to illustration 6.10
8
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Extract the 2 push-in fasteners and remove the transaxle splash shield.
9
Working under the vehicle, disconnect
the electrical connector from the switch.
Place a drain container under the transaxle as
some fluid loss will occur.
10 Unscrew the switch from the transaxle
using a box-end wrench (see illustration).
Discard the switch seal.
11 Look into the switch opening in the
transaxle. Have an assistant shift the
transaxle from PARK to NEUTRAL. Check
that the internal operating fingers are centered in the switch opening.
12 Install the new switch and seal into the
transaxle and tighten the switch to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specification Section.
13 Recheck the switch operation (see
Steps 1 through 6).
14 Attach the switch electrical connector,
install the transaxle splash shield and lower
the vehicle.
15 Check the transaxle fluid level and add
more, if necessary (see Chapter 1).
7
Shifter/ignition interlock system description, check and cable
replacement
Warning: These vehicles are equipped with
air bags. Always disconnect the negative battery cable and wait two minutes before working in the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering column or instrument panel to avoid the
possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag(s), which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
7.7 Use a screwdriver to disengage the shifter/interlock cable
housing retainer, then slide the cable from the groove in the
gearshift assembly base
7B-5
Description
1
The shift/ignition interlock system connects the automatic transaxle gearshift lever
and the ignition lock system. With the ignition
switch in the LOCK or ACCESSORY position,
the interlock system holds the transmission
shift lever in PARK. When the key is in the
OFF or RUN position, the shift lever is
unlocked and can be moved to any position.
And if the shift lever is not in the PARK position, the system prevents the operator from
turning the ignition switch to the LOCK or
ACCESSORY position.
Check
Refer to illustrations 7.7, 7.8, 7.10a and 7.10b
2
Place the gearshift lever in the PARK
position. The ignition switch should rotate
freely from the OFF to the LOCK position.
Next, move the gearshift lever to the DRIVE
position. The ignition switch should not be
able to rotate from the OFF to the LOCK
position.
3
With the ignition switch in the OFF or
RUN position, you should be able to move
the gearshift lever out of the PARK position.
With the ignition switch in the LOCK or
ACCESSORY position, you should not be
able to move the gearshift lever from the
PARK position.
4
If you are able to move the shift lever in
any way other than previously described, the
interlock system requires service.
Cable replacement
5
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
Remove the center console (see Chap6
ter 11).
7
Detach the interlock cable housing from
the gearshift assembly base (see illustration).
8
Remove the interlock cable end from the
gearshift lever cam (see illustration).
9
Remove the steering column covers
(see Chapter 11).
10 At the ignition key lock cylinder,
squeeze the interlock cable retaining clip
then pull the cable from the ignition lock
7.8 Removing the interlock cable from the gearshift lever cam
7B
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
7B-6
7.10a Depress the interlock cable retaining clip .. .
cylinder housing (see illustrations).
11 Detach the interlock cable from the routing clip and remove it from the vehicle.
12 To install the interlock cable, turn the
ignition switch to the RUN position and insert
the cable end into the ignition lock cylinder
and make sure it snaps into place.
13 Then, route it down the steering column,
secure it with the retaining clip and continue
down to the gearshift assembly.
14 Attach the interlock cable to the
gearshift lever cam (see illustration 7.8).
15 Next, push the cable housing into the
groove in the gearshift assembly base. The
cable housing is fully seated when it snaps
into place (see illustration 7.7).
16 Adjust the interlock cable (see below).
17 Install the steering column covers and
the center console (see Chapter 11).
Adjustment
Refer to illustration 7.21
18 Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
19 Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
20 Remove the ignition key from the lock
cylinder with the switch in the Lock position.
Make sure the gearshift lever is in the PARK
position.
21 When the adjustment nut on the interlock lever is loosened, the cable automatically indexes itself to the correct position.
Loosen the adjustment nut and allow the
cable to index itself (see illustration). After
the cable has found its position, tighten the
adjusting nut.
22 With the ignition in the OFF (locked)
position, the gearshift lever should be locked
in the PARK position. If the gearshift lever can
be moved to select another gear position,
inspect the cable for binding, proper installation and repeat the adjustment procedure.
23 Next, place the ignition key in the RUN
position (engine OFF). Move the gearshift
lever to the REVERSE position. You should
be unable to remove the key from the ignition
lock cylinder. If the key can be removed,
inspect the cable for binding, proper installation and repeat the adjustment procedure.
24 After adjustment, install the center con -
7.10b . . . then withdraw it from the ignition lock cylinder housing
sole (see Chapter 11) and attach the negative
cable to the remote battery terminal.
4
Remove the 3 mounting screws and
withdraw the TCM from the vehicle.
Installation
8
Transmission Control Module
(TCM) - removal and installation
Note: Do not interchange TCM's from different year vehicles. After replacing a TCM take
the vehicle to your local dealer service
department or other qualified transmission
shop to have the TCM calibrated for your
vehicle.
Caution: The TCM is an Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) sensitive electronic device,
meaning a static electricity discharge from
your body could possibly damage electrical
components. Make sure to properly ground
yourself and the TCM before handling it.
Avoid touching the electrical terminals of the
TCM unless absolutely necessary.
5
Installation is the reverse of removal.
9
Automatic transaxle - removal
and installation
Removal
Refer to illustration 8.3
1
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
2
On 2.4L engines, remove the air cleaner
assembly (see Chapter 4).
Detach the electrical connector from the
3
TCM (see illustration).
Refer to illustrations 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21,
9.24 and 9.34
1
Open the hood and place protective
covers on the front fenders and cowl. Special
fender covers are available, but an old bedspread or blankets will also work.
2
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
3
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
4
Remove the Transmission Control Module (see Section 8).
5
Remove the shift cable and bracket
from the transaxle (see Section 4).
6
Disconnect and plug the transaxle oil
cooler lines and position them out of the way.
7
Loosen the driveaxle hub nuts (see
Chapter 8) and front wheel lug nuts. Raise the
vehicle and place it securely on jackstands.
7.21 Loosening the interlock cable
adjusting nut (arrow)
8.3 Transmission Control Module
(TCM) (arrow)
Removal
7B-7
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
9.18 Removing a lateral strut bracket
Remove both front wheels.
8
Drain the transaxle fluid (see Chapter 1).
Remove the driveaxles (see Chapter 8).
9
10 Remove the splash shield/battery cover
from the left front wheel well (see Chapter 5 if
necessary).
11 Remove the accessory drivebelt splash
shield from the right front wheel well (see
Chapter 1 if necessary).
12 Remove the transaxle dipstick tube. To
prevent foreign debris from entering the
transaxle, cover the dipstick tube hole in the
transaxle with duct tape or equivalent.
13 On 2.5L engines, remove the exhaust
manifold cross-over pipe (see Chapter 2B if
necessary).
14 Remove the engine oil filter (see Chapter 1 if necessary).
15 Remove the starter motor (see Chapter 5).
16 Disconnect the exhaust system from the
rear exhaust manifold and position it out of
the way (see Chapter 4). Note: It may be necessary to remove, or partially remove, the
exhaust system to accomplish this.
17 On 1997 and 1998 models equipped
with 2.4L engines, remove the oil pan-totransaxle structural collar (see Chapter 2A,
Section 13).
18 Remove the lateral strut brackets connecting the engine to transaxle (see illustration).
19 Remove the bellhousing lower cover
(see illustration).
20 If the torque converter is to be reinstalled, match-mark it to the driveplate (see
illustration).
21 Remove the four torque converter-todriveplate bolts (see illustration). To gain
access to each bolt, rotate the engine clockwise (ONLY) as viewed from the drivebelt end
of the engine using the crankshaft
damper/pulley bolt. Use a screwdriver placed
n the ring gear of the driveplate to keep the
crankshaft from turning during removal of the
bolts.
22 After removing the torque converter-todriveplate bolts, push the torque converter
into the transaxle bellhousing as far as possible.
9.19 Removing the bellhousing
lower cover
23 On 2.5L engines, remove the crankshaft
position sensor (see Chapter 6).
24 Clearly label and detach the electrical
connectors from the transaxle and position
them out of the way (see illustration).
25 Match-mark the front suspension crossmember to the body and frame so it can be
reinstalled in the same position to maintain
proper wheel alignment (see Chapter 10,
Section 17).
26 Remove the front stabilizer-to-frame
clamps.
27 Support the engine from above with a
hoist, or place a floor jack under the oil pan.
Place a wood block on the jack head to
spread the load on the oil pan.
28 Loosen (ONLY) the right side steering
gear bolts and front suspension crossmember bolts (see Chapter 10 if necessary).
29 Remove the left side steering gear and
front suspension crossmember bolts (see
Chapter 10 if necessary).
30 Remove the left engine mounting
bracket from the transaxle (see the appropriate Part of Chapter 2).
31 Remove the front engine mounting
bracket and strut (see the appropriate Part of
Chapter 2).
32 Remove the rear engine mounting
bracket (see the appropriate Part of Chapter 2).
33 Remove the engine support module
9.20 Before removing the driveplate-totorque converter bolts, find a hole in the
drive plate and match-mark the torque
converter to the driveplate
Removing the driveplate-to-torque
converter bolts
(1995 to 1997 models) or front and rear lower
engine mounts (1998 and later models) as
applicable (see the appropriate Part of Chapter 2). Note: The engine support module is
attached to the lower radiator support. When
removing the engine support module, the
radiator and air conditioning condenser (if
equipped) must be supported.
34 Support the transaxle with a transmis-
9.24 41TE transaxle
electrical connections
1
2
3
4
5
Solenoid pack
connector
Input speed sensor
Transmission range
sensor (white)
Park/Neutral/Backup light switch
(black)
Output speed sensor
7B
7B-8
Chapter 7 Part B Automatic transaxle
sion jack, if available, or use a floor jack (see
illustration). Secure the transaxle to the jack
using straps or chains so it doesn't fall off
during removal.
35 Remove the transaxle bellhousing-toengine bolts. Make sure all bellhousing-toengine bolts are removed.
36 Make a final check that all wires, hoses
and brackets have been disconnected from
the transaxle, then with the engine properly
supported, move the front suspension crossmember rearward and carefully lower the
transaxle from the vehicle.
37 Make sure you keep the transaxle level
as you maneuver it or the torque converter
may fall out. Note: Reinstalling the bellhousing lower cover after the transaxle clears the
driveplate will help hold the torque converter
in place.
38 Remove the torque converter from the
transaxle.
39 With the transaxle removed, now it a
good time to inspect the engine rear main oil
seal for leakage and replace if necessary (see
the appropriate Part of Chapter 2). Also
inspect the transaxle oil pump seal and
replace if necessary (see Section 3).
Installation
40 Install the torque converter onto the
transaxle input shaft. Handle it carefully to
avoid damaging the transaxle input shaft
seal. Make sure the torque converter hub
splines are properly engaged with the splines
on the transaxle input shaft. Note: If reinstalling the old torque converter, position it so
the match-mark applied in Step 20 will correspond with the mark on the driveplate.
41 With the transaxle secured to the jack,
raise it into position and carefully slide it forward until the transaxle bellhousing seats
against the engine. Do not use excessive
force to install the transaxle - if it doesn't
slide into place easily, readjust the angle of
the transaxle and try again. Make sure you
keep the transaxle level as you maneuver it or
the torque converter may fall out. Do not
force it or use the bellhousing bolts to pull it
together. Make sure the dowel pins on the
engine are aligned with their respective holes
in the transaxle. If you are experiencing difficulty, solicit the aid of an assistant.
42 Install the bellhousing-to-engine bolts
with brackets and clamps where required
and tighten them to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specification Section.
43 Install the engine support module (1995
to 1997 models) or front and rear lower engine
mounts (1998 and later models) as applicable
(see the appropriate Part of Chapter 2).
44 Install the left side steering gear and
front suspension crossmember attaching
bolts. Align the front suspension crossmember with the match-marks applied in Step 25
(see Chapter 10 if necessary). Tighten the
steering gear and crossmember bolts to their
respective torque values given in the Specifi -
cation Section of Chapter 10.
45 Position the front stabilizer bar against
the front suspension crossmember and
secure it with the retaining clamps. Tighten
the stabilizer bar clamp bolts to the torque
given in the Specification Section of Chapter 10.
46 Install the rear engine mounting bracket
to the transaxle and secure it to the engine
support module (1995 to 1997 models) or
rear lower engine mount (1998 models) as
applicable (see the appropriate Part of Chapter 2). Tighten the bracket-to-engine bolts
(ONLY) to the torque listed in the Specification Section in the appropriate Part of Chapter 2. Leave the through-bolt loose for now.
47 Install the front engine mounting bracket
and strut (see the appropriate Part of Chapter
2). Note: On 1998 models equipped with 2.4L
engines, the front engine mounting bracket
and strut are tightened in sequence with the
oil pan-to-transaxle structural collar, refer to
Chapter 2A, Section 13. Secure the bracket
to the engine support module (1995 to 1997
models) or front lower engine mount (1998
models) as applicable (see the appropriate
Part of Chapter 2). Tighten the mounting
bracket and strut-to-engineltransaxle bolts
(ONLY) to the torque listed in the Specification Section in the appropriate Part of Chapter 2. Leave the through-bolt loose for now.
48 Install the left engine mounting bracket
onto the transaxle and secure it to the support assembly on the frame rail (see the
appropriate Part of Chapter 2). Tighten the
bolts to the torque listed in the Specification
Section in the appropriate Part of Chapter 2.
49 Tighten the front and rear engine mount
through-bolts to the torque listed in the
Specification Section in the appropriate Part
of Chapter 2.
50 Remove the engine and transaxle support jacks.
51 If you're reinstalling the old torque converter, align the driveplate-to-torque converter match-marks applied in Step 20. Install
the four driveplate-to-torque converter bolts.
To gain access to each bolt hole, rotate the
engine clockwise (ONLY) as viewed from the
drivebelt end of the engine using the
crankshaft damper/pulley bolt. Tighten the
driveplate-to-torque converter bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specification
Section. Use a screwdriver placed in the ring
gear of the driveplate to keep the crankshaft
from turning during installation of the bolts.
52 Install the bellhousing lower cover.
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specification Section.
53 Install the lateral strut brackets (see
illustration 9.18). Tighten the bolts to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specification
Section.
54 On 1997 and later models equipped
with 2.4L engines, install the oil pan-totransaxle structural collar. Tighten the bolts
to the torque listed in the Specification Sec -
9.34 Using a transmission jack to remove
the transaxle
tion of Chapter 2A.
55 Attach the electrical connectors to the
transaxle (see illustration 9.24).
56 On 2.5L engines, install the crankshaft
position sensor, attach the electrical connector and tighten the retaining bolt to the torque
given in the Specification Section of Chapter 6.
57 On 2.5L engines, install the exhaust
manifold cross-over pipe. Tighten the nuts to
the torque given in the Specification Section
of Chapter 2B.
58 Attach the exhaust system to the
exhaust manifold (see Chapter 4). Tighten the
nuts to the torque given in the Specification
Section of Chapter 4.
59 Install the transaxle dipstick tube.
60 Install the transaxle splash shield and
secure it with the 2 push-in fasteners.
61
Install the splash shield/battery cover
into the left front wheel well (see Chapter 5 if
necessary).
62 Install the starter motor (see Chapter 5).
Tighten the bolts to the torque listed in the
Specification Section of Chapter 5.
63 Install the engine oil filter (see Chapter 1).
64 Install the driveaxles, hub nuts and front
wheels (see Chapter 8). Tighten all fasteners
to the torque values given in the Specification
Section of Chapter 8.
65 Install the shift cable and mounting
bracket onto the transaxle (see Section 4).
66 Install the transaxle oil cooler lines onto
the fittings and tighten the clamps securely.
67 Install the Transmission Control Module
(see Section 8).
68 Attach the negative cable to the remote
battery terminal.
69 Install the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
70 Fill the transaxle with the appropriate
fluid (see Chapter 1).
71 Check the shift cable operation and
adjust if necessary (see Section 4).
72 Road test the vehicle and check for
proper transaxle operation and fluid leaks.
Shutoff the engine and recheck the transaxle
fluid level.
Chapter 8
Clutch and driveaxles
Contents
Section
Clutch - description and check ..............................................................2
Clutch cable - removal and installation ..................................................3
Clutch release bearing and lever - removal, inspection
and installation ..................................................................................5
Clutch start switch - check and replacement ........................................6
Driveaxle boot check ........................................................ See Chapter 1
Driveaxle boot replacement ...................................................................9
Section
Driveaxle oil seal - replacement..................................... See Chapter 7A
Driveaxle - removal and installation ....................................................... 8
Driveaxles - general information and inspection ....................................7
Driveplate - removal and installation .............................. See Chapter 2A
General information ................................................................................1
4
Modular clutch assembly - removal, inspection and installation ...
Specifications
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs
Driveplate-to-modular clutch assembly bolts ..................................................55
Driveplate-to-crankshaft bolts ......................................................................... See Chapter 2
Driveaxle/hub nut
1995 through 1999 ......................................................................................180
2000............................................................................................................ 142
Wheel lug nuts ..................................................................................................110
1
General information
The information in this Chapter deals
with the components from the rear of the
engine to the front wheels, except for the
transaxle, which is covered with in Chapter 7.
For the purposes of this Chapter, these components are grouped into two categories:
Clutch and driveaxles. Separate Sections
within this Chapter offer general descriptions
and checking procedures for both groups.
Since nearly all the procedures covered
in this Chapter involve working under the
vehicle, make sure it's securely supported on
sturdy jackstands or a hoist where the vehicle
can be easily raised and lowered.
2
Clutch - description and check
1
All vehicles with a manual transaxle use
a single dry plate, diaphragm spring type
modular clutch assembly. The modular clutch
assembly works like a traditional clutch
except that it has no serviceable parts. The
flywheel, clutch friction disc and pressure
plate are all in one unit which mounts to the
driveplate at the rear of the engine. When a
clutch failure occurs, the modular clutch
assembly must be replaced with a new unit.
2
The clutch friction disc is compressed
between two plates inside the modular clutch
assembly by an internal one-piece diaphragm
spring with multiple release fingers.
3
The clutch release system is cable-actuated. The system consists of the clutch
pedal, the cable, a clutch release lever and
the clutch release (or throw-out) bearing. The
clutch cable on these models is self-adjusting
and requires no routine maintenance or
adjustment.
4
When pressure is applied to the clutch
pedal to release the clutch, the cable moves
the release lever, which pivots, moving the
release bearing. The bearing pushes against
the fingers of the diaphragm spring of the
modular clutch assembly, which in turn
allows the clutch friction disc to spin independently of the engine.
5
Here are some preliminary checks to
help diagnose a clutch system failure:
a) To check "clutch spin down time," run
the engine at normal idle speed with the
transaxle in Neutral (clutch pedal up engaged). Disengage the clutch (pedal
down), wait several seconds and shift
the transaxle into Reverse. No grinding
noise should be heard. A grinding noise
would most likely indicate a problem
with the clutch release system.
b) To check for complete clutch release,
run the engine (with the parking brake
applied to prevent movement) and hold
the clutch pedal approximately 1/2-inch
from the floor. Shift the transaxle
between 1st gear and Reverse several
times. If the shift is not smooth, clutch
component failure is indicated.
c) Visually inspect the clutch pedal bushings at the top of the clutch pedal to
make sure there is no sticking or excessive wear.
6
For more information on clutch related
problems see the Troubleshooting section at
the beginning of this manual.
8
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
8-2
3.3 Remove the clutch cable
inspection cover
3
Clutch cable - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 3.3, 3.4, 3.5a, 3.5b, 3.5c
and 3.6
1
Raise the hood and place a blanket over
the left (driver's) fender to protect it.
2
Remove the air cleaner assembly (see
Chapter 4).
Remove the clutch cable inspection
3
cover from the bellhousing (see illustration).
4
Pull back on the clutch cable housing
and disengage it from the slot in the bellhousing, then disconnect it from the release
lever (see illustration).
5
Working inside the vehicle, slightly
depress the clutch pedal to allow access to
the clutch cable up-stop/spacer. Remove the
retaining clip securing the up-stop/spacer to
the clutch pedal pivot pin (see illustration).
Wedge a narrow flat-blade screwdriver
between the clutch pedal pivot pin and the
up-stop/spacer retaining tab, then remove
the up-stop/spacer from the pivot pin (see
illustration). Remove the up-stop/spacer
from the clutch cable end (see illustration).
3.4 Grab onto the clutch cable housing,
pull it back and pass the clutch cable
through the slot in the bellhousing, then
disconnect it from the release lever
3.5a Working inside the vehicle, slightly
depress the clutch pedal for access to the
clutch cable, then remove the clip (arrow)
securing the up-stop/spacer to the clutch
pedal pivot pin .. .
6
Caution: Do not pull on the clutch cable
while removing it from the dash panel as the
cable self-adjuster may be damaged. Working inside the engine compartment, hold onto
the grommet and, using a slight twisting
motion, carefully remove the clutch cable
grommet from the firewall and clutch bracket
(see illustration). If necessary, carefully use
a screwdriver to free the grommet from the
firewall opening. Remove the clutch cable
assembly from the vehicle.
Installation
7
To help ease installation, apply a little
petroleum jelly to the clutch cable grommet.
8
Working inside the engine compartment, insert the self-adjusting end of the
clutch cable through the firewall and into the
clutch bracket using a slight twisting motion.
Make sure the cable grommet is fully seated
in the firewall.
9
Working inside the vehicle, seat the
cylindrical part of the grommet into the firewall opening and clutch bracket. Make sure
the self-adjuster is firmly seated against the
clutch bracket to ensure the adjuster will
function properly.
3.5c . . . and remove the up-stop/spacer from the clutch
cable end
3.5b . . . next, wedge a narrow flat-blade
screwdriver between the up-stop/spacer
retainer and the clutch pedal pivot pin,
then slide the up-stop/spacer off the
pivot pin .. .
10 Install the up-stop/spacer onto the
clutch cable end, then install the upstop/spacer onto the clutch pedal pivot pin.
3.6 Working in the engine compartment, carefully remove the
clutch cable and grommet from the firewall
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
8-3
BROKEN OR BENT FINGERS
EXCESSIVE FINGER WEAR
4.7 Typical diaphragm spring release finger defects
Install the retaining clip and make sure it is
properly seated.
11 Working inside the engine compartment, using slight pressure, pull the clutch
cable end to draw the cable taut. Push the
cable housing toward the firewall with less
than 25 Ibs of pressure. The cable housing
should move about 1 to 2 inches - this indicates proper adjuster operation. If the cable
does not adjust (move), make sure the
adjuster mechanism is properly seated in the
bracket.
12 Connect the cable to the release lever
making sure the cupped washer seats
securely on the release lever tangs.
13 Pull back on the clutch cable housing
and insert it into the bellhousing (see illustration 3.4).
14 Install the clutch cable inspection cover
onto the bellhousing (see illustration 3.3).
4
Modular clutch assembly removal, inspection and
installation
Warning: Dust produced by clutch wear and
deposited on clutch components may contain asbestos, which is hazardous to your
health. DO NOT blow it out with compressed
air and DO NOT inhale it. DO NOT use gasoline or other petroleum-based solvents to
remove the dust. Brake system cleaner
should be used to flush the dust into a drain
pan. After the clutch components are wiped
clean with a rag, dispose of the contaminated
rags and cleaner in a labeled, covered container.
Removal
nor 1
Access to the clutch components is
mally accomplished by removing the
transaxle, leaving the engine in the vehicle. If
the engine is being removed for major overhaul, then the opportunity should always be
taken to check the clutch for wear and
replace worn components as necessary.
However, the relatively low cost of the clutch
components compared to the time and labor
involved in gaining access to them warrants
their replacement any time the engine or
transaxle is removed, unless they are new or
in near-perfect condition. The following procedure assumes that the engine will remain in
the vehicle.
2
Remove the transaxle from the vehicle
(see Chapter 7, Part A). Note: The modular
clutch assembly remains on the transaxle
input shaft during the removal process.
3
Remove the modular clutch assembly
from the transaxle. Handle it carefully to
avoid contaminating the friction surfaces.
4
To remove the clutch release bearing
and lever refer to Section 5.
Inspection
Refer to illustration 4.7
5
While they're accessible, inspect the
engine rear main oil seal and transaxle input
shaft seal for evidence of leakage. Replace
seals if necessary.
6
Inspect the modular clutch for oil or
grease contamination. Replace if contamination is present.
7
Inspect the clutch diaphragm spring
release fingers for excessive wear or damage
(see illustration). Replace the modular
clutch assembly if excessive wear or damage
is observed.
health. DO NOT blow it out with compressed
air and DO NOT inhale it. DO NOT use gasoline or petroleum-based solvents to remove
the dust. Brake system cleaner should be
used to flush it into a drain pan. After the
clutch components are wiped clean with a
rag, dispose of the contaminated rags and
cleaner in a labeled, covered container.
Removal
Refer to illustration 5.4
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower.
2
Remove the modular clutch assembly
(see Section 4). Handle it carefully to avoid
contaminating the friction surfaces.
Working on the transaxle, position the
3
release lever and bearing so the lever is at a
right angle to the input shaft. Grasp the
release lever on each side of the pivot ball
socket and pull; the release lever will pop off
the pivot stud. Caution: Do not use a screwdriver or pry bar to disengage the lever as the
spring clips on the underside of the release
lever will be damaged.
4
Slide the release bearing and lever off
the bearing sleeve (see illustration).
5
Separate the fork from the bearing,
being careful not to damage the retention
tabs on the bearing.
Installation
8
If removed, install the clutch release
bearing and lever (see Section 5).
9
Install the new modular clutch assembly
onto the transaxle input shaft.
10 Install the transaxle (see Chapter 7,
Part A). Note: Be sure to install new clutch
assembly-to-driveplate bolts. Tighten the
clutch assembly-to-driveplate bolts in a
criss-cross pattern to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
5
Clutch release bearing and lever
- removal, inspection and
installation
Warning: Dust produced by clutch wear and
deposited on clutch components may contain asbestos, which is hazardous to your
5.4 Removing the release bearing
and lever
8-4
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
OUTER
CV
JOINT
TUNED DAMPER WEIGHT
BEARING
SHIELD
INNER TRIPOD
JOINT
TUNED DAMPER
WEIGHT
TONE WHEEL
(IF ABS EQUIPPED)
5.6 Hold the release bearing outer race
and rotate the inner race while applying
pressure. It should turn smoothly and
quietly - if it feels rough or makes
noise, replace it
BEARING
SHIELD
OUTER CV
JOINT
OUTER CV JOINT
SEALING BOOT
TRIPOD JOINT
SEALING BOOT
7.2 Driveaxle components
6.3 Clutch pedal details
Inspection
in the release fork as this would break down
the Teflon coating.
11 Install the release lever onto the bearing.
Note: The small pegs on the bearing must go
over the fork arms.
12 Install the release bearing and lever onto
the input shaft sleeve. Snap the lever into
place on the pivot ball. Make sure it is properly seated.
13 Install the modular clutch assembly (see
Section 4).
6
Clutch start switch - check and
replacement
Refer to illustration 5.6
6
Hold the bearing by the outer race and
rotate the inner race while applying pressure
(see illustration). If the bearing doesn't turn
smoothly or if it's noisy, replace the bearing
assembly with a new one. Wipe the bearing
with a clean rag and inspect it for damage,
wear and cracks. Don't immerse the bearing
in solvent - it's sealed for life and to do so
would ruin it. Note: Because of the difficulty
involved in removing the transaxle for release
bearing replacement, we recommend routinely replacing the release bearing when the
modular clutch assembly is replaced.
7
Check the release lever fork for cracks
or distortion. Replace if necessary.
8
Inspect the pivot ball spring clips on the
back side of the lever. If they're cracked or
broken, replace the lever.
9
Clean any dirt off the pivot ball and
pocket in the release fork. Examine them for
damage or excessive wear. Replace if necessary.
Refer to illustration 6.3
1
Verify that the engine will NOT start
when the clutch pedal is released (up).
2
Verify that the engine WILL start when
the clutch pedal is depressed (down).
3
If the engine won't start with the pedal
depressed, or starts with the pedal released,
unplug the electrical connector to the switch
(l ocated near the top of the clutch pedal) (see
illustration) and check continuity between
the connector terminals with the clutch pedal
depressed.
4
If there's continuity between the terminals with the pedal depressed, the switch is
okay; if there's no continuity between the terminals with the pedal depressed, replace the
switch. If there's continuity between the terminals when the clutch pedal is released,
replace the switch.
Installation
Replacement
10 Lightly lubricate the release lever ends,
the inner diameter of the release bearing and
the input shaft with hi-temperature grease.
Caution: The pivot stud ball is Teflon coated
- don't apply any lubrication to it or it's pocket
5
The non-adjustable switch is mounted
vertically at the upper end of the clutch pedal
lever.
6
Unplug the switch electrical connector
from the wiring harness.
Check
7
Depress the wing tabs on the switch and
push the switch out of the mounting bracket.
8
Remove the switch and slide the wires
out of the slot in the bracket.
9
Installation is the reverse of removal.
7
Driveaxles - general information
and inspection
Refer to illustration 7.2
1
Power is transmitted from the transaxle
to the wheels through a pair of driveaxles. The
inner end of each driveaxle is splined to the
differential side gears. The driveaxles must be
removed to replace the driveaxle oil seals
located in the transaxle (see Chapter 7A). The
outer ends of the driveaxles are splined to the
front wheel hubs and secured by a large nut.
2
Each driveaxle assembly consists of an
inner and outer constant velocity (CV) joint
connected together by an axle shaft (see
illustration). The inner ends of the driveaxles
are equipped with a tripod type CV joint on all
models. This design is capable of both angular and axial motion. In other words, the inner
CV joints are free to slide in-and-out according to the travel limits of the front suspension.
The inner CV joint (tripod joint) can be disassembled and cleaned in the event of a sealing
boot failure, but if any parts are damaged, the
entire driveaxle assembly must be replaced
as a unit (see Section 8).
3
The outer CV joint on all models, is a
ball-and-cage design (Rzeppa joint), and is
capable of angular - but not axial - movement. The outer CV joint is not serviceable.
The only serviceable part on the outer CV
joint is the hub/bearing shield (all models) and
the sealing boot (1998 and later models only).
In the event of bearing or sealing boot failure
on 1995 to 1997 models, the entire driveaxle
must be replaced.
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
8.2a Remove the hub nut cotter pin .. .
4
The boots should be inspected periodically for damage and leaking lubricant (see
Chapter 1). Torn CV joint boots should be
replaced immediately or the CV joints can
become damaged due to lack of lubrication
or the ingress of water. Boot replacement
requires removal of the driveaxle (see Section
8). Note: Some auto parts stores carry "split"
type replacement boots, which can be
installed without removing the driveaxle from
the vehicle. This is a convenient alternative;
however, the driveaxle should be removed
and the CV joint disassembled and cleaned to
ensure the joint is free from contaminants
such as moisture and dirt which will accelerate CV joint wear. The most common symptom of worn or damaged CV joints, besides
lubricant leaks, is a clicking noise in turns, a
clunk when accelerating after coasting and
vibration at highway speeds. To check for
wear in the CV joints and driveaxle shafts,
grasp each axle (one at a time) and rotate it in
both directions while holding the CV joint
housings, feeling for play indicating worn
splines or sloppy CV joints. Also check the
axleshafts for cracks, dents and distortion.
8.2b ... then remove the lock and
spring washer
8
Driveaxle - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 8.2a, 8.2b, 8.3, 8.8a,
8.8b, 8.8c, 8.10 and 8.11
1
Disconnect the negative cable from the
remote battery terminal.
2
On 1995 through 1999 models, remove
the cotter pin, lock and spring washer (see
illustrations). Discard the cotter pin - you'll
need a new one for reassembly. Note: The
2000 model is not equipped with a cotter pin,
lock or spring washer.
3
Set the parking brake, place the transmission in gear (or Park as applicable) and
have an assistant apply the brakes firmly,
then loosen the driveaxle/hub nut with a large
socket and breaker bar (see illustration). DO
NOT remove the nut at this time - only loosen
it - the driveaxle shaft/nut serves to maintain
the required load on the hub/wheel bearings.
4
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, raise
the vehicle and support it securely on jack-
8-5
8.3 Loosen the driveaxle/hub nut - DO
NOT remove the nut - it holds the wheel
hub/bearing assembly together!
stands. Remove the wheel and driveaxle/hub
nut.
5
Remove the front brake caliper and
hang it from the upper control arm with a
piece of wire (see Chapter 9). Note: It is not
necessary to remove the brake pads for this
procedure.
6
It's not absolutely necessary that you
drain the transaxle lubricant prior to removing
a driveaxle, but if the mileage on the odometer indicates that the transaxle is nearing the
lubricant-change interval prescribed in Chapter 1 or the vehicle is at an angle that will
allow the fluid to run out of the driveaxle hole
- drain the transaxle lubricant (see Chapter 1).
7
Detach the lower control arm from the
steering knuckle at the lower balljoint (see
Chapter 10).
8
Angle the steering knuckle as required
and remove the driveaxle from the hub (see
illustration). Suspend the outer end of the
driveaxle with a piece of wire. DO NOT let it
hang from the inner CV joint! If the driveaxle
is stuck in the wheel hub, apply some pene -
8
8.8a Angle the steering knuckle as required and pull the driveaxle
from the wheel hub
8.8b If the driveaxle is stuck in the wheel hub, apply some
penetrating oil to the hub splines then install the hub nut onto the
driveaxle a few turns (to protect the threads) and strike the end of
the driveaxle with a soft-faced hammer to break it loose - DO NOT
attempt to drive the driveaxle out of the hub using a hammer!
8-6
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
8.8c If the penetrating oil and hammer technique prove
unsuccessful, use a two-jaw puller to push the driveaxle from
the wheel hub
trating oil to the hub splines, install the hub nut
on a few turns and strike the end of the
driveaxle with a soft-faced hammer to break it
loose (see illustration). DO NOT attempt to
drive the driveaxle stub out of the wheel hub
using a hammer! In some cases it may be necessary to push the driveaxle stub out of the
hub using a two-jaw puller (see illustration).
9
Before you remove the driveaxle from
the transaxle, check for lubricant leakage in
the area around the driveaxle oil seal. If
there's evidence of a leak, you'll want to
replace the seal after removing the driveaxle
(see Chapter 7, Part A).
10 To remove the driveaxle from the
transaxle, position a prybar against the inner
tripod joint housing and carefully pry it out
until the retaining snap-ring on the driveaxle
is disengaged from the transaxle side gear
(see illustration).
11 While supporting the driveaxle, pull
straight out on the tripod joint housing to
avoid damaging the driveaxle seal located in
the transaxle (see illustration). Caution: Pull
on the tripod housing only! DO NOT pull on
8.11 To avoid damaging the transaxle oil
seal, support the ends of the driveaxle and
pull it straight out
8.10 Insert a prybar between the tripod joint housing and the
transaxle. Pry on the driveaxle until you feel the retaining circlip
on the driveaxle disengage from the differential side gear
the axleshaft - the only thing keeping the axleshaft and tripod housing together is the sealing boot - pulling on the axleshaft might separate the tripod joint and result in component
damage. Remove the driveaxle assembly
from the vehicle.
12 Should it become necessary to move
the vehicle while the driveaxle is removed,
before installing the wheel, place a large bolt
(approximately the same size as the driveaxle
splined shaft) with two large washers (one on
each side of the hub) through the hub and
tighten the nut to 180 ft-lbs. This will prevent
the hub/wheel bearing from separating when
the vehicle weight is placed on the wheel
hub/bearing assembly.
13 If you noted evidence of a leaking
driveaxle seal, refer to Chapter 7A for the seal
replacement procedure.
to the specified torque at this time.
f) Tighten the lower control arm balljoint
nut (see Chapter 10) and brake caliper
guide pins (see Chapter 9) to the torque
listed in the Specification Section in their
respective Chapters.
g) Install the wheel and lug nuts then lower
the vehicle.
h) On 1995 through 1999 models, tighten
the driveshaft/hub nut to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
Install the spring washer, lock washer
and new cotter pin. Bend the ends
around the nut - not over it. On 2000
models, use a new driveshaft/hub nut
and tighten it to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
i) Tighten the wheel lug nuts to the torque
listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
I) Check and add transaxle/differential
lubricant as applicable (see Chapter 1).
Installation
14 Installation is the reverse of removal, but
with the following additional points:
a) Thoroughly clean the driveaxle splines
and hub/bearing shield. Clean the
respective areas around the driveaxle oil
seal and the steering knuckle/hub splines.
b) Install a new snap-ring on the inner
driveaxle splines.
c) Lubricate the driveaxle oil seal, tripod
joint splines and sealing surface with the
appropriate transmission lubricant (see
Chapter 1).
d) When installing the driveaxle into the
transaxle, hold it straight out and push it
in sharply to seat the driveaxle snap-ring
into the groove in the transaxle side
gear. To make sure the circlip is properly
seated, grasp the tripod joint housing
(not the driveaxle) and attempt to pull it
out of the transaxle by hand.
e) Before installing the driveaxle into the
hub/steering knuckle, lubricate the
driveaxle outer splines with a light coat
of multi-purpose grease. After installing
the driveaxle, install the driveaxle/hub
nut and tighten the nut securely but not
9
Driveaxle boot replacement
Note 1: If the CV joints are damaged (usually
due to torn boots), individual replacement
parts are not available. The complete driveaxle.
new or rebuilt, must be replaced as an assembly and are available on an exchange basis.
Note: 2: On 1995 to 1997 models, the only
serviceable part on the outer CV joint is the
hub/bearing shield which is pressed onto the
outer CV joint housing splined shaft. The
outer CV joint cannot be removed from the
axleshaft. In the event of bearing or sealing
boot failure on these models, the entire
driveaxle must be replaced.
Outer joint boot (1998 and
later models only)
Disassembly
Refer to illustrations 9.2, 9.4, 9.5a and 9.5b
1
Remove the driveaxle from the vehicle
(see Section 8).
2
Mount the driveaxle in a vise with soft
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
9.2 Cut the boot clamps and remove them
from the driveaxle
9.4 Remove the boot from the
CV joint housing
jaws (to prevent damage to the axleshaft).
Check the CV joint for excessive play in the
radial direction, which indicates worn components. Check for smooth operation throughout the full range of motion for the CV joint.
Using diagonal cutters, cut the boot clamps
and remove them (see illustration).
3
Before separating the outer CV joint
from the axleshaft assembly, mark the CV
joint housing to the axleshaft so they may be
reinstalled in the same position.
4
Pry up on the edge of the boot and pull
it off the outer CV joint housing (see illustration).
5
Using a soft-faced hammer, carefully
drive the outer CV joint off the axleshaft by
striking the outer housing (only) - be careful
not to damage the splines or the cage (see
illustrations).
Remove the large retaining circlip from
6
the axleshaft then slide off the sealing boot.
for cracks, pitting, scoring and other signs of
wear.
8
If there's any evidence of damage or
excessive wear, replace the outer CV joint as
an assembly. The outer CV joint is not serviceable.
Check
7
Clean the CV joint thoroughly with solvent to remove all grease. Blow the solvent
out of the joint with compressed air, if available. Warning: Wear eye protection! Check
8-7
9.5a Use a soft-faced hammer to
disengage the outer CV joint from the
axleshaft retaining circlip .. .
Installation
Refer to illustrations 9.10, 9.12 and 9.14
9
Pack the CV joint with half of the special
CV joint grease included in the boot kit.
10 Wrap the splined end of the axleshaft
with tape to protect the new boot from damage during installation (see illustration).
Install the new small clamp and new boot
onto the axleshaft.
11 Remove the tape from the splines and
install the large retaining circlip. Place the
remaining CV joint grease into the sealing
boot.
12 Install the CV joint assembly onto the
axleshaft aligning the previously applied
match-marks. Using a brass hammer, seat
the joint onto the shaft (see illustration).
Make sure the CV joint assembly is locked
into position on the axleshaft by trying to pull
it off by hand.
9.10 Before installing the boot, wrap the axleshaft splines with
tape to prevent damaging the boot
9.5b . . . and remove the outer CV joint
from the axleshaft
13 Wipe any excess grease from the axle
boot groove on the CV joint housing. Seat the
small diameter of the boot in the recessed
area on the axleshaft. Push the other end of
the boot onto the CV joint housing and move
9.12 Install the outer CV joint onto the axleshaft, then use a brass
drift and a hammer to seat the CV joint on the axleshaft
8-8
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
9.14 Tighten the boot clamps using special plier-type crimpers,
which are available at most auto parts stores
the race in or out until there's no deformation
(distortion or dents) in the boot.
14 Install the large clamp onto the sealing
boot. Secure the sealing boot to the axleshaft
and CV joint housing using a special clamp
crimping tool as shown (see illustration).
These special plier-type crimpers are available at most auto parts stores. Place the
crimping tool over the bridge of the clamp
and squeeze it together until the tool is fully
closed.
15 Install the driveaxle (see Section 8).
Outer CV joint hub/bearing
shield
Replacement
16 Remove the driveaxle from the vehicle
(see Section 8).
17 Mount the driveaxle in a vise with soft
jaws (to prevent damage to the axleshaft).
18 Using a drift and hammer, carefully and
evenly drive the hub/bearing shield off the
outer CV joint shaft.
19 Place the shield onto the axleshaft with
the large diameter facing up. Using an appropriate size section of pipe and a hammer,
drive the shield onto the axleshaft. Be careful
9.24 Once the boot is detached from the tripod housing, the joint
can be separated
not to cock the hub/bearing shield. Drive it
onto the shaft until it is fully seated.
20 Install the driveaxle onto the vehicle (see
Section 8).
Inner joint boot
Disassembly
Refer to illustrations 9.24, 9.25, 9.26 and 9.27
21
Remove the driveaxle from the vehicle
(see Section 8).
22 Mount the driveaxle in a vise with soft
jaws (to prevent damage to the axleshaft).
Check the CV joint for excessive play in the
radial direction, which indicates worn components. Check for smooth operation throughout the full range of motion for the CV joint.
23 Before separating the tripod housing
from the axleshaft assembly, use a centerpunch or equivalent to match-mark the housing to the axleshaft so they may be reinstalled
in the same position.
24 After removing the boot clamps (see
illustration 9.2), pull the boot back from the
tripod housing and slide the it off the spider
assembly (see illustration). Caution: Hold
onto the spider assembly bearings as you
remove the housing to prevent them from
9.25 Use a centerpunch to mark (arrows) the tripod spider
to the axleshaft
falling off. If necessary, wrap some tape
around them to secure them in position.
25 Use a centerpunch to mark the spider to
the axleshaft so that they can be reassembled in the same position (see illustration).
26 Remove the snap-ring from the end of
the axleshaft with a pair of snap-ring pliers
(see illustration).
27 Use a hammer and a brass drift to drive
the spider assembly from the driveaxle and
then remove the old sealing boot (see illustration). Be careful not to strike the spider
assembly bearings.
Check
28 Clean all components with solvent to
remove the grease, and check for cracks, pitting, scoring and other signs of wear.
Replacement parts for these driveaxles are
not available, so if any component exhibits
damage, the entire driveaxle must be
replaced.
Reassembly
Refer to illustration 9.34
Caution: The inner tripod joint sealing boots
on the vehicles covered in this manual are
constructed from different materials for differ-
9.26 Remove the spider retaining snap-ring from the end of the
axleshaft
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
9.27 Carefully drive the tripod spider assembly from the axleshaft
using a brass drift and hammer - make sure you don't damage the
bearing surfaces or the splines on the axleshaft
ent temperature applications. High-temperature applications use silicone rubber that is
soft and pliable. Standard temperature applications use Hytrel plastic that is stiff and rigid.
The replacement boots must be the same
type of material as the sealing boot that was
removed.
29 Wrap the splined end of the axleshaft
with tape to protect the new boot from damage during installation (see illustration 9.10).
Install the new small clamp and new sealing
boot onto the axleshaft. Remove the tape
from the splines.
30 Install the spider assembly onto the
axleshaft aligning the centerpunch matchmarks (see illustration 9.25). Install the
snap-ring onto the axleshaft. Note: The snapring must be fully seated in it's groove. If necessary, use a hammer and brass drift to fully
8-9
9.34 Equalize the pressure in the boot by inserting a small, dull
screwdriver between the boot and the joint housing
seat the spider assembly on the axleshaft. Be
careful not to strike the spider assembly bearings.
31 Pack the tripod joint housing with half of
the special CV joint grease included in the
boot kit. Place the remaining CV joint grease
into the sealing boot.
32 Place the tripod housing onto the axleshaft assembly aligning the previously
applied match-marks.
33 Slide the sealing boot into place, making
sure both ends seat in their grooves.
34 Next, insert a small DULL screwdriver or
other small blunt object between the tripod
housing and the sealing boot (see illustration). This will equalize the pressure in the
boot during positioning of the axleshaft in the
tripod outer housing. Caution: DO NOT damage the sealing boot during this procedure!
35 With the sealing boot vented using the
screwdriver (or equivalent), position the axleshaft so it is in the middle of it's axial travel
within the tripod housing. Make sure there
are no creases or dents in the sealing boot
after positioning the axleshaft. Remove the
screwdriver from between the housing and
sealing boot.
36 Install the large clamp onto the sealing
boot. Secure the sealing boot to the axleshaft
and CV joint housing using a special clamp
crimping tool as shown (see illustration
9.14). These special plier-type crimpers are
available at most auto parts stores. Place the
crimping tool over the bridge of the clamp
and squeeze it together until the tool is fully
closed.
37 Install the driveaxle (see Section 8).
8
8-10
Chapter 8 Clutch and driveaxles
Notes
Chapter 9 Brakes
Contents
Section
Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) - general information ............................. 2
Brake check ......................................................................See Chapter 1
Brake disc - inspection, removal and installation..........................
5
Brake fluid level check ...................................................... See Chapter 1
Brake hoses and lines - inspection and replacement ....................
10
Brake system - bleeding ................................................................
11
Brake light switch - check, replacement and adjustment ..............
15
4
Disc brake caliper - removal and installation .................................
Disc brake pads - replacement ......................................................
3
Drum brake shoes - replacement ..................................................
6
Section
General information ........................................................................
1
Master cylinder - removal, installation and fluid
reservoir replacement...............................................................
8
Parking brake cables - replacement ..............................................
14
Parking brake lever assembly - removal,
installation and adjustment.......................................................
13
Power brake booster - check, removal and installation .................
12
Proportioning valves - check and replacement.............................
9
Wheel cylinder - removal and installation ......................................
7
Specifications
General
Brake fluid type ........................................................................................
See Chapter 1
Disc brakes
Brake pad minimum thickness (metal backing plus lining) .....................
Disc lateral runout limit............................................................................
Disc minimum thickness ..........................................................................
Thickness variation ..................................................................................
3/8 inch
0.005 inch
Cast into disc
0.0005 inch
Drum brakes
Minimum brake lining thickness ..............................................................
Maximum drum diameter ........................................................................
1/8 inch
Cast into drum
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
250 in-lbs
35
16
250 in-lbs
97 in-lbs
See Chapter 1
Brake booster mounting nuts ..................................................................
Brake hose banjo bolt-to-caliper .............................................................
Caliper guide pin bolts .............................................................................
Master cylinder-to-brake booster mounting nuts....................................
Wheel cylinder-to-backing plate mounting nuts .....................................
Wheel lug nuts .........................................................................................
9
9-2
1
General information
General
All models covered by this manual are
equipped with a hydraulically operated brake
system. The front brakes are disc type and
the rear brakes are drum type. Both brake
types are self-adjusting. Disc brakes automatically compensate for pad wear, while
drum brakes incorporate an adjustment
mechanism which is activated as the brakes
are applied.
The hydraulic system is split diagonally the left front and right rear brakes are on one
circuit; the right front and left rear on the
other. If one circuit fails, the other circuit will
remain functional and a warning indicator will
illu minate on the dashboard when a substantial amount of brake fluid is lost, showing that
a failure has occurred.
Before disconnecting any electrical connector from a vehicle equipped with an Antilock Brake System (ABS), make sure the ignition is in the OFF position and the negative
battery cable has been disconnected from
the ground stud on the left shock tower (see
Chapter 5, Section 1). If any weld repair is
going to be performed on a vehicle equipped
with an ABS system, disconnect the CAB or
ICU electrical connector (see Section 2) or
damage to the electronics may occur.
Calipers
All disc brakes used by the vehicles
covered in this manual are equipped with a
double-pin floating caliper, a single-piston
design that "floats" on two steel guide pins.
When the brake pedal is depressed,
hydraulic pressure pushing on the piston is
transmitted to the inner brake pad and
against the inner surface of the brake disc. As
the force against the disc from the inner pad
is increased, the caliper assembly moves in,
sliding on the guide pins and pulling the outer
pad against the disc, exerting a pinching
force on the disc.
Master cylinder
The master cylinder is located in the
engine compartment on the power brake
booster, and can be identified by the large
fluid reservoir on top. The master cylinder has
two separate circuits to accommodate the
diagonally split system.
Power brake booster
The power brake booster uses engine
manifold vacuum to provide assistance to the
brakes. It is mounted on the firewall in the
engine compartment, directly behind the
master cylinder.
Parking brake system
The parking brake actuates the rear
brakes via two cables. The parking brake
cables pull on a lever attached to the brake
shoe assembly, causing the shoes to expand
against the drum.
Chapter 9 Brakes
Precautions
There are some general precautions
and warnings related to the hydraulic brake
system:
a) Use only brake fluid conforming to DOT
3 specifications.
b) The brake pads and linings may contain
asbestos fibers which are hazardous to
your health if inhaled. Whenever you
work on brake system components, DO
NOT blow it out with compressed air
and DO NOT inhale it. DO NOT use
gasoline or petroleum-based solvents to
clean components. Brake system
cleaner should be used to flush the dust
into a drain pan. After the brake components are cleaned, dispose of the contaminated rags and cleaner in a labeled,
covered container. Do not allow the fine
dust to become airborne.
c) Safety should be paramount whenever
any servicing of the brake components
is performed. Do not use parts or fasteners which are not in perfect condition, and be sure all clearances and
torque specifications are adhered to. If
you are at all unsure about a certain
procedure, seek professional advice.
Upon completion of any brake system
work, test the brakes carefully in a controlled area before driving the vehicle in
traffic.
d) If a problem is suspected in the brake
system, don't drive the vehicle until it's
been corrected.
2
Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) general information
2.2 The Controller Anti-lock Brake (arrow)
is the brain of the ABS system (1997 and
earlier style shown; on 1998 models,
the CAB is mounted on the HCU
Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU)
Refer to illustration 2.3
The Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU) is
3
located in the engine compartment on the
right hand side and mounted to the front suspension crossmember (see illustration). The
HCU contains the valve block assembly, fluid
accumulators, the pump/motor assembly and
relay box.
Integrated Control Unit (ICU) - 1998
models only
4
On 1998 models a new ABS brake system was introduced which functions very
much like the previous ABS system except it
combines the HCU and CAB into one unit,
called the Integrated Control Unit (ICU). The
ICU is located in the same location as the
HCU on previous models (see above).
Description
Valve block assembly
1
The Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) prevents wheel lock-up on virtually any road surface. Preventing the wheels from locking up
maintains vehicle maneuverability, preserves
directional stability, and allows optimal deceleration on all surfaces. How does ABS work?
Basically, by monitoring the rotational speed
of the wheels and controlling the brake line
pressure to the calipers/wheel cylinders at
each wheel.
5
The valve block assembly contains eight
valve/solenoids: four inlet valves and four
outlet valves. The inlet valves are springloaded in the open position and the outlet
valves are spring-loaded in the closed position. During ABS operation, these valves are
cycled to maintain the proper slip ratio for
each channel. If a wheel locks, the inlet valve
is closed to prevent a further increase in
pressure. Simultaneously, the outlet valve is
opened to release the pressure back to the
accumulators until the wheel is no longer
slipping. Once the wheel no longer slips, the
outlet valve closes and the inlet valve opens
to allow pressure to the wheel caliper or
wheel cylinder.
Components
Controller Anti-lock Brake (CAB)
Refer to illustration 2.2
2
The CAB consists of a pair of microprocessors which monitor wheel speeds and
control the anti-lock and traction control
functions. The CAB receives two identical
signals and process the information independently of one another. The results are compared to make sure that they agree. If they
don't, the CAB turns off the ABS and traction
control functions, and turns on the warning
li ghts. The CAB is located in the engine compartment on the right hand side and mounted
near the windshield washer fluid and coolant
reservoirs (see illustration).
Pump/motor assembly
6
The pump/motor assembly consists of
an electric motor and a dual-piston pump.
The pump provides high-pressure brake fluid
to the hydraulic control unit when the ABS
system is activated.
Fluid accumulators
7
The two fluid accumulators located
inside the HCU are for the primary and secondary hydraulic circuits. The accumulators
Chapter 9 Brakes
2.3 The Hydraulic Control Unit (arrow) is located
below the power steering pump
temporarily store brake fluid that is blocked
during ABS operation. This fluid is re-routed
to the pump.
Proportioning valves
8
Refer to Section 9 for a description of
the proportioning valves.
Wheel Speed Sensors (WSS)
Refer to illustration 2.9
9
A speed sensor is mounted at each
wheel (see illustration). The speed sensors
send variable voltage signals to the HCU.
These analog voltage outputs are proportional to the speed of rotation of each wheel.
Diagnosis and repair
10 The ABS system has self-diagnostic
capabilities. Each time the ignition key is
turned to ON, the system runs a self-test. If it
finds a problem, the ABS and traction control
warning lights come on and remain on. If
there's no problem with the system, the lights
go out after a second or two.
11
If the ABS and traction control warning
li ghts come on and stay on during vehicle
operation, there is a problem in the ABS
9-3
2.9 Wheel Speed Sensor (arrow)
system. Two things now happen: The controller stores a diagnostic trouble code (which
can be displayed with a DRB II scanner at the
dealer) and the ABS system is shut down.
Once the ABS system is disabled, it will
remain disabled until the problem is corrected and the trouble code is erased. However, the regular brake system will continue
to function normally.
12 Although a DRB II scan tool (a special
electronic tester) is necessary to properly
diagnose the system, you can make a few
preliminary checks before taking the vehicle
to a dealer or other shop for service:
a) Make sure the brake calipers and wheel
cylinders are in good condition.
b) Check the electrical connector at the
CAB, HCU or ICU as applicable.
c) Check the fuses.
d) Follow the wiring harness to the wheel
speed sensors and brake light switch
and make sure all connections are clean,
secure and the wiring isn't damaged.
If the above preliminary checks don't
rectify the problem, the vehicle should be
diagnosed by a dealer service department or
other qualified repair shop.
3
Disc brake pads - replacement
Refer to illustrations 3.2, 3.3, 3.4a through 3.41
Warning: Disc brake pads must be replaced
on both front wheels at the same time - never
replace the pads on only one wheel. Also, the
dust created by the brake system may contain asbestos, which is harmful to your health.
Never blow it out with compressed air and
don't inhale any of it. An approved filtering
mask should be worn when working on the
brakes. Do not, under any circumstances, use
petroleum-based solvents to clean brake
parts. Use brake system cleaner only!
1
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts 1/4turn, raise the front of the vehicle and support
it securely on jackstands. Apply the parking
brake. Remove the front wheels.
2
Using a syringe or equivalent, siphon
approximately two-thirds of the fluid from the
master cylinder reservoir and discard it. Position a drain pan under the brake assembly
and clean the caliper and surrounding area
with brake system cleaner (see illustration).
3
Push the piston back into its bore using
a C-clamp (see illustration). As the piston is
9
3.2 Always wash the brakes with brake system
cleaner before working on them
3.3 Use a C-clamp to press the caliper piston into its bore
9-4
Chapter 9 Brakes
3.4a To remove the front brake caliper,
remove the two guide pin bolts (arrows)
3.4b Lift the caliper off the steering
knuckle and remove the outer
pad from the caliper
3.4c Remove the inner pad
from the caliper
3.4d If you're not going to reinstall the
caliper any time soon, hang it from the
upper control arm with a piece of wire
or equivalent - don't let it hang
by the brake hose
3.4e Remove the guide pin bushings
3.4f Remove the bushing boots, inspect
them for damage and replace if necessary
depressed to the bottom of the caliper bore,
the fluid in the master cylinder will rise as the
brake fluid is displaced. Make sure it doesn't
overflow. If necessary, siphon off more of the
fluid. Warning: Never siphon brake fluid by
mouth!
4
To replace the brake pads, follow
the accompanying photos, beginning with
illustration 3.4a. Be sure to stay in order and
read the caption under each illustration.
While the pads are removed, inspect the
5
caliper for brake fluid leaks and ruptures of
the piston dust boot. Replace the caliper if
necessary (see Section 4). Also inspect the
brake disc carefully (see Section 5). If
machining is necessary, follow the information in that Section to remove the disc.
Inspect the brake hoses for damage and
replace if necessary (see Section 10).
6
Before installing the caliper guide pin
bolts, clean and check them for corrosion
and damage. If they're significantly corroded
or damaged, replace them. Be sure to tighten
the caliper guide pin bolts to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specification Section.
7
Repeat the procedure for the opposite
wheel, then install the wheels, lug nuts and
lower the vehicle. Tighten the lug nuts to the
torque listed in the Chapter 1 Specification
Section. Add the appropriate brake fluid to
3.4g Lubricate the guide pin bushings
with multi-purpose grease before
installing them
3.4h Apply an anti-squeal compound to
the backs of the pads where they mate
with the caliper and piston
3.4i Install the inner brake pad - make
sure the retaining spring is fully
seated into the piston bore
9-5
Chapter 9 Brakes
3.4j Install the outer brake pad - make sure
the retaining spring is properly engaged
with the caliper body and the wear
indicator (arrow) on the pad is positioned
at the top of the caliper as shown
the reservoir until it's full (see Chapter 1 if
necessary).
Pump the brakes several times to seat
8
the pads against the disc, then check the
brake fluid level in the reservoir again. Top it
up as necessary.
Carefully test the operation of the
9
brakes before resuming normal operation.
Try to avoid heavy brake applications until
the brakes have been applied lightly several
ti mes to seat the pads.
4
Disc brake caliper - removal and
installation
Warning: Dust created by the brake system
may contain asbestos, which is harmful to
your health. Never blow it out with compressed air and don't inhale any of it. An
approved filtering mask should be worn when
working on the brakes. Do not, under any circumstances, use petroleum-based solvents
to clean brake parts. Use brake system
cleaner only.
Note: If replacement is indicated (usually
because of fluid leaks, a stuck piston or broken bleed screw) explore all options before
beginning this procedure. New and factory
rebuilt calipers are available on an exchange
basis, which makes this job quite easy.
Always replace the calipers in pairs - never
replace just one of them.
3.4k Place the caliper/brake pad
assembly onto the steering knuckle
(make sure the upper ends of
the pads seat properly)
pad replacement procedure). Clean the
caliper assembly with brake system cleaner.
Warning: DO NOT, under any circumstances,
use kerosene, gasoline or petroleum-based
solvents to clean brake parts! Be sure to
check the pads as well and replace them if
necessary (see Section 3).
3.41 Install the guide pin bolts and tighten
them to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications
5
Brake disc - inspection, removal
and installation
Inspection
Installation
Install the brake pads and caliper (see
4
Section 3). Tighten the caliper guide pin bolts
to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specification Section.
5
Connect the brake hose to the caliper
using new sealing washers. Tighten the banjo
bolt to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specification Section.
6
Firmly depress the brake pedal a few
times to bring the pads into contact with the
disc. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir and add more if necessary.
7
Bleed the brakes (see Section 11).
8
Install the wheels and lug nuts. Lower
the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the
torque listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
9
Carefully check for fluid leaks and test
the operation of the brakes before resuming
normal operation.
Refer to illustrations 5.2, 5.3, 5.4a and 5.4b
Loosen the wheel lug nuts 1/4-turn,
1
raise the front of the vehicle and support it
securely on jackstands. Apply the parking
brake. Remove the front wheels. Reinstall the
lug nuts to hold the disc firmly against the
hub. Note: Washers may be required.
Remove the brake caliper (see Sec2
tion 4). Visually inspect the disc surface for
score marks and other damage (see illustration). Light scratches and shallow grooves
are normal after use and won't affect brake
operation. Deep grooves - over 0.015-inch
deep - require disc removal and refinishing
by an automotive machine shop. Be sure to
check both sides of the disc.
To check the disc runout, place a dial
3
indicator at a point about 1/2-inch from the
outer edge of the disc (see illustration).
Rotate the disc until you find the lowest point
on the disc. Set the dial indicator to zero and
turn the disc again. The indicator reading
should not exceed the runout limit listed in
this Chapter's Specification Section. Check
5.2 The brake pads on this vehicle were
obviously neglected, as they wore down
to the rivets, then cut deep grooves into
the disc, which must now be replaced
5.3 Use a dial indicator to check disc
runout - if the reading exceeds the
specified runout limit, the disc will
have to be machined or replaced
Removal
1
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, raise
the vehicle and support it securely on jackstands. Remove the front wheels.
2
Unscrew the banjo bolt from the caliper
and detach the hose. Note: If you're just
removing the caliper for access to other components, don't disconnect the hose. Discard
the sealing washers on each side of the fitting
and use new ones during installation. Plug the
hose to prevent fluid loss and contamination.
3
Refer to the first few steps in Section 3
(caliper removal is the first part of the brake
Chapter 9 Brakes
9-6
the runout on both sides of the disc. If the
runout exceeds specification, the disc must
be refinished by an automotive machine
shop. Note: Professionals recommend resurfacing the brake discs regardless of the dial
indicator reading (to produce a smooth, flat
surface that will eliminate brake pedal pulsations and other undesirable symptoms related
to questionable discs). At the very least, if you
elect not to have the discs resurfaced,
deglaze them with sandpaper or emery cloth.
4
The disc must not be machined to a
thickness less than the specified minimum
thickness. The minimum (or discard) thickness is cast into the disc (see illustration).
The disc thickness should be checked with a
micrometer (see illustration).
Removal
Refer to illustration 5.7
Loosen the wheel lug nuts 1/4-turn,
5
raise the vehicle and place it securely on
jackstands. Remove the wheel.
Remove the caliper (see Section 4).
6
7
Remove the retaining clips, if present,
from the wheel studs (see illustration).
Pull the disc off the hub.
8
Installation
9
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure you tighten the caliper guide pin
bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specification Section. Tighten the lug nuts to
the torque listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
6
Drum brake shoes - replacement
Refer to illustrations 6.2, 6.4a through 6.4v
and 6.5
Warning: Drum brake shoes must be
replaced on both wheels at the same time never replace the shoes on only one wheel.
Also, the dust created by the brake system
may contain asbestos, which is harmful to
your health. Never blow it out with compressed air and don't inhale any of it. An
5.4a The minimum thickness is cast into
the inside of the disc
approved filtering mask should be worn when
working on the brakes. Do not, under any circumstances, use petroleum-based solvents
to clean brake parts. Use brake system
cleaner only!
Caution: Whenever the brake shoes are
replaced, the hold-down springs should also
be replaced. Due to the continuous
heating/cooling cycle that the springs are
subjected to, they lose their tension over a
period of time and may allow the shoes to
drag on the drum and wear at a much faster
rate than normal.
Loosen the wheel lug nuts 1/4-turn,
1
raise the rear of the vehicle and support it
securely on jackstands. Block the front
wheels to keep the vehicle from rolling.
Release the parking brake. Remove the
wheel. Note: The brake shoes on both wheels
must be replaced at the same time. The drum
brake assemblies on these models are unique
for each side of the vehicle (left hand only right hand only) so to avoid mixing up parts,
service one brake assembly at a time.
2
Remove the brake drum. If the drum
won't come off, the brake shoes must be
retracted from their fully adjusted position by
inserting a screwdriver through the adjuster
hole in the backing plate. Locate the adjuster
6.2 Before disassembling the brake shoe assembly, spray it with
brake cleaner to remove brake dust; DO NOT blow brake
dust off with compressed air
5.4b Use a micrometer to measure the
thickness of the disc at several locations
5.7 Cut off and discard the disc retaining
washers, if present (it isn't necessary
to reinstall them)
access hole and remove the plug. Insert a
screwdriver through the access hole and
engage the adjuster quadrant teeth. Using
the screwdriver, move the adjuster quadrant
teeth fully toward the FRONT of the vehicle.
The drum should now come off. Wash the
brake assembly with brake system cleaner
(see illustration).
6.4a Using locking pliers, grasp the lower return spring and
detach it from the leading brake shoe (left hand
brake assembly shown
Chapter 9 Brakes
9-7
6.4b Remove the lower return spring note that the shorter spring end is
towards the trailing brake shoe
6.4c Using locking pliers, grasp the upper
return spring and detach it from the
trailing brake shoe
6.4d Unhook the upper return spring from
the leading brake shoe
6.4e Using locking pliers, detach the
automatic self-adjuster spring
from the adjuster
6.4f Compress the retaining clip,
remove the pin .. .
6.4g . . . and separate the leading brake
shoe and the automatic self-adjuster
from the backing plate
3
Remove the wheel hub/bearing assembly
(see Chapter 10). Note: Removal of the wheel
hub/bearing assembly is not mandatory, but it
makes the job a lot easier.
4
Follow illustrations 6.4a through 6.4v
for inspection and replacement of the brake
shoes. Be sure to stay in order and read the
caption under each illustration.
5
Before reinstalling the drum, carefully
examine it for cracks, score marks, deep
scratches and hard spots, which will appear
as small discolored areas. If the hard spots
cannot be removed with fine emery cloth or if
any of the other conditions listed above exist,
the drum must be taken to an automotive
machine shop to have it resurfaced. Note:
Professionals recommend resurfacing the
drums whenever a brake job is performed.
LEADING BRAKE
SHOE ASSEMBLY
FULLY EXTEND ADJUSTER
IN THIS DIRECTION ROTATE
THIS
DIRECTION
AUTOMATIC SELF
ADJUSTER MECHANISM
6.4h To remove the adjuster from the shoe, pull it outward, then
rotate it toward the reinforced side of the shoe
6.4i Compress the retaining clip, then remove the pin
and clip from the trailing shoe
Chapter 9 Brakes
9-8
6.4k Before installing the brake shoes,
apply a small amount of high-temperature
grease to all areas where the brake shoes
make contact with the backing plate
6.4j Detach the parking brake cable from
the actuating lever - DO NOT try to
separate the actuating lever
from the brake shoe
6.41 Obtain the correct replacement
trailing brake shoe (they are unique for
each side of the vehicle, RH or LH and the
parking brake actuating lever should be
permanently attached) and install the
parking brake cable onto the
actuating lever
6.4n Inspect the automatic selfadjuster for damage and replace if
necessary
1
2
3
6.4m Correctly position the trailing shoe
in place on the backing plate (parking
brake actuating lever toward the
inside) and secure it with a new
pin and retaining clip
Resurfacing will eliminate the possibility of
out-of-round drums. If the drums are worn so
much that they can't be resurfaced without
exceeding the maximum allowable diameter
LUBRICATE THIS
SURFACE BETWEEN
QUADRANT AND STRUT
OF ADJUSTER MECHANISM
KNURLED
(stamped into the drum) (see illustration),
then new ones will be required. At the very
least, if you elect not to have the drums resurfaced, remove the glazing from the surface
with emery cloth or sandpaper using a
swirling motion.
6
Install the wheel hub/bearing assembly
Knurled pin - check to see it is
firmly attached and the teeth are
not damaged or excessively worn
Quadrant spring - inspect for
damage and verify it hasn't lost
it's tension
Quadrant - verify the quadrant is
free to slide within its mounting
slot and can rotate through the
entire tooth range
(with a new hub nut), if removed (see Chapter 10).
7
Install the brake drum, mount the wheel
and install the lug nuts.
8
Repeat the procedure for the opposite
wheel.
9
Lower the vehicle and tighten the lug
AUTOMATIC SELF
ADJUSTER MECHANISM
PIN
STRUT
QUADRANT
SPRING
6.4o Before installing the adjuster on the leading brake shoe,
lubricate the area between the quadrant and the adjuster
strut with a small amount of multi-purpose grease
6.4p Install the automatic self-adjuster onto the proper leading
brake shoe (they are unique for each side of the vehicle, RH or LH
and are marked on the reinforcement plate) - after installation the
quadrant teeth should be on the reinforced side of the brake shoe
Chapter 9 Brakes
6.4q Place the leading brake shoe (with
adjuster installed) in position on the
backing plate, making sure to match up
the notch in the adjuster strut with the
notch in the trailing brake shoe
9-9
6.4r Install the new pin and retaining clip
6.4s Compress the retaining clip
and turn the pin 90-degrees to
retain the brake shoe
6.4t Install the adjuster spring into the
trailing brake shoe, then attach
it to the adjuster
6.4u Install the upper return spring
of the wheel cylinder (see illustration). Plug
the end of the brake line to prevent fluid loss
and contamination.
3
Remove the two bolts securing the
wheel cylinder to the backing plate and
remove the wheel cylinder.
Tighten the wheel cylinder mounting bolts to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications. Tighten the line fitting securely.
5
Install the brake shoes, wheel hub/bearing assembly, if removed (with a new hub nut)
and brake drum (see Section 6).
6
Bleed the brakes (see Section 11). Carefully test brake operation before resuming
normal operation.
nuts to the torque listed in the Chapter 1
Specifications.
10 To adjust the brakes, start the engine
and fully depress the brake pedal two or
three times to activate the automatic
adjusters.
11 Carefully test brake operation before
driving the vehicle in traffic.
7
Wheel cylinder - removal and
installation
Note: If replacement is warranted (usually
because of fluid leakage or sticky operation)
explore all options before beginning the job.
New wheel cylinders are available, which
makes this job quite easy. Never replace only
one wheel cylinder. Always replace both of
them at the same time.
Removal
Refer to illustration 7.2
1
Remove the rear brake shoes (see Section 6).
2
Using a flare-nut wrench (if available)
disconnect the brake line fitting from the rear
6.4v Install the lower return spring,
positioned as shown
Installation
4
Installation is the reverse of removal.
6.5 The maximum allowable diameter is
stamped into the drum (arrow)
7.2 Disconnecting the brake hose fitting
(arrow) from the wheel cylinder
9-10
8.2 Cruise control servo mounting
nuts (arrows)
8
Master cylinder - removal,
installation and fluid reservoir
replacement
Note: The master cylinder used on these
vehicles is not serviceable and must be
replaced as a unit. However, you can replace
the fluid reservoir and/or reservoir sealing
grommets.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 8.2, 8.5, 8.6 and 8.8
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1). With the ignition
switch in the OFF position, pump the brake
pedal until a firm pedal is achieved.
2
If equipped, disconnect the cruise control electrical connector and detach the
cruise control servo from its mounting on the
shock tower and position it out of the way
(see illustration).
3
Using a syringe or equivalent, siphon the
brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir
and dispose of it properly. Caution: Brake
fluid will damage paint. Cover all painted surfaces and avoid spilling fluid during this procedure.
4
Place rags under the brake line fittings
and prepare caps or plastic bags to cover the
ends of the lines once they're disconnected.
5
Loosen the tube nuts at the ends of the
brake lines where they enter the master cylinder (see illustration). To prevent rounding off
the corners of these fittings, a flare-nut
wrench, which wraps around the nut, should
be used. Pull the brake lines away from the
master cylinder slightly and plug the ends to
prevent leakage and contamination. Also
plug the openings in the master cylinder to
prevent fluid spillage.
6
Unhook the clip and unplug the electrical connector from the brake fluid level sensor (see illustration).
7
Clean the area where the master cylinder attaches to the vacuum booster using
brake system cleaner.
8
Remove the two master cylinder mounting nuts (see illustration) and any brackets
that may be attached. Slide the master
Chapter 9 Brakes
8.5 Disconnect the brake line fittings with
a flare-nut wrench (ABS-equipped
models have two line fittings, while
non-ABS models have four)
cylinder off the studs and remove it from the
vehicle.
Installation
Note: Read this entire procedure before
beginning this operation.
9
Install the master cylinder onto the
power brake booster making sure to engage
the operating rod. Install any brackets as
necessary and tighten the mounting nuts
securely.
10 Before installing the brake lines to the
master cylinder, it should be bled. Since
you'll have to apply pressure to the master
cylinder piston and at the same time, control
flow from the brake line outlets, the aid of an
assistant will be required.
11 Insert threaded plugs into the brake line
outlet holes and snug them down so no air
will leak past them, but not so tight that they
can't be easily loosened.
12 Fill the reservoir with the recommended
brake fluid (see Chapter 1).
13 Place a suitable container under one of
the plugs and remove the plug. Have your
assistant SLOWLY depress the brake pedal
to expel the air from the master cylinder. Use
a rag to catch any brake fluid that squirts out.
A clear plastic bag placed over the master
cylinder will help you guide the expelled fluid
for collection and prevent it from squirting in
unwanted areas.
14 To prevent air from being drawn back
into the master cylinder, place your finger
tightly over the hole to keep air from being
drawn back into the master cylinder before
releasing the brake pedal. Wait several seconds for brake fluid to be drawn from the
reservoir into the bore, then depress the
brake pedal again, removing your finger as
brake fluid is expelled. Be sure to put your
finger firmly back over the hole each time
before releasing the piston, and when the
bleeding procedure is complete for that outlet, install the plug (with the pedal depressed)
and tighten it before going on to the next
port.
15 Repeat the procedure until only brake
fluid is expelled from the brake line outlet
8.6 Unhook the retaining clip and unplug
the electrical connector from the brake
fluid level sensor
hole. When only brake fluid is ' expelled,
repeat the procedure at the other outlets. Be
sure to keep the master cylinder reservoir
filled with brake fluid to prevent the introduction of air into the system.
16 Loosen the master cylinder mounting
nuts and connect the brake lines into the
master cylinder. Since the master cylinder is
a bit loose, it can be moved slightly so the fittings can thread in easily.
17 Tighten the master cylinder mounting
nuts to the torque given in this Chapter's
Specification Section. Tighten the fitting nuts
securely.
18 If equipped, install the cruise control
servo onto the shock tower and plug in the
electrical connector.
19 Fill the master cylinder reservoir with the
recommended fluid (see Chapter 1), then
bleed the brake hydraulic system (see Section 11).
Fluid reservoir replacement
Refer to illustration 8.22
20 Using a syringe or equivalent, siphon the
brake fluid from the master cylinder reservoir
and dispose of it properly.
8.8 To detach the master cylinder from
the power brake booster, remove the
mounting nuts (arrows), then pull the
master cylinder assembly straight
off the mounting studs
Chapter 9 Brakes
8.22 The brake fluid reservoir is secured and sealed
to the master cylinder by the grommets
21 Disconnect the brake fluid level sensor
electrical connector from the reservoir (see
illustration 8.6).
22 To remove the reservoir, carefully rock it
back-and-forth while gently pulling upward
(see illustration).
23 After removing the reservoir, carefully
remove the grommets from the master cylinder. Note: New grommets should be installed
anytime the reservoir is detached from the
master cylinder.
24 Remove the brake fluid level sensor
from the reservoir.
25 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Coat the new grommets with clean brake
fluid prior to installation.
9
Proportioning valves - check and
replacement
9.5 On non-ABS models, the proportioning valves are located on
the right side of the front suspension crossmember
Replacement
Non-ABS models
Refer to illustration 9.5
3
Loosen the right front wheel lug nuts,
raise the front of the vehicle and support it
securely on jackstands. Remove the wheel.
4
Remove the accessory drivebelt splash
shield (see Chapter 1).
5
Loosen the brake hydraulic fluid lines
from the proportioning valve with a flare-nut
wrench to prevent rounding off the corners of
the fittings (see illustration). Back off the fittings and remove the valve from the line. Plug
the ends of the lines to prevent loss of brake
fluid and the entry of dirt.
6
Installation is the reverse of removal.
7
Bleed the brakes (see Section 11). Carefully test the brakes before resuming normal
operation.
1995 to 1997 models with ABS
Description
1
All models have two proportioning
valves that balance front-to-rear braking by
controlling the increase in rear system
hydraulic pressure above a preset level.
Under light pedal pressure, the valve allows
full hydraulic pressure to the front and rear
brakes. But above a certain pressure - known
as the "split point" - the proportioning valve
reduces the amount of pressure increase to
the rear brakes in accordance with a predetermined ratio. This lessens the chance of
rear wheel lock-up and skidding.
9-11
Refer to illustration 9.8
8
If your vehicle was manufactured
between 1995 and 1997 and equipped with
ABS, the proportioning valves are mounted
to the HCU (see illustration) and upon
removal, the ABS system will be required to
be bled using a DRB scan tool. We recommend you let your local dealer service
department or other qualified repair shop
replace the proportioning valves on these
models.
1998 and later models with ABS
Refer to illustration 9.10
9
Loosen the appropriate rear wheel lug
nuts, raise the rear of the vehicle and support
it securely on jackstands. Remove the wheel.
10 Loosen the line fitting from the proportioning valve with a flare-nut wrench to prevent rounding off the corners of the fittings
(see illustration). Be sure to hold the valve
with another wrench to prevent the line from
twisting.
11 Detach the brake hose bracket from the
upper frame rail.
12 Unscrew the valve from the brake hose
and plug the ends of the lines to prevent
leakage and contamination.
9
Check
2
If either rear wheel skids prematurely
under hard braking, it could indicate a defective proportioning valve. If this occurs, have
the system checked out by your local dealer
service department. A pair of special pressure gauges and fittings are required for
proper diagnosis of the proportioning valves.
While diagnosis is beyond the scope of the
home mechanic, you may still save money by
replacing the valves yourself.
9.8 On 1995 to 1997 models equipped
with ABS, the proportioning valves
(arrows) are threaded into the Hydraulic
Control Unit which is mounted on the right
side of the front suspension crossmember
9.10 On 1998 and later models equipped
with ABS, the proportioning valves are
located in the rear wheel well and
mounted on the upper frame rail between
the metal brake line and the brake hose
9-12
Chapter 9 Brakes
13 Installation is the reverse of removal. Fit
the metal line to the proportioning valve
before attaching the brake hose bracket to
the upper frame rail.
14 Bleed the brakes (see Section 11). Carefully test brake operation before resuming
normal operation.
10
Brake hoses and lines inspection and replacement
1
Whenever the vehicle is raised and supported securely on jackstands, the rubber
hoses which connect the steel brake lines with
the front and rear brake assemblies should be
inspected for cracks, chafing of the outer
cover, leaks, blisters and other damage. These
are important and vulnerable parts of the
brake system and inspection should be thorough. A light and mirror will be helpful for a
complete check. If a hose exhibits any of the
above conditions, renew it immediately.
Flexible hose replacement
Refer to illustration 10.3
Clean all dirt away from the hose fit2
tings.
3
Using a flare-nut wrench, disconnect the
metal brake line from the hose fitting (see
illustration). Be careful not to bend the frame
bracket or line. If the threaded fitting is corroded, spray it with penetrating oil and allow
it to soak in for about 10 minutes, then try
again. If you try to break loose a fitting nut
that's frozen, you will kink the metal line,
which will then have to be replaced.
4
Remove the brake hose from the
bracket (some are secured to a bracket with
a retaining clip, others have an integral
bracket/fitting). Detach the brake hose from
the bracket or bracket from the vehicle as
applicable. Immediately plug the metal line to
prevent excessive leakage and contamination. Note: On 1998 and later models with
ABS, see Section 9 for rear brake hose-toproportioning valve separation.
5
On the rear brake hose(s), use a flarenut wrench to loosen the hose fitting at the
wheel cylinder and remove the hose.
On the front brake hose(s), unscrew the
6
banjo bolt at the caliper and remove the
hose, discarding the sealing washers on
either side of the fitting.
7
Attach the new brake hose to the caliper
or wheel cylinder as applicable. Note: When
replacing the front brake hoses, always use
new sealing washers. Tighten the banjo bolt
or tube nut to the torque listed this Chapter's
Specification Section.
8
Insert the other end of the new hose
through the bracket or loosely attach the fitting/bracket to the vehicle as applicable making sure the hose isn't kinked or twisted.
Then fit the metal line to the hose (or hose fitting), tighten the hose bracket (if applicable)
and tighten the brake tube fitting nut to the
torque listed this Chapter's Specifications.
10.3 Disconnecting the front brake hose
from the metal brake line using a
flare-nut wrench
9
Carefully check to make sure the suspension or steering components don't make
contact with the hose. Have an assistant
push down on the vehicle while you watch to
see whether the hose interferes with suspension operation. If you're replacing a front
hose, have your assistant turn the steering
wheel lock-to-lock while you make sure the
hose doesn't interfere with the steering linkage or the steering knuckle.
10 After installation, check the master
cylinder fluid level and add fluid as necessary. Bleed the brakes (see Section 11).
Carefully test brake operation before resuming normal operation.
Metal brake lines
11 When replacing brake lines, be sure to
use the correct parts. Do not use copper tubing for any brake system components. Purchase steel brake lines from a dealer parts
department or auto parts store.
12 Prefabricated brake line, with the tube
ends already flared and fittings installed, is
available at auto parts stores and dealer parts
departments. These lines are also sometimes
bent to the proper shapes. If it is necessary to
bend a line, use a tubing bender to prevent
kinking the line.
13 When installing the new line make sure
it's well supported in the brackets and has
plenty of clearance between moving or hot
components. Make sure you tighten the fittings securely.
14 After installation, check the master
cylinder fluid level and add fluid as necessary. Bleed the brakes (see Section 11).
Carefully test brake operation before resuming normal operation.
11
Brake system - bleeding
Refer to illustration 11.9
Warning: Wear eye protection when bleeding
the brake system. If the fluid comes in con -
11.9 When bleeding the brakes, a hose is
connected to the bleed screw at the
caliper or wheel cylinder and then
submerged in clean brake fluid - air
will be seen as bubbles exiting
the tube (all air must be expelled
before moving to the next wheel)
tact with your eyes, i mmediately rinse them
with water and seek medical attention.
Note: Bleeding the brake system is necessary
to remove any air that's trapped in the system
when it's opened during removal and installation of a hose, line, caliper, wheel cylinder or
master cylinder.
If a brake line was disconnected only at
1
a wheel, then only that caliper or wheel cylinder must be bled.
2
On conventional (non-ABS) brake systems, if air has entered the system due to low
fluid level or master cylinder replacement, all
four brakes must be bled. Warning: If this
has occurred on a model with an Anti-lock
Brake System (ABS), or if the lines to the
Hydraulic Control Unit or Integrated Control
Unit (1998 models) have been disconnected,
the vehicle must be towed to a dealer service
department or other repair shop equipped
with a DRB Il scan tool to have the system
properly bled.
3
If a brake line is disconnected at a fitting
located between the master cylinder and any
of the brakes, that part of the system served
by the disconnected line must be bled.
4
Remove any residual vacuum from the
brake power booster by applying the brake
several times with the engine OFF.
5
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Note: The wheels do not have
to be removed for this process.
6
Remove the master cylinder reservoir
cover and fill the reservoir with brake fluid.
Reinstall the cover. Note: Check the fluid
level often during the bleeding operation and
add fluid as necessary to prevent the fluid
level from falling low enough to allow air bubbles into the master cylinder.
7
Have an assistant on hand, as well as a
supply of new brake fluid, an empty clear
container, a length of clear plastic or vinyl
tubing to fit over the bleed screw and a box-
Chapter 9 Brakes
9-13
PURGE\
SOLENOID
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
12.16 Power brake booster mounting details
(as viewed from under the dash)
12.9 The purge solenoid is located on the left shock tower
end wrench to open and close the bleed
screw.
8
Beginning at the left rear wheel, remove
the bleed screw dust cap. Loosen the bleed
screw slightly, then tighten it to a point where
it's snug but can still be loosened quickly and
easily. Use the box-end wrench to avoid
rounding off the bleed screw wrenching flats.
9
With the wrench in place on the bleed
screw, attach one end of the tubing over the
bleed screw fitting and submerge the other
end in a clear container filled with about 1
inch of new brake fluid (see illustration).
10 Have the assistant slowly push down on
the brake pedal and hold it firmly depressed.
11 While the pedal is held depressed, open
the bleed screw just enough to allow a flow of
fluid to leave the valve. Watch for air bubbles
to exit the submerged end of the tube. When
the fluid flow slows after a couple of seconds,
tighten the screw and have your assistant
slowly release the pedal.
12 Repeat Steps 10 and 11 until no more
air is seen leaving the tube, then tighten the
bleed screw securely and proceed to the
right front wheel, the right rear wheel and the
left front wheel, in that order, and perform the
same procedure. Be sure to check the fluid in
the master cylinder reservoir frequently.
13 NEVER use old brake fluid. Brake fluid
absorbs moisture from the atmosphere.
When moisture is present in the hydraulic
system, it will deteriorate the brake system
components and lower the boiling point of
the fluid which could lead to brake failure.
14 After bleeding the system, top up the
brake fluid reservoir and reinstall the bleed
screw dust caps.
15 Check the operation of the brakes. The
pedal should feel solid when depressed, with
no sponginess. If necessary, repeat the
bleeding process. Check for leakage. Warning: Do not operate the vehicle if the pedal
feels low or spongy, if the ABS light on the
dash won't go off, or if you are in doubt about
the effectiveness of the brake system.
1
2
Brake pedal-to-booster pushrod retaining clip (DO NOT reuse)
Power brake booster mounting nuts (the lower left nut is hidden
behind steering intermediate shaft)
12 Power brake booster - check,
removal and installation
Operating check
1
Depress the brake pedal several times
with the engine off and make sure that there
is no change in the pedal reserve distance.
2
Depress the pedal and start the engine.
If the pedal goes down slightly, operation is
normal.
Airtightness check
3
Start the engine and turn it off after one
or two minutes. Depress the brake pedal several times slowly. If the pedal goes down farther the first time but gradually rises after the
second or third depression, the booster is airtight.
4
Depress the brake pedal while the
engine is running, then stop the engine with
the pedal depressed. If there is no change in
the pedal reserve travel after holding the
pedal for 30 seconds, the booster is airtight.
Removal
Refer to illustrations 12.9 and 12.16
5
The power brake booster unit requires
no special maintenance apart from periodic
inspection of the vacuum hoses and the
case. The booster is not serviceable. If a
problem develops, it must be replaced with a
new one.
6
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1). Remove the air
intake resonator and the related ducting
between the throttle body and the air cleaner
(see Chapter 4).
7
If equipped, unplug the cruise control
servo electrical connector. Detach the unit
from the shock tower and position it out of
the way (see illustration 8.2).
8
On models with a V6 engine, remove the
throttle body from the intake manifold (see
Chapter 4). Detach the accelerator cable
bracket from the intake manifold and position
it out of the way (the cable(s) may remain
attached to bracket).
9
Label and detach the electrical connector and vacuum hose from the purge solenoid
(see illustration). Remove the purge
solenoid from the vehicle.
10 Disconnect the vacuum hose(s) from the
power brake booster vacuum fitting.
11 Label and disconnect the vacuum hoses
and electrical connector from the EGR valve
transducer (see Chapter 6). Remove the EGR
valve transducer.
12 Disconnect the fluid level sensor connector from the master cylinder reservoir (see
illustration 8.6).
13 On models with a four-cylinder engine, it
is not necessary to disconnect the brake lines
from the master cylinder; simply remove the
mounting nuts (see illustration 8.8) and slide
the master cylinder off the studs and let it rest
on the top of the transaxle (just make sure
you don't kink the metal brake lines).
14 On models with a V6 engine, remove the
master cylinder from the vehicle (see Section
8).
15 On V6 models equipped with an auto matic transaxle, remove the transaxle fluid
dipstick tube. Cover the dipstick tube hole in
the transaxle with duct tape to prevent the
entry of foreign debris.
16 Working inside the vehicle under the
dash, disconnect the power brake pushrod
from the top of the brake pedal by prying off
the retaining clip (see illustration). For safety
reasons, discard the old pushrod retaining
clip and buy a new clip for reassembly.
17 Remove the nuts attaching the booster
to the firewall (see illustration 12.16).
18 Working inside the engine compartment, carefully withdraw the power brake
booster unit from the firewall and out of the
engine compartment.
9
9-14
Chapter 9 Brakes
Installation
19 To install the booster, place it into position on the firewall and tighten the retaining
nuts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. Connect the pushrod to the
brake pedal. Warning: Use a new retainer
clip. DO NOT reuse the old clip.
20 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
21 If the master cylinder was removed from
the vehicle, bleed the brake hydraulic system
(see Section 11).
22 Carefully test the operation of the
brakes before placing the vehicle in normal
operation.
13 Parking brake lever assembly removal, installation and
adjustment
Removal
Refer to illustrations 13.3 and 13.6
1
Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
2
Place the parking brake lever in the fully
released position (down).
Loosen the adjusting nut on the output
3
cable (see illustration).
4
Using a screwdriver, pry the output
cable retaining clip (see illustration 13.3)
from the rear cable tension equalizer and
detach the output cable. Discard the old clip,
it is not to be reused. Note: If the parking
brake lever assembly is going to be replaced,
ignore this step.
5
Disconnect both rear brake cables from
the cable tension equalizer (see illustration
13.3).
Unplug the electrical connector from the
6
parking brake warning light switch (see illustration).
7
Remove the fasteners attaching the
parking brake lever assembly to the center
console bracket.
Remove the parking brake lever and the
8
front output cable as an assembly.
Installation
13.3 Parking brake lever
details
1
2
3
12 Tighten the output cable adjusting nut
until 12 mm (approximately 7/16 to 1/2 inch)
of threads are protruding from the nut (see
illustration).
13 Pull the lever back as far as it will travel one time only. Fully actuating the lever in this
manner stretches the portion of the cable
tensioner which automatically provides the
correct tension on the cables.
14 After adjustment, verify that the rear
brakes are not dragging on the drums and
the parking brake lever does not exhibit any
freeplay. If either condition exists, tighten or
loosen the output cable adjusting nut as
required.
15 Install the center console (see Chapter
11).
14 Parking brake cables replacement
Front cable
Note: Anytime the parking brake cables are
replaced or require adjustment, the cable tension equalizer must be replaced to ensure
proper adjustment.
Replacement
1
The front output cable is an integral part
of the parking brake lever assembly and
Output cable
adjusting nut
Output cable
retaining clip
(DO NOT reuse)
Rear cable tension
equalizer
cannot be replaced separately. If the output
cable requires replacement, replace the parking brake lever assembly (see Section 13).
Rear cables
Removal
Refer to illustrations 14.8, 14.10, 14.11,
14.13, 14.14 and 14.15
2
Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
Place the parking brake lever in the fully
3
released position (down).
4
Loosen the adjusting nut on the output
cable (see illustration 13.3).
5
Using a screwdriver, pry the output
cable retaining clip (see illustration 13.3)
from the rear cable tension equalizer and
detach the output cable. Discard the old clip
- it is not to be reused.
6
Disconnect both rear brake cables from
the cable tension equalizer (see illustration
13.3).
Remove the rear seat assembly (see
7
Chapter 11).
8
Remove the rear door sill scuff plate on
each side (see illustration).
9
Fold the rear carpeting forward to
expose the parking brake cables.
10 Remove the parking brake cable routing
clip from the floor pan (see illustration).
11 Compress the retaining tabs of the
9
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Install a new cable tension equalizer and output cable retaining clip. Be sure the output
cable retaining clip is firmly attached after
installation. Before installing the center console, perform the parking brake cable adjustment procedure below.
Adjustment
Refer to illustration 13.12
Note: Anytime the parking brake cable
requires adjustment, the cable tension equalizer must be replaced to ensure proper
adjustment.
10 Remove the center console (see Chapter 11).
11 Place the parking brake lever in the fully
released position (down).
13.6 Parking brake warning light
electrical connector
13.12 Tighten the output cable adjusting
nut onto the cable until 12 mm of
threads are exposed as shown
Chapter 9 Brakes
9-15
REAR PARK
BRAKE CABLES
14.8 Carefully pry off the rear door sill plates from
each rear door jam
14.10 Parking brake cable routing clip
14.11 Sliding a 1/2 inch box-end wrench over the parking brake
cable as shown will compress the retaining clip tabs so
you can remove the cable from the bracket
14.13 If a 1/2 inch box-end wrench isn't available, use a small
hose clamp to compress the parking brake cable
retaining clip tabs
cable housing with a 1/2-inch box-end
wrench or a small hose clamp (see illustration). Pull the cable through the opening in
the center console bracket. Note: On some
models, the center console rear bracket may
have to be removed.
12 Remove the rear drum brake shoes (see
Section 6).
13 Compress the retaining tabs of the
cable housing with a 1/2-inch box-end
wrench or a small hose clamp and pull the
cable through the brake backing plate (see
illustration).
14 Remove the cable brackets from the
frame rail (see illustration).
15 Remove the cable sealing grommet
from the floor pan (see illustration).
16 Remove the cable assembly from the
vehicle.
Installation
14.14 Parking brake cable brackets (left
side shown)
14.15 Parking brake cable sealing
grommet as viewed from under
the vehicle
17 Insert the front end of the cable through
the hole in the floor pan and guide the cable
grommet into place.
18 Insert the rear of the cable through the
hole in the brake assembly backing plate.
Make sure the cable is pulled through the
hole far enough to allow the retaining tabs to
expand all the way, locking the cable to the
backing plate.
19 Install the cable brackets onto the
appropriate cable (brackets are unique for left
hand and right hand applications). Install the
brackets onto the frame rail and tighten the
bolts securely.
20 Connect the cable end to the parking
brake lever on the trailing brake shoe and
reassemble the rear brake assembly (see
9
9-16
Section 6). Note: If the wheel hub/bearing
assembly was removed, a new hub nut must
be installed.
21 Working inside the vehicle, grasp the
parking brake cable grommet at the floor pan
and pull hard to make sure the grommet is
fully seated to the floor pan. Note: If you're
concerned about the quality of the
grommet-to-floor pan seal, apply some RTV sealant
around the grommet sealing areas.
22 Install the cable into its appropriate
position in the center console bracket and
make sure the cable retainers have expanded
to hold the cable firmly in place. If removed,
install the center console rear bracket.
23 Secure the cables to the floor pan with
the routing clip.
24 Place the carpet back into position and
install both rear door opening sill scuff plates.
25 Install the rear seat assembly (see
Chapter 11).
26 Connect both rear brake cables to the
new cable tension equalizer (see illustration
13.3).
27 Install the parking brake lever output
cable into the cable tension equalizer and
secure with a new retaining clip (see illustration 13.3). DO NOT reuse the old output
cable retaining clip!
28 Before attempting to adjust the parking
brake cables, start the engine and fully
depress the brake pedal two or three times to
adjust the rear brakes.
29 Adjust the parking brake cable (see
Section 13).
15
Brake light switch - check,
replacement and adjustment
Chapter 9 Brakes
bracket. When the brake pedal is applied, the
pedal arm moves away from the switch and a
spring-loaded plunger closes the circuit to
the brake lights.
2
Models equipped with cruise control
use a dual purpose brake light switch that
also deactivates the cruise control system
when the brake pedal is depressed.
Check
3
Check the brake light fuse (see Chapter 12). If the fuse has blown, replace it. If it
blows again, look for a short in the brake light
circuit.
4
If the fuse is okay, use a test light or
voltmeter to verify that there's voltage to the
switch. If there's no voltage to the switch,
look for an open or short in the power wire to
the switch. Repair as necessary.
5
If the brake lights still don't come on
when the brake pedal is applied, unplug the
electrical connector from the brake light
switch and, using an ohmmeter, verify that
there is continuity between the switch terminals when the brake pedal is applied, i.e.
when the switch is closed. If continuity is not
detected, replace the switch.
6
If there is continuity between the switch
terminals when the brake is applied (it closes
the circuit), but the brake lights don't come
on when the brake pedal is applied, check for
power to the brake light bulb sockets when
the pedal is depressed. If voltage is present,
replace the bulbs (it isn't very likely that all of
them would fail simultaneously, but it is possible that they could be burned out). If voltage is not available, check the wiring
between the switch and the brake lights for
an open circuit and repair as necessary.
Description
Replacement and adjustment
1
The brake light switch is a normally
open switch that controls the operation of the
brake lights. The switch is located near the
top of the brake pedal and is attached to a
Refer to illustration 15.7
7
Depress and hold the brake pedal,
then rotate the brake light switch about
30-degrees in a counterclockwise direction
15.7 The brake light switch (arrow) is
located under the dash and mounted
on a bracket near the brake pedal arm
(dual-purpose brake light/cruise
control switch shown)
(see illustration) and remove it from the
mounting bracket.
8
Unplug the electrical connector from the
switch and remove it from the vehicle.
9
Grasp the switch plunger and pull it outward until it has ratcheted to it's fully
extended position.
10 Depress the brake pedal as far as it will
go, then install the switch in the bracket by
aligning the index key on the switch with the
slot at the top of the square hole in the
mounting bracket. When the switch is fully
installed in the bracket, rotate the switch
clockwise about 30-degrees to lock the
switch into the bracket.
11 Gently pull back on the brake pedal until
the pedal stops moving. The switch plunger
will ratchet backward to the correct position.
Caution: Don't use excessive force when
pulling back on the brake pedal to adjust the
switch. If you use too much force, you will
damage the switch or the striker.
.12 Plug the electrical connector into the
switch.
10-1
Chapter 10
Suspension and steering systems
Contents
Section
Balljoints (front) - check......................................................................... 7
General information................................................................................ 1
Hub and bearing assembly (front) - removal and
installation.........................................................................................8
Hub and bearing assembly (rear) - removal and
installation .......................................................................................17
Knuckle/spindle (rear) - removal
and installation ................................................................................ 18
Lateral links (rear) - removal and installation ........................................13
Lower control arm - removal and installation .........................................6
Power steering fluid level check ....................................... See Chapter 1
Power steering pump - removal and installation ................................. 23
Power steering system - bleeding ....................................................... 24
Rear suspension crossmember - removal and installation .................. 14
Shock absorber/coil spring assembly (front) removal, inspection and installation ................................................. 3
Shock absorber/coil spring - replacement ............................................ 4
Shock absorber/coil spring assembly (rear) - removal,
inspection, component replacement and installation .....................11
Section
Stabilizer bar and bushings (front) - removal, inspection
and installation ..................................................................................2
Stabilizer bar and bushings (rear) - removal, inspection
and installation ................................................................................10
Steering and suspension check ....................................... See Chapter 1
Steering gear and pressure switch - removal and installation .............22
Steering knuckle - removal and installation ........................................... 9
Steering system - general information ................................................. 19
Steering wheel - removal and installation ............................................ 20
Tie-rod ends - removal and installation............................................... 21
Tire and tire pressure checks ........................................... See Chapter 1
Tire rotation.......................................................................See Chapter 1
Trailing link (rear) - removal and installation .........................................12
Upper balljoint (rear) - replacement ..................................................... 16
Upper control arm (front) - removal, inspection, and
installation.........................................................................................5
Upper control arm (rear) - removal and installation ............................. 15
Wheel alignment - general information ................................................ 26
Wheels and tires - general information ................................................25
Specifications
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Front suspension
Driveaxle/hub nut............................................................................................. 180
Lower control arm front pivot bolt
1995 ............................................................................................................ 120
1996 ............................................................................................................ 85
1997 on ....................................................................................................... 135
Lower control arm-to-crossmember rear bolt
1995............................................................................................................ 120
1996 on ....................................................................................................... 85
Shock absorber-to-shock tower bolts
1995............................................................................................................ 23
1996 ............................................................................................................68
1997 on ....................................................................................................... 70
Shock absorber damper rod nut
1995 ............................................................................................................ 55
1996 on....................................................................................................... 40
Shock absorber-to-clevis pinch bolt
1995 through 1999 ......................................................................................70
2000............................................................................................................ 52
Shock absorber clevis-to-control arm bolt
1995 ............................................................................................................ 120
1996 ............................................................................................................ 135
1997 on ....................................................................................................... 68
Stabilizer bar attaching link nuts
1995............................................................................................................21
1996 ............................................................................................................ 78
1997 on ....................................................................................................... 75
Stabilizer bar bushing clamp bolts
1995, 1996 ..................................................................................................21
1997 on .......................................................................................................45
Lower balljoint-to-steering knuckle castle nut
1995............................................................................................................ 70
1996 on ....................................................................................................... 55
10
10-2
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
Torque specifications
Ft-lbs (unless otherwise indicated)
Front suspension (continued)
Upper balljoint-to-steering knuckle castle nut
1995 ............................................................................................................ 70
1996 ............................................................................................................45
1997 on.......................................................................................................40
Upper control arm-to-shock mount bolts ........................................................68
Wheel lug nuts................................................................................................. See Chapter 1
Rear suspension
Balljoint-to-knuckle castle nut
1995 ............................................................................................................ 63
1996 on .......................................................................................................50
Brake support plate mounting bolts ................................................................ 45
Crossmember-to-body bolts ........................................................................... 70
Control arm pivot bar-to-crossmember ...........................................................79
Hub and bearing assembly-to-knuckle retaining nut .......................................185
Lateral link-to-knuckle bolts/nuts .................................................................... 70
Lateral link jam nuts ......................................................................................... 70
Lateral link-to-crossmember bolts ...................................................................70
Shock absorber mounting bracket-to-body nuts
1995 models ............................................................................................... 25
1996 and later models ................................................................................40
Shock absorber-to-knuckle bolts/nuts ............................................................ 70
Shock absorber rod-to-upper mount nut
1995 models ...............................................................................................55
1996 and later models ................................................................................40
Stabilizer bar bushing clamp bolts ...................................................................20
Stabilizer-to-lateral link nuts ............................................................................ 24
Trailing link shaft nuts - both ends ...................................................................70
Trailing bracket-to-body bolts
1995 models ............................................................................................... 70
1996 and later models ................................................................................ 21
Steering system
Airbag module retaining nuts ........................................................................... 90 in-lbs
Power steering pump mounting bolts ..............................................................40
Power steering fluid pressure and return line fitting nuts ................................ 23
Power steering fluid pressure banjo
fitting bolt (alternate-to-pressure fitting nut)...............................................25
Steering gear mounting bolts ...........................................................................50
Power steering fluid line tube fittings ............................................................... 23
Tie-rod (outer)-to-inner jam lock nut ................................................................ 55
Tie-rod balljoint stud-to-steering knuckle nut ..................................................45
Steering column flex coupler pinch bolt .......................................................... 20
Steering wheel nut ........................................................................................... 45
1
General information
Refer to illustrations 1.1a, 1.1a b, 1.2a and 1.2b
The front suspension (see illustrations)
uses coil-over shock absorber assemblies
and unequal length control arms. The upper
end of the shock absorber/coil spring assembly is attached to an aluminum housing in the
inside of the shock tower. The bottom of the
shock absorber is attached to the lower control arm. The front and rear ends of the lower
control arm are bolted to the front crossmember. The inner end of the upper control
arm is attached to the aluminum housing in
the shock tower. The steering knuckle is connected to both the upper and lower control
arms through balljoints. The stabilizer bar is
bolted to the suspension cradle and the
underbody of the vehicle and attached to
both lower control arms, which reduces body
roll during cornering.
The rear suspension (see illustrations)
also uses coil-over shock absorber assemblies. The coil spring is mounted on the
shock absorber, and the upper end of the
shock is attached to the vehicle body. The
lower end of the shock is attached to the rear
knuckle. The knuckle is located by a pair of
lateral links on each side, and an upper control arm, plus a longitudinally mounted trailing
li nk between the body and each knuckle.
The power-assisted rack-and-pinion
steering gear is located on the front suspension crossmember, behind the engine and in
front of the firewall. The steering gear actuates the tie-rods. The tie-rod ends are connected to steering arms on the steering
knuckles. The steering column actuates the
steering gear and is designed to collapse in
the event of an accident.
When working on the suspension or
steering system components, you may come
across fasteners which seem impossible to
loosen. Fasteners on the underside of the
vehicle are continually subjected to water,
road grime, mud, etc., and can become
rusted or "frozen," making them extremely
difficult to remove. To unscrew these fasteners without damaging them (or other components), be sure to use lots of penetrating oil
and allow it to soak in for a while. Use a wire
brush to clean exposed threads and ease
removal of the nut or bolt and prevent damage to the threads. A sharp blow with a hammer and punch will sometimes break the
bond between nut and bolt threads, but be
careful to keep the punch from slipping off
the fastener and ruining the threads. Heating
the stuck fastener and surrounding area with
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-3
1.1a Front suspension and steering components
1
2
3
Stabilizer bar
Lower control arm
Brake disc
4
5
6
Brake caliper
Heat shield
Stabilizer bar bushing retainers
7
8
9
Steering knuckle
Tie-rod
Tie-rod end
1.1b Front suspension
and steering details
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Upper control arm
Coil spring
Steering knuckle
Shock absorber
Shock absorber
clevis
Tie-rod end
Lower control arm
Steering gear boot
10
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-4
1.2a Rear suspension components
1
2
3
Crossmember
Upper control arm
Rear lateral link
4
5
6
Forward lateral link
Stabilizer bar attaching link
Stabilizer bar
7
8
9
Rear knuckle
Trailing link
Trailing link bracket
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
2.2b . . . and the attaching link assemblies from the lower control
arm (arrow)
2.2a Remove the nuts (arrow) .. .
a torch sometimes helps too, but isn't recommended because of the obvious fire dangers.
Long breaker bars and extension, or
"cheater," pipes increase leverage, but never
use an extension pipe on a ratchet - the
ratcheting mechanism could be damaged.
Tightening the nut or bolt first will sometimes
help break it loose. Fasteners that require
drastic measures to remove should always
be replaced with new ones.
Most of the procedures in this Chapter
involve jacking up the vehicle and working
underneath it. A good pair of jackstands will
be needed. A hydraulic floor jack is the preferred type of jack to lift the vehicle, and it
can also be used to support certain components during various operations. Warning:
Never rely on a jack to support a vehicle while
working on it. Whenever any of the suspension or steering fasteners are loosened or
removed they must be inspected and, if necessary, replaced with new ones of the same
part number or of original equipment quality
and design. Torque specifications must be
followed for proper reassembly and component retention. Never attempt to heat or
straighten any suspension or steering components. Instead, replace any bent or damaged
part with a new one.
2
Stabilizer bar and bushings
(front) - removal, inspection and
installation
10-5
trol arm stud to prevent the stud from moving
when removing the attaching link nut.
3
Remove the four bolts attaching the stabilizer bar bushing clamps to the front suspension crossmember and body (see illustration).
4
Remove the stabilizer bar from the vehicle.
Inspection
5
Inspect for cracked, torn, or distorted
stabilizer bar bushings, bushing retainers,
and worn or damaged stabilizer bar attaching
li nks. Damaged stabilizer bar attaching links
must be replaced before reinstalling the stabilizer bar.
6
To replace damaged stabilizer bar bushings, open the bushing slit and peel the bushing from the stabilizer bar. Caution: Install the
new bushings with the slits facing the same
way that the original bushing slits faced.
Installation
7
Position the stabilizer bar and bushings
in the front crossmember. Install the clamps
and bolts, tightening them to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
8
Align the stabilizer bar attaching link
assemblies with the mounting holes in the
lower control arms and install the retaining
nuts. Tighten the nuts to the torque in this
Chapter's Specifications.
9
Install the wheels and lug nuts. Lower
the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the
torque listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
2.3 Remove the stabilizer bar bushing
retainer bolts (arrows)
1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
front of the vehicle, support it securely on
jackstands and remove the wheel.
2
Mark the shock absorbers with a R or L
if they are both removed at the same time.
3
Remove the wheel speed sensor cable
bracket from the steering knuckle (see illustration).
Removal
Refer to illustrations 2.2a, 2.2b and 2.3
1
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts, raise
the front of the vehicle and support it
securely on jackstands. Apply the parking
brake and block the rear wheels to keep the
vehicle from rolling off the stands. Remove
the front wheels.
2
Remove the nuts and the stabilizer bar
attaching link assemblies from the front lower
control arms (see Illustrations). Note: Use
an Allen wrench in the end of the lower con -
10
3
Shock absorber/coil spring
assembly (front) - removal,
inspection and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7 and
3.9
Warning: Do not remove the shock absorber
rod nut before the shock absorber coil spring
is compressed.
3.3 Remove the wheel speed sensor
cable bracket from the steering knuckle
10-6
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
3.4 Upper balljoint stud cotter pin and castle nut
3.5 Push the upper balljoint stud out of the steering knuckle
with a puller
BRACKET FLEX
HOSE
3.6 Remove the shock absorber clevis pinch bolt
4
Remove the cotter pin and loosen the
castle nut from the upper balljoint stud (see
illustration).
5
Detach the balljoint from the steering
knuckle using a puller (see illustration).
Remove the nut and pull the steering knuckle
outward and to the back of the front wheel
opening. Caution: Be careful not to strain the
brake hose.
6
Remove the shock absorber clevis
pinch bolt and nut (see illustration).
7
Remove the clevis bolt from the lower
control arm (see illustration).
8
Use a soft-faced hammer (brass) to tap
the clevis from the shock absorber.
9
Remove the four bolts from the shock
tower attaching the upper control arm/shock
absorber (see illustration).
SHOCK
TOWER
—COVER
3.7 Remove the bolt that attaches the shock absorber clevis to
the lower control arm
10 Remove the upper control arm mounting
bracket and shock absorber as an assembly.
11 Separate the upper control arm mounting bracket and the shock absorber.
Inspection
12 Check the shock absorber assembly for
leaking fluid, dents, cracks and other obvious
damage which would warrant replacement.
CLEVIS MUST BE INSTALLED
FLUSH AGAINST LOCATING
TAB HERE
SHOCK ABSORBER/
UPPER CONTROL ARM
MOUNTING BRACKET
BOLTS
3.9 Remove the four upper control arm/shock absorber mount
bolts from the shock tower (arrows)
3.14 Proper positioning of the clevis on the shock absorber
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
SHOCK ABSORBER
ASSEMBLY
10-7
SHOCK ABSORBER/CONTROL ARM
MOUNTING BRACKET
VISE
SHOCK ABSORBER ROD
UPPER ISOLATOR BUSHING
4.2 Clamp the shock absorber by the clevis in a vise
4.6 Remove the upper isolator bushing .. .
SHOCK ABSORBER/
CONTROL ARM
MOUNTING BRACKET
4.7 . . . and the lower isolator bushing and sleeve
Check the coil spring for chips and corrosion.
Replace it if any undesirable symptoms are
found. See Section 4 for the shock absorber
or coil spring replacement procedure.
Installation
Refer to illustration 3.14
13 Connect the shock absorber assembly
to the upper control arm mount. Install the
assembly (with the clevis removed) into the
shock tower. Align the two locating pins and
the four mounting holes on the upper control
arm/shock absorber mount and tighten the
four bolts to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
14 Install the clevis on the shock absorber.
Tap the clevis onto the shock absorber until it
is properly aligned and fully seated against
the locating tab on the shock absorber body
(see illustration). Install the bolt and tighten
it to the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
15 Install the clevis-to-lower control arm
bolt. Do not tighten it at this time.
16 Install the upper balljoint into the top of
the steering knuckle. Install the castle nut and
tighten it to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications. Install a new cotter pin.
17 Install the speed control routing cable
on the steering knuckle.
18 Using a floor jack placed under the outer
end of the lower control arm, raise the lower
4.8 Remove the washer and the dust shield from
the shock absorber
control arm to simulate normal ride height.
Tighten the shock absorber clevis-to-lower
control arm bolt to the torque in this Chapter's Specifications. Remove the floor jack.
19 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
li sted in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
4
Shock absorber/coil spring replacement
Warning: Disassembling a shock absorber/coil spring assembly is dangerous. Use
only a high-quality spring compressor, which
can be rented at most auto parts stores or
equipment yards. Carefully follow all instructions furnished by the tool manufacturer or
serious injury could result.
Disassembly
Refer to illustrations 4.2, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 and
4.10
1
Remove the shock absorber assembly
(see Section 3).
2
Reinstall the clevis bracket on the shock
absorber and tighten the pinch bolt. Clamp the
shock absorber in a vertical position in a vise
holding the clevis bracket (see illustration).
Compress the coil spring using a coil
3
spring compressor (which can be obtained at
most auto parts stores or equipment yards).
Follow the tool manufacturer's instructions,
install the spring compressor on the spring,
and compress it sufficiently to relieve all
pressure from the upper spring seat. Warning: Do not remove the shock absorber
damper rod nut before the coil spring is compressed. Be sure to have the first full top and
bottom coil of the coil spring captured by the
coil spring compressor.
Remove the shock absorber damper rod
4
nut while holding the rod to prevent it from
rotating.
Remove the damper rod washer, the
5
upper control arm mounting bracket and the
isolator bushings from the damper rod.
Mark and remove the shock absorber
6
upper isolator bushing, and the lower isolator
bushing and sleeve from the upper control
arm mounting bracket. Then remove the
upper spring isolator from the mounting
bracket (see illustration).
7
Remove the lower isolator bushing from
the damper rod sleeve (see illustration).
Remove the washer from the top of the
8
dust shield and the dust shield from the
shock absorber assembly (see illustration).
9
Remove the compressed coil spring.
Warning: Keep the ends of the spring
pointed away from your body. Set the spring
aside in a safe, isolated location. Note: Mark
the springs R or L for proper reinstallation.
10
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-8
SHOCK ABSORBER
ROD
SLEEVE
INSTALL ON SHOCK
ABSORBER ROD
IN THIS DIRECTION
SHOCK ABSORBER ROD
UPPER ISOLATOR
BUSHING
JOUNCE
BUMPER
INSTALL ON SHOCK
ABSORBER ROD
IN THIS DIRECTION
SHOCK ABSORBER
ROD LOWER
ISOLATOR BUSHING
SHOCK ABSORBER
FLUID RESERVOIR
4.10 Remove the jounce bumper and sleeve from the
shock absorber
4.14 Upper and lower shock absorber rod bushing identification
10 Remove the jounce bumper and sleeve
from the shock absorber assembly (see illustration).
11 Remove the coil spring isolator from the
lower spring seat on the shock absorber.
straighten a bent control arm.
Inspect the bushings in the mounting
6
bracket for cracks and tears. If any bushing is
torn or worn out, replace the control arm
mounting bracket.
Inspection
Installation
12 Inspect the shock absorber for rod binding, and the shock mount and upper spring
seat/isolator for cracks/distortion, deterioration, rips and cracks. Check the coil spring
for chips, cracks and corrosion.
13 Replace any components found to be
worn or defective.
7
Install the upper control arm on the
mounting bracket. Note: The bolt heads must
face inward (towards the coil spring). Tighten
the nuts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
8
Install the coil spring on the shock
absorber (see Section 4). Install the upper
shock mount/upper control arm assembly
(see Section 4). Install the shock absorber
(see Section 3).
Using a floor jack placed under the outer
9
end of the lower control arm, raise the lower
control arm to simulate normal ride height.
Tighten the shock absorber clevis-to-lower
control arm bolt to the torque in this Chapter's Specifications. Remove the floor jack.
10 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
Refer to illustrations 6.4, 6.6, 6.12a and 6.12b
1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
front of the vehicle, support it securely on
jackstands and remove the wheel.
2
Remove the brake caliper (see Chapter 9) and support it with a piece of wire don't let it hang from the brake hose.
3
Remove the brake disc from the front
hub/bearing assembly.
4
If the vehicle is equipped with 15-inch
wheels, the balljoint heat shield must be
removed from the steering knuckle. Remove
the two bolts and the heat shield from the
steering knuckle (see illustration).
Remove the cotter pin and loosen the
5
lower balljoint castle nut a few turns.
6
Use a hammer to strike the boss on the
steering knuckle until it separates from the
lower balljoint stud (see illustration). Caution: Do not hit the lower control arm or the
balljoint grease seal, be careful not to sepa-
6.4 Remove the balljoint heat shield
6.6 Strike the boss on the steering
knuckle until it separates from the lower
balljoint stud
Assembly
Refer to illustration 4.14
14 Assembly is the reverse of disassembly.
When installing the sleeve on the shock
absorber rod, install it with the undercut side
of the sleeve facing downward. Caution: The
top and bottom shock absorber rod bushings
must be reinstalled on the rod exactly as they
were when they were removed (see illustration).
15 Install the shock absorber/coil spring
assembly (see Section 3).
5
6
Lower control arm - removal and
installation
Removal
Upper control arm (front) removal, inspection and
installation
Removal
1
Remove the shock absorber (see Section 3).
2
Remove the coil spring from the shock
absorber (see Section 4).
Remove the nuts and bolts attaching the
3
upper control arm to the mounting bracket.
Remove the upper control arm from the
4
mounting bracket.
Inspection
Make sure the control arm is straight. If
5
it is bent, replace it. Do not attempt to
10-9
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
6.12a Remove the nut/bolt attaching the rear of the lower control
arm to the front suspension crossmember .. .
rate the inner CV joint and do not pry the
lower balljoint from the steering knuckle.
Once the balljoint stud has been released
from the steering knuckle, remove the castle
nut.
7
Remove the shock absorber clevis-tolower control arm bolt and separate the clevis
from the lower control arm (see illustration 3.7).
Detach the stabilizer bar link from the
8
lower control arm (see Section 2).
Remove the bolts attaching the stabi9
lizer bar bushing clamp to the front suspension crossmember and the body of the vehicle.
10 Lower one side of the stabilizer bar
away from the lower control arm.
11 Remove the nut and bolt attaching the
lower control arm to the front suspension
crossmember.
12 Remove the nuts and bolts attaching the
lower control arm to the front suspension
crossmember (see illustrations).
13 Separate the front of the lower control
arm from the front suspension crossmember.
Caution: Be careful not to damage the
balljoint seal against the steering knuckle
when lowering it from the crossmember.
14 Remove the rear of the lower control
arm from the front suspension crossmember.
Be careful to keep the rear bushing from
binding on the crossmember. Check the
bushings in the lower control arm for cracking and other signs of deterioration. If necessary, take the control arm to an automotive
machine shop to have the bushings replaced.
6.12b . . . and the pivot bolt holding the front of the lower control
arm to the front suspension crossmember
18 After installing the clevis on the lower
control arm, place a floor jack under the
lower balljoint and raise the lower control arm
to simulate normal ride height. Tighten the
lower control arm-to-crossmember bolts and
the shock absorber clevis-to-lower control
arm bolt/nut to the values listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
19 Install the brake disc and caliper.
Tighten the caliper mounting bolts to the
torque listed in the Chapter 9 Specifications.
20 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
li sted in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
serviceable, nor can they be removed from
the control arms. If a balljoint is bad, replace
the control arm (see Section 5).
The balljoint seal, however, is replace5
able. This is done by prying the old seal off
and pressing a new one into place with a
socket large enough to contact the outer circumference of the seal.
6
Remove the jackstands and lower the
vehicle.
7
Removal
Balljoints (front) - check
With the vehicle on the ground, reach
1
around the tire and try to wiggle the balljoint
grease fitting. If any movement is felt, the
balljoint is worn out.
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands. Make sure the tires are not
contacting the ground.
3
Grasp the tire at top and bottom and try
to rock it in and out. Have an assistant feel for
play in the balljoints while you do this. The
balljoints on these vehicles are not supposed
to have any freeplay, so if any movement is
evident, the balljoint must be replaced.
4
The balljoints on these vehicles are not
HUB NUT \
1
Hub and bearing assembly (front)
- removal and installation
Refer to illustrations 8.1, 8.2 and 8.9
Warning: Dust created by the brake system
may contain asbestos, which is harmful to
your health. Never blow it out with compressed air and don't inhale any of it. Do not,
under any circumstances, use petroleumbased solvents to clean brake parts. Use
brake system cleaner only.
1
Remove the cotter pin, nut lock, and
spring washer from the front stub axle (see
illustration).
2
Loosen the driveaxle/hub nut (see illustration). Note: The hub and driveshaft are
attached by splines through the steering
knuckle and retained by the hub nut.
NUT LOCK
Installation
15 Install the rear, and then the front of the
lower control arm into the front suspension
cradle. Do not tighten the bolts at this time.
16 Connect the lower balljoint to the steering knuckle, tightening the castle nut to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
Install a new cotter pin.
17 Installation of the remaining components is the reverse of removal. Caution: Be
sure to install the balljoint heat shield. If the
heat shield is not installed, the boot may fail
due to excessive heat from the brake disc.
10
RING WASHER
COTTER PIN
8.1 Remove the cotter pin, nut lock, and
spring washer from the front stub axle
8.2 Loosen the front hub nut
10-10
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
8.9 Pull the steering knuckle away from the outer CV joint
3
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
Remove the wheel.
4
Remove the brake caliper, support it
with a piece of wire and remove the brake
disc from the hub (see Chapter 9).
5
Remove the balljoint heat shield from
the lower control arm on vehicles equipped
with 15-inch wheels (see illustration 6.4).
Note: The heat shield must be removed
before separating the balljoint stud from the
steering knuckle.
6
Separate the tie-rod end from the steering knuckle arm (see Section 21).
Remove the speed sensor cable routing
7
bracket from the steering knuckle on vehicles
equipped with anti-lock brakes (see illustration 3.3).
Separate the steering knuckle from the
8
lower control arm balljoint (see Section 6).
9
Support the driveshaft and pull the
steering knuckle away from the outer C/V
joint (see illustration). If the driveaxle splines
stick in the hub, push the stub axle through
the hub with a two-jaw puller.
10 Remove the cotter pin and the nut from
the upper balljoint stud (see illustration 3.4).
11 Separate the upper balljoint stud from
the steering knuckle using a puller (see illustration 3.5).
12 Mount the steering knuckle securely in a
vise.
13 Remove the hub/bearing mounting bolts
from the steering knuckle.
14 Remove the hub/bearing from the steering knuckle. It may be necessary to tap the
assembly out with a hammer.
Installation
15 Clean all hub/bearing mounting surfaces
on the steering knuckle.
16 Install the hub/bearing on the steering
knuckle. Install the bolts and tighten them to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
17 Installation of the remaining components is the reverse of removal. Caution: Be
sure to install the tie-rod and balljoint heat
shields. If the heat shields are not installed,
the seals may fail due to excessive heat from
10.2 Remove the nuts attaching the stabilizer links and isolator
bushings to the stabilizer
the brake disc.
18 Tighten all nuts/bolts to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
19 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
20 Have an assistant apply the brakes, then
tighten the driveaxle/hub nut to the torque
listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
9
Steering knuckle - removal and
installation
Removal and installation of the steering
knuckle is covered as part of the sequence in
Section 8.
10
Stabilizer bar and bushings (rear)
- removal and installation
Refer to illustrations 10.2 and 10.3
Removal
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts. Raise
the rear of the vehicle and place it securely
on jackstands. Block the front wheels and
remove the rear wheels.
2
Remove the nuts attaching the stabilizer
li nks and isolator bushings to the stabilizer
(see illustration).
3
Unbolt the stabilizer bar clamps from
the crossmember (see illustration).
4
Remove the stabilizer bar from the vehicle. Note: Take note of the orientation of the
stabilizer bar bend at the end of the bar
before removal for proper installation later the bend in the end of the bar is positioned
upwards in the vehicle when viewed from the
side. The stabilizer bar will come out of the
vehicle between the exhaust pipe and the
suspension crossmember.
Inspection
5
Inspect the stabilizer bushings for
cracks and tears. If the bushings are damaged, distorted or excessively worn, replace
them.
10.3 The stabilizer bar bushing clamps
are secured with two bolts (arrows)
Installation
6
Installation is the reverse of removal,
first tightening the stabilizer bar ends to the
torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications,
then installing the bushing clamps. Make
sure the rubber bushings are installed with
the slits in the bushings positioned toward
the front of the vehicle. Tighten the stabilizer
bushing clamp bolts to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
7
Install the rear wheels and lug nuts.
Lower the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to
the torque listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
11
Shock absorber/coil spring
assembly (rear) - removal,
inspection, component
replacement and installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 11.2 and 11.4
1
Inside the trunk, roll back the carpeting
on the top of the rear shock absorber tower
to access the upper shock mounting bolts.
Remove the plastic cap.
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-11
SHOCK ABSORBER
ROD
11.2 Lift the carpeting and unsnap the
plastic cover from the upper shock tower,
then remove the two upper mounting
bolts (arrows)
SHOCK ABSORBER
ROD
ISOLATOR
BUSHING
11.4 Remove the lower shock mount
clevis bolt and nut (arrow)
Inside the trunk, remove the two shock
2
absorber upper mounting nuts (see illustration). Note: Do not remove the shock damper
rod nut at the center of the upper mount.
3
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts, raise the
rear of the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands. Block the front wheels and
remove the rear wheels.
4
Remove the shock absorber lower
mounting bolt from the rear knuckle (see
illustration).
5
Push down on the rear suspension and
pull the shock away from the knuckle. Then
guide the shock downward and remove the
shock absorber.
Inspection
Check the shock absorber for leaking
6
fluid, dents, cracks and other obvious damage which would require repair or replacement. To check for loss of gas charge,
remove the coil spring (see Step 10) push the
shaft of the shock in, then release - the shaft
should return to its fully extended position.
7
Check the coil spring for chips or cracks
in the spring coating (this can cause premature spring failure due to corrosion). Inspect
the spring seat for general deterioration.
Inspect the rubber isolators and bush8
ings in the upper mount bracket for cracks,
SPRING
ISOLATOR
SHOCK
ABSORBER
MOUNT
11.14a Remove the isolator bushing and shock absorber mount
11.13 Remove the washer on the top of
the shock absorber assembly
11.14b Remove the spring isolator from the coil spring
distortion, or any deterioration. Inspect the
dust shield for rips or deterioration. Inspect
the jounce bumper for cracks and deterioration.
Replace components as necessary.
9
Component replacement
Refer to illustrations 11.13, 11.14a, 11.14b,
11.15 and 11.18
Warning: Disassembling a shock absorber/coil spring assembly is dangerous. Use
only a high-quality spring compressor, which
can be rented at most auto parts stores or
equipment yards. Carefully follow all instructions furnished by the tool manufacturer or
serious injury could result.
10 Mount the shock assembly in a vise,
clamping the bottom shock clevis bracket.
Mark the shock absorber and the coil spring
RIGHT or LEFT, depending on which side of
the vehicle from which it was removed.
Warning: Do not remove the shock damper
rod nut before the spring is compressed.
11 Installing the spring compressor on the
first full top and bottom coil of the spring,
compress the spring until it can be wiggled,
indicating that all pressure has been relieved
from the upper mount.
12 Hold the damper rod from rotating using
a wrench or locking pliers, then unscrew the
11.15 Remove the rod washer from the
top of the shock absorber dust boot
damper rod nut.
13 Remove the washer from the shock
mounting bracket (see illustration).
14 Remove the isolator bushing, the shock
absorber mount, and the spring isolator from
the coil spring (see illustrations).
15 Remove the rod washer from the top of
the shock absorber dust boot (see illustration).
10
10-12
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
11.18 Slide off the shock absorber rod rubber jounce bumper, collar,
and coil spring isolator
16 Remove the dust boot from the shock
absorber (see illustration 11.15).
17 Lift the coil spring off of the shock
absorber. Warning: Keep the ends of the
spring pointed away from your body. Set the
spring aside in a safe, isolated location.
18 Remove the rubber jounce bumper, collar, and coil spring isolator from the shock
absorber (see illustration).
19 Reassembly is the reverse of removal.
When installing the sleeve on the shock
absorber rod, install it with the undercut side
of the sleeve facing downward. Push the
sleeve tightly onto the rod step until the
sleeve is seated firmly. Reinstall the top
washer on the shock rod with the work TOP
stamped on the washer facing upward (see
illustration 11.13). When reinstalling the
spring, align the studs at the top of the
mounting plate with the hole in the bottom
clevis bracket before relieving the spring
force.
Installation
20 Guide the shock absorber into place,
inserting the upper mounting studs through
the holes in the shock tower. Install the nuts,
but don't tighten them yet.
21 Connect the lower end of the shock
absorber to the knuckle, with the bolt head
facing the rear of the vehicle. Tighten the
bolt/nut to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
22 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
li sted in the Chapter 1 Specifications. Tighten
the upper mounting nuts to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications. Install the
cap.
12 Trailing link (rear) - removal and
installation
Refer to illustrations 12.2 and 12.3
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts, raise the
vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
Block the front wheels and remove the rear
wheel.
2
At the rear knuckle, remove the nut,
bushing retainer, and outer trailing link bushing from the trailing link (see illustration).
3
Remove the four bolts from the trailing
li nk bracket which attach the bracket to the
body and frame rail (see illustration).
4
Remove trailing link and mounting
bracket as an assembly from the vehicle.
5
If separating the trailing link from the
mounting bracket, note the location and positions of the bushings and retainer for correct
reinstallation later.
6
Installation is the reverse of the removal
procedure. Be sure to tighten the bolts and
nuts to the torque listed in this Chapter's
Specifications.
13 Lateral links (rear) - removal and
installation
Refer to illustrations 13.2, 13.4, 13.6 and 13.7
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts, raise the
rear of the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands. Remove the rear wheel.
STABILIZER
BAR
ATTACHING
LINK
12.2 Use an open-end wrench to hold the
trailing link from rotating while removing
the nut and washer at the knuckle
12.3 Unbolt the trailing link bracket bolts
(arrow) to remove the forward end of the
trailing link
Forward lateral link
Remove rear stabilizer bar attaching link
2
from the forward lateral link (see illustration).
Remove the nut, bolt and washer
3
attaching the forward lateral link to the
knuckle (see illustration 11.2).
BOLT AND
13.2 Remove the
WASHER stabilizer bar attaching
li nk bolt/nuts and front
lateral link to knuckle
bolt and washer
10-13
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
13.4 Remove the front lateral link-to-crossmember bolt (arrow)
and nut
13.6 Remove the rear lateral link to knuckle bolt (arrow) and nut
4
Remove the nut, bolt and washer
attaching the forward lateral link to the suspension crossmember (see illustration).
5
Remove the forward lateral link from the
vehicle. Note: Lateral links are replaced as a
unit - do not repair or straighten a lateral link.
Do not apply heat to the lateral link adjusting
screws or jam nuts to loosen them.
Rear lateral link
Remove the nut, bolt and washer
6
attaching the rear lateral link to the knuckle
(see illustration).
Remove the bolt and washer attaching
7
the rear lateral link to the suspension crossmember (see illustration).
Remove the rear lateral link from the
8
vehicle. Note: Lateral links are replaced as a
unit - do not repair or straighten a lateral link.
Do not apply heat to the lateral link adjusting
screws or jam nuts to loosen them.
Installation
Installation is the reverse of removal.
9
Install the front lateral link crossmember bolt
with the head of the bolts are toward the front
of the vehicle. Install the rear lateral link
crossmember bolt with the head of the bolts
are toward the rear of the vehicle. For the forward lateral link, make sure the cup in the
cast portion faces downward and toward the
rear knuckle when installed. For the rear lateral link, install with the adjusting screw
toward the knuckle, not toward the suspension crossmember (see illustration 13.6).
Tighten all fasteners to the torque listed in
this Chapter's Specifications.
10 Install the wheel and lug nuts, then
lower the vehicle to the ground. Tighten the
wheel lug nuts to the torque listed in the
Chapter 1 Specifications.
14
Rear suspension crossmember removal and reinstallation
Refer to illustration 14.6
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts, raise the
14.6 Remove the suspension
crossmember mounting bolts (arrow)
13.7 Remove the rear lateral link
bolt/washer from the
suspension crossmember
rear of the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands. Remove the rear wheels.
2
Remove the muffler support bracket
from the rear frame rail.
Remove the rear exhaust pipe hanger
3
from the suspension crossmember, then
ease the exhaust system while it drops down
as far as possible.
4
Support the suspension crossmember
with a hydraulic jack and a wooden block on
the jack. If the vehicle has ABS (Anti-lock
Brake System), remove the routing clips for
the wheel speed sensor cable from the
brackets on the upper control arm.
5
Remove the nuts and bolts on each side
of the vehicle which attach both rear lateral
li nks and both front lateral links to the knuckles.
Remove the bolts attaching the suspen6
sion crossmember to the rear frame rails (see
illustration).
Lower the suspension crossmember
7
using the hydraulic jack a sufficient distance
to remove the upper control arm pivot bolts
which attach the control arm pivot bar to the
crossmember (see illustration 1.2b).
Remove the four upper control arm
8
mounting bolts from the suspension cross -
member. Remove the upper control arms
from the crossmember.
9
Lower the suspension crossmember,
lateral arms, and stabilizer bar as far as possible and then remove the suspension crossmember.
10 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Mount the lateral links, stabilizer bar bushing
clamps and the stabilizer bar on the crossmember before installation. Align the crossmember as described in Section 15. Tighten
the fasteners to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
15
Upper control arm (rear) removal and installation
Refer to illustrations 15.6 and 15.13
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts, raise the
1
entire rear of the vehicle and support it
securely on jackstands. Remove the rear
wheels.
2
Remove the shock absorber clevis
bracket bolt and nut from both sides of the
vehicle (see illustration 11.4).
3
Remove the muffler support bracket
from the rear frame rail.
10
10-14
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
DRIFT
15.6 Use a puller to detach the upper control arm balljoint from
the rear knuckle
4
Remove the rear exhaust pipe hangar
from the suspension crossmember, then
ease the exhaust system while it drops down
as far as possible.
Remove the cotter pin and loosen the
5
castle nut attaching the upper control arm
balljoint to the knuckle.
6
With the castle nut loosened a few
turns, detach the balljoint stud from the
knuckle using a puller (see illustration).
7
Support the suspension crossmember
with a hydraulic jack and a wooden block on
the jack. If the vehicle has ABS (Anti-lock
Brake System), remove the routing clips for
the wheel speed sensor cable from brackets
on the upper control arm.
8
Remove the nuts and bolts on each side
of the vehicle which attach both rear lateral
li nks and both front lateral links to the knuckles.
Remove the bolts attaching the suspen9
sion crossmember to the rear frame rails (see
illustration 14.6).
10 Lower the suspension crossmember
using the hydraulic jack a sufficient distance
to remove the upper control arm pivot bolts
which attach the control arm pivot bar to the
crossmember (see illustration 1.2b).
11 Remove the two upper control arm
15.13 Position a temporary locating drift in the suspension
crossmember to frame rail alignment hole - one drift on each side
of the vehicle
mounting bolts from the suspension crossmember. Remove the upper control arm from
the crossmember.
12 The upper control arm, bushings, and
pivot bar are serviced as a complete assembly. Only the balljoint and balljoint seal are
replaceable. Replace the balljoint and
balljoint seal with the control arm removed
from the vehicle.
13 Installation is the reverse of removal.
When installing the suspension crossmember, install a drift (see illustration) into the
positioning holes (one positioning hole in
each side of the crossmember and frame rail)
to properly locate the suspension in the vehicle body. Tighten fasteners to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
Remove the drifts.
14 Drive the vehicle to an alignment shop
to check rear wheel camber and toe and
adjust as necessary.
16
Upper balljoint (rear) replacement
The balljoint on the rear upper control
arm is replaceable, but it is a press fit in the
17.3 Tap off the rear hub/bearing dust cap with a hammer
and chisel
arm and requires a hydraulic press and special adapters to remove and install. For this
reason we recommend that you take the
upper control arm to an automotive machine
shop to have the balljoint replaced (refer to
Section 15 for the removal and installation
procedure). Many auto parts stores are also
equipped to handle such work.
17 Hub and bearing assembly (rear)
- removal and installation
Refer to illustrations 17.3, 17.4 and 17.5
Warning: Dust created by the brake system
may contain asbestos, which is harmful to
your health. Never blow it out with compressed air and don't inhale any of it. Do not,
under any circumstances, use petroleumbased solvents to clean brake parts. Use
brake system cleaner only.
1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
vehicle and support it securely on jackstands.
Remove the wheel.
2
Remove the brake drum from the rear
hub/bearing (see Chapter 9).
3
Remove the dust cap (see illustration).
4
Remove the hub/bearing retaining nut
17.4 Remove the rear spindle nut
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-15
BRAKE FLEX
HOSE BRACKET
17.5 Pull the rear hub/bearing assembly off of the knuckle spindle
18.3 Detach the wheel speed sensor from the brake
backing plate
(see illustration). Discard the nut - a new
one must be used upon installation.
5
Pull the hub/bearing assembly off of the
rear spindle (see illustration).
6
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Use a new retaining nut - do not reuse the old
nut. Tighten the nut to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications.
7
Install the wheel and hand tighten the
wheel lug nuts. Remove the jackstands,
lower the vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to
the torque listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
18
Knuckle/spindle (rear) - removal
and installation
Refer to illustrations 18.3, 18.5a and 18.5b
Warning: Dust created by the brake system
may contain asbestos, which is harmful to
your health. Never blow it out with compressed air and don't inhale any of it. Do not,
under any circumstances, use petroleumbased solvents to clean brake parts. Use
brake system cleaner only.
Removal
1
Loosen the rear wheel lug nuts, raise the
vehicle and support it on jackstands. Block
the front wheels and remove the rear wheel.
2
Remove the rear hub/bearing assembly
(see Section 17).
3
On models with ABS, remove the wheel
speed sensor from the brake backing plate
(see illustrations).
4
Remove the parking brake cable from
the parking brake actuator lever. Then
remove the cable from the brake backing
plate (see Chapter 9).
Remove the brake backing plate bolts.
5
Using a length of wire, hang the brake
assembly from the coil spring above the
knuckle so that you do not need to remove
the brake hose from the wheel cylinder (see
illustrations).
6
Remove the nuts and bolts attaching the
forward and rear lateral links (see Section 13).
18.5a Remove the brake backing plate
bolts (arrows)
18.5b Hang the brake assembly on the
coil spring using a length of wire
7
Separate the upper control arm balljoint
from the rear knuckle (see Section 15).
10 Remove the nut and washer attaching
the trailing link to the rear knuckle (see Section 12).
11 Remove the shock absorber-to-knuckle
nut and bolt (see illustration 11.4).
12 Remove the knuckle assembly from the
vehicle.
to have the rear wheel alignment checked
and, if necessary, adjusted.
Installation
13 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure the shock absorber clevis bracket
bolt is installed with the head of the bolt facing the rear of the vehicle. Reinstall the trailing link bushings in the same locations as
when you removed them, and with the retainers installed with the cupped side of retainer
facing away from the bushing and knuckle.
Be sure to tighten all suspension fasteners to
the torque listed in this Chapter's Specifications.
14 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications.
15 Drive the vehicle to an alignment shop
19
Steering system - general
information
All models are equipped with power
rack-and-pinion steering. The steering gear,
which is located on the suspension crossmember behind the engine and in front of the
firewall, operates the steering knuckles via
tie-rods connected to steering arms on the
steering knuckles. The tie-rod ends can be
replaced by unscrewing them from the inner
tie-rods.
The power assist system consists of a
belt-driven pump and the associated lines
and hoses. The fluid level in the power steering pump reservoir should be checked periodically (see Chapter 1).
The steering wheel operates the steering shaft, which actuates the steering gear
through an intermediate shaft with a universal
joint at the lower end of the steering column
(referred to as the flex joint) and a lower inter -
10
10-16
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
20.3 Remove the two screws retaining the
steering wheel airbag module
20.5a Remove the lock from the airbag
clockspring electrical connector
mediate shaft coupler which connects to the
steering gear input shaft. Looseness in the
steering can be caused by wear in the flex
joints, the shaft coupler, the steering gear,
the tie-rod ends and loose retaining bolts.
The steering gear is either a standard power
steering rack-and-pinion unit or an optional
speed-proportional/variable-assist type.
20.5b Disconnect the electrical connector
from the back of the airbag module
20.7 Remove the
steering wheel
retaining nut
20 Steering wheel - removal and
installation
Removal
Refer to illustrations 20.3, 20.5a, 20.5b and
20.7
Warning: These models have airbags. Always
disable the airbag system before working in
the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering
column or instrument panel to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag, which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
1
Park the vehicle with the front wheels
pointing straight ahead.
Disconnect the negative battery cable
2
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1). Wait at least two
minutes before proceeding (the system has a
back-up capacitor that must fully discharge).
3
Remove the two screws, one on each
side of the steering wheel, which retain the
airbag module to the steering wheel (see
illustration).
4
Remove the airbag module from the
steering wheel. Warning: When handling the
airbag module, make sure that at no time any
source of electricity is allowed near the inflator on the back of the airbag module; when
carrying the airbag module, the trim cover
must be pointed away from your body or any
other person; if the airbag module is placed
on a workbench or any other surface, the trim
cover must face upwards. When removing
the airbag module, tag or mark all fasteners,
screws, bolts, and other parts for the airbag
module with their location as removed, for
correct installation later.
Remove the lock from the airbag clock5
spring electrical connector and disconnect
the electrical connector from the back of the
airbag module (see illustrations).
6
Remove the screws on the rear of the
steering wheel attaching the speed control
switches and remove the speed control
switches from the steering wheel. Disconnect
the clockspring and horn ground wire from
the airbag mounting bracket.
7
Remove the steering wheel retaining nut
(see illustration). Mark the steering column
shaft and the steering wheel for correct positioning when reinstalling later.
Remove the steering wheel with a steer8
ing wheel puller - do not bump or hammer on
the steering wheel or steering column in an
attempt to remove the wheel.
Installation
9
Before installing the steering wheel,
make sure the airbag clockspring is centered.
To do this, push in on the two locking pins to
disengage the locking mechanism. While
continuing to depress the pins, turn the
clockspring rotor clockwise until it stops
(don't turn it with too much force or you could
damage it). Slowly turn the rotor counterclockwise until yellow appears in the centering window. The arrow on the rotor of the
clockspring should now be pointing at the
yellow window on the clockspring. Release
the locking pins to engage the locking mechanism.
10 Lower the steering wheel into position,
feeding the clockspring wiring harness
through the opening in the wheel.
11 Place the steering wheel on the shaft,
aligning the marks. Also, make sure the flats
on the hub of the steering wheel engage with
the flats on the inside of the clockspring.
Install the nut and tighten it to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
12 Correctly route and reconnect electrical
connectors such as the speed control switch
electrical leads from the clockspring to
switch openings in the steering wheel. Connect the clockspring electrical leads to the
speed control switches. Install the speed
control switches in the steering wheel. Then
install and tighten the screws attaching the
speed control switches.
13 Plug in the horn and airbag module electrical connectors. Press the speed control
wires into the retaining channels on the steering wheel.
14 Install the airbag module electrical lead
from the clockspring into the connector on
the airbag module. Insert the locking tab in
the back of the airbag module connector.
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
OUTER TIE
ROD
10-17
INNER TIE
ROD
JAM
NUT
21.2 Loosen the tie-rod jam nut
15 Install the airbag module into the center
of the steering wheel, aligning the airbag
module alignment pins with the mating hole
and slot in the steering wheel. Use the two
original or factory replacement airbag module
retaining bolts. Tighten the airbag module
retaining bolts to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications. Warning: Make
sure the electrical connector from the clockspring is securely latched into the airbag
module connector. The fasteners, screws,
bolts, and other parts for the airbag module
are specifically designed and must never be
replaced with anything other than genuine
factory part number replacements.
16 Install the remote ground cable on the
ground stud (at the underhood shock tower)
to reapply battery power.
21
Tie-rod ends - removal and
installation
Refer to illustrations 21.2, 21.4a and 21.4b
Removal
1
Loosen the wheel lug nuts, raise the
front of the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands. Apply the parking brake and
block the rear wheels to keep the vehicle
from rolling off the jackstands. Remove the
wheel.
2
Loosen the tie-rod end jam nut (see
illustration).
3
Mark the relationship of the tie-rod end
to the threaded portion of the tie-rod. This
will ensure the toe-in setting is restored when
reassembled.
4
Loosen the nut from the tie-rod end ballstud a few turns, while holding the ballstud
with a wrench (see illustration). Disconnect
the tie-rod end from the steering knuckle arm
with a puller (see illustration).
Remove the nut from the ballstud, sepa5
rate the tie-rod end from the steering
knuckle, then unscrew the tie-rod end from
the tie-rod.
Installation
6
Thread the tie-rod end onto the tie-rod
21.4a While holding the ballstud with a wrench to prevent it from
turning, loosen the nut
to the marked position and connect the tierod end to the steering arm. Install the nut on
the ballstud and tighten it to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications while holding
the ballstud with a wrench to prevent it from
turning.
7
Tighten the jam nut securely and install
the wheel. Lower the vehicle and tighten the
lug nuts to the torque listed in the Chapter 1
Specifications.
8
Drive the vehicle to an alignment shop
and have the front end alignment checked
and, if necessary, adjusted.
22 Steering gear and pressure
switch - removal and installation
Steering gear
21.4b Using a puller, separate the
ballstud from the knuckle
Removal
Refer to illustrations 22.3, 22.7a, 22.7b,
22.15, 22.16a and 22.16b
Warning: These models are equipped with
airbags. Make sure the steering shaft is not
turned while the steering gear is removed or
you could damage the airbag system. To prevent the shaft from turning, turn the ignition
key to the lock position before beginning
work or run the seat belt through the steering
wheel and clip the seat belt into place. Due to
the possible damage to the airbag system, we
recommend only experienced mechanics
attempt this procedure.
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
2
Drain the power steering fluid from the
remote power steering reservoir. This can be
accomplished with a suction gun or large
syringe, or by disconnecting the fluid hose
and draining the fluid into a container.
3
From inside the vehicle under the dashboard, slide the steering shaft boot up from
the floorboard area and remove the safety
clip on the intermediate shaft pinch bolt.
Then remove the pinch bolt (see illustration).
4
Mark the intermediate shaft and the
steering gear shaft with alignment markings
for later installation. Then separate the inter-
mediate shaft coupler from the steering gear
shaft.
5
Loosen the front wheel lug nuts. Raise
the vehicle and place it securely on jackstands. Remove both front wheels.
6
Detach the tie-rod ends from the steering knuckles (see Section 21).
10
22.3 At the base of the steering column,
slide the boot up and remove the retaining
pin and pinch bolt (arrow)
10-18
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
22.7a Scribe a locating mark from the front suspension
crossmember to the attaching bracket (left side front shown)
7
Scribe marks showing the relationship
of the front suspension crossmember to the
crossmember attaching bracket (see illustrations). Be sure to mark each side, at the
front and at the rear.
8
Remove the front stabilizer bar mounting clamp to body bolts. It is not necessary to
remove the stabilizer bar clamp-to-front sus-
22.15 If the vehicle is equipped with
electronic module type speedsensing/variable assist power steering,
detach the electrical connectors (arrows)
22.7b Also mark the rear position of the crossmember (left side
rear shown)
pension crossmember bolts.
9
For ABS-equipped vehicles, remove the
three bolts attaching the Anti-lock Brake System hydraulic control unit to the front suspension crossmember. Using a length of
wire, hang the hydraulic control unit from the
body/engine.
10 Remove the left and right side shock
absorber clevis bolts from the lower control
arms.
11 Remove the two bolts from the engine
support bracket attaching to the front edge of
the suspension crossmember, and the two
bolts attaching the rear support bracket at
the rear of the suspension crossmember.
12 Remove the bolt attaching the engine
support bracket to the transaxle mounting
bracket.
13 Using a transmission jack or two floor
jacks, support the front suspension crossmember. Lower the crossmember sufficiently
to allow the steering gear to be removed.
Note: Make sure you support the crossmember and do not allow it to hang from the lower
control arms at any time.
14 Place a drain pan under the steering
gear and detach the power steering pressure
and return lines. Cap the ends to prevent
excessive fluid loss and contamination.
15 Disconnect the pressure switch wiring
22.16a Steering gear-to-crossmember clamp bolts (lower arrow)
harness connector from the steering gear. On
models equipped with the electronic speed
sensing/variable assist steering, disconnect
the speed sensing/variable assist module
and solenoid control valve electrical connectors (see illustration).
16 Remove the two steering gear mounting
bolts and isolators at the crossmember and
then remove the two steering gear-to-crossmember clamp bolts (see illustrations).
17 Remove the steering gear assembly
from the vehicle.
Installation
18 If you're installing a new steering gear
assembly, carefully grasp the steering gear in
your left hand and rotate the shaft counterclockwise with your right hand until the steering gear is in the full-left position.
19 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Make sure you align the marks on the steering gear shaft with the marks on the intermediate shaft. Gently tap the front suspension
crossmember into place, aligning it with the
marks scribed during removal. Make sure the
electrical connector(s) are fully connected
with the connector locking tabs securely
latched. Use a new steering gear intermediate shaft coupler pinch bolt, and make sure
the retention pin is installed in the bolt after
22.16b Steering gear-to-crossmember mounting bolt
(front shown)
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
23.11 The power steering fluid cooler is bolted to the bumper
reinforcement bar (1996 and later models)
tightening the pinch bolt to the torque listed
in this Chapter's Specifications.
20 Refill the power steering with power
steering fluid (see Chapter 1), and bleed the
system (see Section 24).
21 Install the wheel and lug nuts. Lower the
vehicle and tighten the lug nuts to the torque
listed in the Chapter 1 Specifications. Drive
the vehicle to an alignment shop to have the
wheel alignment checked and, if necessary,
adjusted.
Pressure switch
22 Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
23 Remove the pressure switch electrical
connector, located on the back side of the
power steering gear.
24 Place a drain pan under the power
steering gear. Using a crow foot wrench,
remove the pressure switch from the power
steering gear.
25 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Tighten the switch to the torque listed in this
Chapter's Specifications. Fill the power steering with the recommended power steering
fluid (see Chapter 1), and bleed the system
(see Section 24).
23 Power steering pump, cooler and
hoses - removal and installation
Warning: Wait until the engine is completely
cool before beginning any of these procedures.
1
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
Power steering fluid hoses
2
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
3
Lower the front suspension crossmember sufficiently to access the steering gear
hose connections (see Section 22).
4
Place a drain pan under the power
steering gear. Disconnect the hose from the
power steering gear and let the fluid drain
10-19
23.20 Remove the bolt at the power steering pump adjustment
slot (arrow)
into the drain pan. Cap the hose and the
power steering gear port to prevent entry of
foreign material.
5
Remove power steering fluid hose
brackets or tie-straps as necessary to
remove the hose(s).
6
Disconnect the power steering hose(s)
from the power steering pump.
7
Remove the hose(s) from the bottom of
the vehicle.
8
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Use new 0-rings on the pressure hose fittings, lubricated with clean power steering
fluid. Before installing, wipe clean all hose fittings and power steering pump and gear
ports. When installing, do not fully tighten the
fittings until the suspension crossmember is
re-installed. Tighten the fittings when the
entire hose is in place with brackets and tiestrap attached. Fill the power steering reservoir with the recommended power steering
fluid (see Chapter 1), and bleed the system
(see Section 24).
Power steering oil cooler (1996
and later models)
Refer to illustration 23.11
9
Raise the vehicle and support it securely
on jackstands.
10 Remove the front fascia and grill (see
Chapter 11).
11 Place a drain pan under the oil cooler.
Remove the hose clamps from the oil cooler
(see illustration).
12 Drain the power steering fluid from the
hoses and from the oil cooler.
13 Unbolt the oil cooler from the front
bumper reinforcement bar.
14 Installation is the reverse of removal. Fill
the power steering fluid reservoir with the
recommended power steering fluid (see
Chapter 1), and bleed the system after lowering the vehicle (see Section 24).
Power steering pump
Refer to illustrations 23.20, 23.23, 23.24,
23.26, 23.27a, 23.27b and 23.27c
15 Using a large syringe or suction gun,
suck as much fluid out of the power steering
fluid reservoir as possible.
16 Loosen the right front wheel lug nuts.
Raise the vehicle and support it securely on
jackstands.
17 Remove the right front wheel. Also
remove the right front wheel splash shield.
18 Place a drain pan under the vehicle to
catch any fluid that spills out when the hoses
are disconnected.
19 Disconnect the power steering pump
hoses. Cap the hoses and the power steering
pump ports.
20 Remove the bolt at the pump adjustment slot (see illustration).
21 Remove the bolt attaching the back of
the power steering pump to the cast aluminum mounting bracket.
22 Remove the ABS hydraulic control unit
heat shield adjacent to the power steering
pump.
23 On four-cylinder models with ABS,
remove the wheel speed sensor cable
bracket from the right front wheel well (see
illustration). Then remove the grommet from
the right front inner fender, disconnect the
wheel speed sensor connector, and push the
wiring harness back through the hole in the
GROMMET
RETAINER AND
CABLE ROUTING
BRACKET
10
23.23 Remove the ABS speed sensor
harness bracket from the right front wheel
well and remove the grommet from the
inner fender - four-cylinder models
with ABS
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-20
FRONT SUSPENSION —
LOWER CONTROL ARM — CROSSMEMBER
23.24 Use a 15mm flex socket with long extension inserted
through the ABS sensor wiring harness hole in the inner fender to
remove the bolt attaching the top of the power steering pump
front bracket - four-cylinder models with ABS
PUMP PULLEY
POWER STEERING
PUMP MOUNTING
BOSS
23.27a If you're installing a new pump,
you'll need a special puller to remove the
pulley from the old pump ...
ROTATE THIS
WRENCH WRENCH TO
INSTALL PULLEY
23.26 Remove the power steering pump/mounting bracket
assembly through the area between the rear of the engine,
driveaxle and front suspension crossmember
inner fender and unclip the wiring harness
from the frame rail. If the vehicle does not
have ABS brakes, just remove the grommet
plug from the hole.
24 On four-cylinder models with ABS,
insert a socket wrench with long extension
and a 15mm flex socket through the ABS
sensor wiring harness hole and remove the
bolt attaching the top of the power steering
pump front bracket to the cast aluminum
mounting bracket (see illustration).
25 Remove the power steering pump drivebelt from the pump pulley.
26 Carefully remove the power steering
pump and mounting bracket as an assembly
through the area between the rear of the
engine, driveaxle and front suspension crossmember (see illustration).
27 Installation is the reverse of removal. If
you're installing a new pump, you'll need a
THIS WRENCH
HELD STATIONARY WRENCH
special puller to remove the pulley from the
old pump and another special tool (see illustrations) to install it on the new pump. These
tools are available at most auto parts stores.
First, loosely install mounting bolts and hose
fittings. Note: The power steering pump
pressure hose must be installed between the
front bracket of the pump and the pump pulley. Mount the power steering drivebelt.
Using a 1/2-inch drive breaker bar in the
square adjustment hole of the pump, rotate
the pump to the correct belt tension (see
Chapter 1), hold the pump in position and
tighten the bottom adjusting slot bolts and
then tighten the top pivot bolt to the torque
li sted in this Chapter's Specifications.
28 Fill the power steering fluid reservoir
with the recommended power steering fluid
(see Chapter 1), and bleed the system (see
Section 24).
SPACER IS TO BE
SEATED FLUSH AGAINST
PUMP SHAFT WHEN
PULLEY IS INSTALLED
PULLEY
PULLEY
23.27b . . . and another special tool to install it on the new pump
23.27c When installing the pulley on the new pump, make sure
the spacer is fully seated as shown
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
10-21
METRIC TIRE SIZES
SECTION WIDTH
(MILLIMETERS)
185
195
205
ETC
R
70
75
80
CONSTRUCTION TYPE
R-RADIAL
B-BIAS - BELTED
D-DIAGONAL (BIAS)
SECTION
WIDTH
SECTION
HEIGHT
26.1 Camber, caster and toe-in angles
25.1 Metric tire size code
24 Power steering system - bleeding
1
Following any operation in which the
power steering fluid lines have been disconnected, the power steering system must be
bled to remove all air and obtain proper
steering performance.
2
With the front wheels in the straight
ahead position, check the power steering
fluid level and, if low, add fluid until it reaches
the Cold mark on the dipstick.
3
Start the engine and allow it to run at
fast idle. Recheck the fluid level and add
more if necessary to reach the Cold mark on
the dipstick.
Bleed the system by running the engine
4
for a few seconds, turning the steering wheel
from side to side several times without hitting
the stops, with the weight of the vehicle off of
the wheels (vehicle front end raised and
securely supported on jackstands), then
stopping the engine and rechecking level.
This will work the air out of the system. Keep
the reservoir full of fluid as this is done.
5
When the air is worked out of the system, return the wheels to the straight ahead
position and leave the vehicle running for
several more minutes before shutting it off.
6
Road test the vehicle to be sure the
steering system is functioning normally and
noise free.
Recheck the fluid level to be sure it is up
7
to the Hot mark on the dipstick while the
engine is at normal operating temperature.
Add fluid if necessary (see Chapter 1).
25 Wheels and tires - general
information
26 Wheel alignment - general
information
Refer to illustration 25.1
All vehicles covered by this manual are
equipped with metric-sized fiberglass or steel
belted radial tires (see illustration). Use of
other size or type of tires may affect the ride
and handling of the vehicle. Don't mix different types of tires, such as radials and bias
belted, on the same vehicle as handling may
be seriously affected. It's recommended that
tires are replaced in pairs on the same axle,
but if only one tire is being replaced, be sure
it's the same size, structure and tread design
as the other.
Because tire pressure has a substantial
effect on handling and wear, the pressure on
all tires should be checked at least once a
month or before extended trips (see Chapter 1).
Wheels must be replaced if they are
bent, dented, leak air, have elongated bolt
holes, are heavily rusted, out of vertical symmetry or if the lug nuts won't stay tight.
Wheel repairs that use welding or peening are
not recommended.
Tire and wheel balance is important in
the overall handling, braking and performance of the vehicle. Unbalanced wheels
can adversely affect handling and ride characteristics as well as tire life. Whenever a tire
is installed on a wheel, a shop with the proper
equipment should balance the tire and wheel.
Refer to illustration 26.1
A wheel alignment refers to the adjustments made to the wheels so they are in
proper angular relationship to the suspension
and the ground. Wheels that are out of proper
alignment not only affect vehicle control, but
also increase tire wear. The alignment angles
normally measured are camber, caster and
toe-in (see illustration). Toe-in on the front,
and toe-in and camber on the rear are the
only adjustable angles on these vehicles. The
other angles should be measured to check
for bent or worn suspension parts.
Wheel alignment is a very exacting process, one in which complicated and expensive machines are necessary to perform the
job properly. You should have a technician
with the proper equipment perform these
tasks. We will, however, use this space to
give you a basic idea of what is involved with
a wheel alignment so you can better understand the process and deal intelligently with
the shop that does the work.
Toe-in is the turning in of the wheels.
The purpose of a toe specification is to
ensure parallel rolling of the wheels. In a vehicle with zero toe-in, the distance between the
front edges of the wheels will be the same as
the distance between the rear edges of the
wheels. The actual amount of toe-in is normally only a fraction of an inch. On the front
10
10-22
Chapter 10 Suspension and steering systems
end, toe-in is controlled by the tie-rod end
position on the tie-rod. On the rear end, it's
controlled by a threaded adjuster on the rear
lateral link. Incorrect toe-in will cause the tires
to wear improperly by making them scrub
against the road surface.
Camber is the tilting of the wheels from
vertical when viewed from one end of the
vehicle. When the wheels tilt out at the top,
the camber is said to be positive (+). When
the wheels tilt in at the top the camber is negative H. The amount of tilt is measured in
degrees from vertical and this measurement
is called the camber angle. This angle affects
the amount of tire tread which contacts the
road and compensates for changes in the
suspension geometry when the vehicle is
cornering or traveling over an undulating surface.
Caster is the tilting of the front steering
axis from the vertical. A tilt toward the rear is
positive caster and a tilt toward the front is
negative caster.
11-1
Chapter 11 Body
Contents
Section
Body - maintenance .......................................................................
2
6
Body repair- major damage ...........................................................
Body repair- minor damage...........................................................
5
Bumpers - removal and installation ...............................................
12
26
Center console - removal and installation .....................................
Cowl cover - removal and installation ............................................
28
Dashboard trim panels, glove box door handle and lock
21
cylinder - removal and installation ............................................
Door latch, outside handle and lock cylinder - removal,
installation and adjustment .......................................................
14
17
Door - removal and installation ......................................................
Door trim panel - removal and installation .....................................
13
Door window glass - removal and installation ...............................
15
16
Door window regulator - removal and installation .........................
General information ........................................................................
1
Hinges and locks - maintenance...................................................
7
9
Hood - removal, installation and adjustment .................................
1
General information
The models covered by this manual feature a "unibody" layout, using a floor pan with
front and rear frame side rails which support
the body components, front and rear suspension systems and other mechanical components. Certain components are particularly
vulnerable to accident damage and can be
unbolted and repaired or replaced. Among
these parts are the body moldings, bumpers,
front fenders, the hood and trunk lids and all
glass. Only general body maintenance practices and body panel repair procedures
within the scope of the do-it-yourselfer are
included in this Chapter.
2
Section
Hood latch and cable - removal and installation ............................
10
22
Instrument cluster hood - removal and installation ........................
23
Instrument panel - removal and installation ...................................
Instrument panel top cover - removal and installation ...................
20
Mirrors - removal and installation .......................................... .......
27
24
Passenger airbag module - removal and installation .....................
Radiator grille (Cirrus models) - removal and installation ..............
11
Seat belt check..............................................................................
30
29
Seats - removal and installation .....................................................
Steering column covers - removal and installation ........................
25
Trunk latch and lock cylinder - removal and installation ................
19
Trunk lid, support strut, latch striker and release cable removal, installation and adjustment........................................
18
Upholstery and carpets - maintenance ..........................................
4
3
Vinyl trim - maintenance ................................................................
Windshield and fixed glass - replacement .....................................
8
Body - maintenance
1
The condition of the vehicle's body is
very important, because the resale value
depends a great deal on it. It's much more
difficult to repair a neglected or damaged
body than it is to repair mechanical components. The hidden areas of the body, such as
the wheel wells, the frame and the engine
compartment,
are
equally important,
although they don't require as frequent attention as the rest of the body.
2
Once a year, or every 12,000 miles, it's a
good idea to have the underside of the body
steam cleaned. All traces of dirt and oil will be
removed and the area can then be inspected
carefully for rust, damaged brake lines,
frayed electrical wires, damaged cables and
other problems. The front suspension components should be greased after completion
of this job.
3
At the same time, clean the engine and
the engine compartment with a steam
cleaner or water-soluble degreaser.
4
The wheel wells should be given close
attention, since undercoating can peel away
and stones and dirt thrown up by the tires
can cause the paint to chip and flake, allowing rust to set in. If rust is found, clean down
to the bare metal and apply an anti-rust paint.
The body should be washed about once
5
a week. Wet the vehicle thoroughly to soften
the dirt, then wash it down with a soft sponge
11
11-2
and plenty of clean soapy water. If the surplus dirt is not washed off very carefully, it
can wear down the paint.
6
Spots of tar or asphalt thrown up from
the road should be removed with a cloth
soaked in solvent.
7
Once every six months, wax the body
and chrome trim. If a chrome cleaner is used
to remove rust from any of the vehicle's plated
parts, remember that the cleaner also removes
part of the chrome, so use it sparingly.
3
Vinyl trim - maintenance
Don't clean vinyl trim with detergents,
caustic soap or petroleum-based cleaners.
Plain soap and water works just fine, with a
soft brush to clean dirt that may be ingrained.
Wash the vinyl as frequently as the rest of the
vehicle. After cleaning, application of a highquality rubber and vinyl protectant will help
prevent oxidation and cracks. The protectant
can also be applied to weatherstripping, vacuum lines and rubber hoses, which often fail
as a result of chemical degradation, and to
the tires.
4
Upholstery and carpets maintenance
1
Every three months remove the floor
mats and clean the interior of the vehicle
( more frequerity if necessary). Use a stiff
whisk broom to brush the carpeting and
loosen dirt and dust, then vacuum the upholstery and carpets thoroughly, especially
along seams and crevices.
2
Dirt and stains can be removed from
carpeting with basic household or automotive
carpet shampoos available in spray cans.
Follow the directions and vacuum again, then
use a stiff brush to bring back the "nap" of
the carpet.
3
Most interiors have cloth or vinyl upholstery, either of which can be cleaned and
maintained with a number of material-specific
cleaners or shampoos available in auto supply stores. Follow the directions on the product for usage, and always spot-test any
upholstery cleaner on an inconspicuous area
(like the bottom edge of a back seat cushion)
to ensure that it doesn't cause a color shift in
the material.
After cleaning, vinyl upholstery should
4
be treated with a protectant. Note: Make sure
the protectant container indicates the product can be used on seats - some products
make may a seat too slippery. Caution: Do
not use a protectant on vinyl-covered steering wheels.
5
Leather upholstery requires special
care. It should be cleaned regularly with saddle soap or leather cleaner. Never use alcohol, gasoline, nail polish remover or thinner to
clean leather upholstery.
6
After cleaning, regularly treat leather
upholstery with a leather conditioner, rubbed
Chapter 11 Body
in with a soft cotton cloth. Never use car wax
on leather upholstery.
7
In areas where the interior of the vehicle
is subject to bright sunlight, cover leather
seating areas of the seats with a sheet if the
vehicle is to be left out for any length of time.
5
Body repair - minor damage
Repair of scratches
1
If the scratch is superficial and does not
penetrate to the metal of the body, repair is
very simple. Lightly rub the scratched area
with a fine rubbing compound to remove
loose paint and built up wax. Rinse the area
with clean water.
2
Apply touch-up paint to the scratch,
using a small brush. Continue to apply thin
layers of paint until the surface of the paint in
the scratch is level with the surrounding
paint. Allow the new paint at least two weeks
to harden, then blend it into the surrounding
paint by rubbing with a very fine rubbing
compound. Finally, apply a coat of wax to the
scratch area.
3
If the scratch has penetrated the paint
and exposed the metal of the body, causing
the metal to rust, a different repair technique
is required. Remove all loose rust from the
bottom of the scratch with a pocket knife,
then apply rust inhibiting paint to prevent the
formation of rust in the future. Using a rubber
or nylon applicator, coat the scratched area
with glaze-type filler. If required, the filler can
be mixed with thinner to provide a very thin
paste, which is ideal for filling narrow
scratches. Before the glaze filler in the
scratch hardens, wrap a piece of smooth cotton cloth around the tip of a finger. Dip the
cloth in thinner and then quickly wipe it along
the surface of the scratch. This will ensure
that the surface of the filler is slightly hollow.
The scratch can now be painted over as
described earlier in this Section.
Repair of dents
See photo sequence
4
When repairing dents, the first job is to
pull the dent out until the affected area is as
close as possible to its original shape. There
is no point in trying to restore the original
shape completely as the metal in the damaged area will have stretched on impact and
cannot be restored to its original contours. It
is better to bring the level of the dent up to a
point which is about 1/8-inch below the level
of the surrounding metal. In cases where the
dent is very shallow, it is not worth trying to
pull it out at all.
5
If the back side of the dent is accessible,
it can be hammered out gently from behind
using a soft-face hammer. While doing this,
hold a block of wood firmly against the opposite side of the metal to absorb the hammer
blows and prevent the metal from being
stretched.
6
If the dent is in a section of the body
which has double layers, or some other factor
makes it inaccessible from behind, a different
technique is required. Drill several small holes
through the metal inside the damaged area,
particularly in the deeper sections. Screw
long, self tapping screws into the holes just
enough for them to get a good grip in the
metal. Now the dent can be pulled out by
pulling on the protruding heads of the screws
with locking pliers.
7
The next stage of repair is the removal
of paint from the damaged area and from an
inch or so of the surrounding metal. This is
easily done with a wire brush or sanding disk
in a drill motor, although it can be done just
as effectively by hand with sandpaper. To
complete the preparation for filling, score the
surface of the bare metal with a screwdriver
or the tang of a file or drill small holes in the
affected area. This will provide a good grip
for the filler material. To complete the repair,
see the subsection on filling and painting.
Repair of rust holes or gashes
8
Remove all paint from the affected area
and from an inch or so of the surrounding
metal using a sanding disk or wire brush
mounted in a drill motor. If these are not
available, a few sheets of sandpaper will do
the job just as effectively.
9
With the paint removed, you will be able
to determine the severity of the corrosion and
decide whether to replace the whole panel, if
possible, or repair the affected area. New
body panels are not as expensive as most
people think and it is often quicker to install a
new panel than to repair large areas of rust.
10 Remove all trim pieces from the affected
area except those which will act as a guide to
the original shape of the damaged body,
such as headlight shells, etc. Using metal
snips or a hacksaw blade, remove all loose
metal and any other metal that is badly
affected by rust. Hammer the edges of the
hole on the inside to create a slight depression for the filler material.
11 Wire brush the affected area to remove
the powdery rust from the surface of the
metal. If the back of the rusted area is accessible, treat it with rust inhibiting paint.
12 Before filling is done, block the hole in
some way. This can be done with sheet metal
riveted or screwed into place, or by stuffing
the hole with wire mesh.
13 Once the hole is blocked off, the affected
area can be filled and painted. See the following subsection on filling and painting.
Filling and painting
14 Many types of body fillers are available,
but generally speaking, body repair kits
which contain filler paste and a tube of resin
hardener are best for this type of repair work.
A wide, flexible plastic or nylon applicator will
be necessary for imparting a smooth and
contoured finish to the surface of the filler
material. Mix up a small amount of filler on a
clean piece of wood or cardboard (use the
hardener sparingly). Follow the manufacturer's instructions on the package, otherwise the filler will set incorrectly.
Chapter 11 Body
15 Using the applicator, apply the filler
paste to the prepared area. Draw the applicator across the surface of the filler to achieve
the desired contour and to level the filler surface. As soon as a contour that approximates
the original one is achieved, stop working the
paste. If you continue, the paste will begin to
stick to the applicator. Continue to add thin
layers of paste at 20-minute intervals until the
level of the filler is just above the surrounding
metal.
16 Once the filler has hardened, the excess
can be removed with a body file. From then
on, progressively finer grades of sandpaper
should be used, starting with a 180-grit paper
and finishing with 600-grit wet-or-dry paper.
Always wrap the sandpaper around a flat rubber or wooden block, otherwise the surface
of the filler will not be completely flat. During
the sanding of the filler surface, the
wet-ordy aper should be periodically rinsed in
p
water. This will ensure that a very smooth finish is produced in the final stage.
17 At this point, the repair area should be
surrounded by a ring of bare metal, which in
turn should be encircled by the finely feathered edge of good paint. Rinse the repair
area with clean water until all of the dust produced by the sanding operation is gone.
18 Spray the entire area with a light coat of
primer. This will reveal any imperfections in
the surface of the filler. Repair the imperfections with fresh filler paste or glaze filler and
once more smooth the surface with sandpaper. Repeat this spray-and-repair procedure
until you are satisfied that the surface of the
filler and the feathered edge of the paint are
perfect. Rinse the area with clean water and
allow it to dry completely.
19 The repair area is now ready for painting. Spray painting must be carried out in a
warm, dry, windless and dust free atmosphere. These conditions can be created if
you have access to a large indoor work area,
but if you are forced to work in the open, you
will have to pick the day very carefully. If you
are working indoors, dousing the floor in the
work area with water will help settle the dust
which would otherwise be in the air. If the
repair area is confined to one body panel,
mask off the surrounding panels. This will
help minimize the effects of a slight mismatch
in paint color. Trim pieces such as chrome
strips, door handles, etc., will also need to be
masked off or removed. Use masking tape
and several thickness of newspaper for the
masking operations.
20 Before spraying, shake the paint can
thoroughly, then spray a test area until the
spray painting technique is mastered. Cover
the repair area with a thick coat of primer.
The thickness should be built up using several thin layers of primer rather than one thick
one. Using 600-grit wet-or-dry sandpaper,
rub down the surface of the primer until it is
very smooth. While doing this, the work area
should be thoroughly rinsed with water and
the wet-or-dry sandpaper periodically rinsed
as well. Allow the primer to dry before spraying additional coats.
11-3
Windshield and fixed glass replacement
Replacement of the windshield and fixed
glass requires the use of special fast-setting
adhesive/caulk materials and some specialized tools and techniques. These operations
should be left to a dealer service department
or a shop specializing in glass work.
9
9.3 For a reference point at installation,
outline the hinges on the hood with
a felt tip marker
21 Spray on the top coat, again building up
the thickness by using several thin layers of
paint. Begin spraying in the center of the
repair area and then, using a circular motion,
work out until the whole repair area and
about two inches of the surrounding original
paint is covered. Remove all masking material 10 to 15 minutes after spraying on the
final coat of paint. Allow the new paint at
least two weeks to harden, then use a very
fine rubbing compound to blend the edges of
the new paint into the existing paint. Finally,
apply a coat of wax.
6
Body repair - major damage
1
Major damage must be repaired by an
auto body shop specifically equipped to perform unibody repairs. These shops have the
specialized equipment required to do the job
properly.
2
If the damage is extensive, the body
must be checked for proper alignment or the
vehicle's handling characteristics may be
adversely affected and other components
may wear at an accelerated rate.
3
Due to the fact that all of the major body
components (hood, fenders, etc.) are separate and replaceable units, any seriously
damaged components should be replaced
rather than repaired. Sometimes the components can be found in a auto salvage or
wrecking yard that specializes in used vehicle
components, often at considerable savings
over the cost of new parts.
7
Hinges and locks - maintenance
Once every 3000 miles, or every three
months, the hinges and latch assemblies on
the doors, hood and trunk should be given a
few drops of light oil or lock lubricant. The
door latch strikers should also be lubricated
with a thin coat of grease to reduce wear
and ensure free movement. Lubricate the
door and trunk locks with spray-on graphite
lubricant.
Hood - removal, installation and
adjustment
Note: The hood is heavy and somewhat awkward to remove and install - at least two people should perform this procedure.
Removal
Refer to illustration 9.3
1
Use blankets or pads to cover the cowl
area of the body and both fenders. This will
protect the body and paint as the hood is
lifted off.
Open the hood and support it on the
2
prop rod.
3
Scribe alignment marks around the bolt
heads and hinges to aid alignment during
installation (a permanent-type felt-tip marker
also will work for this) (see illustration).
4
Disconnect the under hood lamp electrical wire harness connector.
5
Have an assistant support one side of
the hood while you support the other. Simultaneously remove the hinge-to-hood bolts.
6
Lift off the hood. Note: A good place to
store the hood is on the roof of the vehicle.
Place blankets or pads on the roof first and
lay the hood painted side down on the blankets.
Installation
7
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Align the marks around the hinges and bolts
(one side at a time) and then check for proper
clearance. Readjust as necessary (see
below).
Adjustment
8
Fore-and-aft and side-to-side adjustment of the hood is done by moving the hood
in relation to the hinge plate after loosening
the bolts. The hood must be aligned so there
is a 5/32-inch gap (approximate) to the front
fenders and flush with the top surface.
9
Scribe or trace a line around the entire
hinge plate so you can judge the amount of
movement (see illustration 9.3).
10 Loosen the bolts and move the hood
into correct alignment. Move it only a little at
a time. Tighten the hinge bolts and carefully
lower the hood to check the alignment.
11 Adjust the hood bumpers on the radiator
support so the hood is flush with the fenders
when closed.
12 The hood latch assembly can also be
adjusted up-and-down and side-to-side after
loosening the nuts. Make sure you place
11
These photos illustrate a method of repairing simple dents. They are intended to supplement Body repair - minor
damage in this Chapter and should not be used as the sole instructions for body repair on these vehicles.
If you can't access the backside of the body panel to hammer
out the dent, pull it out with a slide-hammer-type dent puller. In
the deepest portion of the dent or along the crease line, drill or
punch hole(s) at least one inch apart .. .
2 . . . then screw the slide-hammer into the hole and operate it.
Tap with a hammer near the edge of the dent to help 'pop' the
metal back to its original shape. When you're finished, the dent
area should be close to its original contour and about 1/8-inch
below the surface of the surrounding metal
3 Using coarse-grit sandpaper, remove the paint down to the
bare metal. Hand sanding works fine, but the disc sander shown
here makes the job faster. Use finer (about 320-grit) sandpaper to
feather-edge the paint at least one inch around the dent area
4 When the paint is removed, touch will probably be more
helpful than sight for telling if the metal is straight. Hammer
down the high spots or raise the low spots as necessary.
Clean the repair area with wax/silicone remover
5 Following label instructions, mix up a batch of plastic filler and
hardener. The ratio of filler to hardener is critical, and, if you mix it
incorrectly, it will either not cure properly or cure too quickly (you
won't have time to file and sand it into shape)
6 Working quickly so the filler doesn't harden, use a plastic
applicator to press the body filler firmly into the metal, assuring it
bonds completely. Work the filler until it matches the original
contour and is slightly above the surrounding metal
1
7 Let the filler harden until you can just dent it with your
fingernail. Use a body file or Surform tool (shown here) to roughshape the filler
8 Use coarse-grit sandpaper and a sanding board or block to
work the filler down until it's smooth and even. Work down to
finer grits of sandpaper - always using a board or block - ending
up with 360 or 400 grit
9 You shouldn't be able to feel any ridge at the transition from
the filler to the bare metal or from the bare metal to the old paint.
As soon as the repair is flat and uniform, remove the dust and
mask off the adjacent panels or trim pieces
10 Apply several layers of primer to the area. Don't spray the
primer on too heavy, so it sags or runs, and make sure each coat
is dry before you spray on the next one. A professional-type spray
gun is being used here, but aerosol spray primer is available
inexpensively from auto parts stores
11 The primer will help reveal imperfections or scratches. Fill
these with glazing compound. Follow the label instructions and
sand it with 360 or 400-grit sandpaper until it's smooth. Repeat
the glazing, sanding and respraying until the primer reveals a
perfectly smooth surface
12 Finish sand the primer with very fine sandpaper (400 or 600grit) to remove the primer overspray. Clean the area with water
and allow it to dry. Use a tack rag to remove any dust, then apply
the finish coat. Don't attempt to rub out or wax the repair area
until the paint has dried completely (at least two weeks)
11-6
Chapter 11
Body
Remove the bolts securing the hood
8
release handle/cable assembly to the cowl
panel (see illustration).
Under the dash, locate and disengage
9
the push-in retainer and cable grommet from
the firewall.
10 Connect a piece of heavy string or flexible wire to the engine compartment end of
the cable, then from inside the vehicle, pull
the cable with string or wire attached through
the firewall into the vehicle. Disconnect the
string or wire from the old cable.
10.2 For a reference point at installation,
mark the position of the hood latch
on the radiator support
alignment marks around the hood latch
assembly before loosening the mounting
nuts.
13 The hood latch assembly, as well as the
hinges, should be periodically lubricated with
white lithium-base grease to prevent sticking
and wear.
10
Hood latch and cable - removal
and installation
Warning: These models have airbags. Always
disable the airbag system before working in
the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering
column or instrument panel to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag, which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
Latch
Removal
Refer to illustrations 10.2 and 10.3
1
Open the hood and support it on the
prop rod.
Scribe alignment marks around the
2
hood latch assembly to aid alignment during
10.3 Slide the cable housing from the
key-hole slot in the hood latch, then slide
the cable through the slot (arrow) in the
release arm and separate the cable
from the hood latch assembly
installation (a permanent-type felt-tip marker
or paint will also work for this) (see illustration).
3
Remove the nuts and detach the latch
assembly from the radiator support, then disconnect the release cable from the hood
latch assembly (see illustration).
Installation
4
Installation is the reverse of removal.
Align the hood latch assembly with the marks
on the radiator support and then tighten the
nuts. Check hood latch operation. Readjust
as necessary.
Cable
Removal
Refer to illustration 10.8
5
Disconnect the release cable from the
hood latch (see Steps 1 through 3).
6
Detach the cable from the clips securing
it to the radiator support.
7
Inside the vehicle, remove the left front
kick panel to gain access to the hood release
handle bolts.
10.8 Hood release cable and handle details as viewed
from inside the vehicle
Installation
11 Connect the string or wire to the new
cable and carefully pull it through the firewall
into the engine compartment.
12 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
11
Radiator grille (Cirrus models) removal and installation
Warning: These models have airbags. Always
disable the airbag system before working in
the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering
column or instrument panel to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag, which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
Removal
1
Open the hood and support it on the
prop rod.
Remove the front bumper with grille
2
attached (see Section 12).
3
Using an appropriate size drill, remove
the rivets securing the grille to the bumper
and separate the grille from the bumper.
Installation
4
Installation is the reverse of removal.
The grille can be reattached to the bumper
using rivets (if available) or screws, nuts and
washers. If threaded fasteners are used,
apply thread locking compound to the screw
threads.
12.5 Remove the five push-in fasteners (arrows) securing the
bottom of the front bumper to the radiator lower support
11-7
Chapter 11 Body
12.7 To remove the push-in fasteners, pry out the center
stud and then remove the outer housing
12
Bumpers - removal and
installation
Warning: These models have airbags. Always
disable the airbag system before working in
the vicinity of the impact sensors, steering
column or instrument panel to avoid the possibility of accidental deployment of the
airbag, which could cause personal injury
(see Chapter 12).
Front bumper
Removal
Refer to illustrations 12.5, 12.7, 12.8 and 12.9
1
Open the hood and support it on the
prop rod.
2
Disconnect the negative battery cable
from the ground stud on the left shock tower
(see Chapter 5, Section 1).
3
Remove the fasteners securing the front
fender inner splash shields to the lower section of the bumper.
12.8 Front bumper assembly details
Pull the splash shields away from the
4
fender well as necessary to remove the bolts
securing the bumper to the front fender.
Remove the push-in fasteners securing
5
the bottom of the bumper to the radiator
lower support (see illustration).
6
If equipped, disconnect the foglight
wiring harness connectors.
7
Remove the push-in fasteners securing
the bumper (and grille on Cirrus models) to
the radiator upper support (see illustration).
8
Disengage the bumper from the hooks
on the front fenders (both sides) and remove
the bumper from the vehicle (see illustration). Note: If you are performing this job
alone, place some blankets or other suitable
padding on the ground below the bumper to
protect the paint should the bumper fall during removal.
9
If required, the bumper reinforcement bar
can be removed at this time (see illustration).
Installation
10 Installation is the reverse of removal.
Rear bumper
Removal
Refer to illustration 12.13
11 Open the trunk lid.
12 Remove the left rear tail lamp and disconnect the license plate light wiring from the
tail lamp assembly.
13 On Cirrus models, remove the right rear
tail lamp. Working inside the tail lamp cavities, remove the push-in fasteners securing
the bumper to each rear quarter panel (see
illustration).
14 Remove the push-in fasteners securing
the trunk lid slam pads to the rear bumper
and the center of the bumper to the rear closure panel.
15 Remove the screws holding bumper to
each rear wheel well splash shield.
16 Remove the bolts securing the bumper
to the rear quarter panel in each wheel well.
17 Slide the bumper rearward to disengage
the hooks securing it to the bottom of each
quarter panel and remove it from the vehicle.
11
12.9 To detach the front bumper bar, disconnect the battery
temperature sensor electrical connector and remove the
three bolts (arrows) at each end of the bar
12.13 Rear bumper assembly details
11-8
13.2 If you don't have a window crank
removal tool (which is available at most
auto parts stores and relatively
inexpensive), place a shop cloth behind the
window crank handle and work it backand-forth to dislodge the retaining clip
Chapter 11 Body
13.3 Carefully pry off the speaker grille
13.4 Remove the 3 screws (arrows) that
secure the panel to the door
13.5a Pry off the screw cover in the
pull handle area .. .
13.5b . . . and remove the screw
Refer to illustrations 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5a,
13.5b, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9 and 13.11
Note: This procedure applies to both the
front and rear doors.
1
Open door and completely lower window glass.
On manual window models, remove the
2
window crank using a special tool (available
at most auto parts stores) or by working a
cloth back-and-forth behind the handle to
dislodge the retaining clip (see illustration).
3
Carefully pry off the speaker grille (see
illustration).
4
Inside the speaker opening, remove the
three screws securing the trim panel to the
door (see illustration).
5
On the pull handle, pry off the screw
cover and remove the screw (see illustrations).
6
Pry the screw cover from the door handle latch trim and remove the screw (see
illustration).
7
Remove the screw securing the door
trim panel near the upper door hinge (see
illustration).
8
Carefully pry around the door trim panel
to disengage it from the retaining clips (see
illustration).
9
Grasp the trim panel and pull up sharply
to detach it from the retainer channel in window sill (see illustration).
10 Position the trim panel slightly away
from the door and disengage the clip holding
the door latch linkage to the door handle.
11 On models so equipped, disconnect the
electrical connectors from the speaker,
13.6 Pry off the screw cover in the door
latch handle trim and remove the screw
13.7 Remove the door trim panel screw
near the upper door hinge
13.8 Carefully pry around the door panel
to disengage it from the retaining clips
Note: If you are performing this job alone,
place some blankets or other suitable
padding on the ground below the bumper to
protect the paint should the bumper fall during removal.
18 If required, the bumper reinforcement
bar can be remove at this time, however,
before removal use a felt tip pen to mark the
position of the nuts on the bar to aid with
installation.
Installation
19 Installation is the reverse of removal.
13 Door trim panel - removal and
installation
Removal
11-9
Chapter 11 Body
13.9 Grasp the door trim panel and lift it up sharply to detach it
from the retainer channel in the window sill, then separate it from
the door just far enough to disconnect the electrical connectors
13.11 Disconnect the outside mirror electrical connector
from the door trim panel
REAR
DOOR
LATCH
LI NKAGE
BELL CRANK14.4a Front door latch assembly details
power door lock switch, the mirror switch
and power window switch (see illustration)
and then remove the trim panel. Caution: Do
not allow the trim panel to hang from the
electrical wires.
14.4b Rear door latch assembly details
Installation
12 Reconnect any electrical connectors
and install the latch linkage into the door handle. Secure it with the retaining clip.
13 Engage the top of the trim panel into the
window sill retainer channel and press it into
place and seating all clip fasteners.
14 The remaining installation steps are the
reverse of removal.
14
Door latch, outside handle and
lock cylinder - removal,
installation and adjustment
Note: This procedure applies to both the
front and rear doors.
Latch
Removal
14.6 Door latch mounting screws (arrows)
- "A" indicates the latch adjustment slot
(front door shown)
Refer to illustrations 14.4a, 14.4b and 14.6
1
Remove the door trim panel (see Section 13), except on vehicles equipped with
electric windows, close the window before
disconnecting the door trim panel electrical
connectors.
2
On vehicles with manual windows,
install the window crank (without the retaining
clip) and roll up the window.
3
If you are removing a rear door latch,
remove the window glass lower rear run
channel.
4
Disconnect the lock cylinder, lock button and latch release operating rods from the
door latch (see illustrations).
5
On vehicles equipped with power door
locks, disconnect the electrical connector
from door lock motor.
Remove the three mounting screws
6
from the end o